WorldWideScience

Sample records for based simultaneous component

  1. Time-invariant component-based normalization for a simultaneous PET-MR scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzunce, M A; Reader, A J

    2016-05-07

    Component-based normalization is a method used to compensate for the sensitivity of each of the lines of response acquired in positron emission tomography. This method consists of modelling the sensitivity of each line of response as a product of multiple factors, which can be classified as time-invariant, time-variant and acquisition-dependent components. Typical time-variant factors are the intrinsic crystal efficiencies, which are needed to be updated by a regular normalization scan. Failure to do so would in principle generate artifacts in the reconstructed images due to the use of out of date time-variant factors. For this reason, an assessment of the variability and the impact of the crystal efficiencies in the reconstructed images is important to determine the frequency needed for the normalization scans, as well as to estimate the error obtained when an inappropriate normalization is used. Furthermore, if the fluctuations of these components are low enough, they could be neglected and nearly artifact-free reconstructions become achievable without performing a regular normalization scan. In this work, we analyse the impact of the time-variant factors in the component-based normalization used in the Biograph mMR scanner, but the work is applicable to other PET scanners. These factors are the intrinsic crystal efficiencies and the axial factors. For the latter, we propose a new method to obtain fixed axial factors that was validated with simulated data. Regarding the crystal efficiencies, we assessed their fluctuations during a period of 230 d and we found that they had good stability and low dispersion. We studied the impact of not including the intrinsic crystal efficiencies in the normalization when reconstructing simulated and real data. Based on this assessment and using the fixed axial factors, we propose the use of a time-invariant normalization that is able to achieve comparable results to the standard, daily updated, normalization factors used in this

  2. Time-invariant component-based normalization for a simultaneous PET-MR scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzunce, M. A.; Reader, A. J.

    2016-05-01

    Component-based normalization is a method used to compensate for the sensitivity of each of the lines of response acquired in positron emission tomography. This method consists of modelling the sensitivity of each line of response as a product of multiple factors, which can be classified as time-invariant, time-variant and acquisition-dependent components. Typical time-variant factors are the intrinsic crystal efficiencies, which are needed to be updated by a regular normalization scan. Failure to do so would in principle generate artifacts in the reconstructed images due to the use of out of date time-variant factors. For this reason, an assessment of the variability and the impact of the crystal efficiencies in the reconstructed images is important to determine the frequency needed for the normalization scans, as well as to estimate the error obtained when an inappropriate normalization is used. Furthermore, if the fluctuations of these components are low enough, they could be neglected and nearly artifact-free reconstructions become achievable without performing a regular normalization scan. In this work, we analyse the impact of the time-variant factors in the component-based normalization used in the Biograph mMR scanner, but the work is applicable to other PET scanners. These factors are the intrinsic crystal efficiencies and the axial factors. For the latter, we propose a new method to obtain fixed axial factors that was validated with simulated data. Regarding the crystal efficiencies, we assessed their fluctuations during a period of 230 d and we found that they had good stability and low dispersion. We studied the impact of not including the intrinsic crystal efficiencies in the normalization when reconstructing simulated and real data. Based on this assessment and using the fixed axial factors, we propose the use of a time-invariant normalization that is able to achieve comparable results to the standard, daily updated, normalization factors used in this

  3. Simultaneous fingerprint, quantitative analysis and anti-oxidative based screening of components in Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae using liquid chromatography coupled with Charged Aerosol and Coulometric array Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zhao, Xin; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Tingting; Fan, Guorong

    2017-04-01

    An analytical approach including fingerprint, quantitative analysis and rapid screening of anti-oxidative components was established and successfully applied for the comprehensive quality control of Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae (RSG), a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine with the homology of medicine and food. Thirteen components were tentatively identified based on their retention behavior, UV absorption and MS fragmentation patterns. Chemometric analysis based on coulmetric array data was performed to evaluate the similarity and variation between fifteen batches. Eight discriminating components were quantified using single-compound calibration. The unit responses of those components in coulmetric array detection were calculated and compared with those of several compounds reported to possess antioxidant activity, and four of them were tentatively identified as main contributors to the total anti-oxidative activity. The main advantage of the proposed approach was that it realized simultaneous fingerprint, quantitative analysis and screening of anti-oxidative components, providing comprehensive information for quality assessment of RSG.

  4. Scaling in ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Marieke E; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Smilde, Age K; Ceulemans, Eva

    In omics research often high-dimensional data is collected according to an experimental design. Typically, the manipulations involved yield differential effects on subsets of variables. An effective approach to identify those effects is ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA), which combines analysis of variance with principal component analysis. So far, pre-treatment in ASCA received hardly any attention, whereas its effects can be huge. In this paper, we describe various strategies for scaling, and identify a rational approach. We present the approaches in matrix algebra terms and illustrate them with an insightful simulated example. We show that scaling directly influences which data aspects are stressed in the analysis, and hence become apparent in the solution. Therefore, the cornerstone for proper scaling is to use a scaling factor that is free from the effect of interest. This implies that proper scaling depends on the effect(s) of interest, and that different types of scaling may be proper for the different effect matrices. We illustrate that different scaling approaches can greatly affect the ASCA interpretation with a real-life example from nutritional research. The principle that scaling factors should be free from the effect of interest generalizes to other statistical methods that involve scaling, as classification methods.

  5. Simultaneous analysis of 11 main active components in Cirsium setosum based on HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and combined with statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qian; Chang, Lu; Ren, Yanping; Cao, Liang; Sun, Yingguang; Du, Yingfeng; Shi, Xiaowei; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Lantong

    2012-11-01

    A novel method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous determination of the 11 major active components including ten flavonoids and one phenolic acid in Cirsium setosum. Separation was performed on a reversed-phase C(18) column with gradient elution of methanol and 0.1‰ acetic acid (v/v). The identification and quantification of the analytes were achieved on a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Multiple-reaction monitoring scanning was employed for quantification with switching electrospray ion source polarity between positive and negative modes in a single run. Full validation of the assay was carried out including linearity, precision, accuracy, stability, limits of detection and quantification. The results demonstrated that the method developed was reliable, rapid, and specific. The 25 batches of C. setosum samples from different sources were first determined using the developed method and the total contents of 11 analytes ranged from 1717.460 to 23028.258 μg/g. Among them, the content of linarin was highest, and its mean value was 7340.967 μg/g. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis were performed to differentiate and classify the samples, which is helpful for comprehensive evaluation of the quality of C. setosum.

  6. Recursive approach of EEG-segment-based principal component analysis substantially reduces cryogenic pump artifacts in simultaneous EEG-fMRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Lee, Jong-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) data simultaneously acquired with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data are preprocessed to remove gradient artifacts (GAs) and ballistocardiographic artifacts (BCAs). Nonetheless, these data, especially in the gamma frequency range, can be contaminated by residual artifacts produced by mechanical vibrations in the MRI system, in particular the cryogenic pump that compresses and transports the helium that chills the magnet (the helium-pump). However, few options are available for the removal of helium-pump artifacts. In this study, we propose a recursive approach of EEG-segment-based principal component analysis (rsPCA) that enables the removal of these helium-pump artifacts. Using the rsPCA method, feature vectors representing helium-pump artifacts were successfully extracted as eigenvectors, and the reconstructed signals of the feature vectors were subsequently removed. A test using simultaneous EEG-fMRI data acquired from left-hand (LH) and right-hand (RH) clenching tasks performed by volunteers found that the proposed rsPCA method substantially reduced helium-pump artifacts in the EEG data and significantly enhanced task-related gamma band activity levels (p=0.0038 and 0.0363 for LH and RH tasks, respectively) in EEG data that have had GAs and BCAs removed. The spatial patterns of the fMRI data were estimated using a hemodynamic response function (HRF) modeled from the estimated gamma band activity in a general linear model (GLM) framework. Active voxel clusters were identified in the post-/pre-central gyri of motor area, only from the rsPCA method (uncorrected p<0.001 for both LH/RH tasks). In addition, the superior temporal pole areas were consistently observed (uncorrected p<0.001 for the LH task and uncorrected p<0.05 for the RH task) in the spatial patterns of the HRF model for gamma band activity when the task paradigm and movement were also included in the GLM.

  7. Components of simultaneous interpreting: Comparing interpreting with shadowing and paraphrasing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffels, I.K.; de Groot, A.M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting is a complex task where the interpreter is routinely involved in comprehending, translating and producing language at the same time. This study assessed two components that are likely to be major sources of complexity in SI: The simultaneity of comprehension and production,

  8. [Genetic algorithm based multi-objective least square support vector machine for simultaneous determination of multiple components by near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Wang, Xing; Dhaene, Tom; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Couckuyt, Ivo; Bai, Yan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-03-01

    The near infrared (NIR) spectrum contains a global signature of composition, and enables to predict different proper ties of the material. In the present paper, a genetic algorithm and an adaptive modeling technique were applied to build a multiobjective least square support vector machine (MLS-SVM), which was intended to simultaneously determine the concentrations of multiple components by NIR spectroscopy. Both the benchmark corn dataset and self-made Forsythia suspense dataset were used to test the proposed approach. Results show that a genetic algorithm combined with adaptive modeling allows to efficiently search the LS-SVM hyperparameter space. For the corn data, the performance of multi-objective LS-SVM was significantly better than models built with PLS1 and PLS2 algorithms. As for the Forsythia suspense data, the performance of multi-objective LS-SVM was equivalent to PLS1 and PLS2 models. In both datasets, the over-fitting phenomena were observed on RBFNN models. The single objective LS-SVM and MLS-SVM didn't show much difference, but the one-time modeling convenience al lows the potential application of MLS-SVM to multicomponent NIR analysis.

  9. ANOVA-principal component analysis and ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis: a comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwanenburg, G.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Jansen, J.J.; Smilde, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) is a recently developed tool to analyze multivariate data. In this paper, we enhance the explorative capability of ASCA by introducing a projection of the observations on the principal component subspace to visualize the variation among the measurements.

  10. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Four Components including Acetaminophen by Taget Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    UV Spectrophotometric Target Factor Analysis (TFA) was used for the simultaneous determination of four components (acetaminophen, guuaifenesin, caffeine, Chlorphenamine maleate) in cough syrup. The computer program of TFA is based on VC++ language. The difficulty of overlapping of absorption spectra of four compounds was overcome by this procedure. The experimental results show that the average recovery of each component is all in the range from 98.9% to 106.8% and each component obtains satisfactory results without any pre-separation.

  11. A clusterwise simultaneous component method for capturing within-cluster differences in component variances and correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Roover, Kim; Ceulemans, Eva; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Onghena, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a clusterwise simultaneous component analysis for tracing structural differences and similarities between data of different groups of subjects. This model partitions the groups into a number of clusters according to the covariance structure of the data of each group and performs

  12. Simultaneous bilateral total ankle replacement using a 3-component prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Total ankle replacement is an established surgical procedure in patients with end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. We analyzed complications and medium-term results in patients with simultaneous bilateral total ankle replacement. Patients and methods 10 women and 16 men, mean age 60 (SD 13) years, were followed for a median of 5 (2–10) years. Results There were no intraoperative or perioperative complications, with the exception of 1 patient with prolonged wound healing. Major revision surgery was necessary in 6 of the 52 ankles, including 4 revisions of prosthetic components. The average pain score decreased from 6.9 (4−10) to 1.8 (0−4) points. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot score increased from 32 (SD 14) points preoperatively to 74 (SD 12) points postoperatively. The average range of motion increased from 28° (SD 12) preoperatively to 38° (SD 9) postoperatively. All 8 categories of SF-36 score improved. Interpretation Simultaneous bilateral total ankle replacement is a suitable method for restoration of function and attainment of pain relief in patients with bilateral end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. The results of this procedure, including complication rates, revision rates, and functional outcome, are comparable to those reported in patients with unilateral total ankle replacement. PMID:21999622

  13. Spectra resolution for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of lamivudine and zidovudine components in pharmaceutical formulation of human immunodeficiency virus drug based on using continuous wavelet transform and derivative transform techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza; Tayefeh Zarkesh, Mahshid

    2014-05-01

    In the present paper, two spectrophotometric methods based on signal processing are proposed for the simultaneous determination of two components of an anti-HIV drug called lamivudine (LMV) and zidovudine (ZDV). The proposed methods are applied to synthetic binary mixtures and commercial pharmaceutical tablets without the need for any chemical separation procedures. The developed methods are based on the application of Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and Derivative Spectrophotometry (DS) combined with the zero cross point technique. The Daubechies (db5) wavelet family (242 nm) and Dmey wavelet family (236 nm) were found to give the best results under optimum conditions for simultaneous analysis of lamivudine and zidovudine, respectively. In addition, the first derivative absorption spectra were selected for the determination of lamivudine and zidovudine at 266 nm and 248 nm, respectively. Assaying various synthetic mixtures of the components validated the presented methods. Mean recovery values were found to be between 100.31% and 100.2% for CWT and 99.42% and 97.37% for DS, respectively for determination of LMV and ZDV. The results obtained from analyzing the real samples by the proposed methods were compared to the HPLC reference method. One-way ANOVA test at 95% confidence level was applied to the results. The statistical data from comparing the proposed methods with the reference method showed no significant differences.

  14. Development and optimization of SPE-HPLC-UV/ELSD for simultaneous determination of nine bioactive components in Shenqi Fuzheng Injection based on Quality by Design principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Qu, Haibin

    2016-03-01

    A method combining solid phase extraction, high performance liquid chromatography, and ultraviolet/evaporative light scattering detection (SPE-HPLC-UV/ELSD) was developed according to Quality by Design (QbD) principles and used to assay nine bioactive compounds within a botanical drug, Shenqi Fuzheng Injection. Risk assessment and a Plackett-Burman design were utilized to evaluate the impact of 11 factors on the resolutions and signal-to-noise of chromatographic peaks. Multiple regression and Pareto ranking analysis indicated that the sorbent mass, sample volume, flow rate, column temperature, evaporator temperature, and gas flow rate were statistically significant (p design combined with response surface analysis was employed to study the relationships between the quality of SPE-HPLC-UV/ELSD analysis and four significant factors, i.e., flow rate, column temperature, evaporator temperature, and gas flow rate. An analytical design space of SPE-HPLC-UV/ELSD was then constructed by calculated Monte Carlo probability. In the presented approach, the operating parameters of sample preparation, chromatographic separation, and compound detection were investigated simultaneously. Eight terms of method validation, i.e., system-suitability tests, method robustness/ruggedness, sensitivity, precision, repeatability, linearity, accuracy, and stability, were accomplished at a selected working point. These results revealed that the QbD principles were suitable in the development of analytical procedures for samples in complex matrices. Meanwhile, the analytical quality and method robustness were validated by the analytical design space. The presented strategy provides a tutorial on the development of a robust QbD-compliant quantitative method for samples in complex matrices.

  15. The Simultaneous Determination of Five Components Including Acetaminophen by Ridge Regression Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ridge regression spectrophotometry (LHG) is used for the simultaneous determination of five components (acetaminophen, p-aminophenol, caffeine, chlorphenamine maleate and guaifenesin) in cough syrup. The computer program of LHG is based on VB language.The difficulties in overlapping of absorption spectrums of five compounds are overcome by this procedure. The experimental results show that the average recovery of each component is in the range from 97.9% to 103.3% and each component obtains satisfactory results without any pre-separation.

  16. A very fast algorithm for simultaneously performing connected-component labeling and euler number computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lifeng; Chao, Yuyan

    2015-09-01

    Labeling connected components and calculating the Euler number in a binary image are two fundamental processes for computer vision and pattern recognition. This paper presents an ingenious method for identifying a hole in a binary image in the first scan of connected-component labeling. Our algorithm can perform connected component labeling and Euler number computing simultaneously, and it can also calculate the connected component (object) number and the hole number efficiently. The additional cost for calculating the hole number is only O(H) , where H is the hole number in the image. Our algorithm can be implemented almost in the same way as a conventional equivalent-label-set-based connected-component labeling algorithm. We prove the correctness of our algorithm and use experimental results for various kinds of images to demonstrate the power of our algorithm.

  17. Formalization in Component Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Jens Peter; Knudsen, John; Makowski, Piotr;

    2006-01-01

    We present a unifying conceptual framework for components, component interfaces, contracts and composition of components by focusing on the collection of properties or qualities that they must share. A specific property, such as signature, functionality behaviour or timing is an aspect. Each aspe...... by small examples, using UML as concrete syntax for various aspects, and is illustrated by one larger case study based on an industrial prototype of a complex component based system....

  18. Missing values in multi-level simultaneous component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Josse, Julie; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Component analysis of data with missing values is often performed with algorithms of iterative imputation. However, this approach is prone to overfitting problems. As an alternative, Josse et al. (2009) proposed a regularized algorithm in the framework of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Here we

  19. Early Effect of Amyloid β-Peptide on Hippocampal and Serum Metabolism in Rats Studied by an Integrated Method of NMR-Based Metabolomics and ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yao; Zheng, Hong; Xia, Huanhuan; Zhao, Liangcai; Hu, Wenyi; Bai, Guanghui; Yan, Zhihan; Gao, Hongchang

    2017-01-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ) deposition has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, the early effect of Aβ deposition on metabolism remains unclear. In the present study, thus, we explored the metabolic changes in the hippocampus and serum during first 2 weeks of Aβ25-35 injection in rats by using an integrated method of NMR-based metabolomics and ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). Our results show that Aβ25-35 injection, time, and their interaction had statistically significant effects on the hippocampus and serum metabolome. Furthermore, we identified key metabolites that mainly contributed to these effects. After Aβ25-35 injection from 1 to 2 weeks, the levels of lactate, N-acetylaspartate, creatine, and taurine were decreased in rat hippocampus, while an increase in lactate and decreases in LDL/VLDL and glucose were observed in rat serum. Therefore, we suggest that the reduction in energy and lipid metabolism as well as an increase in anaerobic glycolysis may occur at the early stage of Aβ25-35 deposition.

  20. Early Effect of Amyloid β-Peptide on Hippocampal and Serum Metabolism in Rats Studied by an Integrated Method of NMR-Based Metabolomics and ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yao; Xia, Huanhuan; Zhao, Liangcai; Hu, Wenyi; Bai, Guanghui

    2017-01-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ) deposition has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, the early effect of Aβ deposition on metabolism remains unclear. In the present study, thus, we explored the metabolic changes in the hippocampus and serum during first 2 weeks of Aβ25–35 injection in rats by using an integrated method of NMR-based metabolomics and ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). Our results show that Aβ25–35 injection, time, and their interaction had statistically significant effects on the hippocampus and serum metabolome. Furthermore, we identified key metabolites that mainly contributed to these effects. After Aβ25–35 injection from 1 to 2 weeks, the levels of lactate, N-acetylaspartate, creatine, and taurine were decreased in rat hippocampus, while an increase in lactate and decreases in LDL/VLDL and glucose were observed in rat serum. Therefore, we suggest that the reduction in energy and lipid metabolism as well as an increase in anaerobic glycolysis may occur at the early stage of Aβ25–35 deposition.

  1. Novel pure component contribution, mean centering of ratio spectra and factor based algorithms for simultaneous resolution and quantification of overlapped spectral signals: An application to recently co-formulated tablets of chlorzoxazone, aceclofenac and paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubar, Safaa S.; Hegazy, Maha A.; Elshahed, Mona S.; Helmy, Marwa I.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, resolution and quantitation of spectral signals are achieved by several univariate and multivariate techniques. The novel pure component contribution algorithm (PCCA) along with mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR) and the factor based partial least squares (PLS) algorithms were developed for simultaneous determination of chlorzoxazone (CXZ), aceclofenac (ACF) and paracetamol (PAR) in their pure form and recently co-formulated tablets. The PCCA method allows the determination of each drug at its λmax. While, the mean centered values at 230, 302 and 253 nm, were used for quantification of CXZ, ACF and PAR, respectively, by MCR method. Partial least-squares (PLS) algorithm was applied as a multivariate calibration method. The three methods were successfully applied for determination of CXZ, ACF and PAR in pure form and tablets. Good linear relationships were obtained in the ranges of 2-50, 2-40 and 2-30 μg mL- 1 for CXZ, ACF and PAR, in order, by both PCCA and MCR, while the PLS model was built for the three compounds each in the range of 2-10 μg mL- 1. The results obtained from the proposed methods were statistically compared with a reported one. PCCA and MCR methods were validated according to ICH guidelines, while PLS method was validated by both cross validation and an independent data set. They are found suitable for the determination of the studied drugs in bulk powder and tablets.

  2. Simultaneous DOA estimation based on Kolmogorov's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Nájar Martón, Montserrat; Lagunas Hernandez, Miguel A.

    1993-01-01

    The design of a new architecture for signal processing, based on the Kolmogorov's theorem (1957), is addressed. This architecture is applied to solve the problem of source separation. Particularly, an adaptive algorithm is proposed to separate simultaneously all the unknown impinging sources on an aperture of sensors. The implemented framework is composed of two different stages: the first one is the inhibition stage, which turns the problem of estimating simultaneous DOAs (directions of arri...

  3. Simultaneous refinement of two components of an exsolution intergrowth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topa, Dan; Petricek, Vaclav; Dusek, Michal;

    2008-01-01

    .1) and bd(64.1), respectively. The subscript indicates a percentage of the aikinite component in this bismuthinite derivative. The crystal Structure of lindstromite contains two aikinite-like ribbons Cu2Pb2Bi3S6 and eight krupkaite-like ribbons (ideally CuPbBi3S6) in a unit cell. The latter...... are oversubstituted; the ideally empty tetrahedral sites associated with them refined to the occupancy values of 0.04-0.09 Cu and 0.14-0.18 Cu, respectively, for the two above bulk compositions. The refined phase-compositions are Cu6.26Pb6.26Bi13.74S30 (bd(62.6)) associated with CuPbBi3S6 (bd(50)) for the sample 'bd......(60)' and Cu6.64Pb6.64Bi13.36S30 (bd(66.4)) associated with oversubstituted krupkaite, the composition of which could not been refined, for the sample 'bd(64)'. From stoichiometry calculations, the latter is similar to bd(60). Both latter values may be somewhat overestimated as a result of cross...

  4. Simultaneous optimal estimates of fixed effects and variance components in the mixed model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Mixia; WANG Songgui

    2004-01-01

    For a general linear mixed model with two variance components, a set of simple conditions is obtained, under which, (i) the least squares estimate of the fixed effects and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) estimates of variance components are proved to be uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimates simultaneously; (ii) the exact confidence intervals of the fixed effects and uniformly optimal unbiased tests on variance components are given; (iii) the exact probability expression of ANOVA estimates of variance components taking negative value is obtained.

  5. Formal Component-Based Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Madlener, Ken; van Eekelen, Marko; 10.4204/EPTCS.62.2

    2011-01-01

    One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. This formalization constitutes a contribution towards modular meta theoretic formalizations in theorem provers. As a small example, a modular proof of determinism of a mini-language is developed.

  6. Simultaneous characterization of pancreatic stellate cells and other pancreatic components within three-dimensional tissue environment during chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyan; Fu, Ling

    2013-05-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and other pancreatic components that play a critical role in exocrine pancreatic diseases are generally identified separately by conventional studies, which provide indirect links between these components. Here, nonlinear optical microscopy was evaluated for simultaneous characterization of these components within a three-dimensional (3-D) tissue environment, primarily based on multichannel detection of intrinsic optical emissions and cell morphology. Fresh rat pancreatic tissues harvested at 1 day, 7 days, and 28 days after induction of chronic pancreatitis were imaged, respectively. PSCs, inflammatory cells, blood vessels, and collagen fibers were identified simultaneously. The PSCs at day 1 of chronic pancreatitis showed significant enlargement compared with those in normal pancreas (pdiseases, leading to more effective treatments.

  7. Continuous Fourier transform method and apparatus. [for the analysis of simultaneous analog signal components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, R. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An input analog signal to be frequency analyzed is separated into N number of simultaneous analog signal components each identical to the original but delayed relative to the original by a successively larger time delay. The separated and delayed analog components are combined together in a suitable number of adders and attenuators in accordance with at least one component product of the continuous Fourier transform and analog signal matrices to separate the analog input signal into at least one of its continuous analog frequency components of bandwidth 1/N times the bandwidth of the original input signal. The original analog input signal can be reconstituted by combining the separate analog frequency components in accordance with the component products of the continuous Fourier transform and analog frequency component matrices. The continuous Fourier transformation is useful for spectrum analysis, filtering, transfer function synthesis, and communications.

  8. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Three Components Including Deoxyschizandrin by Partial Least Squares Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liqing; WU Xiaohua

    2005-01-01

    The computer auxiliary partial least squares is introduced to simultaneously determine the contents of Deoxyschizandin, Schisandrin, γ- Schisandrin in the extracted solution of wuweizi. Regression analysis of the experimental results shows that the average recovery of each component is all in the range from 98.9% to 110.3% ,which means the partial least squares regression spectrophotometry can circumvent the overlapping of absorption spectrums of multi-components, so that satisfactory results can be obtained without any sample pre-separation.

  9. A novel GMO biosensor for rapid ultrasensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple DNA components in GMO products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Zheng, Lei; Chen, Yinji; Xue, Feng; Cheng, Lin; Adeloju, Samuel B; Chen, Wei

    2015-04-15

    Since the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), there has been on-going and continuous concern and debates on the commercialization of products derived from GMOs. There is an urgent need for development of highly efficient analytical methods for rapid and high throughput screening of GMOs components, as required for appropriate labeling of GMO-derived foods, as well as for on-site inspection and import/export quarantine. In this study, we describe, for the first time, a multi-labeling based electrochemical biosensor for simultaneous detection of multiple DNA components of GMO products on the same sensing interface. Two-round signal amplification was applied by using both an exonuclease enzyme catalytic reaction and gold nanoparticle-based bio-barcode related strategies, respectively. Simultaneous multiple detections of different DNA components of GMOs were successfully achieved with satisfied sensitivity using this electrochemical biosensor. Furthermore, the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed approach was successfully demonstrated by application to various GMO products, including locally obtained and confirmed commercial GMO seeds and transgenetic plants. The proposed electrochemical biosensor demonstrated unique merits that promise to gain more interest in its use for rapid and on-site simultaneous multiple screening of different components of GMO products.

  10. Inferential optimization for simultaneous fitting of multiple components into a cryoEM map of their assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Keren; Topf, Maya; Sali, Andrej; Wolfson, Haim J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Models of macromolecular assemblies are essential for a mechanistic description of cellular processes. Such models are increasingly obtained by fitting atomic-resolution structures of components into a density map of the whole assembly. Yet, current density-fitting techniques are frequently insufficient for an unambiguous determination of the positions and orientations of all components. Here, we describe MultiFit, a method for simultaneously fitting atomic structures of components into their assembly density map at resolutions as low as 25 Å. The component positions and orientations are optimized with respect to a scoring function that includes the quality-of-fit of components in the map, the protrusion of components from the map envelope, as well as the shape complementarity between pairs of components. The scoring function is optimized by our exact inference optimizer DOMINO that efficiently finds the global minimum in a discrete sampling space. MultiFit was benchmarked on 7 assemblies of known structure, consisting of up to 7 proteins each. The input atomic structures of the components were obtained from the Protein Data Bank as well as by comparative modeling based on 16 – 99% sequence identity to a template structure. A near-native configuration was usually found as the top-scoring model. Therefore, MultiFit can provide initial configurations for further refinement of many multi-component assembly structures described by electron microscopy. PMID:19233204

  11. Novel algorithm for simultaneous component detection and pseudo-molecular ion characterization in liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Wang, Xiaoan; Wo, Siukwan [School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Ho, Hingman; Han, Quanbin [School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, 7 Baptist University Road, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Fan, Xiaohui [College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zuo, Zhong, E-mail: joanzuo@cuhk.edu.hk [School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel stepwise component detection algorithm (SCDA) for LC–MS datasets. • New isotopic distribution and adduct-ion models for mass spectra. • Automatic component classification based on adduct-ion and isotopic distributions. - Abstract: Resolving components and determining their pseudo-molecular ions (PMIs) are crucial steps in identifying complex herbal mixtures by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. To tackle such labor-intensive steps, we present here a novel algorithm for simultaneous detection of components and their PMIs. Our method consists of three steps: (1) obtaining a simplified dataset containing only mono-isotopic masses by removal of background noise and isotopic cluster ions based on the isotopic distribution model derived from all the reported natural compounds in dictionary of natural products; (2) stepwise resolving and removing all features of the highest abundant component from current simplified dataset and calculating PMI of each component according to an adduct-ion model, in which all non-fragment ions in a mass spectrum are considered as PMI plus one or several neutral species; (3) visual classification of detected components by principal component analysis (PCA) to exclude possible non-natural compounds (such as pharmaceutical excipients). This algorithm has been successfully applied to a standard mixture and three herbal extract/preparations. It indicated that our algorithm could detect components’ features as a whole and report their PMI with an accuracy of more than 98%. Furthermore, components originated from excipients/contaminants could be easily separated from those natural components in the bi-plots of PCA.

  12. Component Based Electronic Voting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, David

    An electronic voting system may be said to be composed of a number of components, each of which has a number of properties. One of the most attractive effects of this way of thinking is that each component may have an attached in-depth threat analysis and verification strategy. Furthermore, the need to include the full system when making changes to a component is minimised and a model at this level can be turned into a lower-level implementation model where changes can cascade to as few parts of the implementation as possible.

  13. Simultaneous HPLC determination of 22 components of essential oils; method robustness with experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Porel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the development and validation of a simple, precise and specific reversed phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of 22 components present in different essential oils namely cinnamon bark oil, caraway oil and cardamom fruit oil. The chromatographic separation of all the components was achieved on Wakosil-II C 18 column with mixture of 30 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.7, methanol and acetonitrile in different ratio as mobile phase in a ternary linear gradient mode. The calibration graphs plotted with five different concentrations of each component were linear with a regression coefficient R 2 >0.999. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were estimated for all the components. Effect on analytical responses by small and deliberate variation of critical factors was examined by robustness testing with Design of Experiment employing Central Composite Design and established that this method was robust. The method was then validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity and demonstrated to be applicable to the determination of the ingredients in commercial sample of essential oil.

  14. Microwaves initiated synthesis of activated carbon-based composite hydrogel for simultaneous removal of copper(II) ions and direct red 80 dye: A multi-component adsorption system

    OpenAIRE

    Oladipo, Akeem Adeyemi; Gazi, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel microwave initiated preparation of polyacrylamide/activated carbon hydrogel (PAAm-FAc) in this article and characterized by FT-IR, pHzpc and Boehm titration. The adsorbent was assessed for competitive adsorption of copper(II) and direct red 80 from a binary mixture in a single-staged batch process as a function of volume of binary mixture/mass of adsorbent (V0/M0) ratio at varying orders of second pollutant concentration. A competitive, multi-component Langmuir isotherm was...

  15. Chaos-Based Simultaneous Compression and Encryption for Hadoop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usama, Muhammad; Zakaria, Nordin

    2017-01-01

    Data compression and encryption are key components of commonly deployed platforms such as Hadoop. Numerous data compression and encryption tools are presently available on such platforms and the tools are characteristically applied in sequence, i.e., compression followed by encryption or encryption followed by compression. This paper focuses on the open-source Hadoop framework and proposes a data storage method that efficiently couples data compression with encryption. A simultaneous compression and encryption scheme is introduced that addresses an important implementation issue of source coding based on Tent Map and Piece-wise Linear Chaotic Map (PWLM), which is the infinite precision of real numbers that result from their long products. The approach proposed here solves the implementation issue by removing fractional components that are generated by the long products of real numbers. Moreover, it incorporates a stealth key that performs a cyclic shift in PWLM without compromising compression capabilities. In addition, the proposed approach implements a masking pseudorandom keystream that enhances encryption quality. The proposed algorithm demonstrated a congruent fit within the Hadoop framework, providing robust encryption security and compression.

  16. Chaos-Based Simultaneous Compression and Encryption for Hadoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nordin

    2017-01-01

    Data compression and encryption are key components of commonly deployed platforms such as Hadoop. Numerous data compression and encryption tools are presently available on such platforms and the tools are characteristically applied in sequence, i.e., compression followed by encryption or encryption followed by compression. This paper focuses on the open-source Hadoop framework and proposes a data storage method that efficiently couples data compression with encryption. A simultaneous compression and encryption scheme is introduced that addresses an important implementation issue of source coding based on Tent Map and Piece-wise Linear Chaotic Map (PWLM), which is the infinite precision of real numbers that result from their long products. The approach proposed here solves the implementation issue by removing fractional components that are generated by the long products of real numbers. Moreover, it incorporates a stealth key that performs a cyclic shift in PWLM without compromising compression capabilities. In addition, the proposed approach implements a masking pseudorandom keystream that enhances encryption quality. The proposed algorithm demonstrated a congruent fit within the Hadoop framework, providing robust encryption security and compression. PMID:28072850

  17. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of main components in linderae reflexae radix with one single marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Li; Zhang, Yun-Bin; Sun, Xiao-Ya; Chen, Sui-Qing

    2016-05-08

    Establish a quantitative analysis of multi-components by the single marker (QAMS) method for quality evaluation and validate its feasibilities by the simultaneous quantitative assay of four main components in Linderae Reflexae Radix. Four main components of pinostrobin, pinosylvin, pinocembrin, and 3,5-dihydroxy-2-(1-p-mentheneyl)-trans-stilbene were selected as analytes to evaluate the quality by RP-HPLC coupled with a UV-detector. The method was evaluated by a comparison of the quantitative results between the external standard method and QAMS with a different HPLC system. The results showed that no significant differences were found in the quantitative results of the four contents of Linderae Reflexae Radix determined by the external standard method and QAMS (RSD <3%). The contents of four analytes (pinosylvin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, and Reflexanbene I) in Linderae Reflexae Radix were determined by the single marker of pinosylvin. This fingerprint was the spectra determined by Shimadzu LC-20AT and Waters e2695 HPLC that were equipped with three different columns.

  18. The artifacts of component-based development

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, M Rizwan Jameel

    2012-01-01

    Component based development idea was floated in a conference name "Mass Produced Software Components" in 1968 [1]. Since then engineering and scientific libraries are developed to reuse the previously developed functions. This concept is now widely used in SW development as component based development (CBD). Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is used to develop/ assemble software from existing components [2]. Software developed using components is called component ware [3]. This paper presents different architectures of CBD such as ActiveX, common object request broker architecture (CORBA), remote method invocation (RMI) and simple object access protocol (SOAP). The overall objective of this paper is to support the practice of CBD by comparing its advantages and disadvantages. This paper also evaluates object oriented process model to adapt it for CBD.

  19. Quality evaluation of Huaijiao pill by chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangqin Wang; Jingjing Zhang; Juan Liu; Guangsheng Qian; Chunmei Fu n

    2016-01-01

    For quality control purpose, an approach of combining chromatographic fingerprint of Huaijiao pill (HP) and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components was developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC–DAD). For fingerprint analysis, 16 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of different samples collected from different batches of three manufacturers. The similarities of 17 Huaijiao pill samples were beyond 0.966, indicating that samples from different batches and manufacturers were, to some extent, consistent. Ad-ditionally, simultaneous quantification of seven bioactive markers, namely sophoricoside, baicalin, nar-ingin, genistein, rutin, quercetin and 5-O-methylvisammioside, in HP was performed to interpret the quality consistency. The validation of the proposed approach was acceptable, with the accuracy of 90.2%–106.9%in recovery test. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the method were evaluated and the RSD values were less than 2.81%. The results from the quantitative data showed that the contents of six marker compounds (except for 5-O-methylvisammioside) were quite consistent between batches produced by one manufacturer and significantly distinctive among different manufacturers. The proposed approach was expected to be developed as a powerful tool for the quality control of HP.

  20. Quality evaluation of Huaijiao pill by chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangqin Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For quality control purpose, an approach of combining chromatographic fingerprint of Huaijiao pill (HP and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components was developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC--DAD. For fingerprint analysis, 16 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of different samples collected from different batches of three manufacturers. The similarities of 17 Huaijiao pill samples were beyond 0.966, indicating that samples from different batches and manufacturers were, to some extent, consistent. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of seven bioactive markers, namely sophoricoside, baicalin, naringin, genistein, rutin, quercetin and 5-O-methylvisammioside, in HP was performed to interpret the quality consistency. The validation of the proposed approach was acceptable, with the accuracy of 90.2%–106.9% in recovery test. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the method were evaluated and the RSD values were less than 2.81%. The results from the quantitative data showed that the contents of six marker compounds (except for 5-O-methylvisammioside were quite consistent between batches produced by one manufacturer and significantly distinctive among different manufacturers. The proposed approach was expected to be developed as a powerful tool for the quality control of HP.

  1. BASES COMPONENTS OF PARETO EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This Study take into discussion the problem of underlay the decisions, which are particularly complex and actual, based of an important volume of information, which need an important quantity of work. From our investigations, we conclusion that some inconvenient can be evitable by use also of others concepts, which apply to this kind of information. In this direction, the Study follow up to end the manner which base the decisions, we allot a especial attention to analyze the Concept of Efficiency Pareto, which finally has two fundamental elements: final benefit and opportunity cost, use also in the process for take decisions. So we explain the ample analyze of Concept of Efficiency Pareto, where the main accent is on quantitative aspects evaluation of elements, which characterize them. By amplification is thoroughness the analyze of process for take decisions. So is underlined the closed link between different economical concepts and their great usefulness in practice.

  2. Graphene-based spintronic components

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Minggang; Shen, Lei; Su, Haibin; Zhou, Miao; Zhang, Chun; Feng, Yuanping

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge of spintronics is in generating, controlling and detecting spin-polarized current. Manipulation of spin-polarized current, in particular, is difficult. We demonstrate here, based on calculated transport properties of graphene nanoribbons, that nearly +-100% spin-polarized current can be generated in zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) and tuned by a source-drain voltage in the bipolar spin diode, in addition to magnetic configurations of the electrodes. This unusual transpor...

  3. Component Based Dynamic Reconfigurable Test System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Hong; HE Lingsong; ZHANG Dengpan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a novel component based framework of test system is presented for the new requirements of dynamic changes of test functions and reconfiguration of test resources. The complexity of dynamic reconfiguration arises from the scale, redirection, extensibility and interconnection of components in test system. The paper is started by discussing the component assembly based framework which provide the open platform to the deploy of components and then the script interpreter model is introduced to dynamically create the components and build the test system by analyzing XML based information of test system. A pipeline model is presented to provide the data channels and behavior reflection among the components. Finally, a dynamic reconfigurable test system is implemented on the basis of COM and applied in the remote test and control system of CNC machine.

  4. Simultaneous Optimization of Topology and Component Sizes for Double Planetary Gear Hybrid Powertrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichao Zhuang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid powertrain technologies are successful in the passenger car market and have been actively developed in recent years. Optimal topology selection, component sizing, and controls are required for competitive hybrid vehicles, as multiple goals must be considered simultaneously: fuel efficiency, emissions, performance, and cost. Most of the previous studies explored these three design dimensions separately. In this paper, two novel frameworks combining these three design dimensions together are presented and compared. One approach is nested optimization which searches through the whole design space exhaustively. The second approach is called enhanced iterative optimization, which executes the topology optimization and component sizing alternately. A case study shows that the later method can converge to the global optimal design generated from the nested optimization, and is much more computationally efficient. In addition, we also address a known issue of optimal designs: their sensitivity to parameters, such as varying vehicle weight, which is a concern especially for the design of hybrid buses. Therefore, the iterative optimization process is applied to design a robust multi-mode hybrid electric bus under different loading scenarios as the final design challenge of this paper.

  5. Real Time Engineering Analysis Based on a Generative Component Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Klitgaard, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The present paper outlines the idea of a conceptual design tool with real time engineering analysis which can be used in the early conceptual design phase. The tool is based on a parametric approach using Generative Components with embedded structural analysis. Each of these components uses...... without jumping from aesthetics to structural digital design tools and back, but to work with both simultaneously and real time. The engineering level of knowledge is incorporated at a conceptual thinking level, i.e. qualitative information is used in stead of using quantitative information. An example...

  6. Simultaneous determination of four active components in Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz. by HPLC–DAD using a single reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Wen Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and practical high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detector (HPLC–DAD was developed to evaluate the quality of Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz. through a simultaneous determination of four major active triterpenes using a single standard to determine the multi-components (SSDMCs. Alisol B 23-acetate was selected as the reference compound for calculating the relative response factors. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R2>0.9998 within test ranges. RSDs for intra- and inter-day of four analytes were less than 3.6% and 2.3%; the overall recovery was 92.1–110.2% (SSDMC. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify the four components in 20 samples from different localities in China. Moreover, significant variations were demonstrated in the content of these compounds. In addition, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and principal components analysis (PCA were performed to differentiate and classify the samples based on the contents of Alisol C 23-acetate, Alisol A, Alisol A 24-acetate and Alisol B 23-acetate. This simple, rapid, low-cost and reliable HPLC–DAD method using SSDMC is suitable for routine quantitative analysis and quality control of A. orientale (Sam. Juz.

  7. Study of Three-Component FBG Vibration Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Vibration, Temperature, and Verticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Shan-chao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve simultaneous measurement of measurand vibration, temperature, and verticality, a three-component fiber Brag grating (TVFBG vibration sensor is proposed in this paper. Polymer and metal diaphragm sensitization methods are utilized to improve this sensor measurement sensitivity. Project matrix theory is adopted to analyze this sensor. Theoretically, 9×9 nonsingular measuring coefficient matrix of this TVFBG sensor made up by three 3×3 measurand coefficient matrixes is established. In order to effectively extract measurand, Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT is accepted to process this sensor’s center wavelength signals. Calibration experiments are carried out to verify the performance of this TVFBG sensor. Experiment data confirm that this sensor has excellent frequency response and show good linearity at temperature and verticality measurement. Wrist rotation angle measurement experiment is also implemented to further identify this sensor practical value. Through analyzing by HHT, experiment results show that the angle measurement sensitivities of three fiber Brag gratings which are included in this sensor are separately 25.2 pm/°, 38.2 pm/°, and 38.3 pm/°.

  8. Probe and method for simultaneous measurements of ''true'' instantaneous temperature and three velocity components in turbulent flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, G

    1978-05-01

    In the measurement of turbulent flows the need has always existed to obtain correct instantaneous values of temperature and three components of velocity at a particular point. Many proposed lengthy approximate correction methods that attempt to account for ''nonlinear'' effects (cross contamination between different quantities) in hot-wire measurements cannot be considered satisfactory. The availability of powerful digital computers for theoretical and experimental studies has placed pressure on experimentalists to develop better probes and methods. This paper attempts to answer these pressures by describing the development of a special four-wire probe and a method of processing the obtained signals. The use of four 0.625-microm-diam sensors makes the probe practically interference free. The processing method is based on the simultaneous solution of four complete nonlinear response equations for the sensors, yielding in principle exact instantaneous values of velocity components and temperature. Additional features of the processing method include: instantaneous full correction for tunnel free stream velocity and temperature fluctuations, first-order correction for dc drifts of the signals during data acquisition, subtraction of all 60-Hz related noise, and correction for streamwise displacement of sensors based on instantaneous streamwise velocity.

  9. Simultaneous quantification of seven bioactive components in Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Hui-Jun; Li, Ping; Chen, Jun; Tang, Dan

    2007-06-01

    This study presents a new HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of seven major components, namely chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, loganin, sweroside, secoxyloganin, rutin and luteolin 7-O-glucoside in Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae, a commonly used traditional Chinese medicinal herb derived from the caulis of Lonicera japonica Thunb. These seven compounds, belonging to the chemical types of phenolic acids, iridoids and flavonoids, were separated on a C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5.0 microm) with the column temperature at 30 degrees C. The mobile phase was composed of (A) aqueous acetic acid (0.4%, v/v) and (B) acetonitrile using a gradient elution of 10% B at 0-12 min, 10-17% B at 12-25 min and 17% B at 25-35 min. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and detection wavelength was set at 245 nm. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) ranged from 0.10 to 0.23 microg/mL and the limit of quantification (S/N = 10) ranged from 0.69 to 3.56 microg/mL. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 > 0.9990) within the test ranges. The intra- and inter-day precisions as determined from sample solutions were below 1.24 and 2.28%, respectively. The recoveries for seven compounds were found to range from 94.2 to 103.6%. This verified method has been successfully applied to evaluation of commercial samples of Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae from different markets in China.

  10. Outlier Mining Based on Principal Component Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yang; Ting Yang

    2005-01-01

    Outlier mining is an important aspect in data mining and the outlier mining based on Cook distance is most commonly used. But we know that when the data have multicollinearity, the traditional Cook method is no longer effective. Considering the excellence of the principal component estimation, we use it to substitute the least squares estimation, and then give the Cook distance measurement based on principal component estimation, which can be used in outlier mining. At the same time, we have done some research on related theories and application problems.

  11. A refinement driven component-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhenbang; Liu, Zhiming; Ravn, Anders Peter;

    2007-01-01

    to integrate sophisticated checkers, generators and transformations. A feasible approach to ensuring high quality of such add-ins is to base them on sound formal foundations. This paper summarizes our research on the Refinement of Component and Object Systems (rCOS) and illustrates it with experiences from...... the work on the Common Component Modelling Example (CoCoME). This gives evidence that the formal techniques developed in rCOS can be integrated into a model-driven development process and shows where it may be integrated in computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools for adding formally supported...

  12. Joint Procrustes Analysis for Simultaneous Nonsingular Transformation of Component Score and Loading Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kohei

    2009-01-01

    In component analysis solutions, post-multiplying a component score matrix by a nonsingular matrix can be compensated by applying its inverse to the corresponding loading matrix. To eliminate this indeterminacy on nonsingular transformation, we propose Joint Procrustes Analysis (JPA) in which component score and loading matrices are simultaneously…

  13. Component-Based Cartoon Face Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Sepehri Nejad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a cartoon face generation method that stands on a component-based facial feature extraction approach. Given a frontal face image as an input, our proposed system has the following stages. First, face features are extracted using an extended Active Shape Model. Outlines of the components are locally modified using edge detection, template matching and Hermit interpolation. This modification enhances the diversity of output and accuracy of the component matching required for cartoon generation. Second, to bring cartoon-specific features such as shadows, highlights and, especially, stylish drawing, an array of various face photographs and corresponding hand-drawn cartoon faces are collected. These cartoon templates are automatically decomposed into cartoon components using our proposed method for parameterizing cartoon samples, which is fast and simple. Then, using shape matching methods, the appropriate cartoon component is selected and deformed to fit the input face. Finally, a cartoon face is rendered in a vector format using the rendering rules of the selected template. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness of our approach in generating life-like cartoon faces.

  14. Likelihood-based CT reconstruction of objects containing known components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stayman, J. Webster [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering; Otake, Yoshito; Uneri, Ali; Prince, Jerry L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2011-07-01

    There are many situations in medical imaging where there are known components within the imaging volume. Such is the case in diagnostic X-ray CT imaging of patients with implants, in intraoperative CT imaging where there may be surgical tools in the field, or in situations where the patient support (table or frame) or other devices are outside the (truncated) reconstruction FOV. In such scenarios it is often of great interest to image the relation between the known component and the surrounding anatomy, or to provide high-quality images at the boundary of these objects, or simply to minimize artifacts arising from such components. We propose a framework for simultaneously estimating the position and orientation of a known component and the surrounding volume. Toward this end, we adopt a likelihood-based objective function with an image volume jointly parameterized by a known object, or objects, with unknown registration parameters and an unknown background attenuation volume. The objective is solved iteratively using an alternating minimization approach between the two parameter types. Because this model integrates a substantial amount of prior knowledge about the overall volume, we expect a number of advantages including the reduction of metal artifacts, potential for more sparse data acquisition (decreased time and dose), and/or improved image quality. We illustrate this approach using simulated spine CT data that contains pedicle screws placed in a vertebra, and demonstrate improved performance over traditional filtered-backprojection and penalized-likelihood reconstruction techniques. (orig.)

  15. Simultaneous Estimation of Four Antitussive Components from Herbal Cough Syrup by HPTLC

    OpenAIRE

    Sharada L Deore; Jaju, Payal S.; Bhushan A Baviskar

    2014-01-01

    A new simple, rapid, selective and precise high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of vasicine, glycyrrhizin, eugenol, and cineole in herbal cough syrup. The retention factors of vasicine, glycyrrhizin, eugenol, and cineole are 0.53, 0.44, 0.75, and 0.77, respectively. Chromatography was performed on 60F254 percolated TLC plate using n-hexane : ethyl acetate : glacial acetic acid (8.5 : 1.0 : 0.5 v/v/v). Methods are validated a...

  16. Industrialisation of flyash based building components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkumar, C.; Lal, R. [National Council for Cement and Building Materials (India)

    1996-12-31

    There is an acute shortage of housing in India and the prevailing backlog of housing is increasing every year, as the rate of construction has not kept pace with population growth. One way of partially meeting the increasing demand for building materials is to make use of non-conventional materials and technologies based on the use of industrial by-products. Studies conducted have shown that manufacture of building materials or components, particularly bricks and blocks, is the most promising direction of fly ash utilization. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Simultaneous Determination of Five Components Including Acetaminophen by Reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-qing; WU Xiao-hua; LU Ying; WANG Xia

    2004-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography with a C18 reverse-phase column was used to separatethe five components in cough syrup, including acetaminophen, p-aminophenol, caffeine, chlorphenamine maleateand guaifenesin. The mobile phase consists of 15wi% acetonitrile, 0.004mol/L sodium heptyl sulfonate,0.03 mole/L potassium di- hydrogen phosphate and triethylamine ( volume ratio 13: 40: 44: 3), the pH of which isadjusted to 3.0 by phosphoric acid. The contents of the five components are analyzed on an ultraviolet spectropho-tometer at 254nm, with a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The results show that the calibration curves are linear in acertain range. The average recovery of five components is between 96.31% and 102.3% .

  18. Simultaneous Replication of both Refractive and Diffractive Optical Components using Electroformed Tools and Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Christensen, Thomas R.

    2003-01-01

    the delicate optical surfaces are buried/sealed in the metal sandwich. The aluminium is then dissolved in warm sodium hydroxide and the glass components are carefully removed. Finally, glue residue is dissolved and the thin gold layer selectively etched. The finished tool insert is then placed in the injection...

  19. Multivariate image analysis-thin layer chromatography (MIA-TLC) for simultaneous determination of co-eluting components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Mobaraki, Nabiollah; Shakerizadeh-Shirazi, Fatemeh; Miri, Ramin

    2010-07-01

    This paper addresses the solution of peak overlapping, as a fundamental problem in TLC, by multivariate analysis of the images recorded by a digital camera. We report the results of our study on the application of multivariate image analysis (MIA) for simultaneous determination of several species on thin layer chromatography (TLC) sheet for the first time. An imaging system, composed of a dark cabinet, a digital camera and a multivariate image analysis program, was prepared for recording the images of TLC plates after development of a multi-component solution. The written program was able to produce 2- and 3-dimensional chromatograms of the solutions, which were subsequently used as inputs of partial least squares, as an efficient multivariate calibration method. The ability of the proposed MIA-TLC method for simultaneous determination of the co-eluting components was validated by analysis of ternary synthetic mixtures of indicators of highly overlapped chromatograms (i.e., methyl yellow, bromocresol green and creseol red) and a real mixture of nifedipine and its photo-degradation product. By application of different strategies like principal component analysis and variable selection, models were obtained that could estimate the concentration of indicators in the external prediction set with relative errors of lower than 10% and in most cases lower than 5%.

  20. Simultaneous genome-wide inference of physical, genetic, regulatory, and functional pathway components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Y Park

    Full Text Available Biomolecular pathways are built from diverse types of pairwise interactions, ranging from physical protein-protein interactions and modifications to indirect regulatory relationships. One goal of systems biology is to bridge three aspects of this complexity: the growing body of high-throughput data assaying these interactions; the specific interactions in which individual genes participate; and the genome-wide patterns of interactions in a system of interest. Here, we describe methodology for simultaneously predicting specific types of biomolecular interactions using high-throughput genomic data. This results in a comprehensive compendium of whole-genome networks for yeast, derived from ∼3,500 experimental conditions and describing 30 interaction types, which range from general (e.g. physical or regulatory to specific (e.g. phosphorylation or transcriptional regulation. We used these networks to investigate molecular pathways in carbon metabolism and cellular transport, proposing a novel connection between glycogen breakdown and glucose utilization supported by recent publications. Additionally, 14 specific predicted interactions in DNA topological change and protein biosynthesis were experimentally validated. We analyzed the systems-level network features within all interactomes, verifying the presence of small-world properties and enrichment for recurring network motifs. This compendium of physical, synthetic, regulatory, and functional interaction networks has been made publicly available through an interactive web interface for investigators to utilize in future research at http://function.princeton.edu/bioweaver/.

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Five Active Components in the Chinese Patent Medicine Niuhuang Jiangya Pill by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shan; Lei, Shanshan

    2016-12-16

    Niuhuang Jiangya (NHJY) pill is one of the well-known Chinese patent medicines in China used in the treatment of high blood pressure. The primary purpose of this study was to establish and validate a method using HPLC with tandem MS for the quality evaluation of NHJY pill through simultaneous determination of the following five active components: baicalin, paeoniflorin, astragaloside IV, ferulic acid, and emodin. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypersil GOLD HPLC C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase and gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The method established in this study was selective, linear, precise, and accurate and was successfully applied to evaluate five active components in NHJY pill collected from different production batches, which could be considered a good approach to control the quality of NHJY pill and other related botanical drugs.

  2. Electric Vehicle based on standard industrial components

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Ramos, José; Aghili Kathir, Foroohar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to presents the complete design of an electric vehicle by using standard industrial components as VRLA batteries, AC induction motors and standard frequency converters. In comparison with dedicated components, the use of standard components has the following advantages: higher reliability, low price, broad range of products and suppliers, and high availability and technological independence. Besides this, we show that these components allow to ...

  3. Optical image hiding based on dual-channel simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry and compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaosheng; Zhong, Liyun; Zhang, Qinnan; Zhou, Yunfei; Xiong, Jiaxiang; Tian, Jindong; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2017-01-01

    We propose an optical image hiding method based on dual-channel simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry (DCSPSI) and compressive sensing (CS) in all-optical domain. In the DCSPSI architecture, a secret image is firstly embedded in the host image without destroying the original host's form, and a pair of interferograms with the phase shifts of π/2 is simultaneously generated by the polarization components and captured by two CCDs. Then, the holograms are further compressed sampling to the less data by CS. The proposed strategy will provide a useful solution for the real-time optical image security transmission and largely reducing data volume of interferogram. The experimental result demonstrates the validity and feasibility of the proposed method.

  4. SAT-based Verification for Timed Component Connectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, S.

    2009-01-01

    Component-based software construction relies on suitable models underlying components, and in particular the coordinators which orchestrate component behaviour. Verifying correctness and safety of such systems amounts to model checking the underlying system model, where model checking techniques not

  5. Semantic network based component organization model for program mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 张尧学; 陈松乔

    2003-01-01

    Based on the definition of component ontology, an effective component classification mechanism and a facet named component relationship are proposed. Then an application domain oriented, hierarchical component organization model is established. At last a hierarchical component semantic network (HCSN) described by ontology interchange language(OIL) is presented and then its function is described. Using HCSN and cooperating with other components retrieving algorithms based on component description, other components information and their assembly or composite modes related to the key component can be found. Based on HCSN, component directory library is catalogued and a prototype system is constructed. The prototype system proves that component library organization based on this model gives guarantee to the reliability of component assembly during program mining.

  6. Nonlinear Process Fault Diagnosis Based on Serial Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaogang; Tian, Xuemin; Chen, Sheng; Harris, Chris J

    2016-12-22

    Many industrial processes contain both linear and nonlinear parts, and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), widely used in nonlinear process monitoring, may not offer the most effective means for dealing with these nonlinear processes. This paper proposes a new hybrid linear-nonlinear statistical modeling approach for nonlinear process monitoring by closely integrating linear principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear KPCA using a serial model structure, which we refer to as serial PCA (SPCA). Specifically, PCA is first applied to extract PCs as linear features, and to decompose the data into the PC subspace and residual subspace (RS). Then, KPCA is performed in the RS to extract the nonlinear PCs as nonlinear features. Two monitoring statistics are constructed for fault detection, based on both the linear and nonlinear features extracted by the proposed SPCA. To effectively perform fault identification after a fault is detected, an SPCA similarity factor method is built for fault recognition, which fuses both the linear and nonlinear features. Unlike PCA and KPCA, the proposed method takes into account both linear and nonlinear PCs simultaneously, and therefore, it can better exploit the underlying process's structure to enhance fault diagnosis performance. Two case studies involving a simulated nonlinear process and the benchmark Tennessee Eastman process demonstrate that the proposed SPCA approach is more effective than the existing state-of-the-art approach based on KPCA alone, in terms of nonlinear process fault detection and identification.

  7. Measuring Electrolyte Impedance and Noise Simultaneously by Triangular Waveform Voltage and Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanzhi Xu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the impedance variation process in electrolyte solutions, a method of triangular waveform voltage excitation is investigated together with principal component analysis (PCA. Using triangular waveform voltage as the excitation signal, the response current during one duty cycle is sampled to construct a measurement vector. The measurement matrix is then constructed by the measurement vectors obtained from different measurements. After being processed by PCA, the changing information of solution impedance is contained in the loading vectors while the response current and noise information is contained in the score vectors. The measurement results of impedance variation by the proposed signal processing method are independent of the equivalent impedance model. The noise-induced problems encountered during equivalent impedance calculation are therefore avoided, and the real-time variation information of noise in the electrode-electrolyte interface can be extracted at the same time. Planar-interdigitated electrodes are experimentally tested for monitoring the KCl concentration variation process. Experimental results indicate that the measured impedance variation curve reflects the changing process of solution conductivity, and the amplitude distribution of the noise during one duty cycle can be utilized to analyze the contact conditions of the electrode and electrolyte interface.

  8. Measuring Electrolyte Impedance and Noise Simultaneously by Triangular Waveform Voltage and Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shanzhi; Wang, Peng; Dong, Yonggui

    2016-04-22

    In order to measure the impedance variation process in electrolyte solutions, a method of triangular waveform voltage excitation is investigated together with principal component analysis (PCA). Using triangular waveform voltage as the excitation signal, the response current during one duty cycle is sampled to construct a measurement vector. The measurement matrix is then constructed by the measurement vectors obtained from different measurements. After being processed by PCA, the changing information of solution impedance is contained in the loading vectors while the response current and noise information is contained in the score vectors. The measurement results of impedance variation by the proposed signal processing method are independent of the equivalent impedance model. The noise-induced problems encountered during equivalent impedance calculation are therefore avoided, and the real-time variation information of noise in the electrode-electrolyte interface can be extracted at the same time. Planar-interdigitated electrodes are experimentally tested for monitoring the KCl concentration variation process. Experimental results indicate that the measured impedance variation curve reflects the changing process of solution conductivity, and the amplitude distribution of the noise during one duty cycle can be utilized to analyze the contact conditions of the electrode and electrolyte interface.

  9. Lifestyles Based on Health Components in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Lifestyle is a way employed by people, groups and nations and is formed in specific geographical, economic, political, cultural and religious texts. Health depends on lifestyle and is essential to preserve and promote health and improve lifestyle. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate lifestyle based on health-oriented components in Iran. Data Sources The research was conducted through E-banks including scientific information database (SID, Iran medical science databank (Iran Medex, Iran journal databank (Magiran and other databases such as Elsevier, PubMed and google scholar meta search engine regarding the subject from 2000 to 2014. Moreover, Official Iranian statistics and information were applied. The search terms used included lifestyle, health, health promoting behaviors, health-oriented lifestyle and lifestyle in Iran. Study Selection In the primary research, many papers were observed out of which 157 (120 in Farsi and 37 in English were selected. Data Extraction Following the careful study of these papers and excluding the unqualified papers, 19 papers with thorough information and higher relevance with the research purpose were selected. Results After examining articles based on the selected keywords and search strategies, 215 articles (134 in Farsi and 81 in English were obtained. Components of lifestyle and health are increasing in recent years; therefore, 8 (42% and 11 (58% articles were published during 2005 - 2010 and 2011 - 2014, respectively. Among them, there were 3 (16%, 8 (42%, 2 (10.5%, 2 (10.5% and 0 articles on the review of literature, descriptive-analytic, qualitative, analytic and descriptive articles, respectively. Conclusions Due to positive effect of healthy lifestyle on health promotion of individuals, it would be better for the government to provide comprehensive programs and policies in the society to enhance awareness of people about positive effects of health-oriented lifestyle on life and

  10. Fizeau simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry based on extended source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Zhu, Qiudong; Hou, Yinlong; Cao, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Coaxial Fizeau simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer plays an important role in many fields for its characteristics of long optical path, miniaturization, and elimination of reference surface high-frequency error. Based on the matching of coherence between extended source and interferometer, orthogonal polarization reference wave and measurement wave can be obtained by Fizeau interferometry with Michelson interferometer preposed. Through matching spatial coherence length between preposed interferometer and primary interferometer, high contrast interference fringes can be obtained and additional interference fringes can be eliminated. Thus, the problem of separation of measurement and reference surface in the common optical path Fizeau interferometer is solved. Numerical simulation and principle experiment is conducted to verify the feasibility of extended source interferometer. Simulation platform is established by using the communication technique of DDE (dynamic data exchange) to connect Zemax and Matlab. The modeling of the extended source interferometer is realized by using Zemax. Matlab codes are programmed to automatically rectify the field parameters of the optical system and conveniently calculate the visibility of interference fringes. Combined with the simulation, the experimental platform of the extended source interferometer is established. After experimental research on the influence law of scattering screen granularity to interference fringes, the granularity of scattering screen is determined. Based on the simulation platform and experimental platform, the impacts on phase measurement accuracy of the imaging system aberration and collimation system aberration of the interferometer are analyzed. Compared the visibility relation curves between experimental measurement and simulation result, the experimental result is in line with the theoretical result.

  11. Component-Based Software Reuse on the World Wide Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Component-based software reuse (CBSR) has been widely used in software developing practice and has an even more brilliant future with the rapid extension of the Internet, because World Wide Web (WWW) makes the large scale of component resources from different vendors become available to software developers. In this paper, an abstract component model suitable for representing components on WWW isproposed, which plays important roles both in achieving interoperability among components and amongreusable component libraries (RCLs). Some necessary changes to many aspects of component management brought by WWW are also discussed, such as the classification of components and the corresponding searching methods, and the certification of components.

  12. Simultaneous Principal-Component Extraction with Application to Adaptive Blind Multiuser Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdogmus Deniz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available SIPEX-G is a fast-converging, robust, gradient-based PCA algorithm that has been recently proposed by the authors. Its superior performance in synthetic and real data compared with its benchmark counterparts makes it a viable alternative in applications where subspace methods are employed. Blind multiuser detection is one such area, where subspace methods, recently developed by researchers, have proven effective. In this paper, the SIPEX-G algorithm is presented in detail, convergence proofs are derived, and the performance is demonstrated in standard subspace problems. These sub space problems include direction of arrival estimation for incoming signals impinging on a linear array of sensors, nonstationary random process subspace tracking, and adaptive blind multiuser detection.

  13. The development of component-based information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cesare, Sergio de; Macredie, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This work provides a comprehensive overview of research and practical issues relating to component-based development information systems (CBIS). Spanning the organizational, developmental, and technical aspects of the subject, the original research included here provides fresh insights into successful CBIS technology and application. Part I covers component-based development methodologies and system architectures. Part II analyzes different aspects of managing component-based development. Part III investigates component-based development versus commercial off-the-shelf products (COTS), includi

  14. The Component-Based Application for GAMESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Fang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    GAMESS, a quantum chetnistry program for electronic structure calculations, has been freely shared by high-performance application scientists for over twenty years. It provides a rich set of functionalities and can be run on a variety of parallel platforms through a distributed data interface. While a chemistry computation is sophisticated and hard to develop, the resource sharing among different chemistry packages will accelerate the development of new computations and encourage the cooperation of scientists from universities and laboratories. Common Component Architecture (CCA) offers an enviromnent that allows scientific packages to dynamically interact with each other through components, which enable dynamic coupling of GAMESS with other chetnistry packages, such as MPQC and NWChem. Conceptually, a cotnputation can be constructed with "plug-and-play" components from scientific packages and require more than componentizing functions/subroutines of interest, especially for large-scale scientific packages with a long development history. In this research, we present our efforts to construct cotnponents for GAMESS that conform to the CCA specification. The goal is to enable the fine-grained interoperability between three quantum chemistry programs, GAMESS, MPQC and NWChem, via components. We focus on one of the three packages, GAMESS; delineate the structure of GAMESS computations, followed by our approaches to its component development. Then we use GAMESS as the driver to interoperate integral components from the other tw"o packages, arid show the solutions for interoperability problems along with preliminary results. To justify the versatility of the design, the Tuning and Analysis Utility (TAU) components have been coupled with GAMESS and its components, so that the performance of GAMESS and its components may be analyzed for a wide range of systetn parameters.

  15. Simultaneous determination of nine components in Qingkailing injection by HPLC/ELSD/DAD and its application to the quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shikai; Luo, Guoan; Wang, Yiming; Cheng, Yiyu

    2006-03-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo diode array detection and evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC/DAD/ELSD) was established to simultaneously determine nine ingredients in Qingkailing injection. Four wavelengths at 240, 254, 280 and 330 nm, respectively, were chosen as the monitoring wavelength to determine two nucleosides (uridine and adenosine), geniposide, baicalin and two organic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid), and an evaporative light scattering detector combined was employed to determine three steroids (cholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid and hyodeoxycholic acid). This assay was fully validated in respect to precision, repeatability and accuracy. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify the nine ingredients in 19 different Qingkailing injection samples and by principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), it demonstrated significant variations in the content of these compounds in the samples from different manufacturers and preparation procedures. This method could be readily utilized as a quality control method for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

  16. Digital image restoration based on pixel simultaneous detection probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Grabskii, V

    2008-01-01

    Here an image restoration on the basis of pixel simultaneous detection probabilities (PSDP) is proposed. These probabilities can be precisely determined by means of correlations measurement [NIMA 586 (2008) 314-326]. The proposed image restoration is based on the solution of matrix equation. Non-zero elements of Toeplitz block matrix with ones on the main diagonal, is determined using PSDP. The number of non zero descending diagonals depends on the detector construction and is not always smaller than 8. To solve the matrix equation, the Gaussian elimination algorithm is used. The proposed restoration algorithm is studied by means of the simulated images (with and without additive noise using PSDP for General Electric Senographe 2000D mammography device detector) and a small area (160x160 pixels) of real images acquired by the above mentioned device. The estimation errors of PSDP and the additive noise magnitude permits to restore images with the precision better than 2% for the above mentioned detector. The a...

  17. Simultaneous determination of four marker components in Yukmijihwang Tang by high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jin Bae; Ma, Jin Yeul; Ma, Choong Je

    2010-04-01

    Simultaneous determination method of four marker components, paeoniflorin, loganin, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde and paeonol in traditional herbal medicine, Yukmijihwang tang, was developed to achieve rapidly and systematic quality control by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. To develop this high performance liquid chromatography method, C(18) column (5 microm, 120 A, 4.6 mm x 150 mm) was used with gradient elution of water and methanol as mobile phase. Validation of the chromatography method was evaluated by linearity, recovery, and precision test. Calibration curves of standard components showed excellent linearity with R(2) > 0.9990. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the ranges 0.01-0.02 and 0.04-0.07 microg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations of data of the intra-day and inter-day experiments were less than 1.15% and 3.76%, respectively. The results of recovery test were found to range from 94.88 to 107.43% with relative standard deviation values 0.07-2.66%. The results of validation suggested that this method was very accurate and stabilized.

  18. Simultaneous Quantification of Ten Active Components in Traditional Chinese Formula Sijunzi Decoction Using a UPLC-PDA Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kang; Jin-Rui, Guo; Zhen, Zhang; Xiao-Long, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Sijunzi decoction (SJZT), a traditional Chinese formula (TCMF) consisting of four herbs, has been widely used for the treatment of various gastrointestinal symptoms. However, its modernization process is hindered by the lack of a powerful quality control method that covers the major active components in the formula. The aim of this study was to establish a UPLC method for the quantitative determination of ten active components in Sijunzi decoction including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide II, atractylenolide III, and pachymic acid. Separation was achieved using an ACQUITY UPLC BEHC18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7  μ m) with a gradient elution program consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid solution. The detection wavelengths were set at 203, 254, 222, and 267 nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneous quantification of ten active compounds from several finished batches of SJZT. This validated that UPLC method is expected to provide a new basis for the quality control of SJZT.

  19. Component-based Discrete Event Simulation Using the Fractal Component Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dalle, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we show that Fractal, a generic component model coming from the Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE) community, meets most of the functional expectations identified so far in the simulation community for component-based modeling and simulation. We also demonstrate that Fractal offers additional features that have not yet been identified in the simulation community despite their potential usefulness. Eventually we describe our ongoing work on such a new simulation architec...

  20. Simultaneous determination of 20 components in red wine by LC-MS: application to variations of red wine components in decanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Li, Qing; Liu, Zhenzhen; Geng, Lulu; Zhao, Xu; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2012-11-01

    The decanting of red wines has a long tradition in red wine service from the perspective of modifying the aroma or taste of a wine. A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 20 organic acids and polyphenols in decanting red wine. The separation was performed on a Diamonsil C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using a mobile phase composed of methanol-0.1% acetic acid under gradient elution. Analysis was performed in selected ion monitoring mode with negative electrospray ionization interface. All the linear regressions showed good linear relationships (r(2) > 0.9973) between the peak area and concentration of each marker. The assay was reproducible with overall intra and interday variation of less than 5.0%. The recoveries for the quantified compounds were observed over the range of 92.1-108.3% with RSD values less than 5.7%. The method developed was successfully applied to determine the variations of the 20 components in red wine after decanting in different conditions. Concentrations of most organic acids and polyphenols investigated in the red wine were decreased in decanting. In addition, increment of duration, temperature, and light intensity would intensify the changes.

  1. Study of engine noise based on independent component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Zhi-yong; JIN Yan; YANG Chen

    2007-01-01

    Independent component analysis was applied to analyze the acoustic signals from diesel engine. First the basic principle of independent component analysis (ICA) was reviewed. Diesel engine acoustic signal was decomposed into several independent components (Ics); Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) were applied to analyze the independent components. Different noise sources of the diesel engine were separated, based on the characteristics of different component in time-frequency domain.

  2. Risk-based damage assessment and maintenance management for turbine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiyama, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Nakatani, Yujiro; Sawa, Testu; Ishii, Junji; Horino, Masayoshi; Nishimura, Mariko; Kitayama, Kazuhiro [Industrial and Power Systems and Services Company, Toshiba Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-05-15

    A statistical approach for risk-based maintenance of damage tolerant components is presented. Damage risk is defined here as the expected cost due to repair of damage in the course of component life. The thermomechanical fatigue cracking was studied statistically as the typical damage phenomena for gas turbine nozzles. Probabilities of cycles to critical crack size and cycles to total amount of cracks were calculated through plant inspection data and experimental results of low cycle fatigue. The life cycle cost of damage tolerant components was proved to be optimized by considering the failure risk and the damage risk simultaneously. (orig.)

  3. AN EVEN COMPONENT BASED FACE RECOGNITION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel face recognition algorithm. To provide additional variations to training data set, even-odd decomposition is adopted, and only the even components (half-even face images) are used for further processing. To tackle with shift-variant problem,Fourier transform is applied to half-even face images. To reduce the dimension of an image,PCA (Principle Component Analysis) features are extracted from the amplitude spectrum of half-even face images. Finally, nearest neighbor classifier is employed for the task of classification. Experimental results on ORL database show that the proposed method outperforms in terms of accuracy the conventional eigenface method which applies PCA on original images and the eigenface method which uses both the original images and their mirror images as training set.

  4. Design and daytime performance of laser-induced fluorescence spectrum lidar for simultaneous detection of multiple components, dissolved organic matter, phycocyanin, and chlorophyll in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yasunori; Kakuda, Kei; Yokoyama, Mizuho; Kubota, Tomoki; Tomida, Takayuki; Park, Ho-Dong

    2016-08-20

    In this work, we developed mobile laser-induced fluorescence spectrum (LIFS) lidar based on preliminary experiments on the excitation emission matrix of a water sample and a method for reducing solar background light using the synchronous detection technique. The combination of a UV short-pulse laser (355 nm, 6 ns) for fluorescence excitation with a 10-100 ns short-time synchronous detection using a gated image-intensified multi-channel CCD of the fluorescence made the LIFS lidar operation possible even in daytime. The LIFS lidar with this construction demonstrated the potential of natural river/lake water quality monitoring at the Tenryu River/Lake Suwa. Three main components in the fluorescence data of the water, dissolved organic matter, phycocyanin, and chlorophyll, were extracted by spectral analysis using the standard spectral functions of these components. Their concentrations were estimated by adapting experimentally calibrated data. Results of long-term field observations using our LIFS lidar from 2010 to 2012 show the necessity of simultaneous multi-component detection to understand the natural water environment.

  5. Optimization of medium components and physicochemical parameters to simultaneously enhance microbial growth and production of lypolitic enzymes by Stenotrophomonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucotelli, Cintia Anabela; Agüero, María Victoria; Del Rosario Moreira, María; Ansorena, María Roberta

    2016-05-01

    The optimization of lipase and esterase production (LP and EP) and bacterial growth (BG) of a Stenotrophomonas sp. strain was developed. For this purpose, the effect of five different medium components and three physicochemical parameters were evaluated using a Plackett-Burman statistical design. Among eight variables, stirring speed, pH, and peptone concentration were found to be the most effective factors on the three responses under evaluation. An optimization study applying Box-Behnken response surface methodology was used to study the interactive effects of the three selected variables on LP/EP and microorganism growth. Predicted models were found to be significant with high regression coefficients (90%-99%). By using the desirability function approach, the optimum condition applying simultaneous optimization of the three responses under study resulted to be: stirring speed of 100 rpm, pH of 7.5, and a peptone concentration of 10 g/L, with a desirability value of 0.977. Under these optimal conditions, it is possible to achieve in the optimized medium a 15-fold increase in esterase productivity, a 117-fold increase in lipase production, and a 9-log CFU/mL increase in BG, compared with the basal medium without agitation.

  6. Face Recognition Based on Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Javed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the proposed research work is to develop a computer system that can recognize a person by comparing the characteristics of face to those of known individuals. The main focus is on frontal two dimensional images that are taken in a controlled environment i.e. the illumination and the background will be constant. All the other methods of person’s identification and verification like iris scan or finger print scan require high quality and costly equipment’s but in face recognition we only require a normal camera giving us a 2-D frontal image of the person that will be used for the process of the person’s recognition. Principal Component Analysis technique has been used in the proposed system of face recognition. The purpose is to compare the results of the technique under the different conditions and to find the most efficient approach for developing a facial recognition system

  7. SAT-based verification for timed component connectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, S.

    2011-01-01

    Component-based software construction relies on suitable models underlying components, and in particular the coordinators which orchestrate component behaviour. Verifying correctness and safety of such systems amounts to model checking the underlying system model. The model checking techniques not o

  8. Leveraging Component-Based Software Engineering with Fraclet

    OpenAIRE

    Rouvoy, Romain; Merle, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Component-based software engineering has achieved wide acceptance in the domain of software engineering by improving productivity, reusability and composition. This success has also encouraged the emergence of a plethora of component models. Nevertheless, even if the abstract models of most of lightweight component models are quite similar, their programming models can still differ a lot. This drawback limits the reuse and composition of components implemented using di...

  9. Java Applications Development Based on Component and Metacomponent Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Danijel Radošević; Mario Konecki; Tihomir Orehovački

    2008-01-01

    Component based modeling offers new and improved approach to design, construction, implementation and evolution of software applications development. This kind of software applications development is usually represented by appropriate component model/diagram. UML, for example, offers component diagram for representation of this kind of model. On the other hand, metacomponents usage offers some new features which hardly could be achieved by using generic components. Firstly, implementation of ...

  10. A DSP-based multichannel analyzer for simultaneous acquisition of coincidence and anticoincidence spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, S.H. [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada)], E-mail: soohyun@mcmaster.ca; Chin, K.; Prestwich, W.V.; McNeill, F.E.; Chettle, D.R. [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    A digital signal processor (DSP) based multichannel analyzer (MCA) has been developed for simultaneous acquisition of coincidence and anticoincidence {gamma}-ray spectra. The shaped pulse from the spectroscopy amplifier is digitized by a flash analog-to-digital converter and then processed by a DSP. The coincidence mode operation is implemented by an external gate signal from a coincidence module. Fundamental performance was tested using NaI(Tl) detectors and compared with that of a standard NIM module. The new MCA is currently used for in vivo neutron activation analysis. Further development is in preparation toward full digital processing, which is free from the remaining analog component, that is the spectroscopy amplifier.

  11. Aptamer- and nucleic acid enzyme-based systems for simultaneous detection of multiple analytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

    2011-11-15

    The present invention provides aptamer- and nucleic acid enzyme-based systems for simultaneously determining the presence and optionally the concentration of multiple analytes in a sample. Methods of utilizing the system and kits that include the sensor components are also provided. The system includes a first reactive polynucleotide that reacts to a first analyte; a second reactive polynucleotide that reacts to a second analyte; a third polynucleotide; a fourth polynucleotide; a first particle, coupled to the third polynucleotide; a second particle, coupled to the fourth polynucleotide; and at least one quencher, for quenching emissions of the first and second quantum dots, coupled to the first and second reactive polynucleotides. The first particle includes a quantum dot having a first emission wavelength. The second particle includes a second quantum dot having a second emission wavelength different from the first emission wavelength. The third polynucleotide and the fourth polynucleotide are different.

  12. Si-based RF MEMS components.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, James E.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Baker, Michael Sean; Fleming, James Grant; Stewart, Harold D.; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-01-01

    Radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) are an enabling technology for next-generation communications and radar systems in both military and commercial sectors. RF MEMS-based reconfigurable circuits outperform solid-state circuits in terms of insertion loss, linearity, and static power consumption and are advantageous in applications where high signal power and nanosecond switching speeds are not required. We have demonstrated a number of RF MEMS switches on high-resistivity silicon (high-R Si) that were fabricated by leveraging the volume manufacturing processes available in the Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL), a Class-1, radiation-hardened CMOS manufacturing facility. We describe novel tungsten and aluminum-based processes, and present results of switches developed in each of these processes. Series and shunt ohmic switches and shunt capacitive switches were successfully demonstrated. The implications of fabricating on high-R Si and suggested future directions for developing low-loss RF MEMS-based circuits are also discussed.

  13. FUZZY PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS AND ITS KERNEL BASED MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is one of the most important feature extraction methods, and Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) is a nonlinear extension of PCA based on kernel methods. In real world, each input data may not be fully assigned to one class and it may partially belong to other classes. Based on the theory of fuzzy sets, this paper presents Fuzzy Principal Component Analysis (FPCA) and its nonlinear extension model, i.e., Kernel-based Fuzzy Principal Component Analysis (KFPCA). The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithms have good performances.

  14. Advances in resonance based NDT for ceramic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, L. J.; Jauriqui, L. M.; Gatewood, G. D.; Sisneros, R.

    2012-05-01

    The application of resonance based non-destructive testing methods has been providing benefit to manufacturers of metal components in the automotive and aerospace industries for many years. Recent developments in resonance based technologies are now allowing the application of resonance NDT to ceramic components including turbine engine components, armor, and hybrid bearing rolling elements. Application of higher frequencies and advanced signal interpretation are now allowing Process Compensated Resonance Testing to detect both internal material defects and surface breaking cracks in a variety of ceramic components. Resonance techniques can also be applied to determine material properties of coupons and to evaluate process capability for new manufacturing methods.

  15. 3D face recognition algorithm based on detecting reliable components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Wenjun; Zhou Xuebing; Niu Xiamu

    2007-01-01

    Fisherfaces algorithm is a popular method for face recognition. However, there exist some unstable components that degrade recognition performance. In this paper, we propose a method based on detecting reliable components to overcome the problem and introduce it to 3D face recognition. The reliable components are detected within the binary feature vector, which is generated from the Fisherfaces feature vector based on statistical properties, and is used for 3D face recognition as the final feature vector. Experimental results show that the reliable components feature vector is much more effective than the Fisherfaces feature vector for face recognition.

  16. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification based on internal circulation baffled reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Xiaoya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen removal experiments were carried out by using an internal circulation baffled bioreactor (ICBBR. Nitrate, nitrite and ammonia were used as N source for nitrogen removal experiments. The ICBBR has high nitrogen removal capacity. The removal rates of total nitrogen, nitrate, and nitrite are almost the same. When nitrate and nitrite were used as N sources their kinetic orders were 0.88. When ammonia was used as N source simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND was realized in ICBBR and ammonia removal fitted also 0.88 order kinetics, but total nitrogen removal fitted third-order kinetics. Nitrate and nitrite removal rates were faster than ammonia removal rate under the same C/N ratio, and total nitrogen removal rate increased with increasing C/N ratio.

  17. Component-based Control Software Design for Flexible Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炳海; 奚立峰; 曹永上

    2003-01-01

    A new method that designs and implements the component-based distributed & hierarchical flexible manufacturing control software is described with a component concept in this paper. The proposed method takes aim at improving the flexibility and reliability of the control system. On the basis of describing the concepts of component-based software and the distributed object technology, the architecture of the component-based software of the control system is suggested with the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). And then, we propose a design method for component-based distributed & hierarchical flexible manufacturing control system. Finally, to verify the software design method, a prototype flexible manufacturing control system software has been implemented in Orbix 2. 3c, VC++6.0 and has been tested in connection with the physical flexible ranufacturing shop at the WuXi Professional Institute.

  18. Optimization of Component Based Software Engineering Model Using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE is to deliver high quality, more reliable and more maintainable software systems in a shorter time and within limited budget by reusing and combining existing quality components. A high quality system can be achieved by using quality components, framework and integration process that plays a significant role. So, techniques and methods used for quality assurance and assessment of a component based system is different from those of the traditional software engineering methodology. In this paper, we are presenting a model for optimizing Chidamber and Kemerer (CK metric values of component-based software. A deep analysis of a series of CK metrics of the software components design patterns is done and metric values are drawn from them. By using unsupervised neural network- Self Organizing Map, we have proposed a model that provides an optimized model for Software Component engineering model based on reusability that depends on CK metric values. Average, standard deviated and optimized values for the CK metric are compared and evaluated to show the optimized reusability of component based model.

  19. Genetic Algorithm Based Multi-Objective Least Square Support Vector Machine for Simultaneous Determination of Multiple Components by Near Inf rared Spectroscopy%基于遗传算法的多目标最小二乘支持向量机在近红外多组分定量分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冰; 王星; Dhaene Tom; 史新元; Couckuyt Ivo; 白雁; 乔延江

    2014-01-01

    The near infrared (NIR) spectrum contains a global signature of composition ,and enables to predict different proper-ties of the material .In the present paper ,a genetic algorithm and an adaptive modeling technique were applied to build a multi-objective least square support vector machine (MLS-SVM ) ,which was intended to simultaneously determine the concentrations of multiple components by NIR spectroscopy .Both the benchmark corn dataset and self-made Forsythia suspense dataset were used to test the proposed approach .Results show that a genetic algorithm combined with adaptive modeling allows to efficiently search the LS-SVM hyperparameter space .For the corn data ,the performance of multi-objective LS-SVM was significantly bet-ter than models built with PLS1 and PLS2 algorithms .As for the Forsythia suspense data ,the performance of multi-objective LS-SVM was equivalent to PLS1 and PLS2 models .In both datasets ,the over-fitting phenomena were observed on RBFNN models .The single objective LS-SVM and MLS-SVM didn’t show much difference ,but the one-time modeling convenience al-lows the potential application of MLS-SVM to multicomponent NIR analysis .%近红外(NIR)定量分析通常涉及多个组分,采用遗传算法和自适应建模策略,建立了能够对多组分同时定量的多目标最小二乘支持向量机(LS-SVM ),并将其应用于玉米中四个组分和连翘中两个活性成分的NIR分析。结果表明多目标遗传算法配合自适应建模策略可保证优化收敛于全局最优解。所建玉米多目标LS-SVM模型明显优于PLS1和PLS2模型;连翘多目标LS-SVM 模型与PLS模型均可取得较好的校正和预测效果。两组数据中,径向基神经网络(RBFNN )模型均出现过拟合现象。多目标 LS-SVM 和单目标LS-SVM性能相近,但多目标LS-SVM建模运行一次即可得到结果,在NIR多组分定量分析中具有潜在应用优势。

  20. Integration of Simulink Models with Component-based Software Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Nicolae; Top, Søren

    2008-01-01

    constructs and process flow, then software code is generated. A Simulink model is a representation of the design or implementation of a physical system that satisfies a set of requirements. A software component-based system aims to organize system architecture and behaviour as a means of computation...... constraints. COMDES (Component-based Design of Software for Distributed Embedded Systems) is such a component-based system framework developed by the software engineering group of Mads Clausen Institute for Product Innovation (MCI), University of Southern Denmark. Once specified, the software model has...... between control engineering and software engineering....

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Two Types of Active Components with Different Physicochemical Properties in Kushen by HPLC-UV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A simple, reliable and accurate high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) coupled with a UV detector at varied wavelength was developed for the quantitation of two types of anti-carcinogenic compounds, namely, Kushen alkaloids(KS-As) and Kushen flavonoids(KS-Fs), in Kushen. Their remarkable difference in physicochemical properties was circumvented by integrated optimization of column and mobile phase. The separation was achieved on an alkaline-resisting C18 column via gradient elution with acetonitrile(ACN) and 0.025%(volume ratio) diethylamine(DEA) in water as mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.7 mL/min, and the column temperature was maintained at 35 °C. UV detection wavelength was set at 225 nm to monitor KS-As, and then changed to 335 nm for KS-Fs at 26th min, which was kept for 30 min before returning to the original wavelength. All the calibration curves show good linearity(r2〉0.999) within test ranges. The intra- and inter-day precision values of these components were less than 3.82%, and the average recovery rates obtained were in a range of 97.24%―102.64% for all the samples with RSD below 3.94%. This assay was successfully applied to determining the major active components in commercial herbal samples of Kushen. Moreover, the possible relationship between sample and the geographical region was visualized based on the contents of the 6 compounds in the light of principal component analysis(PCA). The results suggest that the proposed method facilitates the quality control of Kushen.

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Two Types of Active Components with Different Physicochemical Properties in Kushen by HPLC-UV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-feng; ZHAO Qin-qin; SHAO Qin; FAN Xiao-hui

    2011-01-01

    A simple,reliable and accurate high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)coupled with a UV detector at varied wavelength was developed for the quantitation of two types of anti-carcinogenic compounds,namely,Kushen alkaloids(KS-As)and Kushen fiavonoids(KS-Fs),in Kushen.Their remarkable difference in physicochemical properties was circumvented by integrated optimization of column and mobile phase.The separation was achieved on an alkaline-resisting C18 column via gradient elution with acetonitrile(ACN)and 0.025%(volume ratio)diethylamine(DEA)in water as mobile phase.The flow rate was 0.7mL/min,and the column temperature was maintained at 35℃.UV detection wavelength was set at 225 nm to monitor KS-As,and then changed to 335 nm for KS-Fs at 26th min,which was kept for 30 min before returning to the original wavelength.All the calibration curves show good linearity(r2>0.999)within test ranges.The intra-and inter-day precision values of these components were less than 3.82%,and the average recovery rates obtained were in a range of 97.24%—102.64% for all the samples with RSD below 3.94%.This assay was successfully applied to determining the major active components in commercial herbal samples of Kushen. Moreover, the possible relationship between sample and the geographical region was visualized based on the contents of the 6 compounds in the light of principal component analysis(PCA).The results suggest that the proposed method facilitates the quality control of Kushen.

  3. Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Tot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described. The tumor grew rapidly and measured 9 cm at the time of diagnosis. No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.

  4. Cloud Based Big Data Infrastructure: Architectural Components and Automated Provisioning

    OpenAIRE

    Demchenko, Yuri; Turkmen, Fatih; Blanchet, Christophe; Loomis, Charles; Laat, Caees de

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the general architecture and functional components of the cloud based Big Data Infrastructure (BDI). The proposed BDI architecture is based on the analysis of the emerging Big Data and data intensive technologies and supported by the definition of the Big Data Architecture Framework (BDAF) that defines the following components of the Big Data technologies: Big Data definition, Data Management including data lifecycle and data structures, Big Data Infrastructure (generical...

  5. High-extensible scene graph framework based on component techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qi-cheng; WANG Guo-ping; ZHOU Feng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a novel component-based scene graph is proposed, in which all objects in the scene are classified to different entities, and a scene can be represented as a hierarchical graph composed of the instances of entities. Each entity contains basic data and its operations which are encapsulated into the entity component. The entity possesses certain behaviours which are responses to rules and interaction defined by the high-level application. Such behaviours can be described by script or behaviours model. The component-based scene graph in the paper is more abstractive and high-level than traditional scene graphs. The contents of a scene could be extended flexibly by adding new entities and new entity components, and behaviour modification can be obtained by modifying the model components or behaviour scripts. Its robustness and efficiency are verified by many examples implemented in the Virtual Scenario developed by Peking University.

  6. Issues in Component-Based Development: Towards Specification with ADLs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael González

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Software development has been coupled with time and cost problems through history. This has motivated the search for flexible, trustworthy and time and cost-efficient development. In order to achieve this, software reuse appears fundamental and component-based development, the way towards reuse. This paper discusses the present state of component-based development and some of its critical issues for success, such as: the existence of adequate repositories, component integration within a software architecture and an adequate specification. This paper suggests ADLs (Architecture Description Languages as a possible means for this specification.

  7. Software component composition based on ADL and Middleware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    How to compose prefabricated components is a key issue in component-based reuse. Research on Software Architecture (SA) and Component-based Software Development (CBSD) provides two hopeful solutions from different perspectives. SA provides a top-down approach to realizing component-based reuse. However, it pays insufficient attention to the refinement and implementation of the architectural descriptions, and does not provide the necessary capability to automate the transformation or composition to form a final executable application. CBSD provides a bottom-up way by using existing middleware infrastructures. However, these technologies do not take into account the systematic methodology that can guide the CBSD process, especially the component composition at higher abstract levels. We argue that it is a natural solution to combine these two approaches.   In this paper, an architecture-based component composition approach is presented. In this way, SA description, using mapping rules and mini-tools to narrow the gap between design and implementation, is used as the blueprint and middleware technology as the runtime scaffold for component composition. Our approach presents an ADL, which supports user-defined connectors and has an extensible framework, to specify software architectures. To map a SA description into implementation, it is necessary to map it first to an OO design model described in UML, then to the final implementation. The architectural description can be mapped into source code or executable code by using some ORB conforming to CORBA standard. Also a toolkit is provided to support this approach efficiently.

  8. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry based component profiling and quality prediction for Japanese sake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Natsuki; Isogai, Atsuko; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-10-01

    Sake is a Japanese traditional alcoholic beverage, which is produced by simultaneous saccharification and alcohol fermentation of polished and steamed rice by Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. About 300 compounds have been identified in sake, and the contribution of individual components to the sake flavor has been examined at the same time. However, only a few compounds could explain the characteristics alone and most of the attributes still remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the component profile and the attributes of sake. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based non-targeted analysis was employed to obtain the low molecular weight component profile of Japanese sake including both nonvolatile and volatile compounds. Sake attributes and overall quality were assessed by analytical descriptive sensory test and the prediction model of the sensory score from the component profile was constructed by means of orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) regression analysis. Our results showed that 12 sake attributes [ginjo-ka (aroma of premium ginjo sake), grassy/aldehydic odor, sweet aroma/caramel/burnt odor, sulfury odor, sour taste, umami, bitter taste, body, amakara (dryness), aftertaste, pungent/smoothness and appearance] and overall quality were accurately explained by component profiles. In addition, we were able to select statistically significant components according to variable importance on projection (VIP). Our methodology clarified the correlation between sake attribute and 200 low molecular components and presented the importance of each component thus, providing new insights to the flavor study of sake.

  9. Least Dependent Component Analysis Based on Mutual Information

    CERN Document Server

    Stögbauer, H; Astakhov, S A; Grassberger, P; St\\"ogbauer, Harald; Kraskov, Alexander; Astakhov, Sergey A.; Grassberger, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We propose to use precise estimators of mutual information (MI) to find least dependent components in a linearly mixed signal. On the one hand this seems to lead to better blind source separation than with any other presently available algorithm. On the other hand it has the advantage, compared to other implementations of `independent' component analysis (ICA) some of which are based on crude approximations for MI, that the numerical values of the MI can be used for: (i) estimating residual dependencies between the output components; (ii) estimating the reliability of the output, by comparing the pairwise MIs with those of re-mixed components; (iii) clustering the output according to the residual interdependencies. For the MI estimator we use a recently proposed k-nearest neighbor based algorithm. For time sequences we combine this with delay embedding, in order to take into account non-trivial time correlations. After several tests with artificial data, we apply the resulting MILCA (Mutual Information based ...

  10. Java Applications Development Based on Component and Metacomponent Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Radošević

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Component based modeling offers new and improved approach to design, construction, implementation and evolution of software applications development. This kind of software applications development is usually represented by appropriate component model/diagram. UML, for example, offers component diagram for representation of this kind of model. On the other hand, metacomponents usage offers some new features which hardly could be achieved by using generic components. Firstly, implementation of program properties which are dispersed on different classes and other program units, i.e. aspects, is offered. This implies using automated process of assembling components and their interconnection for building applications, according to appropriate model offered in this paper, which also offers generic components usage. Benefits of this hybrid process are higher flexibility achieved by automated connection process, optimization through selective features inclusion and easier application maintenance and development. In this paper we offer an approach of application development based on hybrid component/metacomponent model. The component model is given by UML diagrams, while the metacomponent model is given by generator scripting model. We explain that hybrid approach on an example of Java Web application development.

  11. Investigation on Supply Chain Management Based on ComponentConfiguration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 陈淮莉; 马登哲

    2004-01-01

    From supply-push mode to demand-pull mode, SCM systems will face four main points: (1) real time visibility that covers the whole supply chain, (2) agility for choice of supply and source, (3) response to diverse customer demands and short delivery deadlines, and (4) rapid occurrence of new products following the market trends and new designs. Component-based SCM has become a hot spot in research areas. A multi-layer framework is set up, including a database server layer, an application server layer, a kernel component layer and a user interface layer. Some function components are designed, which are optimal planning arithmetic components, controller components and evaluation indexes components, in order to suit both discrete and continuous manufacturing. This paper studies a three-dimensional SCM configuration method based on the types of enterprise, manufacturing and products, provides powerful tools for SCM system implementations, and adopts an object-oriented technology to construct component-based distributed information system to assure right time, right materials, right place, right quantity and right customers.

  12. Component-based Systems Reconfigurations Using Graph Grammars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kouchnarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic reconfigurations can modify the architecture of component-based systems without incurring any system downtime. In this context, the main contribution of the present article is the establishment of correctness results proving component-based systems reconfigurations using graph grammars. New guarded reconfigurations allow us to build reconfigurations based on primitive reconfiguration operations using sequences of reconfigurations and the alternative and the repetitive constructs, while preserving configuration consistency. A practical contribution consists of the implementation of a component-based model using the GROOVE graph transformation tool. Then, after enriching the model with interpreted configurations and reconfigurations in a consistency compatible manner, a simulation relation is exploited to validate component systems’ implementations. This sound implementation is illustrated on a cloud-based multitier application hosting environment managed as a component-based system.

  13. Reo: A Channel-based Coordination Model for Component Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbab, F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present Reo, which forms a paradigm for composition of software components based on the notion of mobile channels. Reo is a channel-based exogenous coordination model in which complex coordinators, called connectors, are compositionally built out of simpler ones. The simplest conne

  14. Isocyanide based multi component reactions in combinatorial chemistry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dömling, A.

    1998-01-01

    Although usually regarded as a recent development, the combinatorial approach to the synthesis of libraries of new drug candidates was first described as early as 1961 using the isocyanide-based one-pot multicomponent Ugi reaction. Isocyanide-based multi component reactions (MCR's) markedly differ f

  15. A channel-based coordination model for component composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbab, F.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present $P epsilon omega$, a paradigm for composition of software components based on the notion of mobile channels. $P repsilon omega$ is a channel-based exogenous coordination model wherein complex coordinators, called {em connectors are compositionally built out of simpler ones.

  16. Economical multiparty simultaneous quantum identity authentication based on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yu-Guang; Wen Qiao-Yan

    2009-01-01

    A multiparty simultaneous quantum identity authentication protocol based on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states is proposed.The multi-user can be authenticated by a trusted third party (TTP) simultaneously.Compared with the scheme proposed recently (Wang et al 2006 Chin.Phys.Lett.23(9) 2360),the proposed scheme has the advantages of consuming fewer quantum and classical resources and lessening the difficulty and intensity of necessary operations.

  17. Component-based integration of chemistry and optimization software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Joseph P; Benson, Steven J; Alexeev, Yuri; Sarich, Jason; Janssen, Curtis L; McInnes, Lois Curfman; Krishnan, Manojkumar; Nieplocha, Jarek; Jurrus, Elizabeth; Fahlstrom, Carl; Windus, Theresa L

    2004-11-15

    Typical scientific software designs make rigid assumptions regarding programming language and data structures, frustrating software interoperability and scientific collaboration. Component-based software engineering is an emerging approach to managing the increasing complexity of scientific software. Component technology facilitates code interoperability and reuse. Through the adoption of methodology and tools developed by the Common Component Architecture Forum, we have developed a component architecture for molecular structure optimization. Using the NWChem and Massively Parallel Quantum Chemistry packages, we have produced chemistry components that provide capacity for energy and energy derivative evaluation. We have constructed geometry optimization applications by integrating the Toolkit for Advanced Optimization, Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation, and Global Arrays packages, which provide optimization and linear algebra capabilities. We present a brief overview of the component development process and a description of abstract interfaces for chemical optimizations. The components conforming to these abstract interfaces allow the construction of applications using different chemistry and mathematics packages interchangeably. Initial numerical results for the component software demonstrate good performance, and highlight potential research enabled by this platform.

  18. Secure Wireless Embedded Systems Via Component-based Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis S.; Torbensen, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the method secure-by-design as a way of constructing wireless embedded systems using component-based modeling frameworks. This facilitates design of secure applications through verified, reusable software. Following this method we propose a security framework with a secure...... communication component for distributed wireless embedded devices. The components communicate using the Secure Embedded Exchange Protocol (SEEP), which has been designed for flexible trust establishment so that small, resource-constrained, wireless embedded systems are able to communicate short command messages...

  19. Secure wireless embedded systems via component-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, T.; Torbensen, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the method secure-by-design as a way of constructing wireless embedded systems using component-based modeling frameworks. This facilitates design of secure applications through verified, reusable software. Following this method we propose a security framework with a secure...... communication component for distributed wireless embedded devices. The components communicate using the Secure Embedded Exchange Protocol (SEEP), which has been designed for flexible trust establishment so that small, resource-constrained, wireless embedded systems are able to communicate short command messages...

  20. CCPA: Component-based communication protocol architecture for embedded systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Hong-jun; CHEN Tian-zhou; CHEN Chun

    2005-01-01

    For increased and various communication requirements of modem applications on embedded systems, general purpose protocol stacks and protocol models are not efficient because they are fixed to execute in the static mode. We present the Component-Based Communication Protocol Architecture (CCPA) to make communication dynamic and configurable. It can develop, test and store the customized components for flexible reuse. The protocols are implemented by component assembly and support by configurable environments. This leads to smaller memory, more flexibility, more reconfiguration ability, better concurrency, and multiple data channel support.

  1. Simultaneous Class-based and Live Video Streamed Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin Ellen Tweddell; Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus

    2015-01-01

    The Bachelor Programme in Biomedical Laboratory Analysis at VIA's healthcare university college in Aarhus has established a blended class which combines traditional and live broadcast teaching (via an innovative choice of video conferencing system). On the so-called net-days, students have...... the choice of either attending teaching sessions in the traditional way or working from home via the Internet. The education was motivated to expand the use of technologysupported teaching, by offering a flexible study programme, thereby increasing the recruitment base. The analysis described in this article...... ensuring the anchoring of the project. Data was collected through video recordings, "the question of the day" to the students, focus group interviews with the teachers and a Pedagogical Day workshop. The analysis focuses on the experience gathered as seen in relation to four quadrants of study activities...

  2. Simultaneous least squares fitter based on the Langrange multiplier method

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Yinghui; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Yong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    We developed a least squares fitter used for extracting expected physics parameters from the correlated experimental data in high energy physics. This fitter considers the correlations among the observables and handles the nonlinearity using linearization during the $\\chi^2$ minimization. This method can naturally be extended to the analysis with external inputs. By incorporating with Langrange multipliers, the fitter includes constraints among the measured observables and the parameters of interest. We applied this fitter to the study of the $D^{0}-\\bar{D}^{0}$ mixing parameters as the test-bed based on MC simulation. The test results show that the fitter gives unbiased estimators with correct uncertainties and the approach is credible.

  3. Modeling Component-based Bragg gratings Application: tunable lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedara Rachida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The principal function of a grating Bragg is filtering, which can be used in optical fibers based component and active or passive semi conductors based component, as well as telecommunication systems. Their ideal use is with lasers with fiber, amplifiers with fiber or Laser diodes. In this work, we are going to show the principal results obtained during the analysis of various types of grating Bragg by the method of the coupled modes. We then present the operation of DBR are tunable. The use of Bragg gratings in a laser provides single-mode sources, agile wavelength. The use of sampled grating increases the tuning range.

  4. Towards a Component Based Model for Database Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Paul ROTARU

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to their effectiveness in the design and development of software applications and due to their recognized advantages in terms of reusability, Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE concepts have been arousing a great deal of interest in recent years. This paper presents and extends a component-based approach to object-oriented database systems (OODB introduced by us in [1] and [2]. Components are proposed as a new abstraction level for database system, logical partitions of the schema. In this context, the scope is introduced as an escalated property for transactions. Components are studied from the integrity, consistency, and concurrency control perspective. The main benefits of our proposed component model for OODB are the reusability of the database design, including the access statistics required for a proper query optimization, and a smooth information exchange. The integration of crosscutting concerns into the component database model using aspect-oriented techniques is also discussed. One of the main goals is to define a method for the assessment of component composition capabilities. These capabilities are restricted by the component’s interface and measured in terms of adaptability, degree of compose-ability and acceptability level. The above-mentioned metrics are extended from database components to generic software components. This paper extends and consolidates into one common view the ideas previously presented by us in [1, 2, 3].[1] Octavian Paul Rotaru, Marian Dobre, Component Aspects in Object Oriented Databases, Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice (SERP’04, Volume II, ISBN 1-932415-29-7, pages 719-725, Las Vegas, NV, USA, June 2004.[2] Octavian Paul Rotaru, Marian Dobre, Mircea Petrescu, Integrity and Consistency Aspects in Component-Oriented Databases, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Innovation in Information and Communication Technology (ISIICT

  5. Context sensitivity and ambiguity in component-based systems design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bespalko, S.J.; Sindt, A.

    1997-10-01

    Designers of components-based, real-time systems need to guarantee to correctness of soft-ware and its output. Complexity of a system, and thus the propensity for error, is best characterized by the number of states a component can encounter. In many cases, large numbers of states arise where the processing is highly dependent on context. In these cases, states are often missed, leading to errors. The following are proposals for compactly specifying system states which allow the factoring of complex components into a control module and a semantic processing module. Further, the need for methods that allow for the explicit representation of ambiguity and uncertainty in the design of components is discussed. Presented herein are examples of real-world problems which are highly context-sensitive or are inherently ambiguous.

  6. Verifying Embedded Systems using Component-based Runtime Observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Wei; Marian, Nicolae; Angelov, Christo K.

    Formal verification methods, such as exhaustive model checking, are often infeasible because of high computational complexity. Runtime observers (monitors) provide an alternative, light-weight verification method, which offers a non-exhaustive yet feasible approach to monitoring system behavior...... against formally specified properties. This paper presents a component-based design method for runtime observers, which are configured from instances of prefabricated reusable components---Predicate Evaluator (PE) and Temporal Evaluator (TE). The PE computes atomic propositions for the TE; the latter...... is a reconfigurable component processing a data structure, representing the state transition diagram of a non-deterministic state machine, i.e. a Buchi automaton derived from a system property specified in Linear Temporal Logic (LTL). Observer components have been implemented using design models and design patterns...

  7. Reliability Analysis of Component Software in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Transformation of Testing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Hou

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We develop an approach of component software reliability analysis which includes the benefits of both time domain, and structure based approaches. This approach overcomes the deficiency of existing NHPP techniques that fall short of addressing repair, and internal system structures simultaneously. Our solution adopts a method of transformation of testing data to cover both methods, and is expected to improve reliability prediction. This paradigm allows component-based software testing process doesn’t meet the assumption of NHPP models, and accounts for software structures by the way of modeling the testing process. According to the testing model it builds the mapping relation from the testing profile to the operational profile which enables the transformation of the testing data to build the reliability dataset required by NHPP models. At last an example is evaluated to validate and show the effectiveness of this approach.

  8. Can Component/Service-Based Systems Be Proved Correct?

    CERN Document Server

    Attiogbe, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Component-oriented and service-oriented approaches have gained a strong enthusiasm in industries and academia with a particular interest for service-oriented approaches. A component is a software entity with given functionalities, made available by a provider, and used to build other application within which it is integrated. The service concept and its use in web-based application development have a huge impact on reuse practices. Accordingly a considerable part of software architectures is influenced; these architectures are moving towards service-oriented architectures. Therefore applications (re)use services that are available elsewhere and many applications interact, without knowing each other, using services available via service servers and their published interfaces and functionalities. Industries propose, through various consortium, languages, technologies and standards. More academic works are also undertaken concerning semantics and formalisation of components and service-based systems. We consider...

  9. Nominal and Structural Subtyping in Component-Based Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    type. We analyze structural and different flavors of nominal subtyping from the perspective of component-based programming, where issues such as blame assignment and modular extensibility are important. Our analysis puts various existing subtyping mechanisms into a common frame of reference...

  10. RECEIVE ANTENNA SUBSET SELECTION BASED ON ORTHOGONAL COMPONENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Peng; Liu Ju; Gu Bo; Zhang Wei

    2007-01-01

    A new receive antenna subset selection algorithm with low complexity for wireless Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems is proposed, which is based on the orthogonal components of the channel matrix. Larger capacity is achieved compared with the existing antenna selection methods. Simulation results of quasi-static flat fading channel demonstrate the significant performance of the proposed selection algorithm.

  11. Reliability-Based Design of Wind Turbine Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    wind turbine design a deterministic design approach based on partial safety factors is normally used. In the present paper a numerical example demonstrates how information from tests with wind turbine blades can be used to establish a probabilistic basis for reliabilitybased design. It is also......Application of reliability-based design for wind turbines requires a definition of the probabilistic basis for the individual components of the wind turbine. In the present paper reliability-based design of structural wind turbine components is considered. A framework for the uncertainties which...... demonstrated how partial safety factors can be derived for reliability-based design and how the partial safety factors changes dependent on the uncertainty in the test results....

  12. Simultaneous Excitation of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output CFD-Based Unsteady Aerodynamic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Walter A.

    2008-01-01

    A significant improvement to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) is presented. This improvement involves the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system that enables the computation of the unsteady aerodynamic state-space model using a single CFD execution, independent of the number of structural modes. Four different types of inputs are presented that can be used for the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes. Results are presented for a flexible, supersonic semi-span configuration using the CFL3Dv6.4 code.

  13. Statistical design-principal component analysis optimization of a multiple response procedure using cloud point extraction and simultaneous determination of metals by ICP OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Marcos A; Bruns, Roy E; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2006-11-24

    A procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of traces amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb from saline oil-refinery effluents and digested vegetable samples using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). The procedure is based on cloud point extraction (CPE) of these metals as 2-(bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethyl-amino-phenol (Br-PADAP) complexes into a micellar phase of octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). Optimization of the procedure was performed by response surface methodology (RSM) using a Doehlert design. Principal components (PC) were used to simplify the multiple response analysis. A response surface for the first PC score is useful in determining the optimum conditions for the Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Pb determinations whereas the second PC is highly correlated with the Ni response. Improvement factors of 22, 36, 46, 25, 65 and 39, along with limits of detection (3sigma(B)) of 0.081, 0.79, 0.38, 0.83, 0.28 and 0.69 microg L(-1), and precision expressed as relative standard deviation (%R.S.D., n=8, 20.0 microg L(-1)) of 1.5, 2.2, 3.5, 2.6, 2.5 and 2.5 were achieved for Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb, respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by spike tests in oil-refinery effluent samples and analysis of a vegetable certified reference material (NIST 1571, orchard leaves). Results found were in agreement with certified values.

  14. Simultaneous quantitative determination of six active components in traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Cerebralcare Granule® by RP-HPLC coupled with diode array detection for quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-yang; Ma, Xiao-hui; Li, Wei; Chu, Yang; Guo, Jia-hua; Zhou, Shui-ping; Zhu, Yong-hong

    2014-09-01

    A simple, accurate and reliable method for the simultaneous separation and determination of six active components (protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid and rosmarinic acid) in traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Cerebralcare Granule(®) (CG) was developed using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector detection. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Hypersil GOLD C18 column with aqueous formic acid (0.1%, v/v) and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 ml/min at 30 °C. Because of the different UV characteristics of these components, change detection wavelength method was used for quantitative analysis. All of the analytes showed good linearity (r > 0.9992). The established method showed good precision and relative standard deviations (%) for intra-day and inter-day variations of 0.15-1.81 and 0.11-1.98%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneously determination of six active components in CG from different batches.

  15. Component-Based Software for High-Performance Scientific Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeev, Yuri; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Bernholdt, David E.; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Gannon, Dennis B.; Janssen, Curtis; Kenny, Joseph P.; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Kohl, James A.; Kumfert, Gary K.; McInnes, Lois C.; Nieplocha, Jarek; Parker, Steven G.; Rasmussen, Craig; Windus, Theresa L.

    2005-06-26

    Recent advances in both computational hardware and multidisciplinary science have given rise to an unprecedented level of complexity in scientific simulation software. This paper describes an ongoing grass roots effort aimed at addressing complexity in high-performance computing through the use of Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE). Highlights of the benefits and accomplishments of the Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum and SciDAC ISIC are given, followed by an illustrative example of how the CCA has been applied to drive scientific discovery in quantum chemistry. Thrusts for future research are also described briefly.

  16. Component-based software for high-performance scientific computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Yuri; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Bernholdt, David E.; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Gannon, Dennis; Janssen, Curtis L.; Kenny, Joseph P.; Krishnan, Manojkumar; Kohl, James A.; Kumfert, Gary; Curfman McInnes, Lois; Nieplocha, Jarek; Parker, Steven G.; Rasmussen, Craig; Windus, Theresa L.

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in both computational hardware and multidisciplinary science have given rise to an unprecedented level of complexity in scientific simulation software. This paper describes an ongoing grass roots effort aimed at addressing complexity in high-performance computing through the use of Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE). Highlights of the benefits and accomplishments of the Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum and SciDAC ISIC are given, followed by an illustrative example of how the CCA has been applied to drive scientific discovery in quantum chemistry. Thrusts for future research are also described briefly.

  17. Simultaneous quantification of 5 main components of Psoralea corylifolia L. in rats' plasma by utilizing ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qianqian; Xu, Zisheng; Zhao, Genhua; Wang, Heng; Weng, Zebin; Pei, Ke; Wu, Li; Cai, Baochang; Chen, Zhipeng; Li, Weidong

    2016-02-01

    Psoralea corylifolia L. has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating and preventing many diseases. A group of flavonoid components are regarded as the active principals within the seeds. In this research, a rapid, accurate and sensitive ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) method has been established for simultaneous quantification of its 5 main components, namely, neobavaisoflavone, bavachin, isobavachalcone, bavachinin and corylifol A in rats' plasma after the rats were orally administrated with Buguzhi extract. Negative ion electrospray mode was applied in the detection process. Multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was utilized for simultaneous quantitative analyzing of neobavaisoflavone (m/z 321.1→m/z 265.1), bavachin (m/z 323.1→m/z 119.0), isobavachalcone (m/z 323.2→m/z 119.0), bavachinin (m/z 337.2→m/z 119.0), corylifol A (m/z 389.2→m/z 277.0) and liquiritigenin (Internal Standard, m/z 255.1→m/z 119.0). Chromatographic separation of the above mentioned components was conducted on a Waters BEH-C18 column (100 mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) with gradient elution system at flow rate of 0.3mL/min. The mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid solution. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for each of the above analytes was 0.5ng/mL. Each of the analytes exhibited good linearity within the concentration range of 0.5-100ng/mL. The method was fully validated for its selectivity, accuracy, precision, stability, matrix effect and extraction recovery. The validated method has been successfully applied for simultaneous determination of the 5 flavonoids in rat plasma for the first time.

  18. Lifting a Butterfly – A Component-Based FFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Schupp

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available While modern software engineering, with good reason, tries to establish the idea of reusability and the principles of parameterization and loosely coupled components even for the design of performance-critical software, Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs tend to be monolithic and of a very low degree of parameterization. The data structures to hold the input and output data, the element type of these data, the algorithm for computing the so-called twiddle factors, the storage model for a given set of twiddle factors, all are unchangeably defined in the so-called butterfly, restricting its reuse almost entirely. This paper shows a way to a component-based FFT by designing a parameterized butterfly. Based on the technique of lifting, this parameterization includes algorithmic and implementation issues without violating the complexity guarantees of an FFT. The paper demonstrates the lifting process for the Gentleman-Sande butterfly, i.e., the butterfly that underlies the large class of decimation-in-frequency (DIF FFTs, shows the resulting components and summarizes the implementation of a component-based, generic DIF library in C++.

  19. Simultaneous quantification of five major active components in capsules of the traditional Chinese medicine 'Shu-Jin-Zhi-Tong' by high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Xin Yang; Xiao-Xia Zhang; Rui-Miao Chang; Yan.Wei Wang; Xiao-Ni Li

    2011-01-01

    A simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of five major bioactive components in 'Shu-Jin- Zhi-Tong' capsules (SJZTC), for the purposes of quality control of this commonly prescribed traditional Chinese medicine. Under the optimum conditions, excellent separation was achieved, and the assay was fully validated in terms of linearity, precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy. The validated method was applied successfully to the determination of the five compounds in SJZTC samples from different production batches. The HPLC method can be used as a valid analytical method to evaluate the intrinsic quality of SJZTC.

  20. A probabilistic model for component-based shape synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Kalogerakis, Evangelos

    2012-07-01

    We present an approach to synthesizing shapes from complex domains, by identifying new plausible combinations of components from existing shapes. Our primary contribution is a new generative model of component-based shape structure. The model represents probabilistic relationships between properties of shape components, and relates them to learned underlying causes of structural variability within the domain. These causes are treated as latent variables, leading to a compact representation that can be effectively learned without supervision from a set of compatibly segmented shapes. We evaluate the model on a number of shape datasets with complex structural variability and demonstrate its application to amplification of shape databases and to interactive shape synthesis. © 2012 ACM 0730-0301/2012/08-ART55.

  1. Component Based Effort Estimation During Software Development: Problematic View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINIT KUMAR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Component-based software development (CBD is anemerging discipline that promises to take softwareengineering into a new era. Building on theachievements of object-oriented software construction,CBD aims to deliver software engineering from acottage industry into an industrial age for InformationTechnology, wherein software can be assembled fromcomponents, in the manner that hardware systems arecurrently constructed from kits of parts. Componentbaseddevelopment (CBD is a branch of softwareengineering that emphasizes the separation ofconcerns in respect of the wide-ranging functionalityavailable throughout a given software system. Thispractice aims to bring about an equally wide-rangingdegree of benefits in both the short-term and the longtermfor the software itself and for organizations thatsponsor such software. Software engineers regardcomponents as part of the starting platformfor service-orientation. Components play this role, for example, in Web services, and more recently, in service-oriented architectures (SOA, whereby a component is converted by the Web service into aservice and subsequently inherits further characteristics beyond that of an ordinary component. Components can produce or consume events and can be used for event driven architectures (EDA.

  2. Cantilever-based micro-particle filter with simultaneous single particle detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Currently, separation of whole blood samples on lab-on-a-chip systems is achieved via filters followed by analysis of the filtered matter such as counting of blood cells. Here, a micro-chip based on cantilever technology is developed, which enables simultaneous filtration and counting of micro...

  3. Simultaneous all-channel OTDM demultiplexing based on complete optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Lillieholm, Mads; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous OTDM demultiplexing of all 16-channels for 160-Gbit/s DPSK and 320-Gbit/s DQPSK signals based on complete OFT. Furthermore, numerical simulations show promising results for extending the proposed technique to spectrally efficient Nyquist-OTDM....

  4. SA BASED SOFTWARE DEPLOYMENT RELIABILITY ESTIMATION CONSIDERING COMPONENT DEPENDENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Xihong; Liu Hongwei; Wu Zhibo; Yang Xiaozong; Zuo Decheng

    2011-01-01

    Reliability is one of the most critical properties of software system.System deployment architecture is the allocation of system software components on host nodes.Software Architecture (SA)based software deployment models help to analyze reliability of different deployments.Though many approaches for architecture-based reliability estimation exist,little work has incorporated the influence of system deployment and hardware resources into reliability estimation.There are many factors influencing system deployment.By translating the multi-dimension factors into degree matrix of component dependence,we provide the definition of component dependence and propose a method of calculating system reliability of deployments.Additionally,the parameters that influence the optimal deployment may change during system execution.The existing software deployment architecture may be ill-suited for the given environment,and the system needs to be redeployed to improve reliability.An approximate algorithm,A*_D,to increase system reliability is presented.When the number of components and host nodes is relative large,experimental results show that this algorithm can obtain better deployment than stochastic and greedy algorithms.

  5. Performance Analysis of Temperature and Strain Simultaneous Measurement System Based on Heterodyne Detection of Brillouin Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Sheng Zhang; Yong-Qian Li; Shuo Zhang; Li-Juan Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Microwave heterodyne detection can be used to measure the temperature and strain distribution along a fiber with high accuracy in a Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR) system. This method involves simultaneous measurement of Brillouin scattering and Rayleigh scattering in fiber, and scanning of Briliouin spectrum to obtain the desired information. This paper presents a simultaneous measurement system of temperature and strain based on microwave detection and analyzed the system performances such as measurement accuracy, dynamic range, and spatial resolution theoretically. The analysis shows that the system can achieve a temperature resolution of 1℃ and a strain resolution of 100 με.

  6. Simultaneous quantitation of 14 active components in Yinchenhao decoction by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection: Method development and ingredient analysis of different commonly prepared samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, YaXiong; Zhang, Yong; Ding, Yue; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Yuan; Xu, XiaoJun; Zhang, YuXin

    2016-11-01

    We developed a novel quantitative analysis method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection for the simultaneous determination of the 14 main active components in Yinchenhao decoction. All components were separated on an Agilent SB-C18 column by using a gradient solvent system of acetonitrile/0.1% phosphoric acid solution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min for 35 min. Subsequently, linearity, precision, repeatability, and accuracy tests were implemented to validate the method. Furthermore, the method has been applied for compositional difference analysis of 14 components in eight normal-extraction Yinchenhao decoction samples, accompanied by hierarchical clustering analysis and similarity analysis. The result that all samples were divided into three groups based on different contents of components demonstrated that extraction methods of decocting, refluxing, ultrasonication and extraction solvents of water or ethanol affected component differentiation, and should be related to its clinical applications. The results also indicated that the sample prepared by patients in the family by using water extraction employing a casserole was almost same to that prepared using a stainless-steel kettle, which is mostly used in pharmaceutical factories. This research would help patients to select the best and most convenient method for preparing Yinchenhao decoction.

  7. Simultaneous determination of 10 components in traditional Chinese medicine Dachaihu Granule by reversed-phase-high-performance liquid chromatographic-diode array detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfei Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dachaihu Granule, commonly used for treating cholecystitis, is derived from a famous traditional Chinese formula named Dachaihu Decoction. No analytical method has been reported for simultaneous determination of 10 bioactive compounds for quality control in Dachaihu Granule so far. Objective: To develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method with diode array detector (DAD for simultaneous determination of 10 bioactive compounds (paeoniflorin, aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and baicalin in traditional Chinese medicine Dachaihu Granule. Materials and Methods : The samples were separated on a Kromasil C 18 (250 × 4.6 mm,i.d. with 5.0 μm particle sizecolumn with multi-wavelength detection method by a gradient elution using acetonitrile (A and 0.2% acetic acid (B as the mobile phase. The column temperature was maintained at 30°C and the detection wavelength was set at 230 nm for paeoniflorin, 254 nm for aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion, 280 nm for naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and baicalin. Results: The developed method provided satisfactory precision and the accuracy of this method was in the range from 94.0% to 103.1%, all of the 10 compounds showed good linearity (r > 0.999 in a detected concentration range. Conclusion: The validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneously of these active components in Dachaihu Granule from different production batches.

  8. Simultaneous Decomposition of Depression Heterogeneity on the Person-, Symptom- and Time-Level: The Use of Three-Mode Principal Component Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei Monden

    Full Text Available Although heterogeneity of depression hinders research and clinical practice, attempts to reduce it with latent variable models have yielded inconsistent results, probably because these techniques cannot account for all interacting sources of heterogeneity at the same time. Therefore, to simultaneously decompose depression heterogeneity on the person-, symptom and time-level, three-mode Principal Component Analysis (3MPCA was applied to data of 219 Major Depression patients, who provided Beck Depression Inventory assessments every three months for two years. The resulting person-level components were correlated with external baseline clinical and demographic variables. The 3MPCA extracted two symptom-level components ('cognitive', 'somatic-affective', two time-level components ('improving', 'persisting' and three person-level components, characterized by different interaction-patterns between the symptom- and time-components ('severe non-persisting', 'somatic depression' and 'cognitive depression'. This model explained 28% of the total variance and 65% when also incorporating the general trend in the data. Correlations with external variables illustrated the content differentiation between the person-components. Severe non-persisting depression was positively correlated with psychopathology (r=0.60 and negatively with quality of life (r=-0.50. Somatic depression was negatively correlated with physical functioning (r=-0.45. Cognitive depression was positively correlated with neuroticism (r=0.38 and negatively with self-esteem (r=-0.47. In conclusion, 3MPCA decomposes depression into homogeneous entities, while accounting for the interactions between different sources of heterogeneity, which shows the utility of the technique to investigate the underlying structure of complex psychopathology data and could help future development of better empirical depression subtypes.

  9. New Stereo Vision Digital Camera System for Simultaneous Measurement of Cloud Base Height and Atmospheric Visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeiro, F. M.; Carretas, F.; Palma, N.; Ramos, P. M.; Wagner, F.

    2013-12-01

    Clouds play an important role in many aspects of everyday life. They affect both the local weather as well as the global climate and are an important parameter on climate change studies. Cloud parameters are also important for weather prediction models which make use of actual measurements. It is thus important to have low-cost instrumentation that can be deployed in the field to measure those parameters. This kind of instruments should also be automated and robust since they may be deployed in remote places and be subject to adverse weather conditions. Although clouds are very important in environmental systems, they are also an essential component of airplane safety when visual flight rules (VFR) are enforced, such as in most small aerodromes where it is not economically viable to install instruments for assisted flying. Under VFR there are strict limits on the height of the cloud base, cloud cover and atmospheric visibility that ensure the safety of the pilots and planes. Although there are instruments, available in the market, to measure those parameters, their relatively high cost makes them unavailable in many local aerodromes. In this work we present a new prototype which has been recently developed and deployed in a local aerodrome as proof of concept. It is composed by two digital cameras that capture photographs of the sky and allow the measurement of the cloud height from the parallax effect. The new developments consist on having a new geometry which allows the simultaneous measurement of cloud base height, wind speed at cloud base height and atmospheric visibility, which was not previously possible with only two cameras. The new orientation of the cameras comes at the cost of a more complex geometry to measure the cloud base height. The atmospheric visibility is calculated from the Lambert-Beer law after the measurement of the contrast between a set of dark objects and the background sky. The prototype includes the latest hardware developments that

  10. Education Knowledge System Combination Model Based on the Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lei; LI Dehua; LI Xiaojian; WU Chunxiang

    2007-01-01

    Resources are the base and core of education information, but current web education resources have no structure and it is still difficult to reuse them and make them can be self assembled and developed continually. According to the knowledge structure of course and text, the relation among knowledge points, knowledge units from three levels of media material, we can build education resource components, and build TKCM (Teaching Knowledge Combination Model) based on resource components. Builders can build and assemble knowledge system structure and make knowledge units can be self assembled, thus we can develop and consummate them continually. Users can make knowledge units can be self assembled and renewed, and build education knowledge system to satisfy users' demand under the form of education knowledge system.

  11. State Inspection for Transmission Lines Based on Independent Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Li-jia; JIANG Xiu-chen; SHENG Ge-hao; YANG Wei-wei

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring transmission towers is of great importance to prevent severe thefts on them and ensure the reliability and safety of the power grid operation. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a method for finding underlying factors or components from multivariate statistical data based on dimension reduction methods, and it is applicable to extract the non-stationary signals. FastICA based on negentropy is presented to effectively extract and separate the vibration signals caused by human activity in this paper. A new method combined empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique with the adaptive threshold method is applied to extract the vibration pulses, and suppress the interference signals. The practical tests demonstrate that the method proposed in the paper is effective in separating and extracting the vibration signals.

  12. [Simultaneous determination of five groups of components in qingkailing injection by high performance liquid chromatography with photo diode array detector and evaporative light scattering detector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shikai; Xin, Wenfeng; Luo, Guoan; Wang, Yiming; Cheng, Yiyu

    2005-09-01

    A method was established for the simultaneous quantification of nine components of five different structural types in Qingkailing injection. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photo diode array detector and an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-DAD-ELSD) was employed in the determination. Four monitoring wavelengths of 240, 254, 280 and 330 nm were set to determine nucleosides (uridine and adenosine), iridoid glucoside (geniposide), flavone glycoside (baicalin) and organic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid) respectively, and a combined evaporative light scattering detector was used to detect three steroid compounds (cholic acid, ursodesoxycholic acid and hyodeoxycholic acid). The proposed method permitted the simultaneous separation and determination of five groups of compounds in Qingkailing injection, and acceptable validation results of the precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy tests were achieved. The method was applied to the analysis of 19 Qingkailing injection samples from three different plants, and the results indicated that the method could be used as a convenient and reliable method in the multi-component determination and quality control of traditional Chinese medicines.

  13. A HPLC-DAD method for the simultaneous determination of five marker components in the traditional herbal medicine Bangpungtongsung-san

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Bae Weon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangpungtongsung-san, one of the traditional herbal medicines, was known to be a prescription for obesity. Objective: For the simultaneous determination of five components (paeoniflorin, 6-gingerol, decursin, geniposide, and glycyrrhizin in Bangpungtongsung-san, a high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector method was established. Materials and Methods: To develop the method, a reverse phase column, DIONEX C 18 (5 μm, 120 Å, 4.6 mm × 150 mm was used. The mobile phase consisted of methanol and water using a gradient elution. The UV wavelength was set at 230, 240, and 254 nm. Method validation was accomplished by linearity, precision test, and recovery test. Results: All calibration curves of components showed good linearity (R 2 > 0.9959. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ ranged from 0.01 to 0.17 μg/ml and 0.04 to 0.53 μg/ml, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD value of precision test, intraday and interday tests were less than 0.43% and 1.26%. In the recovery test, results of accuracy ranged from 95.27% to 107.70% with RSD values less than 2.21%. Conclusion: This developed method was applied to the commercial Bangpungtongsung-san sample and the five marker components were separated effectively without interference of any peaks of components.

  14. A generalized GPU-based connected component labeling algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Komura, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    We propose a generalized GPU-based connected component labeling (CCL) algorithm that can be applied to both various lattices and to non-lattice environments in a uniform fashion. We extend our recent GPU-based CCL algorithm without the use of conventional iteration to the generalized method. As an application of this algorithm, we deal with the bond percolation problem. We investigate bond percolation on the honeycomb and triangle lattices to confirm the correctness of this algorithm. Moreover, we deal with bond percolation on the Bethe lattice as a substitute for a network structure, and demonstrate the performance of this algorithm on those lattices.

  15. Space cryogenics components based on the thermomechanical (TM) effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1988-01-01

    He II vapor-liquid phase separation (VLPS) is discussed, with emphasis on fluid-related transport phenomena. The VLPS system has been studied for both linear and nonlinear regimes, demonstrating that well-defined convection patterns exist in porous plug phase separators. In the second part, other components based on the thermomechanical effect are discussed in the limit of ideal conditions. Examples considered include the heat pipe transfer of zero net mass flow, liquid transfer pumps based on the fountain effect, mechanocaloric devices for cooling purposes, and He II vortex refrigerators.

  16. Simultaneous ground- and satellite-based observation of MF/HF auroral radio emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuka; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Katoh, Yuto; Shinbori, Atsuki; Kadokura, Akira; Ogawa, Yasunobu

    2016-05-01

    We report on the first simultaneous measurements of medium-high frequency (MF/HF) auroral radio emissions (above 1 MHz) by ground- and satellite-based instruments. Observational data were obtained by the ground-based passive receivers in Iceland and Svalbard, and by the Plasma Waves and Sounder experiment (PWS) mounted on the Akebono satellite. We observed two simultaneous appearance events, during which the frequencies of the auroral roar and MF bursts detected at ground level were different from those of the terrestrial hectometric radiation (THR) observed by the Akebono satellite passing over the ground-based stations. This frequency difference confirms that auroral roar and THR are generated at different altitudes across the F peak. We did not observe any simultaneous observations that indicated an identical generation region of auroral roar and THR. In most cases, MF/HF auroral radio emissions were observed only by the ground-based detector, or by the satellite-based detector, even when the satellite was passing directly over the ground-based stations. A higher detection rate was observed from space than from ground level. This can primarily be explained in terms of the idea that the Akebono satellite can detect THR emissions coming from a wider region, and because a considerable portion of auroral radio emissions generated in the bottomside F region are masked by ionospheric absorption and screening in the D/E regions associated with ionization which results from auroral electrons and solar UV radiation.

  17. Simultaneous quantitation of 14 active components in Yinchenhao decoction with an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector: Method development and ingredient analysis of different commonly prepared samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, YaXiong; Zhang, Yong; Ding, Yue; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Yuan; Xu, XiaoJun; Zhang, YuXin

    2016-11-01

    J. Sep. Sci. 2016, 39, 4147-4157 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201600284 Yinchenhao decoction (YCHD) is a famous Chinese herbal formula recorded in the Shang Han Lun which was prescribed by Zhongjing Zhang during 150-219 AD. A novel quantitative analysis method was developed, based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector for the simultaneous determination of 14 main active components in Yinchenhao decoction. Furthermore, the method has been applied for compositional difference analysis of the 14 components in eight normal extraction samples of Yinchenhao decoction, with the aid of hierarchical clustering analysis and similarity analysis. The present research could help hospital, factory and lab choose the best way to make Yinchenhao decoction with better efficacy.

  18. A Component Based Approach to Scientific Workflow Management

    CERN Document Server

    Le Goff, Jean-Marie; Baker, Nigel; Brooks, Peter; McClatchey, Richard

    2001-01-01

    CRISTAL is a distributed scientific workflow system used in the manufacturing and production phases of HEP experiment construction at CERN. The CRISTAL project has studied the use of a description driven approach, using meta- modelling techniques, to manage the evolving needs of a large physics community. Interest from such diverse communities as bio-informatics and manufacturing has motivated the CRISTAL team to re-engineer the system to customize functionality according to end user requirements but maximize software reuse in the process. The next generation CRISTAL vision is to build a generic component architecture from which a complete software product line can be generated according to the particular needs of the target enterprise. This paper discusses the issues of adopting a component product line based approach and our experiences of software reuse.

  19. Integration of Simulink Models with Component-based Software Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Nicolae

    2008-01-01

    Model based development aims to facilitate the development of embedded control systems by emphasizing the separation of the design level from the implementation level. Model based design involves the use of multiple models that represent different views of a system, having different semantics...... of abstract system descriptions. Usually, in mechatronics systems, design proceeds by iterating model construction, model analysis, and model transformation. Constructing a MATLAB/Simulink model, a plant and controller behavior is simulated using graphical blocks to represent mathematical and logical...... constructs and process flow, then software code is generated. A Simulink model is a representation of the design or implementation of a physical system that satisfies a set of requirements. A software component-based system aims to organize system architecture and behaviour as a means of computation...

  20. Simultaneous observer based sensor diagnosis and speed estimation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaralahy, Hugues; Richard, Edouard; Boutayeb, Mohamed; Zasadzinski, Michel

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this contribution we investigate the problem of simultaneous observer based sensor diagnosis and speed estimation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The main features lie in the use of a useful bank of reduced order observers to detect and isolate faulty sensors and in the same time to provide unbiased speed estimation of UAV from accelerometers. From a structural analysis, we provide all trajectories for which faults would be detected and estimated. The theoretical ...

  1. Simultaneous Estimation of Geophysical Parameters with Microwave Radiometer Data based on Accelerated Simulated Annealing: SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Method for geophysical parameter estimations with microwave radiometer data based on Simulated Annealing: SA is proposed. Geophysical parameters which are estimated with microwave radiometer data are closely related each other. Therefore simultaneous estimation makes constraints in accordance with the relations. On the other hand, SA requires huge computer resources for convergence. In order to accelerate convergence process, oscillated decreasing function is proposed for cool down function. Experimental results show that remarkable improvements are observed for geophysical parameter estimations.

  2. Optimization of Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Seven Hydrophilic and Four Lipophilic Bioactive Components in Three Salvia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiliang; Hu, Ji; Wei, Jinchao; Li, Baocai; Zhang, Mi; Xiang, Cheng; Li, Peng

    2015-08-21

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven hydrophilic phenolic acids and four lipophilic tanshinones in three Salvia species. In normal MEKC mode using SDS as surfactant, the investigated 11 compounds could not be well separated. Therefore, several buffer modifiers including β-cyclodextrins (β-CD), ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim]BF4) and organic solvents have been added to the buffer solution to improve the separation selectivity. Under the optimized conditions (BGE, 15 mM sodium tetraborate with 10 mM SDS, 5 mM β-CD, 10 mM [bmim]BF4 and 15% ACN (v/v) as additives; buffer pH, 9.8; voltage, 20 kV; temperature, 25 °C), the 11 investigated analytes could achieve baseline separation in 34 min. The proposed MEKC was additionally validated by evaluating the linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9965), LODs (0.27-1.39 μg·mL(-1)), and recovery (94.26%-105.17%), demonstrating this method was reproducible, accurate and reliable. Moreover, the contents of the 11 compounds in three Salvia species, including S. miltiorrhiza, S. przewalskii and S. castanea were analyzed. The result showed that the established MEKC method was simple and practical for the simultaneous determination of the hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive components in Salvia species, which could be used to effectively evaluate the quality of these valued medicinal plants.

  3. A Component-Based Debugging Approach for Detecting Structural Inconsistencies in Declarative Equation Based Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Wan Ding; Li-Ping Chen; Fan-Li Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Object-oriented modeling with declarative equation based languages often unconsciously leads to structural inconsistencies. Component-based debugging is a new structural analysis approach that addresses this problem by analyzing the structure of each component in a model to separately locate faulty components. The analysis procedure is performed recursively based on the depth-first rule. It first generates fictitious equations for a component to establish a debugging environment, and then detects structural defects by using graph theoretical approaches to analyzing the structure of the system of equations resulting from the component. The proposed method can automatically locate components that cause the structural inconsistencies, and show the user detailed error messages. This information can be a great help in finding and localizing structural inconsistencies, and in some cases pinpoints them immediately.

  4. A novel ion-pairing chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin components in feed additives: chemometric tools for improving the optimization and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zan, María M; Teglia, Carla M; Robles, Juan C; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2011-07-15

    The development, optimization and validation of an ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin (NIC) components: 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) and 2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (HDP) in bulk materials and feed additives are described. An experimental design was used for the optimization of the chromatographic system. Four variables, including mobile phase composition and oven temperature, were analyzed through a central composite design exploring their contribution to analyte separation. Five responses: peak resolutions, HDP capacity factor, HDP tailing and analysis time, were modelled by using the response surface methodology and were optimized simultaneously by implementing the desirability function. The optimum conditions resulted in a mobile phase consisting of 10.0 mmol L(-1) of 1-heptanesulfonate, 20.0 mmol L(-1) of sodium acetate, pH=3.30 buffer and acetonitrile in a gradient system at a flow rate of 1.00 mL min(-1). Column was an INERSTIL ODS-3 (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm particle size) at 40.0°C. Detection was performed at 300 nm by a diode array detector. The validation results of the method indicated a high selectivity and good precision characteristics, with RSD less than 1.0% for both components, both in intra and inter-assay precision studies. Linearity was proved for a range of 32.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) of NIC in sample solution. The recovery, studied at three different fortification levels, varied from 98.0 to 101.4 for HDP and from 99.1 to 100.2 for DNC. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by determining DNC and HDP content in raw materials and commercial formulations used for coccidiosis prevention. Assays results on real samples showed that considerable differences in molecular ratio DNC:HDP exist among them.

  5. NONLINEAR DATA RECONCILIATION METHOD BASED ON KERNEL PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In the industrial process situation, principal component analysis (PCA) is a general method in data reconciliation.However, PCA sometime is unfeasible to nonlinear feature analysis and limited in application to nonlinear industrial process.Kernel PCA (KPCA) is extension of PCA and can be used for nonlinear feature analysis.A nonlinear data reconciliation method based on KPCA is proposed.The basic idea of this method is that firstly original data are mapped to high dimensional feature space by nonlinear function, and PCA is implemented in the feature space.Then nonlinear feature analysis is implemented and data are reconstructed by using the kernel.The data reconciliation method based on KPCA is applied to ternary distillation column.Simulation results show that this method can filter the noise in measurements of nonlinear process and reconciliated data can represent the true information of nonlinear process.

  6. Support vector classifier based on principal component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Support vector classifier (SVC) has the superior advantages for small sample learning problems with high dimensions,with especially better generalization ability.However there is some redundancy among the high dimensions of the original samples and the main features of the samples may be picked up first to improve the performance of SVC.A principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to reduce the feature dimensions of the original samples and the pre-selected main features efficiently,and an SVC is constructed in the selected feature space to improve the learning speed and identification rate of SVC.Furthermore,a heuristic genetic algorithm-based automatic model selection is proposed to determine the hyperparameters of SVC to evaluate the performance of the learning machines.Experiments performed on the Heart and Adult benchmark data sets demonstrate that the proposed PCA-based SVC not only reduces the test time drastically,but also improves the identify rates effectively.

  7. Simultaneous MMW generation and up-conversion for WDM-ROF systems based on FP laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chan; Ning, TiGang; Li, Jing; Li, Chao; He, Xueqing; Pei, Li

    2016-10-01

    A new wavelength division multiplexing radio-over-fiber (WDM-ROF) scheme based on Fabry-Perot (FP) laser is proposed and demonstrated for simultaneous millimeter-wave (MMW) generation and up-conversion. The tunable optical comb generated by FP laser is served as a cost-effective WDM optical source in central station (CS) and it makes all-optical up-conversion process for all channels simple compared with using a DFB array. All modes from the FP laser are modulated simultaneously by a LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator (LN-MZM) then. We have systematically compared the performances of MMW generation and up-conversion using LN-MZM based on different modulation schemes. A reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOA) is used both for the downstream modulation of each channel and for the reduction of mode partition noise (MPN) induced from FP laser. In the scheme, the multiple optical carrier suppression (OCS) modulation shows the highest receiver sensitivity and smallest power penalty over long-distance delivery. In the numerical simulation, 7 WDM channels each carrying 2.5 Gb/s baseband signal have been up-converted to 60 GHz simultaneously with good performance over 25 km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission.

  8. Cross-interference correction and simultaneous multi-gas analysis based on infrared absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun You-Wen; Zeng Yi; Liu Wen-Qing; Xie Pin-Hua; Chan Ka-Lok; Li Xian-Xin; Wang Shi-Mei; Huang Shu-Hua

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we present simultaneous multiple pollutant gases (CO2,CO,and NO) measurements by using the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) technique.A cross-correlation correction method is proposed and used to correct the cross-interferences among the target gases.The calculation of calibration curves is based on least-square fittings with third-order polynomials,and the interference functions are approximated by linear curves.The pure absorbance of each gas is obtained by solving three simultaneous equations using the fitted interference functions.Through the interference correction,the signal created at each filter channel only depends on the absorption of the intended gas.Gas mixture samples with different concentrations of CO2,CO,and NO are pumped into the sample cell for analysis.The results show that the measurement error of each gas is less than 4.5%.

  9. Simultaneous Buffer-sizing and Wire-sizing for Clock Trees Based on Lagrangian Relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Min Lee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay, power, skew, area and sensitivity are the most important concerns in current clock-tree design. We present in this paper an algorithm for simultaneously optimizing the above objectives by sizing wires and buffers in clock trees. Our algorithm, based on Lagrangian relaxation method, can optimally minimize delay, power and area simultaneously with very low skew and sensitivity. With linear storage overall and linear runtime per iteration, our algorithm is extremely economical, fast and accurate; for example, our algorithm can solve a 6201-wire-segment clock-tree problem using about 1-minute runtime and 1.3-MB memory and still achieve pico-second precision on an IBM RS/6000 workstation.

  10. Multianalyte Biosensor for Simultaneous Determination of Glucose and Galactose Based on Micromachined Chamber-type Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JlA Neng-Qin贾能勤; ZHANG Zong-Rang章宗穰; ZHU Jiang-Zhong朱建中; ZHANG Guo-Xiong张国雄

    2004-01-01

    An amperometric multianalyte biosensor for the simultaneous determination of glucose and galactose was developed based on chamber-type electrodes, which were fabricated by micromachining technology. The dual chamber-type enzyme electrode with glucose and galactose sensor elements was integrated onto one microchip. The experimental parameters of this biosensor were optimized. The biosensor exhibited a linearity of up to 4.0 mol/L for glucose and 4.5 mol/L for galactose, and the response time was about 30 s for glucose and 40 s for galactose. No cross-talking behavior was investigated in the course of simultaneous measurement of the two analytes. Interference from electroactive species, such as ascorbic acid and uric acid, was minimized due to the permselectivity of Nation film. In addition, the biosensor displayed a storage stability of longer than one month.

  11. Underwater Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Based on Forward-looking Sonar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiedong Zhang; Wenjing Zeng; Lei Wan

    2011-01-01

    A method of underwater simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) based on forward-looking sonar was proposed in this paper.Positions of objects were obtained by the forward-looking sonar,and an improved association method based on an ant colony algorithm was introduced to estimate the positions.In order to improve the precision of the positions,the extended Kalman filter (EKF) was adopted.The presented algorithm was tested in a tank,and the maximum estimation error of SLAM gained was 0.25 m.The tests verify that this method can maintain better association efficiency and reduce navigation error.

  12. The dependance of neuronal reactions of the sensorimotor cortex to a simultaneous complex stimulus upon the level of differentiation of its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunatov YuA; Perfil'ev, S N; Cherenkova, L V

    1993-01-01

    The change in the neuronal activity of the sensorimotor area of the cerebral cortex of the cat was investigated in awake animals as a function of the level of differentiation of the components of a simultaneous heteromodal complex stimulus. Two groups of neurons in the sensorimotor cortex were distinguished on the basis of the character of this relationship and a number of other parameters. It was shown that the parameters of the reactions of all neurons recorded to the positive conditional stimulus following the consolidation of the conditioned motoric reaction are established first. Such parameters of the responses as degree of manifestation, intensity, duration, and the length of the latent period changed in the process of development. The reactions of neurons of both groups to inhibitory signals were stabilized only after the consolidation of the differentiation skill. In the process only the pattern of the discharge changed in the neurons of the first group, while in the neurons of the second group, the degree of manifestation of the response, its sign, duration, and length of the latent period could vary. Fluctuations in the level of differentiation following the development of the inhibitory conditioned reactions had an effect only on the responses of the neurons of the second group to the components of the complex.

  13. Modelling raster-based monthly water balance components for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmen, C.

    2000-11-01

    The terrestrial runoff component is a comparatively small but sensitive and thus significant quantity in the global energy and water cycle at the interface between landmass and atmosphere. As opposed to soil moisture and evapotranspiration which critically determine water vapour fluxes and thus water and energy transport, it can be measured as an integrated quantity over a large area, i.e. the river basin. This peculiarity makes terrestrial runoff ideally suited for the calibration, verification and validation of general circulation models (GCMs). Gauging stations are not homogeneously distributed in space. Moreover, time series are not necessarily continuously measured nor do they in general have overlapping time periods. To overcome this problems with regard to regular grid spacing used in GCMs, different methods can be applied to transform irregular data to regular so called gridded runoff fields. The present work aims to directly compute the gridded components of the monthly water balance (including gridded runoff fields) for Europe by application of the well-established raster-based macro-scale water balance model WABIMON used at the Federal Institute of Hydrology, Germany. Model calibration and validation is performed by separated examination of 29 representative European catchments. Results indicate a general applicability of the model delivering reliable overall patterns and integrated quantities on a monthly basis. For time steps less then too weeks further research and structural improvements of the model are suggested. (orig.)

  14. High Q, Miniaturized LCP-Based Passive Components

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2014-10-16

    Various methods and systems are provided for high Q, miniaturized LCP-based passive components. In one embodiment, among others, a spiral inductor includes a center connection and a plurality of inductors formed on a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) layer, the plurality of inductors concentrically spiraling out from the center connection. In another embodiment, a vertically intertwined inductor includes first and second inductors including a first section disposed on a side of the LCP layer forming a fraction of a turn and a second section disposed on another side of the LCP layer. At least a portion of the first section of the first inductor is substantially aligned with at least a portion of the second section of the second inductor and at least a portion of the first section of the second inductor is substantially aligned with at least a portion of the second section of the first inductor.

  15. Nonlinear fault diagnosis method based on kernel principal component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Weiwu; Zhang Chunkai; Shao Huihe

    2005-01-01

    To ensure the system run under working order, detection and diagnosis of faults play an important role in industrial process. This paper proposed a nonlinear fault diagnosis method based on kernel principal component analysis (KPCA). In proposed method, using essential information of nonlinear system extracted by KPCA, we constructed KPCA model of nonlinear system under normal working condition. Then new data were projected onto the KPCA model. When new data are incompatible with the KPCA model, it can be concluded that the nonlinear system isout of normal working condition. Proposed method was applied to fault diagnosison rolling bearings. Simulation results show proposed method provides an effective method for fault detection and diagnosis of nonlinear system.

  16. [Simultaneous determination of five active components of compound α-ketoacid tablet in human urine by ion-pair reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoya; Zhong, Yuan; Huang, Zhongping; Jin, Chen; Wang, Lili; Pan, Zaifa

    2015-02-01

    A simple and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of five active components, D, L-α-hydroxymethionine calcium (HMACa), α-ketovaline calcium (KVCa), D, L-α-ketoisoleucine calcium (KILCa), α-ketoleucine calcium (KLCa) and α-ketophenylalanine calcium (KPACa) of compound α-ketoacid tablet in human urine by ion-pair reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed and validated. The separation conditions, such as the concentration of ion-pair reagent, the pH value of the mobile phase and the concentration of the buffer were optimized. All the five analytes were separated well on a C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with diode array detection at 210 nm and the column temperature of 35 °C. The mobile phases were acetonitrile and 20 mmol/L phosphate buffer (containing 15 mmol/L tetrabutylammonium hydroxide; pH 7) at the flow rate of 1. 0 mL/min with gradient elution. The calibration curves for the five components were linear in the range from 20 to 200 mg/L (r≥ 0. 9990). The limits of detection (LODs, S/N= 3) were 3.0, 5. 0, 3. 6, 5.7 and 2. 5 mg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N= 10) were 9. 6, 16.7, 12.0, 19.0 and 8.3 mg/L for HMACa, KVCa, KILCa, KLCa and KPACa, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 7%, and the average recoveries were between 86.79% and 112. 00% in the human urine with RSDs lower than 9% (n= 5). The method proved precise, specific and reproducible, and can be used for the determination of the five components in urine.

  17. Performance of nickel base superalloy components in gas turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the microstructural behaviour of hot section components in the industrial gas turbine......The topic of this thesis is the microstructural behaviour of hot section components in the industrial gas turbine...

  18. Simultaneous detection of pathogenic bacteria using agglutination test based on colored silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Zhao, Guangying; Dou, Wenchao

    2015-01-01

    Aimed to explore an agglutination test which can simultaneously detect two pathogenic bacteria, an agglutination test based on colored silica nanoparticles (colored-SiNps) was established in this work. Monodisperse colored-SiNps were used as agglutination test carriers; red-SiNps and blue-SiNps were prepared by reverse microemulsion with C.I. Reactive red 136 and C.I. Reactive Blue 14. Then the red-SiNps were sensitized with antibodies against E. sakazaki and denoted as IgG-red-SiNps; The blue-SiNps were coated with antibodies against S. pullorum and S. Gallinarum and denoted as IgGblue- SiNps. The mixture solution of IgG-red-SiNps and IgG-blue-SiNps could simultaneously agglutinate with E. sakazakii and S. pullorum and S. gallinarum on glass slide. The E. sakazakii and S. pullorum and S. gallinarum could be simultaneously detected by agglutination test with obvious agglutination phenomena. The E. sakazakii and S. pullorum and S. gallinarum could both be detected in a range from 4×10(3) to 4×10(9) CFU/mL. The pullorum and S. gallinarum and E. sakazakii in the infected food sample were detected by mixture solution of IgG-red-SiNps and IgG-blue-SiNps too. This agglutination test was easy and rapid, it might be useful for in situ rapid detection method for simultaneously screening different pathogenic microorganisms of foods and feeds in the field.

  19. Simultaneous detection of vertical and horizontal text lines based on perceptual organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Claudie; Vincent, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    A page of a document is a set of small components which are grouped by a human reader into higher level components, such as lines and text blocs. Document image analysis is aimed at detecting these components in document images. We propose the encoding of local information by considering the properties that determine perceptual grouping. Each connected component is labelled according to the location of its nearest neighbour connected component. These labelled components constitute the input of a rule-based incremental process. Vertical and horizontal text lines are detected without prior assumption on their direction. Touching characters belonging to different lines are detected early and discarded from the grouping process to avoid line merging. The tolerance for grouping components increases in the course of the process until the final decision. After each step of the grouping process, conflict resolution rules are activated. This work was motivated by the automatic detection of Figure&Caption pairs in the documents of the historical collection of the BIUM digital library (Bibliotheque InterUniversitaire Medicale). The images that were used in this study belong to this collection.

  20. Optimization of Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Seven Hydrophilic and Four Lipophilic Bioactive Components in Three Salvia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiliang Cao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven hydrophilic phenolic acids and four lipophilic tanshinones in three Salvia species. In normal MEKC mode using SDS as surfactant, the investigated 11 compounds could not be well separated. Therefore, several buffer modifiers including β-cyclodextrins (β-CD, ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim]BF4 and organic solvents have been added to the buffer solution to improve the separation selectivity. Under the optimized conditions (BGE, 15 mM sodium tetraborate with 10 mM SDS, 5 mM β-CD, 10 mM [bmim]BF4 and 15% ACN (v/v as additives; buffer pH, 9.8; voltage, 20 kV; temperature, 25 °C, the 11 investigated analytes could achieve baseline separation in 34 min. The proposed MEKC was additionally validated by evaluating the linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9965, LODs (0.27–1.39 μg·mL–1, and recovery (94.26%–105.17%, demonstrating this method was reproducible, accurate and reliable. Moreover, the contents of the 11 compounds in three Salvia species, including S. miltiorrhiza, S. przewalskii and S. castanea were analyzed. The result showed that the established MEKC method was simple and practical for the simultaneous determination of the hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive components in Salvia species, which could be used to effectively evaluate the quality of these valued medicinal plants.

  1. Simultaneous quantification and splenocyte-proliferating activities of nucleosides and bases in Cervi cornu Pantotrichum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Ying; Wang, Yu; Li, Hang; Li, Na; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Jiaming; Niu, Xiaohui; Gao, Xiaochen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum has been a well known traditional Chinese medicine, which is young horn of Cervus Nippon Temminck (Hualurong: HLR). At present, the methods used for the quality control of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum show low specificity. Objective: To describe a holistic method based on chemical characteristics and splenocyte-proliferating activities to evaluate the quality of HLR. Materials and Methods: The nucleosides and bases from HLR were identified by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS), and six of them were chosen to be used for simultaneous HPLC quantification according to the results of proliferation of mouse splenocytes in vitro. Results: In this study, eight nucleosides and bases have been identified. In addition, uracil, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, guanosine, and adenosine were chosen to be used for simultaneous HPLC quantification. Simultaneous quantification of these six substances was performed on ten groups of HLR under the condition of a TIANHE Kromasil C18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 250 mm i.d.) and a gradient elution of water and acetonitrile. Of the ten groups, HLR displayed the highest total nucleoside contents (TNC, sum of adenosine and uracil, 0.412 mg/g) with the strongest splenocyte-proliferating activities. Conclusion: These results suggest that TNC (such as particularly highly contained adenosine and uracil) in HLR has a certain correlation with the activity of splenocyte-proliferating, and it may be used as a quality control for HLR. This comprehensive method could be applied to other traditional Chinese medicines to ameliorate their quality control. PMID:25422536

  2. Simultaneous quantification and splenocyte-proliferating activities of nucleosides and bases in Cervi cornu Pantotrichum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum has been a well known traditional Chinese medicine, which is young horn of Cervus Nippon Temminck (Hualurong: HLR. At present, the methods used for the quality control of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum show low specificity. Objective: To describe a holistic method based on chemical characteristics and splenocyte-proliferating activities to evaluate the quality of HLR. Materials and Methods: The nucleosides and bases from HLR were identified by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS, and six of them were chosen to be used for simultaneous HPLC quantification according to the results of proliferation of mouse splenocytes in vitro. Results: In this study, eight nucleosides and bases have been identified. In addition, uracil, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, guanosine, and adenosine were chosen to be used for simultaneous HPLC quantification. Simultaneous quantification of these six substances was performed on ten groups of HLR under the condition of a TIANHE Kromasil C 18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 250 mm i.d. and a gradient elution of water and acetonitrile. Of the ten groups, HLR displayed the highest total nucleoside contents (TNC, sum of adenosine and uracil, 0.412 mg/g with the strongest splenocyte-proliferating activities. Conclusion: These results suggest that TNC (such as particularly highly contained adenosine and uracil in HLR has a certain correlation with the activity of splenocyte-proliferating, and it may be used as a quality control for HLR. This comprehensive method could be applied to other traditional Chinese medicines to ameliorate their quality control.

  3. A Recurrent Probabilistic Neural Network with Dimensionality Reduction Based on Time-series Discriminant Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hideaki; Shibanoki, Taro; Shima, Keisuke; Kurita, Yuichi; Tsuji, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a probabilistic neural network (NN) developed on the basis of time-series discriminant component analysis (TSDCA) that can be used to classify high-dimensional time-series patterns. TSDCA involves the compression of high-dimensional time series into a lower dimensional space using a set of orthogonal transformations and the calculation of posterior probabilities based on a continuous-density hidden Markov model with a Gaussian mixture model expressed in the reduced-dimensional space. The analysis can be incorporated into an NN, which is named a time-series discriminant component network (TSDCN), so that parameters of dimensionality reduction and classification can be obtained simultaneously as network coefficients according to a backpropagation through time-based learning algorithm with the Lagrange multiplier method. The TSDCN is considered to enable high-accuracy classification of high-dimensional time-series patterns and to reduce the computation time taken for network training. The validity of the TSDCN is demonstrated for high-dimensional artificial data and electroencephalogram signals in the experiments conducted during the study.

  4. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of satellite based water cycle components

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver M.

    2016-06-15

    Advances in multi-satellite based observations of the earth system have provided the capacity to retrieve information across a wide-range of land surface hydrological components and provided an opportunity to characterize terrestrial processes from a completely new perspective. Given the spatial advantage that space-based observations offer, several regional-to-global scale products have been developed, offering insights into the multi-scale behaviour and variability of hydrological states and fluxes. However, one of the key challenges in the use of satellite-based products is characterizing the degree to which they provide realistic and representative estimates of the underlying retrieval: that is, how accurate are the hydrological components derived from satellite observations? The challenge is intrinsically linked to issues of scale, since the availability of high-quality in-situ data is limited, and even where it does exist, is generally not commensurate to the resolution of the satellite observation. Basin-scale studies have shown considerable variability in achieving water budget closure with any degree of accuracy using satellite estimates of the water cycle. In order to assess the suitability of this type of approach for evaluating hydrological observations, it makes sense to first test it over environments with restricted hydrological inputs, before applying it to more hydrological complex basins. Here we explore the concept of hydrological consistency, i.e. the physical considerations that the water budget impose on the hydrologic fluxes and states to be temporally and spatially linked, to evaluate the reproduction of a set of large-scale evaporation (E) products by using a combination of satellite rainfall (P) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations of storage change, focusing on arid and semi-arid environments, where the hydrological flows can be more realistically described. Our results indicate no persistent hydrological

  5. Approach of simultaneous localization and mapping based on local maps for robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bai-fan; CAI Zi-xing; HU De-wen

    2006-01-01

    An extended Kalman filter approach of simultaneous localization and mapping(SLAM) was proposed based on local maps.A local frame of reference was established periodically at the position of the robot, and then the observations of the robot and landmarks were fused into the global frame of reference. Because of the independence of the local map, the approach does not cumulate the estimate and calculation errors which are produced by SLAM using Kalman filter directly. At the same time, it reduces the computational complexity. This method is proven correct and feasible in simulation experiments.

  6. A Turbidity Test Based Centrifugal Microfluidics Diagnostic System for Simultaneous Detection of HBV, HCV, and CMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a LAMP- (loop-mediated isothermal amplification- based lab-on-disk optical system that allows the simultaneous detection of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and cytomegalovirus. The various flow stages are controlled in the proposed system using different balance among centrifugal pumping, Coriolis pumping, and the capillary force. We have implemented a servo system for positioning and speed control for the heating and centrifugal pumping. We have also successfully employed a polymer light-emitting diode section for turbidity detection. The easy-to-use one-click system can perform diagnostics in less than 1 hour.

  7. Bonding and Integration Technologies for Silicon Carbide Based Injector Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2008-01-01

    Advanced ceramic bonding and integration technologies play a critical role in the fabrication and application of silicon carbide based components for a number of aerospace and ground based applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. Ceramic to ceramic diffusion bonding and ceramic to metal brazing technologies are being developed for this injector application. For the diffusion bonding, titanium interlayers (PVD and foils) were used to aid in the joining of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The influence of such variables as surface finish, interlayer thickness (10, 20, and 50 microns), processing time and temperature, and cooling rates were investigated. Microprobe analysis was used to identify the phases in the bonded region. For bonds that were not fully reacted an intermediate phase, Ti5Si3Cx, formed that is thermally incompatible in its thermal expansion and caused thermal stresses and cracking during the processing cool-down. Thinner titanium interlayers and/or longer processing times resulted in stable and compatible phases that did not contribute to microcracking and resulted in an optimized microstructure. Tensile tests on the joined materials resulted in strengths of 13-28 MPa depending on the SiC substrate material. Non-destructive evaluation using ultrasonic immersion showed well formed bonds. For the joining technology of brazing Kovar fuel tubes to silicon carbide, preliminary development of the joining approach has begun. Various technical issues and requirements for the injector application are addressed.

  8. Application of fuzzy-MOORA method: Ranking of components for reliability estimation of component-based software systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ali Siddiqui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Component-based software system (CBSS development technique is an emerging discipline that promises to take software development into a new era. As hardware systems are presently being constructed from kits of parts, software systems may also be assembled from components. It is more reliable to reuse software than to create. It is the glue code and individual components reliability that contribute to the reliability of the overall system. Every component contributes to overall system reliability according to the number of times it is being used, some components are of critical usage, known as usage frequency of component. The usage frequency decides the weight of each component. According to their weights, each component contributes to the overall reliability of the system. Therefore, ranking of components may be obtained by analyzing their reliability impacts on overall application. In this paper, we propose the application of fuzzy multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis, Fuzzy-MOORA. The method helps us find the best suitable alternative, software component, from a set of available feasible alternatives named software components. It is an accurate and easy to understand tool for solving multi-criteria decision making problems that have imprecise and vague evaluation data. By the use of ratio analysis, the proposed method determines the most suitable alternative among all possible alternatives, and dimensionless measurement will realize the job of ranking of components for estimating CBSS reliability in a non-subjective way. Finally, three case studies are shown to illustrate the use of the proposed technique.

  9. MR-based PET motion correction procedure for simultaneous MR-PET neuroimaging of human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Görge Ullisch

    Full Text Available Positron Emission Tomography (PET images are prone to motion artefacts due to the long acquisition time of PET measurements. Recently, simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and PET have become available in the first generation of Hybrid MR-PET scanners. In this work, the elimination of artefacts due to head motion in PET neuroimages is achieved by a new approach utilising MR-based motion tracking in combination with PET list mode data motion correction for simultaneous MR-PET acquisitions. The method comprises accurate MR-based motion measurements, an intra-frame motion minimising and reconstruction time reducing temporal framing algorithm, and a list mode based PET reconstruction which utilises the Ordinary Poisson Algorithm and avoids axial and transaxial compression. Compared to images uncorrected for motion, an increased image quality is shown in phantom as well as in vivo images. In vivo motion corrected images show an evident increase of contrast at the basal ganglia and a good visibility of uptake in tiny structures such as superior colliculi.

  10. Simultaneous State and Parameter Estimation Based Actuator Fault Detection and Diagnosis for an Unmanned Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous state and parameter estimation based actuator fault detection and diagnosis (FDD for single-rotor unmanned helicopters (UHs is investigated in this paper. A literature review of actuator FDD for UHs is given firstly. Based on actuator healthy coefficients (AHCs, which are introduced to represent actuator faults, a combined dynamic model is established with the augmented state containing both the flight state and AHCs. Then the actuator fault detection and diagnosis problem is transformed into a general nonlinear estimation one: given control inputs and the measured flight state contaminated by measurement noises, estimate both the flight state and AHCs recursively in each time-step, which is also known as the simultaneous state and parameter estimation problem. The estimated AHCs can further be used for fault tolerant control (FTC. Based on the existing widely used nonlinear estimation methods such as the unscented Kalman filter (UKF and the extended set-membership filter (ESMF, three kinds of adaptive schemes (KF-UKF, MIT-UKF and MIT-ESMF are proposed by our team to improve the actuator FDD performance. A comprehensive comparative study on these different estimation methods is given in detail to illustrate their advantages and disadvantages when applied to unmanned helicopter actuator FDD.

  11. Optical fiber-based full Mueller polarimeter for endoscopic imaging using a two-wavelength simultaneous measurement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizet, Jérémy; Manhas, Sandeep; Tran, Jacqueline; Validire, Pierre; Benali, Abdelali; Garcia-Caurel, Enric; Pierangelo, Angelo; De Martino, Antonello; Pagnoux, Dominique

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports a technique based on spectrally differential measurement for determining the full Mueller matrix of a biological sample through an optical fiber. In this technique, two close wavelengths were used simultaneously, one for characterizing the fiber and the other for characterizing the assembly of fiber and sample. The characteristics of the fiber measured at one wavelength were used to decouple its contribution from the measurement on the assembly of fiber and sample and then to extract sample Mueller matrix at the second wavelength. The proof of concept was experimentally validated by measuring polarimetric parameters of various calibrated optical components through the optical fiber. Then, polarimetric images of histological cuts of human colon tissues were measured, and retardance, diattenuation, and orientation of the main axes of fibrillar regions were displayed. Finally, these images were successfully compared with images obtained by a free space Mueller microscope. As the reported method does not use any moving component, it offers attractive integration possibilities with an endoscopic probe.

  12. Ultrasensitive and simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions based on three-dimensional graphene-carbon nanotubes hybrid electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hui; Chen, Ting [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Xiuyu [Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan 250114 (China); Ma, Houyi, E-mail: hyma@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional graphene-MWCNTs nanocomposites were prepared. • Graphene-MWCNTs based electrochemical sensor was used to detect heavy metal ions for the first time. • The proposed sensor was certified capable for real sample with satisfactory results. - Abstract: A green and facile method was developed to prepare a novel hybrid nanocomposite that consisted of one-dimensional multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and two-dimensional graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The as-prepared three-dimensional GO–MWCNTs hybrid nanocomposites exhibit excellent water-solubility owing to the high hydrophilicity of GO components; meanwhile, a certain amount of MWCNTs loaded on the surface of GO sheets through π–π interaction seem to be “dissolved” in water. Moreover, the graphene(G)-MWCNTs nanocomposites with excellent conductivity were obtained conveniently by the direct electrochemical reduction of GO–MWCNTs nanocomposites. Seeing that there is a good synergistic effect between MWCNTs and graphene components in enhancing preconcentration efficiency of metal ions and accelerating electron transfer rate at G-MWCNTs/electrolyte interface, the G-MWCNTs nanocomposites possess fast, simultaneous and sensitive detection performance for trace amounts of heavy metal ions. The electrochemical results demonstrate that the G-MWCNTs nanocomposites can act as a kind of practical sensing material to simultaneously determine Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions in terms of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The linear calibration plots for Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ranged from 0.5 μg L{sup −1} to 30 μg L{sup −1}. The detection limits were determined to be 0.2 μg L{sup −1} (S/N = 3) for Pb{sup 2+} and 0.1 μg L{sup −1} (S/N = 3) for Cd{sup 2+} in the case of a deposition time of 180 s. It is worth mentioning that the G-MWCNTs modified electrodes were successfully applied to the simultaneous detection of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions in real electroplating

  13. WEB SERVICE SELECTION ALGORITHM BASED ON PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Guosheng; Liu Jianxun; Tang Mingdong; Cao Buqing

    2013-01-01

    Existing Web service selection approaches usually assume that preferences of users have been provided in a quantitative form by users.However,due to the subjectivity and vagueness of preferences,it may be impractical for users to specify quantitative and exact preferences.Moreover,due to that Quality of Service (QoS) attributes are often interrelated,existing Web service selection approaches which employ weighted summation of QoS attribute values to compute the overall QoS of Web services may produce inaccurate results,since they do not take correlations among QoS attributes into account.To resolve these problems,a Web service selection framework considering user's preference priority is proposed,which incorporates a searching mechanism with QoS range setting to identify services satisfying the user's QoS constraints.With the identified service candidates,based on the idea of Principal Component Analysis (PCA),an algorithm of Web service selection named PCAoWSS (Web Service Selection based on PCA) is proposed,which can eliminate the correlations among QoS attributes and compute the overall QoS of Web services accurately.After computing the overall QoS for each service,the algorithm ranks the Web service candidates based on their overall QoS and recommends services with top QoS values to users.Finally,the effectiveness and feasibility of our approach are validated by experiments,i.e.the selected Web service by our approach is given high average evaluation than other ones by users and the time cost of PCA-WSS algorithm is not affected acutely by the number of service candidates.

  14. Mobile Robot Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Based on a Monocular Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songmin Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel monocular vision-based SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping algorithm for mobile robot. In this proposed method, the tracking and mapping procedures are split into two separate tasks and performed in parallel threads. In the tracking thread, a ground feature-based pose estimation method is employed to initialize the algorithm for the constraint moving of the mobile robot. And an initial map is built by triangulating the matched features for further tracking procedure. In the mapping thread, an epipolar searching procedure is utilized for finding the matching features. A homography-based outlier rejection method is adopted for rejecting the mismatched features. The indoor experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a great performance on map building and verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Development and Validation of an UHPLC-QqQ-MS Technique for Simultaneous Determination of Ten Bioactive Components in Fangji Huangqi Tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiao; Zhu, Tingting; Cai, Baochang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography method coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin in Fangji Huangqi Tang (FHT). The chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-C18 column, eluted with a mixture of 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile at 0.4 mL/min. The separation of these ten compounds was achieved by linear gradient elution. The method was strictly validated with respect to specificity, precision, accuracy, and repeatability. All the compounds showed good linearities (r ≥ 0.999). The LOQs of the ten components were 0.36, 0.18, 0.09, 0.43, 0.02, 1.89, 0.26, 0.18, 0.61, and 0.48 ng/mL for tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin, respectively. The LODs of the ten components were 0.11, 0.05, 0.03, 0.13, 0.01, 0.57, 0.08, 0.05, 0.18, and 0.14 ng/mL for tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin, respectively. The method was proven to be specific and reliable, which would provide a meaningful basis for the quality control and evaluation of FHT during its clinical application.

  16. Development and Validation of an UHPLC-QqQ-MS Technique for Simultaneous Determination of Ten Bioactive Components in Fangji Huangqi Tang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography method coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin in Fangji Huangqi Tang (FHT. The chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-C18 column, eluted with a mixture of 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile at 0.4 mL/min. The separation of these ten compounds was achieved by linear gradient elution. The method was strictly validated with respect to specificity, precision, accuracy, and repeatability. All the compounds showed good linearities (r≥0.999. The LOQs of the ten components were 0.36, 0.18, 0.09, 0.43, 0.02, 1.89, 0.26, 0.18, 0.61, and 0.48 ng/mL for tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin, respectively. The LODs of the ten components were 0.11, 0.05, 0.03, 0.13, 0.01, 0.57, 0.08, 0.05, 0.18, and 0.14 ng/mL for tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin, respectively. The method was proven to be specific and reliable, which would provide a meaningful basis for the quality control and evaluation of FHT during its clinical application.

  17. Architectures: Design patterns for component-based systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bliudze, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Architectures depict design principles, paradigms that can be understood by all, allow thinking on a higher plane and avoiding low-level mistakes. They provide means for ensuring correctness by construction by enforcing global properties characterizing the coordination between components. An architecture can be considered as an operator A that, applied to a set of components B, builds a composite component A(B) meeting a characteristic property P. A theory of architectures must address sever...

  18. Performance of a Distributed Simultaneous Strain and Temperature Sensor Based on a Fabry-Perot Laser Diode and a Dual-Stage FBG Optical Demultiplexer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinwon Kang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A simultaneous strain and temperature measurement method using a Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD and a dual-stage fiber Bragg grating (FBG optical demultiplexer was applied to a distributed sensor system based on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR. By using a Kalman filter, we improved the performance of the FP-LD based OTDR, and decreased the noise using the dual-stage FBG optical demultiplexer. Applying the two developed components to the BOTDR system and using a temperature compensating algorithm, we successfully demonstrated the simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature distributions under various experimental conditions. The observed errors in the temperature and strain measured using the developed sensing system were 0.6 °C and 50 με, and the spatial resolution was 1 m, respectively.

  19. Twin-core fiber-based sensor for measuring the strain and bending simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yaxun; Liu, Zhihai; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Libo

    2013-08-01

    A novel composite interferometer sensor is presented and its sensing characteristics are investigated. Based on the infiber integrated Michelson interferometer, a quartz tube is used to encapsulate the ends of the twin-core fiber and single mode fiber to form the dual extrinsic FP cavities. Thereby, the Michelson and FP configurations are integrated into a single fiber, which we call it Michelson-FP composite interferometer sensor. The novel sensor can respond to the axial strain and radial bending simultaneously. We have derived and analyzed the interferometer principle of the new structure. The analysis results show that the interferometer sensor could be considered as the superposition of Michelson interferometer and FP interferometer. Moreover, we establish a testing system and conduct a series of experiments to investigate the strain and bending characteristics. We measure the reflection spectra with the spectrum analyzer. The spectral response of the composite interferometer sensor presents two pattern fringes with different frequencies due to the respective optical path interferometers. The experimental results indicate that the composite interferometer sensor is very sensitive to the strain and bending characteristics, and the presented sensor has different strain and bending sensitivity coefficients. Due to these characteristics, the presented sensor might be able to measure the strain and bending characteristics simultaneously. In conclusion, the presented novel interferometer sensor is of compact structure, high integration and good strain and bending sensing characteristics. Thus, many types of fiber-optic sensors may be built based on it.

  20. Simultaneous Optimal Placement of Distributed Generation and Electric Vehicle Parking Lots Based on Probabilistic EV Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Amini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High penetration of distributed generations and the increasing demand for using electric vehicles provide a lot of issues for the utilities. If these two effective elements of the future power system are used in an unscheduled manner, it may lead to the loss increment in distribution networks, dramatically. In this paper, the simultaneous allocation of distributed generations (DGs and electric vehicles (EVs parking lots has been studied in a radial distribution network. A distribution network which is upgrading and equipped with DGs is considered and these resources' optimal placement is achieved in interaction with the EV parking lots in order to minimize the power distribution network loss. The proposed method considers not only the loss minimization but also the reliability of the parking lot from the investor's point of view. The output of this model is the daily electricity demand of parking lot. The proposed method includes two levels. At the first level of the proposed algorithm, the parking lot investor makes decision and selects three candidate buses for each parking based on three main criteria. After making decision by the parking lot investor, the candidate buses are introduced to the distribution network operator. At the second stage, the distribution network operator allocates the DGs and EV parking lots based on the candidate buses of investor in order to achieve the minimum loss of the distribution network. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by allocating of DGs and EV parking lots simultaneously on the standard distribution test system.

  1. Simultaneous detection of lactate and glucose by integrated printed circuit board based array sensing chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuelian [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zang, Jianfeng [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Liu, Yingshuai; Lu, Zhisong [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li, Qing, E-mail: Qli@swu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li, Chang Ming, E-mail: ecmli@swu.edu.cn [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2013-04-10

    Highlights: ► An integrated printed circuit board (PCB) based array sensing chip was developed. ► Simultaneous detection of lactate and glucose in serum has been demonstrated. ► The array electronic biochip has high signal to noise ratio and high sensitivity. ► Additional electrodes were designed on the chip to correct interferences. -- Abstract: An integrated printed circuit board (PCB) based array sensing chip was developed to simultaneously detect lactate and glucose in mouse serum. The novelty of the chip relies on a concept demonstration of inexpensive high-throughput electronic biochip, a chip design for high signal to noise ratio and high sensitivity by construction of positively charged chitosan/redox polymer Polyvinylimidazole-Os (PVI-Os)/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite sensing platform, in which the positively charged chitosan/PVI-Os is mediator and electrostatically immobilizes the negatively charged enzyme, while CNTs function as an essential cross-linker to network PVI-Os and chitosan due to its negative charged nature. Additional electrodes on the chip with the same sensing layer but without enzymes were prepared to correct the interferences for high specificity. Low detection limits of 0.6 μM and 5 μM were achieved for lactate and glucose, respectively. This work could be extended to inexpensive array sensing chips with high sensitivity, good specificity and high reproducibility for various sensor applications.

  2. Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Díaz-Maroto Hidalgo, Ignacio Javier; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad

    2005-06-29

    Volatile oil extracts of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In general, fennel oil extracted by SDE and SFE showed similar compositions, with trans-anethole, estragole, and fenchone as the main components. In contrast, thymol and p-cymene, the most abundant compounds in thyme leaves, showed big differences, with generally higher amounts of monoterpenes obtained by SDE. However, in this case, the differences between the extracts were higher. Key odorants of fennel seeds determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) showed similar patterns when applying SDE and SFE. trans-Anethole (anise, licorice), estragole (anise, licorice, sweet), fenchone (mint, camphor, warm), and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) were the most intense odor compounds detected in fennel extracts. Thymol and carvacrol, with oregano, thyme, and spicy notes, were identified as key compounds contributing to the aroma of thyme leaves.

  3. Simultaneous detection of eight active components in Radix Tinosporae by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Qiuyue; Hashi, Yuki; Chen, Zilin

    2016-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of eight major active components (magnoflorine, menisperine, 20-hydroxyecdysone, cepharanthine, columbamine, jatrorrhizine, columbin, and palmatine) in Radix Tinosporae. The separation was performed on an InterSustainSwift C18 column (1.9 μm, 2.1 id × 100 mm) at 40 °C with a gradient elution. A mixture of acetonitrile and methanol (v/v = 1:1) and ammonium acetate buffer (25 mmol/L ammonium acetate with 0.2% formic acid) were used as mobile phases, and the flow rate was set at 0.4 mL/min. The recovery was tested in real samples and calculated to be 86.97-111.28%, and all the compounds showed good linearity (r > 0.998) in relatively wide concentration ranges. The developed method was applied to the determination of eight active compounds in real herb samples, which were collected from four different places. It has been demonstrated that the proposed method has great potential for the quality control of the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Tinosporae.

  4. Service oriented architecture assessment based on software components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Amirpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise architecture, with detailed descriptions of the functions of information technology in the organization, tries to reduce the complexity of technology applications resulting in tools with greater efficiency in achieving the objectives of the organization. Enterprise architecture consists of a set of models describing this technology in different components performance as well as various aspects of the applications in any organization. Therefore, information technology development and maintenance management can perform well within organizations. This study aims to suggest a method to identify different types of services in service-oriented architecture analysis step that applies some previous approaches in an integrated form and, based on the principles of software engineering, to provide a simpler and more transparent approach through the expression of analysis details. Advantages and disadvantages of proposals should be evaluated before the implementation and costs allocation. Evaluation methods can better identify strengths and weaknesses of the current situation apart from selecting appropriate model out of several suggestions, and clarify this technology development solution for organizations in the future. We will be able to simulate data and processes flow within the organization by converting the output of the model to colored Petri nets and evaluate and test it by examining various inputs to enterprise architecture before implemented in terms of reliability and response time. A model of application has been studied for the proposed model and the results can describe and design architecture for data.

  5. Laser repairing surface crack of Ni-based superalloy components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠柯; 叶和清; 许德胜; 黄索逸

    2001-01-01

    Surface crack of components of the cast nickel-base superalloy was repaired with twin laser beams under proper technological conditions. One laser beam was used to melt the substrate material of crack, and the other to fill in powder material to the crack region. The experimental results show that the surface crack with the width of 0.1~0.3mm could be repaired under the laser power of 3kW and the scanning speed of 6~8mm/s. The repaired deepness of crack region is below 6.5mm. The microstructure of repaired region is the cellular crystal, columnar crystal dendrite crystal from the transition region to the top filled layer. The phases in repaired region mainly consisted of supersaturated α-Co with plenty of Ni, some Cr and Al, Cr23C6, Co2B, Co-Ni-Mo, Ni4B3, TiSi and VSi. The hardness of filled layer in repaired region ranged from HV0.2450 to HV0.2500, and the hardness decreases gradually from the filled layer to joined zone.

  6. Simultaneous Elimination of Soot and NOX through Silver-Barium Based Catalytic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Chandra Dhal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, the nanometric size effect, the effects of the intrinsic factors including structure, and the redox properties of three systems of nanometric of silver-based catalysts were summarized. In this work, these catalysts were investigated for the simultaneous removal of particulate matter (diesel soot, and NOX was compared with that of a model of Pt-Ba/Al2O3 catalyst. The Silver-Barium based catalytic materials of Ag (5 wt%-Ba(10 wt%/MO (MO=Al2O3, CeO2, ZrO2, and Ag (5 wt%-Sr (10 wt%/CeO2 catalysts have been prepared by wetness impregnation method and characterized by BET, XRD, HRTEM, XPS and TPR (temperature-programmed reduction experiments. The behavior of the catalyst in the soot combustion (under tight conditions and NOX elimination has been separately analyzed by means of temperature programmed oxidation and isothermal concentration step change experiments, respectively. The results showed that all the catalysts were active in soot combustion with an indicative decrease of oxidation onset temperature compared to uncatalyzed soot oxidation. The removal of NOX in the presence and in the absence of soot was investigated under cycling conditions, i.e. alternating lean-rich phases according to the LNT approach. It has been found that the Ag-based samples were able to simultaneously remove soot and NOX. In particular, studying the behavior of the prepared catalysts, the Ba-containing systems exhibited higher NOX storage capacity than Sr-catalyst; also, the nitrogen selectivity increased even if resulted lower than the traditional LNT Pt-based catalyst. An adverse effect of soot on the NOX storage activity has been also observed. Copyright © 2017 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 18th August 2016; Revised: 19th October 2016; Accepted: 19th October 2016 How to Cite: Dhal, G.C., Dey, S., Prasad, R., Mohan, D. (2017. Simultaneous Elimination of Soot and NOX through Silver-Barium Based Catalytic Materials. Bulletin of

  7. Modeling QoS Parameters in Component-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    deployed components, begins with the system developer, willing to build a system, by presenting a query to the system generator . The query describes...is built using the system generator . If some of the components are not found then the system integrator can modify the system query by adding more

  8. A Robust MEMS Based Multi-Component Sensor for 3D Borehole Seismic Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson Geophysical Services

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop, prototype and test a robust multi-component sensor that combines both Fiber Optic and MEMS technology for use in a borehole seismic array. The use such FOMEMS based sensors allows a dramatic increase in the number of sensors that can be deployed simultaneously in a borehole seismic array. Therefore, denser sampling of the seismic wave field can be afforded, which in turn allows us to efficiently and adequately sample P-wave as well as S-wave for high-resolution imaging purposes. Design, packaging and integration of the multi-component sensors and deployment system will target maximum operating temperature of 350-400 F and a maximum pressure of 15000-25000 psi, thus allowing operation under conditions encountered in deep gas reservoirs. This project aimed at using existing pieces of deployment technology as well as MEMS and fiber-optic technology. A sensor design and analysis study has been carried out and a laboratory prototype of an interrogator for a robust borehole seismic array system has been assembled and validated.

  9. Toward Comprehensive Physical/Chemical Understanding of the Circumstellar Environments - Simultaneous Probing of Each of the Ionized/Atomic/Molecular Gas and Dust Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Toshiya

    We propose to continue our successful investigations into simultaneous probing of each of the ionized/atomic/molecular gas and dust components in planetary nebulae using primarily far-IR broadband images and spatially-resolved spectroscopic data cubes obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory to enhance our understanding of the circumstellar environments. This research originally started as the Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS) - an open time 1 program of the Herschel Space Observatory - in which 11 high-excitation PNs were observed to study the nebular energetics that involves very hot X-ray emitting plasma to very cold dust grains, whose density ranges over 3 to 4 orders of magnitude and temperature ranges over 7 orders of magnitude. The HerPlaNS data include broadband maps, IFU spectral data cubes, and bolometer array spectral data cubes covering 50 to 670 microns. Because of the sheer volume and complexity of the data set, the original funding was exhausted almost exclusively to the initial data reduction and not much to the subsequent science analysis. However, we managed to perform a nearly full science analysis for one target, NGC 6781, for which the broadband maps confirm the nearly pole-on barrel structure of the amorphous carbonrich dust shell and the surrounding halo having temperatures of 26-40 K. We also demonstrated that spatially resolved far-IR line diagnostics would yield the (Te, ne) profiles, from which distributions of ionized, atomic, and molecular gases can be determined. Direct comparison of the dust and gas column mass maps constrained by the HerPlaNS data allowed to construct an empirical gas-to-dust mass ratio map, which shows a range of ratios with the median of 195 with a standard deviation of 110. The analysis also yielded estimates of the total mass of the shell to be 0.86 M_sun, consisting of 0.54 M_sun of ionized gas, 0.12 M_sun of atomic gas, 0.2 M_sun of molecular gas, and 0.004 M_sun of dust grains. These estimates

  10. Knowledge-based System Prototype in Structural Component Design Based on FM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; Tao; LI; Qing-fen; LI; Ming; FU; Wei

    2002-01-01

    A knowledge-based system in structural component design based on fracture mechanics is developed in this paper. The system consists of several functional parts: a general inference engine, a set of knowledge bases and data-bases, an interpretation engine, a bases administration system and the interface. It can simulate a human expert to make analysis and design scheme mainly for four kinds of typical structural components widely used in shipbuilding industry: pressure vessels, huge rotation constructions, pump-rod and welded structures. It is an open system which may be broadened and perfected to cover a wider range of engineering application through the modification and enlargement of knowledge bases and data-bases. It has a natural and friendly interface that may be easily operated. An on-line help service is also provided.

  11. Independet Component Analyses of Ground-based Exoplanetary Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Martins-Filho, Walter; Griffith, Caitlin Ann; Pearson, Kyle; Waldmann, Ingo; Biddle, Lauren; Zellem, Robert Thomas; Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    Most observations of exoplanetary atmospheres are conducted when a "Hot Jupiter" exoplanet transits in front of its host star. These Jovian-sized planets have small orbital periods, on the order of days, and therefore a short transit time, making them more ameanable to observations. Measurements of Hot Jupiter transits must achieve a 10-4 level of accuracy in the flux to determine the spectral modulations of the exoplanetary atmosphere. In order to accomplish this level of precision, we need to extract systematic errors, and, for ground-based measurements, the effects of Earth's atmosphere, from the signal due to the exoplanet, which is several orders of magnitudes smaller. Currently, the effects of the terrestrial atmosphere and the some of the time-dependent systematic errors are treated by dividing the host star by a reference star at each wavelength and time step of the transit. More recently, Independent Component Analyses (ICA) have been used to remove systematic effects from the raw data of space-based observations (Waldmann 2014,2012; Morello et al.,2015,2016). ICA is a statistical method born from the ideas of the blind-source separation studies, which can be used to de-trend several independent source signals of a data set (Hyvarinen and Oja, 2000). One strength of this method is that it requires no additional prior knowledge of the system. Here, we present a study of the application of ICA to ground-based transit observations of extrasolar planets, which are affected by Earth's atmosphere. We analyze photometric data of two extrasolar planets, WASP-1b and GJ3470b, recorded by the 61" Kuiper Telescope at Stewart Observatory using the Harris B and U filters. The presentation will compare the light curve depths and their dispersions as derived from the ICA analysis to those derived by analyses that ratio of the host star to nearby reference stars.References: Waldmann, I.P. 2012 ApJ, 747, 12, Waldamann, I. P. 2014 ApJ, 780, 23; Morello G. 2015 ApJ, 806

  12. An Ensemble Algorithm Based Component for Geomagnetic Data Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Sun and Weijia Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetic data assimilation is one of the most recent developments in geomagnetic studies. It combines geodynamo model outputs and surface geomagnetic observations to provide more accurate estimates of the core dynamic state and provide accurate geomagnetic secular variation forecasting. To facilitate geomagnetic data assimilation studies, we develop a stand-alone data assimilation component for the geomagnetic community. This component is used to calculate the forecast error covariance matrices and the gain matrix from a given geodynamo solution, which can then be used for sequential geomagnetic data assimilation. This component is very flexible and can be executed independently. It can also be easily integrated with arbitrary dynamo models.

  13. Design and Fabrication of SOI-based photonic crystal components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    We present examples of ultra-compact photonic crystal components realized in silicon-on-insulator material. We have fabricated several different types of photonic crystal waveguide components displaying high transmission features. This includes 60° and 120° bends, different types of couplers......, and splitters. Recently, we have designed and fabricated components with more than 200 nm bandwidths. Design strategies to enhance the performance include systematic variation of design parameters using finite-difference time-domain simulations and inverse design methods such as topology optimization....

  14. Penning plasma based simultaneous light emission source of visible and VUV lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, G. L.; Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Manchanda, R.; Halder, N.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a laboratory-based penning plasma discharge source is reported which has been developed in two anode configurations and is able to produce visible and VUV lights simultaneously. The developed source has simultaneous diagnostics facility using Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The two anode configurations, namely, double ring and rectangular configurations, have been studied and compared for optimum use of the geometry for efficient light emissions and recording. The plasma is produced using helium gas and admixture of three noble gases including helium, neon, and argon. The source is capable to produce eight spectral lines for pure helium in the VUV range from 20 to 60 nm and total 24 spectral lines covering the wavelength range 20-106 nm for the admixture of gases. The large range of VUV lines is generated from gaseous admixture rather from the sputtered materials. The recorded spectrum shows that the plasma light radiations in both visible and VUV range are larger in double ring configuration than that of the rectangular configurations at the same discharge operating conditions. To clearly understand the difference, the imaging of the discharge using ICCD camera and particle-in-cell simulation using VORPAL have also been carried out. The effect of ion diffusion, metastable collision with the anode wall and the nonlinear effects are correlated to explain the results.

  15. Simultaneous removal of nitrate and chromate in groundwater by a spiral fiber based biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Siyuan; Zhao, Yinxin; Ji, Min; Qi, Wenfang

    2017-05-01

    A spiral fiber based biofilm reactor was developed to remove nitrate and chromate simultaneously. The denitrification and Cr(VI) removal efficiency was evaluated with synthetic groundwater (NO3(-)-N=50mg/L) under different Cr(VI) concentrations (0-1.0mg/L), carbon nitrogen ratios (C/N) (0.8-1.2), hydraulic retention times (HRT) (2-16h) and initial pHs (4-10). Nitrate and Cr(VI) were completely removed without nitrite accumulation when the Cr(VI) concentration was lower than 0.4mg/L. As Cr(VI) up to 1.0mg/L, the system was obviously inhibited, but it recovered rapidly within 6days due to the strong adaption and domestication of microorganisms in the biofilm reactor. The results demonstrated that high removal efficiency of nitrate (≥99%) and Cr(VI) (≥95%) were achieved at lower C/N=0.9, HRT=8h, initial pH=7, and Cr(VI)=1.0mg/L. The technology proposed in present study can be alternative for simultaneous removal of co-contaminants in groundwater.

  16. Simultaneous electrochemical immunosensor based on water-soluble polythiophene derivative and functionalized magnetic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyue; Ren, Xiang; Cao, Wei; Li, Yueyun; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2014-10-03

    A novel, sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for simultaneous determination of squamous cell carcinoma associated antigen (SCC-Ag) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for the combined diagnosis of cervical cancer was designed. The amplification strategy for electrochemical immunoassay was based on poly[3-(1,1'-dimethyl-4-piperidine-methylene) thiophene-2,5-diylchloride] (PDPMT-Cl) and functionalized mesoporous ferroferric oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs). PDPMT-Cl dispersed in chitosan solution with enhanced electrical conductivity and solubility was used as matrices to immobilize the first antibodies. Different redox probes (thionine (Th) and ferrocenecarboxylic acid (Fca)) functionalized Fe3O4 NPs incubated with two kinds of secondary antibodies to fabricate the labels. Using an electrochemical analysis technique, two well-separated peaks were generated by Th and Fca, making the simultaneous detection of two analytes on the electrode possible. Under optimized conditions, this method showed wide linear ranges of three orders of magnitude with the detection limits of 4 pg mL(-1) and 5 pg mL(-1), respectively. The disposable immunosensor possessed excellent clinical value in cervical cancer screening as well as convenient point-of-care diagnostics.

  17. Backtracking-Based Simultaneous Orthogonal Matching Pursuit for Sparse Unmixing of Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanqiang Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sparse unmixing is a promising approach in a semisupervised fashion by assuming that the observed signatures of a hyperspectral image can be expressed in the form of linear combination of only a few spectral signatures (endmembers in an available spectral library. Simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit (SOMP algorithm is a typical simultaneous greedy algorithm for sparse unmixing, which involves finding the optimal subset of signatures for the observed data from a spectral library. But the numbers of endmembers selected by SOMP are still larger than the actual number, and the nonexisting endmembers will have a negative effect on the estimation of the abundances corresponding to the actual endmembers. This paper presents a variant of SOMP, termed backtracking-based SOMP (BSOMP, for sparse unmixing of hyperspectral data. As an extension of SOMP, BSOMP incorporates a backtracking technique to detect the previous chosen endmembers’ reliability and then deletes the unreliable endmembers. Through this modification, BSOMP can select the true endmembers more accurately than SOMP. Experimental results on both simulated and real data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Multi-Frequency Polarimetric SAR Classification Based on Riemannian Manifold and Simultaneous Sparse Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Normally, polarimetric SAR classification is a high-dimensional nonlinear mapping problem. In the realm of pattern recognition, sparse representation is a very efficacious and powerful approach. As classical descriptors of polarimetric SAR, covariance and coherency matrices are Hermitian semidefinite and form a Riemannian manifold. Conventional Euclidean metrics are not suitable for a Riemannian manifold, and hence, normal sparse representation classification cannot be applied to polarimetric SAR directly. This paper proposes a new land cover classification approach for polarimetric SAR. There are two principal novelties in this paper. First, a Stein kernel on a Riemannian manifold instead of Euclidean metrics, combined with sparse representation, is employed for polarimetric SAR land cover classification. This approach is named Stein-sparse representation-based classification (SRC. Second, using simultaneous sparse representation and reasonable assumptions of the correlation of representation among different frequency bands, Stein-SRC is generalized to simultaneous Stein-SRC for multi-frequency polarimetric SAR classification. These classifiers are assessed using polarimetric SAR images from the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR sensor of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and the Electromagnetics Institute Synthetic Aperture Radar (EMISAR sensor of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU. Experiments on single-band and multi-band data both show that these approaches acquire more accurate classification results in comparison to many conventional and advanced classifiers.

  19. Three-Dimensional Simultaneous Arbitrary-Way Orbital Angular Momentum Generator Based on Transformation Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Deng, Li; Hong, Wei Jun; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Zhu, Jian Feng; Zhou, Mi; Wang, Ling; Li, Shu Fang; Peng, Biao

    2016-12-01

    In wireless communications, people utilize the technology of diversity against multipath fading, so as to improve the reliability of communication equipment. One of the long-standing problems in diversity antennas is the limited number of diversity in a certain space. In this paper, we provide a solution to this issue by a three-dimensional (3D) simultaneous arbitrary-way orbital angular momentum (OAM) generator (3D SAWOG) based on transformation optics. The proposed 3D SAWOG consists of a metamaterial block and a group of transformation cylinders, by which arbitrary-way planar wavefronts can be converted to helical wavefronts with various topological charges simultaneously. The 2D four-way OAM generator and the 3D SAWOG are analyzed, designed, and simulated. The simulation results validate the performance of a 3D SAWOG successfully, indicating that the proposed model possess a high mode purity and expansibility. The SAWOG can be used as a novel diversity antenna array due to the orthogonal property among different modes, which could provide more degrees of freedom than traditional dual-polarization antennas, further improving the reliability of the communication systems.

  20. Simultaneous measurement of particle velocity and size based on gray difference and autocorrelation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The gray of two images of a same particle taken by a digital camera with different exposure times is different too. Based on the gray difference of particle images in a double-exposed photo and autocorrelation processing of digital images,this paper proposes a method for measuring particle velocities and sizes simultaneously. This paper also introduces the theoretical foundation of this method,the process of particle imaging and image processing,and the simultaneous measurement of velocity and size of a low speed flow field with 35 μm and 75 μm standard particles. The graphical measurement results can really reflect the flow characteristics of the flow field. In addition,although the measured velocity and size histograms of these two kinds of standard particles are slightly wider than the theoretical ones,they are all still similar to the normal distribution,and the peak velocities and diameters of the histograms are consistent with the default values. Therefore,this measurement method is capable of providing moderate measurement accuracy,and it can be further developed for high-speed flow field measurements.

  1. Simultaneous analysis of skin penetration of surfactant and active drug from fluorosurfactant-based microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrhauser, Denise; Hoppel, Magdalena; Schöll, Judith; Binder, Lisa; Kählig, Hanspeter; Valenta, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the penetrated amount of the incorporated model drug diclofenac-sodium and of a fluorosurfactant as specific vehicle constituent of topically applied microemulsions at the same time. To this end, the penetration depth of each compound was elucidated through tape stripping studies by the simultaneous quantification of diclofenac-sodium and the fluorosurfactant from the same sample. A new approach was made by using the very sensitive and specific (19)F NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) for quantification of the fluorinated vehicle component. The tape stripping experiments with the microemulsions showed an almost similar penetration velocity of diclofenac-sodium and fluorosurfactant, suggesting that the surfactant within the microemulsion-structure intensified the stratum corneum uptake of the incorporated active constituent. Moreover, ATR-FTIR studies on porcine ear skin revealed significant shifts of the CH₂ stretching absorbances, which are associated with an enhanced disorder of the SC lipids resulting in a decreased skin barrier function, after application of the microemulsions. However, the application of pure fluorosurfactant did not cause any shifts in the CH₂ stretching absorbances. It can be thereby concluded that the prepared microemulsions exerted specific effects on skin integrity resulting in a "push" of diclofenac-sodium penetration.

  2. Comparison of rice husk- and dairy manure-derived biochars for simultaneously removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions: role of mineral components in biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling

    2013-08-01

    Rice husk biochar (RHBC) and dairy manure biochar (DMBC) were prepared as sorbents for simultaneously removing Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd from aqueous solutions. DMBC was more effective in removing all the four heavy metals than RHBC, with the removal capacities of above 486 mmol kg(-1) for each metal, much higher than those of RHBC (65.5-140 mmol kg(-1)). RHBC showed stronger competition for metal removal than DMBC when the four metals coexisted, with Pb the least affected and Cd the most inhibited. When each metal was 1mM in the multi-metal system, the metal removal by RHBC was reduced by 38.4-100%, much higher than that reduced by 2-40.9% for DMBC. The stronger competition for metals removal by RHBC was due to the fact that all metals competed only for the ionized phenolic-O(-) groups, while the removal of metals by DMBC resulted not only from the complexation with ionized hydroxyl-O(-) groups but also from the precipitation of metals with CO3(2-) and/or PO4(3-) that were rich in DMBC, resulting in less competition. The different mechanisms for the removal of metals by the two biochars were evidenced by the instrumental analysis of XRD, FTIR, and SEM as well as chemical modeling of Visual MINTEQ. Results indicated the waste biomass can be converted into value-added biochar as sorbents for removal of heavy metals and the removal ability varies with different biochar feedstock sources where the mineral components such as CO3(2-), PO4(3-) originated from the feedstock play an important role in the sorption nature of biochar.

  3. State‐of‐the‐art and progress in the optimization‐based simultaneous design and control for chemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Zhihong; Chen, Bingzhen; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    based frameworks that are capable of screening alternative designs, and (2) optimization‐based frameworks that integrate the process design and control system design. The major objective is to give an up‐to‐date review of the state‐of‐the‐art and progress in the challenging area of optimization‐based simultaneous...

  4. Simultaneous Sterilization With Surface Modification Of Plastic Bottle By Plasma-Based Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, N.; Ikenaga, N.; Ikeda, F.; Nakayama, Y.; Kishi, Y.; Yajima, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Dry sterilization of polymeric material is developed. The technique utilizes the plasma-based ion implantation which is same as for surface modification of polymers. Experimental data for sterilization are obtained by using spores of Bacillus subtilis as samples. On the other hand we previously showed that the surface modification enhanced the gas barrier characteristics of plastic bottles. Comparing the implantation conditions for the sterilization experiment with those for the surface modification, we find that both sterilization and surface modification are simultaneously performed in a certain range of implantation conditions. This implies that the present bottling system for plastic vessels will be simplified and streamlined by excluding the toxic peroxide water that has been used in the traditional sterilization processes.

  5. Simultaneous inversion of petrophysical parameters based on geostatistical a priori information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Xing-Yao; Sun Rui-Ying; Wang Bao-Li; Zhang Guang-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The high-resolution nonlinear simultaneous inversion of petrophysical parameters is based on Bayesian statistics and combines petrophysics with geostatistical a priori information. We used the fast Fourier transform-moving average (FFT-MA) and gradual deformation method (GDM) to obtain a reasonable variogram by using structural analysis and geostatistical a priori information of petrophysical parameters. Subsequently, we constructed the likelihood function according to the statistical petrophysical model. Finally, we used the Metropolis algorithm to sample the posteriori probability density and complete the inversion of the petrophysical parameters. We used the proposed method to process data from an oil fi eld in China and found good match between inversion and real data with high-resolution. In addition, the direct inversion of petrophysical parameters avoids the error accumulation and decreases the uncertainty, and increases the computational effi ciency.

  6. The multi-copy simultaneous search methodology: a fundamental tool for structure-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christian R; Stultz, Collin M

    2009-08-01

    Fragment-based ligand design approaches, such as the multi-copy simultaneous search (MCSS) methodology, have proven to be useful tools in the search for novel therapeutic compounds that bind pre-specified targets of known structure. MCSS offers a variety of advantages over more traditional high-throughput screening methods, and has been applied successfully to challenging targets. The methodology is quite general and can be used to construct functionality maps for proteins, DNA, and RNA. In this review, we describe the main aspects of the MCSS method and outline the general use of the methodology as a fundamental tool to guide the design of de novo lead compounds. We focus our discussion on the evaluation of MCSS results and the incorporation of protein flexibility into the methodology. In addition, we demonstrate on several specific examples how the information arising from the MCSS functionality maps has been successfully used to predict ligand binding to protein targets and RNA.

  7. Calibration and stability of a SiPM-based simultaneous PET/MR insert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, Christoph W., E-mail: christoph.lerche@philips.com [Philips Research, Europe, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mackewn, Jane [Kings College London (United Kingdom); Goldschmidt, Benjamin [Philips Research, Europe, Eindhoven (Netherlands); RWTH University Aachen (Germany); Salomon, Andre; Gebbhardt, Pierre; Weissler, Bjoern; Ayres, Richard [Philips Research, Europe Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kings College London (United Kingdom); Marsden, Paul [Kings College London (United Kingdom); Schulz, Volkmar [Philips Research, Europe, Eindhoven (Netherlands); RWTH University Aachen (Germany)

    2013-02-21

    On behalf of the HYPER Image project, a Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) based preclinical PET insert for a commercial human 3 T MRI scanner was built. In this contribution we report on the stability of imaging performance of the PET scanner and MR hardness and compatibility. From data sets that were acquired during the last 7 months we extracted SiPM gain values and their annual drift, the mean energy resolution and the energy resolution drift, spatial resolution and spatial resolution drift, and photo peak position and their annual drift. Further, a point source and a hot rod phantom was imaged fully simultaneously with the MRI scanner and the PET scanner. No interference between either modality was observed.

  8. PCF-Based Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopic Sensors for Simultaneous Multicomponent Trace Gas Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Stelmaszczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiwavelength, multicomponent CRDS gas sensor operating on the basis of a compact photonic crystal fibre supercontinuum light source has been constructed. It features a simple design encompassing one radiation source, one cavity and one detection unit (a spectrograph with a fitted ICCD camera that are common for all wavelengths. Multicomponent detection capability of the device is demonstrated by simultaneous measurements of the absorption spectra of molecular oxygen (spin-forbidden b-X branch and water vapor (polyads 4v, 4v + d in ambient atmospheric air. Issues related to multimodal cavity excitation, as well as to obtaining the best signal-to-noise ratio are discussed together with methods for their practical resolution based on operating the cavity in a “quasi continuum” mode and setting long camera gate widths, respectively. A comprehensive review of multiwavelength CRDS techniques is also given.

  9. Speckle based configuration for simultaneous in vitro inspection of mechanical contractions of cardiac myocyte cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Mark; Fixler, Dror; Shainberg, Asher; Zlochiver, Sharon; Micó, Vicente; Garcia, Javier; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2013-04-01

    In this manuscript we propose optical lensless configuration for a remote non-contact measuring of mechanical contractions of vast number of cardiac myocytes. All the myocytes were taken from rats, and the measurements were done in an in vitro mode. The optical method is based on temporal analysis of secondary reflected speckle patterns generated in lensless microscope configuration. The processing involves analyzing the movement and the change in the statistics of the generated secondary speckle patterns that are created on top of the cell culture when it is illuminated by a spot of laser beam. The main advantage of the proposed system is the ability to measure many cells simultaneously (approximately one thousand cells) and to extract the statistical data of their movement at once. The presented experimental results also include investigation the effect of isoproteranol on cells contraction process.

  10. Simultaneous determination of Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions in foodstuffs and vegetables with a new Schiff base using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Abbasi-Tarighat, Maryam; Khanmohammadi, Hamid

    2009-01-15

    New complexes of Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) with a recently synthesized Schiff base derived from 3,6-bis((aminoethyl)thio)pyridazine were applied for their simultaneous determination with artificial neural networks. The analytical data show the ratio of metal to ligand in all metal complexes is 1:1. The absorption spectra were evaluated with respect to Schiff base concentration, pH and time of the color formation reactions. It was found that at pH 10.0 and 60min after mixing, the complexation reactions are completed and the colored complexes exhibited absorption bands in the wavelength range 300-500nm. Spectral data was reduced using principal component analysis and subjected to artificial neural networks. The data obtained from synthetic mixtures of four metal ions were processed by principal component-feed forward neural networks (PCFFNNs) and principal component-radial basis function networks (PCRBFNs). Performances of the proposed methods were tested with regard to root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP%), using synthetic solutions. Under the working conditions, the proposed methods were successfully applied to simultaneous determination of Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) in different vegetable, foodstuff and pharmaceutical product samples.

  11. A laser extinction based sensor for simultaneous droplet size and vapor measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueqiang Sun; David J. Ewing; Lin Ma

    2012-01-01

    Multiphase flows involving liquid droplets in association with gas flow occur in many industrial and scientific applications.Recent work has demonstrated the feasibility of using optical techniques based on laser extinction to simultaneously measure vapor concentration and temperature and droplet size and loading.This work introduces the theoretical background for the optimal design of such laser extinction techniques,termed WMLE (wavelength-multiplexed laser extinction).This paper focuses on the development of WMLE and presents a systematic methodology to guide the selection of suitable wavelengths and optimize the performance of WMLE for specific applications.WMLE utilizing wavelengths from 0.5to 10 μm is illustrated for droplet size and vapor concentration measurements in an example of water spray,and is found to enable unique and sensitive Sauter mean diameter measurement in the range of ~1-15μm along with accurate vapor detection.A vapor detection strategy based on differential absorption is developed to extend accurate measurement to a significantly wider range of droplet loading and vapor concentration as compared to strategies based on direct fixed-wavelength absorption.Expected performance of the sensor is modeled for an evaporating spray.This work is expected to lay the groundwork for implementing optical sensors based on WMLE in a variety of research and industrial applications involving multi-phase flows.

  12. Processing and characterization of Nickel-base superalloy micro-components and films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Devin E.

    Microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices are not capable of withstanding harsh operating environments, which may include high temperatures, pressures and corrosive agents. Ni-base superalloys have been used successfully in the hot stages of jet turbine engines despite the presence of these conditions. In my thesis work, I developed two techniques compatible with micro-processing methods to produce Ni-base superalloy micro-components for MEMS applications. The mechanical properties of these materials were accessed at room and elevated temperatures. Microstructural studies were performed, linking microstructural features to mechanical properties. The first technique modified LIGA Ni (LIGA is a German acronym for lithography, electroplating and molding) microtensile specimens using a vapor phase aluminization process. A subsequent homogenization heat treatment produced a two phase Ni-Ni3A1 microstructure characteristic of modern Ni-base superalloys. Al composition was used to tailor both the precipitate size and volume fraction. Aluminized LIGA Ni micro-components exhibited room temperature yield and ultimate strengths 3 to 4 times LIGA Ni micro-components subject to the same heat treatment. The second technique involved sputtering a commercial Ni-base superalloy, Haynes 718, to produce thick sputtered foils (up to 20 gam) on silicon and brass substrates. The as-deposited foils were nanocrystalline solid solutions with chemical compositions similar to the bulk material. Foils subject to ageing heat treatments exhibited unique precipitation mechanisms and good thermal stability. Strengths as high as 750 MPa at 700°C were observed with several percent ductility. This is a significant improvement over state of the art metallic MEMS materials. Furthermore, a new high temperature microtensile testing technique was developed. The technique embeds a displacement based force sensor into the hot zone of a furnace. This arrangement ensures temperature uniformity during testing

  13. Preliminary study on proportional and simultaneous estimation of hand posture using surface EMG based on synergy concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunchong; Chen, Xingyu; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2013-01-01

    Most of current myoelectric prostheses are using sequential and on-off control strategy within pattern classification framework, which is of robustness. But it is not a natural neuromuscular control scheme. On the other hand, there are two difficulties to control the prosthesis proportionally and simultaneously. First, human hand is high dimensional with more than 20 degrees-of-freedom (DOFs); Second, extracting such control information from EMG is hard due to signal crosstalk and noises. This paper is aimed at proposing a new method for proportional and simultaneous myoelectric control, taking advantage of synergy concept. The hand motion and corresponding forearm EMG signals were collected simultaneously. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce hand motion dimension. And support vector regression (SVR) is adopted to build the connection between hand posture and EMG. Offline analysis validated the effectiveness of this method, and preliminary and positive results have been obtained.

  14. High Accuracy Passive Magnetic Field-Based Localization for Feedback Control Using Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Shaohui; Sun, Zhenglong

    2016-08-12

    In this paper, a novel magnetic field-based sensing system employing statistically optimized concurrent multiple sensor outputs for precise field-position association and localization is presented. This method capitalizes on the independence between simultaneous spatial field measurements at multiple locations to induce unique correspondences between field and position. This single-source-multi-sensor configuration is able to achieve accurate and precise localization and tracking of translational motion without contact over large travel distances for feedback control. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used as a pseudo-linear filter to optimally reduce the dimensions of the multi-sensor output space for computationally efficient field-position mapping with artificial neural networks (ANNs). Numerical simulations are employed to investigate the effects of geometric parameters and Gaussian noise corruption on PCA assisted ANN mapping performance. Using a 9-sensor network, the sensing accuracy and closed-loop tracking performance of the proposed optimal field-based sensing system is experimentally evaluated on a linear actuator with a significantly more expensive optical encoder as a comparison.

  15. High Accuracy Passive Magnetic Field-Based Localization for Feedback Control Using Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Foong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel magnetic field-based sensing system employing statistically optimized concurrent multiple sensor outputs for precise field-position association and localization is presented. This method capitalizes on the independence between simultaneous spatial field measurements at multiple locations to induce unique correspondences between field and position. This single-source-multi-sensor configuration is able to achieve accurate and precise localization and tracking of translational motion without contact over large travel distances for feedback control. Principal component analysis (PCA is used as a pseudo-linear filter to optimally reduce the dimensions of the multi-sensor output space for computationally efficient field-position mapping with artificial neural networks (ANNs. Numerical simulations are employed to investigate the effects of geometric parameters and Gaussian noise corruption on PCA assisted ANN mapping performance. Using a 9-sensor network, the sensing accuracy and closed-loop tracking performance of the proposed optimal field-based sensing system is experimentally evaluated on a linear actuator with a significantly more expensive optical encoder as a comparison.

  16. High Accuracy Passive Magnetic Field-Based Localization for Feedback Control Using Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Shaohui; Sun, Zhenglong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel magnetic field-based sensing system employing statistically optimized concurrent multiple sensor outputs for precise field-position association and localization is presented. This method capitalizes on the independence between simultaneous spatial field measurements at multiple locations to induce unique correspondences between field and position. This single-source-multi-sensor configuration is able to achieve accurate and precise localization and tracking of translational motion without contact over large travel distances for feedback control. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used as a pseudo-linear filter to optimally reduce the dimensions of the multi-sensor output space for computationally efficient field-position mapping with artificial neural networks (ANNs). Numerical simulations are employed to investigate the effects of geometric parameters and Gaussian noise corruption on PCA assisted ANN mapping performance. Using a 9-sensor network, the sensing accuracy and closed-loop tracking performance of the proposed optimal field-based sensing system is experimentally evaluated on a linear actuator with a significantly more expensive optical encoder as a comparison. PMID:27529253

  17. A four-component organogel based on orthogonal chemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisier, Nicolas; Schenk, Kurt; Severin, Kay

    2014-09-14

    A thermoresponsive organogel was obtained by orthogonal assembly of four compounds using dynamic covalent boronate ester and imine bonds, as well as dative boron-nitrogen bonds. It is shown that the gel state can be disrupted or reinforced by chemicals which undergo exchange reactions with the gel components.

  18. Industrial Component-based Sample Mobile Robot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kucsera

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The mobile robot development can be done in two different ways. The first is tobuild up an embedded system, the second is to use ‘ready to use’ industrial components.With the spread of Industrial mobile robots there are more and more components on themarket which can be used to build up a whole control and sensor system of a mobile robotplatform. Using these components electrical hardware development is not needed, whichspeeds up the development time and decreases the cost. Using a PLC on board, ‘only’constructing the program is needed and the developer can concentrate on the algorithms,not on developing hardware. My idea is to solve the problem of mobile robot localizationand obstacle avoidance using industrial components and concentrate this topic to themobile robot docking. In factories, mobile robots can be used to deliver parts from oneplace to another, but there are always two critical points. The robot has to be able tooperate in human environment, and also reach the target and get to a predefined positionwhere another system can load it or get the delivered product. I would like to construct amechanically simple robot model, which can calculate its position from the rotation of itswheels, and when it reaches a predefined location with the aid of an image processingsystem it can dock to an electrical connector. If the robot succeeded it could charge itsbatteries through this connector as well.

  19. A Component-Based Dataflow Framework for Simulation and Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru

    1999-01-01

    Reuse in the context of scientific simulation applications has mostly taken the form of procedural or object-oriented libraries. End users of such systems are however often non software experts needing very simple, possibly interactive ways to build applications from domain-specific components and t

  20. 78 FR 68475 - Certain Vision-Based Driver Assistance System Cameras and Components Thereof; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... COMMISSION Certain Vision-Based Driver Assistance System Cameras and Components Thereof; Institution of...-based driver assistance system cameras and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain... assistance system cameras and components thereof by reason of infringement of one or more of claims 1, 2,...

  1. Imidazolium embedded C8 based stationary phase for simultaneous reversed-phase/hydrophilic interaction mixed-mode chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Niu; Wang, Xin; Qin, Xinying; Yan, Hongyuan; Liu, Haiyan

    2015-06-26

    A new imidazolium embedded C8 based stationary phase (SIL-MPS-VOL) was facilely prepared by two steps and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and thermogravimetric analysis. Due to the introduction of quaternary imidazolium group to the traditional C8 stationary phase, the developed SIL-MPS-VOL column demonstrated both reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) retention mechanisms. A series of hydrophobic and hydrophilic test samples, including benzene homologues, anilines, positional isomers, nucleosides and nucleotides, were used to evaluate the developed SIL-MPS-VOL stationary phase. A rapid separation time, high separation efficiency and planar selectivity were achieved, compared with the commercially available C8 column. Moreover, the developed stationary phase was further used to detect and separate of melamine in powdered infant formula and high polar component of secondary metabolites of Trichoderma, and improved separation efficiency was achieved, indicating the potential merits of the developed SIL-MPS-VOL stationary phase for simultaneous separation of complex hydrophobic and hydrophilic samples with high selectivity.

  2. Invisible Base Electrode Coordinates Approximation for Simultaneous SPECT and EEG Data Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk L.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was performed as part of a larger research concerning the feasibility of improving the localization of epileptic foci, as compared to the standard SPECT examination, by applying the technique of EEG mapping. The presented study extends our previous work on the development of a method for superposition of SPECT images and EEG 3D maps when these two examinations are performed simultaneously. Due to the lack of anatomical data in SPECT images it is a much more difficult task than in the case of MRI/EEG study where electrodes are visible in morphological images. Using the appropriate dose of radioisotope we mark five base electrodes to make them visible in the SPECT image and then approximate the coordinates of the remaining electrodes using properties of the 10-20 electrode placement system and the proposed nine-ellipses model. This allows computing a sequence of 3D EEG maps spanning on all electrodes. It happens, however, that not all five base electrodes can be reliably identified in SPECT data. The aim of the current study was to develop a method for determining the coordinates of base electrode(s missing in the SPECT image. The algorithm for coordinates approximation has been developed and was tested on data collected for three subjects with all visible electrodes. To increase the accuracy of the approximation we used head surface models. Freely available model from Oostenveld research based on data from SPM package and our own model based on data from our EEG/SPECT studies were used. For data collected in four cases with one electrode not visible we compared the invisible base electrode coordinates approximation for Oostenveld and our models. The results vary depending on the missing electrode placement, but application of the realistic head model significantly increases the accuracy of the approximation.

  3. Gastric motility functional study based on electrical bioimpedance measurements and simultaneous electrogastrography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang-yong LI; Chao-shi REN; Shu ZHAO; Hong SHA; Juan DENG

    2011-01-01

    For some time now,the research on gastric motility and function has fallen behind in the amount of research on gastric endocrine,exocrine secretion,and gastric morphology.In this paper,a noninvasive method to study gastric motility was developed,taking bioimpedance measurements over the gastric area simultaneously with the electrogastrography (EGG).This is based on the concept of observing and analyzing simultaneously the intrinsic electrical gastric activity (basic electric rhythm) and the mechanical gastric activity.Additionally,preliminary clinical studies of healthy subjects and subjects with functional dyspepsia (FD) and gastritis were carried out.The impedance gastric motility (IGM) measurements of the healthy and FD subjects were compared,along with the studies of the FD subjects before treatment and after one week and three weeks of treatment.We also compared IGM measurements of healthy subjects and subjects with erosive gastritis,along with the studies of the subjects with erosive gastritis before treatment and after one week of treatment.Results show that FD subjects have poor gastric motility (P<0.01).After a week of treatment,the gastric motility of FD subjects was not yet improved although the EGG had returned to normal by this time.By three weeks of treatment,the regular IGM rhythm returned in FD subjects.There was a significant difference of IGM parameters between the gastritis and healthy subjects (P<0.05).The EGG rhythm of the gastritis subjects returned to normal at one week post-treatment,while IGM parameters showed a trend to improvement (P>0.05),These results suggest the possibility of clinic application of the proposed method.

  4. An approach to software development based on heterogeneous component reuse and its supporting system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芙清; 梅宏; 吴穹; 朱冰

    1997-01-01

    Software reuse is considered as a practical approach to solving the software crisis. The BD-HCRUS, a software development supporting system based on heterogeneous component reuse, is introduced. The system has a reusable component library as its kernel in charge of the organization, storage and retrieval of the heterogeneous components, an object-oriented integrated language for the specification and composition of the heterogeneous components, and program comprehension tools for reverse-engineering and extracting reusable components from source code, then re-engineering the components. Therefore, a whole support is lent systematically to the acquisition, specification, organization, storage, retrieval and composition of reusable components.

  5. A New Image Steganography Based On First Component Alteration Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Sikka, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, A new image steganography scheme is proposed which is a kind of spatial domain technique. In order to hide secret data in cover-image, the first component alteration technique is used. Techniques used so far focuses only on the two or four bits of a pixel in a image (at the most five bits at the edge of an image) which results in less peak to signal noise ratio and high root mean square error. In this technique, 8 bits of blue components of pixels are replaced with secret data bits. Proposed scheme can embed more data than previous schemes and shows better image quality. To prove this scheme, several experiments are performed, and are compared the experimental results with the related previous works.

  6. A New Image Steganography Based On First Component Alteration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanpreet Kaur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, A new image steganography scheme is proposed which is a kind of spatial domain technique. In order to hide secret data in cover-image, the first component alteration technique is used. Techniques used so far focuses only on the two or four bits of a pixel in a image (at the most five bits at the edge of an image which results in less peak to signal noise ratio and high root mean square error. In this technique, 8 bits of blue components of pixels are replaced with secret data bits. Proposed scheme can embed more data than previous schemes and shows better image quality. To prove this scheme, several experiments are performed, and are compared the experimental results with the related previous works.Keywords—image; mean square error; Peak signal to noise ratio; steganography;

  7. QUALITY CONTROL OF SEMICONDUCTOR PACKAGING BASED ON PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    5 critical quality characteristics must be controlled in the surface mount and wire-bond process in semiconductor packaging. And these characteristics are correlated with each other. So the principal components analysis(PCA) is used in the analysis of the sample data firstly. And then the process is controlled with hotelling T2 control chart for the first several principal components which contain sufficient information. Furthermore, a software tool is developed for this kind of problems. And with sample data from a surface mounting device(SMD) process, it is demonstrated that the T2 control chart with PCA gets the same conclusion as without PCA, but the problem is transformed from high-dimensional one to a lower dimensional one, i.e., from 5 to 2 in this demonstration.

  8. Action-based distribution functions for spheroidal galaxy components

    CERN Document Server

    Posti, Lorenzo; Nipoti, Carlo; Ciotti, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach to the design of distribution functions that depend on the phase-space coordinates through the action integrals. The approach makes it easy to construct a dynamical model of a given stellar component. We illustrate the approach by deriving distribution functions that self-consistently generate several popular stellar systems, including the Hernquist, Jaffe, Navarro, Frenk and White models. We focus on non-rotating spherical systems, but extension to flattened and rotating systems is trivial. Our distribution functions are easily added to each other and to previously published distribution functions for discs to create self-consistent multi-component galaxies. The models this approach makes possible should prove valuable both for the interpretation of observational data and for exploring the non-equilibrium dynamics of galaxies via N-body simulation.

  9. Simultaneous decomposition of depression heterogeneity on the person-, symptom- and time-level: the use of three-mode principal component analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monden, R.; Wardenaar, K.J.; Stegeman, A.; Conradi, H.J.; de Jonge, P.

    2015-01-01

    Although heterogeneity of depression hinders research and clinical practice, attempts to reduce it with latent variable models have yielded inconsistent results, probably because these techniques cannot account for all interacting sources of heterogeneity at the same time. Therefore, to simultaneous

  10. Simultaneous Decomposition of Depression Heterogeneity on the Person-, Symptom- and Time-Level : The Use of Three-Mode Principal Component Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monden, Rei; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Stegeman, Alwin; Conradi, Henk Jan; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although heterogeneity of depression hinders research and clinical practice, attempts to reduce it with latent variable models have yielded inconsistent results, probably because these techniques cannot account for all interacting sources of heterogeneity at the same time. Therefore, to simultaneous

  11. A Game-Based Virtualized Reality Approach for Simultaneous Rehabilitation of Motor Skill and Confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair G. Thin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtualized reality games offer highly interactive and engaging user experience and therefore game-based approaches (GBVR may have significant potential to enhance clinical rehabilitation practice as traditional therapeutic exercises are often repetitive and boring, reducing patient compliance. The aim of this study was to investigate if a rehabilitation training programme using GBVR could simultaneously improve both motor skill (MS and confidence (CON, as they are both important determinants of daily living and physical and social functioning. The study was performed using a nondominant hand motor deficit model in nonambidextrous healthy young adults, whereby dominant and nondominant arms acted as control and intervention conditions, respectively. GBVR training was performed using a commercially available tennis-based game. CON and MS were assessed by having each subject perform a comparable real-world motor task (RWMT before and after training. Baseline CON and MS for performing the RWMT were significantly lower for the nondominant hand and improved after GBVR training, whereas there were no changes in the dominant (control arm. These results demonstrate that by using a GBVR approach to address a MS deficit in a real-world task, improvements in both MS and CON can be facilitated and such approaches may help increase patient compliance.

  12. Ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from burdock leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou Zaixiang, E-mail: louzaixiang@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wang Hongxin, E-mail: whx200720082009@yahoo.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Zhu Song; Chen Shangwei; Zhang Ming; Wang Zhouping [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2012-02-24

    The ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (IL-UMAE) technique was first proposed and applied to isolate compounds. The ionic liquids comprising a range of four anions, five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derivatives were designed and prepared. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation both had apparent effects on the extraction of phenolics. The results also showed that irradiation power, time and solid-liquid ratio significantly affected the yields. The yields of caffeic acid and quercetin obtained by IL-UMAE were higher than those by regular UMAE. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (8-17% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 5 h to 30 s). The results indicated ILUMAE to be a fast and efficient extraction technique. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the reproducibility and recovery experiments. The ILUMAE method provided good recoveries (from 96.1% to 105.3%) with RSD lower than 5.2%, which indicated that the proposed method was credible. Based on the designable nature of ionic liquids, and the rapid and highly efficient performance of the proposed approach, ILUMAE provided a new alternative for preparation of various useful substances from solid samples.

  13. An HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous detection of alkylated base excision repair products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Elwood A; Rubinson, Emily H; Pereira, Kevin N; Calcutt, M Wade; Christov, Plamen P; Eichman, Brandt F

    2013-11-01

    DNA glycosylases excise a broad spectrum of alkylated, oxidized, and deaminated nucleobases from DNA as the initial step in base excision repair. Substrate specificity and base excision activity are typically characterized by monitoring the release of modified nucleobases either from a genomic DNA substrate that has been treated with a modifying agent or from a synthetic oligonucleotide containing a defined lesion of interest. Detection of nucleobases from genomic DNA has traditionally involved HPLC separation and scintillation detection of radiolabeled nucleobases, which in the case of alkylation adducts can be laborious and costly. Here, we describe a mass spectrometry method to simultaneously detect and quantify multiple alkylpurine adducts released from genomic DNA that has been treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). We illustrate the utility of this method by monitoring the excision of N3-methyladenine (3 mA) and N7-methylguanine (7 mG) by a panel of previously characterized prokaryotic and eukaryotic alkylpurine DNA glycosylases, enabling a comparison of substrate specificity and enzyme activity by various methods. Detailed protocols for these methods, along with preparation of genomic and oligonucleotide alkyl-DNA substrates, are also described.

  14. Ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from burdock leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zaixiang; Wang, Hongxin; Zhu, Song; Chen, Shangwei; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Zhouping

    2012-02-24

    The ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (IL-UMAE) technique was first proposed and applied to isolate compounds. The ionic liquids comprising a range of four anions, five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derivatives were designed and prepared. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation both had apparent effects on the extraction of phenolics. The results also showed that irradiation power, time and solid-liquid ratio significantly affected the yields. The yields of caffeic acid and quercetin obtained by IL-UMAE were higher than those by regular UMAE. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (8-17% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 5h to 30s). The results indicated ILUMAE to be a fast and efficient extraction technique. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the reproducibility and recovery experiments. The ILUMAE method provided good recoveries (from 96.1% to 105.3%) with RSD lower than 5.2%, which indicated that the proposed method was credible. Based on the designable nature of ionic liquids, and the rapid and highly efficient performance of the proposed approach, ILUMAE provided a new alternative for preparation of various useful substances from solid samples.

  15. Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature using an epoxy resin-based interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wu, Shengli; Ren, Wenyi

    2014-11-20

    A fiber-optics reflection probe based on fiber Fabry-Perot interference (FFPI) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing structure comprises an epoxy resin (ER)-based cap on the end-face of the single-mode fiber. A well-defined interference spectrum is obtained by the reflective beams of two surfaces of the ER cap. The simultaneous measurements, including fringe contrast-referenced for the surrounding refractive index (SRI) and wavelength-referenced for temperature, have been achieved via selective interference dips monitoring. Experimental results indicate that the proposed FFPI presents an SRI sensitivity of 57.69 dB/RIU in the measurement range of 1.33-1.40 RIU and a temperature sensitivity of 0.98  pm·μm-1·°C-1 with per unit cavity length in the range of 30°C-70°C. The proposed sensor has advantages of being compact and robust, making it an alternative candidate as a smart sensor in chemical and biological applications.

  16. Multi-frequency simultaneous measurement of bioimpedance spectroscopy based on a low crest factor multisine excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Zhang, Fu; Tao, Kun; Wang, Lianhuan; Wen, He; Teng, Zhaosheng

    2015-03-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is becoming a powerful diagnostic tool for a wide variety of medical applications, and the multi-frequency simultaneous (MFS) measurement of BIS can greatly reduce measurement time and record the transient physiological status of a living body compared with traditional frequency-sweep measurement technology. This paper adopts the Van der Ouderaa's multisine, which has 31 equidistant and flat amplitude spectra and a low crest factor of 1.405 as the broadband excitation, and realizes the MFS measurement of BIS by means of spectral analysis using the fast Fourier transform algorithm. The approach to implement the multisine based on a field-programmable gate array and a digital to analog converter is described in detail, and impedance measurement experiments are performed on three resistance-capitance three-element phantoms. Experimental results show a commendable accuracy with a mean relative error of 0.55% for the impedance amplitudes, and a mean absolute error of 0.20° for the impedance phases on the 31 frequencies ranging linearly from 32 to 992 kHz. This paper validates the feasibility of the MFS technology for BIS measurement based on the multisine excitation.

  17. Simultaneous determination of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components in bovine milk by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Ding, Shuangyang; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Jiancheng; Shen, Jianzhong; Xia, Xi

    2016-02-01

    A sensitive, confirmatory ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated to detect 23 veterinary drugs and metabolites (nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components) in bovine milk. Compounds of interest were sequentially extracted from milk with acetonitrile and basified acetonitrile using sodium chloride to induce liquid-liquid partition. The extract was purified on a mixed mode solid-phase extraction cartridge. Using rapid polarity switching in electrospray ionization, a single injection was capable of detecting both positively and negatively charged analytes in a 9 min chromatography run time. Recoveries based on matrix-matched calibrations and isotope labeled internal standards for milk ranged from 51.7% to 101.8%. The detection limits and quantitation limits of the analytical method were found to be within the range of 2-20 ng/kg and 5-50 ng/kg, respectively. The recommended method is simple, specific, and reliable for the routine monitoring of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components in bovine milk samples.

  18. Study of a distributed feedback diode laser based hygrometer combined Herriot-gas cell and waterless optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yubin; Chang, Jun; Lian, Jie; Wang, Qiang; Wei, Wei

    2016-09-01

    A distributed feedback diode laser (DFB-DL) based hygrometer combined with a long-path-length Herriot gas cell and waterless optical components was proposed and investigated. The main function of this sensor was to simultaneously improve the measurement reliability and resolution. A comparison test between a 10-cm normal transmission-type gas cell and a 3-m Herriot gas cell was carried out to demonstrate the improvement. Reliability improvement was achieved by influence suppression of water vapor inside optical components (WVOC) through combined action of the Herriot gas cell and waterless optical components. The influence of WVOC was suppressed from 726 ppmv to 25 ppmv using the Herriot gas cell. Moreover, combined with waterless optical components, the influence of WVOC was further suppressed to no more than 4 ppmv. Resolution improvement from 11.7 ppmv to 0.32 ppmv was achieved mainly due to the application of the long-path-length Herriot gas cell. The results show that the proposed sensor has a good performance and considerable potential application in gas sensing, especially when probed gas possibly permeates into optical components.

  19. A Framework for Final Drive Simultaneous Failure Diagnosis Based on Fuzzy Entropy and Sparse Bayesian Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a novel framework of final drive simultaneous failure diagnosis containing feature extraction, training paired diagnostic models, generating decision threshold, and recognizing simultaneous failure modes. In feature extraction module, adopt wavelet package transform and fuzzy entropy to reduce noise interference and extract representative features of failure mode. Use single failure sample to construct probability classifiers based on paired sparse Bayesian extreme learning machine which is trained only by single failure modes and have high generalization and sparsity of sparse Bayesian learning approach. To generate optimal decision threshold which can convert probability output obtained from classifiers into final simultaneous failure modes, this research proposes using samples containing both single and simultaneous failure modes and Grid search method which is superior to traditional techniques in global optimization. Compared with other frequently used diagnostic approaches based on support vector machine and probability neural networks, experiment results based on F1-measure value verify that the diagnostic accuracy and efficiency of the proposed framework which are crucial for simultaneous failure diagnosis are superior to the existing approach.

  20. Authentication Scheme Based on Principal Component Analysis for Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf. K. Helmy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-band wavelet image content authentication scheme for satellite images by incorporating the principal component analysis (PCA. The proposed schemeachieves higher perceptual transparency and stronger robustness. Specifically, the developed watermarking scheme can successfully resist common signal processing such as JPEG compression and geometric distortions such as cropping. In addition, the proposed scheme can be parameterized, thus resulting in more security. That is, an attacker may not be able to extract the embedded watermark if the attacker does not know the parameter.In an order to meet these requirements, the host image is transformed to YIQ to decrease the correlation between different bands, Then Multi-band Wavelet transform (M-WT is applied to each channel separately obtaining one approximate sub band and fifteen detail sub bands. PCA is then applied to the coefficients corresponding to the same spatial location in all detail sub bands. The last principle component band represents an excellent domain forinserting the water mark since it represents lowest correlated features in high frequency area of host image.One of the most important aspects of satellite images is spectral signature, the behavior of different features in different spectral bands, the results of proposed algorithm shows that the spectral stamp for different features doesn't tainted after inserting the watermark.

  1. A robust approach for a filter-based monocular simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Castillo-Toledo, Bernardino; Grau, Antoni

    2013-07-03

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is an important problem to solve in robotics theory in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. This work presents a novel method for implementing a SLAM system based on a single camera sensor. The SLAM with a single camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants. In this case, a single camera, which is freely moving through its environment, represents the sole sensor input to the system. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Cameras are used more frequently, because they provide a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power-saving. Nevertheless, and unlike range sensors, which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor providing only angular measurements of image features. Therefore, depth information (range) cannot be obtained in a single step. In this case, special techniques for feature system-initialization are needed in order to enable the use of angular sensors (as cameras) in SLAM systems. The main contribution of this work is to present a novel and robust scheme for incorporating and measuring visual features in filtering-based monocular SLAM systems. The proposed method is based in a two-step technique, which is intended to exploit all the information available in angular measurements. Unlike previous schemes, the values of parameters used by the initialization technique are derived directly from the sensor characteristics, thus simplifying the tuning of the system. The experimental results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes.

  2. A Robust Approach for a Filter-Based Monocular Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Grau

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM is an important problem to solve in robotics theory in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. This work presents a novel method for implementing a SLAM system based on a single camera sensor. The SLAM with a single camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants. In this case, a single camera, which is freely moving through its environment, represents the sole sensor input to the system. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Cameras are used more frequently, because they provide a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power-saving. Nevertheless, and unlike range sensors, which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor providing only angular measurements of image features. Therefore, depth information (range cannot be obtained in a single step. In this case, special techniques for feature system-initialization are needed in order to enable the use of angular sensors (as cameras in SLAM systems. The main contribution of this work is to present a novel and robust scheme for incorporating and measuring visual features in filtering-based monocular SLAM systems. The proposed method is based in a two-step technique, which is intended to exploit all the information available in angular measurements. Unlike previous schemes, the values of parameters used by the initialization technique are derived directly from the sensor characteristics, thus simplifying the tuning of the system. The experimental results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes.

  3. Teacher Perceptions Regarding Portfolio-Based Components of Teacher Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Charles I.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the results of teachers' and principals' perceptions of the package evaluation process, a process that uses a combination of a traditional evaluation with a portfolio-based assessment tool. In addition, this study contributes to the educational knowledge base by exploring the participants' views on the impact of…

  4. Component-Based Approach for Educating Students in Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, D.; Venkatraman, N.; Hansen, C.; Singh, G.

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing need for an effective method of teaching bioinformatics. Increased progress and availability of computer-based tools for educating students have led to the implementation of a computer-based system for teaching bioinformatics as described in this paper. Bioinformatics is a recent, hybrid field of study combining elements of…

  5. Feature-Based TAG in place of multi-component adjunction Computational Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Hockey, B A

    1994-01-01

    Using feature-based Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG), this paper presents linguistically motivated analyses of constructions claimed to require multi-component adjunction. These feature-based TAG analyses permit parsing of these constructions using an existing unification-based Earley-style TAG parser, thus obviating the need for a multi-component TAG parser without sacrificing linguistic coverage for English.

  6. Simultaneous Channel and Feature Selection of Fused EEG Features Based on Sparse Group Lasso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction and classification of EEG signals are core parts of brain computer interfaces (BCIs. Due to the high dimension of the EEG feature vector, an effective feature selection algorithm has become an integral part of research studies. In this paper, we present a new method based on a wrapped Sparse Group Lasso for channel and feature selection of fused EEG signals. The high-dimensional fused features are firstly obtained, which include the power spectrum, time-domain statistics, AR model, and the wavelet coefficient features extracted from the preprocessed EEG signals. The wrapped channel and feature selection method is then applied, which uses the logistical regression model with Sparse Group Lasso penalized function. The model is fitted on the training data, and parameter estimation is obtained by modified blockwise coordinate descent and coordinate gradient descent method. The best parameters and feature subset are selected by using a 10-fold cross-validation. Finally, the test data is classified using the trained model. Compared with existing channel and feature selection methods, results show that the proposed method is more suitable, more stable, and faster for high-dimensional feature fusion. It can simultaneously achieve channel and feature selection with a lower error rate. The test accuracy on the data used from international BCI Competition IV reached 84.72%.

  7. Simultaneous channel and feature selection of fused EEG features based on Sparse Group Lasso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Jia; Xue, Fang; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Feature extraction and classification of EEG signals are core parts of brain computer interfaces (BCIs). Due to the high dimension of the EEG feature vector, an effective feature selection algorithm has become an integral part of research studies. In this paper, we present a new method based on a wrapped Sparse Group Lasso for channel and feature selection of fused EEG signals. The high-dimensional fused features are firstly obtained, which include the power spectrum, time-domain statistics, AR model, and the wavelet coefficient features extracted from the preprocessed EEG signals. The wrapped channel and feature selection method is then applied, which uses the logistical regression model with Sparse Group Lasso penalized function. The model is fitted on the training data, and parameter estimation is obtained by modified blockwise coordinate descent and coordinate gradient descent method. The best parameters and feature subset are selected by using a 10-fold cross-validation. Finally, the test data is classified using the trained model. Compared with existing channel and feature selection methods, results show that the proposed method is more suitable, more stable, and faster for high-dimensional feature fusion. It can simultaneously achieve channel and feature selection with a lower error rate. The test accuracy on the data used from international BCI Competition IV reached 84.72%.

  8. Acidogenic fermentation of vegetable based market waste to harness biohydrogen with simultaneous stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Mohanakrishna, G; Goud, R Kannaiah; Sarma, P N

    2009-06-01

    Vegetable based market waste was evaluated as a fermentable substrate for hydrogen (H(2)) production with simultaneous stabilization by dark-fermentation process using selectively enriched acidogenic mixed consortia under acidophilic microenvironment. Experiments were performed at different substrate/organic loading conditions in concurrence with two types of feed compositions (with and without pulp). Study depicted the feasibility of H(2) production from vegetable waste stabilization process. H(2) production was found to be dependent on the concentration of the substrate and composition. Higher H(2) production and substrate degradation were observed in experiments performed without pulp (23.96 mmol/day (30.0 kg COD/m(3)); 13.96 mol/kg COD(R) (4.8 kg COD/m(3))) than with pulp (22.46 mmol/day (32.0 kg COD/m(3)); 12.24 mol/kg COD(R) (4.4 kg COD/m(3))). Generation of higher concentrations of acetic acid and butyric acid was observed in experiments performed without pulp. Data enveloping analysis (DEA) was employed to study the combined process efficiency of system by integrating H(2) production and substrate degradation.

  9. A portable microfluidic flow cytometer based on simultaneous detection of impedance and fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Segyeong; Kim, Kee Hyun; Kim, Hee Chan; Chung, Taek Dong

    2010-02-15

    A portable microfluidic flow cytometer with dual detection ability of impedance and fluorescence was developed for cell analysis and particle-based assays. In the proposed system, fluorescence from microparticles and cells is measured through excitation by a light emitting diode (LED) and detection by a solid-stated photomultiplier (SSPM). Simultaneous impedometric detection provides information on the existence and size of microparticles and cells through polyelectrolyte gel electrodes (PGEs) operated by custom designed circuits for signal detection, amplification, and conversion. Fluorescence and impedance signals were sampled at 1 kHz with 12 bit resolution. The resulting microfluidic cytometer is 15x10x10 cm(3) in width, depth, and height, with a weight of about 800 g. Such a miniaturized and battery powered system yielded a portable microfluidic cytometer with high performance. Various microbeads and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells were employed to evaluate the system. Impedance and fluorescence signals from each bead or cell made classification of micro particles or cells easy and fast.

  10. Experimental study on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification based on highly active absorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO from flue gas by the highly active absorbent prepared from fly ash, lime and a few oxidizing manganese compound additive was studied using a flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB) under different experimental conditions. The effects influencing the removal effiencies were discussed. The optimal flue gas temperature, flue gas humidity, gas velocity of CFB and Ca/(S+N) molar ratio with this process were approximately 110℃, 6%, 1.8 m/s and 1.05, respectively. Removal efficiencies of 92.3% for SO2 and 60.88% for NO were obtained under the optimal experimental conditions. While the spent absorbent appeared in the form of dry powder, the mechanism of removal for SO2 and NO based on the highly active absorbent was investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a X-ray energy spectrometer and the chemical analysis methods. The valuable references can be provided for industrial application by the process. The foreground of application will be vast in China and in the world.

  11. Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of SWRO Process Based on Simultaneous Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aipeng Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse osmosis (RO technique is one of the most efficient ways for seawater desalination to solve the shortage of freshwater. For prediction and analysis of the performance of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO process, an accurate and detailed model based on the solution-diffusion and mass transfer theory is established. Since the accurate formulation of the model includes many differential equations and strong nonlinear equations (differential and algebraic equations, DAEs, to solve the problem efficiently, the simultaneous method through orthogonal collocation on finite elements and large scale solver were used to obtain the solutions. The model was fully discretized into NLP (nonlinear programming with large scale variables and equations, and then the NLP was solved by large scale solver of IPOPT. Validation of the formulated model and solution method is verified by case study on a SWRO plant. Then simulation and analysis are carried out to demonstrate the performance of reverse osmosis process; operational conditions such as feed pressure and feed flow rate as well as feed temperature are also analyzed. This work is of significant meaning for the detailed understanding of RO process and future energy saving through operational optimization.

  12. Aptamer/quantum dot-based simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple small molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haixia [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Jiang Bingying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400040 (China); Xiang Yun, E-mail: yunatswu@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang Yuyong; Chai Yaqin [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo, E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2011-03-04

    A novel strategy for 'signal on' and sensitive one-spot simultaneous detection of multiple small molecular analytes based on electrochemically encoded barcode quantum dot (QD) tags is described. The target analytes, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cocaine, respectively, are sandwiched between the corresponding set of surface-immobilized primary binding aptamers and the secondary binding aptamer/QD bioconjugates. The captured QDs yield distinct electrochemical signatures after acid dissolution, whose position and size reflect the identity and level, respectively, of the corresponding target analytes. Due to the inherent amplification feature of the QD labels and the 'signal on' detection scheme, as well as the sensitive monitoring of the metal ions released upon acid dissolution of the QD labels, low detection limits of 30 nM and 50 nM were obtained for ATP and cocaine, respectively, in our assays. Our multi-analyte sensing system also shows high specificity to target analytes and promising applicability to complex sample matrix, which makes the proposed assay protocol an attractive route for screening of small molecules in clinical diagnosis.

  13. Investigation of a simultaneous multifunctional photonic logic gate based on bidirectional FWM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanlan; Lv, Tingting; Wu, Jian

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate a multi-functional photonic logic gate for RZ-PolSK signals based on four wave mixing (FWM) in highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). Bidirectional operation with one spool of HNLF is implemented numerically at 40 Gb/s. The basic logic arithmetics, such as XOR, AB¯,A¯B, XNOR, AND, NOR, and complex logic functions such as half-subtracter, half-adder, comparator and decoder are simultaneously realized by adjusting the polarization controllers. This novel structure is low-cost and rather flexible. Proper logic results, clear waveforms and high Q factors of eye diagrams are presented. Simulation analysis shows that bit error-free operation for the logic gate can be obtained when the wavelength separation is from -7 to 6 nm for two input signals. The impact of the input power on the Q factor is also investigated. Due to the femoto-second response time of Kerr-effect in HNLF we used in the scheme, the logic gate has great potential in future ultra-high speed optical transmission systems.

  14. A novel yeast-based tool to detect mutagenic and recombinogenic effects simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, B; Neffgen, A; Klinner, U

    2008-03-29

    In this work, we describe a new yeast-based assay to allow efficient detection of a comprehensive spectrum of genotoxicity events. The constructed diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain allows the simultaneous monitoring of forward mutations, mitotic recombination events and chromosome loss or non-disjunction by direct selection in an easy and highly reproducible approach. The strain contains a DNA module consisting of a single functional copy of the URA3 gene and the kanMX4 gene inserted at the ADE2 locus on the right arm of chromosome XV. The changes of the genotype within the marker region were primarily selected on 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA) agar plates. Further simple phenotypic tests of the 5-FOA-resistant ura3 clones make it possible to analyze the genetic configuration in detail (e.g. point mutations in URA3, gene conversion, crossing-over and chromosome loss). We demonstrate the successful application of our test system by studying the effects of well-known genotoxic agents (UV radiation, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, aniline and benomyl). We found that the various agents induced mutations and recombination events with different relative frequencies. The integration of the module has generated a hot spot region of mutation and recombination at the borders of the artificially integrated URA3 kanMX4 cassette, which makes the system more sensitive towards DNA-damaging agents. Unlike other test systems, our S. cerevisiae strain is capable to detect a mutagenic effect caused by aniline.

  15. Simultaneous detection of lactate and glucose by integrated printed circuit board based array sensing chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelian; Zang, Jianfeng; Liu, Yingshuai; Lu, Zhisong; Li, Qing; Li, Chang Ming

    2013-04-10

    An integrated printed circuit board (PCB) based array sensing chip was developed to simultaneously detect lactate and glucose in mouse serum. The novelty of the chip relies on a concept demonstration of inexpensive high-throughput electronic biochip, a chip design for high signal to noise ratio and high sensitivity by construction of positively charged chitosan/redox polymer Polyvinylimidazole-Os (PVI-Os)/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite sensing platform, in which the positively charged chitosan/PVI-Os is mediator and electrostatically immobilizes the negatively charged enzyme, while CNTs function as an essential cross-linker to network PVI-Os and chitosan due to its negative charged nature. Additional electrodes on the chip with the same sensing layer but without enzymes were prepared to correct the interferences for high specificity. Low detection limits of 0.6 μM and 5 μM were achieved for lactate and glucose, respectively. This work could be extended to inexpensive array sensing chips with high sensitivity, good specificity and high reproducibility for various sensor applications.

  16. Facile synthesis of diverse graphene nanomeshes based on simultaneous regulation of pore size and surface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Song, Huaibing; Zeng, Dawen; Wang, Hao; Qin, Ziyu; Xu, Keng; Pang, Aimin; Xie, Changsheng

    2016-08-01

    Recently, graphene nanomesh (GNM) has attracted great attentions due to its unique porous structure, abundant active sites, finite band gap and possesses potential applications in the fields of electronics, gas sensor/storage, catalysis, etc. Therefore, diverse GNMs with different physical and chemical properties are required urgently to meet different applications. Herein we demonstrate a facile synthetic method based on the famous Fenton reaction to prepare GNM, by using economically fabricated graphene oxide (GO) as a starting material. By precisely controlling the reaction time, simultaneous regulation of pore size from 2.9 to 11.1 nm and surface structure can be realized. Ultimately, diverse GNMs with tunable band gap and work function can be obtained. Specially, the band gap decreases from 4.5-2.3 eV for GO, which is an insulator, to 3.9-1.24 eV for GNM-5 h, which approaches to a semiconductor. The dual nature of electrophilic addition and oxidizability of HO• is responsible for this controllable synthesis. This efficient, low-cost, inherently scalable synthetic method is suitable for provide diverse and optional GNMs, and may be generalized to a universal technique.

  17. Empirical Evaluation of Fuzzy Synthetic Based Framework for Multifaceted Component Classification and Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE provides an approach to develop high quality software system at less cost by using fresh and existing software components. The quality of the software system is based on the quality of individual software component integrated. Application developer wants the good or the fittest component to assemble and improve the quality of the software product. The application developer specifies the criteria and requirements of software systems and uses them in selecting the fit components. Component classification and selection is a practical problem and requires complete and predictable input information. It is missing due to uncertainty in judgment and impression in calculations. Hence, component fitness evaluation, classification and selection are critical, multi-faceted, fuzzy and vague nature problems. There exists many component selection approaches, but theses lack the repeatable, usable, exile, multi-faceted and automated processes for component selection and filtration. These approaches are not fulfilling the objectives of software industry in terms of cost, quality and precision. So, there is need of hour to devise an intelligent approach for multifaceted component fitness evaluation, classification and selection. In this study, fuzzy synthetic based approach is proposed for multi-criteria fitness evaluation, classification and selection of software component. For validation of the proposed framework, fifteen black box components of calculators are used. It helps the application developer in selecting fit or high quality component. The proposed framework reduces the cost and enhances the quality, productivity of software systems.

  18. Face Detection Using Adaboosted SVM-Based Component Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Valiollahzadeh, Seyyed Majid; Nazari, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Adaboost has been widely used to improve the accuracy of any given learning algorithm. In this paper we focus on designing an algorithm to employ combination of Adaboost with Support Vector Machine as weak component classifiers to be used in Face Detection Task. To obtain a set of effective SVM-weaklearner Classifier, this algorithm adaptively adjusts the kernel parameter in SVM instead of using a fixed one. Proposed combination outperforms in generalization in comparison with SVM on imbalanced classification problem. The proposed here method is compared, in terms of classification accuracy, to other commonly used Adaboost methods, such as Decision Trees and Neural Networks, on CMU+MIT face database. Results indicate that the performance of the proposed method is overall superior to previous Adaboost approaches.

  19. Action-based distribution functions for spheroidal galaxy components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posti, Lorenzo; Binney, James; Nipoti, Carlo; Ciotti, Luca

    2015-03-01

    We present an approach to the design of distribution functions that depend on the phase-space coordinates through the action integrals. The approach makes it easy to construct a dynamical model of a given stellar component. We illustrate the approach by deriving distribution functions that self-consistently generate several popular stellar systems, including the Hernquist, Jaffe, and Navarro, Frenk and White models. We focus on non-rotating spherical systems, but extension to flattened and rotating systems is trivial. Our distribution functions are easily added to each other and to previously published distribution functions for discs to create self-consistent multicomponent galaxies. The models this approach makes possible should prove valuable both for the interpretation of observational data and for exploring the non-equilibrium dynamics of galaxies via N-body simulations.

  20. Component Thermodynamical Selection Based Gene Expression Programming for Function Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolu Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression programming (GEP, improved genetic programming (GP, has become a popular tool for data mining. However, like other evolutionary algorithms, it tends to suffer from premature convergence and slow convergence rate when solving complex problems. In this paper, we propose an enhanced GEP algorithm, called CTSGEP, which is inspired by the principle of minimal free energy in thermodynamics. In CTSGEP, it employs a component thermodynamical selection (CTS operator to quantitatively keep a balance between the selective pressure and the population diversity during the evolution process. Experiments are conducted on several benchmark datasets from the UCI machine learning repository. The results show that the performance of CTSGEP is better than the conventional GEP and some GEP variations.

  1. Component alignment and functional outcome following computer assisted and jig based total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyanesh G Lad

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: A significantly improved placement of the component was found in the coronal and sagittal planes of the tibial component by CAS. The placement of the components in the other planes was comparable with the values recorded in the jig-based surgery group. Functional outcome was not significantly different.

  2. An Improved Otsu Threshold Segmentation Method for Underwater Simultaneous Localization and Mapping-Based Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this paper is on extracting features with SOund Navigation And Ranging (SONAR sensing for further underwater landmark-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM. According to the characteristics of sonar images, in this paper, an improved Otsu threshold segmentation method (TSM has been developed for feature detection. In combination with a contour detection algorithm, the foreground objects, although presenting different feature shapes, are separated much faster and more precisely than by other segmentation methods. Tests have been made with side-scan sonar (SSS and forward-looking sonar (FLS images in comparison with other four TSMs, namely the traditional Otsu method, the local TSM, the iterative TSM and the maximum entropy TSM. For all the sonar images presented in this work, the computational time of the improved Otsu TSM is much lower than that of the maximum entropy TSM, which achieves the highest segmentation precision among the four above mentioned TSMs. As a result of the segmentations, the centroids of the main extracted regions have been computed to represent point landmarks which can be used for navigation, e.g., with the help of an Augmented Extended Kalman Filter (AEKF-based SLAM algorithm. The AEKF-SLAM approach is a recursive and iterative estimation-update process, which besides a prediction and an update stage (as in classical Extended Kalman Filter (EKF, includes an augmentation stage. During navigation, the robot localizes the centroids of different segments of features in sonar images, which are detected by our improved Otsu TSM, as point landmarks. Using them with the AEKF achieves more accurate and robust estimations of the robot pose and the landmark positions, than with those detected by the maximum entropy TSM. Together with the landmarks identified by the proposed segmentation algorithm, the AEKF-SLAM has achieved reliable detection of cycles in the map and consistent map update on loop

  3. An Improved Otsu Threshold Segmentation Method for Underwater Simultaneous Localization and Mapping-Based Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin; Martínez, José-Fernán; Eckert, Martina; López-Santidrián, Lourdes

    2016-07-22

    The main focus of this paper is on extracting features with SOund Navigation And Ranging (SONAR) sensing for further underwater landmark-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). According to the characteristics of sonar images, in this paper, an improved Otsu threshold segmentation method (TSM) has been developed for feature detection. In combination with a contour detection algorithm, the foreground objects, although presenting different feature shapes, are separated much faster and more precisely than by other segmentation methods. Tests have been made with side-scan sonar (SSS) and forward-looking sonar (FLS) images in comparison with other four TSMs, namely the traditional Otsu method, the local TSM, the iterative TSM and the maximum entropy TSM. For all the sonar images presented in this work, the computational time of the improved Otsu TSM is much lower than that of the maximum entropy TSM, which achieves the highest segmentation precision among the four above mentioned TSMs. As a result of the segmentations, the centroids of the main extracted regions have been computed to represent point landmarks which can be used for navigation, e.g., with the help of an Augmented Extended Kalman Filter (AEKF)-based SLAM algorithm. The AEKF-SLAM approach is a recursive and iterative estimation-update process, which besides a prediction and an update stage (as in classical Extended Kalman Filter (EKF)), includes an augmentation stage. During navigation, the robot localizes the centroids of different segments of features in sonar images, which are detected by our improved Otsu TSM, as point landmarks. Using them with the AEKF achieves more accurate and robust estimations of the robot pose and the landmark positions, than with those detected by the maximum entropy TSM. Together with the landmarks identified by the proposed segmentation algorithm, the AEKF-SLAM has achieved reliable detection of cycles in the map and consistent map update on loop closure, which is

  4. EEG-Based Emotion Recognition Using Deep Learning Network with Principal Component Based Covariate Shift Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwicha Jirayucharoensak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic emotion recognition is one of the most challenging tasks. To detect emotion from nonstationary EEG signals, a sophisticated learning algorithm that can represent high-level abstraction is required. This study proposes the utilization of a deep learning network (DLN to discover unknown feature correlation between input signals that is crucial for the learning task. The DLN is implemented with a stacked autoencoder (SAE using hierarchical feature learning approach. Input features of the network are power spectral densities of 32-channel EEG signals from 32 subjects. To alleviate overfitting problem, principal component analysis (PCA is applied to extract the most important components of initial input features. Furthermore, covariate shift adaptation of the principal components is implemented to minimize the nonstationary effect of EEG signals. Experimental results show that the DLN is capable of classifying three different levels of valence and arousal with accuracy of 49.52% and 46.03%, respectively. Principal component based covariate shift adaptation enhances the respective classification accuracy by 5.55% and 6.53%. Moreover, DLN provides better performance compared to SVM and naive Bayes classifiers.

  5. Identification of Analytical Factors Affecting Complex Proteomics Profiles Acquired in a Factorial Design Study with Analysis of Variance: Simultaneous Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Vikram; Govorukhina, Natalia; Zwanenburg, Gooitzen; Hoefsloot, Huub; Westra, Inge; Smilde, Age; Reijmers, Theo; van der Zee, Ate G J; Suits, Frank; Bischoff, Rainer; Horvatovich, Péter

    2016-04-19

    Complex shotgun proteomics peptide profiles obtained in quantitative differential protein expression studies, such as in biomarker discovery, may be affected by multiple experimental factors. These preanalytical factors may affect the measured protein abundances which in turn influence the outcome of the associated statistical analysis and validation. It is therefore important to determine which factors influence the abundance of peptides in a complex proteomics experiment and to identify those peptides that are most influenced by these factors. In the current study we analyzed depleted human serum samples to evaluate experimental factors that may influence the resulting peptide profile such as the residence time in the autosampler at 4 °C, stopping or not stopping the trypsin digestion with acid, the type of blood collection tube, different hemolysis levels, differences in clotting times, the number of freeze-thaw cycles, and different trypsin/protein ratios. To this end we used a two-level fractional factorial design of resolution IV (2(IV)(7-3)). The design required analysis of 16 samples in which the main effects were not confounded by two-factor interactions. Data preprocessing using the Threshold Avoiding Proteomics Pipeline (Suits, F.; Hoekman, B.; Rosenling, T.; Bischoff, R.; Horvatovich, P. Anal. Chem. 2011, 83, 7786-7794, ref 1) produced a data-matrix containing quantitative information on 2,559 peaks. The intensity of the peaks was log-transformed, and peaks having intensities of a low t-test significance (p-value > 0.05) and a low absolute fold ratio (factor were removed. The remaining peaks were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA)-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). Permutation tests were used to identify which of the preanalytical factors influenced the abundance of the measured peptides most significantly. The most important preanalytical factors affecting peptide intensity were (1) the hemolysis level, (2) stopping trypsin digestion with

  6. Luminex-Based Triplex Immunoassay for the Simultaneous Detection of Soy, Pea and Soluble Wheat proteins in Milk Powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Pre, du J.G.

    2007-01-01

    An automated fluorescent microsphere-based flow cytometric triplex immunoassay, using the Luminex 100 flow analyzer with MultiAnalyte Profiling (xMAP) technology, was developed for the simultaneous detection of proteins from three vegetable sources as potential fraudulent adulterants in milk powder.

  7. Bead-based suspension array for simultaneous detection of antibodies against the Rift Valley fever virus nucleocapsid and Gn glycoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der F.J.; Achterberg, R.P.; Boer, de S.M.; Boshra, H.; Brun, A.; Maassen, C.B.M.; Kortekaas, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    A multiplex bead-based suspension array was developed that can be used for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against the surface glycoprotein Gn and the nucleocapsid protein N of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in various animal species. The N protein and the purified ectodomain of the Gn prot

  8. Using problem-based learning in web-based components of nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Tonia R

    2011-03-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centred method of teaching, and is initiated by introducing a clinical problem through which learning is fostered by active inquisition (Tavakol and Reicherter, 2003). Using this teaching and learning strategy for web-based environments is examined from the literature for potential implementation in a Bachelor of Nursing program. In view of the evidence, students accessing online nursing subjects would seem to benefit from web-based PBL as it provides flexibility, opportunities for discussion and co-participation, encourages student autonomy, and allows construction of meaning as the problems mirror the real world. PBL also promotes critical thinking and transfer of theory to practice. It is recommended that some components of practice-based subjects such as Clinical Practice or Community Health Nursing, could be implemented online using a PBL format, which should also include a discussion forum to enable group work for problem-solving activities, and tutor facilitation.

  9. A Component-Based Software Configuration Management Model and Its Supporting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅宏; 张路; 杨芙清

    2002-01-01

    Software configuration management (SCM) is an important key technology in software development. Component-based software development (CBSD) is an emerging paradigm in software development. However, to apply CBSD effectively in real world practice,supporting SCM in CBSD needs to be further investigated. In this paper, the objects that need to be managed in CBSD is analyzed and a component-based SCM model is presented. In this model, components, as the integral logical constituents in a system, are managed as the basic configuration items in SCM, and the relationships between/among components are defined and maintained. Based on this model, a configuration management system is implemented.

  10. Simultaneous structure and geometry detail completion based on interactive user sketches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shen; QI Yue; QIN Hong

    2012-01-01

    We articulate a novel approach to geometric model completion via interactive sketches in this paper.First,the initial incomplete model (with holes) is decomposed into a base model and a high-frequency component,which represents global rough shape and geometric details,respectively.We then repair the base model via smooth hole-filling,and compute the geometry detail image using high frequency information.One novel element of our approach is that we allow users to interactively sketch a few structural curves that span across hole regions,with a goal to repair both local geometric details and global structure.With the help of local parameterization,we convert detailed geometry into gradient-domain images which can propagate along user-specified sketches.By integrating recovered gradient-domain images and base shape,we can generate a complete model that faithfully recovers both global structure and local details.The salient contribution of this paper is the unified approach for user interaction,global structure,and geometry details towards high-fidelity model completion.We demonstrate our new approach using a number of examples that exhibit salient global structure as well as local geometry details.

  11. Research on the Component-based Software Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Computer software has been becoming more and more c om plex with the development of hardware. Thus, how to efficiently develop extensib le, maintainable and adaptable software occurs to be an urgent problem. The comp onent-based software development technique is a better method to solve the prob lem. In this paper, we first discuss the concept, description method and some fa miliar styles of software architecture, and then analyze the merits of using the software architecture to guide the software developm...

  12. CURRENT USAGE OF COMPONENT BASED PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPING WEB APPLICATIONS WITH FRAMEWORKS: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Matija Novak; Ivan Švogor

    2016-01-01

    Component based software development has become a very popular paradigm in many software engineering branches. In the early phase of Web 2.0 appearance, it was also popular for web application development. From the analyzed papers, between this period and today, use of component based techniques for web application development was somewhat slowed down, however, the recent development indicates a comeback. Most of all it is apparent with W3C’s component web working group. In this article we wa...

  13. Design and Analysis of a Novel Six-Component F/T Sensor based on CPM for Passive Compliant Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiaokang; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Yaonan; Ge, Yunjian

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the design and analysis of a six-component Force/Torque (F/T) sensor whose design is based on the mechanism of the Compliant Parallel Mechanism (CPM). The force sensor is used to measure forces along the x-, y-, and z-axis (Fx, Fy and Fz) and moments about the x-, y-, and z-axis (Mx, My and Mz) simultaneously and to provide passive compliance during parts handling and assembly. Particularly, the structural design, the details of the measuring principle and the kinematics are presented. Afterwards, based on the Design of Experiments (DOE) approach provided by the software ANSYS®, a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is performed. This analysis is performed with the objective of achieving both high sensitivity and isotropy of the sensor. The results of FEA show that the proposed sensor possesses high performance and robustness.

  14. Knowledge Based Components of Expertise in Medical Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    PAPVC. In fact, one variant of PAPVC, "scimitar syndrome ’, de- rives its name from its presentation of such a finding on x-ray (Lucas & Schmidt, 1977...just sort of guessing right now. I would say just Scimitar Syndrome (PAPVC) pri- marily based on the chest x-ray and ah. I’m not really sure whether... Laron Chicago, ML 60605 Code 306 Navy Personal RD Center 1 Office of Naval Research San Diego, CA 92152 Code 437 800 N. Quincy SStreet Arlington, VA

  15. Alpha–beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); NRC-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Orion, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-08-11

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha–beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha–beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha–beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  16. Alpha-beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D.; Orion, I.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha-beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha-beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha-beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  17. Phase Change-based Fixturing for Arbitrarily Shaped Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bei-zhi; YANG Jian-guo; ZHOU Li-bing; XIANG Qian

    2002-01-01

    Issues in industrialization of RFPE (Reference Free Part Encapsulation) are discussed in this paper. The issues technique. A new method - adaptable location system (ATLS) is presented in this paper. ATLS consists of an array of pins which are controlled manually or automatically by an actuator. The actuation force comes from a shape memory alloy (SMA). Material properties of filler are very important for RFPE. The experiment has shown that machining error can be reduced by using conservative cutting parameters. Based on finite element analysis, the relationship between the deformation of the workpiece, the filler and the machining parameters has been achieved. A new approach, partial cage with active side wall (PCASW), allows machine tools to easily access any feature of the workpiece from different directions. It is convenient for every new setup.

  18. High performance coated board inspection system based on commercial components

    CERN Document Server

    Barjaktarovic, M; Radunovic, J

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a vision system for defect (fault) detection on a coated board developed using three industrial firewire cameras and a PC. Application for image processing and system control was realized with the LabView software package. Software for defect detection is based on a variation of the image segmentation algorithm. Standard steps in image segmentation are modified to match the characteristics of defects. Software optimization was accomplished using SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) technology available in the Intel Pentium 4 processors that provided real time inspection capability. System provides benefits such as: improvement in production process, higher quality of delivered coated board and reduction of waste. This was proven during successful exploitation of the system for more than a year.

  19. A New Method for Sex Determination Based on Detection of SRY, STS and Amelogenin Gene Regions with Simultaneous Amplification of Their Homologous Sequences by a Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morikawa,Toshio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new method for sex determination based on simultaneous detection of the SRY (sex-determining region Y, STS (steroid sulfatase and amelogenin (AMELX and AMELY gene regions and their homologous sequences. The sex of 246 blood samples was correctly determined by this method. An AMELY-deleted male sample, which would have been erroneously considered female based solely on analysis of the amelogenin locus, was successfully identified as male by the present method. The detection limit of this method was 63 pg of genomic DNA, and the male DNA component could be detected from mixed samples having a male:female ratio as low as 1:10. This method was useful for degraded DNA and possessed the human specificity. Practical application to 35 autopsy cases is described.

  20. A new method for sex determination based on detection of SRY, STS and amelogenin gene regions with simultaneous amplification of their homologous sequences by a multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Yamamoto, Yuji; Miyaishi, Satoru

    2011-04-01

    We have developed a new method for sex determination based on simultaneous detection of the SRY (sex-determining region Y), STS (steroid sulfatase) and amelogenin (AMELX and AMELY) gene regions and their homologous sequences. The sex of 246 blood samples was correctly determined by this method. An AMELY-deleted male sample, which would have been erroneously considered female based solely on analysis of the amelogenin locus, was successfully identified as male by the present method. The detection limit of this method was 63 pg of genomic DNA, and the male DNA component could be detected from mixed samples having a male:female ratio as low as 1:10. This method was useful for degraded DNA and possessed the human specificity. Practical application to 35 autopsy cases is described.

  1. Model of PC-SAFT state equation based on simultaneous method%基于联立法的PC-SAFT状态方程模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐申骏; 祝铃钰; 陈曦

    2015-01-01

    PC?SAFT (Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory)状态方程可以准确计算聚合物的物性,但是基于序贯算法的PC-SAFT状态方程模型收敛性较差.本文在MATLAB软件环境下编制了PC-SAFT状态方程模型的计算程序并用联立法求解,将乙烯、氢气、乙烯-氢气双组分、含聚合物的多组分等体系的物性与Aspen Plus软件模拟所得的数据进行比较,结果十分吻合.同时在MATLAB软件环境下编制了序贯法求解的PC-SAFT状态方程计算程序,在收敛步数方面与联立法程序进行了比较,联立方程法显示了明显的优势.%The equation of state of PC-SAFT (Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory) can be used to calculate the physical properties of polymers accurately. However, based on sequential method, the astringency of PC-SAFT is not very good. This article established the model of PC-SAFT EOS through simultaneous method in MATLAB software, and calculated the physical properties of pure ethylene, pure hydrogen, two-component system of ethylene and hydrogen as well as multi-component system containing polymer. Compared the physical properties data with the data obtained from the simulations of Aspen Plus software, the results were in great agreement. Moreover, this article established the model of PC-SAFT EOS through sequential method in MATLAB software, and compared the number of convergence steps with the model through simultaneous method, the model through simultaneous method showed obvious advantage.

  2. Modeling media as latent semantics based on cognitive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    Though one might think of media as an audiovisual stream of consciousness, we frequently encode frames of video sequences and waves of sound into strings of text. Language allows us to both share the internal representations of what we perceive as mental concepts, as well as categorizing them as ...... with aspects of cognitive linguistics that potentially could be utilized in applications ranging from information retrieval and media personalization, to emotional brand building or neuroscientific modeling of syntax and semantics....... and share the meaning contained within a sentence or a melodic phrase. As both low-level semantic structure of texts and our affective responses can be encoded in words, a simplified cognitive model can be constructed which uses LSA latent semantic analysis to emulate how we perceive the emotional context...... of media based on lyrics, synopses, subtitles, blogs or web pages associated with the content. In the proposed model the bottom-up generated sensory input is a matrix of tens of thousands of words co-occurring within multiple contexts, that are in turn represented as vectors in a semantic space of reduced...

  3. Case-Based Reasoning Topological Complexity Calculation of Design for Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Directly calculating the topological and geometric complexity from the STEP (standard for the exchange of product model data, ISO 10303) file is a huge task. So, a case-based reasoning approach is presented, which is based on the similarity between the new component and the old one, to calculate the topological and geometric complexity of new components. In order to index, retrieve in historical component database, a new way of component representation is brought forth. And then an algorithm is given to extract topological graph from its STEP files. A mathematical model, which describes how to compare the similarity, is discussed. Finally, an example is given to show the result.

  4. Condition Based Monitoring of Gas Turbine Combustion Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulerich, Nancy; Kidane, Getnet; Spiegelberg, Christine; Tevs, Nikolai

    2012-09-30

    The objective of this program is to develop sensors that allow condition based monitoring of critical combustion parts of gas turbines. Siemens teamed with innovative, small companies that were developing sensor concepts that could monitor wearing and cracking of hot turbine parts. A magnetic crack monitoring sensor concept developed by JENTEK Sensors, Inc. was evaluated in laboratory tests. Designs for engine application were evaluated. The inability to develop a robust lead wire to transmit the signal long distances resulted in a discontinuation of this concept. An optical wear sensor concept proposed by K Sciences GP, LLC was tested in proof-of concept testing. The sensor concept depended, however, on optical fiber tips wearing with the loaded part. The fiber tip wear resulted in too much optical input variability; the sensor could not provide adequate stability for measurement. Siemens developed an alternative optical wear sensor approach that used a commercial PHILTEC, Inc. optical gap sensor with an optical spacer to remove fibers from the wearing surface. The gap sensor measured the length of the wearing spacer to follow loaded part wear. This optical wear sensor was developed to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. It was validated in lab tests and installed on a floating transition seal in an F-Class gas turbine. Laboratory tests indicate that the concept can measure wear on loaded parts at temperatures up to 800{degrees}C with uncertainty of < 0.3 mm. Testing in an F-Class engine installation showed that the optical spacer wore with the wearing part. The electro-optics box located outside the engine enclosure survived the engine enclosure environment. The fiber optic cable and the optical spacer, however, both degraded after about 100 operating hours, impacting the signal analysis.

  5. Simultaneous selection by object-based attention in visual and frontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Poort, Jasper; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2014-01-01

    Models of visual attention hold that top-down signals from frontal cortex influence information processing in visual cortex. It is unknown whether situations exist in which visual cortex actively participates in attentional selection. To investigate this question, we simultaneously recorded neuronal

  6. Research and Implementation of Distributed Virtual Simulation Platform Based on Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhi-xin; WANG Ru-chuan; WANG Shao-di

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a combination of system's theoretic simulation methodology with the virtual reality technology as a basis for a component-based virtual simulation framework. The created universal framework can be used in different fields, such as drive training, airplane fighting training, and so on. The result of the synergism is a powerful component-based virtual simulation framework. After having briefly introduced the concepts and principles of the distributed component object, the paper describes a software development method based on components. Then a method of virtual simulation system modeling based on components is proposed, and the integrated framework supporting distributed virtual simulation and its key technologies are discussed at length. Our experiments indicate that the framework can be widely used in simulation fields such as arms antagonism, driving simulation and so on.

  7. Coupling non invasive and fast sampling of proteins from work of art surfaces to surface plasmon resonance biosensing: Differential and simultaneous detection of egg components for cultural heritage diagnosis and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarano, S; Carretti, E; Dei, L; Baglioni, P; Minunni, M

    2016-11-15

    Despite the wide application of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to a broad area of interests, from environment to food analysis, from drug discovery to diagnostics, its exploitation in cultural heritage conservation is still unexplored. Water-based highly viscous polymeric dispersions (HVPD) composed by partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl acetate (PVA), borax, and water, were recently developed and successfully applied for the selective removal of surface degradation patinas (i.e. protein materials, natural resins etc.) from paintings of historical and artistic interest. This approach is here coupled for the first time to a SPR biosensor to simultaneously recognize albumen, yolk, or their mixtures in HVPD extracts. Ovalbumin and immunoglobulin Y are selected as analytes for egg white and yolk recognition, respectively. The biosensor was first characterized on standard analytes within the range 0-400mgL(-1) and then on fresh and dried egg albumen and yolk down to 2·10(^4) and 1·10(^5) dilution factors, respectively. Once optimized, the biosensor was combined to the HVPD application on simulated and real art samples for the evaluation of hen egg presence in the extract, i.e. albumen, yolk, or their co-presence in the matrix. For a contemporary 'sacred icon', realized by the traditional egg tempera procedure described by Cennino Cennini, the biosensor successfully distinguished different uses of egg components for the realization of painted and gilded areas, i.e. yolk and albumen, respectively. Finally, a XVIII century italian painting whose the realization technique is unknown, was tested confirming its egg tempera-based realization technique.

  8. Feedback loops and temporal misalignment in component-based hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elag, Mostafa M.; Goodall, Jonathan L.; Castronova, Anthony M.

    2011-12-01

    In component-based modeling, a complex system is represented as a series of loosely integrated components with defined interfaces and data exchanges that allow the components to be coupled together through shared boundary conditions. Although the component-based paradigm is commonly used in software engineering, it has only recently been applied for modeling hydrologic and earth systems. As a result, research is needed to test and verify the applicability of the approach for modeling hydrologic systems. The objective of this work was therefore to investigate two aspects of using component-based software architecture for hydrologic modeling: (1) simulation of feedback loops between components that share a boundary condition and (2) data transfers between temporally misaligned model components. We investigated these topics using a simple case study where diffusion of mass is modeled across a water-sediment interface. We simulated the multimedia system using two model components, one for the water and one for the sediment, coupled using the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI) standard. The results were compared with a more conventional numerical approach for solving the system where the domain is represented by a single multidimensional array. Results showed that the component-based approach was able to produce the same results obtained with the more conventional numerical approach. When the two components were temporally misaligned, we explored the use of different interpolation schemes to minimize mass balance error within the coupled system. The outcome of this work provides evidence that component-based modeling can be used to simulate complicated feedback loops between systems and guidance as to how different interpolation schemes minimize mass balance error introduced when components are temporally misaligned.

  9. FPGA-based RF interference reduction techniques for simultaneous PET–MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, P; Wehner, J; Weissler, B; Botnar, R; Marsden, PK; Schulz, V

    2017-01-01

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a multi-modal imaging technique is considered very promising and powerful with regard to in vivo disease progression examination, therapy response monitoring and drug development. However, PET–MRI system design enabling simultaneous operation with unaffected intrinsic performance of both modalities is challenging. As one of the major issues, both the PET detectors and the MRI radio-frequency (RF) subsystem are exposed to electromagnetic (EM) interference, which may lead to PET and MRI signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) deteriorations. Early digitization of electronic PET signals within the MRI bore helps to preserve PET SNR, but occurs at the expense of increased amount of PET electronics inside the MRI and associated RF field emissions. This raises the likelihood of PET-related MRI interference by coupling into the MRI RF coil unwanted spurious signals considered as RF noise, as it degrades MRI SNR and results in MR image artefacts. RF shielding of PET detectors is a commonly used technique to reduce PET-related RF interferences, but can introduce eddy current-related MRI disturbances and hinder the highest system integration. In this paper, we present RF interference reduction methods which rely on EM field coupling–decoupling principles of RF receive coils rather than suppressing emitted fields. By modifying clock frequencies and changing clock phase relations of digital circuits, the resulting RF field emission is optimised with regard to a lower field coupling into the MRI RF coil, thereby increasing the RF silence of PET detectors. Our methods are demonstrated by performing FPGA-based clock frequency and phase shifting of digital silicon photo-multipliers (dSiPMs) used in the PET modules of our MR-compatible Hyperion IID PET insert. We present simulations and magnetic-field map scans visualising the impact of altered clock phase pattern on the spatial RF field

  10. FPGA-based RF interference reduction techniques for simultaneous PET-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, P.; Wehner, J.; Weissler, B.; Botnar, R.; Marsden, P. K.; Schulz, V.

    2016-05-01

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a multi-modal imaging technique is considered very promising and powerful with regard to in vivo disease progression examination, therapy response monitoring and drug development. However, PET-MRI system design enabling simultaneous operation with unaffected intrinsic performance of both modalities is challenging. As one of the major issues, both the PET detectors and the MRI radio-frequency (RF) subsystem are exposed to electromagnetic (EM) interference, which may lead to PET and MRI signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) deteriorations. Early digitization of electronic PET signals within the MRI bore helps to preserve PET SNR, but occurs at the expense of increased amount of PET electronics inside the MRI and associated RF field emissions. This raises the likelihood of PET-related MRI interference by coupling into the MRI RF coil unwanted spurious signals considered as RF noise, as it degrades MRI SNR and results in MR image artefacts. RF shielding of PET detectors is a commonly used technique to reduce PET-related RF interferences, but can introduce eddy-current-related MRI disturbances and hinder the highest system integration. In this paper, we present RF interference reduction methods which rely on EM field coupling-decoupling principles of RF receive coils rather than suppressing emitted fields. By modifying clock frequencies and changing clock phase relations of digital circuits, the resulting RF field emission is optimised with regard to a lower field coupling into the MRI RF coil, thereby increasing the RF silence of PET detectors. Our methods are demonstrated by performing FPGA-based clock frequency and phase shifting of digital silicon photo-multipliers (dSiPMs) used in the PET modules of our MR-compatible Hyperion II D PET insert. We present simulations and magnetic-field map scans visualising the impact of altered clock phase pattern on the spatial RF field distribution

  11. FPGA-based RF interference reduction techniques for simultaneous PET-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, P; Wehner, J; Weissler, B; Botnar, R; Marsden, P K; Schulz, V

    2016-05-07

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a multi-modal imaging technique is considered very promising and powerful with regard to in vivo disease progression examination, therapy response monitoring and drug development. However, PET-MRI system design enabling simultaneous operation with unaffected intrinsic performance of both modalities is challenging. As one of the major issues, both the PET detectors and the MRI radio-frequency (RF) subsystem are exposed to electromagnetic (EM) interference, which may lead to PET and MRI signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) deteriorations. Early digitization of electronic PET signals within the MRI bore helps to preserve PET SNR, but occurs at the expense of increased amount of PET electronics inside the MRI and associated RF field emissions. This raises the likelihood of PET-related MRI interference by coupling into the MRI RF coil unwanted spurious signals considered as RF noise, as it degrades MRI SNR and results in MR image artefacts. RF shielding of PET detectors is a commonly used technique to reduce PET-related RF interferences, but can introduce eddy-current-related MRI disturbances and hinder the highest system integration. In this paper, we present RF interference reduction methods which rely on EM field coupling-decoupling principles of RF receive coils rather than suppressing emitted fields. By modifying clock frequencies and changing clock phase relations of digital circuits, the resulting RF field emission is optimised with regard to a lower field coupling into the MRI RF coil, thereby increasing the RF silence of PET detectors. Our methods are demonstrated by performing FPGA-based clock frequency and phase shifting of digital silicon photo-multipliers (dSiPMs) used in the PET modules of our MR-compatible Hyperion II (D) PET insert. We present simulations and magnetic-field map scans visualising the impact of altered clock phase pattern on the spatial RF field

  12. A Component Based Heuristic Search method with Adaptive Perturbations for Hospital Personnel Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jingpeng; Burke, Edmund

    2008-01-01

    Nurse rostering is a complex scheduling problem that affects hospital personnel on a daily basis all over the world. This paper presents a new component-based approach with adaptive perturbations, for a nurse scheduling problem arising at a major UK hospital. The main idea behind this technique is to decompose a schedule into its components (i.e. the allocated shift pattern of each nurse), and then mimic a natural evolutionary process on these components to iteratively deliver better schedules. The worthiness of all components in the schedule has to be continuously demonstrated in order for them to remain there. This demonstration employs a dynamic evaluation function which evaluates how well each component contributes towards the final objective. Two perturbation steps are then applied: the first perturbation eliminates a number of components that are deemed not worthy to stay in the current schedule; the second perturbation may also throw out, with a low level of probability, some worthy components. The eli...

  13. An XML-based Software Component Description Method for Program Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOUYuhong; ZHANGYaoxue; LIXing

    2004-01-01

    As Internet is rapidly emerging as a largescale distributed computing platform, service customization and on-demand computing become an important research issue. Program mining is a novel computingparadigm to achieve this goal through dynamically component discovery and composition from on-line component repositories1. However, components in different repositories are described and classified in ad hoc ways, laying obstacles for the provision of program mining. In this paper, we present an XML-based component description method, depicting the static properties, interface specification and classification information of software components in a standard way. Based on this description, distributed component directory can be established to provide a wellorganized mining resource for program mining.

  14. Component-Based Model for Single-Plate Shear Connections with Pretension and Pinched Hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Jonathan M

    2017-02-01

    Component-based connection models provide a natural framework for modeling the complex behaviors of connections under extreme loads by capturing both the individual behaviors of the connection components, such as the bolt, shear plate, and beam web, and the complex interactions between those components. Component-based models also provide automatic coupling between the in-plane flexural and axial connection behaviors, a feature that is essential for modeling the behavior of connections under column removal. This paper presents a new component-based model for single-plate shear connections that includes the effects of pre-tension in the bolts and provides the capability to model standard and slotted holes. The component-based models are exercised under component-level deformations calculated from the connection demands via a practical rigid-body displacement model, so that the results of the presented modeling approach remains hand-calculable. Validation cases are presented for connections subjected to both seismic and column removal loading. These validation cases show that the component-based model is capable of predicting the response of single-plate shear connections for both seismic and column removal loads.

  15. A Metadata Model Based on Coupling Testing Information to Increase Testability of Component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Liang-li; GUO Fu-liang; WU Zhao-hui

    2008-01-01

    A software component must be tested every time it is reused in order to assure quality of component itself and system in which it is to be integrated. So how to increase testability of component has become a key technology in the software engineering community. Here a method is introduced to increase component testability. And meanings of component testability and relative effective ways to increase testability are summarized. Then definitions of component coupling testing criterion, DU-I (Definition-Use Information) and OP-Vs (Observation-Point Values) are given. Base on these, a definition-use table is introduced, which includes DU-A and OP-Vs item, to help component testers to understand and observe interior details about component under test better. Then a framework of testable component based on above DU-table is given. These facilities provide ways to detect errors, observe state variables by observation-points based monitor mechanism. Moreover, above methods are applied to our application developed by ourselves before, and some test cases are generated. Then our method is compared with Orso method and Kan method using the same example, presenting the comparison results. The results illustrate the validity of our method, effectively generating test cases and killing more mutants.

  16. Methods of Si based ceramic components volatilization control in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John; Dion Ouellet, Noemie

    2016-09-06

    A method of controlling volatilization of silicon based components in a gas turbine engine includes measuring, estimating and/or predicting a variable related to operation of the gas turbine engine; correlating the variable to determine an amount of silicon to control volatilization of the silicon based components in the gas turbine engine; and injecting silicon into the gas turbine engine to control volatilization of the silicon based components. A gas turbine with a compressor, combustion system, turbine section and silicon injection system may be controlled by a controller that implements the control method.

  17. Seismic Response of Base-Isolated Structures under Multi-component Ground Motion Excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of a base-isolated structure for multi-component random ground motion is presented. The mean square response of the system is obtained under different parametric variations. The effectiveness of main parameters and the torsional component during an earthquake is quantified with the help of the response ratio and the root mean square response with and without base isolation. It is observed that the base isolation has considerable influence on the response and the effect of the torsional component is not ignored.

  18. A CORBA BASED ARCHITECTURE FOR ACCESSING REUSABLE SOFTWARE COMPONENTS ON THE WEB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cenk ERDUR

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In a very near future, as a result of the continious growth of Internet and advances in networking technologies, Internet will become the common software repository for people and organizations who employ component based reuse approach in their software development life cycles. In order to use the reusable components such as source codes, analysis, designs, design patterns during new software development processes, environments that support the identification of the components over Internet are needed. Basic elements of such an environment are the coordinator programs which deliver user requests to appropriate component libraries, user interfaces for querying, and programs that wrap the component libraries. First, a CORBA based architecture is proposed for such an environment. Then, an alternative architecture that is based on the Java 2 platform technologies is given for the same environment. Finally, the two architectures are compared.

  19. EEG/fMRI fusion based on independent component analysis: integration of data-driven and model-driven methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xu; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A; Yao, Dezhong

    2012-09-01

    Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provide complementary noninvasive information of brain activity, and EEG/fMRI fusion can achieve higher spatiotemporal resolution than each modality separately. This focuses on independent component analysis (ICA)-based EEG/fMRI fusion. In order to appreciate the issues, we first describe the potential and limitations of the developed fusion approaches: fMRI-constrained EEG imaging, EEG-informed fMRI analysis, and symmetric fusion. We then outline some newly developed hybrid fusion techniques using ICA and the combination of data-/model-driven methods, with special mention of the spatiotemporal EEG/fMRI fusion (STEFF). Finally, we discuss the current trend in methodological development and the existing limitations for extrapolating neural dynamics.

  20. Mobile robot simultaneous localization and map building based on improved particle filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Maohai; Hong Bingrong; Wei Zhenhua

    2006-01-01

    We present an investigation into the use of pan tilt zoom camera and sonar sensors for simultaneous localization and mapping with artificial colored landmarks. An improved particle filter is applied to estimate a posterior of the pose of the robot, in which each particle has associated it with an entire map. The distributions of landmarks are also represented by particle sets, where separate particles are used to represent the robot and the landmarks. Hough transform is used to extract line segments from sonar observations and build map simultaneously. The key advantage of our method is that the full posterior over robot poses and landmarks can be nonlinearly approximated at every point in time by particles. Especially the landmarks are affixed on the moving robots, which can reduce the impact of the depletion problem and the impoverishment problem produced by basic particle filter. Experimental results show that this approach has advantages over the basic particle filter and the extended Kalman filter.

  1. Location-based Relay Selection and Power Adaptation Enabling Simultaneous Transmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Relaying is a well known technique to extend coverage and improve conditions for nodes in the outer coverage region. In this paper we propose a relaying scheme that exploits the spatial separation of relay and destination pairs to improve throughput by allowing simultaneous transmissions. The pro......Relaying is a well known technique to extend coverage and improve conditions for nodes in the outer coverage region. In this paper we propose a relaying scheme that exploits the spatial separation of relay and destination pairs to improve throughput by allowing simultaneous transmissions....... The proposed scheme is a cross-layer optimization for two-hop relaying that uses position information to jointly optimize relay selection and relay transmit power, maximizing Medium Access Control layer throughput. Further, in order to calculate the expected throughput, we apply a probabilistic model...

  2. A Simple Laser-Based Device for Simultaneous Microbial Culture and Absorbance Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Abrevaya, X C; Areso, O; Mauas, P J D

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present a device specifically designed to study microbial growth with several applications related to environmental microbiology and other areas of research as astrobiology. The Automated Measuring and Cultivation device (AMC-d) enables semi-continuous absorbance measurements directly during cultivation. It can measure simultaneously up to 16 samples. Growth curves using low and fast growing microorganism were plotted, including: Escherichia coli, and Haloferax volcanii, an halophilic archaeon.

  3. Study on the dynamic response analysis for evaluating the effectiveness of base isolation for nuclear components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kazunari; Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Shibata, Katsuyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    Introduction of the base isolation technique into the seismic design of nuclear power plant components as well as buildings has been expected as one of the effective countermeasure to reduce the seismic force applied to components. A research program on the base isolation of nuclear components has been carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) since 1991. A methodology and a computer code (EBISA: Equipment Base Insolation System Analysis) for evaluating the failure frequency of the nuclear component with the base isolation were developed. In addition, a test program, which is concerned with the above development, aiming at improvement of failure frequency analysis models in the code has been conducted since 1996 to investigate the dynamic behavior and to verify the effectiveness of component base isolation systems. In the failure frequency analysis, methodology for evaluating the actual dynamic responses of the nuclear components with the base isolation in detail has been examined. In the methodology, the actual responses are computed by considering the scatter in mechanical properties of rock masses, reactor building and components under many earthquake motions with various frequency characteristics. The failure frequency of component is computed as the conditional probability where the actual response exceeds the capacity of components. It is a very important in the above methodology to investigates the dynamic response analysis method for the ground, reactor building and nuclear components as well as the scattering factors in the dynamic analysis. This report describes the accuracy of the dynamic response analysis method and analysis models, and the influence of scatters in properties of rock masses and reactor building on the dynamic response. (author)

  4. Prediction of Pure Component Adsorption Equilibria Using an Adsorption Isotherm Equation Based on Vacancy Solution Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis; Aasberg-Petersen, K.; Krøll, Annette Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    An adsorption isotherm equation for nonideal pure component adsorption based on vacancy solution theory and the Non-Random-Two-Liquid (NRTL) equation is found to be useful for predicting pure component adsorption equilibria at a variety of conditions. The isotherm equation is evaluated successfully...... adsorption systems, spreading pressure and isosteric heat of adsorption are also calculated....

  5. A Study on Components of Internal Control-Based Administrative System in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montri, Paitoon; Sirisuth, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the components of the internal control-based administrative system in secondary schools, and make a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm the goodness of fit of empirical data and component model that resulted from the CFA. The study consisted of three steps: 1) studying of principles, ideas, and theories…

  6. Reducing the Runtime Acceptance Costs of Large-Scale Distributed Component-Based Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, A.; Piel, E.; Gross, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Software Systems of Systems (SoS) are large-scale distributed component-based systems in which the individual components are elaborate and complex systems in their own right. Distinguishing characteristics are their short expected integration and deployment time, and the need to modify their archite

  7. A Service Component-based Accounting and Charging Architecture to Support Interim Mechanisms across Multiple Domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, van M.; Beijnum, van B.J.F.; Huitema, G.B.

    2004-01-01

    Today, telematics services are often compositions of different chargeable service components offered by different service providers. To enhance component-based accounting and charging, the service composition information is used to match with the corresponding charging structure of a service session

  8. A service component-based accounting and charging architecture to support interim mechanisms across multiple domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, M. van; Beijnum, B.J.F. van; Huitema, G.B.

    2004-01-01

    Today, telematics services are often compositions of different chargeable service components offered by different service providers. To enhance component-based accounting and charging, the service composition information is used to match with the corresponding charging structure of a service session

  9. Slow component of VO2 kinetics: Mechanistic bases and practical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Andrew M; Grassi, Bruno; Christensen, Peter Møller

    2011-01-01

    state of knowledge concerning the mechanistic bases of the V¿O2 slow component and describes practical interventions which can attenuate the slow componentand thus enhance exercise tolerance. There is strong evidence that, during CWR exercise, the development of the V¿O2 slow component is associated...

  10. Simultaneous determination of cadaverine and putrescine using a disposable monoamine oxidase based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Escobar, Wilder; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Asunción Alonso-Lomillo, M; Julia Arcos-Martínez, M

    2013-12-15

    The selective and simultaneous amperometric determination of putrescine (Put) and cadaverine (Cad) has been carried out using a novel design of screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) with two working electrodes connected in array mode. A mixture of 3% of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), as mediator, and carbon ink was used for the construction of the screen-printed working electrode. The employment of different amounts of monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme on these modified TTF/SPCEs and the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) allowed performing the simultaneous determination of both analytes. The amperometric detection has been performed by measuring the oxidation current of the mediator at a potential of+250 mV vs. screen-printed Ag/AgCl reference electrode. A linear response in the Cad concentration range from 19.6 till 107.1 µM and from 9.9 till 74.1 μM for Put was obtained at the MAO/AuNPs/TTF/SPCE biosensor. This device showed a capability of detection of 9.9 and 19.9±0.9 µM (n=4 α=β=0.05) and a precision of 4.9% and 10.3% in terms of relative standard deviation for Put and Cad, respectively. The developed biosensor was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of Put and Cad in octopus samples.

  11. RF Front End Based on MEMS Components for Miniaturized Digital EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, AlphaSense, Inc. and the Carnegie Mellon University propose to develop a RF receiver front end based on CMOS-MEMS components for miniaturized...

  12. Synchronous Control of Reconfiguration in Fractal Component-based Systems -- a Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Bouhadiba, Tayeb; Delaval, Gwenaël; Rutten, Éric

    2011-01-01

    In the context of component-based embedded systems, the management of dynamic reconfiguration in adaptive systems is an increasingly important feature. The Fractal component-based framework, and its industrial instantiation MIND, provide for support for control operations in the lifecycle of components. Nevertheless, the use of complex and integrated architectures make the management of this reconfiguration operations difficult to handle by programmers. To address this issue, we propose to use Synchronous languages, which are a complete approach to the design of reactive systems, based on behavior models in the form of transition systems. Furthermore, the design of closed-loop reactive managers of reconfigurations can benefit from formal tools like Discrete Controller Synthesis. In this paper we describe an approach to concretely integrate synchronous reconfiguration managers in Fractal component-based systems. We describe how to model the state space of the control problem, and how to specify the control obj...

  13. RF Front End Based on MEMS Components for Miniaturized Digital EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, AlphaSense, Inc. (AI) and the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) detail the development of RF front end based on MEMS components for miniaturized...

  14. Model-Based Design Tools for Extending COTS Components To Extreme Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this project is model-based design (MBD) tools for predicting the performance and useful life of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components and...

  15. A Component-based Software Development and Execution Framework for CAx Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Matsuki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Digitalization of the manufacturing process and technologies is regarded as the key to increased competitive ability. The MZ-Platform infrastructure is a component-based software development framework, designed for supporting enterprises to enhance digitalized technologies using software tools and CAx components in a self-innovative way. In the paper we show the algorithm, system architecture, and a CAx application example on MZ-Platform. We also propose a new parametric data structure based on MZ-Platform.

  16. Component-based Software Design and Implementation for Network Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchao Han

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer network intrusion detection and prevention system consists of collecting network traffic data, discovering user behavior patterns as intrusion detection rules, and applying these rules to prevent malicious and misuse. Many commercial off-the-shelf (COTS products have been developed to perform each of these tasks. In this paper, the component-based software engineering approach is exploited to integrate these COTS products as components into a computerized system to automatically detect intrusion rules from network traffic data and setup IPTables to prevent future potential attacks. The component- based software architecture of this kind of system is designed, COTS components are analyzed and selected, adaptor components to connect COTS products are developed, the system implementation is illustrated, and the preliminary system experiment is presented.

  17. Bidirectional and simultaneous FTTX/Ethernet services using RSOA based remodulation and polarization multiplexing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindya S.; Patra, Ardhendu S.

    2015-08-01

    A bidirectional and simultaneous transmission of Ethernet, FTTX services through single optical carrier wavelength employing polarization multiplexing technique in the transmitter end and the user end. 10 Gbps and 2.5 Gbps datarates are transmitted over 50 km single mode fiber employing POLMUX technique at OLT and ONU to provide Ethernet and FTTX services concurrently to the user. Reflective semiconductor optical amplifier is used to reuse and remodulate the downlink signal to uplink transmission. The upstream and the downstream transmission performances are observed by the bit error rate values and the eye diagrams obtained by the BER analyzer.

  18. Multianalyte Biosensors for the Simultaneous Determination of Glucose and Galactose Based on Thin Film Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neng Qin JIA; Zong Rang ZHANG; Jiang Zhong ZHU; Guo Xiong ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    A multianalyte biosensor for the simultaneous determination of glucose and galactose was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) and galactose oxidase (GAO) on Nafion-modified thin film platinum disk electrodes. The dual Pt working electrodes with disk shape and the surrounding ring shaped counter electrode were fabricated by thin film technology, which were integrated onto the same microchip. The response of the designed biosensor for glucose and galactose were linear up to 6.0 mmol/L and 3.5 mmol/L with sensitivities of 0.3 (A/mmol/L and 0.12 μA/mmol/L, respectively. No cross-talking effect was observed.

  19. GPS-based ionospheric tomography with a constrained adaptive simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wen Debao; Zhang Xiao; Tong Yangjin; Zhang Guangsheng; Zhang Min; Leng Rusong

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a constrained adaptive simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (CASART) is presented to obtain high-quality reconstructions from insufficient projections. According to the continuous smoothness of the variations of ionospheric electron density (IED) among neighbouring voxels, Gauss weighted function is introduced to constrain the tomography system in the new method. It can resolve the dependence on the initial values for those voxels without any GPS rays traversing them. Numerical simulation scheme is devised to validate the feasibility of the new algorithm. Some comparisons are made to demonstrate the superiority of the new method. Finally, the actual GPS observations are applied to further validate the feasibility and superiority of the new algorithm.

  20. Gelatin-derived sustainable carbon-based functional materials for energy conversion and storage with controllability of structure and component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Li; Xu, Dan; Zhong, Hai-Xia; Wang, Jun; Meng, Fan-Lu; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2015-02-01

    Nonprecious carbon catalysts and electrodes are vital components in energy conversion and storage systems. Despite recent progress, controllable synthesis of carbon functional materials is still a great challenge. We report a novel strategy to prepare simultaneously Fe-N-C catalysts and Fe3O4/N-doped carbon hybrids based on the sol-gel chemistry of gelatin and iron with controllability of structure and component. The catalysts demonstrate higher catalytic activity and better durability for oxygen reduction than precious Pt/C catalysts. The active sites of FeN4/C (D1) and N-FeN2+2/C (D3) are identified by Mössbauer spectroscopy, and most of the Fe ions are converted into D1 or D3 species. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity correlates well with the surface area, porosity, and the content of active Fe-N x /C (D1 + D3) species. As an anode material for lithium storage, Fe3O4/carbon hybrids exhibit superior rate capability and excellent cycling performance. The synthetic approach and the proposed mechanism open new avenues for the development of sustainable carbon-based functional materials.

  1. Spectrophotometric Simultaneous Determination of Caffeine and Paracetamol in Commercial Pharmaceutical by Principal Component Regression, Partial Least Squares and Artificial Neural Networks Chemometric Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Aktaş, A. Hakan; Kitiş, Filiz

    2014-01-01

    Three multivariate calibration-prediction techniques, principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were applied to the spectrometric multicomponent analysis of the drug containing paracetamol (PCT) and caffeine (CAF) without any separation step. The selection of variables was studied. A series of synthetic solution containing different concentrations of PCT and CAF were used to check the prediction ability of the PCR, PLS and ANN. The ...

  2. Rapid simultaneous determination of twelve major components in Pien Tze Huang by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingqing; Zhao, Haiyu; Xu, Wei; Chu, Kedan; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun; Chen, Lidian

    2013-12-01

    An efficient method using ultra-performance LC coupled with triple quadrupole MS was developed for the rapid determination of 12 major active components in Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-known traditional Chinese formula. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters XBridge BEH RP18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm id, 1.7 μm) with a gradient mobile phase (A: 0.1% aqueous formic acid and B: acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The chromatographic peaks of 12 components were identified by comparing their retention time and MS data with the related reference compounds. Multiple-reaction monitoring was employed for the quantitative analysis. Ten batches of PZH were analyzed with a good linear regression relationship (r, 0.9987–0.9995), intraday precisions (RSD, 2.05–4.80%), interday precisions (RSD, 1.99–4.98%), repeatability (RSD, 2.21–4.20%), stability (RSD, 3.52–4.81%), and recovery (95.63–104.80%). By using this established method, the present study offered highly sensitive, specific, and speedy determination of 12 major components, which promoted the quality control investigation of PZH greatly.

  3. Simultaneous determination of trace iron and aluminum by catalytic spectrophotometry based on a novel oxidation reaction of xylene cyanol FF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Longfei; Xu, Chunxiu

    2008-06-01

    A new, simple, sensitive and selective method for the simultaneous determination of trace iron and aluminum by catalytic spectrophotometry was presented, based on the catalytic effects of iron and aluminum on the discoloring reaction of xylene cyanol FF proceeded by hydrogen peroxide and potassium periodate in weak nitric acid medium. No catalytic effect was obtained in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or potassium periodate only. With the conditional rate constants determined in reaction systems catalyzed by Al or Fe only, the concentrations of Fe and Al in the samples can be calculated. The method was applied to the simultaneous determination of trace Fe and Al in tap water, lake water, river water and tea leaves without separation and preconcentration.

  4. Heterotrophic and elemental-sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification processes for simultaneous nitrate and Cr(VI) reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Kilic, Adem

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate and chromate can be present together in water resources as nitrate is a common co-contaminant in surface and ground waters. This study aims at comparatively evaluating simultaneous chromate and nitrate reduction in heterotrophic and sulfur-based autotrophic denitrifying column bioreactors. In sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification process, elemental sulfur and nitrate act as an electron donor and an acceptor, respectively, without requirement of organic supplementation. Autotrophic denitrification was complete and not adversely affected by chromate up to 0.5 mg/L. Effluent chromate concentration was water treatment due to the elimination of organic supplementation and the risk of treated effluent contamination.

  5. Simultaneous detoxification and bioethanol fermentation of furans-rich synthetic hydrolysate by digestate-based pyrochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambusiti, C; Monlau, F; Antoniou, N; Zabaniotou, A; Barakat, A

    2016-12-01

    Pyrolysis is a sustainable pathway to transform renewable biomasses into both biofuels and advanced carbonaceous materials (i.e. pyrochar) which can be used as adsorbent of furan compounds. In particular, the aim of this study was to: i) evaluate the effect of vibro-ball milling on physical characteristics of pyrochar and its consequent performance on solely detoxification of a synthetic medium, containing furans and soluble sugars; ii) study the simultaneous detoxification and bioethanol fermentation, by adding activated pyrochar into fermentation medium. Results demonstrated that, compared to untreated pyrochar, the use of milled pyrochar increased by 52% furfural removal from the synthetic medium. Furfural removal rate was also increased (adsorption kinetic constant increased from 0.015 min(-1) up to 0.215 min(-1)), at a pyrochar loading of 40 g L(-1). Although, the simultaneous addition of pyrochar into the fermentation medium did not improve the bioethanol yield of the synthetic medium, it has significantly increased the bioethanol production rate.

  6. Investigation of variable spindle speed in slow tool servo-based turning of noncircular optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihai; Yu, Deping; Chen, Dongsheng; Zhang, Min; Liu, Jinguang; Yao, Jin

    2016-10-01

    Ultra-precision noncircular optical components, e.g. hyperbolic quadrupole in mass spectrometer, can be machined by diamond turning assisted by slow tool servo (STS). However, the bandwidth of STS is usually small, which limits the STS's capability in following the required tool path, leading to a large form error. To reduce the form error, this paper proposes an approach to apply variable spindle speed (VSS) to STS-based turning. Design of the VSS trajectory based on the noncircular profile of the optical component was investigated in detail. To validate the proposed approach, simulation on the application of VSS in the STS-based turning process was established and applied to the machining of typical noncircular optical components. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is effective in reducing the requirement on the bandwidth of the STS, resulting in higher form accuracy of the machined noncircular optical components.

  7. Textile-Based Electronic Components for Energy Applications: Principles, Problems, and Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Kaushik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Textile-based electronic components have gained interest in the fields of science and technology. Recent developments in nanotechnology have enabled the integration of electronic components into textiles while retaining desirable characteristics such as flexibility, strength, and conductivity. Various materials were investigated in detail to obtain current conductive textile technology, and the integration of electronic components into these textiles shows great promise for common everyday applications. The harvest and storage of energy in textile electronics is a challenge that requires further attention in order to enable complete adoption of this technology in practical implementations. This review focuses on the various conductive textiles, their methods of preparation, and textile-based electronic components. We also focus on fabrication and the function of textile-based energy harvesting and storage devices, discuss their fundamental limitations, and suggest new areas of study.

  8. Chromatographic Fingerprint and the Simultaneous Determination of Five Bioactive Components of Geranium carolinianum L. Water Extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fang Liu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive HPLC method has been developed in combination with fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of five markers, namely gallic acid, corilagin, methyl brevifolincarboxylate, ellagic acid and rutin for evaluation and quality control of Geranium carolinianum L. water extract. Extraction methods were optimized by comparing the hydrolysis efficiency of geraniin, a major tannin of the herb, resulting in the method of extraction with water under reflux. Water extracts were analyzed by HPLC, with a mobile phase of 0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid (v/v and acetonitrile in a gradient program within 65 min. Compounds were detected at 274 nm UV wavelength. For fingerprint analysis, 17 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of different samples collected from the suburb of Nanjing. The correlation coefficients of similarity were greater than 0.993. In quantitative analysis, the five selected markers showed good regression (R > 0.9991 within test ranges, and the average recoveries were between 97.2–101.7% and their RSD values were less than 4.50%. The total contents of the five markers varied from 44.28 to 71.84 mg/g. The method can be very useful for further development of G. carolinianum L. extracts and preparations.

  9. Simultaneous Determination and Pharmacokinetic Study of Six Components in Rat Plasma by HPLC-MS/MS after Oral Administration of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Fruit Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Du

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A specific and reliable HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of protocatechuic acid (PCA, scopolin, (−-pinoresinol-4,4′-di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (PDG, acanthoside D, acanthoside B and hyperin in rat plasma for the first time. The analytes were separated on a C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI source was used for detection. The rat plasma sample was prepared using the protein precipitation procedure. The calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 1.2–1200.0 ng/mL for PCA, 0.96–960.0 ng/mL for scopolin, 1.12–1120.0 ng/mL for PDG, 1.32–1320.0 ng/mL for acanthoside D, 0.99–990.0 ng/mL for acanthoside B and 1.01–1010.0 ng/mL for hyperin. The intra-day and inter-day precision was less than 11.4% and the relative error (RE was all within ±15%. The validated method was successfully applied to assess the pharmacokinetics characteristics after the extracts of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits were orally administered to the Sprague-Dawley rat.

  10. A Model-Based Methodology for Simultaneous Design and Control of a Bioethanol Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Abd.Hamid, Mohd-Kamaruddin; Sin, Gürkan

    2010-01-01

    . The PGC methodology is used to generate more efficient separation designs in terms of energy consumption by targeting the separation task at the largest DF. Both methodologies are highlighted through the application of two case studies, a bioethanol production process and a succinic acid production......In this work, a framework for the simultaneous solution of design and control problems is presented. Within this framework, two methodologies are presented, the integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) methodology and the process-group contribution (PGC) methodology. The concepts...... of attainable region (AR), driving force (DF), process-group (PG) and reverse simulation are used within these methodologies. The IPDC methodology is used to find the optimal design-control strategy of a process by locating the maximum point in the AR and DF diagrams for reactor and separator, respectively...

  11. An rpoB gene-based PCR-DGGE method for simultaneous detection of multiple Vibrio species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Peng; Hu Chaoqun; Ren Chunhua; Zhang Lvping

    2008-01-01

    Using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting the RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) gene, a simultaneous detection method for Vibrio species was established. rpoB gene-based PCR-DGGE was carried out with eight Vibrio Reference strains (each from different species), mixed sample (including these Vibrio Reference strains),two non Vibrio strains, four environmental Vibrio strains, and three unidentified environmental strains. For comparison, 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-DGGE of the eight Vibrio Reference strains was performed with universal primers. In addition, three unidentified strains were identified by 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequencing and API20E system in order to confirm the accuracy of rpoB gene-based PCR-DGGE detection. Results revealed that rpoB-based PCR-DGGE could well discriminate eight Vibrio Reference strains and could not discriminate different strains within the same species. The bands derived from two non Vibrio strains could not match with any bands in Reference marker. Meanwhile, 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE failed to distinguish these Reference strains. Furthermore, four out of eight Vibrio species exhibited heterogenous bands in 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE. Sequencing and API 20E identification of unidentified strains coincided with the detection by rpoB gene-based PCR-DGGE. The results demonstrated that rpoB-based PCR-DGGE provided a rapid and efficient method for simultaneous detection of multiple Vibrio species, which can avoid the limitations inherent in 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-DGGE.

  12. Fuzzy, copper-based multi-functional composite particles serving simultaneous catalytic and signal-enhancing roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangming; Hu, Yingmo; An, Qi; Luan, Xinglong; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Yihe

    2016-04-01

    Multifunctional plasmonic particles serving simultaneously as catalysts and label-free reporting agents are highly pursued due to their great potential in enhancing reaction operational efficiencies. Copper is an abundant and economic resource, and it possesses practical applicability in industries, but no dual-functional copper-based catalytic and self-reporting particles have been reported so far. This study proposes a facile strategy to prepare high-performance dual-functional copper-based composite particles that catalyze reactions and simultaneously serve as a SERS (surface enhanced Raman spectra) active, label-free reporting agent. Polyelectrolyte-modified reduced graphene oxide particles are used as the reactive precursors in the fabrication method. Upon adding Cu(NO3)2 solutions into the precursor dispersions, composite particles comprised by copper/copper oxide core and polyelectrolyte-graphene shell were facilely obtained under sonication. The as-prepared composite particles efficiently catalyzed the conversion of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol and simultaneously acted as the SERS-active substrate to give enhanced Raman spectra of the produced 4-aminophenol. Taking advantage of the assembling capabilities of polyelectrolyte shells, the composite particles could be further assembled onto a planar substrate to catalyze organic reactions, facilitating their application in various conditions. We expect this report to promote the fabrication and application of copper-based multifunctional particles.Multifunctional plasmonic particles serving simultaneously as catalysts and label-free reporting agents are highly pursued due to their great potential in enhancing reaction operational efficiencies. Copper is an abundant and economic resource, and it possesses practical applicability in industries, but no dual-functional copper-based catalytic and self-reporting particles have been reported so far. This study proposes a facile strategy to prepare high

  13. Refinement and verification in component-based model-driven design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhenbang; Liu, Zhiming; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2009-01-01

    Modern software development is complex as it has to deal with many different and yet related aspects of applications. In practical software engineering this is now handled by a UML-like modelling approach in which different aspects are modelled by different notations. Component-based and object...... of Refinement of Component and Object Systems (rCOS) and illustrates it with experiences from the work on the Common Component Modelling Example (CoCoME). This gives evidence that the formal techniques developed in rCOS can be integrated into a model-driven development process and shows where it may...

  14. Mixture gas component concentration analysis based on support vector machine and infrared spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Bai; Junhua Liu

    2006-01-01

    @@ A novel quantitative analysis method of multi-component mixture gas concentration based on support vector machine (SVM) and spectroscopy is proposed. Through transformation of the kernel function, the seriously overlapped and nonlinear spectrum data are transformed in high-dimensional space, but the highdimensional data can be processed in the original space. Some factors, such as kernel function, range of the wavelength, and penalty coefficient, are discussed. This method is applied to the quantitative analysis of natural gas components concentration, and the component concentration maximal deviation is 2.28%.

  15. Multi-Step Deep Reactive Ion Etching Fabrication Process for Silicon-Based Terahertz Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung-Kubiak, Cecile (Inventor); Reck, Theodore (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Perez, Jose Vicente Siles (Inventor); Lin, Robert H. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Cooper, Ken B. (Inventor); Peralta, Alejandro (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A multi-step silicon etching process has been developed to fabricate silicon-based terahertz (THz) waveguide components. This technique provides precise dimensional control across multiple etch depths with batch processing capabilities. Nonlinear and passive components such as mixers and multipliers waveguides, hybrids, OMTs and twists have been fabricated and integrated into a small silicon package. This fabrication technique enables a wafer-stacking architecture to provide ultra-compact multi-pixel receiver front-ends in the THz range.

  16. Small Target Extraction Based on Independent Component Analysis for Hyperspectral Imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei; YU Xuchu

    2006-01-01

    A small target detection approach based on independent component analysis for hyperspectral data is put forward. In this algorithm, firstly the fast independent component analysis(FICA) is used to collect target information hided in high-dimensional data and projects them into low-dimensional space.Secondly, the feature images are selected with kurtosis .At last, small targets are extracted with histogram image segmentation which has been labeled by skewness.

  17. Deep Eutectic Solvent-Based Microwave-Assisted Method for Extraction of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep eutectic solvents (DESs have attracted significant attention as a promising green media. In this work, twenty-five kinds of benign choline chloride-based DESs with microwave-assisted methods were applied to quickly extract active components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae. The extraction factors, including temperature, time, power of microwave, and solid/liquid ratio, were investigated systematically by response surface methodology. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic ingredients were extracted simultaneously under the optimized conditions: 20 vol% of water in choline chloride/1,2-propanediol (1:1, molar ratio as solvent, microwave power of 800 W, temperature at 70 °C, time at 11.11 min, and solid/liquid ratio of 0.007 g·mL−1. The extraction yield was comparable to, or even better than, conventional methods with organic solvents. The microstructure alteration of samples before and after extraction was also investigated. The method validation was tested as the linearity of analytes (r2 > 0.9997 over two orders of magnitude, precision (intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD < 2.49 and inter-day RSD < 2.96, and accuracy (recoveries ranging from 95.04% to 99.93%. The proposed DESs combined with the microwave-assisted method provided a prominent advantage for fast and efficient extraction of active components, and DESs could be extended as solvents to extract and analyze complex environmental and pharmaceutical samples.

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Five Components in Tangminlingwan by HPLC%HPLC同时测定糖敏灵丸中5种成分的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷定超; 鄂秀辉; 张兰兰; 周水平; 闫希军

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish an HPLC method for simultaneous detemination of albiflorin, paeoniflorin, naringin, neohesperidin and baicalin in Tangminlingwan. Method; The chromatographic method was carried out on an Aglient Zorbax SB-C18 column (4.6 mm ×250 mm, 5 μm) with acetonitrile-0. 05% phosphoric acid solution as the mobile phase by gradient elution. The flow rate was 1 mL μ min-1. The detectiort was set at the wavelength of 230 nm. The column temperature was at 30 T . Result: The linear ranges of albiflorin, paeoniflorin, naringin, neohesperidin and baicalin were 0.008-0.320, 0.021-0.832, 0.088-3.52, 0. 124-4.96 and 0.086-3.44 μg (r ≥0.999 9, n=7), respectively. The average recoeries were 99.7% ( RSD 2. 0% ) , 100.1% (RSD 1.8%), 100. 1 % ( RSD 1. 5% ), 100. 0% ( RSD 2. 4% ) and 103. 6% ( RSD 2. 4% ), respectively. Conclusion; The method is simple, accurate and reproducible.%目的:建立HPLC同时测定糖敏灵丸中芍药内酯苷、芍药苷、柚皮苷、新橙皮苷及黄芩苷含量的方法.方法:采用Aglient ZorbaxSB-C18色谱柱(4.6 mm × 250 mm,5μm),以0.05%磷酸水溶液-乙腈为流动相进行梯度洗脱,流速1 mL·min-1,检测波长230 nm,柱温30℃.结果:芍药内酯苷、芍药苷、柚皮苷、新橙皮苷及黄芩昔的线性范围分别为0.008~0.320,0.021 ~0.832,0.088 ~3.52,0.124~4.96,0.086 ~3.44 μg(r≥0.999 9,n=7);平均回收率(n=6)分别为99.7%( RSD2.0%),100.1%( RSD 1.8%),100.1%( RSD 1.5%),100.0% (RSD2.4%),103.6%( RSD 2.4%).结论:所建立的HPLC方法简便,结果准确、可靠,重复性好.

  19. Simultaneous High Performance Liquid Chromatography Assay of Pentoxifylline, Mupirocin, Itraconazole, and Fluticasone Propionate in Humco™ Lavare Wound Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Purvis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article details the elements used in the method verification for the simultaneous high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC assay of Pentoxifylline, Mupirocin, Itraconazole, and Fluticasone Propionate in Humco™ Lavare Wound base. The method was proven to be linear over 50%–150% of the nominal concentration of the standards. The method was proven to be accurate over 50%–150%, with 98%–102% recovery of the actives from spiked placeboes over that range. The method was shown to be specific to the analytes listed and precise, yielding acceptable results for system reproducibility and method repeatability. The method, as written, is considered to have been verified.

  20. Ca analysis: an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular calcium transients including multiple, simultaneous regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensmith, David J

    2014-01-01

    Here I present an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular Ca transients recorded using fluorescent indicators. The program can perform all the necessary steps which convert recorded raw voltage changes into meaningful physiological information. The program performs two fundamental processes. (1) It can prepare the raw signal by several methods. (2) It can then be used to analyze the prepared data to provide information such as absolute intracellular Ca levels. Also, the rates of change of Ca can be measured using multiple, simultaneous regression analysis. I demonstrate that this program performs equally well as commercially available software, but has numerous advantages, namely creating a simplified, self-contained analysis workflow.

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Two Effective Components in Cistanche by Quantitative Analysis of Multi-components by Single-marker%一测多评法测定肉苁蓉中2种有效成分的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任荣军

    2015-01-01

    目的::建立同时测定肉苁蓉中松果菊苷、毛蕊花糖苷的高效液相色谱一测多评法。方法:以松果菊苷和毛蕊花糖苷为考察指标,建立两者间的相对校正因子,并用校正因子计算另一个成分的含量,将一测多评法的计算值与外标法实测值进行比较。结果:建立的相对校正因子重现性良好,采用校正因子计算的含量值和外标法实测值之间没有显著性差异。结论:同时测定肉苁蓉中2种成分的一测多评法方法可靠,结果准确,可用于控制肉苁蓉药材及其饮片的质量。%To establish a determination method for two effective components echinacoside and acteoside in cistanche by quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker ( QAMS) . Methods:With echinacea glycosides and mullein indican as the examining indices, the relative correction factor ( RCF) between echinacea glycosides and mullein indican was established, and then used to calculate the content of the other components. Meanwhile, the calculated value was compared with that of the external standard method. Results:The RCFs had good reproducibility without significant differences between the quantitative results of QAMS method and those of the external standard method. Conclusion:The described method is reliable and accurate, and can be used to control the quality of echinacoside and acteoside in cistanche.

  2. The use of principle component and cluster analyses to differentiate banana pulp flours based on starch and dietary fiber components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Saifullah Bin; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Yong, Yeoh Shin; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2009-01-01

    Flour prepared from green and ripe Cavendish and Dream banana fruits were assessed for total starch, digestible starch, resistant starch, total dietary fiber, soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber. Principle component analysis identified only one component responsible for explaining 83.83% of the total variance in the starch and dietary fiber components data to indicate that ripe banana flour had different characteristics from the green. Cluster analysis applied on similar data obtained two statistically significant clusters of green and ripe banana to indicate difference in behaviors according to the stages of ripeness. In conclusion, starch and dietary fiber components could be used to discriminate between flour prepared from fruits of different stage of ripeness. Results are also suggestive of the potential of green as well as the ripe banana flour as functional ingredients in food.

  3. Accelerated solvent extraction for GC-based tobacco fingerprinting and its comparison with simultaneous distillation and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Pang, Tao; Guo, Ziming; Li, Yanli; Wang, Xiaolin; Deng, Jianhua; Zhong, Kejun; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2010-04-15

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) procedure has been developed as a pretreatment method for chemical fingerprinting of volatile and semi-volatile components in cut tobacco. The ASE extraction conditions including temperature, operation pressure and extraction cycles were optimized to maximize extraction yield. The method was validated with repeatability, recovery and linearity. Compared with simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), ASE provides higher extraction yields, less extraction time, lower solvent consumption and less labor time, and is more suitable for tobacco sample preparation. A typical ASE extract was analyzed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). A total of 305 components with signal-to-noise ratio higher than 100 were tentatively identified by NIST05 and Wiley database. Finally, 36 cigarette samples from six cigarette brands were analyzed using the developed chemical fingerprinting method. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis shows good discrimination of different cigarette brands. The results indicate that ASE method can serve as high-throughput sample preparation technique for cigarette chemical fingerprint analysis.

  4. Nonbulk motion system for simultaneously measuring the refractive index and thickness of a sample using tunable optics and spatial signal processing-based Gaussian beam imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Syed Azer; Qasim, Muhammad

    2016-01-10

    This paper presents a novel approach to simultaneously measuring the thickness and refractive index of a sample. The design uses an electronically controlled tunable lens (ECTL) and a microelectromechanical-system-based digital micromirror device (DMD). The method achieves the desired results by using the DMD to characterize the spatial profile of a Gaussian laser beam at different focal length settings of the ECTL. The ECTL achieves tunable lensing through minimal motion of liquid inside a transparent casing, whereas the DMD contains an array of movable micromirrors, which make it a reflective spatial light modulator. As the proposed system uses an ECTL, a DMD, and other fixed optical components, it measures the thickness and refractive index without requiring any motion of bulk components such as translational and rotational stages. A motion-free system improves measurement repeatability and reliability. Moreover, the measurement of sample thickness and refractive index can be completely automated because the ECTL and DMD are controlled through digital signals. We develop and discuss the theory in detail to explain the measurement methodology of the proposed system and present results from experiments performed to verify the working principle of the method. Refractive index measurement accuracies of 0.22% and 0.2% were achieved for two BK-7 glass samples used, and the thicknesses of the two samples were measured with a 0.1 mm accuracy for each sample, corresponding to a 0.39% and 0.78% measurement error, respectively, for the aforementioned samples.

  5. Analysis of aroma components in fermented sausage of simultaneous inoculation%不同菌种对中式发酵香肠风味的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷华威; 李榕; 樊康; 董明盛; 陈晓红

    2011-01-01

    研究在不同菌种组合的发酵剂作用下,发酵香肠成熟过程中风味物质的构成和数量的变化.采用固相微萃取—气相色谱—质谱( SPME- GC- MS)联用分析技术对发酵香肠挥发性风味组分进行分析,确定香肠的主体风味物质主要是醛类、醇类、酯类和酸类4类物质.证明魏斯菌和植物乳杆菌混合接种发酵更有益于香肠主体风味物质的产生.%Studied the changes of flavor composition and volume during the fermenting and ripening process of sausages were studied in this paper. The volatile components in fermented sausage were analyzed by solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatog-raphy/mass spcctrometry CGC/MS). Through the analysis of flavor compounds, aldehydesialcohols, esters and acids are the mainly flavor substances. And finalized the mixed inoculated fermentation is more useful for the sausage flavor.

  6. Optimization of rice wine fermentation process based on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation kinetic model☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengfeng Liu; Hongtao Zhang; Chi-Chung Lin; Baoguo Xu

    2016-01-01

    Chinese rice wine making is a typical simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. During the fermentation process, temperature is one of the key parameters which decide the quality of Chinese rice wine. To optimize the SSF process for Chinese rice wine brewing, the effects of temperature on the kinetic parameters of yeast growth and ethanol production at various temperatures were determined in batch cultures using a math-ematical model. The kinetic parameters as a function of temperature were evaluated using the software Origin8.0. Combing these functions with the mathematical model, an appropriate form of the model equations for the SSF considering the effects of temperature were developed. The kinetic parameters were found to fit the experimental data satisfactorily with the developed temperature-dependent model. The temperature profile for maximizing the ethanol production for rice wine fermentation was determined by genetic algorithm. The op-timum temperature profile began at a low temperature of 26 °C up to 30 h. The operating temperature increased rapidly to 31.9 °C, and then decreased slowly to 18 °C at 65 h. Thereafter, the temperature was maintained at 18 °C until the end of fermentation. A maximum ethanol production of 89.3 g·L−1 was attained. Conceivably, our model would facilitate the improvement of Chinese rice wine production at the industrial scale.

  7. Bioimpedance-based measurement method for simultaneous acquisition of respiratory and cardiac gating signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivumäki, T; Vauhkonen, M; Kuikka, J T; Hakulinen, M A

    2012-08-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motion artefacts impair the quality and reliability of medical imaging, particularly in nuclear medicine. At worst, the interpretation of distorted images may lead to inadequate or unnecessary treatment. Image artefacts can be minimized by gating the image acquisition according to respiratory phase and cardiac contractions. However, currently there are no clinically established dual-gating methods in nuclear medicine imaging. The aim of this study is to validate a previously determined optimized bioimpedance measurement configuration against traditional respiratory and cardiac measurement systems in 12 volunteers. High agreement and excellent correlations (r = 0.944-0.999) were found between respiratory peak-to-peak amplitudes as well as temporal respiratory and cardiac intervals. Above all, good quality respiratory and cardiac gating signals were obtained from all test subjects with a fairly regular sinus rhythm. Importantly, both signals were acquired simultaneously with a single device. Due to the simplicity of this inexpensive method, the technique has high potential to be adopted for dual-gating in clinical practice in the future.

  8. Wavelet decomposition based principal component analysis for face recognition using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Sharma, Shashikant; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn; Ranjan, Aashish

    2016-03-01

    For the realization of face recognition systems in the static as well as in the real time frame, algorithms such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, linear discriminate analysis, neural networks and genetic algorithms are used for decades. This paper discusses an approach which is a wavelet decomposition based principal component analysis for face recognition. Principal component analysis is chosen over other algorithms due to its relative simplicity, efficiency, and robustness features. The term face recognition stands for identifying a person from his facial gestures and having resemblance with factor analysis in some sense, i.e. extraction of the principal component of an image. Principal component analysis is subjected to some drawbacks, mainly the poor discriminatory power and the large computational load in finding eigenvectors, in particular. These drawbacks can be greatly reduced by combining both wavelet transform decomposition for feature extraction and principal component analysis for pattern representation and classification together, by analyzing the facial gestures into space and time domain, where, frequency and time are used interchangeably. From the experimental results, it is envisaged that this face recognition method has made a significant percentage improvement in recognition rate as well as having a better computational efficiency.

  9. Spectral discrimination of bleached and healthy submerged corals based on principal components analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, H.; LeDrew, E. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-06-01

    Remote discrimination of substrate types in relatively shallow coastal waters has been limited by the spatial and spectral resolution of available sensors. An additional limiting factor is the strong attenuating influence of the water column over the substrate. As a result, there have been limited attempts to map submerged ecosystems such as coral reefs based on spectral characteristics. Both healthy and bleached corals were measured at depth with a hand-held spectroradiometer, and their spectra compared. Two separate principal components analyses (PCA) were performed on two sets of spectral data. The PCA revealed that there is indeed a spectral difference based on health. In the first data set, the first component (healthy coral) explains 46.82%, while the second component (bleached coral) explains 46.35% of the variance. In the second data set, the first component (bleached coral) explained 46.99%; the second component (healthy coral) explained 36.55%; and the third component (healthy coral) explained 15.44 % of the total variance in the original data. These results are encouraging with respect to using an airborne spectroradiometer to identify areas of bleached corals thus enabling accurate monitoring over time.

  10. Predictive based monitoring of nuclear plant component degradation using support vector regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Dept. of Human Factors, Controls, Statistics; Alamaniotis, Miltiadis [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Nuclear Engineering; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Nuclear Engineering

    2015-02-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are large installations comprised of many active and passive assets. Degradation monitoring of all these assets is expensive (labor cost) and highly demanding task. In this paper a framework based on Support Vector Regression (SVR) for online surveillance of critical parameter degradation of NPP components is proposed. In this case, on time replacement or maintenance of components will prevent potential plant malfunctions, and reduce the overall operational cost. In the current work, we apply SVR equipped with a Gaussian kernel function to monitor components. Monitoring includes the one-step-ahead prediction of the component’s respective operational quantity using the SVR model, while the SVR model is trained using a set of previous recorded degradation histories of similar components. Predictive capability of the model is evaluated upon arrival of a sensor measurement, which is compared to the component failure threshold. A maintenance decision is based on a fuzzy inference system that utilizes three parameters: (i) prediction evaluation in the previous steps, (ii) predicted value of the current step, (iii) and difference of current predicted value with components failure thresholds. The proposed framework will be tested on turbine blade degradation data.

  11. Selection of Component Codes for Turbo Coding Based on Convergence properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1999-01-01

    on the performance at high SNR's. We will show that it is important to base the choice on the performance at low SNR's, i.e. the convergence properties, as well. Further, the study of the performance with different component codes may lead to an understanding of the convergence process in the turbo codes.......The turbo decoding is a sub-optimal decoding, i.e. it is not a maximum likelihood decoding. It is important to be aware of this fact when the parameters for the scheme are chosen. This goes especially for the selection of component codes, where the selection often has been based solely...

  12. Towards a Component Framework for Architecture-Based Self-Adaptive Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yu; MA Xiaoxing; TAO Xianping; LU Jian

    2006-01-01

    Self-adaptive software is an efficient way to cope with highly dynamic nature of the environment where it is situated. In this paper, from the perspective of software architecture, we propose a component framework for supporting the architecture-based design and development of self-adaptive applications. It captures some key elements of the research on software architecture and provides more flexible facilities to decouple interacting components. Based on that, a prototype is implemented to demonstrate its feasibility, and at last a case study is presented to illustrate our framework.

  13. Component-Based Development of Runtime Observers in the COMDES Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Wei; Li, Gang; Angelov, Christo K.;

    2013-01-01

    Formal verification methods, such as exhaustive model checking, are often infeasible because of high computational complexity. Runtime observers (monitors) provide an alternative, light-weight verification method, which offers a non-exhaustive but still feasible approach to monitor system behavior...... against formally specified properties. This paper presents a component-based design method for runtime observers in the context of COMDES framework—a component-based framework for distributed embedded system and its supporting tools. Therefore, runtime verification is facilitated by model...

  14. Cross-talk-free simultaneous fluoroimmunoassay of two biomarkers based on dual-color quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Zhijuan; Li Huan [School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Lau Choiwan, E-mail: cyliu@shmu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Zhang Yuhao, E-mail: zhang.yuhao@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Hospital, 180 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2011-07-18

    Highlights: {yields} A new cross-talk-free duplex fluoroimmunoassay for cancer related biomarkers was developed using multiple QD as detection elements with the LOD of 0.625 ng/mL. {yields} A fast homogeneous immunoreaction as well as a simple heterogeneous separation process was achieved by the coupling of the submicrometer-sized polystyrene microspheres as the carrier and the 96-well filter plate as the reaction and separation container. {yields} This new approach could also be extended to detect other biomarkers relating to other cancers, such as alpha fetoprotein and prostate specific antigen associated with liver cancer and prostrate cancer, etc. - Abstract: In this article, we demonstrate the fabrication and simultaneous fluorescent detection of two biomarkers related to lung cancer. Polystyrene microspheres (PSM) were introduced as biomolecular immobilizing carriers and a 96-well filter plate was used as the separation platform. The whole experiment could be effectively carried out in a homogeneous system, as exemplified by the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and neuron specific enolase (NSE). First, two capture antibodies for CEA and NSE were immobilized on the PSM surface. Next, they reacted successively with two antigens and two modified detection antibodies. Finally, these two biomarkers could be recognized by streptavidin-conjugated quantum dots (QD) and goat-anti-FITC conjugated QD with a detection limit of 0.625 ng mL{sup -1}, which was lower than the clinical cut-off level. The protocol showed good precision within 6.36% and good recovery in the range of 90.86-105.02%. Compared with several other assay formats reported previously, our new technique is competitive or even better. Furthermore, the immunosensor was successfully illustrated in 20 serum samples. Overall, this new immunoassay offers a promising alternative for the detection of biomarkers related to cancer diseases, taking advantage of simplicity, specificity, sensitivity and

  15. Crop area and leaf area index simultaneous retrieval based on spatial scaling transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Accurate estimation of crop yields is crucial for ensuring food security. However, crops are distributed so fragmentally in China that mixed pixels account for a large proportion in moderate and coarse resolution remote sensing images. As a result, unmixing of mixed pixel becomes a major problem to estimate crop yield by means of remote sensing method. Aimed at mixed pixels, we developed a new method to introduce additional information contained in the spatial scaling transformation equation to the canopy reflectance model. The crop area and LAI can be retrieved simultaneously. On the basis of a precise and simple canopy reflectance model, directional second derivative method was chosen to retrieve LAI from optimal bands of hyper-spectral data; this method can reduce the impact of the canopy non-isotropic features and soil background. To evaluate the performance of the method, Yingke Oasis, Zhangye City, Gansu Province, was chosen as the validation area. This area was covered mainly by maize and wheat. A Hyperion/EO-1 image with the 30 m spatial resolution was acquired on July 15, 2008. Images of 180 m and 1080 m resolutions were generated by linearly interpolating the original Hyperion image to coarser resolutions. Then a multi-scale image serial was obtained. Using the proposed method, we calculated crop area and the average LAI of every 1080 m pixel. A SPOT-5 classification figure serves as the validation data of crop area proportion. Results show that the pattern of crop distribution accords with the classification figure. The errors are restrained mainly to -0.1-0.1, and approximate a Normal Distribution. Meanwhile, 85 LAI values obtained using LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer, equipped with GPS, were taken as the ground reference. Results show that the standard deviation of the errors is 0.340. The method proposed in the paper is reliable.

  16. Simultaneous biosorption of selenium, arsenic and molybdenum with modified algal-based biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Charlotte L; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Roberts, David A

    2016-01-01

    Ash disposal waters from coal-fired power stations present a challenging water treatment scenario as they contain high concentrations of the oxyanions Se, As and Mo which are difficult to remove through conventional techniques. In an innovative process, macroalgae can be treated with Fe and processed through slow pyrolysis into Fe-biochar which has a high affinity for oxyanions. However, the effect of production conditions on the efficacy of Fe-biochar is poorly understood. We produced Fe-biochar from two algal sources; "Gracilaria waste" (organic remnants after agar is extracted from cultivated Gracilaria) and the freshwater macroalgae Oedogonium. Pyrolysis experiments tested the effects of the concentration of Fe(3+) in pre-treatment, and pyrolysis temperatures, on the efficacy of the Fe-biochar. The efficacy of Fe-biochar increased with increasing concentrations of Fe(3+) in the pre-treatment solutions, and decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. The optimized Fe-biochar for each biomass was produced by treatment with a 12.5% w/v Fe(3+) solution, followed by slow pyrolysis at 300 °C. The Fe-biochar produced in this way had higher a biosorption capacity for As and Mo (62.5-80.7 and 67.4-78.5 mg g(-1) respectively) than Se (14.9-38.8 mg g(-1)) in single-element mock effluents, and the Fe-biochar produced from Oedogonium had a higher capacity for all elements than the Fe-biochar produced from Gracilaria waste. Regardless, the optimal Fe-biochars from both biomass sources were able to effectively treat Se, As and Mo simultaneously in an ash disposal effluent from a power station. The production of Fe-biochar from macroalgae is a promising technique for treatment of complex effluents containing oxyanions.

  17. Simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid based on tryptophan functionalized graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Qianwen; He, Zhifang; He, Qian; Luo, Ai; Yan, Kaiwang; Zhang, Dongxia [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry and Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Geography and Environment Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Lu, Xiaoquan, E-mail: Luxq@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry and Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Zhou, Xibin, E-mail: zhouxb@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry and Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Geography and Environment Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Trp-GR was synthesized by utilizing a facile ultrasonic method. • The material as prepared had well dispersivity in water and better conductivity than pure GR. • Trp-GR/GCE showed excellent potential for the determination of AA, DA and UA. • The proposed method was applied for the analysis of AA, DA and UA in real samples. - Abstract: A new type of tryptophan-functionalized graphene nanocomposite (Trp-GR) was synthesized by utilizing a facile ultrasonic method via π–π conjugate action between graphene (GR) and tryptophan (Trp) molecule. The material as prepared had well dispersivity in water and better conductivity than pure GR. The surface morphology of Trp-GR was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) on the surface of Trp-GR. The separation of the oxidation peak potentials for AA–DA, DA–UA and UA–AA was about 182 mV, 125 mV and 307 mV, which allowed simultaneously determining AA, DA, and UA. Differential pulse voltammetery (DPV) was used for the determination of AA, DA, and UA in their mixture. Under optimum conditions, the linear response ranges for the determination of AA, DA, and UA were 0.2–12.9 mM, 0.5–110 μM, and 10–1000 μM, with the detection limits (S/N = 3) of 10.09 μM, 0.29 μM and 1.24 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the modified electrode was investigated for real sample analysis.

  18. Prognostic Health Monitoring System: Component Selection Based on Risk Criteria and Economic Benefit Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binh T. Pham; Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J Lybeck; Magdy S Tawfik

    2012-05-01

    Prognostic health monitoring (PHM) is a proactive approach to monitor the ability of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to withstand structural, thermal, and chemical loadings over the SSCs planned service lifespans. The current efforts to extend the operational license lifetime of the aging fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants from 40 to 60 years and beyond can benefit from a systematic application of PHM technology. Implementing a PHM system would strengthen the safety of nuclear power plants, reduce plant outage time, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. However, a nuclear power plant has thousands of SSCs, so implementing a PHM system that covers all SSCs requires careful planning and prioritization. This paper therefore focuses on a component selection that is based on the analysis of a component's failure probability, risk, and cost. Ultimately, the decision on component selection depend on the overall economical benefits arising from safety and operational considerations associated with implementing the PHM system.

  19. Forecast method for used number of parts and components based on complex network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fu-yun; QI Guo-ning; YANG Qing-hai

    2006-01-01

    Applying directed complex network to model the main structure of a product family,according to in-degree bi-logarithmic coordinate distribution curve and distribution rule of nodes of the network,in-degree evolving rule of nodes of the network is presented and analytic expression of in-degree probability density of nodes is derived.Through the analysis of the relation between existing kinds of components and existing product numbers,an expression of the relation between kinds of components and product numbers is derived.A forecast method for the increment of component numbers and parts based on the increment of products is presented.As an example,the component numbers of an industrial steam turbine product family is forecasted,forecast result verified and forecast error analyzed.

  20. A new process monitoring method based on noisy time structure independent component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianfang Cai; Xuemin Tian

    2015-01-01

    Conventional process monitoring method based on fast independent component analysis (FastICA) cannot take the ubiquitous measurement noises into account and may exhibit degraded monitoring performance under the adverse effects of the measurement noises. In this paper, a new process monitoring approach based on noisy time structure ICA (NoisyTSICA) is proposed to solve such problem. A NoisyTSICA algorithm which can consider the measurement noises explicitly is firstly developed to estimate the mixing matrix and extract the independent components (ICs). Subsequently, a monitoring statistic is built to detect process faults on the basis of the recur-sive kurtosis estimations of the dominant ICs. Lastly, a contribution plot for the monitoring statistic is constructed to identify the fault variables based on the sensitivity analysis. Simulation studies on the continuous stirred tank reactor system demonstrate that the proposed NoisyTSICA-based monitoring method outperforms the conven-tional FastICA-based monitoring method.

  1. Combining an additive and tree-based regression model simultaneously: STIMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, E.; Conversano, C.; Os, B.J. van

    2010-01-01

    Additive models and tree-based regression models are two main classes of statistical models used to predict the scores on a continuous response variable. It is known that additive models become very complex in the presence of higher order interaction effects, whereas some tree-based models, such as

  2. Issues on Component Based Architectures Utilization for Real Time Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZMARANDA Doina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Generally, real-time embedded controlsystems are very demanding from the timing pointof view. Increasing complexity and criticality ofsuch systems leads to a challenge regarding theirdesign and programming model. Severaldevelopment models were proposed in the literature,all of them could be grouped into two categories:models based on event triggered approach andmodels based on timed triggered approach. Thispaper focuses on two of the most knownprogramming models that exhibit componentarchitecture: Giotto - based on timed triggeredapproach, and timed multitasking - based on eventtriggered approach. Based on the survey of eachmodel capabilities and component structure, theadvantages and drawbacks in utilization for realtimeembedded systems are analyzed in the paperand several conclusions are drawn.

  3. A new rolling bearing fault diagnosis method based on GFT impulse component extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Lu; Yu, Dejie; Yang, Hanjian

    2016-12-01

    Periodic impulses are vital indicators of rolling bearing faults. The extraction of impulse components from rolling bearing vibration signals is of great importance for fault diagnosis. In this paper, vibration signals are taken as the path graph signals in a manifold perspective, and the Graph Fourier Transform (GFT) of vibration signals are investigated from the graph spectrum domain, which are both introduced into the vibration signal analysis. To extract the impulse components efficiently, a new adjacency weight matrix is defined, and then the GFT of the impulse component and harmonic component in the rolling bearing vibration signals are analyzed. Furthermore, as the GFT graph spectrum of the impulse component is mainly concentrated in the high-order region, a new rolling bearing fault diagnosis method based on GFT impulse component extraction is proposed. In the proposed method, the GFT of a vibration signal is firstly performed, and its graph spectrum coefficients in the high-order region are extracted to reconstruct different impulse components. Next, the Hilbert envelope spectra of these impulse components are calculated, and the envelope spectrum values at the fault characteristic frequency are arranged in order. Furthermore, the envelope spectrum with the maximum value at the fault characteristic frequency is selected as the final result, from which the rolling bearing fault can be diagnosed. Finally, an index KR, which is the product of the kurtosis and Hilbert envelope spectrum fault feature ratio of the extracted impulse component, is put forward to measure the performance of the proposed method. Simulations and experiments are utilized to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. A new estimate of afrotherian phylogeny based on simultaneous analysis of genomic, morphological, and fossil evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiffert Erik R

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The placental mammalian clade Afrotheria is now supported by diverse forms of genomic data, but interordinal relationships within, and morphological support for, the group remains elusive. As a means for addressing these outstanding problems, competing hypotheses of afrotherian interordinal relationships were tested through simultaneous parsimony analysis of a large data set (> 4,590 parsimony informative characters containing genomic data (> 17 kb of nucleotide data, chromosomal associations, and retroposons and 400 morphological characters scored across 16 extant and 35 extinct afrotherians. Results Parsimony analysis of extant taxa alone recovered the interordinal topology (Afrosoricida, ((Macroscelidea, Tubulidentata, (Hyracoidea, (Proboscidea, Sirenia. Analysis following addition of extinct taxa instead supported Afroinsectivora (Afrosoricida + Macroscelidea and Pseudoungulata (Tubulidentata + Paenungulata, as well as Tethytheria (Proboscidea + Sirenia. This latter topology is, however, sensitive to taxon deletion and different placements of the placental root, and numerous alternative interordinal arrangements within Afrotheria could not be statistically rejected. Relationships among extinct stem members of each afrotherian clade were more stable, but one alleged stem macroscelidean (Herodotius never grouped with that clade and instead consistently joined pseudoungulates or paenungulates. When character transformations were optimized onto a less resolved afrotherian tree that reflects uncertainty about the group's interordinal phylogeny, a total of 21 morphological features were identified as possible synapomorphies of crown Afrotheria, 9 of which optimized unambiguously across all character treatments and optimization methods. Conclusion Instability in afrotherian interordinal phylogeny presumably reflects rapid divergences during two pulses of cladogenesis – the first in the Late Cretaceous, at and just after the

  5. Simultaneous Computation of Two Independent Tasks Using Reservoir Computing Based on a Single Photonic Nonlinear Node With Optical Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Verschaffelt, Guy; Danckaert, Jan; Van der Sande, Guy

    2015-12-01

    In this brief, we numerically demonstrate a photonic delay-based reservoir computing system, which processes, in parallel, two independent computational tasks even when the two tasks have unrelated input streams. Our approach is based on a single-longitudinal mode semiconductor ring laser (SRL) with optical feedback. The SRL emits in two directional optical modes. Each directional mode processes one individual task to mitigate possible crosstalk. We illustrate the feasibility of our scheme by analyzing the performance on two benchmark tasks: 1) chaotic time series prediction and 2) nonlinear channel equalization. We identify some feedback configurations for which the results for simultaneous prediction/classification indicate a good performance, but with slight degradation (as compared with the performance obtained for single task processing) due to nonlinear and linear interactions between the two directional modes of the laser. In these configurations, the system performs well on both tasks for a broad range of the parameters.

  6. Simultaneously Harvesting Thermal and Mechanical Energies based on Flexible Hybrid Nanogenerator for Self-Powered Cathodic Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hulin; Zhang, Shangjie; Yao, Guang; Huang, Zhenlong; Xie, Yuhang; Su, Yuanjie; Yang, Weiqing; Zheng, Chunhua; Lin, Yuan

    2015-12-30

    Metal corrosion occurs anytime and anywhere in nature and the corrosion prevention has a great significance everywhere in national economic development and daily life. Here, we demonstrate a flexible hybrid nanogenerator (NG) that is capable of simultaneously or individually harvesting ambient thermal and mechanical energies and used for a self-powered cathodic protection (CP) system without using an external power source. Because of its double peculiarities of both pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties, a polarized poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film-based NG was constructed to scavenge both thermal and mechanical energies. As a supplementary, a triboelectric NG was constructed below the pyro/piezoelectric NG to grab ambient mechanical energy. The output power of the fabricated hybrid NG can be directly used to protect the metal surface from the chemical corrosion. Our results not only verify the feasibility of self-powered CP-based NGs, but also expand potential self-powered applications.

  7. Fiber based optical tweezers for simultaneous in situ force exertion and measurements in a 3D polyacrylamide gel compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Chaoyang; Thomas, Gawain M; Ren, Yundong; Zhang, Rui; Wen, Qi; Liu, Yuxiang

    2015-07-01

    Optical tweezers play an important role in biological applications. However, it is difficult for traditional optical tweezers based on objective lenses to work in a three-dimensional (3D) solid far away from the substrate. In this work, we develop a fiber based optical trapping system, namely inclined dual fiber optical tweezers, that can simultaneously apply and measure forces both in water and in a 3D polyacrylamide gel matrix. In addition, we demonstrate in situ, non-invasive characterization of local mechanical properties of polyacrylamide gel by measurements on an embedded bead. The fiber optical tweezers measurements agree well with those of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The inclined dual fiber optical tweezers provide a promising and versatile tool for cell mechanics study in 3D environments.

  8. Progress of a research program on seismic base isolation of nuclear components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebisawa, K.; Ando, K.; Shibata, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Development of an evaluation code and related test program have been conducted to provide the technical base of the seismic base isolation of nuclear components. In the Phase I (FY1991-FY1995) of the research, a methodology and a computer code Ver.1 for evaluating the effect of seismic base isolation of nuclear components were developed. Case study was carried out on the effectiveness of base isolation of emergency transformer. Difference of input earthquake motion, type of isolation device and influence of the soil property were studied. Case study of a cost/benefit analysis in introducing the base isolation to emergency transformer was tried as an application of the computer code. As the Phase II (FY1996-FY2000), in order to obtain the test data of component base isolation systems, a verification test program, in which the test utilizing the real earthquake and the test by a shaking table are to be carried out, has been initiated since FY1996. In the tests, dynamic response and failure mode of base isolation systems will be examined. This paper overviews the progress of Phase I and II researches. (orig.)

  9. Cationic gemini pyrrolidinium surfactants based sweeping-micellar electrokinetic chromatography for simultaneous detection of nine organic pollutants in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Wei, Ran; Cai, Bo; Dong, Jinfeng; Deng, Bin; Xiao, Yuxiu

    2016-12-02

    A series of novel cationic gemini surfactants with pyrrolidinium head groups, 1,1'-(butane-1,s-alkyl) bis (1-alkylpyrrolidinium) (Cn-4-CnPB, n=12, 14, 16), were employed as carriers in sweeping-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (sweeping-MEKC) for simultaneous detection of nine organic water pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfonamides and steroids. The sweeping and separation conditions were optimized. Cn-4-CnPB (n=12, 14, 16) were compared with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in terms of their abilities to preconcentrate and separate the nine analytes. Under the optimized conditions, the sensitivity enhancement factors based on the peak height (SEFsHeight) were ca. 310-580 of C16-4-C16PB, which were higher than those of C14-4-C14PB (120-290) and C12-4-C12PB (110-160). Meanwhile, the SEFsHeight of C16-4-C16PB were higher than those of 30% (v/v) methanol-modified CTAB (140-320). The C16-4-C16PB based sweeping-MEKC, coupled with offline solid phase extraction and UV detection (228nm), was used to analyze spiked environmental water samples. The nine analytes were successfully separated and detected. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was in range of 2.79-3.76ng/mL, and the recovery ranged from 70.8% to 95.5% with the RSDs less than 9.89%. This study confirms that the C16-4-C16PB based sweeping-MEKC has significant advantages over the CTAB based sweeping-MEKC and it is a promising method for sensitive and simultaneous detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfonamides and steroids in environmental water samples.

  10. A model for determining condition-based maintenance policies for deteriorating multi-component systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hontelez, J.A.M.; Wijnmalen, D.J.D.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss a method to determine strategies for preventive maintenance of systems consisting of gradually deteriorating components. A model has been developed to compute not only the range of conditions inducing a repair action, but also inspection moments based on the last known condition value so

  11. Quantitative characterization of the carbon/carbon composites components based on video of polarized light microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixian; Qi, Lehua; Song, Yongshan; Chao, Xujiang

    2017-02-13

    The components of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have significant influence on the thermal and mechanical properties, so a quantitative characterization of component is necessary to study the microstructure of C/C composites, and further to improve the macroscopic properties of C/C composites. Considering the extinction crosses of the pyrocarbon matrix have significant moving features, the polarized light microscope (PLM) video is used to characterize C/C composites quantitatively because it contains sufficiently dynamic and structure information. Then the optical flow method is introduced to compute the optical flow field between the adjacent frames, and segment the components of C/C composites from PLM image by image processing. Meanwhile the matrix with different textures is re-segmented by the length difference of motion vectors, and then the component fraction of each component and extinction angle of pyrocarbon matrix are calculated directly. Finally, the C/C composites are successfully characterized from three aspects of carbon fiber, pyrocarbon, and pores by a series of image processing operators based on PLM video, and the errors of component fractions are less than 15%.

  12. A Network Framework Based on MechanicalComponent Design and Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾立志; 陈光军; 杨康

    2004-01-01

    Network manufacturing has been rapidly developed and is going to play an important role in modern indusu'y. The core of network manufacturing of mechanical products is the design and manufacturing based on the computer network technology. A network framework is introduced for manufacturing mechanical components at two main levels. On the design level features of the component are initially studied based on the structure and functions of the component. Details of the design procedure and contents are then analyzed with three main kinds of components. In this stage, selection of materials, calculation of sla'ess and deflection under load, determination of the size are carried out using CAD. On the manufacturing level various aspects of CAPP are discussed, including the principle and the modes of positioning the component, the exerted clamping forces, cutting engagement and input parameters, machine tools used, and machining fluids if necessary. Finally a prototype of the network framework is presented with several pieces of data terminal equipment through a local area network, the topological structure, and data sharing and security, without concerning the use of the concurrent engineering techniques and virtual manufacturing, and virtual measuring techniques.

  13. Batch process monitoring based on multiple-phase online sorting principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhaomin; Yan, Xuefeng; Jiang, Qingchao

    2016-09-01

    Existing phase-based batch or fed-batch process monitoring strategies generally have two problems: (1) phase number, which is difficult to determine, and (2) uneven length feature of data. In this study, a multiple-phase online sorting principal component analysis modeling strategy (MPOSPCA) is proposed to monitor multiple-phase batch processes online. Based on all batches of off-line normal data, a new multiple-phase partition algorithm is proposed, where k-means and a defined average Euclidean radius are employed to determine the multiple-phase data set and phase number. Principal component analysis is then applied to build the model in each phase, and all the components are retained. In online monitoring, the Euclidean distance is used to select the monitoring model. All the components undergo online sorting through a parameter defined by Bayesian inference (BI). The first several components are retained to calculate the T(2) statistics. Finally, the respective probability indices of [Formula: see text] is obtained using BI as the moving average strategy. The feasibility and effectiveness of MPOSPCA are demonstrated through a simple numerical example and the fed-batch penicillin fermentation process.

  14. Topology optimization based on moving deformable components: A new computational framework

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, a new computational framework for structural topology optimization based on the concept of moving deformable components is proposed. Compared with the traditional pixel or node point-based solution framework, the proposed solution paradigm can incorporate more geometry and mechanical information into topology optimization directly and therefore render the solution process more flexible. It also has the great potential to reduce the computational burden associated with top...

  15. A Simultaneous Biogeography based Optimal Placement of DG Units and Capacitor Banks in Distribution Systems with Nonlinear Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Hassan; Ghaffarzadeh, Navid

    2016-09-01

    This paper uses a new algorithm namely biogeography based optimization (BBO) intended for the simultaneous placement of the distributed generation (DG) units and the capacitor banks in the distribution network. The procedure of optimization has been conducted in the presence of nonlinear loads (a cause of harmonic injection). The purpose of simultaneous optimal placement of the DG and the capacitor is the reduction of active and reactive losses. The difference in the values of loss reduction at different levels of the load have been included in the objective function and the considered objective function includes the constraints of voltage, size and the number of DG units and capacitor banks and the allowable range of the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the total voltage in accordance with the IEEE 519 standards. In this paper the placement has been performed on two load types ie constant and mixed power, moreover the effects of load models on the results and the effects of optimal placement on reduction of the THD levels have also been analyzed. The mentioned cases have been studied on a 33 bus radial distribution system.

  16. Fitting model-based psychometric functions to simultaneity and temporal-order judgment data: MATLAB and R routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío; García-Pérez, Miguel A

    2013-12-01

    Research on temporal-order perception uses temporal-order judgment (TOJ) tasks or synchrony judgment (SJ) tasks in their binary SJ2 or ternary SJ3 variants. In all cases, two stimuli are presented with some temporal delay, and observers judge the order of presentation. Arbitrary psychometric functions are typically fitted to obtain performance measures such as sensitivity or the point of subjective simultaneity, but the parameters of these functions are uninterpretable. We describe routines in MATLAB and R that fit model-based functions whose parameters are interpretable in terms of the processes underlying temporal-order and simultaneity judgments and responses. These functions arise from an independent-channels model assuming arrival latencies with exponential distributions and a trichotomous decision space. Different routines fit data separately for SJ2, SJ3, and TOJ tasks, jointly for any two tasks, or also jointly for the three tasks (for common cases in which two or even the three tasks were used with the same stimuli and participants). Additional routines provide bootstrap p-values and confidence intervals for estimated parameters. A further routine is included that obtains performance measures from the fitted functions. An R package for Windows and source code of the MATLAB and R routines are available as Supplementary Files.

  17. Simultaneous determination of pH, urea, acetylcholine and heavy metals using array-based enzymatic optical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiao-chung; Doong, Ruey-an

    2005-03-15

    An array-based optical biosensor for the simultaneous analysis of multiple samples in the presence of unrelated multi-analytes was fabricated. Urease and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were used as model enzymes and were co-entrapped with the sensing probe, FITC-dextran, in the sol-gel matrix to measure pH, urea, acetylcholine (ACh) and heavy metals (enzyme inhibitors). Environmental and biological samples spiked with metal ions were also used to evaluate the application of the array biosensor to real samples. The biosensor exhibited high specificity in identifying multiple analytes. No obvious cross-interference was observed when a 50-spot array biosensor was used for simultaneous analysis of multiple samples in the presence of multiple analytes. The sensing system can determine pH over a dynamic range from 4 to 8.5. The limits of detection (LODs) of 2.5-50 microM with a dynamic range of 2-3 orders of magnitude for urea and ACh measurements were obtained. Moreover, the urease-encapsulated array biosensor was used to detect heavy metals. The analytical ranges of Cd(II), Cu(II), and Hg(II) were between 10 nM and 100 mM. When real samples were spiked with heavy metals, the array biosensor also exhibited potential effectiveness in screening enzyme inhibitors.

  18. Quantifying activation of perfluorocarbon-based phase-change contrast agents using simultaneous acoustic and optical observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sinan; Lin, Shengtao; Cheng, Yi; Matsunaga, Terry O; Eckersley, Robert J; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-05-01

    Phase-change contrast agents in the form of nanoscale droplets can be activated into microbubbles by ultrasound, extending the contrast beyond the vasculature. This article describes simultaneous optical and acoustical measurements for quantifying the ultrasound activation of phase-change contrast agents over a range of concentrations. In experiments, decafluorobutane-based nanodroplets of different dilutions were sonicated with a high-pressure activation pulse and two low-pressure interrogation pulses immediately before and after the activation pulse. The differences between the pre- and post-interrogation signals were calculated to quantify the acoustic power scattered by the microbubbles activated over a range of droplet concentrations. Optical observation occurred simultaneously with the acoustic measurement, and the pre- and post-microscopy images were processed to generate an independent quantitative indicator of the activated microbubble concentration. Both optical and acoustic measurements revealed linear relationships to the droplet concentration at a low concentration range <10(8)/mL when measured at body temperature. Further increases in droplet concentration resulted in saturation of the acoustic interrogation signal. Compared with body temperature, room temperature was found to produce much fewer and larger bubbles after ultrasound droplet activation.

  19. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction-based System for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Lily-infecting Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yeon Kwon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A detection system based on a multiplex reverse transcription (RT polymerase chain reaction (PCR was developed to simultaneously identify multiple viruses in the lily plant. The most common viruses infecting lily plants are the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, lily mottle virus (LMoV, lily symptomless virus (LSV. Leaf samples were collected at lily-cultivation facilities located in the Kangwon province of Korea and used to evaluate the detection system. Simplex and multiplex RT-PCR were performed using virus-specific primers to detect single-or mixed viral infections in lily plants. Our results demonstrate the selective detection of 3 different viruses (CMV, LMoV and LSV by using specific primers as well as the potential of simultaneously detecting 2 or 3 different viruses in lily plants with mixed infections. Three sets of primers for each target virus, and one set of internal control primers were used to evaluate the detection system for efficiency, reliability, and reproducibility.

  20. Identifiability study of the proteins degradation model, based on ADM1, using simultaneous batch experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flotats, X.; Palatsi, J.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyse kinetic and stoichiometric parameter values of gelatine anaerobic degradation at thermophilic range, based on an experiment designed to elucidate if volatile fatty acids (VFA) are inhibitors of the hydrolysis process. Results showed that VFA are no...

  1. Independent component feature-based human activity recognition via Linear Discriminant Analysis and Hidden Markov Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md; Lee, J J; Kim, T S

    2008-01-01

    In proactive computing, human activity recognition from image sequences is an active research area. This paper presents a novel approach of human activity recognition based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) of Independent Component (IC) features from shape information. With extracted features, Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is applied for training and recognition. The recognition performance using LDA of IC features has been compared to other approaches including Principle Component Analysis (PCA), LDA of PC, and ICA. The preliminary results show much improved performance in the recognition rate with our proposed method.

  2. Protection algorithm for a wind turbine generator based on positive- and negative-sequence fault components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Tai-Ying; Cha, Seung-Tae; Crossley, Peter A.;

    2011-01-01

    A protection relay for a wind turbine generator (WTG) based on positive- and negative-sequence fault components is proposed in the paper. The relay uses the magnitude of the positive-sequence component in the fault current to detect a fault on a parallel WTG, connected to the same power collection...... feeder, or a fault on an adjacent feeder; but for these faults, the relay remains stable and inoperative. A fault on the power collection feeder or a fault on the collection bus, both of which require an instantaneous tripping response, are distinguished from an inter-tie fault or a grid fault, which...

  3. Classifying sEMG-based Hand Movements by Means of Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Isaković

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve surface electromyography (sEMG based control of hand prosthesis, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA for feature extraction. The sEMG data from a group of healthy subjects (downloaded from free Ninapro database comprised the following sets: three grasping, eight wrist, and eleven finger movements. We tested the accuracy of a simple quadratic classifier for two sets of features derived from PCA. Preliminary results suggest that the first two principal components do not guarantee successful hand movement classification. The hand movement classification accuracy significantly increased with using three instead of two features, in all three sets of movements and throughout all subjects.

  4. Layer-component-based communication stack framework for wireless residential control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torbensen, R.; Hjorth, Theis S.

    2011-01-01

    of nodes such as bridges, controllers, sensor/actuators – as well as secure communication between them. A special messaging system facilitates inter-component communication, and a Virtual Port Service protocol enables resource addressing. The end-devices in the heterogeneous network are made accessible...... shown how the framework facilitates fast prototyping and makes developing secure wireless control systems less complex.......This paper describes methods to lower the entry barrier for creating products that interoperate in the emerging heterogeneous residential control network domain. For designing reconfigurable, layer-component-based communication stacks, a flexible framework is proposed that supports several types...

  5. Layer-component-based communication stack framework for wireless residential control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torbensen, Rune Sonnich; Hjorth, Theis

    2010-01-01

    of nodes such as bridges, controllers, sensor/actuators - as well as secure communication between them. A special messaging system facilitates inter-component communication, and a Virtual Port Service protocol enables resource addressing. The end-devices in the heterogeneous network are made accessible...... shown how the framework facilitates fast prototyping and makes developing secure wireless control systems less complex. © 2010 IEEE.......This paper describes methods to lower the entry barrier for creating products that interoperate in the emerging heterogeneous residential control network domain. For designing reconfigurable, layer-component-based communication stacks, a flexible framework is proposed that supports several types...

  6. CoRoT and asteroseismology. Preparatory work and simultaneous ground-based monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Poretti, Ennio; Uytterhoeven, Katrien; Cutispoto, Giuseppe; Distefano, Elisa; Romano, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The successful launch of the CoRoT (COnvection, ROtation and planetary Transits) satellite opens a new era in asteroseismology. The space photometry is complemented by high-resolution spectroscopy and multicolour photometry from ground, to disclose the pulsational content of the asteroseismic targets in the most complete way. Some preliminary results obtained with both types of data are presented. The paper is based on observations collected at S. Pedro Martir, Serra La Nave, La Silla, and Telescopio Nazionale Galileo Observatories.

  7. Quality evaluation of semen oroxyli based on the determination of multiple components with a single reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yangyang; Yan, Renyi; Yang, Lixin; Guo, Jian; Liu, Hongliang; Zhang, Jianyong; Yang, Bin; Huang, Luqi

    2013-01-01

    The determination of multiple components is considered to be one of the key methods to control the quality of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), because the clinical efficacy of TCM is derived from the synergistic action of multi-components. When simultaneously determining multi-components in TCM with multiple reference standards (MRS), the limited availability and high expense of various reference standards is a major obstacle. Currently, a practical method determining multi-components with a single reference standard (SRS) is needed to solve the problem, in which the contents of those components without reference standards can be calculated using relative conversion factor. In the present paper, both MRS and SRS methods were established for the simultaneous quantitative determination of seven bioactive flavonoids in Muhudie (MHD), the seed of Oroxylum indicum L., a traditional Chinese herb that has been used for centuries. Forty samples were assayed and data obtained from the two methods were compared, and no statistically significant difference was observed by a T-test (P > 0.05), thus, the SRS method can be applied for quality analysis of MHD. At the same time, a certain correlation was discovered between the contents of the bioactive components and the morphological character of MHD.

  8. Real-time measurement of the fast axis angle of a quarter-wave plate based on simultaneous phase shifting technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Yang; Aijun Zeng; Xiangzhao Wang; Hua Wang; Feng Tang

    2008-01-01

    Real-time measurement of the fast axis angle of a quarter-wave plate based on simultaneous phase shifting technique is presented. The simultaneous phase shifting function is realized by an orthogonal grating, a diaphragm, an analyzer array, and a 4-quadrant detector. The intensities of the light beams from the four analyzers with different azimuths are measured simultaneously. The fast axis angle of the quarter-wave plate is obtained through the four light intensity values. In this method, rotating elements are not required, so real-time measurement is achieved.

  9. System Description and First Application of an FPGA-Based Simultaneous Multi-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Aguiar Santos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new prototype of a multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography system is presented. The system uses a field-programmable gate array as a main controller and is configured to measure at different frequencies simultaneously through a composite waveform. Both real and imaginary components of the data are computed for each frequency and sent to the personal computer over an ethernet connection, where both time-difference imaging and frequency-difference imaging are reconstructed and visualized. The system has been tested for both time-difference and frequency-difference imaging for diverse sets of frequency pairs in a resistive/capacitive test unit and in self-experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first work that shows preliminary frequency-difference images of in-vivo experiments. Results of time-difference imaging were compared with simulation results and shown that the new prototype performs well at all frequencies in the tested range of 60 kHz–960 kHz. For frequency-difference images, further development of algorithms and an improved normalization process is required to correctly reconstruct and interpreted the resulting images.

  10. System Description and First Application of an FPGA-Based Simultaneous Multi-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar Santos, Susana; Robens, Anne; Boehm, Anna; Leonhardt, Steffen; Teichmann, Daniel

    2016-07-25

    A new prototype of a multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography system is presented. The system uses a field-programmable gate array as a main controller and is configured to measure at different frequencies simultaneously through a composite waveform. Both real and imaginary components of the data are computed for each frequency and sent to the personal computer over an ethernet connection, where both time-difference imaging and frequency-difference imaging are reconstructed and visualized. The system has been tested for both time-difference and frequency-difference imaging for diverse sets of frequency pairs in a resistive/capacitive test unit and in self-experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first work that shows preliminary frequency-difference images of in-vivo experiments. Results of time-difference imaging were compared with simulation results and shown that the new prototype performs well at all frequencies in the tested range of 60 kHz-960 kHz. For frequency-difference images, further development of algorithms and an improved normalization process is required to correctly reconstruct and interpreted the resulting images.

  11. Integrated ultracompact and broadband wavelength demultiplexer based on multi-component nano-cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cuicui; Liu, Yong-Chun; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-06-06

    Integrated nanoscale photonic devices have wide applications ranging from optical interconnects and optical computing to optical communications. Wavelength demultiplexer is an essential on-chip optical component which can separate the incident wavelength into different channels; however, the experimental progress is very limited. Here, using a multi-component nano-cavity design, we realize an ultracompact, broadband and high-contrast wavelength demultiplexer, with 2.3 μm feature size, 200 nm operation bandwidth (from 780 nm to 980 nm) and a contrast ratio up to 13.7 dB. The physical mechanism is based on the strong modulation of the surface plasmon polaritons induced by the multi-component nano-cavities, and it can be generalized to other nanoscale photonic devices. This provides a strategy for constructing on-chip photon routers, and also has applications for chip-integrated optical filter and optical logic gates.

  12. A new three-dimensional topology optimization method based on moving morphable components (MMCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weisheng; Li, Dong; Yuan, Jie; Song, Junfu; Guo, Xu

    2017-04-01

    In the present paper, a new method for solving three-dimensional topology optimization problem is proposed. This method is constructed under the so-called moving morphable components based solution framework. The novel aspect of the proposed method is that a set of structural components is introduced to describe the topology of a three-dimensional structure and the optimal structural topology is found by optimizing the layout of the components explicitly. The standard finite element method with ersatz material is adopted for structural response analysis and the shape sensitivity analysis only need to be carried out along the structural boundary. Compared to the existing methods, the description of structural topology is totally independent of the finite element/finite difference resolution in the proposed solution framework and therefore the number of design variables can be reduced substantially. Some widely investigated benchmark examples, in the three-dimensional topology optimization designs, are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. Structure Analysis of Network Traffic Matrix Based on Relaxed Principal Component Pursuit

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhe; Xu, Ke; Yin, Baolin

    2011-01-01

    The network traffic matrix is a kind of flow-level Internet traffic data and is widely applied to network operation and management. It is a crucial problem to analyze the composition and structure of traffic matrix; some mathematical approaches such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used to handle that problem. In this paper, we first argue that PCA performs poorly for analyzing traffic matrixes polluted by large volume anomalies, then propose a new composition model of the network traffic matrix. According to our model, structure analysis can be formally defined as decomposing a traffic matrix into low-rank, sparse, and noise sub-matrixes, which is equal to the Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) problem defined in [13]. Based on the Relaxed Principal Component Pursuit (Relaxed PCP) method and the Accelerated Proximal Gradient (APG) algorithm, an iterative algorithm for decomposing a traffic matrix is presented, and our experiment results demonstrate its efficiency and flexibility. At last, f...

  14. Robust multi-stream speech recognition based on weighting the output probabilities of feature components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; WEI Gang; YU Hua; NING Genxin

    2009-01-01

    In the traditional multi-stream fusion methods of speech recognition, all the feature components in a data stream share the same stream weight, while their distortion levels are usually different when the speech recognizer works in noisy environments. To overcome this limitation of the traditional multi-stream frameworks, the current study proposes a new stream fusion method that weights not only the stream outputs, but also the output probabilities of feature components. How the stream and feature component weights in the new fusion method affect the decision is analyzed and two stream fusion schemes based on the 03iginalisation and soft decision models in the missing data techniques are proposed. Experimental results on the hybrid sub-band multi-stream speech recognizer show that the proposed schemes can adjust the stream influences on the decision adaptively and outperform the traditional multi-stream methods in various noisy environments.

  15. Multi-polarization reconstruction from compact polarimetry based on modified four-component scattering decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjun Yin; Jian Yang

    2014-01-01

    An improved algorithm for multi-polarization recon-struction from compact polarimetry (CP) is proposed. According to two fundamental assumptions in compact polarimetric reconstruc-tion, two improvements are proposed. Firstly, the four-component model-based decomposition algorithm is modified with a new vol-ume scattering model. The decomposed helix scattering compo-nent is then used to deal with the non-reflection symmetry con-dition in compact polarimetric measurements. Using the decom-posed power and considering the scattering mechanism of each component, an average relationship between co-polarized and cross-polarized channels is developed over the original polariza-tion state extrapolation model. E-SAR polarimetric data acquired over the Oberpfaffenhofen area and JPL/AIRSAR polarimetric data acquired over San Francisco are used for verification, and good re-construction results are obtained, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  16. A Component-Based Modeling and Validation Method for PLC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Programmable logic controllers (PLCs are complex embedded systems that are widely used in industry. This paper presents a component-based modeling and validation method for PLC systems using the behavior-interaction-priority (BIP framework. We designed a general system architecture and a component library for a type of device control system. The control software and hardware of the environment were all modeled as BIP components. System requirements were formalized as monitors. Simulation was carried out to validate the system model. A realistic example from industry of the gates control system was employed to illustrate our strategies. We found a couple of design errors during the simulation, which helped us to improve the dependability of the original systems. The results of experiment demonstrated the effectiveness of our approach.

  17. Simultaneous acquisition of 3D shape and deformation by combination of interferometric and correlation-based laser speckle metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekiff, Markus; Berssenbrügge, Philipp; Kemper, Björn; Denz, Cornelia; Dirksen, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    A metrology system combining three laser speckle measurement techniques for simultaneous determination of 3D shape and micro- and macroscopic deformations is presented. While microscopic deformations are determined by a combination of Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI) and Digital Speckle Photography (DSP), macroscopic 3D shape, position and deformation are retrieved by photogrammetry based on digital image correlation of a projected laser speckle pattern. The photogrammetrically obtained data extend the measurement range of the DHI-DSP system and also increase the accuracy of the calculation of the sensitivity vector. Furthermore, a precise assignment of microscopic displacements to the object's macroscopic shape for enhanced visualization is achieved. The approach allows for fast measurements with a simple setup. Key parameters of the system are optimized, and its precision and measurement range are demonstrated. As application examples, the deformation of a mandible model and the shrinkage of dental impression material are measured.

  18. Enhancing the Dialogue in Simultaneous Class-Based and Live Video-Streamed Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Ørngreen, Rikke; Thorsen, Jonas;

    2015-01-01

    teaching. This paper describes a work-in-progress project focused on developing possibilities for a more dialogue-based approach to live video-streamed teaching. We present our new setup and argue for educational designs which this is believed to support, and we outline the research design for collecting...... from home via the Internet. In live video-streamed teaching classes teachers tend to choose one-way communication instead of dialogue. We know from our early findings that technology issues are one of the main reasons for this, since the same teachers use dialogue and discussions in traditional...

  19. A novel prediction method about single components of analog circuits based on complex field modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingyu; Tian, Shulin; Yang, Chenglin

    2014-01-01

    Few researches pay attention to prediction about analog circuits. The few methods lack the correlation with circuit analysis during extracting and calculating features so that FI (fault indicator) calculation often lack rationality, thus affecting prognostic performance. To solve the above problem, this paper proposes a novel prediction method about single components of analog circuits based on complex field modeling. Aiming at the feature that faults of single components hold the largest number in analog circuits, the method starts with circuit structure, analyzes transfer function of circuits, and implements complex field modeling. Then, by an established parameter scanning model related to complex field, it analyzes the relationship between parameter variation and degeneration of single components in the model in order to obtain a more reasonable FI feature set via calculation. According to the obtained FI feature set, it establishes a novel model about degeneration trend of analog circuits' single components. At last, it uses particle filter (PF) to update parameters for the model and predicts remaining useful performance (RUP) of analog circuits' single components. Since calculation about the FI feature set is more reasonable, accuracy of prediction is improved to some extent. Finally, the foregoing conclusions are verified by experiments.

  20. A Novel Prediction Method about Single Components of Analog Circuits Based on Complex Field Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Few researches pay attention to prediction about analog circuits. The few methods lack the correlation with circuit analysis during extracting and calculating features so that FI (fault indicator calculation often lack rationality, thus affecting prognostic performance. To solve the above problem, this paper proposes a novel prediction method about single components of analog circuits based on complex field modeling. Aiming at the feature that faults of single components hold the largest number in analog circuits, the method starts with circuit structure, analyzes transfer function of circuits, and implements complex field modeling. Then, by an established parameter scanning model related to complex field, it analyzes the relationship between parameter variation and degeneration of single components in the model in order to obtain a more reasonable FI feature set via calculation. According to the obtained FI feature set, it establishes a novel model about degeneration trend of analog circuits’ single components. At last, it uses particle filter (PF to update parameters for the model and predicts remaining useful performance (RUP of analog circuits’ single components. Since calculation about the FI feature set is more reasonable, accuracy of prediction is improved to some extent. Finally, the foregoing conclusions are verified by experiments.

  1. Quantitative analysis of multiple components based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry in full scan mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min Li; Li, Bao Qiong; Wang, Xue; Chen, Jing; Zhai, Hong Lin

    2016-08-01

    Although liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry in full scan mode can obtain all the signals simultaneously in a large range and low cost, it is rarely used in quantitative analysis due to several problems such as chromatographic drifts and peak overlap. In this paper, we propose a Tchebichef moment method for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of three active compounds in Qingrejiedu oral liquid based on three-dimensional spectra in full scan mode of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. After the Tchebichef moments were calculated directly from the spectra, the quantitative linear models for three active compounds were established by stepwise regression. All the correlation coefficients were more than 0.9978. The limits of detection and limits of quantitation were less than 0.11 and 0.49 μg/mL, respectively. The intra- and interday precisions were less than 6.54 and 9.47%, while the recovery ranged from 102.56 to 112.15%. Owing to the advantages of multi-resolution and inherent invariance properties, Tchebichef moments could provide favorable results even in the situation of peaks shifting and overlapping, unknown interferences and noise signals, so it could be applied to the analysis of three-dimensional spectra in full scan mode of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry.

  2. A Component-Based Vocabulary-Extensible Sign Language Gesture Recognition Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengjing; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Xidong; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu

    2016-04-19

    Sign language recognition (SLR) can provide a helpful tool for the communication between the deaf and the external world. This paper proposed a component-based vocabulary extensible SLR framework using data from surface electromyographic (sEMG) sensors, accelerometers (ACC), and gyroscopes (GYRO). In this framework, a sign word was considered to be a combination of five common sign components, including hand shape, axis, orientation, rotation, and trajectory, and sign classification was implemented based on the recognition of five components. Especially, the proposed SLR framework consisted of two major parts. The first part was to obtain the component-based form of sign gestures and establish the code table of target sign gesture set using data from a reference subject. In the second part, which was designed for new users, component classifiers were trained using a training set suggested by the reference subject and the classification of unknown gestures was performed with a code matching method. Five subjects participated in this study and recognition experiments under different size of training sets were implemented on a target gesture set consisting of 110 frequently-used Chinese Sign Language (CSL) sign words. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed framework can realize large-scale gesture set recognition with a small-scale training set. With the smallest training sets (containing about one-third gestures of the target gesture set) suggested by two reference subjects, (82.6 ± 13.2)% and (79.7 ± 13.4)% average recognition accuracy were obtained for 110 words respectively, and the average recognition accuracy climbed up to (88 ± 13.7)% and (86.3 ± 13.7)% when the training set included 50~60 gestures (about half of the target gesture set). The proposed framework can significantly reduce the user's training burden in large-scale gesture recognition, which will facilitate the implementation of a practical SLR system.

  3. A Component-Based Vocabulary-Extensible Sign Language Gesture Recognition Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjing Wei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sign language recognition (SLR can provide a helpful tool for the communication between the deaf and the external world. This paper proposed a component-based vocabulary extensible SLR framework using data from surface electromyographic (sEMG sensors, accelerometers (ACC, and gyroscopes (GYRO. In this framework, a sign word was considered to be a combination of five common sign components, including hand shape, axis, orientation, rotation, and trajectory, and sign classification was implemented based on the recognition of five components. Especially, the proposed SLR framework consisted of two major parts. The first part was to obtain the component-based form of sign gestures and establish the code table of target sign gesture set using data from a reference subject. In the second part, which was designed for new users, component classifiers were trained using a training set suggested by the reference subject and the classification of unknown gestures was performed with a code matching method. Five subjects participated in this study and recognition experiments under different size of training sets were implemented on a target gesture set consisting of 110 frequently-used Chinese Sign Language (CSL sign words. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed framework can realize large-scale gesture set recognition with a small-scale training set. With the smallest training sets (containing about one-third gestures of the target gesture set suggested by two reference subjects, (82.6 ± 13.2% and (79.7 ± 13.4% average recognition accuracy were obtained for 110 words respectively, and the average recognition accuracy climbed up to (88 ± 13.7% and (86.3 ± 13.7% when the training set included 50~60 gestures (about half of the target gesture set. The proposed framework can significantly reduce the user’s training burden in large-scale gesture recognition, which will facilitate the implementation of a practical SLR system.

  4. In vivo quantitative evaluation of vascular parameters for angiogenesis based on sparse principal component analysis and aggregated boosted trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fengjun; Liu, Junting; Qu, Xiaochao; Xu, Xianhui; Chen, Xueli; Yang, Xiang; Cao, Feng; Liang, Jimin; Tian, Jie

    2014-12-01

    To solve the multicollinearity issue and unequal contribution of vascular parameters for the quantification of angiogenesis, we developed a quantification evaluation method of vascular parameters for angiogenesis based on in vivo micro-CT imaging of hindlimb ischemic model mice. Taking vascular volume as the ground truth parameter, nine vascular parameters were first assembled into sparse principal components (PCs) to reduce the multicolinearity issue. Aggregated boosted trees (ABTs) were then employed to analyze the importance of vascular parameters for the quantification of angiogenesis via the loadings of sparse PCs. The results demonstrated that vascular volume was mainly characterized by vascular area, vascular junction, connectivity density, segment number and vascular length, which indicated they were the key vascular parameters for the quantification of angiogenesis. The proposed quantitative evaluation method was compared with both the ABTs directly using the nine vascular parameters and Pearson correlation, which were consistent. In contrast to the ABTs directly using the vascular parameters, the proposed method can select all the key vascular parameters simultaneously, because all the key vascular parameters were assembled into the sparse PCs with the highest relative importance.

  5. Biochemical component identification by light scattering techniques in whispering gallery mode optical resonance based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Saetchnikov, Anton V.; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Experimental data on detection and identification of variety of biochemical agents, such as proteins (albumin, interferon, C reactive protein), microelements (Na+, Ca+), antibiotic of different generations, in both single and multi component solutions under varied in wide range concentration are represented. Analysis has been performed on the light scattering parameters of whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonance based sensor with dielectric microspheres from glass and PMMA as sensitive elements fixed by spin - coating techniques in adhesive layer on the surface of substrate or directly on the coupling element. Sensitive layer was integrated into developed fluidic cell with a digital syringe. Light from tuneable laser strict focusing on and scattered by the single microsphere was detected by a CMOS camera. The image was filtered for noise reduction and integrated on two coordinates for evaluation of integrated energy of a measured signal. As the entrance data following signal parameters were used: relative (to a free spectral range) spectral shift of frequency of WGM optical resonance in microsphere and relative efficiency of WGM excitation obtained within a free spectral range which depended on both type and concentration of investigated agents. Multiplexing on parameters and components has been realized using spatial and spectral parameters of scattered by microsphere light with developed data processing. Biochemical component classification and identification of agents under investigation has been performed by network analysis techniques based on probabilistic network and multilayer perceptron. Developed approach is demonstrated to be applicable both for single agent and for multi component biochemical analysis.

  6. Quantitative profiling of polar metabolites in herbal medicine injections for multivariate statistical evaluation based on independence principal component analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Jiang

    Full Text Available Botanical primary metabolites extensively exist in herbal medicine injections (HMIs, but often were ignored to control. With the limitation of bias towards hydrophilic substances, the primary metabolites with strong polarity, such as saccharides, amino acids and organic acids, are usually difficult to detect by the routinely applied reversed-phase chromatographic fingerprint technology. In this study, a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR profiling method was developed for efficient identification and quantification of small polar molecules, mostly primary metabolites in HMIs. A commonly used medicine, Danhong injection (DHI, was employed as a model. With the developed method, 23 primary metabolites together with 7 polyphenolic acids were simultaneously identified, of which 13 metabolites with fully separated proton signals were quantified and employed for further multivariate quality control assay. The quantitative 1H NMR method was validated with good linearity, precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy. Based on independence principal component analysis (IPCA, the contents of 13 metabolites were characterized and dimensionally reduced into the first two independence principal components (IPCs. IPC1 and IPC2 were then used to calculate the upper control limits (with 99% confidence ellipsoids of χ2 and Hotelling T2 control charts. Through the constructed upper control limits, the proposed method was successfully applied to 36 batches of DHI to examine the out-of control sample with the perturbed levels of succinate, malonate, glucose, fructose, salvianic acid and protocatechuic aldehyde. The integrated strategy has provided a reliable approach to identify and quantify multiple polar metabolites of DHI in one fingerprinting spectrum, and it has also assisted in the establishment of IPCA models for the multivariate statistical evaluation of HMIs.

  7. Quantitative profiling of polar metabolites in herbal medicine injections for multivariate statistical evaluation based on independence principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Miaomiao; Jiao, Yujiao; Wang, Yuefei; Xu, Lei; Wang, Meng; Zhao, Buchang; Jia, Lifu; Pan, Hao; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiumei

    2014-01-01

    Botanical primary metabolites extensively exist in herbal medicine injections (HMIs), but often were ignored to control. With the limitation of bias towards hydrophilic substances, the primary metabolites with strong polarity, such as saccharides, amino acids and organic acids, are usually difficult to detect by the routinely applied reversed-phase chromatographic fingerprint technology. In this study, a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) profiling method was developed for efficient identification and quantification of small polar molecules, mostly primary metabolites in HMIs. A commonly used medicine, Danhong injection (DHI), was employed as a model. With the developed method, 23 primary metabolites together with 7 polyphenolic acids were simultaneously identified, of which 13 metabolites with fully separated proton signals were quantified and employed for further multivariate quality control assay. The quantitative 1H NMR method was validated with good linearity, precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy. Based on independence principal component analysis (IPCA), the contents of 13 metabolites were characterized and dimensionally reduced into the first two independence principal components (IPCs). IPC1 and IPC2 were then used to calculate the upper control limits (with 99% confidence ellipsoids) of χ2 and Hotelling T2 control charts. Through the constructed upper control limits, the proposed method was successfully applied to 36 batches of DHI to examine the out-of control sample with the perturbed levels of succinate, malonate, glucose, fructose, salvianic acid and protocatechuic aldehyde. The integrated strategy has provided a reliable approach to identify and quantify multiple polar metabolites of DHI in one fingerprinting spectrum, and it has also assisted in the establishment of IPCA models for the multivariate statistical evaluation of HMIs.

  8. Blind Separation of Acoustic Signals Combining SIMO-Model-Based Independent Component Analysis and Binary Masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiekata Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new two-stage blind source separation (BSS method for convolutive mixtures of speech is proposed, in which a single-input multiple-output (SIMO-model-based independent component analysis (ICA and a new SIMO-model-based binary masking are combined. SIMO-model-based ICA enables us to separate the mixed signals, not into monaural source signals but into SIMO-model-based signals from independent sources in their original form at the microphones. Thus, the separated signals of SIMO-model-based ICA can maintain the spatial qualities of each sound source. Owing to this attractive property, our novel SIMO-model-based binary masking can be applied to efficiently remove the residual interference components after SIMO-model-based ICA. The experimental results reveal that the separation performance can be considerably improved by the proposed method compared with that achieved by conventional BSS methods. In addition, the real-time implementation of the proposed BSS is illustrated.

  9. A mobile phone based telemonitoring concept for the simultaneous acquisition of biosignals physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpusch, Hannes; Hayn, Dieter; Kreiner, Karl; Falgenhauer, Markus; Mor, Jürgen; Schreier, Günter

    2010-01-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is a common chronic heart disease with high socioeconomic impact. Conventional treatment of CHF is often ineffective and inefficient, since self-management is complex and patients are insufficiently involved in therapy management. With telemedical concepts, continuous monitoring of the health status can be ensured, and consequently therapy management can be adapted to the individual requirements of every individual patient. Therefore, a mobile phone based patient terminal for the concurrent acquisition of biosignals (e.g. ECG) and bioparameters (e.g. blood pressure) for patients with CHF has been developed and prototypically implemented. Usability and interoperability aspects were especially considered by using Bluetooth and Near Field Communication (NFC) technology for data acquisition and standardized data formats for transmission of the data to a central monitoring centre. Results indicated that even complicated measurements like the acquisition of ECG signals could be accomplished autonomously by the patients in an intuitive and easy-to-use way. Through the usage of IHE conform HL7 messages, self-measured data could easily be integrated into a higher-ranking eHealth infrastructure.

  10. Spectroelectrochemical sensing based on multimode selectivity simultaneously achievable in a single device. 16. Sensing by fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaval, Necati; Seliskar, Carl J; Heineman, William R

    2003-11-15

    A fluorescence spectroelectrochemical sensor capable of detecting very low concentrations of metal complexes is described. The sensor is based on a novel spectroelectrochemical sensor that incorporates multiple internal reflection spectroscopy at an optically transparent electrode (OTE) coated with a selective film to enhance detection limits by preconcentrating the analyte at the OTE surface. Nafion was used as the selective cation exchange film for detecting Ru(bpy)(3)(2+), the model analyte, which fluoresces at 605 nm when excited with a 441.6-nm HeCd laser. The unoptimized linear dynamic range of the sensor for Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) is between 1 x 10(-)(11) and 1 x 10(-)(7) M with a calculated 2 x 10(-)(13) M detection limit. The sensor employs extremely thin films ( approximately 12 nm) without significantly sacrificing its sensitivity. The sensor response is demonstrated with varying film thicknesses. A state-of-the-art flow cell design allows variable cell volumes as low as approximately 4 microL. Fluorescence of the sample can be controlled by electromodulation between 0.7 and 1.3 V. Sensor operation is not reversible for the chosen model film (Nafion) and sample (Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)) but it can be regenerated with ethanol for multiple uses.

  11. Improved gene prediction by principal component analysis based autoregressive Yule-Walker method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Manidipa; Barman, Soma

    2016-01-10

    Spectral analysis using Fourier techniques is popular with gene prediction because of its simplicity. Model-based autoregressive (AR) spectral estimation gives better resolution even for small DNA segments but selection of appropriate model order is a critical issue. In this article a technique has been proposed where Yule-Walker autoregressive (YW-AR) process is combined with principal component analysis (PCA) for reduction in dimensionality. The spectral peaks of DNA signal are used to detect protein-coding regions based on the 1/3 frequency component. Here optimal model order selection is no more critical as noise is removed by PCA prior to power spectral density (PSD) estimation. Eigenvalue-ratio is used to find the threshold between signal and noise subspaces for data reduction. Superiority of proposed method over fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method and autoregressive method combined with wavelet packet transform (WPT) is established with the help of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and discrimination measure (DM) respectively.

  12. Dependent component analysis based approach to robust demarcation of skin tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopriva, Ivica; Peršin, Antun; Puizina-Ivić, Neira; Mirić, Lina

    2009-02-01

    Method for robust demarcation of the basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is presented employing novel dependent component analysis (DCA)-based approach to unsupervised segmentation of the red-green-blue (RGB) fluorescent image of the BCC. It exploits spectral diversity between the BCC and the surrounding tissue. DCA represents an extension of the independent component analysis (ICA) and is necessary to account for statistical dependence induced by spectral similarity between the BCC and surrounding tissue. Robustness to intensity fluctuation is due to the scale invariance property of DCA algorithms. By comparative performance analysis with state-of-the-art image segmentation methods such as active contours (level set), K-means clustering, non-negative matrix factorization and ICA we experimentally demonstrate good performance of DCA-based BCC demarcation in demanding scenario where intensity of the fluorescent image has been varied almost two-orders of magnitude.

  13. Spectral network based on component cells under the SOPHIA European project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Núñez, Rubén, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Antón, Ignacio; Askins, Steve; Sala, Gabriel [Instituto de Energía Solar - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Domínguez, César; Voarino, Philippe [CEA-INES, 50 avenue du Lac Léman, 73375 Le Bourget-du-Lac (France); Steiner, Marc; Siefer, Gerald [Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Fucci, Rafaelle; Roca, Franco [ENEA, P.le E.Fermi 1, Località Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy); Minuto, Alessandro; Morabito, Paolo [RSE, Via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milan (Italy)

    2015-09-28

    In the frame of the European project SOPHIA, a spectral network based on component (also called isotypes) cells has been created. Among the members of this project, several spectral sensors based on component cells and collimating tubes, so-called spectroheliometers, were installed in the last years, allowing the collection of minute-resolution spectral data useful for CPV systems characterization across Europe. The use of spectroheliometers has been proved useful to establish the necessary spectral conditions to perform power rating of CPV modules and systems. If enough data in a given period of time is collected, ideally a year, it is possible to characterize spectrally the place where measurements are taken, in the same way that hours of annual irradiation can be estimated using a pyrheliometer.

  14. A mixture model with a reference-based automatic selection of components for disease classification from protein and/or gene expression levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopriva Ivica

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioinformatics data analysis is often using linear mixture model representing samples as additive mixture of components. Properly constrained blind matrix factorization methods extract those components using mixture samples only. However, automatic selection of extracted components to be retained for classification analysis remains an open issue. Results The method proposed here is applied to well-studied protein and genomic datasets of ovarian, prostate and colon cancers to extract components for disease prediction. It achieves average sensitivities of: 96.2 (sd = 2.7%, 97.6% (sd = 2.8% and 90.8% (sd = 5.5% and average specificities of: 93.6% (sd = 4.1%, 99% (sd = 2.2% and 79.4% (sd = 9.8% in 100 independent two-fold cross-validations. Conclusions We propose an additive mixture model of a sample for feature extraction using, in principle, sparseness constrained factorization on a sample-by-sample basis. As opposed to that, existing methods factorize complete dataset simultaneously. The sample model is composed of a reference sample representing control and/or case (disease groups and a test sample. Each sample is decomposed into two or more components that are selected automatically (without using label information as control specific, case specific and not differentially expressed (neutral. The number of components is determined by cross-validation. Automatic assignment of features (m/z ratios or genes to particular component is based on thresholds estimated from each sample directly. Due to the locality of decomposition, the strength of the expression of each feature across the samples can vary. Yet, they will still be allocated to the related disease and/or control specific component. Since label information is not used in the selection process, case and control specific components can be used for classification. That is not the case with standard factorization methods. Moreover, the component selected by proposed method

  15. Optimisation of Simultaneous Tl-201/Tc-99m Dual Isotope Reconstruction with Monte-Carlo-Based Scatter Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Kangasmaa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Tl-201/Tc-99m dual isotope myocardial perfusion SPECT is seriously hampered by down-scatter from Tc-99m into the Tl-201 energy window. This paper presents and optimises the ordered-subsets-expectation-maximisation-(OS-EM- based reconstruction algorithm, which corrects the down-scatter using an efficient Monte Carlo (MC simulator. The algorithm starts by first reconstructing the Tc-99m image with attenuation, collimator response, and MC-based scatter correction. The reconstructed Tc-99m image is then used as an input for an efficient MC-based down-scatter simulation of Tc-99m photons into the Tl-201 window. This down-scatter estimate is finally used in the Tl-201 reconstruction to correct the crosstalk between the two isotopes. The mathematical 4D NCAT phantom and physical cardiac phantoms were used to optimise the number of OS-EM iterations where the scatter estimate is updated and the number of MC simulated photons. The results showed that two scatter update iterations and 105 simulated photons are enough for the Tc-99m and Tl-201 reconstructions, whereas 106 simulated photons are needed to generate good quality down-scatter estimates. With these parameters, the entire Tl-201/Tc-99m dual isotope reconstruction can be accomplished in less than 3 minutes.

  16. Optimisation of simultaneous tl-201/tc-99m dual isotope reconstruction with monte-carlo-based scatter correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasmaa, Tuija; Kuikka, Jyrki; Sohlberg, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous Tl-201/Tc-99m dual isotope myocardial perfusion SPECT is seriously hampered by down-scatter from Tc-99m into the Tl-201 energy window. This paper presents and optimises the ordered-subsets-expectation-maximisation-(OS-EM-) based reconstruction algorithm, which corrects the down-scatter using an efficient Monte Carlo (MC) simulator. The algorithm starts by first reconstructing the Tc-99m image with attenuation, collimator response, and MC-based scatter correction. The reconstructed Tc-99m image is then used as an input for an efficient MC-based down-scatter simulation of Tc-99m photons into the Tl-201 window. This down-scatter estimate is finally used in the Tl-201 reconstruction to correct the crosstalk between the two isotopes. The mathematical 4D NCAT phantom and physical cardiac phantoms were used to optimise the number of OS-EM iterations where the scatter estimate is updated and the number of MC simulated photons. The results showed that two scatter update iterations and 10(5) simulated photons are enough for the Tc-99m and Tl-201 reconstructions, whereas 10(6) simulated photons are needed to generate good quality down-scatter estimates. With these parameters, the entire Tl-201/Tc-99m dual isotope reconstruction can be accomplished in less than 3 minutes.

  17. Simultaneous gains tuning in boiler/turbine PID-based controller clusters using iterative feedback tuning methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Taft, Cyrus W; Bentsman, Joseph; Hussey, Aaron; Petrus, Bryan

    2012-09-01

    Tuning a complex multi-loop PID based control system requires considerable experience. In today's power industry the number of available qualified tuners is dwindling and there is a great need for better tuning tools to maintain and improve the performance of complex multivariable processes. Multi-loop PID tuning is the procedure for the online tuning of a cluster of PID controllers operating in a closed loop with a multivariable process. This paper presents the first application of the simultaneous tuning technique to the multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) PID based nonlinear controller in the power plant control context, with the closed-loop system consisting of a MIMO nonlinear boiler/turbine model and a nonlinear cluster of six PID-type controllers. Although simplified, the dynamics and cross-coupling of the process and the PID cluster are similar to those used in a real power plant. The particular technique selected, iterative feedback tuning (IFT), utilizes the linearized version of the PID cluster for signal conditioning, but the data collection and tuning is carried out on the full nonlinear closed-loop system. Based on the figure of merit for the control system performance, the IFT is shown to deliver performance favorably comparable to that attained through the empirical tuning carried out by an experienced control engineer.

  18. STING Millennium: a web-based suite of programs for comprehensive and simultaneous analysis of protein structure and sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshich, Goran; Togawa, Roberto C.; Mancini, Adauto L.; Kuser, Paula R.; Yamagishi, Michel E. B.; Pappas, Georgios; Torres, Wellington V.; Campos, Tharsis Fonseca e; Ferreira, Leonardo L.; Luna, Fabio M.; Oliveira, Adilton G.; Miura, Ronald T.; Inoue, Marcus K.; Horita, Luiz G.; de Souza, Dimas F.; Dominiquini, Fabiana; Álvaro, Alexandre; Lima, Cleber S.; Ogawa, Fabio O.; Gomes, Gabriel B.; Palandrani, Juliana F.; dos Santos, Gabriela F.; de Freitas, Esther M.; Mattiuz, Amanda R.; Costa, Ivan C.; de Almeida, Celso L.; Souza, Savio; Baudet, Christian; Higa, Roberto H.

    2003-01-01

    STING Millennium Suite (SMS) is a new web-based suite of programs and databases providing visualization and a complex analysis of molecular sequence and structure for the data deposited at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). SMS operates with a collection of both publicly available data (PDB, HSSP, Prosite) and its own data (contacts, interface contacts, surface accessibility). Biologists find SMS useful because it provides a variety of algorithms and validated data, wrapped-up in a user friendly web interface. Using SMS it is now possible to analyze sequence to structure relationships, the quality of the structure, nature and volume of atomic contacts of intra and inter chain type, relative conservation of amino acids at the specific sequence position based on multiple sequence alignment, indications of folding essential residue (FER) based on the relationship of the residue conservation to the intra-chain contacts and Cα–Cα and Cβ–Cβ distance geometry. Specific emphasis in SMS is given to interface forming residues (IFR)—amino acids that define the interactive portion of the protein surfaces. SMS may simultaneously display and analyze previously superimposed structures. PDB updates trigger SMS updates in a synchronized fashion. SMS is freely accessible for public data at http://www.cbi.cnptia.embrapa.br, http://mirrors.rcsb.org/SMS and http://trantor.bioc.columbia.edu/SMS. PMID:12824333

  19. Study of ion diffusional motion in ionic liquid-based polymer electrolytes by simultaneous solid state NMR and DTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Dushyant Singh; Yamada, Koji; Sekhon, S S

    2013-02-28

    Polymer electrolytes containing ionic liquid (IL), 2-methyl-1,3-dipropylimidazolium dihydrogenphosphate (MDPImH2PO4) have been studied by (1)H solid state NMR and differential thermal analysis (DTA) simultaneously by using a specially designed probe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of its kind for IL based polymer electrolytes. The variation of NMR line width with temperature for the IL and polymer electrolytes shows line narrowing at the glass transition and melting temperature. The onset of long-range ion diffusional motion also takes place at these temperatures and is accompanied by a sudden increase in ionic conductivity value by 2-3 orders of magnitude. The presence of amorphous and crystalline phases in IL-based polymer electrolytes has been observed from X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, and the amorphous phase is the high conducting phase in these polymer electrolytes. The IL-based polymer electrolytes have been observed to be thermally stable up to 200 °C. The results obtained from ion transport studies have also been supported by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), XRD, and cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies.

  20. All-optical clock recovery based on simultaneous external injection-locking and self-seeding of a Fabry-Perot laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaohui; Wai, Ping Kong A.; Lu, Chao; Tam, Hwa Yaw; Qureshi, Khurram K.

    2011-02-01

    We proposed and demonstrated a novel, simple, and low cost method for all-optical clock recovery based on the switching between two injection-locked longitudinal modes in a dc-biased multi-quantum-well Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD). The dc biased FP-LD is simultaneously injection-locked by a return-to-zero data signal at one of the longitudinal modes of the FP-LD and self-seeded at another longitudinal mode by using a uniform fiber Bragg grating as a feedback component. The powers and detunes of the data signal and self-seeding signal are chosen such that self-seeding is realized in the FP-LD only when data signal power is low. Clock signals of data streams at different data rates can be obtained by tuning the optical delay line in the external self-seeding loop. We have demonstrated all-optical clock recovery at 10 GHz. The pulse width, time-bandwidth product, side mode suppression ration, root mean square timing jitter, and average power of the recovered clock signals are 50 ps, 0.5, 50 dB, 248 fs, and 3.6 dBm, respectively. Clock recovery is possible at wavelength within the gain band of the FP-LD. We also find and explore in the experiment the influence of detune between the external data signal and the nearest FP-LD longitudinal mode to the recovered clock.

  1. Full spectrum and selected spectrum based multivariate calibration methods for simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate, clotrimazole and benzyl alcohol: Development, validation and application on commercial dosage form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hany W.; Elzanfaly, Eman S.; Saad, Ahmed S.; Abdelaleem, Abdelaziz El-Bayoumi

    2016-12-01

    Five different chemometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate (BMD), clotrimazole (CT) and benzyl alcohol (BA) in their combined dosage form (Lotriderm® cream). The applied methods included three full spectrum based chemometric techniques; namely principal component regression (PCR), Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), while the other two methods were PLS and ANN preceded by genetic algorithm procedure (GA-PLS and GA-ANN) as a wavelength selection procedure. A multilevel multifactor experimental design was adopted for proper construction of the models. A validation set composed of 12 mixtures containing different ratios of the three analytes was used to evaluate the predictive power of the suggested models. All the proposed methods except ANN, were successfully applied for the analysis of their pharmaceutical formulation (Lotriderm® cream). Results demonstrated the efficiency of the four methods as quantitative tool for analysis of the three analytes without prior separation procedures and without any interference from the co-formulated excipient. Additionally, the work highlighted the effect of GA on increasing the predictive power of PLS and ANN models.

  2. Comparison of markerless and marker-based motion capture technologies through simultaneous data collection during gait: proof of concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ceseracciu

    Full Text Available During the last decade markerless motion capture techniques have gained an increasing interest in the biomechanics community. In the clinical field, however, the application of markerless techniques is still debated. This is mainly due to a limited number of papers dedicated to the comparison with the state of the art of marker based motion capture, in term of repeatability of the three dimensional joints' kinematics. In the present work the application of markerless technique to data acquired with a marker-based system was investigated. All videos and external data were recorded with the same motion capture system and included the possibility to use markerless and marker-based methods simultaneously. Three dimensional markerless joint kinematics was estimated and compared with the one determined with traditional marker based systems, through the evaluation of root mean square distance between joint rotations. In order to compare the performance of markerless and marker-based systems in terms of clinically relevant joint angles estimation, the same anatomical frames of reference were defined for both systems. Differences in calibration and synchronization of the cameras were excluded by applying the same wand calibration and lens distortion correction to both techniques. Best results were achieved for knee flexion-extension angle, with an average root mean square distance of 11.75 deg, corresponding to 18.35% of the range of motion. Sagittal plane kinematics was estimated better than on the other planes also for hip and ankle (root mean square distance of 17.62 deg e.g. 44.66%, and 7.17 deg e.g. 33.12%, meanwhile estimates for hip joint were the most incorrect. This technique enables users of markerless technology to compare differences with marker-based in order to define the degree of applicability of markerless technique.

  3. A Component-Based Conference Control Model and Implementation for Loosely Coupled Sessions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Conference control is a very important core part to compose a complete Internet multimedia conference system and has been a hot research area over the years, but there are currently no widely accepted robust and scalable solutions and standards. This paper proposes a component-based conference control model for loosely coupled sessions in which media applications can collaborate with a Session Controller(SC) to provide the conference control. A SC prototype has been built.

  4. FORECASTING THE FINANCIAL RETURNS FOR USING MULTIPLE REGRESSION BASED ON PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nop Sopipan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to forecast the returns for the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET Index by adding some explanatory variables and stationary Autoregressive order p (AR (p in the mean equation of returns. In addition, we used Principal Component Analysis (PCA to remove possible complications caused by multicollinearity. Results showed that the multiple regressions based on PCA, has the best performance.

  5. Prototypic implementations of the building block for component based open Hypermedia systems (BB/CB-OHSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Omer I. Eldai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the prototypic implementations of the BuildingBlock (BB/CB-OHSs) that proposed to address some of the Component-based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHSs) issues, including distribution and interoperability [4, 11, 12]. Four service implementations were described below. The....... These are the math service, navigational service, naming and location service and the storage service in addition to two communication protocols (TCP/IP and JAVA RMI)....

  6. Principal component analysis-based inversion of effective temperatures for late-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Paletou, F; Houdebine, E R; Watson, V

    2015-01-01

    We show how the range of application of the principal component analysis-based inversion method of Paletou et al. (2015) can be extended to late-type stars data. Besides being an extension of its original application domain, for FGK stars, we also used synthetic spectra for our learning database. We discuss our results on effective temperatures against previous evaluations made available from Vizier and Simbad services at CDS.

  7. An Intuitionistic Fuzzy Methodology for Component-Based Software Reliability Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Grigore, Albeanu; Popenţiuvlǎdicescu, Florin

    2012-01-01

    Component-based software development is the current methodology facilitating agility in project management, software reuse in design and implementation, promoting quality and productivity, and increasing the reliability and performability. This paper illustrates the usage of intuitionistic fuzzy...... degree approach in modelling the quality of entities in imprecise software reliability computing in order to optimize management results. Intuitionistic fuzzy optimization algorithms are proposed to be used for complex software systems reliability optimization under various constraints....

  8. Embedded System Construction: Evaluation of a Model-Driven and Component-Based Develpoment Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bunse, C.; Gross, H.G.; Peper, C. (Claudia)

    2008-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: Models in Software Engineering, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5421, 2009; doi:10.1007/978-3-642-01648-6_8 Model-driven development has become an important engineering paradigm. It is said to have many advantages over traditional approaches, such as reuse or quality improvement, also for embedded systems. Along a similar line of argumentation, component-based software engineering is advocated. In order to investigate these claims, the MARMOT method was appli...

  9. Analysis and Evaluating Security of Component-Based Software Development: A Security Metrics Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Ahmad Mir

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the security of software systems is a complex problem for the research communities due to the multifaceted and complex operational environment of the system involved. Many efforts towards the secure system development methodologies like secSDLC by Microsoft have been made but the measurement scale on which the security can be measured got least success. As with a shift in the nature of software development from standalone applications to distributed environment where there are a number of potential adversaries and threats present, security has been outlined and incorporated at the architectural level of the system and so is the need to evaluate and measure the level of security achieved . In this paper we present a framework for security evaluation at the design and architectural phase of the system development. We have outlined the security objectives based on the security requirements of the system and analyzed the behavior of various software architectures styles. As the component-based development (CBD is an important and widely used model to develop new large scale software due to various benefits like increased reuse, reduce time to market and cost. Our emphasis is on CBD and we have proposed a framework for the security evaluation of Component based software design and derived the security metrics for the main three pillars of security, confidentiality, integrity and availability based on the component composition, dependency and inter component data/information flow. The proposed framework and derived metrics are flexible enough, in way that the system developer can modify the metrics according to the situation and are applicable both at the development phases and as well as after development.

  10. A green analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of cefixime trihydrate and ambroxol HCl based on ultraviolet derivative spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceema Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Until date, there is no reported derivative spectrophotometric method for the combination of cefixime trihydrate (CEF and ambroxol HCl (ABH. So an urgent need was felt to develop an ultraviolet (UV derivative spectroscopic method, which reduces the cost of analysis on comparing with high-performance liquid chromatography or high-performance thin layer chromatography method. Aims: To develop and validate an economical and ecofriendly derivative spectroscopic method that avoids the use of organic solvents for simultaneous quantification of both the drugs. Materials and Methods: A simple method based on the derivative spectrophotometric method at zero crossing wavelengths has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of CEF and ABH. As the method depends on hydrotropic dissolution, 0.1N urea is used as the solvent, and it yields an economical and ecofriendly method. Two wavelengths 253 nm (zero crossing point (ZCP for CEF and 306 nm (ZCP for ABH were selected for the quantification of ABH and CEF respectively. Results: The first derivative amplitude-concentration plots were linear over the range of 5-35 μg/ml and 3-10.5 μg/ml with detection limits of 0.187 and 0.0937 μg/ml and quantification limits of 0.625 and 0.312 μg/ml for CEF and ABH respectively. The percentage recovery was within the range between 99.05% and 102%. The % relative standard deviation for precision and accuracy of the method was found to be <2%. Conclusion: The proposed method was found to be simple, accurate and precise and can be successfully applied to the routine quality control analysis of studied drugs in their tablet formulations.

  11. Nonlinear Statistical Process Monitoring Based on Control Charts with Memory Effect and Kernel Independent Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel nonlinear combination process monitoring method was proposed based on techniques with memory effect (multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA)) and kernel independent component analysis (KICA). The method was developed for dealing with nonlinear issues and detecting small or moderate drifts in one or more process variables with autocorrelation. MEWMA charts use additional information from the past history of the process for keeping the memory effect of the process behavior trend. KICA is a recently developed statistical technique for revealing hidden, nonlinear statistically independent factors that underlie sets of measurements and it is a two-phase algorithm: whitened kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) plus independent component analysis (ICA). The application to the fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) simulated process indicates that the proposed combined method based on MEWMA and KICA can effectively capture the nonlinear relationship and detect small drifts in process variables. Its performance significantly outperforms monitoring method based on ICA, MEWMA-ICA and KICA, especially for long-term performance deterioration.

  12. Models and frameworks: a synergistic association for developing component-based applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Diego; Sánchez-Ledesma, Francisco; Sánchez, Pedro; Pastor, Juan A; Álvarez, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The use of frameworks and components has been shown to be effective in improving software productivity and quality. However, the results in terms of reuse and standardization show a dearth of portability either of designs or of component-based implementations. This paper, which is based on the model driven software development paradigm, presents an approach that separates the description of component-based applications from their possible implementations for different platforms. This separation is supported by automatic integration of the code obtained from the input models into frameworks implemented using object-oriented technology. Thus, the approach combines the benefits of modeling applications from a higher level of abstraction than objects, with the higher levels of code reuse provided by frameworks. In order to illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach, two representative case studies that use both an existing framework and an ad hoc framework, are described. Finally, our approach is compared with other alternatives in terms of the cost of software development.

  13. Higher heating value prediction of lignocellulosic crop based on their content of main components [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the energy recovery potential of lignocellulosic crops as solid biofuel depends on various characteristics. One of the main characteristics in this field is the higher heating value. It is defined as the amount of heat emitted by the combustion of a fuel, including the heat coming from the condensation of the water vapor. Its value depends on the content of main components of the lignocellulosic crops. Two models predicting the higher heating value have been built based on the content of main components of the following lignocellulosic crops: miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus J.M.Greef & Deuter ex Hodk. & Renvoize, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., Jerusalem artichoke (aerial part (Helianthus tuberosus L., fiber sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, fiber corn (Zea mays L. and hemp (Cannabis sativa L. [trials made at Libramont (Belgium in 2007 and 2008]. The first model predicts the higher heating value of the lignocellulosic crops based on sum of the products between the higher heating value of each component and its amount. The second model predicts the higher heating value of the lignocellulosic crop based on a multiple linear regression using step by step least mean squares.

  14. Minor Component Analysis-based Landing Forecast System for Ship-borne Helicopter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bo,; SHI Ai-guo; WAN Lin; YANG Bao-zhang

    2005-01-01

    The general structure of ship-borne helicopter landing forecast system is presented, and a novel ship motion prediction model based on minor component analysis (MCA) is built up to improve the forecast effectiveness. To validate the feasibility of this landing forecast system, time series for the roll, pitch and heave are generated by simulation and then forecasted based on MCA. Simulation results show that ship-borne helicopters can land safely in higher sea condition while carrying on rescue or replenishment tasks at sea in terms of the landing forecast system.

  15. Spectral characterisation of colour printer based on a novel grey component replacement method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyi Guo; Haisong Xu; M.Ronnier Luo; Binyu Wang

    2011-01-01

    Conventional printer characterisation models are generally based on the assumption that the densities of primary colours are additive.However,additivity failure frequently occurs in practice.We propose a novel grey component replacement(GCR) method based on the spectral density sub-additivity equations in this letter for spectral characterisation of a 4-ink colour printer.The method effectively correct the feasibility of the proposed method and to evaluate the model performance.Finally,the GCR model for characterising colour printer with high spectral and colorimetric prediction accuracy is established.

  16. Identifying and Analyzing Strong Components of an Industrial Network Based on Cycle Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of big data and cloud computing, data research focuses not only on describing the individual characteristics but also on depicting the relationships among individuals. Studying dependence and constraint relationships among industries has aroused significant interest in the academic field. From the network perspective, this paper tries to analyze industrial relational structures based on cycle degree. The cycle degree of a vertex, that is, the number of cycles through a vertex in an industrial network, can describe the roles of the vertices of strong components in industrial circulation. In most cases, different vertices in a strong component have different cycle degrees, and the one with a larger cycle degree plays more important roles. However, the concept of cycle degree does not involve the lengths of the cycles, which are also important for circulations. The more indirect the relationship between two industries is, the weaker it is. In order to analyze strong components thoroughly, this paper proposes the concept of circular centrality taking into consideration the influence by two factors: the lengths and the numbers of cycles through a vertex. Exemplification indicates that a profound analysis of strong components in an industrial network can reveal the features of an economy.

  17. GOMMA: a component-based infrastructure for managing and analyzing life science ontologies and their evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Toralf

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ontologies are increasingly used to structure and semantically describe entities of domains, such as genes and proteins in life sciences. Their increasing size and the high frequency of updates resulting in a large set of ontology versions necessitates efficient management and analysis of this data. Results We present GOMMA, a generic infrastructure for managing and analyzing life science ontologies and their evolution. GOMMA utilizes a generic repository to uniformly and efficiently manage ontology versions and different kinds of mappings. Furthermore, it provides components for ontology matching, and determining evolutionary ontology changes. These components are used by analysis tools, such as the Ontology Evolution Explorer (OnEX and the detection of unstable ontology regions. We introduce the component-based infrastructure and show analysis results for selected components and life science applications. GOMMA is available at http://dbs.uni-leipzig.de/GOMMA. Conclusions GOMMA provides a comprehensive and scalable infrastructure to manage large life science ontologies and analyze their evolution. Key functions include a generic storage of ontology versions and mappings, support for ontology matching and determining ontology changes. The supported features for analyzing ontology changes are helpful to assess their impact on ontology-dependent applications such as for term enrichment. GOMMA complements OnEX by providing functionalities to manage various versions of mappings between two ontologies and allows combining different match approaches.

  18. Non-negative matrix factorization based unmixing for principal component transformed hyperspectral data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-rui GENG; Lu-yan JI; Kang SUN

    2016-01-01

    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has been widely used in mixture analysis for hyperspectral remote sensing. When used for spectral unmixing analysis, however, it has two main shortcomings: (1) since the dimensionality of hyperspectral data is usually very large, NMF tends to suffer from large computational complexity for the popular multiplicative iteration rule;(2) NMF is sensitive to noise (outliers), and thus the corrupted data will make the results of NMF meaningless. Although principal component analysis (PCA) can be used to mitigate these two problems, the transformed data will contain negative numbers, hindering the direct use of the multiplicative iteration rule of NMF. In this paper, we analyze the impact of PCA on NMF, and fi nd that multiplicative NMF can also be applicable to data after principal component transformation. Based on this conclusion, we present a method to perform NMF in the principal component space, named ‘principal component NMF’ (PCNMF). Experimental results show that PCNMF is both accurate and time-saving.

  19. Scientific bases of biomass processing into basic component of aviation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalov, V. V.; Lavrenov, V. A.; Lishchiner, I. I.; Malova, O. V.; Tarasov, A. L.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    A combination of feedstock pyrolysis and the cracking of the volatile pyrolysis products on the charcoal at 1000 °C allows to obtain a tarless synthesis gas which contains 90 vol% or more of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in approximately equal proportions. Basic component of aviation fuel was synthesized in a two-stage process from gas obtained by pyrolytic processing of biomass. Methanol and dimethyl ether can be efficiently produced in a two-layer loading of methanolic catalyst and γ-Al2O3. The total conversion of CO per pass was 38.2% using for the synthesis of oxygenates a synthesis gas with adverse ratio of H2/CO = 0.96. Conversion of CO to CH3OH was 15.3% and the conversion of CO to dimethyl ether was 20.9%. A high yield of basic component per oxygenates mass (44.6%) was obtained during conversion. The high selectivity of the synthesis process for liquid hydrocarbons was observed. An optimal recipe of aviation fuel B-92 based on a synthesized basic component was developed. The prototype of aviation fuel meets the requirements for B-92 when straight fractions of 50-100 °C (up to 35 wt%), isooctane (up to 10 wt%) and ethyl fluid (2.0 g/kg calculated as tetraethyl lead) is added to the basic component.

  20. Striatal and Hippocampal Entropy and Recognition Signals in Category Learning: Simultaneous Processes Revealed by Model-Based fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C.; Preston, Alison R.

    2012-01-01

    Category learning is a complex phenomenon that engages multiple cognitive processes, many of which occur simultaneously and unfold dynamically over time. For example, as people encounter objects in the world, they simultaneously engage processes to determine their fit with current knowledge structures, gather new information about the objects, and…

  1. Simultaneous nonlinear encryption of grayscale and color images based on phase-truncated fractional Fourier transform and optical superposition principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

    2013-09-01

    A nonlinear color and grayscale images cryptosystem based on phase-truncated fractional Fourier transform and optical superposition principle is proposed. In order to realize simultaneous encryption of color and grayscale images, each grayscale image is first converted into two phase masks by using an optical coherent superposition, one of which is treated as a part of input information that will be fractional Fourier transformed while the other in the form of a chaotic random phase mask (CRPM) is used as a decryption key. For the purpose of optical performance, all the processes are performed through three channels, i.e., red, green, and blue. Different from most asymmetric encryption methods, the decryption process is designed to be linear for the sake of effective decryption. The encryption level of a double random phase encryption based on phase-truncated Fourier transform is enhanced by extending it into fractional Fourier domain and the load of the keys management and transmission is lightened by using CRPMs. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is discussed and computer simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  2. Simultaneous and independent multi-parameter monitoring with fault localization for DSP-based coherent communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Thomas Shun Rong; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Yu, Changyuan

    2010-11-08

    Digital signal processing (DSP)-based coherent communications have become standard for future high-speed optical networks. Implementing DSP-based advanced algorithms for data detection requires much more detailed knowledge of the transmission link parameters, resulting in optical performance monitoring (OPM) being even more important for next generation systems. At the same time, the DSP platform also enables new strategies for OPM. In this paper, we propose the use of pilot symbols with alternating power levels and study the statistics of the received power and phase difference to simultaneously and independently monitor the carrier frequency offset between transmitter and receiver laser, laser linewidth, number of spans, fiber nonlinearity parameters as well as optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of a transmission link. Analytical predictions are verified by simulation results for systems with full chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation per span and 10% CD under-compensation per span. In addition, we show that by monitoring the changes in the statistics of the received pilot symbols during network operation, one can locate faults or OSNR degradations along a transmission link without additional monitoring equipments at intermediate nodes, which may be useful for more efficient dynamic routing and network management.

  3. 'Traffic light' immunochromatographic test based on multicolor quantum dots for the simultaneous detection of several antibiotics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranova, N A; Berlina, A N; Zherdev, A V; Dzantiev, B B

    2015-01-15

    An immunochromatographic test was developed for the simultaneous detection of several compounds in a complex sample matrix. The system was designed in a 'traffic light' format comprising three lines of different colors on a test strip, thereby providing an easy tool with which to identify an analyte of interest based on the visible color of the line formed (qualitative analysis), and to determine the amount of the analytes present based on the fluorescence intensity of the lines (quantitative analysis). For the development of the multicolor immunochromatographic test, we used antibodies against antibiotics of three different classes as selective binders. Each antibody was labeled with water-soluble quantum dots with emission maximum at either 525, 585, or 625 nm. The test system exhibited high sensitivity, with limits of detection for ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin of 0.3, 0.12, and 0.2 ng mL(-1), respectively. These values are 80-200 times lower than those achievable with ELISA using the same antibodies. Using the 'traffic light' assay, these antibiotics could be detected in milk samples within 10 min without any sample preparation. The 'traffic light' assay also demonstrated a high degree of analyte detection when testing spiked milk samples (92-101%) and accuracy (quantitation error <8% of the mean).

  4. Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Optical Properties from Combined Airborne- and Ground-Based Direct and Diffuse Radiometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Dubovik, O.; King, M. D.; Sinyuk, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and AERONET data). A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34-2.30 m) and angular range (180 ) of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a) the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b) the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c) Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d) the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  5. Targeted Proteomics Enables Simultaneous Quantification of Folate Receptor Isoforms and Potential Isoform-based Diagnosis in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Xu, Feifei; Fang, Danjun; Chen, Yun

    2015-11-17

    The distinct roles of protein isoforms in cancer are becoming increasingly evident. FRα and FRβ, two major isoforms of the folate receptor family, generally have different cellular distribution and tissue specificity. However, the presence of FRβ in breast tumors, where FRα is normally expressed, complicates this situation. Prior to applying any FR isoform-based diagnosis and therapeutics, it is essential to monitor the expression profile of FR isoforms in a more accurate manner. An LC-MS/MS-based targeted proteomics assay was developed and validated in this study because of the lack of suitable methodology for the simultaneous and specific measurement of highly homologous isoforms occurring at low concentrations. FRα and FRβ monitoring was achieved by measuring their surrogate isoform-specific peptides. Five human breast cell lines, isolated macrophages and 60 matched pairs of breast tissue samples were subjected to the analysis. The results indicated that FRβ was overexpressed in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) but not epithelial cells, in addition to an enhanced level of FRα in breast cancer cells and tissue samples. Moreover, the levels of the FR isoforms were evaluated according to the histology, histopathological features and molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Several positive associations with PR/ER and HER2 status and metastasis were revealed.

  6. Simultaneous Multi-vehicle Detection and Tracking Framework with Pavement Constraints Based on Machine Learning and Particle Filter Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ke; HUANG Zhi; ZHONG Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    Due to the large variations of environment with ever-changing background and vehicles with different shapes, colors and appearances, to implement a real-time on-board vehicle recognition system with high adaptability, efficiency and robustness in complicated environments, remains challenging. This paper introduces a simultaneous detection and tracking framework for robust on-board vehicle recognition based on monocular vision technology. The framework utilizes a novel layered machine learning and particle filter to build a multi-vehicle detection and tracking system. In the vehicle detection stage, a layered machine learning method is presented, which combines coarse-search and fine-search to obtain the target using the AdaBoost-based training algorithm. The pavement segmentation method based on characteristic similarity is proposed to estimate the most likely pavement area. Efficiency and accuracy are enhanced by restricting vehicle detection within the downsized area of pavement. In vehicle tracking stage, a multi-objective tracking algorithm based on target state management and particle filter is proposed. The proposed system is evaluated by roadway video captured in a variety of traffics, illumination, and weather conditions. The evaluating results show that, under conditions of proper illumination and clear vehicle appearance, the proposed system achieves 91.2% detection rate and 2.6% false detection rate. Experiments compared to typical algorithms show that, the presented algorithm reduces the false detection rate nearly by half at the cost of decreasing 2.7%–8.6% detection rate. This paper proposes a multi-vehicle detection and tracking system, which is promising for implementation in an on-board vehicle recognition system with high precision, strong robustness and low computational cost.

  7. Soft Sensor of Vehicle State Estimation Based on the Kernel Principal Component and Improved Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haorui Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the car control systems, it is hard to measure some key vehicle states directly and accurately when running on the road and the cost of the measurement is high as well. To address these problems, a vehicle state estimation method based on the kernel principal component analysis and the improved Elman neural network is proposed. Combining with nonlinear vehicle model of three degrees of freedom (3 DOF, longitudinal, lateral, and yaw motion, this paper applies the method to the soft sensor of the vehicle states. The simulation results of the double lane change tested by Matlab/SIMULINK cosimulation prove the KPCA-IENN algorithm (kernel principal component algorithm and improved Elman neural network to be quick and precise when tracking the vehicle states within the nonlinear area. This algorithm method can meet the software performance requirements of the vehicle states estimation in precision, tracking speed, noise suppression, and other aspects.

  8. Fabrication of directional solidification components of nickel-base superalloys by laser metal forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Feng; Weidong Huang; Darong Chen; Xin Lin; Haiou Yang

    2004-01-01

    Straight plates, hollow columns, ear-like blade tips, twist plates with directional solidification microstructure made of Rene 95 superalloys were successfully fabricated on Nickel-base superalloy and DD3 substrates, respectively. The processing conditions for production of the parts with corresponding shapes were obtained. The fabrication precision was high and the components were compact. The solidification microstructure of the parts was analyzed by optical microscopy. The results show that the solidification microstructure is composed of columnar dendrites, by epitaxial growth onto the directional solidification substrates. The crystallography orientation of the parts was parallel to that of the substrates. The primary arm spacing was about 10 μm, which is in the range of superfine dendrites, and the secondary arm was small or even degenerated. It is concluded that the laser metal forming technique provides a method to manufacture directional solidification components.

  9. Framework based on MDA and ontology for the representation and validation of components model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemury Silega-Martínez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Model Driven Architecture is one of the most prominent proposals in the area of software development, accepted by both the research community and software development industry. Moreover, in recent years have shown the potential of ontologies for representing a particular domain, example of this are the results in the semantic web. In this paper we present a proposal based on Model Driven Architecture paradigm and is complemented with ontology to represent and validate component models. This component model is restricted to the development of business management systems, so it includes concepts from that domain. The use of the framework will reduce the number of errors made during the development of the system architecture, will increase standardization and productivity at this stage.

  10. Analysis of Active Components in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Injection Based on Vascular Endothelial Cell Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Jie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation analysis based on chromatograms and pharmacological activities is essential for understanding the effective components in complex herbal medicines. In this report, HPLC and measurement of antioxidant properties were used to describe the active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection (SMI. HPLC results showed that tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic acid and their metabolites in rat serum may contribute to the efficacy of SMI. Assessment of antioxidant properties indicated that differences in the composition of serum powder of SMI caused differences in vascular endothelial cell protection. When bivariate correlation was carried out it was found that salvianolic acid B, tanshinol and protocatechuic aldehyde were active components of SMI because they were correlated to antioxidant properties.

  11. Principal components analysis of an evaluation of the hemiplegic subject based on the Bobath approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corriveau, H; Arsenault, A B; Dutil, E; Lepage, Y

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation based on the Bobath approach to treatment has previously been developed and partially validated. The purpose of the present study was to verify the content validity of this evaluation with the use of a statistical approach known as principal components analysis. Thirty-eight hemiplegic subjects participated in the study. Analysis of the scores on each of six parameters (sensorium, active movements, muscle tone, reflex activity, postural reactions, and pain) was evaluated on three occasions across a 2-month period. Each time this produced three factors that contained 70% of the variation in the data set. The first component mainly reflected variations in mobility, the second mainly variations in muscle tone, and the third mainly variations in sensorium and pain. The results of such exploratory analysis highlight the fact that some of the parameters are not only important but also interrelated. These results seem to partially support the conceptual framework substantiating the Bobath approach to treatment.

  12. Crawling Waves Speed Estimation Based on the Dominant Component Analysis Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Renán; Ormachea, Juvenal; Salo, Arthur; Rodríguez, Paul; Parker, Kevin J; Castaneda, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    A novel method for estimating the shear wave speed from crawling waves based on the amplitude modulation-frequency modulation model is proposed. Our method consists of a two-step approach for estimating the stiffness parameter at the central region of the material of interest. First, narrowband signals are isolated in the time dimension to recover the locally strongest component and to reject distortions from the ultrasound data. Then, the shear wave speed is computed by the dominant component analysis approach and its spatial instantaneous frequency is estimated by the discrete quasi-eigenfunction approximations method. Experimental results on phantoms with different compositions and operating frequencies show coherent speed estimations and accurate inclusion locations.

  13. Multi-Level, Multi-Component Approaches to Community Based Interventions for Healthy Living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Novotny, Rachel; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in integrated and coordinated programs that intervene in multiple community settings/institutions at the same time and involve policy and system changes. The purpose of the paper is to analyse three comparable cases of Multi Level, Multi Component intervention programs...... the potential of ML-MC community-based public health nutrition interventions to create sustainable change. The paper proposes methodology, guidelines and directions for future research through analysis and examination strengths and weaknesses in the programs. Similarities are that they engage and commit local...... stakeholders in a structured approach to integrate intervention components in order to create dose and intensity. In that way, they all make provisions for post intervention impact sustainability. All programs target the child and family members' knowledge, attitudes, behavior, the policy level...

  14. Three-Component Power Decomposition for Polarimetric SAR Data Based on Adaptive Volume Scatter Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Eun Park

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the three-component power decomposition for polarimetric SAR (PolSAR data with an adaptive volume scattering model is proposed. The volume scattering model is assumed to be reflection-symmetric but parameterized. For each image pixel, the decomposition first starts with determining the adaptive parameter based on matrix similarity metric. Then, a respective scattering power component is retrieved with the established procedure. It has been shown that the proposed method leads to complete elimination of negative powers as the result of the adaptive volume scattering model. Experiments with the PolSAR data from both the NASA/JPL (National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne SAR (AIRSAR and the JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ALOS-PALSAR also demonstrate that the proposed method not only obtains similar/better results in vegetated areas as compared to the existing Freeman-Durden decomposition but helps to improve discrimination of the urban regions.

  15. Physics-Based Design Tools for Lightweight Ceramic Composite Turbine Components with Durable Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Under the Supersonics Project of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, modeling and experimental efforts are underway to develop generic physics-based tools to better implement lightweight ceramic matrix composites into supersonic engine components and to assure sufficient durability for these components in the engine environment. These activities, which have a crosscutting aspect for other areas of the Fundamental Aero program, are focusing primarily on improving the multi-directional design strength and rupture strength of high-performance SiC/SiC composites by advanced fiber architecture design. This presentation discusses progress in tool development with particular focus on the use of 2.5D-woven architectures and state-of-the-art constituents for a generic un-cooled SiC/SiC low-pressure turbine blade.

  16. A blind separation method of overlapped multi-components based on time varying AR model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A method utilizing single channel recordings to blindly separate the multicomponents overlapped in time and frequency domains is proposed in this paper. Based on the time varying AR model, the instantaneous frequency and amplitude of each signal component are estimated respectively, thus the signal component separation is achieved. By using prolate spheroidal sequence as basis functions to expand the time varying parameters of the AR model, the method turns the problem of linear time varying parameters estimation to a linear time invariant parameter estimation problem, then the parameters are estimated by a recursive algorithm. The computation of this method is simple, and no prior knowledge of the signals is needed. Simulation results demonstrate validity and excellent performance of this method.

  17. Multi-component LFM signal detection and parameter estimation based on Radon-HHT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new method is proposed to analyze multi-component linear frequency modulated (LFM) signals, which eliminates cross terms in conventional Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD). The approach is based on Radon transform and Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), which is a recently developed method adaptive to non-linear and non-stationary signals. The complicated signal is decomposed into several intrinsic mode functions (IMF) by the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which makes the consequent instantaneous frequency meaningful. After the instantaneous frequency and Hilbert spectrum are computed, multi-component LFM signals detection and parameter estimation are obtained using Radon transform on the Hilbert spectrum plane. The simulation results show its feasibility and effectiveness.

  18. Analysis of active components in Salvia miltiorrhiza injection based on vascular endothelial cell protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Yang, Kai; Sun, Caihua; Zheng, Minxia

    2014-09-01

    Correlation analysis based on chromatograms and pharmacological activities is essential for understanding the effective components in complex herbal medicines. In this report, HPLC and measurement of antioxidant properties were used to describe the active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection (SMI). HPLC results showed that tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic acid and their metabolites in rat serum may contribute to the efficacy of SMI. Assessment of antioxidant properties indicated that differences in the composition of serum powder of SMI caused differences in vascular endothelial cell protection. When bivariate correlation was carried out it was found that salvianolic acid B, tanshinol and protocatechuic aldehyde were active components of SMI because they were correlated to antioxidant properties.

  19. Photonic Beamformer Model Based on Analog Fiber-Optic Links’ Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, V. A.; Gordeev, D. A.; Ivanov, S. I.; Lavrov, A. P.; Saenko, I. I.

    2016-08-01

    The model of photonic beamformer for wideband microwave phased array antenna is investigated. The main features of the photonic beamformer model based on true-time-delay technique, DWDM technology and fiber chromatic dispersion are briefly analyzed. The performance characteristics of the key components of photonic beamformer for phased array antenna in the receive mode are examined. The beamformer model composed of the components available on the market of fiber-optic analog communication links is designed and tentatively investigated. Experimental demonstration of the designed model beamforming features includes actual measurement of 5-element microwave linear array antenna far-field patterns in 6-16 GHz frequency range for antenna pattern steering up to 40°. The results of experimental testing show good accordance with the calculation estimates.

  20. FMEA Based Risk Assessment of Component Failure Modes in Industrial Radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Alok; Sonawane, A U; Rawat, Prashant S

    2016-01-01

    Industrial radiography has its inimitable role in non-destructive examinations. Industrial radiography devices, consisting of significantly high activity of the radioisotopes, are operated manually by remotely held control unit. Malfunctioning of these devices may cause potential exposure to the operator and nearby public, and thus should be practiced under a systematic risk control. To ensure the radiation safety, proactive risk assessment should be implemented. Risk assessment in industrial radiography using the Failure Modes & Effect Analysis (FMEA) for the design and operation of industrial radiography exposure devices has been carried out in this study. Total 56 component failure modes were identified and Risk Priority Numbers (RPNs) were assigned by the FMEA expert team, based on the field experience and reported failure data of various components. Results shows all the identified failure modes have RPN in the range of 04 to 216 and most of the higher RPN are due to low detectability and high severi...

  1. A component-based FPGA design framework for neuronal ion channel dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Terrence S T; Rachmuth, Guy; Lam, Kai-Pui; Poon, Chi-Sang

    2006-12-01

    Neuron-machine interfaces such as dynamic clamp and brain-implantable neuroprosthetic devices require real-time simulations of neuronal ion channel dynamics. Field-programmable gate array (FPGA) has emerged as a high-speed digital platform ideal for such application-specific computations. We propose an efficient and flexible component-based FPGA design framework for neuronal ion channel dynamics simulations, which overcomes certain limitations of the recently proposed memory-based approach. A parallel processing strategy is used to minimize computational delay, and a hardware-efficient factoring approach for calculating exponential and division functions in neuronal ion channel models is used to conserve resource consumption. Performances of the various FPGA design approaches are compared theoretically and experimentally in corresponding implementations of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) synaptic ion channel models. Our results suggest that the component-based design framework provides a more memory economic solution, as well as more efficient logic utilization for large word lengths, whereas the memory-based approach may be suitable for time-critical applications where a higher throughput rate is desired.

  2. HPLC法同时测定减肥药中四种违禁减肥药物成分%Simultaneous Determination of Four Species of Contraband Medicine Component in Health Food for Controlling Body Weight by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢兵; 刘廷华; 胡海山; 龙洲雄

    2012-01-01

    建立了高效液相色谱同时测定减肥药中奥利司他、东布曲明、西布曲明、利莫那班4种违禁药物成分的方法。采用Thermo C18(4.6×250 mm,5μm)色谱柱,以0.02mol/L的磷酸二氢钾和乙腈为流动相,梯度洗脱,流速为1.0 mL/min,柱温30℃,检测波长为222 nm。奥利司他、东布曲明、西布曲明、利莫那班回收率分别为89.1-98.7%。本方法简便快速,结果准确可靠。%A HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of orlistat,doivutramine,sibutramine and rimonabant,which are contraband medicine component in the health food for controlling body weight,is established.The four components could be separated completely on a Thermo C18 column(4.6×250 mm,5μm),then were detected at 222nm,using acetonitrile and 0.02mol/L dihydrogen phosphate solution with gradient elution as the mobile phase at flow rate 1.0 mL/min,and the column temperature was 30°C.The average recoverys for real samples ranged form 89.1-98.7%.The method is simple,rapid,accurate and reliable.

  3. A single marker choice strategy in simultaneous characterization and quantification of multiple components by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-QqQ-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhangchi; Liu, Zhenli; Song, Zhiqian; Zhao, Siyu; Dong, Yunzhuo; Zeng, Honglian; Shu, Yisong; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Yuanyan; Lu, Aiping

    2016-05-30

    Single standard to determine multi-components (SSDMC) method has been accepted as an efficient technique for the quality control of Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), especially for overcoming the shortage of reference standards. HPLC-UV methods have been applied to establish SSDMC method for quantitative analysis in several plant medicines and Chinese patent medicines, however, no LC-MS methods have been used. The purpose of this study is to put forward an improved strategy for the choice of single marker in SSDMC using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-QqQ-MS). Five different Panax genus plants, recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopeia 2015 edition, were used as research subjects. An improved SSDMC strategy for simultaneous characterization and determination of 18 bioactive saponins in five Panax plants was put forward, and which was validated to be more superior. Then, it was fully investigated with respect to linearity, LODs, LOQs, precision and accuracy. Coupling with multivariate statistical analysis, the established and validated SSDMC strategy could be successively used in discrimination of the five Panax genus plants.

  4. Evaluation of levels of defect sites present in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite electrodes using capacitive and faradaic current components derived simultaneously from large-amplitude Fourier transformed ac voltammetric experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chong-Yong; Bond, Alan M

    2009-01-15

    The level of edge plane defect sites present in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes has been evaluated via analysis of dc, ac fundamental, and higher-order ac harmonics available from a single large-amplitude Fourier transformed (FT) ac voltammetric experiment. Deliberate introduction of a low level of edge plane defect was achieved by polishing, with a higher level being introduced via electrochemical pretreatment. Kinetics regimes associated with fast electron transfer on the edge plane defect sites and slow electron transfer on the basal plane surface are resolved under ac conditions when using the surface-sensitive [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) redox probe. However, because of their insensitivity to slow electron transfer, higher-order ac faradaic harmonics almost exclusively detect only the much faster processes that emanate from edge plane defect sites. Thus, detection of fourth- and higher-order ac Faradaic harmonic components that are devoid of background capacitive current is possible at freshly cleaved HOPG in the region near the reversible potential for the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) process. Under these circumstances, dc cyclic voltammograms exhibit only reduction and oxidation peaks separated by more than 1 V. The fundamental ac harmonic provides detailed information on the capacitive current, which increases with the level of edge plane defect sites. Apparent charge transfer rate constants also can be derived from peak-to-peak separations obtained from the dc aperiodic component. Estimates of the percentage of edge plane defect sites based on ac higher harmonics, capacitance, and dc aperiodic component that are available from a single experiment have been compared. The edge plane defect levels deduced from capacitance (fundamental harmonic ac component) and higher harmonic Faradaic currents are considered to be more reliable than estimations based on apparent rate constants derived from the dc aperiodic component or conventional dc cyclic voltammogram.

  5. A Distributed Web GIS Application Based on Component Technology and Fractal Image Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jie

    2006-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology is a combination of computer's graphic and database to store and process spatial information. According to the users' demands, GIS exports the exact geographic information and related information for users with map and description through associating geographic place and related attributes. Based on the existing popular technology, this paper presents a distributed web GIS application based on component technology and fractal image compression. It presents the basic framework of the proposed system at first, and then discusses the key technology of implementing this system; finally it designs a three-layer WEB GIS instance using VC++ ATL based on Geo Beans. The example suggests the proposed design is correct, feasible and valid.

  6. A connected component-based method for efficiently integrating multiscale $N$-body systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jänes, Jürgen; Zwart, Simon F Portegies

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel method for efficient direct integration of gravitational N-body systems with a large variation in characteristic time scales. The method is based on a recursive and adaptive partitioning of the system based on the connected components of the graph generated by the particle distribution combined with an interaction-specific time step criterion. It uses an explicit and approximately time-symmetric time step criterion, and conserves linear and angular momentum to machine precision. In numerical tests on astrophysically relevant setups, the method compares favourably to both alternative Hamiltonian-splitting integrators as well as recently developed block time step-based GPU-accelerated Hermite codes. Our reference implementation is incorporated in the HUAYNO code, which is freely available as a part of the AMUSE framework.

  7. MULTI-VIEW FACE DETECTION BASED ON KERNEL PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS AND KERNEL SUPPORT VECTOR TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzhir Shaban Al-Ani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Detecting faces across multiple views is more challenging than in a frontal view. To address this problem,an efficient approach is presented in this paper using a kernel machine based approach for learning suchnonlinear mappings to provide effective view-based representation for multi-view face detection. In thispaper Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA is used to project data into the view-subspaces thencomputed as view-based features. Multi-view face detection is performed by classifying each input imageinto face or non-face class, by using a two class Kernel Support Vector Classifier (KSVC. Experimentalresults demonstrate successful face detection over a wide range of facial variation in color, illuminationconditions, position, scale, orientation, 3D pose, and expression in images from several photo collections.

  8. A Stock Market Prediction Method Based on Support Vector Machines (SVM and Independent Component Analysis (ICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakob GRIGORYAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this work focuses on financial time series prediction problem. The integrated prediction model based on support vector machines (SVM with independent component analysis (ICA (called SVM-ICA is proposed for stock market prediction. The presented approach first uses ICA technique to extract important features from the research data, and then applies SVM technique to perform time series prediction. The results obtained from the SVM-ICA technique are compared with the results of SVM-based model without using any pre-processing step. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, two different research data are used as illustrative examples. In experiments, the root mean square error (RMSE measure is used to evaluate the performance of proposed models. The comparative analysis leads to the conclusion that the proposed SVM-ICA model outperforms the simple SVM-based model in forecasting task of nonstationary time series.

  9. Simultaneous ground-based thermospheric wind measurements using Doppler asymmetric spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (DASH) and Fabry-Perot Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, C. R.; Harlander, J. M.; Meriwether, J. W.; Brown, C. M.; Drob, D. P.; Emmert, J. T.; Castelaz, M.; Roesler, F. L.

    2011-12-01

    The concept of Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) instruments to measure upper atmospheric winds was initially published in 2006. The DASH approach is identical to the concept of Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (SHS) except that one interferometer arm includes an additional fixed optical path offset, similar to the phase stepping Michelson technique which was used for the WINDII (Wind Imaging Interferometer) experiment. The advantages of DASH include having no moving parts, high sensitivity, and the ability to simultaneously observe multiple isolated emission lines, including a known light source for real time calibration. Since it was first proposed, the development of the DASH technique has progressed significantly. Major milestones include a proof of concept in the laboratory, the design, fabrication and test of a monolithic DASH interferometer for the thermospheric red line (O I 630nm), and initial ground based thermospheric wind measurements using this interferometer. To further increase the technical readiness level (TRL) of DASH for a future satellite instrument, we have conducted coordinated measurements with a DASH prototype and Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) from the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute in North Carolina in the summer of 2011. We will present a comparison of the two experimental data sets and examine how they compare with the empirical horizontal wind model HWM-07.

  10. Sustainable power generation from floating macrophytes based ecological microenvironment through embedded fuel cells along with simultaneous wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Mohanakrishna, G; Chiranjeevi, P

    2011-07-01

    Miniatured floating macrophyte based ecosystem (FME) designed with Eichornia as the major biota was evaluated for bioelectricity generation and wastewater treatment. Three fuel cell assemblies (non-catalyzed electrodes) embedded in FME were evaluated with domestic sewage and fermented distillery wastewater in continuous mode for 210 days. Fermented distillery effluents from biohydrogen production (dark-fermentation) process exhibited effective power generation with simultaneous waste remediation. Two fuel cell assemblies (A1 and A2) showed effective bioelectricity generation. Increasing the organic load of wastewater showed good correlation with both power generation (A1, 211.14 mA/m(2); A2, 224.93 mA/m(2)) and wastewater treatment (COD removal, 86.67% and VFA removal 72.32%). Combining A1 and A2 assemblies depicted stabilized performance with respect to current and voltage along with significant decrease in ohmic and activation losses. FME also exhibited effective removal of nitrates, colour and turbidity from wastewater. The studied miniatured ecological system facilitates both energy generation and wastewater treatment with a sustainable perspective.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of the Main Peanut Allergens in Foods Using Disposable Amperometric Magnetic Beads-Based Immunosensing Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Ruiz-Valdepeñas Montiel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel magnetic beads (MBs-based immunosensing approach for the rapid and simultaneous determination of the main peanut allergenic proteins (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 is reported. It involves the use of sandwich-type immunoassays using selective capture and detector antibodies and carboxylic acid-modified magnetic beads (HOOC-MBs. Amperometric detection at −0.20 V was performed using dual screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPdCEs and the H2O2/hydroquinone (HQ system. This methodology exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity for the target proteins providing detection limits of 18.0 and 0.07 ng/mL for Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, respectively, with an assay time of only 2 h. The usefulness of the approach was evaluated by detecting the endogenous content of both allergenic proteins in different food extracts as well as trace amounts of peanut allergen (0.0001% or 1.0 mg/kg in wheat flour spiked samples. The developed platform provides better Low detection limits (LODs in shorter assay times than those claimed for the allergen specific commercial ELISA kits using the same immunoreagents and quantitative information on individual food allergen levels. Moreover, the flexibility of the methodology makes it readily translate to the detection of other food-allergens.

  12. A vision-based system for measuring the displacements of large structures: Simultaneous adaptive calibration and full motion estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C. Almeida; Costa, C. Oliveira; Batista, J.

    2016-05-01

    The paper describes a kinematic model-based solution to estimate simultaneously the calibration parameters of the vision system and the full-motion (6-DOF) of large civil engineering structures, namely of long deck suspension bridges, from a sequence of stereo images captured by digital cameras. Using an arbitrary number of images and assuming a smooth structure motion, an Iterated Extended Kalman Filter is used to recursively estimate the projection matrices of the cameras and the structure full-motion (displacement and rotation) over time, helping to meet the structure health monitoring fulfilment. Results related to the performance evaluation, obtained by numerical simulation and with real experiments, are reported. The real experiments were carried out in indoor and outdoor environment using a reduced structure model to impose controlled motions. In both cases, the results obtained with a minimum setup comprising only two cameras and four non-coplanar tracking points, showed a high accuracy results for on-line camera calibration and structure full motion estimation.

  13. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method for the simultaneous determination of hydroxy sterols and bile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Clara; Werner, Philipp; Worthmann, Anna; Wegner, Katrin; Tödter, Klaus; Scheja, Ludger; Rohn, Sascha; Heeren, Joerg; Fischer, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Recently, hydroxy sterols and bile acids have gained growing interest as they are important regulators of energy homoeostasis and inflammation. The high number of different hydroxy sterols and bile acid species requires powerful analytical tools to quantify these structurally and chemically similar analytes. Here, we introduce a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method for rapid quantification of 34 sterols (hydroxy sterols, primary, secondary bile acids as well as their taurine and glycine conjugates). Chromatographic baseline separation of isomeric hydroxy sterols and bile acids is obtained using a rugged amide embedded C18 (polar embedded) stationary phase. The current method features a simple extraction protocol validated for blood plasma, urine, gall bladder, liver, feces, and adipose tissue avoiding solid phase extraction as well as derivatization procedures. The total extraction recovery for representative analytes ranged between 58-86% in plasma, 85% in urine, 79-92% in liver, 76-98% in adipose tissue, 93-104% in feces and 62-79% in gall bladder. The validation procedure demonstrated that the calibration curves were linear over the selected concentration ranges for 97% of the analytes, with calculated coefficients of determination (R2) of greater than 0.99. A feeding study in wild type mice with a standard chow and a cholesterol-enriched Western type diet illustrated that the protocol described here provides a powerful tool to simultaneously quantify cholesterol derivatives and bile acids in metabolically active tissues and to follow the enterohepatic circulation.

  14. Simultaneous methane production and wastewater reuse by a membrane-based process: evaluation with raw domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-wen; An, Rui; Tao, Yu; Li, Jin; Li, Xin-xin; Ren, Nan-qi

    2011-02-15

    In this study, a membrane-based process was applied to simultaneously reclaim methane and generate reused water from raw domestic wastewater. The system was comprised of up-flow anaerobic sludge fixed bed (UAFB), anoxic sink (AS) and aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The hydraulic retention time of UAFB (HRT(U)) was gradually shortened from 8h to 6h, 3h and to 1h, while the HRT of AS and MBR kept at 8 h. It is found that HRT(U) of 3h was more suitable for the balancing production of biogas and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and the VFAs served as carbon source for denitrification. The trans-membrane pressure (TMP) of the MBR kept lower than 0.04 MPa without wash or change of membrane sheet, however, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that microbes attached to the inner-surface of membrane, causing irreversible fouling after 133-day operation. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of amplified 16S rDNA gene fragments proved that more functional bacteria and higher microbial diversity emerged at HRT(U) of 3h and 1h. Most bacteria belonged to Betaproteobacteria and were responsible for carbon and nitrogen removal.

  15. Electrochemical sensor based on graphene and mesoporous TiO2 for the simultaneous determination of trace colourants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tian; Sun, Junyong; Meng, Wen; Song, Li; Zhang, Yuxia

    2013-12-15

    Currently, synthetic colourants draw much attention as food additives. This paper investigated the simultaneous electrocatalytic oxidation of sunset yellow and tartrazine, two yellow colourants commonly present in food together, with a novel voltammetric sensor based on graphene and mesoporous TiO2 modified carbon paste electrode. Due to the high accumulation effect and great catalytic capability of graphene and mesoporous TiO2, the developed sensor exhibited well-defined and separate square wave voltammetric peaks (i.e., 272 mV) for sunset yellow tartrazine. The peak currents of sunset yellow and tartrazine increased linearly with their concentration in the ranges of 0.02-2.05 μM and 0.02-1.18 μM, respectively. And the detection limit was 6.0 and 8.0 nM for sunset yellow and tartrazine, respectively. This new sensor was applied to determine sunset yellow and tartrazine in several food sample extracts. Results suggested that the proposed sensor was sensitive, rapid and reliable.

  16. Ferroelectromagnetic solid solutions on the base piezoelectric ceramic materials for components of micromechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochenek, Dariusz; Zachariasz, Radosław; Niemiec, Przemysław; Ilczuk, Jan; Bartkowska, Joanna; Brzezińska, Dagmara

    2016-10-01

    In the presented work, a ferroelectromagnetic solid solutions based on PZT and ferrite powders have been obtained. The main aim of combination of ferroelectric and magnetic powders was to obtain material showing both electric and magnetic properties. Ferroelectric ceramic powder (in amount of 90%) was based on the doped PZT type solid solution while magnetic component was nickel-zinc ferrite Ni1-xZnxFe2O4 (in amount of 10%). The synthesis of components of ferroelectromagnetic solid solutions was performed using the solid phase sintering. Final densification of synthesized powder has been done using free sintering. The aim of the work was to obtain and examine in the first multicomponent PZT type ceramics admixed with chromium with the following chemical composition Pb0.94Sr0.06(Zr0.46Ti0.54)O3+0.25 at% Cr2O3 and next ferroelectromagnetic solid solution based on a PZT type ferroelectric powder (Pb0.94Sr0.06(Zr0.46Ti0.54)O3+0.25 at% Cr2O3) and nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.64Zn0.36Fe2O4), from the point of view of their mechanical and electric properties, such as: electric permittivity, ε; dielectric loss, tanδ; mechanical losses, Q-1; and Young modulus, E.

  17. Power Transformer Differential Protection Based on Neural Network Principal Component Analysis, Harmonic Restraint and Park's Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Tripathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new approach for power transformer differential protection which is based on the wave-shape recognition technique. An algorithm based on neural network principal component analysis (NNPCA with back-propagation learning is proposed for digital differential protection of power transformer. The principal component analysis is used to preprocess the data from power system in order to eliminate redundant information and enhance hidden pattern of differential current to discriminate between internal faults from inrush and overexcitation conditions. This algorithm has been developed by considering optimal number of neurons in hidden layer and optimal number of neurons at output layer. The proposed algorithm makes use of ratio of voltage to frequency and amplitude of differential current for transformer operating condition detection. This paper presents a comparative study of power transformer differential protection algorithms based on harmonic restraint method, NNPCA, feed forward back propagation neural network (FFBPNN, space vector analysis of the differential signal, and their time characteristic shapes in Park’s plane. The algorithms are compared as to their speed of response, computational burden, and the capability to distinguish between a magnetizing inrush and power transformer internal fault. The mathematical basis for each algorithm is briefly described. All the algorithms are evaluated using simulation performed with PSCAD/EMTDC and MATLAB.

  18. Simultaneous quantitative determination of eight active components in Polygonum multiflomm Thunb by RP-HPLC%RP-HPLC法同时测定何首乌中8种活性成分的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    续艳丽; 董琦; 胡凤祖

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive and specific reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was established for the simultaneous quantitative determination of eight active components, two stilbenes (resveratrol, polydatin) and six flavonoids (rutin, quercitrin, quercetin, luteotin, isoorientin, kaempferol), in Polygonum multiflomm Thunb. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Kromasil C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 um), and gradient elution was carried out with water-methanol as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Stilbenes and flavonoids were respectively detected at 320 nm and 350 run with DAD. The correlation coefficients of all the calibration curves were found to be higher than 0.9995. The average recoveries were ranged from 96.8% to 102.5% with RSD less than 4.8% for these components. RP-HPLC was validated to be a robust method foi the quantitative determination of active components in Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, and it could be used in the quality control of this traditional medicine.%建立RP-HPLc法同时测定何首乌中8种活性成分的方法,其中2种二苯乙烯类(白藜芦醇苷、白藜芦醇)和6种黄酮类(芦丁、木樨草素、槲皮素、槲皮苷、山奈酚和异红草素).kromasil C18柱(250 mm×4.6 ram,5um),甲醇(A):水(B)为流动相梯度洗脱.流速1 mL/min,二苯乙烯类和黄酮类分别在320、35nm波长下检测.结果2种二苯乙烯类和6种黄酮类与色谱峰面积均呈良好的线形关系,r>0.9995,平均回收率为96.8%-102.5%,RSD均小于4.8%.结果证明本方法可用于何首乌活性成分的含量测定,也可用于何首乌药材的质量控制.

  19. 同时蒸馏萃取燕麦炒米香味物质的气相色谱-质谱分析%Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction and GC-MS Analysis of Aroma Components from Fried Oat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任清; 黄明泉; 杨震安; 郭项雨

    2012-01-01

    Aroma components were extracted from fried oat by simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE), and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). A total of 86 components were separated. Of them, 58 were identified, accounting for 85.23% of total peak area. The major components were Z,Z-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (20.01%), E,E-2,4-decadienal (7.15%), hexadecanamide (5.30%), eicosane (4.38%), hexadecane (4.17%), ethyl acetate (3.52%), 2,6-dimethyl-pyrazine (3.03%), 3- ethyl-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazine (2.96%), hexanal (2.65%), 2-ethyl-5-methyl-pyrazine (2.64%) and 1-pentanol (2.11%).%采用同时蒸馏萃取法提取燕麦炒米香味物质,然后利用气相色谱一质谱技术对提取的燕麦炒米香味物质进行检测和成分分析。结果共分离出86种成分,鉴定出58种,占香味物质总峰面积的85.23%。主要成分有Z,Z-9,12-十八碳二烯酸(20.01%)、E,E-2,4-癸二烯醛(7.15%)、十六烷酰胺(5.30%)、二十烷(4.38%)、十六烷(4.17%)、乙酸LN(3.52%)、2,6.二甲基吡嗪(3.03%)、3-乙基-2,5-二甲基一吡嗪(2.96%)、己醛(2.65%)、2-乙基一5-甲基吡嗪(2.64%)、乙酸丁酯(2.39%)、1-戊醇(2.11%)

  20. Medical Image Segmentation Using Independent Component Analysis-Based Kernelized Fuzzy c-Means Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tien Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation of brain tissues is an important but inherently challenging task in that different brain tissues have similar grayscale values and the intensity of a brain tissue may be confused with that of another one. The paper accordingly develops an ICKFCM method based on kernelized fuzzy c-means clustering with ICA analysis for extracting regions of interest in MRI brain images. The proposed method first removes the skull region using a skull stripping algorithm. Through ICA, three independent components are then extracted from multimodal medical images containing T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and PD-weighted MRI images. As MRI signals can be regarded as a combination of the signals from brain matters, ICA can be used for contrast enhancement of MRI images. Finally, the three independent components are utilized as inputs by KFCM algorithm to extract different brain tissues. Relying on the decomposition of a multivariate signal into independent non-Gaussian components and using a more appropriate kernel-induced distance for fuzzy clustering, the proposed method is capable of achieving greater reliability in both theory and practice than other segmentation approaches. According to the experiment results, the proposed method is capable of accurately extracting the complicated shapes of brain tissues and still remaining robust against various types of noises.