WorldWideScience

Sample records for based simultaneous component

  1. Time-invariant component-based normalization for a simultaneous PET-MR scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzunce, M. A.; Reader, A. J.

    2016-05-01

    Component-based normalization is a method used to compensate for the sensitivity of each of the lines of response acquired in positron emission tomography. This method consists of modelling the sensitivity of each line of response as a product of multiple factors, which can be classified as time-invariant, time-variant and acquisition-dependent components. Typical time-variant factors are the intrinsic crystal efficiencies, which are needed to be updated by a regular normalization scan. Failure to do so would in principle generate artifacts in the reconstructed images due to the use of out of date time-variant factors. For this reason, an assessment of the variability and the impact of the crystal efficiencies in the reconstructed images is important to determine the frequency needed for the normalization scans, as well as to estimate the error obtained when an inappropriate normalization is used. Furthermore, if the fluctuations of these components are low enough, they could be neglected and nearly artifact-free reconstructions become achievable without performing a regular normalization scan. In this work, we analyse the impact of the time-variant factors in the component-based normalization used in the Biograph mMR scanner, but the work is applicable to other PET scanners. These factors are the intrinsic crystal efficiencies and the axial factors. For the latter, we propose a new method to obtain fixed axial factors that was validated with simulated data. Regarding the crystal efficiencies, we assessed their fluctuations during a period of 230 d and we found that they had good stability and low dispersion. We studied the impact of not including the intrinsic crystal efficiencies in the normalization when reconstructing simulated and real data. Based on this assessment and using the fixed axial factors, we propose the use of a time-invariant normalization that is able to achieve comparable results to the standard, daily updated, normalization factors used in this

  2. Simultaneous multi-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry based on principal component analysis with a color CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a sequence of simultaneous multi-wavelength phase-shifting interferograms (SMWPSIs) recorded by a color CMOS, a principal component analysis (PCA) based multi-wavelength interferometry (MWI) is proposed. First, a sequence of SMWPSIs with unknown phase shifts are recorded with a single-chip color CMOS camera. Subsequently, the wrapped phases of single-wavelength are retrieved with the PCA algorithm. Finally, the unambiguous phase of the extended synthetic wavelength is achieved by the subtraction between the wrapped phases of single-wavelength. In addition, to eliminate the additional phase introduced by the microscope and intensity crosstalk among three-color channels, a two-step phase compensation method with and without the measured object in the experimental system is employed. Compared with conventional single-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry, due to no requirements for phase shifts calibration and the phase unwrapping operation, the actual unambiguous phase of the measured object can be achieved with the proposed PCA-based MWI method conveniently. Both numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed PCA-based MWI method can enlarge not only the measuring range, but also no amplification of noise level. (paper)

  3. Simultaneous analysis of 11 main active components in Cirsium setosum based on HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and combined with statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qian; Chang, Lu; Ren, Yanping; Cao, Liang; Sun, Yingguang; Du, Yingfeng; Shi, Xiaowei; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Lantong

    2012-11-01

    A novel method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous determination of the 11 major active components including ten flavonoids and one phenolic acid in Cirsium setosum. Separation was performed on a reversed-phase C(18) column with gradient elution of methanol and 0.1‰ acetic acid (v/v). The identification and quantification of the analytes were achieved on a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Multiple-reaction monitoring scanning was employed for quantification with switching electrospray ion source polarity between positive and negative modes in a single run. Full validation of the assay was carried out including linearity, precision, accuracy, stability, limits of detection and quantification. The results demonstrated that the method developed was reliable, rapid, and specific. The 25 batches of C. setosum samples from different sources were first determined using the developed method and the total contents of 11 analytes ranged from 1717.460 to 23028.258 μg/g. Among them, the content of linarin was highest, and its mean value was 7340.967 μg/g. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis were performed to differentiate and classify the samples, which is helpful for comprehensive evaluation of the quality of C. setosum.

  4. Recursive approach of EEG-segment-based principal component analysis substantially reduces cryogenic pump artifacts in simultaneous EEG-fMRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Lee, Jong-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) data simultaneously acquired with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data are preprocessed to remove gradient artifacts (GAs) and ballistocardiographic artifacts (BCAs). Nonetheless, these data, especially in the gamma frequency range, can be contaminated by residual artifacts produced by mechanical vibrations in the MRI system, in particular the cryogenic pump that compresses and transports the helium that chills the magnet (the helium-pump). However, few options are available for the removal of helium-pump artifacts. In this study, we propose a recursive approach of EEG-segment-based principal component analysis (rsPCA) that enables the removal of these helium-pump artifacts. Using the rsPCA method, feature vectors representing helium-pump artifacts were successfully extracted as eigenvectors, and the reconstructed signals of the feature vectors were subsequently removed. A test using simultaneous EEG-fMRI data acquired from left-hand (LH) and right-hand (RH) clenching tasks performed by volunteers found that the proposed rsPCA method substantially reduced helium-pump artifacts in the EEG data and significantly enhanced task-related gamma band activity levels (p=0.0038 and 0.0363 for LH and RH tasks, respectively) in EEG data that have had GAs and BCAs removed. The spatial patterns of the fMRI data were estimated using a hemodynamic response function (HRF) modeled from the estimated gamma band activity in a general linear model (GLM) framework. Active voxel clusters were identified in the post-/pre-central gyri of motor area, only from the rsPCA method (uncorrected p<0.001 for both LH/RH tasks). In addition, the superior temporal pole areas were consistently observed (uncorrected p<0.001 for the LH task and uncorrected p<0.05 for the RH task) in the spatial patterns of the HRF model for gamma band activity when the task paradigm and movement were also included in the GLM.

  5. Simultaneous inference of a binary composite endpoint and its components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Große Ruse, M; Ritz, Christian; Hothorn, Ludwig A.

    2016-01-01

    endpoints have been raised, it is recommended to evaluate the composite endpoint jointly with the involved components. We propose an approach for carrying out simultaneous inference based on separate model fits for each endpoint, yet controlling the family-wise type I error rate asymptotically. The key idea......Binary composite endpoints offer some advantages as a way to succinctly combine evidence from a number of related binary endpoints recorded in the same clinical trial into a single outcome. However, as some concerns about the clinical relevance as well as the interpretation of such composite...

  6. Components of simultaneous interpreting: Comparing interpreting with shadowing and paraphrasing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K. Christoffels; A.M.B. de Groot

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting is a complex task where the interpreter is routinely involved in comprehending, translating and producing language at the same time. This study assessed two components that are likely to be major sources of complexity in SI: The simultaneity of comprehension and production,

  7. Component Compatibility in Component Based Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Hardeep Singh; Anitpal Kaur

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a research on component compatibility in component based development. Component-based software engineering is a process that emphasizes the design and construction of computer-based systems using reusable software components. Commercial components repositories contain hundred thousand components that make component selection an extremely difficult and time expensive task. Often component selected by functional features are incompatible or the integration effort...

  8. ANOVA-principal component analysis and ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis: a comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Zwanenburg; H.C.J. Hoefsloot; J.A. Westerhuis; J.J. Jansen; A.K. Smilde

    2011-01-01

    ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) is a recently developed tool to analyze multivariate data. In this paper, we enhance the explorative capability of ASCA by introducing a projection of the observations on the principal component subspace to visualize the variation among the measurements.

  9. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Four Components including Acetaminophen by Taget Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    UV Spectrophotometric Target Factor Analysis (TFA) was used for the simultaneous determination of four components (acetaminophen, guuaifenesin, caffeine, Chlorphenamine maleate) in cough syrup. The computer program of TFA is based on VC++ language. The difficulty of overlapping of absorption spectra of four compounds was overcome by this procedure. The experimental results show that the average recovery of each component is all in the range from 98.9% to 106.8% and each component obtains satisfactory results without any pre-separation.

  10. Spatial correlativity of atmospheric particulate components simultaneously collected in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Oku, Yuichiro; Kishikawa, Naoya; Deguchi, Yuya; Sera, Nobuyuki; Seiyama, Tetsurou; Horasaki, Kazunori; Arashidani, Keiichi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Watanabe, Masanari; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Takako; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Inaba, Yohei; Tonokura, Kenichi; Akiyama, Masayuki; Kokunai, Osamu; Coulibaly, Souleymane; Hasei, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2016-02-01

    The simultaneous sampling of total suspended particles was performed at 14 sites in Japan during July 2008-June 2009. The spatial correlativity of each particulate composition toward Osaka was obtained for nine selected sites to overview the chemical composition and geographical distribution of particulate components across a wide range of areas nationwide. The spatial correlatives of atmospheric particulate components were extended to an even wider range of areas up to 950 km distance (meso-alpha scale region, >200 km) for a far-reaching distance analysis unique in the literature. Overall, the spatial correlations of ionic species and both organic and elemental carbons were significant, suggesting their shared advections, including their long-range transport from East Asia. Although sulfate ions are widely dispersed across Japan, such is not necessarily correlated with organic and elemental carbon, possibly indicating that the sulfate emission source, including long-range transport, differs from that of carbonaceous particulates. By contrast, the characteristics of spatial correlatives of metallic constituents vary; for example, particulate Pb and Cd show a significantly wide range of spatial correlatives to Osaka, while Mn-though limited to cities neighboring Osaka-shows significant spatial correlations. Other metallic constituents showed no significant spatial correlatives, indicating the effects of local pollutants. Moreover, the extent of the spatial dispersion of the particulate components and the relationships among chemical components were analyzed via factor analysis to highlight the effects of long-range inflow and local original emissions. In this treatment, 13 particulate components among the 19 measured were implicated in long-range transport. PMID:26753629

  11. Simultaneous bilateral total ankle replacement using a 3-component prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Total ankle replacement is an established surgical procedure in patients with end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. We analyzed complications and medium-term results in patients with simultaneous bilateral total ankle replacement. Patients and methods 10 women and 16 men, mean age 60 (SD 13) years, were followed for a median of 5 (2–10) years. Results There were no intraoperative or perioperative complications, with the exception of 1 patient with prolonged wound healing. Major revision surgery was necessary in 6 of the 52 ankles, including 4 revisions of prosthetic components. The average pain score decreased from 6.9 (4−10) to 1.8 (0−4) points. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot score increased from 32 (SD 14) points preoperatively to 74 (SD 12) points postoperatively. The average range of motion increased from 28° (SD 12) preoperatively to 38° (SD 9) postoperatively. All 8 categories of SF-36 score improved. Interpretation Simultaneous bilateral total ankle replacement is a suitable method for restoration of function and attainment of pain relief in patients with bilateral end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. The results of this procedure, including complication rates, revision rates, and functional outcome, are comparable to those reported in patients with unilateral total ankle replacement. PMID:21999622

  12. Development and optimization of SPE-HPLC-UV/ELSD for simultaneous determination of nine bioactive components in Shenqi Fuzheng Injection based on Quality by Design principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Qu, Haibin

    2016-03-01

    A method combining solid phase extraction, high performance liquid chromatography, and ultraviolet/evaporative light scattering detection (SPE-HPLC-UV/ELSD) was developed according to Quality by Design (QbD) principles and used to assay nine bioactive compounds within a botanical drug, Shenqi Fuzheng Injection. Risk assessment and a Plackett-Burman design were utilized to evaluate the impact of 11 factors on the resolutions and signal-to-noise of chromatographic peaks. Multiple regression and Pareto ranking analysis indicated that the sorbent mass, sample volume, flow rate, column temperature, evaporator temperature, and gas flow rate were statistically significant (p operating parameters of sample preparation, chromatographic separation, and compound detection were investigated simultaneously. Eight terms of method validation, i.e., system-suitability tests, method robustness/ruggedness, sensitivity, precision, repeatability, linearity, accuracy, and stability, were accomplished at a selected working point. These results revealed that the QbD principles were suitable in the development of analytical procedures for samples in complex matrices. Meanwhile, the analytical quality and method robustness were validated by the analytical design space. The presented strategy provides a tutorial on the development of a robust QbD-compliant quantitative method for samples in complex matrices. PMID:26825340

  13. The Simultaneous Determination of Five Components Including Acetaminophen by Ridge Regression Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ridge regression spectrophotometry (LHG) is used for the simultaneous determination of five components (acetaminophen, p-aminophenol, caffeine, chlorphenamine maleate and guaifenesin) in cough syrup. The computer program of LHG is based on VB language.The difficulties in overlapping of absorption spectrums of five compounds are overcome by this procedure. The experimental results show that the average recovery of each component is in the range from 97.9% to 103.3% and each component obtains satisfactory results without any pre-separation.

  14. A very fast algorithm for simultaneously performing connected-component labeling and euler number computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lifeng; Chao, Yuyan

    2015-09-01

    Labeling connected components and calculating the Euler number in a binary image are two fundamental processes for computer vision and pattern recognition. This paper presents an ingenious method for identifying a hole in a binary image in the first scan of connected-component labeling. Our algorithm can perform connected component labeling and Euler number computing simultaneously, and it can also calculate the connected component (object) number and the hole number efficiently. The additional cost for calculating the hole number is only O(H) , where H is the hole number in the image. Our algorithm can be implemented almost in the same way as a conventional equivalent-label-set-based connected-component labeling algorithm. We prove the correctness of our algorithm and use experimental results for various kinds of images to demonstrate the power of our algorithm.

  15. Sequential versus Simultaneous Auctioning of Procurement Contracts with Common Value and Private Value Components

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, D; Pagel, B.; Peeters, R.J.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    We study procurement auctions held in sequential and simultaneous formats. For thelatter format, we find less bid participation and more aggressive bidding for projects withstrong common value components and more competition for projects having strong privatevalue components.

  16. Formalization in Component Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Jens Peter; Knudsen, John; Makowski, Piotr;

    2006-01-01

    We present a unifying conceptual framework for components, component interfaces, contracts and composition of components by focusing on the collection of properties or qualities that they must share. A specific property, such as signature, functionality behaviour or timing is an aspect. Each aspe...... by small examples, using UML as concrete syntax for various aspects, and is illustrated by one larger case study based on an industrial prototype of a complex component based system....

  17. Novel pure component contribution, mean centering of ratio spectra and factor based algorithms for simultaneous resolution and quantification of overlapped spectral signals: An application to recently co-formulated tablets of chlorzoxazone, aceclofenac and paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubar, Safaa S.; Hegazy, Maha A.; Elshahed, Mona S.; Helmy, Marwa I.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, resolution and quantitation of spectral signals are achieved by several univariate and multivariate techniques. The novel pure component contribution algorithm (PCCA) along with mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR) and the factor based partial least squares (PLS) algorithms were developed for simultaneous determination of chlorzoxazone (CXZ), aceclofenac (ACF) and paracetamol (PAR) in their pure form and recently co-formulated tablets. The PCCA method allows the determination of each drug at its λmax. While, the mean centered values at 230, 302 and 253 nm, were used for quantification of CXZ, ACF and PAR, respectively, by MCR method. Partial least-squares (PLS) algorithm was applied as a multivariate calibration method. The three methods were successfully applied for determination of CXZ, ACF and PAR in pure form and tablets. Good linear relationships were obtained in the ranges of 2-50, 2-40 and 2-30 μg mL- 1 for CXZ, ACF and PAR, in order, by both PCCA and MCR, while the PLS model was built for the three compounds each in the range of 2-10 μg mL- 1. The results obtained from the proposed methods were statistically compared with a reported one. PCCA and MCR methods were validated according to ICH guidelines, while PLS method was validated by both cross validation and an independent data set. They are found suitable for the determination of the studied drugs in bulk powder and tablets.

  18. Simultaneous optimal estimates of fixed effects and variance components in the mixed model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Mixia; WANG Songgui

    2004-01-01

    For a general linear mixed model with two variance components, a set of simple conditions is obtained, under which, (i) the least squares estimate of the fixed effects and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) estimates of variance components are proved to be uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimates simultaneously; (ii) the exact confidence intervals of the fixed effects and uniformly optimal unbiased tests on variance components are given; (iii) the exact probability expression of ANOVA estimates of variance components taking negative value is obtained.

  19. Formal Component-Based Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Madlener, Ken; van Eekelen, Marko; 10.4204/EPTCS.62.2

    2011-01-01

    One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. This formalization constitutes a contribution towards modular meta theoretic formalizations in theorem provers. As a small example, a modular proof of determinism of a mini-language is developed.

  20. Simultaneous characterization of pancreatic stellate cells and other pancreatic components within three-dimensional tissue environment during chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyan; Fu, Ling

    2013-05-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and other pancreatic components that play a critical role in exocrine pancreatic diseases are generally identified separately by conventional studies, which provide indirect links between these components. Here, nonlinear optical microscopy was evaluated for simultaneous characterization of these components within a three-dimensional (3-D) tissue environment, primarily based on multichannel detection of intrinsic optical emissions and cell morphology. Fresh rat pancreatic tissues harvested at 1 day, 7 days, and 28 days after induction of chronic pancreatitis were imaged, respectively. PSCs, inflammatory cells, blood vessels, and collagen fibers were identified simultaneously. The PSCs at day 1 of chronic pancreatitis showed significant enlargement compared with those in normal pancreas (ppancreatic components coincidently within 3-D pancreatic tissues. It is a prospect for intravital observation of dynamic events under natural physiological conditions, and might help uncover the key mechanisms of exocrine pancreatic diseases, leading to more effective treatments.

  1. A novel GMO biosensor for rapid ultrasensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple DNA components in GMO products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Zheng, Lei; Chen, Yinji; Xue, Feng; Cheng, Lin; Adeloju, Samuel B; Chen, Wei

    2015-04-15

    Since the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), there has been on-going and continuous concern and debates on the commercialization of products derived from GMOs. There is an urgent need for development of highly efficient analytical methods for rapid and high throughput screening of GMOs components, as required for appropriate labeling of GMO-derived foods, as well as for on-site inspection and import/export quarantine. In this study, we describe, for the first time, a multi-labeling based electrochemical biosensor for simultaneous detection of multiple DNA components of GMO products on the same sensing interface. Two-round signal amplification was applied by using both an exonuclease enzyme catalytic reaction and gold nanoparticle-based bio-barcode related strategies, respectively. Simultaneous multiple detections of different DNA components of GMOs were successfully achieved with satisfied sensitivity using this electrochemical biosensor. Furthermore, the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed approach was successfully demonstrated by application to various GMO products, including locally obtained and confirmed commercial GMO seeds and transgenetic plants. The proposed electrochemical biosensor demonstrated unique merits that promise to gain more interest in its use for rapid and on-site simultaneous multiple screening of different components of GMO products.

  2. Multiparty Simultaneous Quantum Identity Authentication Based on Entanglement Swapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; ZHANG Quan; TANG Chao-Jing

    2006-01-01

    @@ We present a multiparty simultaneous quantum identity authentication protocol based on entanglement swapping.In our protocol, the multi-user can be authenticated by a trusted third party simultaneously.

  3. Research on the simultaneous multi-components analytical method for polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Sup; Song, Duk Young; Choi, Byung In; Kim, Kun Han; Eum, Chul Hun; Jeon, Chi Wan; Lee, Jung Hwa [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Dissolution properties for the several inorganic pollutants in soils have been studied and simultaneous multi-components analytical method has been established with using ICP/MS for 13 monitoring elements in order to protect water and soil environments. And addition, more effective new analytical methods have been studied for TPH(total petroleum hydrocarbon) and organophosphorus compounds in soils. Several inorganic pollutants were spiked to 3 kinds of fresh soils which were sand, clay, loam. The dissolution properties of the prepared samples were investigated under the various extracting conditions such as extracting time, acid concentration, particle size, etc. in order to take basic information about the process of extraction test and improvement of related analytical methods. As the results, dissolution properties were affected mainly by acid concentration in extraction procedure and mineral composition of soils. On the other hand, extracting time, sort of acids and particle size of soils has a little influence on the dissolution properties. Cd revealed very high dissolving efficiency and As was very low in whole extracting test. Current analytical methods for the determination of soils are based on the purge and trap for volatiles such as gasoline and solvent extraction for semivolatiles such as kerosene and diesel oils. These methods are not proper in cost and time. In addition to, there are potential for analyte contamination and some problems in pretreatment procedure. In this study , we have discussed simultaneous determination of TPH containing gasoline, kerosene, diesel oils and etc. And determination of Organophosphorus compounds in soils has studied. In this procedure, the application of ultrasonication methods and several extraction methods were compared. In the results of this study, we could take very low practical detection limit and good precision. Approved methods were suitable for the determination of oils and pesticides in soil at high and low

  4. A Study on the Simultaneous Multi-Components Analysis of Soil Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kang-Sup; Kim, Kun-Han; Choi, Byung-In [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    Dissolution properties for the several inorganic pollutants in soils have been studied and simultaneous multi-components analytical method has been established with using ICP/MS and LA-ICP/MS for 14 monitoring elements in order to protect water and soil environments. And addition, more effective new analytical methods have been studied for BTEX, TPH(total petroleum hydrocarbon) and organophosphorus compounds, PCBs in soils. Several inorganic pollutants were spiked to 3 kinds of fresh soils which were sand, clay, loam. The dissolution properties of the prepared samples were investigated under the various extracting conditions such as extracting time, acid concentration, particle size, etc. in order to take basic information about the process of extraction test and improvement of related analytical methods. As the results, dissolution properties were affected mainly by acid concentration in extracting procedure and mineral composition of soils. On the other hand, extracting time, sort of acids and particle size of soils had a little influence on the dissolution properties. Cd revealed very high dissolving efficiency and As was very low in whole extracting test. Current analytical methods for the determination of oils are based on the purge and trap for volatiles such as gasoline and solvent extraction for semivolatiles such as kerosene and diesel oils. These methods are not proper in cost and time. In addition to, there are potential for analyte contamination and some problems in pretreatment procedure. In this study, we have discussed simultaneous determination of TPH containing gasoline, kerosene, diesel oils and etc.. And determination of Organophosphorus compounds in soils has studied. In this procedure, the application of ultrasonication methods and several extraction methods were compared. In the results of this study, we could take very low practical detection limit and good precision. Approved methods were suitable for the determination of oils and pesticides

  5. Inferential optimization for simultaneous fitting of multiple components into a cryoEM map of their assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Keren; Topf, Maya; Sali, Andrej; Wolfson, Haim J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Models of macromolecular assemblies are essential for a mechanistic description of cellular processes. Such models are increasingly obtained by fitting atomic-resolution structures of components into a density map of the whole assembly. Yet, current density-fitting techniques are frequently insufficient for an unambiguous determination of the positions and orientations of all components. Here, we describe MultiFit, a method for simultaneously fitting atomic structures of components into their assembly density map at resolutions as low as 25 Å. The component positions and orientations are optimized with respect to a scoring function that includes the quality-of-fit of components in the map, the protrusion of components from the map envelope, as well as the shape complementarity between pairs of components. The scoring function is optimized by our exact inference optimizer DOMINO that efficiently finds the global minimum in a discrete sampling space. MultiFit was benchmarked on 7 assemblies of known structure, consisting of up to 7 proteins each. The input atomic structures of the components were obtained from the Protein Data Bank as well as by comparative modeling based on 16 – 99% sequence identity to a template structure. A near-native configuration was usually found as the top-scoring model. Therefore, MultiFit can provide initial configurations for further refinement of many multi-component assembly structures described by electron microscopy. PMID:19233204

  6. Study of Three-Component FBG Vibration Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Vibration, Temperature, and Verticality

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Shan-chao; Wang Jing; Sui Qing-mei; Ye Qing-lin; Wang Li-jun

    2015-01-01

    To achieve simultaneous measurement of measurand vibration, temperature, and verticality, a three-component fiber Brag grating (TVFBG) vibration sensor is proposed in this paper. Polymer and metal diaphragm sensitization methods are utilized to improve this sensor measurement sensitivity. Project matrix theory is adopted to analyze this sensor. Theoretically, 9×9 nonsingular measuring coefficient matrix of this TVFBG sensor made up by three 3×3 measurand coefficient matrixes is established. ...

  7. Simultaneous derivative and multi-component spectrophotometric determination of drotaverine hydrochloride and mefenamic acid in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahivelkar P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new, simple, accurate and economical spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and mefenamic acid in two-component tablet formulation. The methods employed are, first derivative spectrophotometry, using zero crossing technique and multicomponent analysis. Both the drugs obey the Beer′s law in the concentration range employed for these methods. The results of analysis are validated by statistical evaluation and recovery studies.

  8. Novel algorithm for simultaneous component detection and pseudo-molecular ion characterization in liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Wang, Xiaoan; Wo, Siukwan [School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Ho, Hingman; Han, Quanbin [School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, 7 Baptist University Road, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Fan, Xiaohui [College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zuo, Zhong, E-mail: joanzuo@cuhk.edu.hk [School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel stepwise component detection algorithm (SCDA) for LC–MS datasets. • New isotopic distribution and adduct-ion models for mass spectra. • Automatic component classification based on adduct-ion and isotopic distributions. - Abstract: Resolving components and determining their pseudo-molecular ions (PMIs) are crucial steps in identifying complex herbal mixtures by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. To tackle such labor-intensive steps, we present here a novel algorithm for simultaneous detection of components and their PMIs. Our method consists of three steps: (1) obtaining a simplified dataset containing only mono-isotopic masses by removal of background noise and isotopic cluster ions based on the isotopic distribution model derived from all the reported natural compounds in dictionary of natural products; (2) stepwise resolving and removing all features of the highest abundant component from current simplified dataset and calculating PMI of each component according to an adduct-ion model, in which all non-fragment ions in a mass spectrum are considered as PMI plus one or several neutral species; (3) visual classification of detected components by principal component analysis (PCA) to exclude possible non-natural compounds (such as pharmaceutical excipients). This algorithm has been successfully applied to a standard mixture and three herbal extract/preparations. It indicated that our algorithm could detect components’ features as a whole and report their PMI with an accuracy of more than 98%. Furthermore, components originated from excipients/contaminants could be easily separated from those natural components in the bi-plots of PCA.

  9. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Chai, Xin Sheng; Zhu, Junyoung

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  10. Simultaneous HPLC determination of 22 components of essential oils; method robustness with experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Porel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the development and validation of a simple, precise and specific reversed phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of 22 components present in different essential oils namely cinnamon bark oil, caraway oil and cardamom fruit oil. The chromatographic separation of all the components was achieved on Wakosil-II C 18 column with mixture of 30 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.7, methanol and acetonitrile in different ratio as mobile phase in a ternary linear gradient mode. The calibration graphs plotted with five different concentrations of each component were linear with a regression coefficient R 2 >0.999. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were estimated for all the components. Effect on analytical responses by small and deliberate variation of critical factors was examined by robustness testing with Design of Experiment employing Central Composite Design and established that this method was robust. The method was then validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity and demonstrated to be applicable to the determination of the ingredients in commercial sample of essential oil.

  11. Microwaves initiated synthesis of activated carbon-based composite hydrogel for simultaneous removal of copper(II) ions and direct red 80 dye: A multi-component adsorption system

    OpenAIRE

    Oladipo, Akeem Adeyemi; Gazi, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel microwave initiated preparation of polyacrylamide/activated carbon hydrogel (PAAm-FAc) in this article and characterized by FT-IR, pHzpc and Boehm titration. The adsorbent was assessed for competitive adsorption of copper(II) and direct red 80 from a binary mixture in a single-staged batch process as a function of volume of binary mixture/mass of adsorbent (V0/M0) ratio at varying orders of second pollutant concentration. A competitive, multi-component Langmuir isotherm was...

  12. Components of production and corn yield intercropped with forages in simultaneous sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tsuzukibashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past, the integration of grain with cattle activity was limited to restricted options. Nowadays, however, there are numerous offers technology applicable to various concerns and socio-economic situation of producers. The integrated crop-livestock (ICL can be made by the intercrop, succession or crop rotation with annual grasses. The work aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forages of the genus Panicum and Urochloa in simultaneous sowing with corn. The experiment was conducted at the Farm for Teaching, Research and Extension, Faculty of Engineering - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in Savannah conditions. The experimental area was irrigated by center pivot and it had a history of no-tillage to 8 years. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with four replications and five treatments, as being: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown simultaneously (CTS to corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown simultaneously (CMS to corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraes sown simultaneously (CBS to corn; Urochloa ruziziensis sown simultaneously (CRS to corn, and corn without intercropping (CWI. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the ear (NKR, number of grain per ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by intercrop with forages. Comparing grain yield of single corn and corn intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa, there were no differences between treatments. Grain productivity (GP of corn intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa was similar and did not differ from corn grown single. Regarding the dry mass production (DMP of forage genus Panicum and Urochloa after intercropped with corn, it was observed that the intercrop that had the highest DMP was CTS, however, did not differ significantly from the other consortia. Therefore

  13. Quality evaluation of Huaijiao pill by chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangqin Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For quality control purpose, an approach of combining chromatographic fingerprint of Huaijiao pill (HP and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components was developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC--DAD. For fingerprint analysis, 16 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of different samples collected from different batches of three manufacturers. The similarities of 17 Huaijiao pill samples were beyond 0.966, indicating that samples from different batches and manufacturers were, to some extent, consistent. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of seven bioactive markers, namely sophoricoside, baicalin, naringin, genistein, rutin, quercetin and 5-O-methylvisammioside, in HP was performed to interpret the quality consistency. The validation of the proposed approach was acceptable, with the accuracy of 90.2%–106.9% in recovery test. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the method were evaluated and the RSD values were less than 2.81%. The results from the quantitative data showed that the contents of six marker compounds (except for 5-O-methylvisammioside were quite consistent between batches produced by one manufacturer and significantly distinctive among different manufacturers. The proposed approach was expected to be developed as a powerful tool for the quality control of HP.

  14. Quality evaluation of Huaijiao pill by chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangqin Wang; Jingjing Zhang; Juan Liu; Guangsheng Qian; Chunmei Fu n

    2016-01-01

    For quality control purpose, an approach of combining chromatographic fingerprint of Huaijiao pill (HP) and simultaneous determination of its major bioactive components was developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC–DAD). For fingerprint analysis, 16 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of different samples collected from different batches of three manufacturers. The similarities of 17 Huaijiao pill samples were beyond 0.966, indicating that samples from different batches and manufacturers were, to some extent, consistent. Ad-ditionally, simultaneous quantification of seven bioactive markers, namely sophoricoside, baicalin, nar-ingin, genistein, rutin, quercetin and 5-O-methylvisammioside, in HP was performed to interpret the quality consistency. The validation of the proposed approach was acceptable, with the accuracy of 90.2%–106.9%in recovery test. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the method were evaluated and the RSD values were less than 2.81%. The results from the quantitative data showed that the contents of six marker compounds (except for 5-O-methylvisammioside) were quite consistent between batches produced by one manufacturer and significantly distinctive among different manufacturers. The proposed approach was expected to be developed as a powerful tool for the quality control of HP.

  15. The artifacts of component-based development

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, M Rizwan Jameel

    2012-01-01

    Component based development idea was floated in a conference name "Mass Produced Software Components" in 1968 [1]. Since then engineering and scientific libraries are developed to reuse the previously developed functions. This concept is now widely used in SW development as component based development (CBD). Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is used to develop/ assemble software from existing components [2]. Software developed using components is called component ware [3]. This paper presents different architectures of CBD such as ActiveX, common object request broker architecture (CORBA), remote method invocation (RMI) and simple object access protocol (SOAP). The overall objective of this paper is to support the practice of CBD by comparing its advantages and disadvantages. This paper also evaluates object oriented process model to adapt it for CBD.

  16. BASES COMPONENTS OF PARETO EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This Study take into discussion the problem of underlay the decisions, which are particularly complex and actual, based of an important volume of information, which need an important quantity of work. From our investigations, we conclusion that some inconvenient can be evitable by use also of others concepts, which apply to this kind of information. In this direction, the Study follow up to end the manner which base the decisions, we allot a especial attention to analyze the Concept of Efficiency Pareto, which finally has two fundamental elements: final benefit and opportunity cost, use also in the process for take decisions. So we explain the ample analyze of Concept of Efficiency Pareto, where the main accent is on quantitative aspects evaluation of elements, which characterize them. By amplification is thoroughness the analyze of process for take decisions. So is underlined the closed link between different economical concepts and their great usefulness in practice.

  17. Graphene-based spintronic components

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Minggang; Shen, Lei; Su, Haibin; Zhou, Miao; Zhang, Chun; Feng, Yuanping

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge of spintronics is in generating, controlling and detecting spin-polarized current. Manipulation of spin-polarized current, in particular, is difficult. We demonstrate here, based on calculated transport properties of graphene nanoribbons, that nearly +-100% spin-polarized current can be generated in zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) and tuned by a source-drain voltage in the bipolar spin diode, in addition to magnetic configurations of the electrodes. This unusual transpor...

  18. Simultaneous Optimization of Topology and Component Sizes for Double Planetary Gear Hybrid Powertrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichao Zhuang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid powertrain technologies are successful in the passenger car market and have been actively developed in recent years. Optimal topology selection, component sizing, and controls are required for competitive hybrid vehicles, as multiple goals must be considered simultaneously: fuel efficiency, emissions, performance, and cost. Most of the previous studies explored these three design dimensions separately. In this paper, two novel frameworks combining these three design dimensions together are presented and compared. One approach is nested optimization which searches through the whole design space exhaustively. The second approach is called enhanced iterative optimization, which executes the topology optimization and component sizing alternately. A case study shows that the later method can converge to the global optimal design generated from the nested optimization, and is much more computationally efficient. In addition, we also address a known issue of optimal designs: their sensitivity to parameters, such as varying vehicle weight, which is a concern especially for the design of hybrid buses. Therefore, the iterative optimization process is applied to design a robust multi-mode hybrid electric bus under different loading scenarios as the final design challenge of this paper.

  19. Comparison of five Lonicera flowers by simultaneous determination of multi-components with single reference standard method and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen; Wang, Rui; Li, Dan; Liu, Ke; Chen, Jun; Li, Hui-Jun; Xu, Xiaojun; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The flowers of Lonicera japonica Thunb. were extensively used to treat many diseases. As the demands for L. japonica increased, some related Lonicera plants were often confused or misused. Caffeoylquinic acids were always regarded as chemical markers in the quality control of L. japonica, but they could be found in all Lonicera species. Thus, a simple and reliable method for the evaluation of different Lonicera flowers is necessary to be established. In this work a method based on single standard to determine multi-components (SSDMC) combined with principal component analysis (PCA) for control and distinguish of Lonicera species flowers have been developed. Six components including three caffeoylquinic acids and three iridoid glycosides were assayed simultaneously using chlorogenic acid as the reference standard. The credibility and feasibility of the SSDMC method were carefully validated and the results demonstrated that there were no remarkable differences compared with external standard method. Finally, a total of fifty-one batches covering five Lonicera species were analyzed and PCA was successfully applied to distinguish the Lonicera species. This strategy simplifies the processes in the quality control of multiple-componential herbal medicine which effectively adapted for improving the quality control of those herbs belonging to closely related species. PMID:26432385

  20. Component Based Dynamic Reconfigurable Test System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Hong; HE Lingsong; ZHANG Dengpan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a novel component based framework of test system is presented for the new requirements of dynamic changes of test functions and reconfiguration of test resources. The complexity of dynamic reconfiguration arises from the scale, redirection, extensibility and interconnection of components in test system. The paper is started by discussing the component assembly based framework which provide the open platform to the deploy of components and then the script interpreter model is introduced to dynamically create the components and build the test system by analyzing XML based information of test system. A pipeline model is presented to provide the data channels and behavior reflection among the components. Finally, a dynamic reconfigurable test system is implemented on the basis of COM and applied in the remote test and control system of CNC machine.

  1. Principal component articial neural network calibration models for the simultaneous spectrophotometric estimation of mefenamic acid and paracetamol in tablets

    OpenAIRE

    RAJAPPAN MANAVALAN; KAMARAJAN KANNAN; DONDETI SATYANARAYANA

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous estimation of all drug components in a multicomponent analgesic dosage form with artificial neural networks calibration models using UV spectrophotometry is reported as a simple alternative to using separate models for each component. Anovel approach for calibration using a compund spectral dataset derived from three spectra of each component is described. The spectra of mefenamic acid and paracetamol were recorded as several concentrations within their linear range and used to c...

  2. Simultaneous determination of four active components in Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz. by HPLC–DAD using a single reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Wen Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and practical high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detector (HPLC–DAD was developed to evaluate the quality of Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz. through a simultaneous determination of four major active triterpenes using a single standard to determine the multi-components (SSDMCs. Alisol B 23-acetate was selected as the reference compound for calculating the relative response factors. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R2>0.9998 within test ranges. RSDs for intra- and inter-day of four analytes were less than 3.6% and 2.3%; the overall recovery was 92.1–110.2% (SSDMC. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify the four components in 20 samples from different localities in China. Moreover, significant variations were demonstrated in the content of these compounds. In addition, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and principal components analysis (PCA were performed to differentiate and classify the samples based on the contents of Alisol C 23-acetate, Alisol A, Alisol A 24-acetate and Alisol B 23-acetate. This simple, rapid, low-cost and reliable HPLC–DAD method using SSDMC is suitable for routine quantitative analysis and quality control of A. orientale (Sam. Juz.

  3. Simultaneous determination of four active components in Alisma orientale (Sam.) Juz. by HPLC-DAD using a single reference standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao-Wen Zhang; Qing Li; Chun-Xiao Lv; Xiu-Jia Liu; Xiao-Hui Chen; Kai-Shun Bi

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, simple and practical high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detector (HPLC–DAD) was developed to evaluate the quality of Alisma orientale (Sam.) Juz. through a simultaneous determination of four major active triterpenes using a single standard to determine the multi-components (SSDMCs). Alisol B 23-acetate was selected as the reference compound for calculating the relative response factors. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R240.9998) within test ranges. RSDs for intra- and inter-day of four analytes were less than 3.6% and 2.3%; the overall recovery was 92.1–110.2%(SSDMC). The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify the four components in 20 samples from different localities in China. Moreover, significant variations were demonstrated in the content of these compounds. In addition, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA) were performed to differentiate and classify the samples based on the contents of Alisol C 23-acetate, Alisol A, Alisol A 24-acetate and Alisol B 23-acetate. This simple, rapid, low-cost and reliable HPLC–DAD method using SSDMC is suitable for routine quantitative analysis and quality control of A. orientale (Sam.) Juz.

  4. Characterization and Architecture of Component Based Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er.Iqbaldeep kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Component based Software Engineering is the most common term nowadays in the field of software development. The CBSE approach is actually based on the principle of ‘Select and Use’ rather than ‘Design and Test’ as in traditional software development methods. Since this trend of using and ‘reusing’ components is in its developing stage, there are many advantages and problems as well that occur while use of components. Here is presented a series of papers that cover various important and integral issues in the field concerned. This paper is an introductory research on the essential concepts, principles and steps that underlie the available commercialized models in CBD. This research work has a scope extending to Component retrieval in repositories and their management and implementing the results verification

  5. Automatic deployment of component-based applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lascu, Tudor Alexandru; Mauro, Jacopo; Zavattaro, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    International audience In distributed systems like those based on cloud or service-oriented frameworks, applications are typically assembled by deploying and connecting a large number of heterogeneous software components, spanning from fine-grained packages to coarse-grained complex services. Automation techniques and tools have been proposed to ease the deployment process of these complex system. By relying on a formal model of components, we describe a sound and complete algorithm for co...

  6. Simultaneous measurement of the horizontal components of the earth's electric field in the atmosphere and in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M. C.; Mozer, F. S.

    1975-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements have been made of the ionospheric electric field at altitudes above 100 km (with rockets and radar) and of the atmospheric electric field at an altitude of about 30 km (with balloons). These results show that the horizontal components of the electric field at 30 km were essentially equal to the ionospheric electric field, as has been argued previously on theoretical grounds.

  7. Outlier Mining Based on Principal Component Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yang; Ting Yang

    2005-01-01

    Outlier mining is an important aspect in data mining and the outlier mining based on Cook distance is most commonly used. But we know that when the data have multicollinearity, the traditional Cook method is no longer effective. Considering the excellence of the principal component estimation, we use it to substitute the least squares estimation, and then give the Cook distance measurement based on principal component estimation, which can be used in outlier mining. At the same time, we have done some research on related theories and application problems.

  8. Evaluating heuristics for tabletop user segmentation based on simultaneous interaction

    OpenAIRE

    García Sanjuan, Fernando; Jaén Martínez, Francisco Javier; Catalá Bolós, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating between users that interact on a tabletop could be beneficial for collaborative tasks to support territoriality-oriented features such as a more efficient space management or a better presentation of the contents. In this paper, we design a novel algorithm for the user differentiation or segmentation based on the simultaneous manipulation of the controls. This is a potential differentiating factor that has remained unexplored so far, and in combination with other factors may b...

  9. Joint Procrustes Analysis for Simultaneous Nonsingular Transformation of Component Score and Loading Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kohei

    2009-01-01

    In component analysis solutions, post-multiplying a component score matrix by a nonsingular matrix can be compensated by applying its inverse to the corresponding loading matrix. To eliminate this indeterminacy on nonsingular transformation, we propose Joint Procrustes Analysis (JPA) in which component score and loading matrices are simultaneously…

  10. Principal component articial neural network calibration models for the simultaneous spectrophotometric estimation of mefenamic acid and paracetamol in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJAPPAN MANAVALAN

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous estimation of all drug components in a multicomponent analgesic dosage form with artificial neural networks calibration models using UV spectrophotometry is reported as a simple alternative to using separate models for each component. Anovel approach for calibration using a compund spectral dataset derived from three spectra of each component is described. The spectra of mefenamic acid and paracetamol were recorded as several concentrations within their linear range and used to compute a calibration mixture between the wavelengths 220 to 340 nm. Neural networks trained by a Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm were used for building and optimizing the calibration models using MATALAB® Neural Network Toolbox and were compared with the principal component regression model. The calibration models were throughly evaluated at several concentration levels using 104 spectra obtained for 52 synthetic binary mixtures prepared using orthogonal designs. The optimized model showed sufficient robustness even when the calibration sets were constructed from a different set of pure spectra of the components. The simultaneous prediction of both components by a single neural netwook with the suggested calibration approach was successful. The model could accurately estimate the drugs, with satisfactory precision and accuracy, in tablet dosage with no interference from excipients as indicated by the results of a recovery study.

  11. Real Time Engineering Analysis Based on a Generative Component Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Klitgaard, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The present paper outlines the idea of a conceptual design tool with real time engineering analysis which can be used in the early conceptual design phase. The tool is based on a parametric approach using Generative Components with embedded structural analysis. Each of these components uses...... the geometry, material properties and fixed point characteristics to calculate the dimensions and subsequent feasibility of any architectural design. The proposed conceptual design tool provides the possibility for the architect to work with both the aesthetic as well as the structural aspects of architecture...... without jumping from aesthetics to structural digital design tools and back, but to work with both simultaneously and real time. The engineering level of knowledge is incorporated at a conceptual thinking level, i.e. qualitative information is used in stead of using quantitative information. An example...

  12. [Simultaneous determination of six components in hair dyes by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Feiming

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous determination of six components which included 4, 4'-diaminodiphenylamine sulfate hydrate and 2,4-diaminophenol sulfate, etc. in hair dyes by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). After extracted by water through ultrasonic extraction, the samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The separation was performed on a Waters BEH-C18 column (100 mmx 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) with gradient elution of 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. The electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode was used for the analysis of the six components in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results showed good linear relationships with all the correlation coefficients (R2) more than 0.99. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) for the six components were in the range of 0.26-4.6 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the six components in the spiked samples were in the range of 83.0%-92.2% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=6) of 5.4%-11.2%. The precision, accuracy, mean recoveries and the matrix effects satisfied the requirements of cosmetic sample measurement. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of six dyes in actual samples. This method is simple, accurate and effective for the simultaneous determination of the six components in hair dyes. PMID:25958662

  13. All set, indeed! N2pc components reveal simultaneous attentional control settings for multiple target colours

    OpenAIRE

    Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To study whether top-down attentional control processes can be set simultaneously for different visual features, we employed a spatial cueing procedure to measure behavioural and electrophysiological markers of task-set contingent attentional capture during search for one or two possible colour-defined targets (One Colour and Two Colour tasks). Search arrays were preceded by spatially non-predictive colour singleton cues. Behavioural spatial cueing effects indicative of attentional capture we...

  14. Components of production and corn yield intercropped with forages in simultaneous sowing

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Tsuzukibashi; Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia; Marcelo Andreotti; Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho; Keny Samejima Mascarenha Lopes; Ciniro Costa

    2013-01-01

    In the past, the integration of grain with cattle activity was limited to restricted options. Nowadays, however, there are numerous offers technology applicable to various concerns and socio-economic situation of producers. The integrated crop-livestock (ICL) can be made by the intercrop, succession or crop rotation with annual grasses. The work aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forages of the genus Panicum and Urochloa in simultaneous sowing with corn...

  15. Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique based on guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dongjiang; Qu, Gangrong; Liu, Baodong

    2016-07-11

    The challenge of computed tomography is to reconstruct high-quality images from few-view projections. Using a prior guidance image, guided image filtering smoothes images while preserving edge features. The prior guidance image can be incorporated into the image reconstruction process to improve image quality. We propose a new simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique based on guided image filtering. Specifically, the prior guidance image is updated in the image reconstruction process, merging information iteratively. To validate the algorithm practicality and efficiency, experiments were performed with numerical phantom projection data and real projection data. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and efficient for nondestructive testing and rock mechanics. PMID:27410859

  16. Pluig 'n Train - A Component Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alke Martens

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Technology enhanced learning can look back on a comparably long tradition. Surprisingly, the software systems in this field are seldom constructed based on state-of-the art insights in software engineering. Using basic software engineering techniques involves system descriptions on a formal and abstract level, to use patterns for software development, and to implement the system in a re-usable and adaptable way. Our component based framework JaBInT (Java Based Intelligent Tutoring, which is based on a firm software engineering ground, allows for re-usability, adaptability, and flexibility in system development -- and might thus be a basis for teaching and training software used in ubiquitous learning as well.

  17. Simultaneous Estimation of Four Antitussive Components from Herbal Cough Syrup by HPTLC

    OpenAIRE

    Sharada L Deore; Jaju, Payal S.; Bhushan A Baviskar

    2014-01-01

    A new simple, rapid, selective and precise high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of vasicine, glycyrrhizin, eugenol, and cineole in herbal cough syrup. The retention factors of vasicine, glycyrrhizin, eugenol, and cineole are 0.53, 0.44, 0.75, and 0.77, respectively. Chromatography was performed on 60F254 percolated TLC plate using n-hexane : ethyl acetate : glacial acetic acid (8.5 : 1.0 : 0.5 v/v/v). Methods are validated a...

  18. Likelihood-based CT reconstruction of objects containing known components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stayman, J. Webster [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering; Otake, Yoshito; Uneri, Ali; Prince, Jerry L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2011-07-01

    There are many situations in medical imaging where there are known components within the imaging volume. Such is the case in diagnostic X-ray CT imaging of patients with implants, in intraoperative CT imaging where there may be surgical tools in the field, or in situations where the patient support (table or frame) or other devices are outside the (truncated) reconstruction FOV. In such scenarios it is often of great interest to image the relation between the known component and the surrounding anatomy, or to provide high-quality images at the boundary of these objects, or simply to minimize artifacts arising from such components. We propose a framework for simultaneously estimating the position and orientation of a known component and the surrounding volume. Toward this end, we adopt a likelihood-based objective function with an image volume jointly parameterized by a known object, or objects, with unknown registration parameters and an unknown background attenuation volume. The objective is solved iteratively using an alternating minimization approach between the two parameter types. Because this model integrates a substantial amount of prior knowledge about the overall volume, we expect a number of advantages including the reduction of metal artifacts, potential for more sparse data acquisition (decreased time and dose), and/or improved image quality. We illustrate this approach using simulated spine CT data that contains pedicle screws placed in a vertebra, and demonstrate improved performance over traditional filtered-backprojection and penalized-likelihood reconstruction techniques. (orig.)

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Five Components Including Acetaminophen by Reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-qing; WU Xiao-hua; LU Ying; WANG Xia

    2004-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography with a C18 reverse-phase column was used to separatethe five components in cough syrup, including acetaminophen, p-aminophenol, caffeine, chlorphenamine maleateand guaifenesin. The mobile phase consists of 15wi% acetonitrile, 0.004mol/L sodium heptyl sulfonate,0.03 mole/L potassium di- hydrogen phosphate and triethylamine ( volume ratio 13: 40: 44: 3), the pH of which isadjusted to 3.0 by phosphoric acid. The contents of the five components are analyzed on an ultraviolet spectropho-tometer at 254nm, with a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The results show that the calibration curves are linear in acertain range. The average recovery of five components is between 96.31% and 102.3% .

  20. Simultaneous Replication of both Refractive and Diffractive Optical Components using Electroformed Tools and Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Christensen, Thomas R.

    2003-01-01

    the delicate optical surfaces are buried/sealed in the metal sandwich. The aluminium is then dissolved in warm sodium hydroxide and the glass components are carefully removed. Finally, glue residue is dissolved and the thin gold layer selectively etched. The finished tool insert is then placed in the injection...

  1. Simultaneous Estimation of Four Antitussive Components from Herbal Cough Syrup by HPTLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deore, Sharada L; Jaju, Payal S; Baviskar, Bhushan A

    2014-01-01

    A new simple, rapid, selective and precise high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of vasicine, glycyrrhizin, eugenol, and cineole in herbal cough syrup. The retention factors of vasicine, glycyrrhizin, eugenol, and cineole are 0.53, 0.44, 0.75, and 0.77, respectively. Chromatography was performed on 60F254 percolated TLC plate using n-hexane : ethyl acetate : glacial acetic acid (8.5 : 1.0 : 0.5 v/v/v). Methods are validated according to ICH guidelines and can be adopted for the routine analysis of vasicine, glycyrrhizin, eugenol and cineole in herbal cough syrup. PMID:27382629

  2. Component Based Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Amaxilatis, Dimitrios; Koninis, Christos; Pyrgelis, Apostolos

    2011-01-01

    Clustering is an important research topic for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). A large variety of approaches has been presented focusing on different performance metrics. Even though all of them have many practical applications, an extremely limited number of software implementations is available to the research community. Furthermore, these very few techniques are implemented for specific WSN systems or are integrated in complex applications. Thus it is very difficult to comparatively study their performance and almost impossible to reuse them in future applications under a different scope. In this work we study a large body of well established algorithms. We identify their main building blocks and propose a component-based architecture for developing clustering algorithms that (a) promotes exchangeability of algorithms thus enabling the fast prototyping of new approaches, (b) allows cross-layer implementations to realize complex applications, (c) offers a common platform to comparatively study the performan...

  3. Component failure data base of TRIGA reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation provides failure data such as first criticality, component type description (reactor component, population, cumulative calendar time, cumulative operating time, demands, failure mode, failures, failure rate, failure probability) and specific information on each type of component of TRIGA Mark-II reactors in Austria, Bangladesh, Germany, Finland, Indonesia, Italy, Indonesia, Slovenia and Romania. (nevyjel)

  4. SAT-based Verification for Timed Component Connectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, S.

    2009-01-01

    Component-based software construction relies on suitable models underlying components, and in particular the coordinators which orchestrate component behaviour. Verifying correctness and safety of such systems amounts to model checking the underlying system model, where model checking techniques not

  5. Semantic network based component organization model for program mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 张尧学; 陈松乔

    2003-01-01

    Based on the definition of component ontology, an effective component classification mechanism and a facet named component relationship are proposed. Then an application domain oriented, hierarchical component organization model is established. At last a hierarchical component semantic network (HCSN) described by ontology interchange language(OIL) is presented and then its function is described. Using HCSN and cooperating with other components retrieving algorithms based on component description, other components information and their assembly or composite modes related to the key component can be found. Based on HCSN, component directory library is catalogued and a prototype system is constructed. The prototype system proves that component library organization based on this model gives guarantee to the reliability of component assembly during program mining.

  6. Measuring Electrolyte Impedance and Noise Simultaneously by Triangular Waveform Voltage and Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanzhi Xu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the impedance variation process in electrolyte solutions, a method of triangular waveform voltage excitation is investigated together with principal component analysis (PCA. Using triangular waveform voltage as the excitation signal, the response current during one duty cycle is sampled to construct a measurement vector. The measurement matrix is then constructed by the measurement vectors obtained from different measurements. After being processed by PCA, the changing information of solution impedance is contained in the loading vectors while the response current and noise information is contained in the score vectors. The measurement results of impedance variation by the proposed signal processing method are independent of the equivalent impedance model. The noise-induced problems encountered during equivalent impedance calculation are therefore avoided, and the real-time variation information of noise in the electrode-electrolyte interface can be extracted at the same time. Planar-interdigitated electrodes are experimentally tested for monitoring the KCl concentration variation process. Experimental results indicate that the measured impedance variation curve reflects the changing process of solution conductivity, and the amplitude distribution of the noise during one duty cycle can be utilized to analyze the contact conditions of the electrode and electrolyte interface.

  7. Measuring Electrolyte Impedance and Noise Simultaneously by Triangular Waveform Voltage and Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shanzhi; Wang, Peng; Dong, Yonggui

    2016-01-01

    In order to measure the impedance variation process in electrolyte solutions, a method of triangular waveform voltage excitation is investigated together with principal component analysis (PCA). Using triangular waveform voltage as the excitation signal, the response current during one duty cycle is sampled to construct a measurement vector. The measurement matrix is then constructed by the measurement vectors obtained from different measurements. After being processed by PCA, the changing information of solution impedance is contained in the loading vectors while the response current and noise information is contained in the score vectors. The measurement results of impedance variation by the proposed signal processing method are independent of the equivalent impedance model. The noise-induced problems encountered during equivalent impedance calculation are therefore avoided, and the real-time variation information of noise in the electrode-electrolyte interface can be extracted at the same time. Planar-interdigitated electrodes are experimentally tested for monitoring the KCl concentration variation process. Experimental results indicate that the measured impedance variation curve reflects the changing process of solution conductivity, and the amplitude distribution of the noise during one duty cycle can be utilized to analyze the contact conditions of the electrode and electrolyte interface. PMID:27110787

  8. Lifestyles Based on Health Components in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Lifestyle is a way employed by people, groups and nations and is formed in specific geographical, economic, political, cultural and religious texts. Health depends on lifestyle and is essential to preserve and promote health and improve lifestyle. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate lifestyle based on health-oriented components in Iran. Data Sources The research was conducted through E-banks including scientific information database (SID, Iran medical science databank (Iran Medex, Iran journal databank (Magiran and other databases such as Elsevier, PubMed and google scholar meta search engine regarding the subject from 2000 to 2014. Moreover, Official Iranian statistics and information were applied. The search terms used included lifestyle, health, health promoting behaviors, health-oriented lifestyle and lifestyle in Iran. Study Selection In the primary research, many papers were observed out of which 157 (120 in Farsi and 37 in English were selected. Data Extraction Following the careful study of these papers and excluding the unqualified papers, 19 papers with thorough information and higher relevance with the research purpose were selected. Results After examining articles based on the selected keywords and search strategies, 215 articles (134 in Farsi and 81 in English were obtained. Components of lifestyle and health are increasing in recent years; therefore, 8 (42% and 11 (58% articles were published during 2005 - 2010 and 2011 - 2014, respectively. Among them, there were 3 (16%, 8 (42%, 2 (10.5%, 2 (10.5% and 0 articles on the review of literature, descriptive-analytic, qualitative, analytic and descriptive articles, respectively. Conclusions Due to positive effect of healthy lifestyle on health promotion of individuals, it would be better for the government to provide comprehensive programs and policies in the society to enhance awareness of people about positive effects of health-oriented lifestyle on life and

  9. Digital image restoration based on pixel simultaneous detection probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Grabskii, V

    2008-01-01

    Here an image restoration on the basis of pixel simultaneous detection probabilities (PSDP) is proposed. These probabilities can be precisely determined by means of correlations measurement [NIMA 586 (2008) 314-326]. The proposed image restoration is based on the solution of matrix equation. Non-zero elements of Toeplitz block matrix with ones on the main diagonal, is determined using PSDP. The number of non zero descending diagonals depends on the detector construction and is not always smaller than 8. To solve the matrix equation, the Gaussian elimination algorithm is used. The proposed restoration algorithm is studied by means of the simulated images (with and without additive noise using PSDP for General Electric Senographe 2000D mammography device detector) and a small area (160x160 pixels) of real images acquired by the above mentioned device. The estimation errors of PSDP and the additive noise magnitude permits to restore images with the precision better than 2% for the above mentioned detector. The a...

  10. [Simultaneous determination of inhibitive components in anti-acne cosmetics by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Chao; Li, Nan

    2006-11-01

    The inhibitive components in anti-acne cosmetics including spironolactone, benzoyl peroxide, and tretinoin were simultaneously determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The cosmetics were extracted with methanol by microwave and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The HPLC conditions were as follows: Kromasil C18 column (4.6 mm i. d. x 250 mm, 5 microm), methanol and phosphate buffer as mobile phase with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, UV detection at 265 nm. Three components were separated completely within 11 min. The calibration curves of the three compounds were linear (nu > 0.999 9) between 1 and 200 mg/L. The average recoveries were from 88.2% to 106.7% with relative standard deviations lower than 3. 1%. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.101 mmicrog for spironolactone, 0.100 microg for benzoyl peroxide, and 0. 107 microg for tretinoin. The method is simple and rapid with high accuracy, and suitable for the determination of the 3 inhibitive components in anti-acne cosmetics. PMID:17288140

  11. Component-Based Software Reuse on the World Wide Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Component-based software reuse (CBSR) has been widely used in software developing practice and has an even more brilliant future with the rapid extension of the Internet, because World Wide Web (WWW) makes the large scale of component resources from different vendors become available to software developers. In this paper, an abstract component model suitable for representing components on WWW isproposed, which plays important roles both in achieving interoperability among components and amongreusable component libraries (RCLs). Some necessary changes to many aspects of component management brought by WWW are also discussed, such as the classification of components and the corresponding searching methods, and the certification of components.

  12. Simultaneous determination of nine components in Qingkailing injection by HPLC/ELSD/DAD and its application to the quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shikai; Luo, Guoan; Wang, Yiming; Cheng, Yiyu

    2006-03-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo diode array detection and evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC/DAD/ELSD) was established to simultaneously determine nine ingredients in Qingkailing injection. Four wavelengths at 240, 254, 280 and 330 nm, respectively, were chosen as the monitoring wavelength to determine two nucleosides (uridine and adenosine), geniposide, baicalin and two organic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid), and an evaporative light scattering detector combined was employed to determine three steroids (cholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid and hyodeoxycholic acid). This assay was fully validated in respect to precision, repeatability and accuracy. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify the nine ingredients in 19 different Qingkailing injection samples and by principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), it demonstrated significant variations in the content of these compounds in the samples from different manufacturers and preparation procedures. This method could be readily utilized as a quality control method for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

  13. The Component-Based Application for GAMESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Fang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    GAMESS, a quantum chetnistry program for electronic structure calculations, has been freely shared by high-performance application scientists for over twenty years. It provides a rich set of functionalities and can be run on a variety of parallel platforms through a distributed data interface. While a chemistry computation is sophisticated and hard to develop, the resource sharing among different chemistry packages will accelerate the development of new computations and encourage the cooperation of scientists from universities and laboratories. Common Component Architecture (CCA) offers an enviromnent that allows scientific packages to dynamically interact with each other through components, which enable dynamic coupling of GAMESS with other chetnistry packages, such as MPQC and NWChem. Conceptually, a cotnputation can be constructed with "plug-and-play" components from scientific packages and require more than componentizing functions/subroutines of interest, especially for large-scale scientific packages with a long development history. In this research, we present our efforts to construct cotnponents for GAMESS that conform to the CCA specification. The goal is to enable the fine-grained interoperability between three quantum chemistry programs, GAMESS, MPQC and NWChem, via components. We focus on one of the three packages, GAMESS; delineate the structure of GAMESS computations, followed by our approaches to its component development. Then we use GAMESS as the driver to interoperate integral components from the other tw"o packages, arid show the solutions for interoperability problems along with preliminary results. To justify the versatility of the design, the Tuning and Analysis Utility (TAU) components have been coupled with GAMESS and its components, so that the performance of GAMESS and its components may be analyzed for a wide range of systetn parameters.

  14. The development of component-based information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cesare, Sergio de; Macredie, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This work provides a comprehensive overview of research and practical issues relating to component-based development information systems (CBIS). Spanning the organizational, developmental, and technical aspects of the subject, the original research included here provides fresh insights into successful CBIS technology and application. Part I covers component-based development methodologies and system architectures. Part II analyzes different aspects of managing component-based development. Part III investigates component-based development versus commercial off-the-shelf products (COTS), includi

  15. Simultaneous determination of active component and vehicle penetration from F-DPPC liposomes into porcine skin layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrhauser, Denise-Silvia; Reznicek, Gottfried; Gehrig, Sebastian; Geyer, Antonia; Ogris, Manfred; Kieweler, Ruth; Valenta, Claudia

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes have been used as innovative delivery vehicles on skin for a number of years due to their positive influence on skin penetration. However, until now it is not entirely clear how and by which mechanism enhancement is achieved. In the present study, the skin permeation of a model substance incorporated into liposomes and a control formulation was compared to study the influence of the vehicle in Franz-type diffusion cell experiments. Furthermore, the penetration depths of both components were studied by simultaneous determination of the active substance and the vehicle component during tape stripping studies and horizontal sectioning. For these purposes we prepared liposomes with 1-palmitoyl-2-(16-fluoropalmitoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (F-DPPC), the monofluorinated analogue of dipalmitoylphosphaditylcholine (DPPC) loaded with sodium fluorescein (SoFl). A sodium-fluorescein solution was used as control formulation. While the semi-solid F-DPPC liposomes and the SoFl-solution performed equally well with similar permeation profiles during skin diffusion experiments, superior penetrated amounts of SoFl into the stratum corneum (SC) from F-DPPC liposomes compared to the SoFl-solution were observed possibly due to a "push" exerted by the vehicle F-DPPC. We also showed that SoFl penetrated through SC into the viable epidermis. PMID:26493713

  16. Simultaneous determination of 20 components in red wine by LC-MS: application to variations of red wine components in decanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Li, Qing; Liu, Zhenzhen; Geng, Lulu; Zhao, Xu; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2012-11-01

    The decanting of red wines has a long tradition in red wine service from the perspective of modifying the aroma or taste of a wine. A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 20 organic acids and polyphenols in decanting red wine. The separation was performed on a Diamonsil C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using a mobile phase composed of methanol-0.1% acetic acid under gradient elution. Analysis was performed in selected ion monitoring mode with negative electrospray ionization interface. All the linear regressions showed good linear relationships (r(2) > 0.9973) between the peak area and concentration of each marker. The assay was reproducible with overall intra and interday variation of less than 5.0%. The recoveries for the quantified compounds were observed over the range of 92.1-108.3% with RSD values less than 5.7%. The method developed was successfully applied to determine the variations of the 20 components in red wine after decanting in different conditions. Concentrations of most organic acids and polyphenols investigated in the red wine were decreased in decanting. In addition, increment of duration, temperature, and light intensity would intensify the changes.

  17. Study of engine noise based on independent component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Zhi-yong; JIN Yan; YANG Chen

    2007-01-01

    Independent component analysis was applied to analyze the acoustic signals from diesel engine. First the basic principle of independent component analysis (ICA) was reviewed. Diesel engine acoustic signal was decomposed into several independent components (Ics); Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) were applied to analyze the independent components. Different noise sources of the diesel engine were separated, based on the characteristics of different component in time-frequency domain.

  18. Proposal of AAA-battery-size one-shot ATR Fourier spectroscopic imager for on-site analysis: Simultaneous measurement of multi-components with high accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Satsuki; Qi, Wei; Sato, Shun; Suzuki, Yo; Fujiwara, Masaru; Hiramatsu, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satoru; Abeygunawardhana, P. K. W.; Wada, Kenji; Nishiyama, Akira; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    For simultaneous measurement of multi-components on-site like factories, the ultra-compact (diameter: 9[mm], length: 45[mm], weight: 200[g]) one-shot ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) Fourier spectroscopic imager was proposed. Because the proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imaging is based on spatial-phase-shift interferometer, interferograms could be obtained with simple optical configurations. We introduced the transmission-type relativeinclined phase-shifter, that was constructed with a cuboid prism and a wedge prism, onto the optical Fourier transform plane of infinity corrected optical systems. And also, small light-sources and cameras in the mid-infrared light region, whose size are several millimeter on a side, are essential components for the ultra-compact spectroscopic configuration. We selected the Graphite light source (light source area: 1.7×1.7[mm], maker: Hawkeye technologies) whose radiation factor was high. Fortunately, in these days we could apply the cost-effective 2-dimensional light receiving device for smartphone (e.g. product name: LEPTON, maker: FLIR, price: around 400USD). In the case of alcoholic drinks factory, conventionally workers measure glucose and ethanol concentrations by bringing liquid solution back to laboratories every day. The high portable spectroscopy will make it possible to measure multi-components simultaneously on manufacturing scene. But we found experimentally that absorption spectrum of glucose and water and ethanol were overlapped each other in near infrared light region. But for mid-infrared light region, we could distinguish specific absorption peaks of glucose (@10.5[μm]) and ethanol (@11.5[μm]) independently from water absorption. We obtained standard curve between absorption (@9.6[μm]) and ethanol concentration with high correlation coefficient 0.98 successfully by ATR imaging-type 2-dimensional Fourier spectroscopy (wavelength resolution: 0.057[μm]) with the graphite light source (maker: Hawkeye

  19. AN EVEN COMPONENT BASED FACE RECOGNITION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel face recognition algorithm. To provide additional variations to training data set, even-odd decomposition is adopted, and only the even components (half-even face images) are used for further processing. To tackle with shift-variant problem,Fourier transform is applied to half-even face images. To reduce the dimension of an image,PCA (Principle Component Analysis) features are extracted from the amplitude spectrum of half-even face images. Finally, nearest neighbor classifier is employed for the task of classification. Experimental results on ORL database show that the proposed method outperforms in terms of accuracy the conventional eigenface method which applies PCA on original images and the eigenface method which uses both the original images and their mirror images as training set.

  20. Design and daytime performance of laser-induced fluorescence spectrum lidar for simultaneous detection of multiple components, dissolved organic matter, phycocyanin, and chlorophyll in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yasunori; Kakuda, Kei; Yokoyama, Mizuho; Kubota, Tomoki; Tomida, Takayuki; Park, Ho-Dong

    2016-08-20

    In this work, we developed mobile laser-induced fluorescence spectrum (LIFS) lidar based on preliminary experiments on the excitation emission matrix of a water sample and a method for reducing solar background light using the synchronous detection technique. The combination of a UV short-pulse laser (355 nm, 6 ns) for fluorescence excitation with a 10-100 ns short-time synchronous detection using a gated image-intensified multi-channel CCD of the fluorescence made the LIFS lidar operation possible even in daytime. The LIFS lidar with this construction demonstrated the potential of natural river/lake water quality monitoring at the Tenryu River/Lake Suwa. Three main components in the fluorescence data of the water, dissolved organic matter, phycocyanin, and chlorophyll, were extracted by spectral analysis using the standard spectral functions of these components. Their concentrations were estimated by adapting experimentally calibrated data. Results of long-term field observations using our LIFS lidar from 2010 to 2012 show the necessity of simultaneous multi-component detection to understand the natural water environment. PMID:27556995

  1. Face Recognition Based on Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Javed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the proposed research work is to develop a computer system that can recognize a person by comparing the characteristics of face to those of known individuals. The main focus is on frontal two dimensional images that are taken in a controlled environment i.e. the illumination and the background will be constant. All the other methods of person’s identification and verification like iris scan or finger print scan require high quality and costly equipment’s but in face recognition we only require a normal camera giving us a 2-D frontal image of the person that will be used for the process of the person’s recognition. Principal Component Analysis technique has been used in the proposed system of face recognition. The purpose is to compare the results of the technique under the different conditions and to find the most efficient approach for developing a facial recognition system

  2. GaN-Based Heterojunction Structures for Simultaneous Detection of Ultraviolet/Infrared Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, R.; Ariyawansa, G.; Dietz, N.; Perera, A. G. U.; Matsik, S.; Ferguson, I.; Laframboise, S.; Bezinger, A.; Buchanan, M.; Liu, H. C.

    2009-11-01

    Ultraviolet and infrared (UV/IR) dual-band photodetectors have potential applications in various areas, such as fire/flame detection, solar astronomy, military sensing, situational awareness applications, and combustion process monitoring. Since GaN-based UV/IR detectors do not respond to solar or artificial visible lighting, the false detection rate is strongly reduced. Use of a single detector for detecting UV/IR can also eliminate the difficulties of operating several individual detectors with separate electronics and cooling mechanisms. Here, we report a dual-band detector which simultaneously detects UV (250 -- 360 nm) and IR (5 -- 14 μm) regions, showing near zero spectral crosstalk. This allows the detection of both UV and IR incident radiation, separately identifying the relative strength of each photocurrent component. Further improvements for the detector are also discussed.

  3. Aptamer- and nucleic acid enzyme-based systems for simultaneous detection of multiple analytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

    2011-11-15

    The present invention provides aptamer- and nucleic acid enzyme-based systems for simultaneously determining the presence and optionally the concentration of multiple analytes in a sample. Methods of utilizing the system and kits that include the sensor components are also provided. The system includes a first reactive polynucleotide that reacts to a first analyte; a second reactive polynucleotide that reacts to a second analyte; a third polynucleotide; a fourth polynucleotide; a first particle, coupled to the third polynucleotide; a second particle, coupled to the fourth polynucleotide; and at least one quencher, for quenching emissions of the first and second quantum dots, coupled to the first and second reactive polynucleotides. The first particle includes a quantum dot having a first emission wavelength. The second particle includes a second quantum dot having a second emission wavelength different from the first emission wavelength. The third polynucleotide and the fourth polynucleotide are different.

  4. Component-Based Framework for Subsurface Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Bruce J.; Fang, Yilin; Hammond, Glenn E.; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya

    2007-08-01

    Simulations in the subsurface environment represent a broad range of phenomena covering an equally broad range of scales. Developing modelling capabilities that can integrate models representing different phenomena acting at different scales present formidable challenges both from the algorithmic and computer science perspective. This paper will describe the development of an integrated framework that will be used to combine different models into a single simulation. Initial work has focused on creating two frameworks, one for performing smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of fluid systems, the other for performing grid-based continuum simulations of reactive subsurface flow. The SPH framework is based on a parallel code developed for doing pore scale simulations, the continuum grid-based framework is based on the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) code developed at PNNL. Future work will focus on combining the frameworks together to perform multiscale, multiphysics simulations of reactive subsurface flow.

  5. Runtime Verification of Component-Based Embedded Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Hasan; Hofmann, Christian; Tekinerdoğan, Bedir; Aksit, Mehmet; Gelenbe, Erol; Lent, Ricardo; Sakellari, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    To deal with increasing size and complexity, component-based software development has been employed in embedded systems. Due to several faults, components can make wrong assumptions about the working mode of the system and the working modes of the other components. To detect mode inconsistencies at

  6. Si-based RF MEMS components.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, James E.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Baker, Michael Sean; Fleming, James Grant; Stewart, Harold D.; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-01-01

    Radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) are an enabling technology for next-generation communications and radar systems in both military and commercial sectors. RF MEMS-based reconfigurable circuits outperform solid-state circuits in terms of insertion loss, linearity, and static power consumption and are advantageous in applications where high signal power and nanosecond switching speeds are not required. We have demonstrated a number of RF MEMS switches on high-resistivity silicon (high-R Si) that were fabricated by leveraging the volume manufacturing processes available in the Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL), a Class-1, radiation-hardened CMOS manufacturing facility. We describe novel tungsten and aluminum-based processes, and present results of switches developed in each of these processes. Series and shunt ohmic switches and shunt capacitive switches were successfully demonstrated. The implications of fabricating on high-R Si and suggested future directions for developing low-loss RF MEMS-based circuits are also discussed.

  7. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification based on internal circulation baffled reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Xiaoya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen removal experiments were carried out by using an internal circulation baffled bioreactor (ICBBR. Nitrate, nitrite and ammonia were used as N source for nitrogen removal experiments. The ICBBR has high nitrogen removal capacity. The removal rates of total nitrogen, nitrate, and nitrite are almost the same. When nitrate and nitrite were used as N sources their kinetic orders were 0.88. When ammonia was used as N source simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND was realized in ICBBR and ammonia removal fitted also 0.88 order kinetics, but total nitrogen removal fitted third-order kinetics. Nitrate and nitrite removal rates were faster than ammonia removal rate under the same C/N ratio, and total nitrogen removal rate increased with increasing C/N ratio.

  8. Component-Based Approach in Learning Management System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Larisa; Bule, Jekaterina; Makarov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes component-based approach (CBA) for learning management system development. Learning object as components of e-learning courses and their metadata is considered. The architecture of learning management system based on CBA being developed in Riga Technical University, namely its architecture, elements and possibilities are…

  9. 3D face recognition algorithm based on detecting reliable components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Wenjun; Zhou Xuebing; Niu Xiamu

    2007-01-01

    Fisherfaces algorithm is a popular method for face recognition. However, there exist some unstable components that degrade recognition performance. In this paper, we propose a method based on detecting reliable components to overcome the problem and introduce it to 3D face recognition. The reliable components are detected within the binary feature vector, which is generated from the Fisherfaces feature vector based on statistical properties, and is used for 3D face recognition as the final feature vector. Experimental results show that the reliable components feature vector is much more effective than the Fisherfaces feature vector for face recognition.

  10. Advances in resonance based NDT for ceramic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, L. J.; Jauriqui, L. M.; Gatewood, G. D.; Sisneros, R.

    2012-05-01

    The application of resonance based non-destructive testing methods has been providing benefit to manufacturers of metal components in the automotive and aerospace industries for many years. Recent developments in resonance based technologies are now allowing the application of resonance NDT to ceramic components including turbine engine components, armor, and hybrid bearing rolling elements. Application of higher frequencies and advanced signal interpretation are now allowing Process Compensated Resonance Testing to detect both internal material defects and surface breaking cracks in a variety of ceramic components. Resonance techniques can also be applied to determine material properties of coupons and to evaluate process capability for new manufacturing methods.

  11. Component-based Control Software Design for Flexible Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炳海; 奚立峰; 曹永上

    2003-01-01

    A new method that designs and implements the component-based distributed & hierarchical flexible manufacturing control software is described with a component concept in this paper. The proposed method takes aim at improving the flexibility and reliability of the control system. On the basis of describing the concepts of component-based software and the distributed object technology, the architecture of the component-based software of the control system is suggested with the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). And then, we propose a design method for component-based distributed & hierarchical flexible manufacturing control system. Finally, to verify the software design method, a prototype flexible manufacturing control system software has been implemented in Orbix 2. 3c, VC++6.0 and has been tested in connection with the physical flexible ranufacturing shop at the WuXi Professional Institute.

  12. Optimization of Component Based Software Engineering Model Using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE is to deliver high quality, more reliable and more maintainable software systems in a shorter time and within limited budget by reusing and combining existing quality components. A high quality system can be achieved by using quality components, framework and integration process that plays a significant role. So, techniques and methods used for quality assurance and assessment of a component based system is different from those of the traditional software engineering methodology. In this paper, we are presenting a model for optimizing Chidamber and Kemerer (CK metric values of component-based software. A deep analysis of a series of CK metrics of the software components design patterns is done and metric values are drawn from them. By using unsupervised neural network- Self Organizing Map, we have proposed a model that provides an optimized model for Software Component engineering model based on reusability that depends on CK metric values. Average, standard deviated and optimized values for the CK metric are compared and evaluated to show the optimized reusability of component based model.

  13. A NEW APPROACH OF SIMULTANEOUS FAULTS DIAGNOSIS BASED ON RANDOM SETS AND DSMT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhiliang; Xu Xiaobin; Wen Chenglin

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous faults often occur in running equipments, in order to solve the problems of the simultaneous faults, a new approach based on random sets and Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the simultaneous faults' model is built based on the generalized frame of discernment in DSmT. Secondly, according to the unified description of combination rules in evidence reasoning based on random sets, a new combination rule for simultaneous faults diagnosis is proposed. Thirdly, according to the working characteristics and environment of the sensors used to acquire fault characteristic information, a new method to construct basic probability assignment function is proposed based on membership. Finally, diagnosis result is obtained by use of the new combination rule combined with decision rules. A case pertaining to the fault diagnosis for a multi-function rotor test-bed is given, and the result shows that the proposed diagnosis approach is feasible and efficient.

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Two Types of Active Components with Different Physicochemical Properties in Kushen by HPLC-UV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A simple, reliable and accurate high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) coupled with a UV detector at varied wavelength was developed for the quantitation of two types of anti-carcinogenic compounds, namely, Kushen alkaloids(KS-As) and Kushen flavonoids(KS-Fs), in Kushen. Their remarkable difference in physicochemical properties was circumvented by integrated optimization of column and mobile phase. The separation was achieved on an alkaline-resisting C18 column via gradient elution with acetonitrile(ACN) and 0.025%(volume ratio) diethylamine(DEA) in water as mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.7 mL/min, and the column temperature was maintained at 35 °C. UV detection wavelength was set at 225 nm to monitor KS-As, and then changed to 335 nm for KS-Fs at 26th min, which was kept for 30 min before returning to the original wavelength. All the calibration curves show good linearity(r2〉0.999) within test ranges. The intra- and inter-day precision values of these components were less than 3.82%, and the average recovery rates obtained were in a range of 97.24%―102.64% for all the samples with RSD below 3.94%. This assay was successfully applied to determining the major active components in commercial herbal samples of Kushen. Moreover, the possible relationship between sample and the geographical region was visualized based on the contents of the 6 compounds in the light of principal component analysis(PCA). The results suggest that the proposed method facilitates the quality control of Kushen.

  15. Cryotrons based on a simultaneously distributed Josephson contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, P.A.; Lapir, G.M.; Makhov, V.I.; Samus, A.N.; Semenov, V.K.; Tyablikov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    The features of the construction of cryotrons based on an evenly distributed Josephson contact are examined. The possibility is demonstrated of producing cryotrons with an assigned form of the controlling characteristic through the spatial isolation of the transport and controlling streams. The theoretical and experimental controlling characteristics of cryotrons based on bridges of variable thickness with connectors of normal metal are cited. The proposed principles of cryotron production are also suitable for other types of Josephson contacts.

  16. An architectural pattern for designing component-based application frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsons, David; Rashid, Awais; Telea, Alexandru; Speck, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    A widely used architecture for the development of software systems is the component-based application framework. Such frameworks offer two mechanisms. First, they provide component integration and interoperability services which make it possible to extend the framework with various third-party compo

  17. Intelligent Forecasting of Sintered Ore's Chemical Components Based on SVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Luo; WANG Qingbo; YUAN Jingling

    2011-01-01

    Using object mathematical model of traditional control theory can not solve the forecasting problem of the chemical components of sintered ore. In order to control complicated chemical components in the manufacturing process of sintered ore, some key techniques for intelligent forecasting of the chemical components of sintered ore are studied in this paper. A new intelligent forecasting system based on SVM is proposed and realized. The results show that the accuracy of predictive value of every component is more than 90%. The application of our system in related companies is for more than one year and has shown satisfactory results.

  18. Flexible optical network components based on densely integrated microring resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuzebroek, Douwe Harmen

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses the design, realization and characterization of reconfigurable optical network components based on multiple microring resonators. Since thermally tunable microring resonators can be used as wavelength selective space switches, very compact devices with high complexity and flexi

  19. Parallel PDE-Based Simulations Using the Common Component Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexity of parallel PDE-based simulations continues to increase as multimodel, multiphysics, and multi-institutional projects become widespread. A goal of component based software engineering in such large-scale simulations is to help manage this complexity by enabling better interoperability among various codes that have been independently developed by different groups. The Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum is defining a component architecture specification to address the challenges of high-performance scientific computing. In addition, several execution frameworks, supporting infrastructure, and general purpose components are being developed. Furthermore, this group is collaborating with others in the high-performance computing community to design suites of domain-specific component interface specifications and underlying implementations. This chapter discusses recent work on leveraging these CCA efforts in parallel PDE-based simulations involving accelerator design, climate modeling, combustion, and accidental fires and explosions. We explain how component technology helps to address the different challenges posed by each of these applications, and we highlight how component interfaces built on existing parallel toolkits facilitate the reuse of software for parallel mesh manipulation, discretization, linear algebra, integration, optimization, and parallel data redistribution. We also present performance data to demonstrate the suitability of this approach, and we discuss strategies for applying component technologies to both new and existing applications

  20. Cloud Based Big Data Infrastructure: Architectural Components and Automated Provisioning

    OpenAIRE

    Demchenko, Yuri; Turkmen, Fatih; Blanchet, Christophe; Loomis, Charles; Laat, Caees de

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the general architecture and functional components of the cloud based Big Data Infrastructure (BDI). The proposed BDI architecture is based on the analysis of the emerging Big Data and data intensive technologies and supported by the definition of the Big Data Architecture Framework (BDAF) that defines the following components of the Big Data technologies: Big Data definition, Data Management including data lifecycle and data structures, Big Data Infrastructure (generical...

  1. The National Cancer Institute Food Component Research Data Base

    OpenAIRE

    Herold, Pauline M.; Brooks, Emily M.; Roque, Julio; Marciniak, Thomas A.; Butrum, Ritva R.; Meagher, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    The Food Component Research Data Base (FCRDB) is a software package for IBM PC compatible computers that allows a nutritional researcher to perform complex retrievals on a food component data base (currently the USDA Handbook 8 data) using a structured food description language, the FDA/NCI Factored Food Vocabulary (FFV). The FCRDB software is written in the “C” language and uses a windowing interface for ease of use and bitmaps to achieve excellent response times for complex retrievals on a ...

  2. High-extensible scene graph framework based on component techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qi-cheng; WANG Guo-ping; ZHOU Feng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a novel component-based scene graph is proposed, in which all objects in the scene are classified to different entities, and a scene can be represented as a hierarchical graph composed of the instances of entities. Each entity contains basic data and its operations which are encapsulated into the entity component. The entity possesses certain behaviours which are responses to rules and interaction defined by the high-level application. Such behaviours can be described by script or behaviours model. The component-based scene graph in the paper is more abstractive and high-level than traditional scene graphs. The contents of a scene could be extended flexibly by adding new entities and new entity components, and behaviour modification can be obtained by modifying the model components or behaviour scripts. Its robustness and efficiency are verified by many examples implemented in the Virtual Scenario developed by Peking University.

  3. Software component composition based on ADL and Middleware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    How to compose prefabricated components is a key issue in component-based reuse. Research on Software Architecture (SA) and Component-based Software Development (CBSD) provides two hopeful solutions from different perspectives. SA provides a top-down approach to realizing component-based reuse. However, it pays insufficient attention to the refinement and implementation of the architectural descriptions, and does not provide the necessary capability to automate the transformation or composition to form a final executable application. CBSD provides a bottom-up way by using existing middleware infrastructures. However, these technologies do not take into account the systematic methodology that can guide the CBSD process, especially the component composition at higher abstract levels. We argue that it is a natural solution to combine these two approaches.   In this paper, an architecture-based component composition approach is presented. In this way, SA description, using mapping rules and mini-tools to narrow the gap between design and implementation, is used as the blueprint and middleware technology as the runtime scaffold for component composition. Our approach presents an ADL, which supports user-defined connectors and has an extensible framework, to specify software architectures. To map a SA description into implementation, it is necessary to map it first to an OO design model described in UML, then to the final implementation. The architectural description can be mapped into source code or executable code by using some ORB conforming to CORBA standard. Also a toolkit is provided to support this approach efficiently.

  4. Least Dependent Component Analysis Based on Mutual Information

    CERN Document Server

    Stögbauer, H; Astakhov, S A; Grassberger, P; St\\"ogbauer, Harald; Kraskov, Alexander; Astakhov, Sergey A.; Grassberger, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We propose to use precise estimators of mutual information (MI) to find least dependent components in a linearly mixed signal. On the one hand this seems to lead to better blind source separation than with any other presently available algorithm. On the other hand it has the advantage, compared to other implementations of `independent' component analysis (ICA) some of which are based on crude approximations for MI, that the numerical values of the MI can be used for: (i) estimating residual dependencies between the output components; (ii) estimating the reliability of the output, by comparing the pairwise MIs with those of re-mixed components; (iii) clustering the output according to the residual interdependencies. For the MI estimator we use a recently proposed k-nearest neighbor based algorithm. For time sequences we combine this with delay embedding, in order to take into account non-trivial time correlations. After several tests with artificial data, we apply the resulting MILCA (Mutual Information based ...

  5. Simultaneous Class-based and Live Video Streamed Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin Ellen Tweddell; Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus;

    2015-01-01

    the choice of either attending teaching sessions in the traditional way or working from home via the Internet. The education was motivated to expand the use of technologysupported teaching, by offering a flexible study programme, thereby increasing the recruitment base. The analysis described in this article......The Bachelor Programme in Biomedical Laboratory Analysis at VIA's healthcare university college in Aarhus has established a blended class which combines traditional and live broadcast teaching (via an innovative choice of video conferencing system). On the so-called net-days, students have...... sheds light on the pedagogical challenges, the educational designs possible, the opportunities and constrains associated with video conferencing as a pedagogical practice, as well as the technological, structural and organisational conditions involved. In this paper a participatory action research...

  6. A two wavelength holographic technique for simultaneous measurement of temperature and concentration during the solidification of two component systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, A.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of the temperature and concentration distribution within a fluid can be made using a 'two wavelength holographic' setup. The technique is successfully applied to the study of temperature, concentration, and flow fields in the melt of a transparent 'model alloy' during solidification.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of simultaneous reconstruction with model-based crosstalk compensation for 99mTc∕123I dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition brain SPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C.

    2009-01-01

    A model-based method has been previously developed to estimate and compensate for the crosstalk and downscatter contamination in simultaneous 123I∕99mTc dual-isotope SPECT imaging. In this method, photon scatter in the object is modeled using the effective source scatter estimate technique. Photon interactions with the collimator-detector are estimated using precalculated Monte Carlo simulated point response functions. Two different approaches, simultaneous and alternating model-based compens...

  8. Economical multiparty simultaneous quantum identity authentication based on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yu-Guang; Wen Qiao-Yan

    2009-01-01

    A multiparty simultaneous quantum identity authentication protocol based on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states is proposed.The multi-user can be authenticated by a trusted third party (TTP) simultaneously.Compared with the scheme proposed recently (Wang et al 2006 Chin.Phys.Lett.23(9) 2360),the proposed scheme has the advantages of consuming fewer quantum and classical resources and lessening the difficulty and intensity of necessary operations.

  9. Economical multiparty simultaneous quantum identity authentication based on Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multiparty simultaneous quantum identity authentication protocol based on Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states is proposed. The multi-user can be authenticated by a trusted third party (TTP) simultaneously. Compared with the scheme proposed recently (Wang et al 2006 Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(9) 2360), the proposed scheme has the advantages of consuming fewer quantum and classical resources and lessening the difficulty and intensity of necessary operations. (general)

  10. Investigation on Supply Chain Management Based on ComponentConfiguration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 陈淮莉; 马登哲

    2004-01-01

    From supply-push mode to demand-pull mode, SCM systems will face four main points: (1) real time visibility that covers the whole supply chain, (2) agility for choice of supply and source, (3) response to diverse customer demands and short delivery deadlines, and (4) rapid occurrence of new products following the market trends and new designs. Component-based SCM has become a hot spot in research areas. A multi-layer framework is set up, including a database server layer, an application server layer, a kernel component layer and a user interface layer. Some function components are designed, which are optimal planning arithmetic components, controller components and evaluation indexes components, in order to suit both discrete and continuous manufacturing. This paper studies a three-dimensional SCM configuration method based on the types of enterprise, manufacturing and products, provides powerful tools for SCM system implementations, and adopts an object-oriented technology to construct component-based distributed information system to assure right time, right materials, right place, right quantity and right customers.

  11. Reliability-Based Design of Wind Turbine Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    Application of reliability-based design for wind turbines requires a definition of the probabilistic basis for the individual components of the wind turbine. In the present paper reliability-based design of structural wind turbine components is considered. A framework for the uncertainties which...... influence the reliability is presented. For wind turbines tests with the basic materials or structural components are often performed during the design process. By adopting a reliability based design approach information from these tests can be taken into account in the design process. However, in normal...... wind turbine design a deterministic design approach based on partial safety factors is normally used. In the present paper a numerical example demonstrates how information from tests with wind turbine blades can be used to establish a probabilistic basis for reliabilitybased design. It is also...

  12. Isocyanide based multi component reactions in combinatorial chemistry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dömling, A.

    1998-01-01

    Although usually regarded as a recent development, the combinatorial approach to the synthesis of libraries of new drug candidates was first described as early as 1961 using the isocyanide-based one-pot multicomponent Ugi reaction. Isocyanide-based multi component reactions (MCR's) markedly differ f

  13. A channel-based coordination model for component composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbab, F.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present $P epsilon omega$, a paradigm for composition of software components based on the notion of mobile channels. $P repsilon omega$ is a channel-based exogenous coordination model wherein complex coordinators, called {em connectors are compositionally built out of simpler ones.

  14. Reo: A Channel-based Coordination Model for Component Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbab, F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present Reo, which forms a paradigm for composition of software components based on the notion of mobile channels. Reo is a channel-based exogenous coordination model in which complex coordinators, called connectors, are compositionally built out of simpler ones. The simplest conne

  15. Critical Components of Effective School-Based Feeding Improvement Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2004-01-01

    This article identifies critical components of effective school-based feeding improvement programs for students with feeding problems. A distinction is made between typical school-based feeding management and feeding improvement programs, where feeding, independent functioning, and mealtime behaviors are the focus of therapeutic strategies.…

  16. Rigorous Description Of Design Components Functionality: An Approach Based Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhafid Zitouni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current models for software components have made component-based software engineering practical. However, these models are limited in the sense that their support for the characterization/specification of design components primarily deals with syntactic issues. To avoid mismatch and misuse of components, more comprehensive specification of software components is required, In this paper, we present a contract-based approach to analyze and model the both aspects (functional and non-functional properties of design components and their composition in order to detect and correct composition errors. This approach permits to characterize the structural, interface and behavioural aspects of design component. To enable this we present a pattern contract language that captures the structural and behavioral requirements associated with a range of patterns, as well as the system properties that are guaranteed as a result. In addition, we propose the use of the LOTOS language as an ADL for formalizing these aspects. We illustrate the approach by applying it to a standard design pattern.

  17. Component-based integration of chemistry and optimization software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Joseph P; Benson, Steven J; Alexeev, Yuri; Sarich, Jason; Janssen, Curtis L; McInnes, Lois Curfman; Krishnan, Manojkumar; Nieplocha, Jarek; Jurrus, Elizabeth; Fahlstrom, Carl; Windus, Theresa L

    2004-11-15

    Typical scientific software designs make rigid assumptions regarding programming language and data structures, frustrating software interoperability and scientific collaboration. Component-based software engineering is an emerging approach to managing the increasing complexity of scientific software. Component technology facilitates code interoperability and reuse. Through the adoption of methodology and tools developed by the Common Component Architecture Forum, we have developed a component architecture for molecular structure optimization. Using the NWChem and Massively Parallel Quantum Chemistry packages, we have produced chemistry components that provide capacity for energy and energy derivative evaluation. We have constructed geometry optimization applications by integrating the Toolkit for Advanced Optimization, Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation, and Global Arrays packages, which provide optimization and linear algebra capabilities. We present a brief overview of the component development process and a description of abstract interfaces for chemical optimizations. The components conforming to these abstract interfaces allow the construction of applications using different chemistry and mathematics packages interchangeably. Initial numerical results for the component software demonstrate good performance, and highlight potential research enabled by this platform.

  18. CCPA: Component-based communication protocol architecture for embedded systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Hong-jun; CHEN Tian-zhou; CHEN Chun

    2005-01-01

    For increased and various communication requirements of modem applications on embedded systems, general purpose protocol stacks and protocol models are not efficient because they are fixed to execute in the static mode. We present the Component-Based Communication Protocol Architecture (CCPA) to make communication dynamic and configurable. It can develop, test and store the customized components for flexible reuse. The protocols are implemented by component assembly and support by configurable environments. This leads to smaller memory, more flexibility, more reconfiguration ability, better concurrency, and multiple data channel support.

  19. Simultaneous Mapping of Interactions between Scientific and Technological Knowledge Bases: The Case of Space Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, E.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the knowledge structure of the field of space communications using bibliometric mapping techniques based on textual analysis. Presents a new approach with the aim of visualizing simultaneously the configuration of the scientific and technological knowledge bases at a worldwide level, and discusses results that show different…

  20. Modeling Component-based Bragg gratings Application: tunable lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedara Rachida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The principal function of a grating Bragg is filtering, which can be used in optical fibers based component and active or passive semi conductors based component, as well as telecommunication systems. Their ideal use is with lasers with fiber, amplifiers with fiber or Laser diodes. In this work, we are going to show the principal results obtained during the analysis of various types of grating Bragg by the method of the coupled modes. We then present the operation of DBR are tunable. The use of Bragg gratings in a laser provides single-mode sources, agile wavelength. The use of sampled grating increases the tuning range.

  1. Towards a Component Based Model for Database Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Paul ROTARU

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to their effectiveness in the design and development of software applications and due to their recognized advantages in terms of reusability, Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE concepts have been arousing a great deal of interest in recent years. This paper presents and extends a component-based approach to object-oriented database systems (OODB introduced by us in [1] and [2]. Components are proposed as a new abstraction level for database system, logical partitions of the schema. In this context, the scope is introduced as an escalated property for transactions. Components are studied from the integrity, consistency, and concurrency control perspective. The main benefits of our proposed component model for OODB are the reusability of the database design, including the access statistics required for a proper query optimization, and a smooth information exchange. The integration of crosscutting concerns into the component database model using aspect-oriented techniques is also discussed. One of the main goals is to define a method for the assessment of component composition capabilities. These capabilities are restricted by the component’s interface and measured in terms of adaptability, degree of compose-ability and acceptability level. The above-mentioned metrics are extended from database components to generic software components. This paper extends and consolidates into one common view the ideas previously presented by us in [1, 2, 3].[1] Octavian Paul Rotaru, Marian Dobre, Component Aspects in Object Oriented Databases, Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice (SERP’04, Volume II, ISBN 1-932415-29-7, pages 719-725, Las Vegas, NV, USA, June 2004.[2] Octavian Paul Rotaru, Marian Dobre, Mircea Petrescu, Integrity and Consistency Aspects in Component-Oriented Databases, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Innovation in Information and Communication Technology (ISIICT

  2. Context sensitivity and ambiguity in component-based systems design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bespalko, S.J.; Sindt, A.

    1997-10-01

    Designers of components-based, real-time systems need to guarantee to correctness of soft-ware and its output. Complexity of a system, and thus the propensity for error, is best characterized by the number of states a component can encounter. In many cases, large numbers of states arise where the processing is highly dependent on context. In these cases, states are often missed, leading to errors. The following are proposals for compactly specifying system states which allow the factoring of complex components into a control module and a semantic processing module. Further, the need for methods that allow for the explicit representation of ambiguity and uncertainty in the design of components is discussed. Presented herein are examples of real-world problems which are highly context-sensitive or are inherently ambiguous.

  3. Verifying Embedded Systems using Component-based Runtime Observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Wei; Marian, Nicolae; Angelov, Christo K.

    Formal verification methods, such as exhaustive model checking, are often infeasible because of high computational complexity. Runtime observers (monitors) provide an alternative, light-weight verification method, which offers a non-exhaustive yet feasible approach to monitoring system behavior...... against formally specified properties. This paper presents a component-based design method for runtime observers, which are configured from instances of prefabricated reusable components---Predicate Evaluator (PE) and Temporal Evaluator (TE). The PE computes atomic propositions for the TE; the latter...... is a reconfigurable component processing a data structure, representing the state transition diagram of a non-deterministic state machine, i.e. a Buchi automaton derived from a system property specified in Linear Temporal Logic (LTL). Observer components have been implemented using design models and design patterns...

  4. Simultaneous Excitation of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output CFD-Based Unsteady Aerodynamic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Walter A.

    2008-01-01

    A significant improvement to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) is presented. This improvement involves the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system that enables the computation of the unsteady aerodynamic state-space model using a single CFD execution, independent of the number of structural modes. Four different types of inputs are presented that can be used for the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes. Results are presented for a flexible, supersonic semi-span configuration using the CFL3Dv6.4 code.

  5. Simultaneous determination of ten active components in traditional Chinese medicinal products containing both Gegen (Pueraria lobata) and Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qi; Sun, Lan; Zhao, Run-Huai; Chow, Moses S S; Zuo, Zhong

    2008-01-01

    In order to facilitate the quality control of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) products containing both Gegen (Pueraria lobata) and Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), a new and simple HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of 10 active components in these products has been developed. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a C(18) column eluted with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% acetic acid in water and 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile with gradient elution. The eluent was monitored by a photodiode array UV detector at a wavelength of 250 nm for Gegen components including puerarin, daidzein 8-C-apiosyl-glucoside, daidzin and daidzein, and at 270 nm for Danshen components including danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIa. Excellent chromatographic separation was achieved for all studied compounds with good linearity (r(2)> 0.999) over the studied concentration ranges. The developed method has been applied to the simultaneous determination of the 10 studied compounds in commercially available products containing both Gegen and Danshen. The TCM product samples were extracted by sonication with a mixture of methanol:water (80:20) containing 0.5% acetic acid. Extraction recoveries for all studied compounds were in the range of 96.01-106.18%. The intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 7.25 and 5.44%, respectively, for all studied compounds. The developed method has not only proved to be effective in the simultaneous determination of the 10 components, but also provides a convenient quality control approach for TCM products containing both Gegen and Danshen. PMID:18438756

  6. Reliability Analysis of Component Software in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Transformation of Testing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Hou

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We develop an approach of component software reliability analysis which includes the benefits of both time domain, and structure based approaches. This approach overcomes the deficiency of existing NHPP techniques that fall short of addressing repair, and internal system structures simultaneously. Our solution adopts a method of transformation of testing data to cover both methods, and is expected to improve reliability prediction. This paradigm allows component-based software testing process doesn’t meet the assumption of NHPP models, and accounts for software structures by the way of modeling the testing process. According to the testing model it builds the mapping relation from the testing profile to the operational profile which enables the transformation of the testing data to build the reliability dataset required by NHPP models. At last an example is evaluated to validate and show the effectiveness of this approach.

  7. Flexible optical network components based on densely integrated microring resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Geuzebroek, Douwe Harmen

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses the design, realization and characterization of reconfigurable optical network components based on multiple microring resonators. Since thermally tunable microring resonators can be used as wavelength selective space switches, very compact devices with high complexity and flexibility can be created.

  8. Management of Globally Distributed Component-Based Software Development Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kotlarsky (Julia)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractGlobally Distributed Component-Based Development (GD CBD) is expected to become a promising area, as increasing numbers of companies are setting up software development in a globally distributed environment and at the same time are adopting CBD methodologies. Being an emerging area, the

  9. Statistical design-principal component analysis optimization of a multiple response procedure using cloud point extraction and simultaneous determination of metals by ICP OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Marcos A; Bruns, Roy E; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2006-11-24

    A procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of traces amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb from saline oil-refinery effluents and digested vegetable samples using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). The procedure is based on cloud point extraction (CPE) of these metals as 2-(bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethyl-amino-phenol (Br-PADAP) complexes into a micellar phase of octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). Optimization of the procedure was performed by response surface methodology (RSM) using a Doehlert design. Principal components (PC) were used to simplify the multiple response analysis. A response surface for the first PC score is useful in determining the optimum conditions for the Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Pb determinations whereas the second PC is highly correlated with the Ni response. Improvement factors of 22, 36, 46, 25, 65 and 39, along with limits of detection (3sigma(B)) of 0.081, 0.79, 0.38, 0.83, 0.28 and 0.69 microg L(-1), and precision expressed as relative standard deviation (%R.S.D., n=8, 20.0 microg L(-1)) of 1.5, 2.2, 3.5, 2.6, 2.5 and 2.5 were achieved for Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb, respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by spike tests in oil-refinery effluent samples and analysis of a vegetable certified reference material (NIST 1571, orchard leaves). Results found were in agreement with certified values.

  10. Simultaneous quantification of eleven bioactive components of male flowers of Eucommia ulmoides oliver by HPLC and their quality evaluation by chemical fingerprint analysis with hierarchical clustering analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eucommia ulmoides Oliv (EU, a dioecious perennial angiosperm, is one of the oldest tonics in Chinese traditional medicine. The tea of male flowers of EU has been become popularities and seen as aspirational health care tea in China. There were no enough marks and effective method to control the quality of male flowers of EU. Objective: A simple and efficient HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 bioactive compounds (4 iridoids, 1 phenylpropanoid, 6 flavonoids. HPLC chromatographic fingerprint and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to evaluate and classify the samples of male flowers of EU which came from different locations in China. Materials and Methods: Samples were separated on a Thermal hypersil gold column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm and detected by an ultraviolet detector. The UV wavelength was set at 206, 236, and 206 nm. Mobile phase consisted of methanol (B and phosphoric acid-water (0.5% (C using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 25°C with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Results: In quantitative analysis, the eleven components showed good regression (r 2 > 0.9996 within linear ranges, and their recoveries were in the range of 98.65-102.31%. In the chromatographic fingerprint, 16 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to assess the similarities of different samples. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA was also applied to differentiate the samples based on the area of all the common peaks. The samples which had higher similarity in HPLC fingerprint were classified as a cluster. Conclusion: This study will provide methodological reference for the quality control and sample classification of male flowers of E. ulmoides.

  11. Cantilever-based micro-particle filter with simultaneous single particle detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Currently, separation of whole blood samples on lab-on-a-chip systems is achieved via filters followed by analysis of the filtered matter such as counting of blood cells. Here, a micro-chip based on cantilever technology is developed, which enables simultaneous filtration and counting of micro...

  12. Component-based software for high-performance scientific computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Yuri; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Bernholdt, David E.; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Gannon, Dennis; Janssen, Curtis L.; Kenny, Joseph P.; Krishnan, Manojkumar; Kohl, James A.; Kumfert, Gary; Curfman McInnes, Lois; Nieplocha, Jarek; Parker, Steven G.; Rasmussen, Craig; Windus, Theresa L.

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in both computational hardware and multidisciplinary science have given rise to an unprecedented level of complexity in scientific simulation software. This paper describes an ongoing grass roots effort aimed at addressing complexity in high-performance computing through the use of Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE). Highlights of the benefits and accomplishments of the Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum and SciDAC ISIC are given, followed by an illustrative example of how the CCA has been applied to drive scientific discovery in quantum chemistry. Thrusts for future research are also described briefly.

  13. Component-based software for high-performance scientific computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in both computational hardware and multidisciplinary science have given rise to an unprecedented level of complexity in scientific simulation software. This paper describes an ongoing grass roots effort aimed at addressing complexity in high-performance computing through the use of Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE). Highlights of the benefits and accomplishments of the Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum and SciDAC ISIC are given, followed by an illustrative example of how the CCA has been applied to drive scientific discovery in quantum chemistry. Thrusts for future research are also described briefly

  14. Component-Based Software for High-Performance Scientific Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeev, Yuri; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Bernholdt, David E.; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Gannon, Dennis B.; Janssen, Curtis; Kenny, Joseph P.; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Kohl, James A.; Kumfert, Gary K.; McInnes, Lois C.; Nieplocha, Jarek; Parker, Steven G.; Rasmussen, Craig; Windus, Theresa L.

    2005-06-26

    Recent advances in both computational hardware and multidisciplinary science have given rise to an unprecedented level of complexity in scientific simulation software. This paper describes an ongoing grass roots effort aimed at addressing complexity in high-performance computing through the use of Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE). Highlights of the benefits and accomplishments of the Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum and SciDAC ISIC are given, followed by an illustrative example of how the CCA has been applied to drive scientific discovery in quantum chemistry. Thrusts for future research are also described briefly.

  15. Lifting a Butterfly – A Component-Based FFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Schupp

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available While modern software engineering, with good reason, tries to establish the idea of reusability and the principles of parameterization and loosely coupled components even for the design of performance-critical software, Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs tend to be monolithic and of a very low degree of parameterization. The data structures to hold the input and output data, the element type of these data, the algorithm for computing the so-called twiddle factors, the storage model for a given set of twiddle factors, all are unchangeably defined in the so-called butterfly, restricting its reuse almost entirely. This paper shows a way to a component-based FFT by designing a parameterized butterfly. Based on the technique of lifting, this parameterization includes algorithmic and implementation issues without violating the complexity guarantees of an FFT. The paper demonstrates the lifting process for the Gentleman-Sande butterfly, i.e., the butterfly that underlies the large class of decimation-in-frequency (DIF FFTs, shows the resulting components and summarizes the implementation of a component-based, generic DIF library in C++.

  16. Performance Analysis of Temperature and Strain Simultaneous Measurement System Based on Heterodyne Detection of Brillouin Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Sheng Zhang; Yong-Qian Li; Shuo Zhang; Li-Juan Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Microwave heterodyne detection can be used to measure the temperature and strain distribution along a fiber with high accuracy in a Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR) system. This method involves simultaneous measurement of Brillouin scattering and Rayleigh scattering in fiber, and scanning of Briliouin spectrum to obtain the desired information. This paper presents a simultaneous measurement system of temperature and strain based on microwave detection and analyzed the system performances such as measurement accuracy, dynamic range, and spatial resolution theoretically. The analysis shows that the system can achieve a temperature resolution of 1℃ and a strain resolution of 100 με.

  17. A probabilistic model for component-based shape synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Kalogerakis, Evangelos

    2012-07-01

    We present an approach to synthesizing shapes from complex domains, by identifying new plausible combinations of components from existing shapes. Our primary contribution is a new generative model of component-based shape structure. The model represents probabilistic relationships between properties of shape components, and relates them to learned underlying causes of structural variability within the domain. These causes are treated as latent variables, leading to a compact representation that can be effectively learned without supervision from a set of compatibly segmented shapes. We evaluate the model on a number of shape datasets with complex structural variability and demonstrate its application to amplification of shape databases and to interactive shape synthesis. © 2012 ACM 0730-0301/2012/08-ART55.

  18. Component-based analysis of embedded control applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelov, Christo K.; Guan, Wei; Marian, Nicolae;

    2011-01-01

    The widespread use of embedded systems requires the creation of industrial software technology that will make it possible to engineer systems being correct by construction. That can be achieved through the use of validated (trusted) components, verification of design models, and automatic...... configuration of applications from validated design models and trusted components. This design philosophy has been instrumental for developing COMDES—a component-based framework for distributed embedded control systems. A COMDES application is conceived as a network of embedded actors that are configured from...... instances of reusable, executable components—function blocks (FBs). System actors operate in accordance with a timed multitasking model of computation, whereby I/O signals are exchanged with the controlled plant at precisely specified time instants, resulting in the elimination of I/O jitter. The paper...

  19. New Stereo Vision Digital Camera System for Simultaneous Measurement of Cloud Base Height and Atmospheric Visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeiro, F. M.; Carretas, F.; Palma, N.; Ramos, P. M.; Wagner, F.

    2013-12-01

    Clouds play an important role in many aspects of everyday life. They affect both the local weather as well as the global climate and are an important parameter on climate change studies. Cloud parameters are also important for weather prediction models which make use of actual measurements. It is thus important to have low-cost instrumentation that can be deployed in the field to measure those parameters. This kind of instruments should also be automated and robust since they may be deployed in remote places and be subject to adverse weather conditions. Although clouds are very important in environmental systems, they are also an essential component of airplane safety when visual flight rules (VFR) are enforced, such as in most small aerodromes where it is not economically viable to install instruments for assisted flying. Under VFR there are strict limits on the height of the cloud base, cloud cover and atmospheric visibility that ensure the safety of the pilots and planes. Although there are instruments, available in the market, to measure those parameters, their relatively high cost makes them unavailable in many local aerodromes. In this work we present a new prototype which has been recently developed and deployed in a local aerodrome as proof of concept. It is composed by two digital cameras that capture photographs of the sky and allow the measurement of the cloud height from the parallax effect. The new developments consist on having a new geometry which allows the simultaneous measurement of cloud base height, wind speed at cloud base height and atmospheric visibility, which was not previously possible with only two cameras. The new orientation of the cameras comes at the cost of a more complex geometry to measure the cloud base height. The atmospheric visibility is calculated from the Lambert-Beer law after the measurement of the contrast between a set of dark objects and the background sky. The prototype includes the latest hardware developments that

  20. SA BASED SOFTWARE DEPLOYMENT RELIABILITY ESTIMATION CONSIDERING COMPONENT DEPENDENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Xihong; Liu Hongwei; Wu Zhibo; Yang Xiaozong; Zuo Decheng

    2011-01-01

    Reliability is one of the most critical properties of software system.System deployment architecture is the allocation of system software components on host nodes.Software Architecture (SA)based software deployment models help to analyze reliability of different deployments.Though many approaches for architecture-based reliability estimation exist,little work has incorporated the influence of system deployment and hardware resources into reliability estimation.There are many factors influencing system deployment.By translating the multi-dimension factors into degree matrix of component dependence,we provide the definition of component dependence and propose a method of calculating system reliability of deployments.Additionally,the parameters that influence the optimal deployment may change during system execution.The existing software deployment architecture may be ill-suited for the given environment,and the system needs to be redeployed to improve reliability.An approximate algorithm,A*_D,to increase system reliability is presented.When the number of components and host nodes is relative large,experimental results show that this algorithm can obtain better deployment than stochastic and greedy algorithms.

  1. Simultaneous determination of 10 components in traditional Chinese medicine Dachaihu Granule by reversed-phase-high-performance liquid chromatographic-diode array detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfei Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dachaihu Granule, commonly used for treating cholecystitis, is derived from a famous traditional Chinese formula named Dachaihu Decoction. No analytical method has been reported for simultaneous determination of 10 bioactive compounds for quality control in Dachaihu Granule so far. Objective: To develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method with diode array detector (DAD for simultaneous determination of 10 bioactive compounds (paeoniflorin, aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and baicalin in traditional Chinese medicine Dachaihu Granule. Materials and Methods : The samples were separated on a Kromasil C 18 (250 × 4.6 mm,i.d. with 5.0 μm particle sizecolumn with multi-wavelength detection method by a gradient elution using acetonitrile (A and 0.2% acetic acid (B as the mobile phase. The column temperature was maintained at 30°C and the detection wavelength was set at 230 nm for paeoniflorin, 254 nm for aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion, 280 nm for naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and baicalin. Results: The developed method provided satisfactory precision and the accuracy of this method was in the range from 94.0% to 103.1%, all of the 10 compounds showed good linearity (r > 0.999 in a detected concentration range. Conclusion: The validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneously of these active components in Dachaihu Granule from different production batches.

  2. Simultaneous Decomposition of Depression Heterogeneity on the Person-, Symptom- and Time-Level: The Use of Three-Mode Principal Component Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei Monden

    Full Text Available Although heterogeneity of depression hinders research and clinical practice, attempts to reduce it with latent variable models have yielded inconsistent results, probably because these techniques cannot account for all interacting sources of heterogeneity at the same time. Therefore, to simultaneously decompose depression heterogeneity on the person-, symptom and time-level, three-mode Principal Component Analysis (3MPCA was applied to data of 219 Major Depression patients, who provided Beck Depression Inventory assessments every three months for two years. The resulting person-level components were correlated with external baseline clinical and demographic variables. The 3MPCA extracted two symptom-level components ('cognitive', 'somatic-affective', two time-level components ('improving', 'persisting' and three person-level components, characterized by different interaction-patterns between the symptom- and time-components ('severe non-persisting', 'somatic depression' and 'cognitive depression'. This model explained 28% of the total variance and 65% when also incorporating the general trend in the data. Correlations with external variables illustrated the content differentiation between the person-components. Severe non-persisting depression was positively correlated with psychopathology (r=0.60 and negatively with quality of life (r=-0.50. Somatic depression was negatively correlated with physical functioning (r=-0.45. Cognitive depression was positively correlated with neuroticism (r=0.38 and negatively with self-esteem (r=-0.47. In conclusion, 3MPCA decomposes depression into homogeneous entities, while accounting for the interactions between different sources of heterogeneity, which shows the utility of the technique to investigate the underlying structure of complex psychopathology data and could help future development of better empirical depression subtypes.

  3. Simultaneous Decomposition of Depression Heterogeneity on the Person-, Symptom- and Time-Level: The Use of Three-Mode Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Rei; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Stegeman, Alwin; Conradi, Henk Jan; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although heterogeneity of depression hinders research and clinical practice, attempts to reduce it with latent variable models have yielded inconsistent results, probably because these techniques cannot account for all interacting sources of heterogeneity at the same time. Therefore, to simultaneously decompose depression heterogeneity on the person-, symptom and time-level, three-mode Principal Component Analysis (3MPCA) was applied to data of 219 Major Depression patients, who provided Beck Depression Inventory assessments every three months for two years. The resulting person-level components were correlated with external baseline clinical and demographic variables. The 3MPCA extracted two symptom-level components ('cognitive', 'somatic-affective'), two time-level components ('improving', 'persisting') and three person-level components, characterized by different interaction-patterns between the symptom- and time-components ('severe non-persisting', 'somatic depression' and 'cognitive depression'). This model explained 28% of the total variance and 65% when also incorporating the general trend in the data). Correlations with external variables illustrated the content differentiation between the person-components. Severe non-persisting depression was positively correlated with psychopathology (r=0.60) and negatively with quality of life (r=-0.50). Somatic depression was negatively correlated with physical functioning (r=-0.45). Cognitive depression was positively correlated with neuroticism (r=0.38) and negatively with self-esteem (r=-0.47). In conclusion, 3MPCA decomposes depression into homogeneous entities, while accounting for the interactions between different sources of heterogeneity, which shows the utility of the technique to investigate the underlying structure of complex psychopathology data and could help future development of better empirical depression subtypes. PMID:26177365

  4. Simultaneous ground- and satellite-based observation of MF/HF auroral radio emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuka; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Katoh, Yuto; Shinbori, Atsuki; Kadokura, Akira; Ogawa, Yasunobu

    2016-05-01

    We report on the first simultaneous measurements of medium-high frequency (MF/HF) auroral radio emissions (above 1 MHz) by ground- and satellite-based instruments. Observational data were obtained by the ground-based passive receivers in Iceland and Svalbard, and by the Plasma Waves and Sounder experiment (PWS) mounted on the Akebono satellite. We observed two simultaneous appearance events, during which the frequencies of the auroral roar and MF bursts detected at ground level were different from those of the terrestrial hectometric radiation (THR) observed by the Akebono satellite passing over the ground-based stations. This frequency difference confirms that auroral roar and THR are generated at different altitudes across the F peak. We did not observe any simultaneous observations that indicated an identical generation region of auroral roar and THR. In most cases, MF/HF auroral radio emissions were observed only by the ground-based detector, or by the satellite-based detector, even when the satellite was passing directly over the ground-based stations. A higher detection rate was observed from space than from ground level. This can primarily be explained in terms of the idea that the Akebono satellite can detect THR emissions coming from a wider region, and because a considerable portion of auroral radio emissions generated in the bottomside F region are masked by ionospheric absorption and screening in the D/E regions associated with ionization which results from auroral electrons and solar UV radiation.

  5. State Inspection for Transmission Lines Based on Independent Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Li-jia; JIANG Xiu-chen; SHENG Ge-hao; YANG Wei-wei

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring transmission towers is of great importance to prevent severe thefts on them and ensure the reliability and safety of the power grid operation. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a method for finding underlying factors or components from multivariate statistical data based on dimension reduction methods, and it is applicable to extract the non-stationary signals. FastICA based on negentropy is presented to effectively extract and separate the vibration signals caused by human activity in this paper. A new method combined empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique with the adaptive threshold method is applied to extract the vibration pulses, and suppress the interference signals. The practical tests demonstrate that the method proposed in the paper is effective in separating and extracting the vibration signals.

  6. Education Knowledge System Combination Model Based on the Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lei; LI Dehua; LI Xiaojian; WU Chunxiang

    2007-01-01

    Resources are the base and core of education information, but current web education resources have no structure and it is still difficult to reuse them and make them can be self assembled and developed continually. According to the knowledge structure of course and text, the relation among knowledge points, knowledge units from three levels of media material, we can build education resource components, and build TKCM (Teaching Knowledge Combination Model) based on resource components. Builders can build and assemble knowledge system structure and make knowledge units can be self assembled, thus we can develop and consummate them continually. Users can make knowledge units can be self assembled and renewed, and build education knowledge system to satisfy users' demand under the form of education knowledge system.

  7. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry based component profiling and quality prediction for Japanese sake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Natsuki; Isogai, Atsuko; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-10-01

    Sake is a Japanese traditional alcoholic beverage, which is produced by simultaneous saccharification and alcohol fermentation of polished and steamed rice by Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. About 300 compounds have been identified in sake, and the contribution of individual components to the sake flavor has been examined at the same time. However, only a few compounds could explain the characteristics alone and most of the attributes still remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the component profile and the attributes of sake. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based non-targeted analysis was employed to obtain the low molecular weight component profile of Japanese sake including both nonvolatile and volatile compounds. Sake attributes and overall quality were assessed by analytical descriptive sensory test and the prediction model of the sensory score from the component profile was constructed by means of orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) regression analysis. Our results showed that 12 sake attributes [ginjo-ka (aroma of premium ginjo sake), grassy/aldehydic odor, sweet aroma/caramel/burnt odor, sulfury odor, sour taste, umami, bitter taste, body, amakara (dryness), aftertaste, pungent/smoothness and appearance] and overall quality were accurately explained by component profiles. In addition, we were able to select statistically significant components according to variable importance on projection (VIP). Our methodology clarified the correlation between sake attribute and 200 low molecular components and presented the importance of each component thus, providing new insights to the flavor study of sake. PMID:25060729

  8. [Simultaneous determination of five groups of components in qingkailing injection by high performance liquid chromatography with photo diode array detector and evaporative light scattering detector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shikai; Xin, Wenfeng; Luo, Guoan; Wang, Yiming; Cheng, Yiyu

    2005-09-01

    A method was established for the simultaneous quantification of nine components of five different structural types in Qingkailing injection. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photo diode array detector and an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-DAD-ELSD) was employed in the determination. Four monitoring wavelengths of 240, 254, 280 and 330 nm were set to determine nucleosides (uridine and adenosine), iridoid glucoside (geniposide), flavone glycoside (baicalin) and organic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid) respectively, and a combined evaporative light scattering detector was used to detect three steroid compounds (cholic acid, ursodesoxycholic acid and hyodeoxycholic acid). The proposed method permitted the simultaneous separation and determination of five groups of compounds in Qingkailing injection, and acceptable validation results of the precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy tests were achieved. The method was applied to the analysis of 19 Qingkailing injection samples from three different plants, and the results indicated that the method could be used as a convenient and reliable method in the multi-component determination and quality control of traditional Chinese medicines.

  9. XML-based Components for Federating Multiple Heterogeneous Data Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Gardarin, Georges; Sha, Fei; Dang-Ngoc, Tuyet-Tram

    1999-01-01

    Several federated database systems have been built in the past using the relational or the object model as federating model. This paper gives an overview of the XMLMedia system, a federated database system mediator using XML as federating model, built in the Esprit Project MIRO-Web. The system is composed of four main components: a wrapper generator using rule-based scripting to produce XML data from various source formats, a mediator querying and integrating relational and XML sources, an XM...

  10. Secure Wireless Embedded Systems Via Component-based Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis S.; Torbensen, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the method secure-by-design as a way of constructing wireless embedded systems using component-based modeling frameworks. This facilitates design of secure applications through verified, reusable software. Following this method we propose a security framework with a secure c......, with full support for confidentiality, authentication, and integrity using keypairs. The approach has been demonstrated in a multi-platform home automation prototype that can remotely unlock a door using a PDA over the Internet....

  11. Secure wireless embedded systems via component-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, T.; Torbensen, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the method secure-by-design as a way of constructing wireless embedded systems using component-based modeling frameworks. This facilitates design of secure applications through verified, reusable software. Following this method we propose a security framework with a secure c......, with full support for confidentiality, authentication, and integrity using keypairs. The approach has been demonstrated in a multi-platform home automation prototype that can remotely unlock a door using a PDA over the Internet. © 2010 IEEE....

  12. Nominal and Structural Subtyping in Component-Based Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    type. We analyze structural and different flavors of nominal subtyping from the perspective of component-based programming, where issues such as blame assignment and modular extensibility are important. Our analysis puts various existing subtyping mechanisms into a common frame of reference...... and delineates the frontiers of the subtyping design space. In addition, we propose a new subtyping definition in one particularly interesting corner of the design space which combines the safety of nominal subtyping with the flexibility of structural subtyping....

  13. A Component-based Software Infrastructure for Contextual Transportation Applications

    OpenAIRE

    FLISSI,A; GRANSART,C; Merle, P

    2005-01-01

    In the transportation domain, software applications running on mobile devices are more and more needed. These applications have strong requirements to address: heterogeneity and limited ressources of wireless networks and mobile devices, networked communications, security, discovery of services, deployment on mobile devices, etc. These requirements are similar to those of any ubiquitous computing application. In this paper, we present a component-based software infrastructure to design, disco...

  14. An Ultrasound Image Despeckling Approach Based on Principle Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jawad F. Al-Asad; Ali M. Reza; Udomchai Techavipoo

    2014-01-01

    An approach based on principle component analysis (PCA) to filter out multiplicative noise from ultrasound images is presented in this paper. An image with speckle noise is segmented into small dyadic lengths, depending on the original size of the image, and the global covariance matrix is found. A projection matrix is then formed by selecting the maximum eigenvectors of the global covariance matrix. This projection matrix is used to filter speckle noise by projecting each segment into the si...

  15. Simultaneous determination of seven bioactive components in Oolong tea Camellia sinensis: quality control by chemical composition and HPLC fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixiang; Li, Qing; Wang, Qian; Li, Yujiao; Ling, Junhong; Liu, Lili; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2012-01-11

    A simple and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the quality control of oolong tea (the dry leaves of Camellia sinensis ): the quality control included the HPLC fingerprint and the quantitative determination of seven bioactive compounds chemicals, namely, (-)-gallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, caffeine, (-)-epicatechin, gallocatechin gallate, and (-)-epicatechin gallate. The developed analyses of the chemicals excelled in quantifying the chemicals in oolong tea. The chemical fingerprint of oolong tea was established using the raw materials of three main production sites in China, that is, Fujian (southern and northern parts), Taiwan, and Guangdong. The fingerprints from different cultivated sources were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis, similarity analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), analysis of variance (ANOVA), and discriminant analysis. The results indicated that the combination of chromatographic fingerprint and quantification analysEs could be used for the quality assessment of oolong tea and its derived products. PMID:22098505

  16. A generalized GPU-based connected component labeling algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Komura, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    We propose a generalized GPU-based connected component labeling (CCL) algorithm that can be applied to both various lattices and to non-lattice environments in a uniform fashion. We extend our recent GPU-based CCL algorithm without the use of conventional iteration to the generalized method. As an application of this algorithm, we deal with the bond percolation problem. We investigate bond percolation on the honeycomb and triangle lattices to confirm the correctness of this algorithm. Moreover, we deal with bond percolation on the Bethe lattice as a substitute for a network structure, and demonstrate the performance of this algorithm on those lattices.

  17. A Component Based Approach to Scientific Workflow Management

    CERN Document Server

    Le Goff, Jean-Marie; Baker, Nigel; Brooks, Peter; McClatchey, Richard

    2001-01-01

    CRISTAL is a distributed scientific workflow system used in the manufacturing and production phases of HEP experiment construction at CERN. The CRISTAL project has studied the use of a description driven approach, using meta- modelling techniques, to manage the evolving needs of a large physics community. Interest from such diverse communities as bio-informatics and manufacturing has motivated the CRISTAL team to re-engineer the system to customize functionality according to end user requirements but maximize software reuse in the process. The next generation CRISTAL vision is to build a generic component architecture from which a complete software product line can be generated according to the particular needs of the target enterprise. This paper discusses the issues of adopting a component product line based approach and our experiences of software reuse.

  18. A Robust Approach for a Filter-Based Monocular Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) System

    OpenAIRE

    Antoni Grau; Rodrigo Munguía; Bernardino Castillo-Toledo

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is an important problem to solve in robotics theory in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. This work presents a novel method for implementing a SLAM system based on a single camera sensor. The SLAM with a single camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants. In this case, a single camera, which is freely moving through its environment, represents the sole sensor input to the system. The sensors have a large...

  19. Visual planes-based simultaneous localization and model refinement for augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    Servant, F.; Marchand, E; Houlier, P.; Marchal, I.

    2008-01-01

    International audience This paper presents a method for camera pose tracking that uses a partial knowledge about the scene. The method is based on monocular vision Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM). With respect to classical SLAM implementations, this approach uses previously known information about the environment (rough map of the walls) and profits from the various available databases and blueprints to constraint the problem. This method considers that the tracked image patch...

  20. An Improved Otsu Threshold Segmentation Method for Underwater Simultaneous Localization and Mapping-Based Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Yuan; José-Fernán Martínez; Martina Eckert; Lourdes López-Santidrián

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is on extracting features with SOund Navigation And Ranging (SONAR) sensing for further underwater landmark-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). According to the characteristics of sonar images, in this paper, an improved Otsu threshold segmentation method (TSM) has been developed for feature detection. In combination with a contour detection algorithm, the foreground objects, although presenting different feature shapes, are separated much faster a...

  1. A simultaneous strain and temperature sensing module based on FBG-in-SMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a compact multi-parameter fibre sensing module based on a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) in single–multi–single mode fibre structure (FBG-in-SMS). We experimentally demonstrated that the FBG-in-SMS can measure temperature and strain simultaneously. In addition, we found that the process of writing FBG in SMS could be an effective technique for tuning and optimizing SMS spectrum for sensing. (paper)

  2. A simultaneous strain and temperature sensing module based on FBG-in-SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dawei; Chai, Quan; Liu, Yanlei; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Jiangzhong; Sun, Weimin; Yuan, Libo; Canning, John; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2014-05-01

    We propose a compact multi-parameter fibre sensing module based on a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) in single-multi-single mode fibre structure (FBG-in-SMS). We experimentally demonstrated that the FBG-in-SMS can measure temperature and strain simultaneously. In addition, we found that the process of writing FBG in SMS could be an effective technique for tuning and optimizing SMS spectrum for sensing.

  3. Molecular-Based Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Four Plasmodium spp. and Wuchereria bancrofti Infections

    OpenAIRE

    MEHLOTRA, RAJEEV K.; Gray, Laurie R; Blood-Zikursh, Melinda J.; Kloos, Zachary; Henry-Halldin, Cara N.; Tisch, Daniel J.; Thomsen, Edward; Reimer, Lisa; Kastens, Will; Baea, Manasseh; Baea, Kaye; Baisor, Moses; Tarongka, Nandao; Kazura, James W; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Four major malaria-causing Plasmodium spp. and lymphatic filariasis-causing Wuchereria bancrofti are co-endemic in many tropical and sub-tropical regions. Among molecular diagnostic assays, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–based assays for the simultaneous detection of DNAs from these parasite species are currently available only for P. falciparum and W. bancrofti or P. vivax and W. bancrofti. Using a post-PCR oligonucleotide ligation detection reaction–fluorescent microsphere assay ...

  4. Estimating Latent Attentional States Based on Simultaneous Binary and Continuous Behavioral Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Chen

    2015-01-01

    Cognition is a complex and dynamic process. It is an essential goal to estimate latent attentional states based on behavioral measures in many sequences of behavioral tasks. Here, we propose a probabilistic modeling and inference framework for estimating the attentional state using simultaneous binary and continuous behavioral measures. The proposed model extends the standard hidden Markov model (HMM) by explicitly modeling the state duration distribution, which yields a special example of th...

  5. Simultaneous observer based sensor diagnosis and speed estimation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaralahy, Hugues; Richard, Edouard; Boutayeb, Mohamed; Zasadzinski, Michel

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this contribution we investigate the problem of simultaneous observer based sensor diagnosis and speed estimation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The main features lie in the use of a useful bank of reduced order observers to detect and isolate faulty sensors and in the same time to provide unbiased speed estimation of UAV from accelerometers. From a structural analysis, we provide all trajectories for which faults would be detected and estimated. The theoretical ...

  6. Simultaneous and integrated neutron-based techniques for material analysis of a metallic ancient flute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, G.; Pietropaolo, A.; Grazzi, F.; Sutton, L. F.; Scherillo, A.; Bognetti, L.; Bini, A.; Barzagli, E.; Schooneveld, E.; Andreani, C.

    2013-09-01

    A metallic 19th century flute was studied by means of integrated and simultaneous neutron-based techniques: neutron diffraction, neutron radiative capture analysis and neutron radiography. This experiment follows benchmark measurements devoted to assessing the effectiveness of a multitask beamline concept for neutron-based investigation on materials. The aim of this study is to show the potential application of the approach using multiple and integrated neutron-based techniques for musical instruments. Such samples, in the broad scenario of cultural heritage, represent an exciting research field. They may represent an interesting link between different disciplines such as nuclear physics, metallurgy and acoustics.

  7. Integration of Simulink Models with Component-based Software Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Nicolae

    2008-01-01

    Model based development aims to facilitate the development of embedded control systems by emphasizing the separation of the design level from the implementation level. Model based design involves the use of multiple models that represent different views of a system, having different semantics...... of abstract system descriptions. Usually, in mechatronics systems, design proceeds by iterating model construction, model analysis, and model transformation. Constructing a MATLAB/Simulink model, a plant and controller behavior is simulated using graphical blocks to represent mathematical and logical...... constructs and process flow, then software code is generated. A Simulink model is a representation of the design or implementation of a physical system that satisfies a set of requirements. A software component-based system aims to organize system architecture and behaviour as a means of computation...

  8. Influencing factors of microscanning performance based on fiat optical component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiubao Sui; Lianfa Bai; Qian Chen; Guohua Gu

    2011-01-01

    To decrease the performance difference between the actual microscanning thermal imager and the theoretical value, a germanium lens (placed at a certain angle between the infrared focal plane array and infrared lens) dip angle model of flat optical component microscanning is introduced in this letter.The model is the basis for choosing the dip angle of the germanium lens, which is used in the microscanning thermal imager.In addition, the actual dip angle of the germanium lens is chosen according to the model, the infrared lens parameters of the thermal imager, and the germanium lens parameters of manufacture and installation.Only in this manner can the optimal performance of the microscanning thermal imager based on the flat optical component be obtained.Results of the experiments confirm the accuracy of the conclusions above.%@@ To decrease the performance difference between the actual microscanning thermal imager and the theoretical value, a germanium lens (placed at a certain angle between the infrared focal plane array and infrared lens) dip angle model of flat optical component microscanning is introduced in this letter.The model is the basis for choosing the dip angle of the germanium lens, which is used in the microscanning thermal imager.

  9. Multiplex component-based allergen microarray in recent clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patelis, A; Borres, M P; Kober, A; Berthold, M

    2016-08-01

    During the last decades component-resolved diagnostics either as singleplex or multiplex measurements has been introduced into the field of clinical allergology, providing important information that cannot be obtained from extract-based tests. Here we review recent studies that demonstrate clinical applications of the multiplex microarray technique in the diagnosis and risk assessment of allergic patients, and its usefulness in studies of allergic diseases. The usefulness of ImmunoCAP ISAC has been validated in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases like asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, eosinophilic esophagitis, food allergy and anaphylaxis. ISAC provides a broad picture of a patient's sensitization profile from a single test, and provides information on specific and cross-reactive sensitizations that facilitate diagnosis, risk assessment, and disease management. Furthermore, it can reveal unexpected sensitizations which may explain anaphylaxis previously categorized as idiopathic and also display for the moment clinically non-relevant sensitizations. ISAC can facilitate a better selection of relevant allergens for immunotherapy compared with extract testing. Microarray technique can visualize the allergic march and molecular spreading in the preclinical stages of allergic diseases, and may indicate that the likelihood of developing symptomatic allergy is associated with specific profiles of sensitization to allergen components. ISAC is shown to be a useful tool in routine allergy diagnostics due to its ability to improve risk assessment, to better select relevant allergens for immunotherapy as well as detecting unknown sensitization. Multiplex component testing is especially suitable for patients with complex symptomatology. PMID:27196983

  10. Rural Power System Load Forecast Based on Principal Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jun-long; Xing Yu; Fu Yu; Xu Yang; Liu Guo-liang

    2015-01-01

    Power load forecasting accuracy related to the development of the power system. There were so many factors influencing the power load, but their effects were not the same and what factors played a leading role could not be determined empirically. Based on the analysis of the principal component, the paper forecasted the demands of power load with the method of the multivariate linear regression model prediction. Took the rural power grid load for example, the paper analyzed the impacts of different factors on power load, selected the forecast methods which were appropriate for using in this area, forecasted its 2014-2018 electricity load, and provided a reliable basis for grid planning.

  11. A value-based preventive maintenance policy for multi-component system with continuously degrading components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dynamic preventive maintenance policy for system with continuously degrading components is investigated in this paper. Different from traditional cost-centric preventive maintenance policy, our maintenance strategy is formulated from the value perspective. Component value is modelled as a function of component reliability distribution. Maintenance action is triggered whenever the system reliability drops below a certain threshold. Our policy mainly consists of two steps: (i) determine which component to maintain; (ii) determine to what degree the component should be maintained. In Step 1, we introduce the yield-cost importance to select the most important component. In Step 2, the optimal maintenance level is obtained by maximizing the net value of the maintenance action. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed policy

  12. Simultaneous MMW generation and up-conversion for WDM-ROF systems based on FP laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chan; Ning, TiGang; Li, Jing; Li, Chao; He, Xueqing; Pei, Li

    2016-10-01

    A new wavelength division multiplexing radio-over-fiber (WDM-ROF) scheme based on Fabry-Perot (FP) laser is proposed and demonstrated for simultaneous millimeter-wave (MMW) generation and up-conversion. The tunable optical comb generated by FP laser is served as a cost-effective WDM optical source in central station (CS) and it makes all-optical up-conversion process for all channels simple compared with using a DFB array. All modes from the FP laser are modulated simultaneously by a LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator (LN-MZM) then. We have systematically compared the performances of MMW generation and up-conversion using LN-MZM based on different modulation schemes. A reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOA) is used both for the downstream modulation of each channel and for the reduction of mode partition noise (MPN) induced from FP laser. In the scheme, the multiple optical carrier suppression (OCS) modulation shows the highest receiver sensitivity and smallest power penalty over long-distance delivery. In the numerical simulation, 7 WDM channels each carrying 2.5 Gb/s baseband signal have been up-converted to 60 GHz simultaneously with good performance over 25 km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission.

  13. Multianalyte Biosensor for Simultaneous Determination of Glucose and Galactose Based on Micromachined Chamber-type Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JlA Neng-Qin贾能勤; ZHANG Zong-Rang章宗穰; ZHU Jiang-Zhong朱建中; ZHANG Guo-Xiong张国雄

    2004-01-01

    An amperometric multianalyte biosensor for the simultaneous determination of glucose and galactose was developed based on chamber-type electrodes, which were fabricated by micromachining technology. The dual chamber-type enzyme electrode with glucose and galactose sensor elements was integrated onto one microchip. The experimental parameters of this biosensor were optimized. The biosensor exhibited a linearity of up to 4.0 mol/L for glucose and 4.5 mol/L for galactose, and the response time was about 30 s for glucose and 40 s for galactose. No cross-talking behavior was investigated in the course of simultaneous measurement of the two analytes. Interference from electroactive species, such as ascorbic acid and uric acid, was minimized due to the permselectivity of Nation film. In addition, the biosensor displayed a storage stability of longer than one month.

  14. Cross-interference correction and simultaneous multi-gas analysis based on infrared absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun You-Wen; Zeng Yi; Liu Wen-Qing; Xie Pin-Hua; Chan Ka-Lok; Li Xian-Xin; Wang Shi-Mei; Huang Shu-Hua

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we present simultaneous multiple pollutant gases (CO2,CO,and NO) measurements by using the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) technique.A cross-correlation correction method is proposed and used to correct the cross-interferences among the target gases.The calculation of calibration curves is based on least-square fittings with third-order polynomials,and the interference functions are approximated by linear curves.The pure absorbance of each gas is obtained by solving three simultaneous equations using the fitted interference functions.Through the interference correction,the signal created at each filter channel only depends on the absorption of the intended gas.Gas mixture samples with different concentrations of CO2,CO,and NO are pumped into the sample cell for analysis.The results show that the measurement error of each gas is less than 4.5%.

  15. Up-taper-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer for temperature and strain simultaneous measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zexin; Wen, Xiaodong; Li, Chao; Sun, Jiang; Wang, Jing; Jian, Shuisheng

    2014-04-20

    A novel all-fiber sensing configuration for simultaneous measurements of temperature and strain based on the up-taper Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with an in-line embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. This configuration consists of two up-tapers fabricated by an excessive fusion splicing method and a short segment of inscribed FBG. Due to the different responses of the up-taper MZI and the FBG to the uniform variation of temperature and strain, the simultaneous measurement for these two variables could be achieved by real-time monitoring the transmission spectrum. For 0.01 nm wavelength resolution, a resolution of 0.311°C in temperature can be achieved, and the average strain resolution is 10.07 με. PMID:24787597

  16. Cross-interference correction and simultaneous multi-gas analysis based on infrared absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present simultaneous multiple pollutant gases (CO2, CO, and NO) measurements by using the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) technique. A cross-correlation correction method is proposed and used to correct the cross-interferences among the target gases. The calculation of calibration curves is based on least-square fittings with third-order polynomials, and the interference functions are approximated by linear curves. The pure absorbance of each gas is obtained by solving three simultaneous equations using the fitted interference functions. Through the interference correction, the signal created at each filter channel only depends on the absorption of the intended gas. Gas mixture samples with different concentrations of CO2, CO, and NO are pumped into the sample cell for analysis. The results show that the measurement error of each gas is less than 4.5%

  17. Simultaneous determination of domperidone and cinnarizine in a binary mixture using derivative spectrophotometry, partial least squares and principle component regression calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Maissa Y; El-Zanfaly, Eman S; El-Tarras, Mohamed F; El-Bardicy, Mohamed G

    2003-01-01

    This work is concerned with the simultaneous determination of domperidone maleate (DOM) and cinnarizine (CINN) in a binary mixture form, without previous separation, by two different techniques. The first method is the application of derivative spectrophotometry where the linearity range and percentage recoveries for DOM and CINN were 2.5-30 micro g mL(-1), 5-25 micro g mL(-1) and 100.06+/-1.157, 99.93+/-1.377, respectively. The second method depends on the application of partial least squares (PLS) and principle component regression (PCR) models. A training set consisting of 10 mixtures containing 5-20 micro g mL(-1) for each component was used for the construction of the PCR and PLS models. These models were used after their validation for the prediction of the concentration of DOM and CINN in their mixtures. The proposed procedures were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of both drugs in laboratory prepared mixtures and in commercial tablet preparations. The validity of the proposed methods was assessed by applying the standard addition technique where the percentage recovery of the added standard was found to be 99.98+/-0.297 and 99.84+/-0.700 for DOM and CINN, respectively, using the derivative spectrophotometric method and 100.29+/-0.398 and 100.11+/-0.363 for DOM and CINN, respectively, using the PLS and PCR methods. The proposed procedures are rapid, simple, require no preliminary separation steps and can be used for routine analysis of both drugs in quality control laboratories. PMID:12560964

  18. Underwater simultaneous localization and mapping based on forward-looking sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiedong; Zeng, Wenjing; Wan, Lei

    2011-09-01

    A method of underwater simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) based on forward-looking sonar was proposed in this paper. Positions of objects were obtained by the forward-looking sonar, and an improved association method based on an ant colony algorithm was introduced to estimate the positions. In order to improve the precision of the positions, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) was adopted. The presented algorithm was tested in a tank, and the maximum estimation error of SLAM gained was 0.25 m. The tests verify that this method can maintain better association efficiency and reduce navigation error.

  19. Study of few-mode fiber based SMS sensor for simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kazuhide; Sakamoto, Taiji; Goto, Yukihiro; Fukai, Chisato; Matsui, Takashi; Yamamoto, Fumihiko; Kurashima, Toshio

    2015-09-01

    The applicability of few-mode fiber (FMF) as a single-multi-single (SMS) sensor is investigated. We examine experimentally the wavelength shift and/or visibility characteristics in an FMF based SMS sensor by changing the external temperature and longitudinal strain individually. We investigate numerically the temperature sensitivity of the fabricated sensor by considering the temperature dependence of the effective refractive index difference. Our results show that an FMF based SMS sensor can be used to measure the relative variation in temperature and strain simultaneously, and whose sensitivity can be tailored easily by designing two LP modes in an FMF.

  20. Improved simultaneous estimation of tracer kinetic models with artificial immune network based optimization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Ding, H; Huang, H B

    2016-01-01

    Tracer kinetic modeling (TKM) is a promising quantitative method for physiological and biochemical processes in vivo. In this paper, we investigated the applications of an immune-inspired method to better address the issues of Simultaneous Estimation (SIME) of TKM with multimodal optimization. Experiments of dynamic FDG PET imaging experiments and simulation studies were carried out. The proposed artificial immune network (TKM_AIN) shows more scalable and effective when compared with the gradient-based Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm and the scholastic-based simulated annealing method. PMID:26433131

  1. Cryptoschemes Based on Difficulty of Simultaneous Solving Two Different Difficult Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Berezin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a general method for construction cryptoschemes based on difficulty of simultaneous solving factoring (FP and discrete logarithm modulo prime problem (DLpP. The proposed approach is applicable for construction digital signatures (usual, blind, collective, public key encryption algorithms, public key distribution protocols, and cryptoschemes of other types. Moreover, the proposed approach provides reducing the signature size and increasing the rate of the cryptoschemes, while comparing with the known designs of the digital signature protocols based on the FP and DLpP.

  2. Underwater Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Based on Forward-looking Sonar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiedong Zhang; Wenjing Zeng; Lei Wan

    2011-01-01

    A method of underwater simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) based on forward-looking sonar was proposed in this paper.Positions of objects were obtained by the forward-looking sonar,and an improved association method based on an ant colony algorithm was introduced to estimate the positions.In order to improve the precision of the positions,the extended Kalman filter (EKF) was adopted.The presented algorithm was tested in a tank,and the maximum estimation error of SLAM gained was 0.25 m.The tests verify that this method can maintain better association efficiency and reduce navigation error.

  3. Support vector classifier based on principal component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Support vector classifier (SVC) has the superior advantages for small sample learning problems with high dimensions,with especially better generalization ability.However there is some redundancy among the high dimensions of the original samples and the main features of the samples may be picked up first to improve the performance of SVC.A principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to reduce the feature dimensions of the original samples and the pre-selected main features efficiently,and an SVC is constructed in the selected feature space to improve the learning speed and identification rate of SVC.Furthermore,a heuristic genetic algorithm-based automatic model selection is proposed to determine the hyperparameters of SVC to evaluate the performance of the learning machines.Experiments performed on the Heart and Adult benchmark data sets demonstrate that the proposed PCA-based SVC not only reduces the test time drastically,but also improves the identify rates effectively.

  4. NONLINEAR DATA RECONCILIATION METHOD BASED ON KERNEL PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In the industrial process situation, principal component analysis (PCA) is a general method in data reconciliation.However, PCA sometime is unfeasible to nonlinear feature analysis and limited in application to nonlinear industrial process.Kernel PCA (KPCA) is extension of PCA and can be used for nonlinear feature analysis.A nonlinear data reconciliation method based on KPCA is proposed.The basic idea of this method is that firstly original data are mapped to high dimensional feature space by nonlinear function, and PCA is implemented in the feature space.Then nonlinear feature analysis is implemented and data are reconstructed by using the kernel.The data reconciliation method based on KPCA is applied to ternary distillation column.Simulation results show that this method can filter the noise in measurements of nonlinear process and reconciliated data can represent the true information of nonlinear process.

  5. Blind spectral unmixing based on sparse component analysis for hyperspectral remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yanfei; Wang, Xinyu; Zhao, Lin; Feng, Ruyi; Zhang, Liangpei; Xu, Yanyan

    2016-09-01

    Recently, many blind source separation (BSS)-based techniques have been applied to hyperspectral unmixing. In this paper, a new blind spectral unmixing method based on sparse component analysis (BSUSCA) is proposed to solve the problem of highly mixed data. The BSUSCA algorithm consists of an alternative scheme based on two-block alternating optimization, by which we can simultaneously obtain the endmember signatures and their corresponding fractional abundances. According to the spatial distribution of the endmembers, the sparse properties of the fractional abundances are considered in the proposed algorithm. A sparse component analysis (SCA)-based mixing matrix estimation method is applied to update the endmember signatures, and the abundance estimation problem is solved by the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). SCA is utilized for the unmixing due to its various advantages, including the unique solution and robust modeling assumption. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is verified through simulated experimental study. The experimental results using both simulated data and real hyperspectral remote sensing images confirm the high efficiency and precision of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of simultaneous reconstruction with model-based crosstalk compensation for 99mTc/123I dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition brain SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C

    2009-06-01

    A model-based method has been previously developed to estimate and compensate for the crosstalk and downscatter contamination in simultaneous 123I/99mTc dual-isotope SPECT imaging. In this method, photon scatter in the object is modeled using the effective source scatter estimate technique. Photon interactions with the collimator-detector are estimated using precalculated Monte Carlo simulated point response functions. Two different approaches, simultaneous and alternating model-based compensations, have been proposed for iterative reconstruction-based crosstalk and downscatter contamination compensation. In this work, both model-based approaches were evaluated in the context of quantitative accuracy when imaging the dopaminergic system using both Monte Carlo simulated and experimentally acquired data. Results indicate that mddel-based estimates of the crosstalk and downscatter contamination in both energy windows were in good agreement with the truth for the simulated data. The effects of the contamination reduced image contrast and overestimated absolute activity in all structures by up to 66%. Compensation using both model-based approaches improved image contrast. Errors in absolute activity quantitation were also reduced to less than +/-5% for most brain structures. The accuracy of striatal specific binding potentials, calculated as the ratio of activity in various striatal structures to the background, was also greatly improved after model-based compensation. In conclusion, model-based compensation of simultaneously acquired images of 99mTc and 123I labeled brain imaging agents provided image quality and quantitative accuracy that were comparable to the image without crosstalk. Both proposed compensation approaches can potentially be applied clinically, but when reconstruction time is a limiting factor, the alternating model-based compensation may be preferable. PMID:19610291

  7. Modelling raster-based monthly water balance components for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmen, C.

    2000-11-01

    The terrestrial runoff component is a comparatively small but sensitive and thus significant quantity in the global energy and water cycle at the interface between landmass and atmosphere. As opposed to soil moisture and evapotranspiration which critically determine water vapour fluxes and thus water and energy transport, it can be measured as an integrated quantity over a large area, i.e. the river basin. This peculiarity makes terrestrial runoff ideally suited for the calibration, verification and validation of general circulation models (GCMs). Gauging stations are not homogeneously distributed in space. Moreover, time series are not necessarily continuously measured nor do they in general have overlapping time periods. To overcome this problems with regard to regular grid spacing used in GCMs, different methods can be applied to transform irregular data to regular so called gridded runoff fields. The present work aims to directly compute the gridded components of the monthly water balance (including gridded runoff fields) for Europe by application of the well-established raster-based macro-scale water balance model WABIMON used at the Federal Institute of Hydrology, Germany. Model calibration and validation is performed by separated examination of 29 representative European catchments. Results indicate a general applicability of the model delivering reliable overall patterns and integrated quantities on a monthly basis. For time steps less then too weeks further research and structural improvements of the model are suggested. (orig.)

  8. Simultaneous detection of vertical and horizontal text lines based on perceptual organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Claudie; Vincent, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    A page of a document is a set of small components which are grouped by a human reader into higher level components, such as lines and text blocs. Document image analysis is aimed at detecting these components in document images. We propose the encoding of local information by considering the properties that determine perceptual grouping. Each connected component is labelled according to the location of its nearest neighbour connected component. These labelled components constitute the input of a rule-based incremental process. Vertical and horizontal text lines are detected without prior assumption on their direction. Touching characters belonging to different lines are detected early and discarded from the grouping process to avoid line merging. The tolerance for grouping components increases in the course of the process until the final decision. After each step of the grouping process, conflict resolution rules are activated. This work was motivated by the automatic detection of Figure&Caption pairs in the documents of the historical collection of the BIUM digital library (Bibliotheque InterUniversitaire Medicale). The images that were used in this study belong to this collection.

  9. Simultaneous quantification and splenocyte-proliferating activities of nucleosides and bases in Cervi cornu Pantotrichum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum has been a well known traditional Chinese medicine, which is young horn of Cervus Nippon Temminck (Hualurong: HLR. At present, the methods used for the quality control of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum show low specificity. Objective: To describe a holistic method based on chemical characteristics and splenocyte-proliferating activities to evaluate the quality of HLR. Materials and Methods: The nucleosides and bases from HLR were identified by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS, and six of them were chosen to be used for simultaneous HPLC quantification according to the results of proliferation of mouse splenocytes in vitro. Results: In this study, eight nucleosides and bases have been identified. In addition, uracil, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, guanosine, and adenosine were chosen to be used for simultaneous HPLC quantification. Simultaneous quantification of these six substances was performed on ten groups of HLR under the condition of a TIANHE Kromasil C 18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 250 mm i.d. and a gradient elution of water and acetonitrile. Of the ten groups, HLR displayed the highest total nucleoside contents (TNC, sum of adenosine and uracil, 0.412 mg/g with the strongest splenocyte-proliferating activities. Conclusion: These results suggest that TNC (such as particularly highly contained adenosine and uracil in HLR has a certain correlation with the activity of splenocyte-proliferating, and it may be used as a quality control for HLR. This comprehensive method could be applied to other traditional Chinese medicines to ameliorate their quality control.

  10. Simultaneous quantification and splenocyte-proliferating activities of nucleosides and bases in Cervi cornu Pantotrichum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Ying; Wang, Yu; Li, Hang; Li, Na; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Jiaming; Niu, Xiaohui; Gao, Xiaochen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum has been a well known traditional Chinese medicine, which is young horn of Cervus Nippon Temminck (Hualurong: HLR). At present, the methods used for the quality control of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum show low specificity. Objective: To describe a holistic method based on chemical characteristics and splenocyte-proliferating activities to evaluate the quality of HLR. Materials and Methods: The nucleosides and bases from HLR were identified by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS), and six of them were chosen to be used for simultaneous HPLC quantification according to the results of proliferation of mouse splenocytes in vitro. Results: In this study, eight nucleosides and bases have been identified. In addition, uracil, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, guanosine, and adenosine were chosen to be used for simultaneous HPLC quantification. Simultaneous quantification of these six substances was performed on ten groups of HLR under the condition of a TIANHE Kromasil C18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 250 mm i.d.) and a gradient elution of water and acetonitrile. Of the ten groups, HLR displayed the highest total nucleoside contents (TNC, sum of adenosine and uracil, 0.412 mg/g) with the strongest splenocyte-proliferating activities. Conclusion: These results suggest that TNC (such as particularly highly contained adenosine and uracil) in HLR has a certain correlation with the activity of splenocyte-proliferating, and it may be used as a quality control for HLR. This comprehensive method could be applied to other traditional Chinese medicines to ameliorate their quality control. PMID:25422536

  11. Nonlinear fault diagnosis method based on kernel principal component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Weiwu; Zhang Chunkai; Shao Huihe

    2005-01-01

    To ensure the system run under working order, detection and diagnosis of faults play an important role in industrial process. This paper proposed a nonlinear fault diagnosis method based on kernel principal component analysis (KPCA). In proposed method, using essential information of nonlinear system extracted by KPCA, we constructed KPCA model of nonlinear system under normal working condition. Then new data were projected onto the KPCA model. When new data are incompatible with the KPCA model, it can be concluded that the nonlinear system isout of normal working condition. Proposed method was applied to fault diagnosison rolling bearings. Simulation results show proposed method provides an effective method for fault detection and diagnosis of nonlinear system.

  12. High Q, Miniaturized LCP-Based Passive Components

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2014-10-16

    Various methods and systems are provided for high Q, miniaturized LCP-based passive components. In one embodiment, among others, a spiral inductor includes a center connection and a plurality of inductors formed on a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) layer, the plurality of inductors concentrically spiraling out from the center connection. In another embodiment, a vertically intertwined inductor includes first and second inductors including a first section disposed on a side of the LCP layer forming a fraction of a turn and a second section disposed on another side of the LCP layer. At least a portion of the first section of the first inductor is substantially aligned with at least a portion of the second section of the second inductor and at least a portion of the first section of the second inductor is substantially aligned with at least a portion of the second section of the first inductor.

  13. Iris recognition based on robust principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Pradeep; He, Xiao Hai; Yang, Shuai; Wu, Xiao Hong

    2014-11-01

    Iris images acquired under different conditions often suffer from blur, occlusion due to eyelids and eyelashes, specular reflection, and other artifacts. Existing iris recognition systems do not perform well on these types of images. To overcome these problems, we propose an iris recognition method based on robust principal component analysis. The proposed method decomposes all training images into a low-rank matrix and a sparse error matrix, where the low-rank matrix is used for feature extraction. The sparsity concentration index approach is then applied to validate the recognition result. Experimental results using CASIA V4 and IIT Delhi V1iris image databases showed that the proposed method achieved competitive performances in both recognition accuracy and computational efficiency.

  14. A Turbidity Test Based Centrifugal Microfluidics Diagnostic System for Simultaneous Detection of HBV, HCV, and CMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a LAMP- (loop-mediated isothermal amplification- based lab-on-disk optical system that allows the simultaneous detection of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and cytomegalovirus. The various flow stages are controlled in the proposed system using different balance among centrifugal pumping, Coriolis pumping, and the capillary force. We have implemented a servo system for positioning and speed control for the heating and centrifugal pumping. We have also successfully employed a polymer light-emitting diode section for turbidity detection. The easy-to-use one-click system can perform diagnostics in less than 1 hour.

  15. Approach of simultaneous localization and mapping based on local maps for robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bai-fan; CAI Zi-xing; HU De-wen

    2006-01-01

    An extended Kalman filter approach of simultaneous localization and mapping(SLAM) was proposed based on local maps.A local frame of reference was established periodically at the position of the robot, and then the observations of the robot and landmarks were fused into the global frame of reference. Because of the independence of the local map, the approach does not cumulate the estimate and calculation errors which are produced by SLAM using Kalman filter directly. At the same time, it reduces the computational complexity. This method is proven correct and feasible in simulation experiments.

  16. Matlab-based interface for the simultaneous acquisition of force measures and Doppler ultrasound muscular images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Buedo, José; Martínez-Sober, Marcelino; Alakhdar-Mohmara, Yasser; Soria-Olivas, Emilio; Benítez-Martínez, Josep C; Martínez-Martínez, José M

    2013-04-01

    This paper tackles the design of a graphical user interface (GUI) based on Matlab (MathWorks Inc., MA), a worldwide standard in the processing of biosignals, which allows the acquisition of muscular force signals and images from a ultrasound scanner simultaneously. Thus, it is possible to unify two key magnitudes for analyzing the evolution of muscular injuries: the force exerted by the muscle and section/length of the muscle when such force is exerted. This paper describes the modules developed to finally show its applicability with a case study to analyze the functioning capacity of the shoulder rotator cuff. PMID:23176896

  17. Simultaneous State and Parameter Estimation Based Actuator Fault Detection and Diagnosis for an Unmanned Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous state and parameter estimation based actuator fault detection and diagnosis (FDD for single-rotor unmanned helicopters (UHs is investigated in this paper. A literature review of actuator FDD for UHs is given firstly. Based on actuator healthy coefficients (AHCs, which are introduced to represent actuator faults, a combined dynamic model is established with the augmented state containing both the flight state and AHCs. Then the actuator fault detection and diagnosis problem is transformed into a general nonlinear estimation one: given control inputs and the measured flight state contaminated by measurement noises, estimate both the flight state and AHCs recursively in each time-step, which is also known as the simultaneous state and parameter estimation problem. The estimated AHCs can further be used for fault tolerant control (FTC. Based on the existing widely used nonlinear estimation methods such as the unscented Kalman filter (UKF and the extended set-membership filter (ESMF, three kinds of adaptive schemes (KF-UKF, MIT-UKF and MIT-ESMF are proposed by our team to improve the actuator FDD performance. A comprehensive comparative study on these different estimation methods is given in detail to illustrate their advantages and disadvantages when applied to unmanned helicopter actuator FDD.

  18. Performance of nickel base superalloy components in gas turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the microstructural behaviour of hot section components in the industrial gas turbine......The topic of this thesis is the microstructural behaviour of hot section components in the industrial gas turbine...

  19. Mobile Robot Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Based on a Monocular Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songmin Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel monocular vision-based SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping algorithm for mobile robot. In this proposed method, the tracking and mapping procedures are split into two separate tasks and performed in parallel threads. In the tracking thread, a ground feature-based pose estimation method is employed to initialize the algorithm for the constraint moving of the mobile robot. And an initial map is built by triangulating the matched features for further tracking procedure. In the mapping thread, an epipolar searching procedure is utilized for finding the matching features. A homography-based outlier rejection method is adopted for rejecting the mismatched features. The indoor experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a great performance on map building and verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of satellite based water cycle components

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez, Oliver

    2016-06-15

    Advances in multi-satellite based observations of the earth system have provided the capacity to retrieve information across a wide-range of land surface hydrological components and provided an opportunity to characterize terrestrial processes from a completely new perspective. Given the spatial advantage that space-based observations offer, several regional-to-global scale products have been developed, offering insights into the multi-scale behaviour and variability of hydrological states and fluxes. However, one of the key challenges in the use of satellite-based products is characterizing the degree to which they provide realistic and representative estimates of the underlying retrieval: that is, how accurate are the hydrological components derived from satellite observations? The challenge is intrinsically linked to issues of scale, since the availability of high-quality in-situ data is limited, and even where it does exist, is generally not commensurate to the resolution of the satellite observation. Basin-scale studies have shown considerable variability in achieving water budget closure with any degree of accuracy using satellite estimates of the water cycle. In order to assess the suitability of this type of approach for evaluating hydrological observations, it makes sense to first test it over environments with restricted hydrological inputs, before applying it to more hydrological complex basins. Here we explore the concept of hydrological consistency, i.e. the physical considerations that the water budget impose on the hydrologic fluxes and states to be temporally and spatially linked, to evaluate the reproduction of a set of large-scale evaporation (E) products by using a combination of satellite rainfall (P) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations of storage change, focusing on arid and semi-arid environments, where the hydrological flows can be more realistically described. Our results indicate no persistent hydrological

  1. Bonding and Integration Technologies for Silicon Carbide Based Injector Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2008-01-01

    Advanced ceramic bonding and integration technologies play a critical role in the fabrication and application of silicon carbide based components for a number of aerospace and ground based applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. Ceramic to ceramic diffusion bonding and ceramic to metal brazing technologies are being developed for this injector application. For the diffusion bonding, titanium interlayers (PVD and foils) were used to aid in the joining of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The influence of such variables as surface finish, interlayer thickness (10, 20, and 50 microns), processing time and temperature, and cooling rates were investigated. Microprobe analysis was used to identify the phases in the bonded region. For bonds that were not fully reacted an intermediate phase, Ti5Si3Cx, formed that is thermally incompatible in its thermal expansion and caused thermal stresses and cracking during the processing cool-down. Thinner titanium interlayers and/or longer processing times resulted in stable and compatible phases that did not contribute to microcracking and resulted in an optimized microstructure. Tensile tests on the joined materials resulted in strengths of 13-28 MPa depending on the SiC substrate material. Non-destructive evaluation using ultrasonic immersion showed well formed bonds. For the joining technology of brazing Kovar fuel tubes to silicon carbide, preliminary development of the joining approach has begun. Various technical issues and requirements for the injector application are addressed.

  2. An Ultrasound Image Despeckling Approach Based on Principle Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad F. Al-Asad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An approach based on principle component analysis (PCA to filter out multiplicative noise from ultrasound images is presented in this paper. An image with speckle noise is segmented into small dyadic lengths, depending on the original size of the image, and the global covariance matrix is found. A projection matrix is then formed by selecting the maximum eigenvectors of the global covariance matrix. This projection matrix is used to filter speckle noise by projecting each segment into the signal subspace. The approach is based on the assumption that the signal and noise are independent and that the signal subspace is spanned by a subset of few principal eigenvectors. When applied on simulated and real ultrasound images, the proposed approach has outperformed some popular nonlinear denoising techniques such as 2D wavelets, 2D total variation filtering, and 2D anisotropic diffusion filtering in terms of edge preservation and maximum cleaning of speckle noise. It has also showed lower sensitivity to outliers resulting from the log transformation of the multiplicative noise.

  3. A Recurrent Probabilistic Neural Network with Dimensionality Reduction Based on Time-series Discriminant Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hideaki; Shibanoki, Taro; Shima, Keisuke; Kurita, Yuichi; Tsuji, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a probabilistic neural network (NN) developed on the basis of time-series discriminant component analysis (TSDCA) that can be used to classify high-dimensional time-series patterns. TSDCA involves the compression of high-dimensional time series into a lower dimensional space using a set of orthogonal transformations and the calculation of posterior probabilities based on a continuous-density hidden Markov model with a Gaussian mixture model expressed in the reduced-dimensional space. The analysis can be incorporated into an NN, which is named a time-series discriminant component network (TSDCN), so that parameters of dimensionality reduction and classification can be obtained simultaneously as network coefficients according to a backpropagation through time-based learning algorithm with the Lagrange multiplier method. The TSDCN is considered to enable high-accuracy classification of high-dimensional time-series patterns and to reduce the computation time taken for network training. The validity of the TSDCN is demonstrated for high-dimensional artificial data and electroencephalogram signals in the experiments conducted during the study.

  4. Simultaneous detection of lactate and glucose by integrated printed circuit board based array sensing chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► An integrated printed circuit board (PCB) based array sensing chip was developed. ► Simultaneous detection of lactate and glucose in serum has been demonstrated. ► The array electronic biochip has high signal to noise ratio and high sensitivity. ► Additional electrodes were designed on the chip to correct interferences. -- Abstract: An integrated printed circuit board (PCB) based array sensing chip was developed to simultaneously detect lactate and glucose in mouse serum. The novelty of the chip relies on a concept demonstration of inexpensive high-throughput electronic biochip, a chip design for high signal to noise ratio and high sensitivity by construction of positively charged chitosan/redox polymer Polyvinylimidazole-Os (PVI-Os)/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite sensing platform, in which the positively charged chitosan/PVI-Os is mediator and electrostatically immobilizes the negatively charged enzyme, while CNTs function as an essential cross-linker to network PVI-Os and chitosan due to its negative charged nature. Additional electrodes on the chip with the same sensing layer but without enzymes were prepared to correct the interferences for high specificity. Low detection limits of 0.6 μM and 5 μM were achieved for lactate and glucose, respectively. This work could be extended to inexpensive array sensing chips with high sensitivity, good specificity and high reproducibility for various sensor applications

  5. Simultaneous detection of lactate and glucose by integrated printed circuit board based array sensing chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuelian [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zang, Jianfeng [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Liu, Yingshuai; Lu, Zhisong [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li, Qing, E-mail: Qli@swu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li, Chang Ming, E-mail: ecmli@swu.edu.cn [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2013-04-10

    Highlights: ► An integrated printed circuit board (PCB) based array sensing chip was developed. ► Simultaneous detection of lactate and glucose in serum has been demonstrated. ► The array electronic biochip has high signal to noise ratio and high sensitivity. ► Additional electrodes were designed on the chip to correct interferences. -- Abstract: An integrated printed circuit board (PCB) based array sensing chip was developed to simultaneously detect lactate and glucose in mouse serum. The novelty of the chip relies on a concept demonstration of inexpensive high-throughput electronic biochip, a chip design for high signal to noise ratio and high sensitivity by construction of positively charged chitosan/redox polymer Polyvinylimidazole-Os (PVI-Os)/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite sensing platform, in which the positively charged chitosan/PVI-Os is mediator and electrostatically immobilizes the negatively charged enzyme, while CNTs function as an essential cross-linker to network PVI-Os and chitosan due to its negative charged nature. Additional electrodes on the chip with the same sensing layer but without enzymes were prepared to correct the interferences for high specificity. Low detection limits of 0.6 μM and 5 μM were achieved for lactate and glucose, respectively. This work could be extended to inexpensive array sensing chips with high sensitivity, good specificity and high reproducibility for various sensor applications.

  6. Application of fuzzy-MOORA method: Ranking of components for reliability estimation of component-based software systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ali Siddiqui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Component-based software system (CBSS development technique is an emerging discipline that promises to take software development into a new era. As hardware systems are presently being constructed from kits of parts, software systems may also be assembled from components. It is more reliable to reuse software than to create. It is the glue code and individual components reliability that contribute to the reliability of the overall system. Every component contributes to overall system reliability according to the number of times it is being used, some components are of critical usage, known as usage frequency of component. The usage frequency decides the weight of each component. According to their weights, each component contributes to the overall reliability of the system. Therefore, ranking of components may be obtained by analyzing their reliability impacts on overall application. In this paper, we propose the application of fuzzy multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis, Fuzzy-MOORA. The method helps us find the best suitable alternative, software component, from a set of available feasible alternatives named software components. It is an accurate and easy to understand tool for solving multi-criteria decision making problems that have imprecise and vague evaluation data. By the use of ratio analysis, the proposed method determines the most suitable alternative among all possible alternatives, and dimensionless measurement will realize the job of ranking of components for estimating CBSS reliability in a non-subjective way. Finally, three case studies are shown to illustrate the use of the proposed technique.

  7. WEB SERVICE SELECTION ALGORITHM BASED ON PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Guosheng; Liu Jianxun; Tang Mingdong; Cao Buqing

    2013-01-01

    Existing Web service selection approaches usually assume that preferences of users have been provided in a quantitative form by users.However,due to the subjectivity and vagueness of preferences,it may be impractical for users to specify quantitative and exact preferences.Moreover,due to that Quality of Service (QoS) attributes are often interrelated,existing Web service selection approaches which employ weighted summation of QoS attribute values to compute the overall QoS of Web services may produce inaccurate results,since they do not take correlations among QoS attributes into account.To resolve these problems,a Web service selection framework considering user's preference priority is proposed,which incorporates a searching mechanism with QoS range setting to identify services satisfying the user's QoS constraints.With the identified service candidates,based on the idea of Principal Component Analysis (PCA),an algorithm of Web service selection named PCAoWSS (Web Service Selection based on PCA) is proposed,which can eliminate the correlations among QoS attributes and compute the overall QoS of Web services accurately.After computing the overall QoS for each service,the algorithm ranks the Web service candidates based on their overall QoS and recommends services with top QoS values to users.Finally,the effectiveness and feasibility of our approach are validated by experiments,i.e.the selected Web service by our approach is given high average evaluation than other ones by users and the time cost of PCA-WSS algorithm is not affected acutely by the number of service candidates.

  8. Performance of a Distributed Simultaneous Strain and Temperature Sensor Based on a Fabry-Perot Laser Diode and a Dual-Stage FBG Optical Demultiplexer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinwon Kang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A simultaneous strain and temperature measurement method using a Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD and a dual-stage fiber Bragg grating (FBG optical demultiplexer was applied to a distributed sensor system based on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR. By using a Kalman filter, we improved the performance of the FP-LD based OTDR, and decreased the noise using the dual-stage FBG optical demultiplexer. Applying the two developed components to the BOTDR system and using a temperature compensating algorithm, we successfully demonstrated the simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature distributions under various experimental conditions. The observed errors in the temperature and strain measured using the developed sensing system were 0.6 °C and 50 με, and the spatial resolution was 1 m, respectively.

  9. Development and Validation of an UHPLC-QqQ-MS Technique for Simultaneous Determination of Ten Bioactive Components in Fangji Huangqi Tang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography method coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin in Fangji Huangqi Tang (FHT. The chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-C18 column, eluted with a mixture of 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile at 0.4 mL/min. The separation of these ten compounds was achieved by linear gradient elution. The method was strictly validated with respect to specificity, precision, accuracy, and repeatability. All the compounds showed good linearities (r≥0.999. The LOQs of the ten components were 0.36, 0.18, 0.09, 0.43, 0.02, 1.89, 0.26, 0.18, 0.61, and 0.48 ng/mL for tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin, respectively. The LODs of the ten components were 0.11, 0.05, 0.03, 0.13, 0.01, 0.57, 0.08, 0.05, 0.18, and 0.14 ng/mL for tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin, respectively. The method was proven to be specific and reliable, which would provide a meaningful basis for the quality control and evaluation of FHT during its clinical application.

  10. Rapid and simultaneous determination of five vinca alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus and human serum using trilinear component modeling of liquid chromatography-diode array detection data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Wu, Hai-Long; Li, Yong; Gu, Hui-Wen; Yin, Xiao-Li; Xie, Li-Xia; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-07-15

    A novel chemometrics-assisted high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was proposed for the simultaneous determination of vincristine (VCR), vinblastine (VLB), vindoline (VDL), catharanthine (CAT) and yohimbine (YHB) in Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) and human serum samples. With the second-order advantage of the alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) method, the resolution and rapid determination of five components of interest in complex matrices were performed, even in the present of heavy overlaps and unknown interferences. Therefore, multi-step purification was omitted and five components could be fast eluted out within 7.5min under simple isocratic elution condition (acetonitrile/0.2% formic acid water, 37:63, v/v). Statistical parameters, such as the linear correlation coefficient (R(2)), root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP), limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) had been calculated to investigate the accuracy and reliability of the method. The average recoveries of five vinca alkaloids ranged from 97.1% to 101.9% and 98.8% to 103.0% in C. roseus and human serum samples, respectively. The five vinca alkaloids were adequately determined with limits of detection (LODs) of 29.5-49.3ngmL(-1) in C. roseus and 12.4-27.2ngmL(-1) in human serum samples, respectively. The obtained results demonstrated that the analytical strategy provided a feasible alternative for synchronously monitoring the quality of raw herb and the concentration of blood drugs. PMID:26321366

  11. Architectures: Design patterns for component-based systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bliudze, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Architectures depict design principles, paradigms that can be understood by all, allow thinking on a higher plane and avoiding low-level mistakes. They provide means for ensuring correctness by construction by enforcing global properties characterizing the coordination between components. An architecture can be considered as an operator A that, applied to a set of components B, builds a composite component A(B) meeting a characteristic property P. A theory of architectures must address sever...

  12. Robust fetal QRS detection from noninvasive abdominal electrocardiogram based on channel selection and simultaneous multichannel processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Ali; Mollakazemi, Mohammad Javad; Atyabi, Seyyed Abbas; Niknazar, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a new method for detecting fetal QRS complexes from non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) signal. Despite most of the current fECG processing methods which are based on separation of fECG from maternal ECG (mECG), in this study, fetal heart rate (FHR) can be extracted with high accuracy without separation of fECG from mECG. Furthermore, in this new approach thoracic channels are not necessary. These two aspects have reduced the required computational operations. Consequently, the proposed approach can be efficiently applied to different real-time healthcare and medical devices. In this work, a new method is presented for selecting the best channel which carries strongest fECG. Each channel is scored based on two criteria of noise distribution and good fetal heartbeat visibility. Another important aspect of this study is the simultaneous and combinatorial use of available fECG channels via the priority given by their scores. A combination of geometric features and wavelet-based techniques was adopted to extract FHR. Based on fetal geometric features, fECG signals were divided into three categories, and different strategies were employed to analyze each category. The method was validated using three datasets including Noninvasive fetal ECG database, DaISy and PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2013. Finally, the obtained results were compared with other studies. The adopted strategies such as multi-resolution analysis, not separating fECG and mECG, intelligent channels scoring and using them simultaneously are the factors that caused the promising performance of the method. PMID:26462679

  13. Wringing out objects for programming and modeling component-based systems

    OpenAIRE

    Spacek, Petr; Dony, Christophe; Tibermacine, Chouki; Fabresse, Luc

    2013-01-01

    International audience Languages and technologies used to implement component-based software are not component-based, i.e. while the design phase happens in the component world, the programming phase occurs in the object-oriented world. When an object-oriented language is used for the programming stage, then the original component-based design vanish, because component concepts like requirements and architectures are not treated explicitly. This makes it difficult to keep model and its imp...

  14. Laser repairing surface crack of Ni-based superalloy components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠柯; 叶和清; 许德胜; 黄索逸

    2001-01-01

    Surface crack of components of the cast nickel-base superalloy was repaired with twin laser beams under proper technological conditions. One laser beam was used to melt the substrate material of crack, and the other to fill in powder material to the crack region. The experimental results show that the surface crack with the width of 0.1~0.3mm could be repaired under the laser power of 3kW and the scanning speed of 6~8mm/s. The repaired deepness of crack region is below 6.5mm. The microstructure of repaired region is the cellular crystal, columnar crystal dendrite crystal from the transition region to the top filled layer. The phases in repaired region mainly consisted of supersaturated α-Co with plenty of Ni, some Cr and Al, Cr23C6, Co2B, Co-Ni-Mo, Ni4B3, TiSi and VSi. The hardness of filled layer in repaired region ranged from HV0.2450 to HV0.2500, and the hardness decreases gradually from the filled layer to joined zone.

  15. Service oriented architecture assessment based on software components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Amirpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise architecture, with detailed descriptions of the functions of information technology in the organization, tries to reduce the complexity of technology applications resulting in tools with greater efficiency in achieving the objectives of the organization. Enterprise architecture consists of a set of models describing this technology in different components performance as well as various aspects of the applications in any organization. Therefore, information technology development and maintenance management can perform well within organizations. This study aims to suggest a method to identify different types of services in service-oriented architecture analysis step that applies some previous approaches in an integrated form and, based on the principles of software engineering, to provide a simpler and more transparent approach through the expression of analysis details. Advantages and disadvantages of proposals should be evaluated before the implementation and costs allocation. Evaluation methods can better identify strengths and weaknesses of the current situation apart from selecting appropriate model out of several suggestions, and clarify this technology development solution for organizations in the future. We will be able to simulate data and processes flow within the organization by converting the output of the model to colored Petri nets and evaluate and test it by examining various inputs to enterprise architecture before implemented in terms of reliability and response time. A model of application has been studied for the proposed model and the results can describe and design architecture for data.

  16. Penning plasma based simultaneous light emission source of visible and VUV lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, G. L.; Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Manchanda, R.; Halder, N.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a laboratory-based penning plasma discharge source is reported which has been developed in two anode configurations and is able to produce visible and VUV lights simultaneously. The developed source has simultaneous diagnostics facility using Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The two anode configurations, namely, double ring and rectangular configurations, have been studied and compared for optimum use of the geometry for efficient light emissions and recording. The plasma is produced using helium gas and admixture of three noble gases including helium, neon, and argon. The source is capable to produce eight spectral lines for pure helium in the VUV range from 20 to 60 nm and total 24 spectral lines covering the wavelength range 20-106 nm for the admixture of gases. The large range of VUV lines is generated from gaseous admixture rather from the sputtered materials. The recorded spectrum shows that the plasma light radiations in both visible and VUV range are larger in double ring configuration than that of the rectangular configurations at the same discharge operating conditions. To clearly understand the difference, the imaging of the discharge using ICCD camera and particle-in-cell simulation using VORPAL have also been carried out. The effect of ion diffusion, metastable collision with the anode wall and the nonlinear effects are correlated to explain the results.

  17. Sensor based on macrobent fiber Bragg grating structure for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiegen; Chen, Yaofei; Han, Qun; Liu, Fangchao; Yao, Yunzhi

    2016-02-01

    A novel and compact all-fiber sensor based on a macrobent fiber Bragg grating (FBG) structure for simultaneous measurement of refractive index (RI) and temperature is proposed and experimentally investigated. The sensor can be easily fabricated by properly bending an FBG. The bending causes interference between the core mode and the whispering gallery mode, which induces another kind of dip in the transmission spectra of the sensor besides the sharp one of the FBG. Because the two kinds of dips respond differently to the surrounding RI and temperature, these two parameters can be unambiguously measured by the sensor. A sample sensor was fabricated and experimentally investigated, and RI sensitivity of 165.9276 nm/RIU in the range from 1.3330 to 1.3785 and temperature sensitivity of 31.7 pm/°C were achieved. This sensor provides a convenient and economical way for applications where temperature and RI have to be simultaneously measured. PMID:26836081

  18. Simultaneous allocation of distributed resources using improved teaching learning based optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Simultaneous allocation of distributed energy resources in distribution networks. • Annual energy loss reduction is optimized using a multi-level load profile. • A new penalty factor approach is suggested to check node voltage deviations. • An improved TLBO is proposed by suggesting several modifications in standard TLBO. • An intelligent search is proposed to enhance the performance of solution technique. - Abstract: Active and reactive power flow in distribution networks can be effectively controlled by optimally placing distributed resources like shunt capacitors and distributed generators. This paper presents improved variant of Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO) to efficiently and effectively deal with the problem of simultaneous allocation of these distributed resources in radial distribution networks while considering multi-level load scenario. Several algorithm specific modifications are suggested in the standard form of TLBO to cope against the intrinsic flaws of this technique. In addition, an intelligent search approach is proposed to restrict the problem search space without loss of diversity. This enhances the overall performance of the proposed method. The proposed method is investigated on IEEE 33-bus, 69-bus and 83-bus test distribution systems showing promising results

  19. A gradient based facile HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of antioxidants extracted from tea powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjegowda, Shankara H; Papanna, Manasa G; Achar, Raghu Ram; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Mallu, Puttaswamappa; Swamy, Shivananju Nanjunda

    2016-05-01

    A new simple, rapid and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for the extraction and quantitative estimation of caffeine (C), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (+)-catechin(Ct), (-)-epicatechin(EC), and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) (collectively named as Tea Powder Bioactives TPBAs) extracted from tea powder using different ratios of ethanol: water. The simultaneous determination of TPBAs was performed using the UV spectrophotometric method which employs the absorbance at 205 nm (λmax of caffeine and polyphenols). This method is a gradient based HPLC method with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min using Inertsil ODS 100 × 4.6 mm, 3 μm column with methanol and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (pH-2.8) as mobile phase. The method was validated in terms of specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy, limit of quantification (LOQ), and limit of detection (LOD). The linearity of the proposed method was investigated for concentration ranging between 0.5-60 μg/mL with regression co-efficient, R(2) = 0.999-1.0. This method estimates all the TPBAs simultaneously with enhanced precision and linearity as per the ICH guidelines. Also, to confirm the individual TPBA, the antioxidant property of the each TPBA was analyzed which was commensurate with that of the previous reports. PMID:27407191

  20. Multi-Frequency Polarimetric SAR Classification Based on Riemannian Manifold and Simultaneous Sparse Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Normally, polarimetric SAR classification is a high-dimensional nonlinear mapping problem. In the realm of pattern recognition, sparse representation is a very efficacious and powerful approach. As classical descriptors of polarimetric SAR, covariance and coherency matrices are Hermitian semidefinite and form a Riemannian manifold. Conventional Euclidean metrics are not suitable for a Riemannian manifold, and hence, normal sparse representation classification cannot be applied to polarimetric SAR directly. This paper proposes a new land cover classification approach for polarimetric SAR. There are two principal novelties in this paper. First, a Stein kernel on a Riemannian manifold instead of Euclidean metrics, combined with sparse representation, is employed for polarimetric SAR land cover classification. This approach is named Stein-sparse representation-based classification (SRC. Second, using simultaneous sparse representation and reasonable assumptions of the correlation of representation among different frequency bands, Stein-SRC is generalized to simultaneous Stein-SRC for multi-frequency polarimetric SAR classification. These classifiers are assessed using polarimetric SAR images from the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR sensor of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and the Electromagnetics Institute Synthetic Aperture Radar (EMISAR sensor of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU. Experiments on single-band and multi-band data both show that these approaches acquire more accurate classification results in comparison to many conventional and advanced classifiers.

  1. Simultaneous measurement of particle velocity and size based on gray difference and autocorrelation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The gray of two images of a same particle taken by a digital camera with different exposure times is different too. Based on the gray difference of particle images in a double-exposed photo and autocorrelation processing of digital images,this paper proposes a method for measuring particle velocities and sizes simultaneously. This paper also introduces the theoretical foundation of this method,the process of particle imaging and image processing,and the simultaneous measurement of velocity and size of a low speed flow field with 35 μm and 75 μm standard particles. The graphical measurement results can really reflect the flow characteristics of the flow field. In addition,although the measured velocity and size histograms of these two kinds of standard particles are slightly wider than the theoretical ones,they are all still similar to the normal distribution,and the peak velocities and diameters of the histograms are consistent with the default values. Therefore,this measurement method is capable of providing moderate measurement accuracy,and it can be further developed for high-speed flow field measurements.

  2. Detecting Mode Inconsistencies in Component-Based Embedded Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, H.; Hofmann, C.; Tekinerdogan, B.; Aksit, M.

    2007-01-01

    To deal with increasing size and complexity, componentbased software development has been employed in embedded systems. These systems comprise a set of components each of which implements a particular functionality. The system utilizes the components to provide the functionalities that are required

  3. Design and Fabrication of SOI-based photonic crystal components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    We present examples of ultra-compact photonic crystal components realized in silicon-on-insulator material. We have fabricated several different types of photonic crystal waveguide components displaying high transmission features. This includes 60° and 120° bends, different types of couplers, and...

  4. Component Based Development - Where is the Place for Formalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makowski, Piotr; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2003-01-01

    A software component has a contract that specifies its properties and thus define conditions for its use. The contract is an obvious object for formalization. It could assist in conformance checking for manufactured components and in checking consistent use of them in a concrete system. However, ...

  5. Fast Monte Carlo based joint iterative reconstruction for simultaneous 99mTc/ 123I SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jinsong; El Fakhri, Georges; Moore, Stephen C

    2007-08-01

    Simultaneous 99mTC/ 123I SPECT allows the assessment of two physiological functions under identical conditions. The separation of these radionuclides is difficult, however, because their energies are close. Most energy-window-based scatter correction methods do not fully model either physical factors or patient-specific activity and attenuation distributions. We have developed a fast Monte Carlo (MC) simulation-based multiple-radionuclide and multiple-energy joint ordered-subset expectation-maximization (JOSEM) iterative reconstruction algorithm, MC-JOSEM. MC-JOSEM simultaneously corrects for scatter and cross talk as well as detector response within the reconstruction algorithm. We evaluated MC-JOSEM for simultaneous brain profusion (99mTc-HMPAO) and neurotransmission (123I-altropane) SPECT. MC simulations of 99mTc and 123I studies were generated separately and then combined to mimic simultaneous 99mTc/ 123I SPECT. All the details of photon transport through the brain, the collimator, and detector, including Compton and coherent scatter, septal penetration, and backscatter from components behind the crystal, were modeled. We reconstructed images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide projections in three ways. First, we reconstructed the photopeak-energy-window projections (with an asymmetric energy window for 1231) using the standard ordered-subsets expectation-maximization algorithm (NSC-OSEM). Second, we used standard OSEM to reconstruct 99mTc photopeak-energy-window projections, while including an estimate of scatter from a Compton-scatter energy window (SC-OSEM). Third, we jointly reconstructed both 99mTc and 123I images using projection data associated with two photo-peak energy windows and an intermediate-energy window using MC-JOSEM. For 15 iterations of reconstruction, the bias and standard deviation of 99mTc activity estimates in several brain structures were calculated for NSC-OSEM, SC-OSEM, and MC-JOSEM, using images reconstructed from primary

  6. A Robust MEMS Based Multi-Component Sensor for 3D Borehole Seismic Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson Geophysical Services

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop, prototype and test a robust multi-component sensor that combines both Fiber Optic and MEMS technology for use in a borehole seismic array. The use such FOMEMS based sensors allows a dramatic increase in the number of sensors that can be deployed simultaneously in a borehole seismic array. Therefore, denser sampling of the seismic wave field can be afforded, which in turn allows us to efficiently and adequately sample P-wave as well as S-wave for high-resolution imaging purposes. Design, packaging and integration of the multi-component sensors and deployment system will target maximum operating temperature of 350-400 F and a maximum pressure of 15000-25000 psi, thus allowing operation under conditions encountered in deep gas reservoirs. This project aimed at using existing pieces of deployment technology as well as MEMS and fiber-optic technology. A sensor design and analysis study has been carried out and a laboratory prototype of an interrogator for a robust borehole seismic array system has been assembled and validated.

  7. Knowledge-based System Prototype in Structural Component Design Based on FM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; Tao; LI; Qing-fen; LI; Ming; FU; Wei

    2002-01-01

    A knowledge-based system in structural component design based on fracture mechanics is developed in this paper. The system consists of several functional parts: a general inference engine, a set of knowledge bases and data-bases, an interpretation engine, a bases administration system and the interface. It can simulate a human expert to make analysis and design scheme mainly for four kinds of typical structural components widely used in shipbuilding industry: pressure vessels, huge rotation constructions, pump-rod and welded structures. It is an open system which may be broadened and perfected to cover a wider range of engineering application through the modification and enlargement of knowledge bases and data-bases. It has a natural and friendly interface that may be easily operated. An on-line help service is also provided.

  8. Independet Component Analyses of Ground-based Exoplanetary Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Martins-Filho, Walter; Griffith, Caitlin Ann; Pearson, Kyle; Waldmann, Ingo; Biddle, Lauren; Zellem, Robert Thomas; Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    Most observations of exoplanetary atmospheres are conducted when a "Hot Jupiter" exoplanet transits in front of its host star. These Jovian-sized planets have small orbital periods, on the order of days, and therefore a short transit time, making them more ameanable to observations. Measurements of Hot Jupiter transits must achieve a 10-4 level of accuracy in the flux to determine the spectral modulations of the exoplanetary atmosphere. In order to accomplish this level of precision, we need to extract systematic errors, and, for ground-based measurements, the effects of Earth's atmosphere, from the signal due to the exoplanet, which is several orders of magnitudes smaller. Currently, the effects of the terrestrial atmosphere and the some of the time-dependent systematic errors are treated by dividing the host star by a reference star at each wavelength and time step of the transit. More recently, Independent Component Analyses (ICA) have been used to remove systematic effects from the raw data of space-based observations (Waldmann 2014,2012; Morello et al.,2015,2016). ICA is a statistical method born from the ideas of the blind-source separation studies, which can be used to de-trend several independent source signals of a data set (Hyvarinen and Oja, 2000). One strength of this method is that it requires no additional prior knowledge of the system. Here, we present a study of the application of ICA to ground-based transit observations of extrasolar planets, which are affected by Earth's atmosphere. We analyze photometric data of two extrasolar planets, WASP-1b and GJ3470b, recorded by the 61" Kuiper Telescope at Stewart Observatory using the Harris B and U filters. The presentation will compare the light curve depths and their dispersions as derived from the ICA analysis to those derived by analyses that ratio of the host star to nearby reference stars.References: Waldmann, I.P. 2012 ApJ, 747, 12, Waldamann, I. P. 2014 ApJ, 780, 23; Morello G. 2015 ApJ, 806

  9. Simultaneous analysis of skin penetration of surfactant and active drug from fluorosurfactant-based microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrhauser, Denise; Hoppel, Magdalena; Schöll, Judith; Binder, Lisa; Kählig, Hanspeter; Valenta, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the penetrated amount of the incorporated model drug diclofenac-sodium and of a fluorosurfactant as specific vehicle constituent of topically applied microemulsions at the same time. To this end, the penetration depth of each compound was elucidated through tape stripping studies by the simultaneous quantification of diclofenac-sodium and the fluorosurfactant from the same sample. A new approach was made by using the very sensitive and specific (19)F NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) for quantification of the fluorinated vehicle component. The tape stripping experiments with the microemulsions showed an almost similar penetration velocity of diclofenac-sodium and fluorosurfactant, suggesting that the surfactant within the microemulsion-structure intensified the stratum corneum uptake of the incorporated active constituent. Moreover, ATR-FTIR studies on porcine ear skin revealed significant shifts of the CH₂ stretching absorbances, which are associated with an enhanced disorder of the SC lipids resulting in a decreased skin barrier function, after application of the microemulsions. However, the application of pure fluorosurfactant did not cause any shifts in the CH₂ stretching absorbances. It can be thereby concluded that the prepared microemulsions exerted specific effects on skin integrity resulting in a "push" of diclofenac-sodium penetration. PMID:24892508

  10. Simultaneous image compression, fusion and encryption algorithm based on compressive sensing and chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingbin; Mei, Wenbo; Du, Huiqian

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a novel approach based on compressive sensing and chaos is proposed for simultaneously compressing, fusing and encrypting multi-modal images. The sparsely represented source images are firstly measured with the key-controlled pseudo-random measurement matrix constructed using logistic map, which reduces the data to be processed and realizes the initial encryption. Then the obtained measurements are fused by the proposed adaptive weighted fusion rule. The fused measurement is further encrypted into the ciphertext through an iterative procedure including improved random pixel exchanging technique and fractional Fourier transform. The fused image can be reconstructed by decrypting the ciphertext and using a recovery algorithm. The proposed algorithm not only reduces data volume but also simplifies keys, which improves the efficiency of transmitting data and distributing keys. Numerical results demonstrate the feasibility and security of the proposed scheme.

  11. PCF-Based Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopic Sensors for Simultaneous Multicomponent Trace Gas Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Stelmaszczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiwavelength, multicomponent CRDS gas sensor operating on the basis of a compact photonic crystal fibre supercontinuum light source has been constructed. It features a simple design encompassing one radiation source, one cavity and one detection unit (a spectrograph with a fitted ICCD camera that are common for all wavelengths. Multicomponent detection capability of the device is demonstrated by simultaneous measurements of the absorption spectra of molecular oxygen (spin-forbidden b-X branch and water vapor (polyads 4v, 4v + d in ambient atmospheric air. Issues related to multimodal cavity excitation, as well as to obtaining the best signal-to-noise ratio are discussed together with methods for their practical resolution based on operating the cavity in a “quasi continuum” mode and setting long camera gate widths, respectively. A comprehensive review of multiwavelength CRDS techniques is also given.

  12. Nickel oxide nanoparticle-based method for simultaneous harvesting and disruption of microalgal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Can; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2016-10-01

    Microalgae biodiesel is considered one of the most promising renewable fuels. However, the high cost of the downstream process is a major barrier to large-scale microalgal lipid production. In this study, a novel approach based on nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs) was developed and its effectiveness for simultaneous harvesting and cell disruption in microalgal lipid production was determined. NiO NPs exhibited a microalgal harvesting efficiency of 98.75% in 1min at pH 7. Moreover, after treating with NiO NPs for 96h, the lipid extraction efficiency of microalgae (with 80% water content) reached 91.08% and was 208.37% compared to that without NiO treatment. This approach is simple and does not necessitate drying; furthermore, no equipment with high energy consumption was required. PMID:27481468

  13. Simultaneously Optimizing Storage Location Assignment at Forward Area and Reserve Area - a Decomposition Based Heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Søren; Christiansen, Christian Holk

    This paper addresses the Two-level Storage Location Assignment Problem (TSLAP) for two level low-level picker-to-part warehouses. The first level consists of a forward area from which all picking is done. The second level consists of a reserve storage area, from which the forward area...... is replenished. A large part of the cost of operating the warehouse is a function of the assignment of items to locations at both the reserve storage and the forward area. The cost of the storage location assignment at the forward area is dependent on the storage location assignment at the reserve area and visa...... versa. This, however, is often neglected in the existing literature. We solve the TSLAP simultaneously for the reserve area and the forward area. Based on randomly generated test instances we show that the solutions of TSLAP compare favorably to solutions found by other algorithms proposed...

  14. Calibration and stability of a SiPM-based simultaneous PET/MR insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the HYPER Image project, a Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) based preclinical PET insert for a commercial human 3 T MRI scanner was built. In this contribution we report on the stability of imaging performance of the PET scanner and MR hardness and compatibility. From data sets that were acquired during the last 7 months we extracted SiPM gain values and their annual drift, the mean energy resolution and the energy resolution drift, spatial resolution and spatial resolution drift, and photo peak position and their annual drift. Further, a point source and a hot rod phantom was imaged fully simultaneously with the MRI scanner and the PET scanner. No interference between either modality was observed

  15. Calibration and stability of a SiPM-based simultaneous PET/MR insert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, Christoph W., E-mail: christoph.lerche@philips.com [Philips Research, Europe, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mackewn, Jane [Kings College London (United Kingdom); Goldschmidt, Benjamin [Philips Research, Europe, Eindhoven (Netherlands); RWTH University Aachen (Germany); Salomon, Andre; Gebbhardt, Pierre; Weissler, Bjoern; Ayres, Richard [Philips Research, Europe Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kings College London (United Kingdom); Marsden, Paul [Kings College London (United Kingdom); Schulz, Volkmar [Philips Research, Europe, Eindhoven (Netherlands); RWTH University Aachen (Germany)

    2013-02-21

    On behalf of the HYPER Image project, a Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) based preclinical PET insert for a commercial human 3 T MRI scanner was built. In this contribution we report on the stability of imaging performance of the PET scanner and MR hardness and compatibility. From data sets that were acquired during the last 7 months we extracted SiPM gain values and their annual drift, the mean energy resolution and the energy resolution drift, spatial resolution and spatial resolution drift, and photo peak position and their annual drift. Further, a point source and a hot rod phantom was imaged fully simultaneously with the MRI scanner and the PET scanner. No interference between either modality was observed.

  16. A Tunable Acousto-Optic Fiber Filter Based on Two Simultaneous Mode Coupling Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Ren; ZHANG Wei; FENG Xue; ZHAO Jian-Hui; LIU Xiao-Ming

    2009-01-01

    A dynamically tunable fiber filter realizing complex spectra of phase-shifted long period fiber gratings (LPFGs)is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The principle of the filter is based on two acousto-optic coupling processes occurring simultaneously. The first coupling process acts as a normal LPFG, while the second makes the coupling direction of the first process change continuously, leading to a similar transmission spectrum with the phase-shifted LPFGs, in which the changing of coupling direction is realized by the discrete phase shifts of the index modulation. By adjusting the acoustic drive signals, its transmission spectrum can be dynamically tuned to realize the phase-shifted LPFGs' spectra under different phase shift numbers and locations.

  17. Simultaneous inversion of petrophysical parameters based on geostatistical a priori information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Xing-Yao; Sun Rui-Ying; Wang Bao-Li; Zhang Guang-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The high-resolution nonlinear simultaneous inversion of petrophysical parameters is based on Bayesian statistics and combines petrophysics with geostatistical a priori information. We used the fast Fourier transform-moving average (FFT-MA) and gradual deformation method (GDM) to obtain a reasonable variogram by using structural analysis and geostatistical a priori information of petrophysical parameters. Subsequently, we constructed the likelihood function according to the statistical petrophysical model. Finally, we used the Metropolis algorithm to sample the posteriori probability density and complete the inversion of the petrophysical parameters. We used the proposed method to process data from an oil fi eld in China and found good match between inversion and real data with high-resolution. In addition, the direct inversion of petrophysical parameters avoids the error accumulation and decreases the uncertainty, and increases the computational effi ciency.

  18. Simultaneous Ground- and Space-Based Observations of the Plasmaspheric Plume and Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B. M.; Foster, J. C.; Erickson, P. J.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is the primary process through which energy couples from the solar wind into Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere. Conditions both in the incident solar wind and in the magnetosphere are important in determining the efficiency of this energy transfer. In particular, the cold, dense plasmaspheric plume can substantially impact the coupling in the dayside reconnection region. Using ground-based total electron content (TEC) maps and measurements from the THEMIS spacecraft, we investigated simultaneous ionosphere and magnetosphere observations of the plasmaspheric plume and its involvement in an unsteady magnetic reconnection process. The observations show the full circulation pattern of the plasmaspheric plume and validate the connection between signatures of variability in the dense plume and reconnection at the magnetopause as measured in situ and through TEC measurements in the ionosphere.

  19. Simultaneous Sterilization With Surface Modification Of Plastic Bottle By Plasma-Based Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, N.; Ikenaga, N.; Ikeda, F.; Nakayama, Y.; Kishi, Y.; Yajima, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Dry sterilization of polymeric material is developed. The technique utilizes the plasma-based ion implantation which is same as for surface modification of polymers. Experimental data for sterilization are obtained by using spores of Bacillus subtilis as samples. On the other hand we previously showed that the surface modification enhanced the gas barrier characteristics of plastic bottles. Comparing the implantation conditions for the sterilization experiment with those for the surface modification, we find that both sterilization and surface modification are simultaneously performed in a certain range of implantation conditions. This implies that the present bottling system for plastic vessels will be simplified and streamlined by excluding the toxic peroxide water that has been used in the traditional sterilization processes.

  20. Hybrid integrated photonic components based on a polymer platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldada, Louay A.

    2003-06-01

    We report on a polymer-on-silicon optical bench platform that enables the hybrid integration of elemental passive and active optical functions. Planar polymer circuits are produced photolithographically, and slots are formed in them for the insertion of chips and films of a variety of materials. The polymer circuits provide interconnects, static routing elements such as couplers, taps, and multi/demultiplexers, as well as thermo-optically dynamic elements such as switches, variable optical attenuators, and tunable notch filters. Crystal-ion-sliced thin films of lithium niobate are inserted in the polymer circuit for polarization control or for electro-optic modulation. Films of yttrium iron garnet and neodymium iron boron magnets are inserted in order to magneto-optically achieve non-reciprocal operation for isolation and circulation. Indium phosphide and gallium arsenide chips are inserted for light generation, amplification, and detection, as well as wavelength conversion. The functions enabled by this multi-material platform span the range of the building blocks needed in optical circuits, while using the highest-performance material system for each function. We demonstrated complex-functionality photonic components based on this technology, including a metro ring node module and a tunable optical transmitter. The metro ring node chip includes switches, variable optical attenuators, taps, and detectors; it enables optical add/drop multiplexing, power monitoring, and automatic load balancing, and it supports shared and dedicated protection protocols in two-fiber metro ring optical networks. The tunable optical transmitter chip includes a tunable external cavity laser, an isolator, and a high-speed modulator.

  1. State‐of‐the‐art and progress in the optimization‐based simultaneous design and control for chemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Zhihong; Chen, Bingzhen; Sin, Gürkan;

    2012-01-01

    based frameworks that are capable of screening alternative designs, and (2) optimization‐based frameworks that integrate the process design and control system design. The major objective is to give an up‐to‐date review of the state‐of‐the‐art and progress in the challenging area of optimization‐based simultaneous...

  2. Grinding Characteristics of Multi-component Cement-based Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Difen; TAO Longzhong; LI Ning; HU Haipeng

    2005-01-01

    The grinding characteristics of two or multi-component material of clinker with limestone, blast furnace slag and fly ash were studied. Investigation was carried out on the particle size distribution, the Blaine fineness and the sieve residue of the separate and interground products. The relative contents of clinker and limestone in different size fractions of the interground product were examined, and the interaction of two components, which have different grindabilities, was analyzed. The results show there exists a selective grinding effect during intergrinding, one component can help or hinder the grinding of the other. Making good use of this interaction appropriately not only enhances the grindabilities of two or multi-component mixtures, which can promote the grinding process of clinker with industrial wastes, but also improves their particle size distribution and properties.

  3. A laser extinction based sensor for simultaneous droplet size and vapor measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueqiang Sun; David J. Ewing; Lin Ma

    2012-01-01

    Multiphase flows involving liquid droplets in association with gas flow occur in many industrial and scientific applications.Recent work has demonstrated the feasibility of using optical techniques based on laser extinction to simultaneously measure vapor concentration and temperature and droplet size and loading.This work introduces the theoretical background for the optimal design of such laser extinction techniques,termed WMLE (wavelength-multiplexed laser extinction).This paper focuses on the development of WMLE and presents a systematic methodology to guide the selection of suitable wavelengths and optimize the performance of WMLE for specific applications.WMLE utilizing wavelengths from 0.5to 10 μm is illustrated for droplet size and vapor concentration measurements in an example of water spray,and is found to enable unique and sensitive Sauter mean diameter measurement in the range of ~1-15μm along with accurate vapor detection.A vapor detection strategy based on differential absorption is developed to extend accurate measurement to a significantly wider range of droplet loading and vapor concentration as compared to strategies based on direct fixed-wavelength absorption.Expected performance of the sensor is modeled for an evaporating spray.This work is expected to lay the groundwork for implementing optical sensors based on WMLE in a variety of research and industrial applications involving multi-phase flows.

  4. Communication Patterns as Key Towards Component-Based Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Schlegel

    2006-01-01

    Vital functions of mobile robots are provided by software and software dominance is still growing. Mastering the software complexity is not only a demanding but also indispensable task towards an operational robot. Nevertheless, well-known and even always needed algorithms are often implemented from scratch over and over again instead of being reused as off-the-shelf components. A major reason is the lack of a framework that allows to compose robotics software out of standardized components w...

  5. An Ensemble Algorithm Based Component for Geomagnetic Data Assimilation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhibin Sun and Weijia Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Geomagnetic data assimilation is one of the most recent developments in geomagnetic studies. It combines geodynamo model outputs and surface geomagnetic observations to provide more accurate estimates of the core dynamic state and provide accurate geomagnetic secular variation forecasting. To facilitate geomagnetic data assimilation studies, we develop a stand-alone data assimilation component for the geomagnetic community. This component is used to calculate the forecast error covariance mat...

  6. Simultaneous determination of Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions in foodstuffs and vegetables with a new Schiff base using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Abbasi-Tarighat, Maryam; Khanmohammadi, Hamid

    2009-01-15

    New complexes of Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) with a recently synthesized Schiff base derived from 3,6-bis((aminoethyl)thio)pyridazine were applied for their simultaneous determination with artificial neural networks. The analytical data show the ratio of metal to ligand in all metal complexes is 1:1. The absorption spectra were evaluated with respect to Schiff base concentration, pH and time of the color formation reactions. It was found that at pH 10.0 and 60min after mixing, the complexation reactions are completed and the colored complexes exhibited absorption bands in the wavelength range 300-500nm. Spectral data was reduced using principal component analysis and subjected to artificial neural networks. The data obtained from synthetic mixtures of four metal ions were processed by principal component-feed forward neural networks (PCFFNNs) and principal component-radial basis function networks (PCRBFNs). Performances of the proposed methods were tested with regard to root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP%), using synthetic solutions. Under the working conditions, the proposed methods were successfully applied to simultaneous determination of Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) in different vegetable, foodstuff and pharmaceutical product samples.

  7. Simultaneous detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii based on microsphere immunoreaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Jinfeng; Zou, Mingqiang; Chen, Yan; Wang, Yanfei; Qi, Xiaohua

    2013-04-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn) and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) are two plant pathogens that can cause tremendous agricultural economic losses. This novel method based on microsphere immunoreaction was developed for the simultaneous detection of Cmn and Pss in maize. This multiplex method was constructed based on microsphere immunodetection with fluorescent labels such as quantum dots (QDs) and R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) for the detection of Cmn and Pss. Captured QDs and R-PE serve as signal reporters for fluorescent readout. The principle of this method is based on a sandwich immunoreaction. Cmn and Pss captured by the microspheres were detected using flow cytometry. The limit of detection of this method was 10 times lower than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and its analysis time (1 h) was much shorter compared with ELISA (6-8 h). The method, which has been proven to be an effective approach to multiplex detection of plant bacteria (Cmn and Pss as models), not only increased the varieties but also improved the sensitivity. The microsphere immunoreaction provides a universal method for the multiplex determination of microbes because of its high sensitivity, specificity, and speed. In the future, the method will be more fully validated in vivo to detect diversiform bacteria. PMID:23169888

  8. Invisible Base Electrode Coordinates Approximation for Simultaneous SPECT and EEG Data Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk L.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was performed as part of a larger research concerning the feasibility of improving the localization of epileptic foci, as compared to the standard SPECT examination, by applying the technique of EEG mapping. The presented study extends our previous work on the development of a method for superposition of SPECT images and EEG 3D maps when these two examinations are performed simultaneously. Due to the lack of anatomical data in SPECT images it is a much more difficult task than in the case of MRI/EEG study where electrodes are visible in morphological images. Using the appropriate dose of radioisotope we mark five base electrodes to make them visible in the SPECT image and then approximate the coordinates of the remaining electrodes using properties of the 10-20 electrode placement system and the proposed nine-ellipses model. This allows computing a sequence of 3D EEG maps spanning on all electrodes. It happens, however, that not all five base electrodes can be reliably identified in SPECT data. The aim of the current study was to develop a method for determining the coordinates of base electrode(s missing in the SPECT image. The algorithm for coordinates approximation has been developed and was tested on data collected for three subjects with all visible electrodes. To increase the accuracy of the approximation we used head surface models. Freely available model from Oostenveld research based on data from SPM package and our own model based on data from our EEG/SPECT studies were used. For data collected in four cases with one electrode not visible we compared the invisible base electrode coordinates approximation for Oostenveld and our models. The results vary depending on the missing electrode placement, but application of the realistic head model significantly increases the accuracy of the approximation.

  9. Phase retrieval based on temporal and spatial hybrid matching in simultaneous phase-shifting dual-wavelength interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiang; Zhong, Liyun; Xiong, Jiaxiang; Zhou, Yunfei; Tian, Jindong; Li, Dong; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2016-06-13

    In simultaneous phase-shifting dual-wavelength interferometry, by matching both the phase-shifting period number and the fringe number in interferogram of two wavelengths to the integers, the phase with high accuracy can be retrieved through combining the principle component analysis (PCA) and least-squares iterative algorithm (LSIA). First, by using the approximate ratio of two wavelengths, we can match both the temporal phase-shifting period number and the spatial fringe number in interferogram of two wavelengths to the integers. Second, using above temporal and spatial hybrid matching condition, we can achieve accurate phase shifts of single-wavelength of phase-shifting interferograms through using PCA algorithm. Third, using above phase shifts to perform the iterative calculation with the LSIA method, the wrapped phases of single-wavelength can be determined. Both simulation calculation and experimental research demonstrate that by using the temporal and spatial hybrid matching condition, the PCA + LSIA based phase retrieval method possesses significant advantages in accuracy, stability and processing time. PMID:27410297

  10. Simultaneous Quantitative and Chemical Fingerprint Analysis of Receptaculum Nelumbinis Based on HPLC-DAD-MS Combined with Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Liu, Jiushi; Zhang, Jin; Qi, Yaodong; Jia, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen

    2016-04-01

    A rapid and sensitive method based on HPLC-DAD-MS was developed for quantitative analysis of two flavonoids and chemical fingerprint analysis to evaluate the quality of Receptaculum Nelumbinis. The analysis was conducted on a Poroshell 120 C18 column (100 × 4.6 mm, 2.7 μm) with 0.2% formic acid buffer solution and methanol as mobile phases with gradient elution. This method displayed good linearity with R(2) at >0.9999 and limits of quantity <0.37 μg mL(-1). Relative standard deviation values for intra- and interday precision were <0.82 and 1.03%, respectively. The mean recovery of hyperoside was 95.54% and of isoquercitrin was 92.10%. Hyperoside and isoquercitrin were determined simultaneously, and 12 peaks in the chemical fingerprint were identified. The chemometric methods, including similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis, were applied to distinguish 11 batches of Receptaculum Nelumbinis samples. The above results could validate each other and successfully divide these samples into two groups. Moreover, hyperoside and isoquercitrin could be selected as chemical markers to evaluate the quality of Receptaculum Nelumbinis from different localities. This study demonstrated that the developed method was a powerful and beneficial tool to carry out the quality control of Receptaculum Nelumbinis. PMID:26921895

  11. Simultaneous partial topology and size optimization of a wing structure using ant colony and gradient based methods

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, W.; Guo, Shijun J.; Yang, W.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a methodology and process for a combined wing configuration partial topology and structure size optimization. It is aimed at achieving a minimum structural weight by optimizing the structure layout and structural component size simultaneously. This design optimization process contains two types of design variables and hence was divided into two sub- problems. One is structure layout topology to obtain an optimal number and location of spars with discret...

  12. High Accuracy Passive Magnetic Field-Based Localization for Feedback Control Using Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Shaohui; Sun, Zhenglong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel magnetic field-based sensing system employing statistically optimized concurrent multiple sensor outputs for precise field-position association and localization is presented. This method capitalizes on the independence between simultaneous spatial field measurements at multiple locations to induce unique correspondences between field and position. This single-source-multi-sensor configuration is able to achieve accurate and precise localization and tracking of translational motion without contact over large travel distances for feedback control. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used as a pseudo-linear filter to optimally reduce the dimensions of the multi-sensor output space for computationally efficient field-position mapping with artificial neural networks (ANNs). Numerical simulations are employed to investigate the effects of geometric parameters and Gaussian noise corruption on PCA assisted ANN mapping performance. Using a 9-sensor network, the sensing accuracy and closed-loop tracking performance of the proposed optimal field-based sensing system is experimentally evaluated on a linear actuator with a significantly more expensive optical encoder as a comparison. PMID:27529253

  13. High Accuracy Passive Magnetic Field-Based Localization for Feedback Control Using Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Foong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel magnetic field-based sensing system employing statistically optimized concurrent multiple sensor outputs for precise field-position association and localization is presented. This method capitalizes on the independence between simultaneous spatial field measurements at multiple locations to induce unique correspondences between field and position. This single-source-multi-sensor configuration is able to achieve accurate and precise localization and tracking of translational motion without contact over large travel distances for feedback control. Principal component analysis (PCA is used as a pseudo-linear filter to optimally reduce the dimensions of the multi-sensor output space for computationally efficient field-position mapping with artificial neural networks (ANNs. Numerical simulations are employed to investigate the effects of geometric parameters and Gaussian noise corruption on PCA assisted ANN mapping performance. Using a 9-sensor network, the sensing accuracy and closed-loop tracking performance of the proposed optimal field-based sensing system is experimentally evaluated on a linear actuator with a significantly more expensive optical encoder as a comparison.

  14. High Accuracy Passive Magnetic Field-Based Localization for Feedback Control Using Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Shaohui; Sun, Zhenglong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel magnetic field-based sensing system employing statistically optimized concurrent multiple sensor outputs for precise field-position association and localization is presented. This method capitalizes on the independence between simultaneous spatial field measurements at multiple locations to induce unique correspondences between field and position. This single-source-multi-sensor configuration is able to achieve accurate and precise localization and tracking of translational motion without contact over large travel distances for feedback control. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used as a pseudo-linear filter to optimally reduce the dimensions of the multi-sensor output space for computationally efficient field-position mapping with artificial neural networks (ANNs). Numerical simulations are employed to investigate the effects of geometric parameters and Gaussian noise corruption on PCA assisted ANN mapping performance. Using a 9-sensor network, the sensing accuracy and closed-loop tracking performance of the proposed optimal field-based sensing system is experimentally evaluated on a linear actuator with a significantly more expensive optical encoder as a comparison. PMID:27529253

  15. High Accuracy Passive Magnetic Field-Based Localization for Feedback Control Using Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Shaohui; Sun, Zhenglong

    2016-08-12

    In this paper, a novel magnetic field-based sensing system employing statistically optimized concurrent multiple sensor outputs for precise field-position association and localization is presented. This method capitalizes on the independence between simultaneous spatial field measurements at multiple locations to induce unique correspondences between field and position. This single-source-multi-sensor configuration is able to achieve accurate and precise localization and tracking of translational motion without contact over large travel distances for feedback control. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used as a pseudo-linear filter to optimally reduce the dimensions of the multi-sensor output space for computationally efficient field-position mapping with artificial neural networks (ANNs). Numerical simulations are employed to investigate the effects of geometric parameters and Gaussian noise corruption on PCA assisted ANN mapping performance. Using a 9-sensor network, the sensing accuracy and closed-loop tracking performance of the proposed optimal field-based sensing system is experimentally evaluated on a linear actuator with a significantly more expensive optical encoder as a comparison.

  16. Industrial Component-based Sample Mobile Robot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kucsera

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The mobile robot development can be done in two different ways. The first is tobuild up an embedded system, the second is to use ‘ready to use’ industrial components.With the spread of Industrial mobile robots there are more and more components on themarket which can be used to build up a whole control and sensor system of a mobile robotplatform. Using these components electrical hardware development is not needed, whichspeeds up the development time and decreases the cost. Using a PLC on board, ‘only’constructing the program is needed and the developer can concentrate on the algorithms,not on developing hardware. My idea is to solve the problem of mobile robot localizationand obstacle avoidance using industrial components and concentrate this topic to themobile robot docking. In factories, mobile robots can be used to deliver parts from oneplace to another, but there are always two critical points. The robot has to be able tooperate in human environment, and also reach the target and get to a predefined positionwhere another system can load it or get the delivered product. I would like to construct amechanically simple robot model, which can calculate its position from the rotation of itswheels, and when it reaches a predefined location with the aid of an image processingsystem it can dock to an electrical connector. If the robot succeeded it could charge itsbatteries through this connector as well.

  17. Multi-frequency simultaneous measurement of bioimpedance spectroscopy based on a low crest factor multisine excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is becoming a powerful diagnostic tool for a wide variety of medical applications, and the multi-frequency simultaneous (MFS) measurement of BIS can greatly reduce measurement time and record the transient physiological status of a living body compared with traditional frequency-sweep measurement technology. This paper adopts the Van der Ouderaa’s multisine, which has 31 equidistant and flat amplitude spectra and a low crest factor of 1.405 as the broadband excitation, and realizes the MFS measurement of BIS by means of spectral analysis using the fast Fourier transform algorithm. The approach to implement the multisine based on a field-programmable gate array and a digital to analog converter is described in detail, and impedance measurement experiments are performed on three resistance-capitance three-element phantoms. Experimental results show a commendable accuracy with a mean relative error of 0.55% for the impedance amplitudes, and a mean absolute error of 0.20° for the impedance phases on the 31 frequencies ranging linearly from 32 to 992 kHz. This paper validates the feasibility of the MFS technology for BIS measurement based on the multisine excitation. (paper)

  18. Multi-frequency simultaneous measurement of bioimpedance spectroscopy based on a low crest factor multisine excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Zhang, Fu; Tao, Kun; Wang, Lianhuan; Wen, He; Teng, Zhaosheng

    2015-03-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is becoming a powerful diagnostic tool for a wide variety of medical applications, and the multi-frequency simultaneous (MFS) measurement of BIS can greatly reduce measurement time and record the transient physiological status of a living body compared with traditional frequency-sweep measurement technology. This paper adopts the Van der Ouderaa's multisine, which has 31 equidistant and flat amplitude spectra and a low crest factor of 1.405 as the broadband excitation, and realizes the MFS measurement of BIS by means of spectral analysis using the fast Fourier transform algorithm. The approach to implement the multisine based on a field-programmable gate array and a digital to analog converter is described in detail, and impedance measurement experiments are performed on three resistance-capitance three-element phantoms. Experimental results show a commendable accuracy with a mean relative error of 0.55% for the impedance amplitudes, and a mean absolute error of 0.20° for the impedance phases on the 31 frequencies ranging linearly from 32 to 992 kHz. This paper validates the feasibility of the MFS technology for BIS measurement based on the multisine excitation. PMID:25679488

  19. Comparison of Traditional and Simultaneous IMRT Boost Technique Basing on Therapeutic Gain Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different radiotherapy techniques, a traditional one (CRT) - based on consecutive decreasing of irradiation fields during treatment, and intensity modulated radiation therapy technique (IMRT) with concomitant boost, deliver different doses to treated volumes, increasing the dose in regions of interest. The fractionation schedule differs depending on the applied technique of irradiation. The aim of this study was to compare different fractionation schedules considering tumor control and normal tissue complications. The analysis of tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were based on the linear quadratic (LQ) model of biologically equivalent dose. A therapeutic gain (TG) formula that combines NTCP and TCP for selected irradiated volumes was introduced to compare CRT and simultaneous boost (SIB) methods. TG refers to the different doses per fraction, overall treatment time (OTT), and selected biological factors such as tumor cell and repopulation time. Therapeutic gain increases with the dose per fraction and reaches the maximum for the doses at about 3 Gy. Further increase in dose per fraction results in decrease of TG, mainly because of the escalation of NTCP. The presented TG formula allows the optimization of radiotherapy planning by comparing different treatment plans for individual patients and by selecting optimal fraction dose

  20. A Game-Based Virtualized Reality Approach for Simultaneous Rehabilitation of Motor Skill and Confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair G. Thin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtualized reality games offer highly interactive and engaging user experience and therefore game-based approaches (GBVR may have significant potential to enhance clinical rehabilitation practice as traditional therapeutic exercises are often repetitive and boring, reducing patient compliance. The aim of this study was to investigate if a rehabilitation training programme using GBVR could simultaneously improve both motor skill (MS and confidence (CON, as they are both important determinants of daily living and physical and social functioning. The study was performed using a nondominant hand motor deficit model in nonambidextrous healthy young adults, whereby dominant and nondominant arms acted as control and intervention conditions, respectively. GBVR training was performed using a commercially available tennis-based game. CON and MS were assessed by having each subject perform a comparable real-world motor task (RWMT before and after training. Baseline CON and MS for performing the RWMT were significantly lower for the nondominant hand and improved after GBVR training, whereas there were no changes in the dominant (control arm. These results demonstrate that by using a GBVR approach to address a MS deficit in a real-world task, improvements in both MS and CON can be facilitated and such approaches may help increase patient compliance.

  1. Ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from burdock leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (IL-UMAE) technique was first proposed and applied to isolate compounds. The ionic liquids comprising a range of four anions, five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derivatives were designed and prepared. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation both had apparent effects on the extraction of phenolics. The results also showed that irradiation power, time and solid–liquid ratio significantly affected the yields. The yields of caffeic acid and quercetin obtained by IL-UMAE were higher than those by regular UMAE. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (8–17% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 5 h to 30 s). The results indicated ILUMAE to be a fast and efficient extraction technique. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the reproducibility and recovery experiments. The ILUMAE method provided good recoveries (from 96.1% to 105.3%) with RSD lower than 5.2%, which indicated that the proposed method was credible. Based on the designable nature of ionic liquids, and the rapid and highly efficient performance of the proposed approach, ILUMAE provided a new alternative for preparation of various useful substances from solid samples.

  2. Bead-based suspension array for simultaneous differential detection of five major swine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Gao, Xiao-Bo; Xue, Cun-Yi; Song, Chang-Xu; Li, Yan; Cao, Yong-Chang

    2015-01-01

    A novel multiplex detection array based on Luminex xMAP technology was developed and validated for simultaneous detection of five major viruses causing swine reproductive diseases. By combining one-step asymmetric multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with xMAP bead-based hybridization and flow cytometry analysis, the resulting multiplex assay was capable of detecting single and mixed infections of PRRSV, PCV-2, PRV, CSFV, and PPV in a single reaction. The assay accurately detected and differentiated 23 viral strains used in this study. The low detection limit was determined as 2.2-22 copies/μL (corresponding to 0.5-6.8 fg/μL DNA template) on plasmid constructs containing viral fragments. The intra-assay and inter-assay variances (CV%) were low that ranged from 2.5 to 5.4 % and 4.1 to 7.6 %, respectively. The assay was applied to test field samples and detected single and mixed viral infections. The detection rate was higher than that of uniplex conventional PCR and RT-PCR methods. The detection of PRRSV by the bead-based multiplex assay was comparable with a commercially available real time RT-PCR kit. The test procedure on purified DNA or RNA samples could be completed within 2 h. In conclusion, the bead-based suspension array presented here proved to be a high-throughput practical tool that provided highly specific and sensitive identification of single and multiple infections of five major viruses in pigs and boar semen. PMID:25557628

  3. Simultaneous Decomposition of Depression Heterogeneity on the Person-, Symptom- and Time-Level : The Use of Three-Mode Principal Component Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monden, Rei; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Stegeman, Alwin; Conradi, Henk Jan; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although heterogeneity of depression hinders research and clinical practice, attempts to reduce it with latent variable models have yielded inconsistent results, probably because these techniques cannot account for all interacting sources of heterogeneity at the same time. Therefore, to simultaneous

  4. Simultaneous decomposition of depression heterogeneity on the person-, symptom- and time-level: the use of three-mode principal component analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Monden; K.J. Wardenaar; A. Stegeman; H.J. Conradi; P. de Jonge

    2015-01-01

    Although heterogeneity of depression hinders research and clinical practice, attempts to reduce it with latent variable models have yielded inconsistent results, probably because these techniques cannot account for all interacting sources of heterogeneity at the same time. Therefore, to simultaneous

  5. A New Image Steganography Based On First Component Alteration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanpreet Kaur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, A new image steganography scheme is proposed which is a kind of spatial domain technique. In order to hide secret data in cover-image, the first component alteration technique is used. Techniques used so far focuses only on the two or four bits of a pixel in a image (at the most five bits at the edge of an image which results in less peak to signal noise ratio and high root mean square error. In this technique, 8 bits of blue components of pixels are replaced with secret data bits. Proposed scheme can embed more data than previous schemes and shows better image quality. To prove this scheme, several experiments are performed, and are compared the experimental results with the related previous works.Keywords—image; mean square error; Peak signal to noise ratio; steganography;

  6. A New Image Steganography Based On First Component Alteration Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Sikka, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, A new image steganography scheme is proposed which is a kind of spatial domain technique. In order to hide secret data in cover-image, the first component alteration technique is used. Techniques used so far focuses only on the two or four bits of a pixel in a image (at the most five bits at the edge of an image) which results in less peak to signal noise ratio and high root mean square error. In this technique, 8 bits of blue components of pixels are replaced with secret data bits. Proposed scheme can embed more data than previous schemes and shows better image quality. To prove this scheme, several experiments are performed, and are compared the experimental results with the related previous works.

  7. QUALITY CONTROL OF SEMICONDUCTOR PACKAGING BASED ON PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    5 critical quality characteristics must be controlled in the surface mount and wire-bond process in semiconductor packaging. And these characteristics are correlated with each other. So the principal components analysis(PCA) is used in the analysis of the sample data firstly. And then the process is controlled with hotelling T2 control chart for the first several principal components which contain sufficient information. Furthermore, a software tool is developed for this kind of problems. And with sample data from a surface mounting device(SMD) process, it is demonstrated that the T2 control chart with PCA gets the same conclusion as without PCA, but the problem is transformed from high-dimensional one to a lower dimensional one, i.e., from 5 to 2 in this demonstration.

  8. Service oriented architecture assessment based on software components

    OpenAIRE

    Mahnaz Amirpour; Ali Harounabadi; Seyyed Javad Mirabedini

    2016-01-01

    Enterprise architecture, with detailed descriptions of the functions of information technology in the organization, tries to reduce the complexity of technology applications resulting in tools with greater efficiency in achieving the objectives of the organization. Enterprise architecture consists of a set of models describing this technology in different components performance as well as various aspects of the applications in any organization. Therefore, information technology development an...

  9. Component Thermodynamical Selection Based Gene Expression Programming for Function Finding

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaolu Guo; Zhijian Wu; Xiaojian Dong; Kejun Zhang; Shenwen Wang; Yuanxiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression programming (GEP), improved genetic programming (GP), has become a popular tool for data mining. However, like other evolutionary algorithms, it tends to suffer from premature convergence and slow convergence rate when solving complex problems. In this paper, we propose an enhanced GEP algorithm, called CTSGEP, which is inspired by the principle of minimal free energy in thermodynamics. In CTSGEP, it employs a component thermodynamical selection (CTS) operator to quantitativel...

  10. Facial Expression Recognition based on Independent Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    XiaoHui Guo; Xiao Zhang; Chao Deng; Jianyu Wei

    2013-01-01

    As an important part of artificial intelligence and pattern recognition, facial expression recognition has drawn much attention recently and numerous methods have been proposed. Feature extraction is the most important part which directly affects the final recognition results. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a subspace analysis method, which is also a novel statistical technique in signal processing and machine learning that aims at finding linear projections of the data that maximize...

  11. Management of service composition based on self-controlled components

    OpenAIRE

    Aubonnet, Tatiana; Henrio, Ludovic; Kessal, Soumia; Kulankhina, Oleksandra; Lemoine, Frédéric; Madelaine, Eric; Ruz, Cristian; Simoni, Noëmie

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing and Future Internet promise a new ecosystem where everything is "as a service", reachable and connectable anywhere and anytime, everyone succeeding to get a service composition that meets his needs. But do we have the structure and the appropriate properties to design the service components and do we have the means to manage, at run-time, the personalised compositions corresponding to Service Level Agreement? In this article we introduce an entity of service composition called...

  12. Design and Implementation of Intelligent Space: a Component Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent robot systems are developed by integration of mechatronics and software technologies. However, the systems are getting more complicated since the cooperation of various types of robots is necessary to realize advanced services for users. Therefore, the system integration becomes an important issue. In order to realize a flexible and scalable system, Intelligent Space (iSpace) is implemented using RT (robot technology) middleware. First we discussed the component design of the info...

  13. A Framework for Final Drive Simultaneous Failure Diagnosis Based on Fuzzy Entropy and Sparse Bayesian Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a novel framework of final drive simultaneous failure diagnosis containing feature extraction, training paired diagnostic models, generating decision threshold, and recognizing simultaneous failure modes. In feature extraction module, adopt wavelet package transform and fuzzy entropy to reduce noise interference and extract representative features of failure mode. Use single failure sample to construct probability classifiers based on paired sparse Bayesian extreme learning machine which is trained only by single failure modes and have high generalization and sparsity of sparse Bayesian learning approach. To generate optimal decision threshold which can convert probability output obtained from classifiers into final simultaneous failure modes, this research proposes using samples containing both single and simultaneous failure modes and Grid search method which is superior to traditional techniques in global optimization. Compared with other frequently used diagnostic approaches based on support vector machine and probability neural networks, experiment results based on F1-measure value verify that the diagnostic accuracy and efficiency of the proposed framework which are crucial for simultaneous failure diagnosis are superior to the existing approach.

  14. A robust approach for a filter-based monocular simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Castillo-Toledo, Bernardino; Grau, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is an important problem to solve in robotics theory in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. This work presents a novel method for implementing a SLAM system based on a single camera sensor. The SLAM with a single camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants. In this case, a single camera, which is freely moving through its environment, represents the sole sensor input to the system. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Cameras are used more frequently, because they provide a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power-saving. Nevertheless, and unlike range sensors, which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor providing only angular measurements of image features. Therefore, depth information (range) cannot be obtained in a single step. In this case, special techniques for feature system-initialization are needed in order to enable the use of angular sensors (as cameras) in SLAM systems. The main contribution of this work is to present a novel and robust scheme for incorporating and measuring visual features in filtering-based monocular SLAM systems. The proposed method is based in a two-step technique, which is intended to exploit all the information available in angular measurements. Unlike previous schemes, the values of parameters used by the initialization technique are derived directly from the sensor characteristics, thus simplifying the tuning of the system. The experimental results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes. PMID:23823972

  15. A Robust Approach for a Filter-Based Monocular Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Grau

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM is an important problem to solve in robotics theory in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. This work presents a novel method for implementing a SLAM system based on a single camera sensor. The SLAM with a single camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants. In this case, a single camera, which is freely moving through its environment, represents the sole sensor input to the system. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Cameras are used more frequently, because they provide a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power-saving. Nevertheless, and unlike range sensors, which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor providing only angular measurements of image features. Therefore, depth information (range cannot be obtained in a single step. In this case, special techniques for feature system-initialization are needed in order to enable the use of angular sensors (as cameras in SLAM systems. The main contribution of this work is to present a novel and robust scheme for incorporating and measuring visual features in filtering-based monocular SLAM systems. The proposed method is based in a two-step technique, which is intended to exploit all the information available in angular measurements. Unlike previous schemes, the values of parameters used by the initialization technique are derived directly from the sensor characteristics, thus simplifying the tuning of the system. The experimental results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes.

  16. Simultaneous determination of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components in bovine milk by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Ding, Shuangyang; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Jiancheng; Shen, Jianzhong; Xia, Xi

    2016-02-01

    A sensitive, confirmatory ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated to detect 23 veterinary drugs and metabolites (nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components) in bovine milk. Compounds of interest were sequentially extracted from milk with acetonitrile and basified acetonitrile using sodium chloride to induce liquid-liquid partition. The extract was purified on a mixed mode solid-phase extraction cartridge. Using rapid polarity switching in electrospray ionization, a single injection was capable of detecting both positively and negatively charged analytes in a 9 min chromatography run time. Recoveries based on matrix-matched calibrations and isotope labeled internal standards for milk ranged from 51.7% to 101.8%. The detection limits and quantitation limits of the analytical method were found to be within the range of 2-20 ng/kg and 5-50 ng/kg, respectively. The recommended method is simple, specific, and reliable for the routine monitoring of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components in bovine milk samples.

  17. Aptamer/quantum dot-based simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple small molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haixia [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Jiang Bingying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400040 (China); Xiang Yun, E-mail: yunatswu@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang Yuyong; Chai Yaqin [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo, E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2011-03-04

    A novel strategy for 'signal on' and sensitive one-spot simultaneous detection of multiple small molecular analytes based on electrochemically encoded barcode quantum dot (QD) tags is described. The target analytes, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cocaine, respectively, are sandwiched between the corresponding set of surface-immobilized primary binding aptamers and the secondary binding aptamer/QD bioconjugates. The captured QDs yield distinct electrochemical signatures after acid dissolution, whose position and size reflect the identity and level, respectively, of the corresponding target analytes. Due to the inherent amplification feature of the QD labels and the 'signal on' detection scheme, as well as the sensitive monitoring of the metal ions released upon acid dissolution of the QD labels, low detection limits of 30 nM and 50 nM were obtained for ATP and cocaine, respectively, in our assays. Our multi-analyte sensing system also shows high specificity to target analytes and promising applicability to complex sample matrix, which makes the proposed assay protocol an attractive route for screening of small molecules in clinical diagnosis.

  18. Facile synthesis of diverse graphene nanomeshes based on simultaneous regulation of pore size and surface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Song, Huaibing; Zeng, Dawen; Wang, Hao; Qin, Ziyu; Xu, Keng; Pang, Aimin; Xie, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene nanomesh (GNM) has attracted great attentions due to its unique porous structure, abundant active sites, finite band gap and possesses potential applications in the fields of electronics, gas sensor/storage, catalysis, etc. Therefore, diverse GNMs with different physical and chemical properties are required urgently to meet different applications. Herein we demonstrate a facile synthetic method based on the famous Fenton reaction to prepare GNM, by using economically fabricated graphene oxide (GO) as a starting material. By precisely controlling the reaction time, simultaneous regulation of pore size from 2.9 to 11.1 nm and surface structure can be realized. Ultimately, diverse GNMs with tunable band gap and work function can be obtained. Specially, the band gap decreases from 4.5–2.3 eV for GO, which is an insulator, to 3.9–1.24 eV for GNM-5 h, which approaches to a semiconductor. The dual nature of electrophilic addition and oxidizability of HO• is responsible for this controllable synthesis. This efficient, low-cost, inherently scalable synthetic method is suitable for provide diverse and optional GNMs, and may be generalized to a universal technique. PMID:27561350

  19. Facile synthesis of diverse graphene nanomeshes based on simultaneous regulation of pore size and surface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Song, Huaibing; Zeng, Dawen; Wang, Hao; Qin, Ziyu; Xu, Keng; Pang, Aimin; Xie, Changsheng

    2016-08-01

    Recently, graphene nanomesh (GNM) has attracted great attentions due to its unique porous structure, abundant active sites, finite band gap and possesses potential applications in the fields of electronics, gas sensor/storage, catalysis, etc. Therefore, diverse GNMs with different physical and chemical properties are required urgently to meet different applications. Herein we demonstrate a facile synthetic method based on the famous Fenton reaction to prepare GNM, by using economically fabricated graphene oxide (GO) as a starting material. By precisely controlling the reaction time, simultaneous regulation of pore size from 2.9 to 11.1 nm and surface structure can be realized. Ultimately, diverse GNMs with tunable band gap and work function can be obtained. Specially, the band gap decreases from 4.5–2.3 eV for GO, which is an insulator, to 3.9–1.24 eV for GNM-5 h, which approaches to a semiconductor. The dual nature of electrophilic addition and oxidizability of HO• is responsible for this controllable synthesis. This efficient, low-cost, inherently scalable synthetic method is suitable for provide diverse and optional GNMs, and may be generalized to a universal technique.

  20. Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of SWRO Process Based on Simultaneous Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aipeng Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse osmosis (RO technique is one of the most efficient ways for seawater desalination to solve the shortage of freshwater. For prediction and analysis of the performance of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO process, an accurate and detailed model based on the solution-diffusion and mass transfer theory is established. Since the accurate formulation of the model includes many differential equations and strong nonlinear equations (differential and algebraic equations, DAEs, to solve the problem efficiently, the simultaneous method through orthogonal collocation on finite elements and large scale solver were used to obtain the solutions. The model was fully discretized into NLP (nonlinear programming with large scale variables and equations, and then the NLP was solved by large scale solver of IPOPT. Validation of the formulated model and solution method is verified by case study on a SWRO plant. Then simulation and analysis are carried out to demonstrate the performance of reverse osmosis process; operational conditions such as feed pressure and feed flow rate as well as feed temperature are also analyzed. This work is of significant meaning for the detailed understanding of RO process and future energy saving through operational optimization.

  1. Facile synthesis of diverse graphene nanomeshes based on simultaneous regulation of pore size and surface structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Song, Huaibing; Zeng, Dawen; Wang, Hao; Qin, Ziyu; Xu, Keng; Pang, Aimin; Xie, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene nanomesh (GNM) has attracted great attentions due to its unique porous structure, abundant active sites, finite band gap and possesses potential applications in the fields of electronics, gas sensor/storage, catalysis, etc. Therefore, diverse GNMs with different physical and chemical properties are required urgently to meet different applications. Herein we demonstrate a facile synthetic method based on the famous Fenton reaction to prepare GNM, by using economically fabricated graphene oxide (GO) as a starting material. By precisely controlling the reaction time, simultaneous regulation of pore size from 2.9 to 11.1 nm and surface structure can be realized. Ultimately, diverse GNMs with tunable band gap and work function can be obtained. Specially, the band gap decreases from 4.5-2.3 eV for GO, which is an insulator, to 3.9-1.24 eV for GNM-5 h, which approaches to a semiconductor. The dual nature of electrophilic addition and oxidizability of HO(•) is responsible for this controllable synthesis. This efficient, low-cost, inherently scalable synthetic method is suitable for provide diverse and optional GNMs, and may be generalized to a universal technique. PMID:27561350

  2. Experimental study on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification based on highly active absorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO from flue gas by the highly active absorbent prepared from fly ash, lime and a few oxidizing manganese compound additive was studied using a flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB) under different experimental conditions. The effects influencing the removal effiencies were discussed. The optimal flue gas temperature, flue gas humidity, gas velocity of CFB and Ca/(S+N) molar ratio with this process were approximately 110℃, 6%, 1.8 m/s and 1.05, respectively. Removal efficiencies of 92.3% for SO2 and 60.88% for NO were obtained under the optimal experimental conditions. While the spent absorbent appeared in the form of dry powder, the mechanism of removal for SO2 and NO based on the highly active absorbent was investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a X-ray energy spectrometer and the chemical analysis methods. The valuable references can be provided for industrial application by the process. The foreground of application will be vast in China and in the world.

  3. Oligonucleotide-based fluorogenic sensor for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Changlong; Xua, Liguang; Xing, Changrui; Kuang, Hua; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we report a new fluorogenic sensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for detection of heavy metal ions in aqueous solution. The method showed the advantage of being simple, highly sensitive and selective, and rapid. The donor (CdTe QDs) and acceptor (TAMRA or Cy5) are brought into close proximity to one another due to Hg(2+) and Ag(+) form strong and stable T-Hg(2+)-T complexes and C-Ag(+)-C complexes, which quenches the fluorescent intensity of CdTe QDs and enables the energy transfer from donor to acceptor. This sensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity when only one kind of ion (Ag(+) or Hg(2+)) exists. Furthermore, the assay can also simultaneously detect Ag(+) and Hg(2+) in water media with the limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 and 1.8 nM, separately, which satisfactorily meets the sensitivity demands of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and World Health Organization (WHO). This assay also exhibits excellent selectivity toward Ag(+) and Hg(2+). Therefore, this method is of great practical and theoretical importance for detecting heavy metal ions in aqueous solution. PMID:22560162

  4. Facile synthesis of diverse graphene nanomeshes based on simultaneous regulation of pore size and surface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Song, Huaibing; Zeng, Dawen; Wang, Hao; Qin, Ziyu; Xu, Keng; Pang, Aimin; Xie, Changsheng

    2016-08-01

    Recently, graphene nanomesh (GNM) has attracted great attentions due to its unique porous structure, abundant active sites, finite band gap and possesses potential applications in the fields of electronics, gas sensor/storage, catalysis, etc. Therefore, diverse GNMs with different physical and chemical properties are required urgently to meet different applications. Herein we demonstrate a facile synthetic method based on the famous Fenton reaction to prepare GNM, by using economically fabricated graphene oxide (GO) as a starting material. By precisely controlling the reaction time, simultaneous regulation of pore size from 2.9 to 11.1 nm and surface structure can be realized. Ultimately, diverse GNMs with tunable band gap and work function can be obtained. Specially, the band gap decreases from 4.5-2.3 eV for GO, which is an insulator, to 3.9-1.24 eV for GNM-5 h, which approaches to a semiconductor. The dual nature of electrophilic addition and oxidizability of HO• is responsible for this controllable synthesis. This efficient, low-cost, inherently scalable synthetic method is suitable for provide diverse and optional GNMs, and may be generalized to a universal technique.

  5. Simultaneous detection of lactate and glucose by integrated printed circuit board based array sensing chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelian; Zang, Jianfeng; Liu, Yingshuai; Lu, Zhisong; Li, Qing; Li, Chang Ming

    2013-04-10

    An integrated printed circuit board (PCB) based array sensing chip was developed to simultaneously detect lactate and glucose in mouse serum. The novelty of the chip relies on a concept demonstration of inexpensive high-throughput electronic biochip, a chip design for high signal to noise ratio and high sensitivity by construction of positively charged chitosan/redox polymer Polyvinylimidazole-Os (PVI-Os)/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite sensing platform, in which the positively charged chitosan/PVI-Os is mediator and electrostatically immobilizes the negatively charged enzyme, while CNTs function as an essential cross-linker to network PVI-Os and chitosan due to its negative charged nature. Additional electrodes on the chip with the same sensing layer but without enzymes were prepared to correct the interferences for high specificity. Low detection limits of 0.6 μM and 5 μM were achieved for lactate and glucose, respectively. This work could be extended to inexpensive array sensing chips with high sensitivity, good specificity and high reproducibility for various sensor applications.

  6. Simultaneous Channel and Feature Selection of Fused EEG Features Based on Sparse Group Lasso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction and classification of EEG signals are core parts of brain computer interfaces (BCIs. Due to the high dimension of the EEG feature vector, an effective feature selection algorithm has become an integral part of research studies. In this paper, we present a new method based on a wrapped Sparse Group Lasso for channel and feature selection of fused EEG signals. The high-dimensional fused features are firstly obtained, which include the power spectrum, time-domain statistics, AR model, and the wavelet coefficient features extracted from the preprocessed EEG signals. The wrapped channel and feature selection method is then applied, which uses the logistical regression model with Sparse Group Lasso penalized function. The model is fitted on the training data, and parameter estimation is obtained by modified blockwise coordinate descent and coordinate gradient descent method. The best parameters and feature subset are selected by using a 10-fold cross-validation. Finally, the test data is classified using the trained model. Compared with existing channel and feature selection methods, results show that the proposed method is more suitable, more stable, and faster for high-dimensional feature fusion. It can simultaneously achieve channel and feature selection with a lower error rate. The test accuracy on the data used from international BCI Competition IV reached 84.72%.

  7. Integration of Simulink Models with Component-based Software Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Nicolae; Top, Søren

    2008-01-01

    of abstract system descriptions. Usually, in mechatronics systems, design proceeds by iterating model construction, model analysis, and model transformation. Constructing a MATLAB/Simulink model, a plant and controller behavior is simulated using graphical blocks to represent mathematical and logical...... of MATLAB/Simulink blocks to COMDES software components, both for continuous and discrete behaviour, and the transformation of the software system into the S-functions. The general aim of this work is the improvement of multi-disciplinary development of embedded systems with the focus on the relation...

  8. Simultaneous measurement of strain, temperature and refractive index based on multimode interference, fiber tapering and fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ricardo; Osório, Jonas H.; Aristilde, Stenio; Bilro, Lúcia; Nogueira, Rogerio N.; Cordeiro, Cristiano M. B.

    2016-07-01

    We report the development of an optical fiber sensor capable of simultaneously measuring strain, temperature and refractive index. The sensor is based on the combination of two fiber Bragg gratings written in a standard single-mode fiber, one in an untapered region and another in a tapered region, spliced to a no-core fiber. The possibility of simultaneously measuring three parameters relies on the different sensitivity responses of each part of the sensor. The results have shown the possibility of measuring three parameters simultaneously with a resolution of 3.77 με, 1.36 °C and 5  ×  10‑4, respectively for strain, temperature and refractive index. On top of the multiparameter ability, the simple production and combination of all the parts involved on this optical-fiber-based sensor is an attractive feature for several sensing applications.

  9. Raman Based Process Monitor For Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval.

  10. Raman Based Process Monitor for Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval. (authors)

  11. An Improved Otsu Threshold Segmentation Method for Underwater Simultaneous Localization and Mapping-Based Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin; Martínez, José-Fernán; Eckert, Martina; López-Santidrián, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is on extracting features with SOund Navigation And Ranging (SONAR) sensing for further underwater landmark-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). According to the characteristics of sonar images, in this paper, an improved Otsu threshold segmentation method (TSM) has been developed for feature detection. In combination with a contour detection algorithm, the foreground objects, although presenting different feature shapes, are separated much faster and more precisely than by other segmentation methods. Tests have been made with side-scan sonar (SSS) and forward-looking sonar (FLS) images in comparison with other four TSMs, namely the traditional Otsu method, the local TSM, the iterative TSM and the maximum entropy TSM. For all the sonar images presented in this work, the computational time of the improved Otsu TSM is much lower than that of the maximum entropy TSM, which achieves the highest segmentation precision among the four above mentioned TSMs. As a result of the segmentations, the centroids of the main extracted regions have been computed to represent point landmarks which can be used for navigation, e.g., with the help of an Augmented Extended Kalman Filter (AEKF)-based SLAM algorithm. The AEKF-SLAM approach is a recursive and iterative estimation-update process, which besides a prediction and an update stage (as in classical Extended Kalman Filter (EKF)), includes an augmentation stage. During navigation, the robot localizes the centroids of different segments of features in sonar images, which are detected by our improved Otsu TSM, as point landmarks. Using them with the AEKF achieves more accurate and robust estimations of the robot pose and the landmark positions, than with those detected by the maximum entropy TSM. Together with the landmarks identified by the proposed segmentation algorithm, the AEKF-SLAM has achieved reliable detection of cycles in the map and consistent map update on loop closure, which is

  12. An Improved Otsu Threshold Segmentation Method for Underwater Simultaneous Localization and Mapping-Based Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin; Martínez, José-Fernán; Eckert, Martina; López-Santidrián, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is on extracting features with SOund Navigation And Ranging (SONAR) sensing for further underwater landmark-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). According to the characteristics of sonar images, in this paper, an improved Otsu threshold segmentation method (TSM) has been developed for feature detection. In combination with a contour detection algorithm, the foreground objects, although presenting different feature shapes, are separated much faster and more precisely than by other segmentation methods. Tests have been made with side-scan sonar (SSS) and forward-looking sonar (FLS) images in comparison with other four TSMs, namely the traditional Otsu method, the local TSM, the iterative TSM and the maximum entropy TSM. For all the sonar images presented in this work, the computational time of the improved Otsu TSM is much lower than that of the maximum entropy TSM, which achieves the highest segmentation precision among the four above mentioned TSMs. As a result of the segmentations, the centroids of the main extracted regions have been computed to represent point landmarks which can be used for navigation, e.g., with the help of an Augmented Extended Kalman Filter (AEKF)-based SLAM algorithm. The AEKF-SLAM approach is a recursive and iterative estimation-update process, which besides a prediction and an update stage (as in classical Extended Kalman Filter (EKF)), includes an augmentation stage. During navigation, the robot localizes the centroids of different segments of features in sonar images, which are detected by our improved Otsu TSM, as point landmarks. Using them with the AEKF achieves more accurate and robust estimations of the robot pose and the landmark positions, than with those detected by the maximum entropy TSM. Together with the landmarks identified by the proposed segmentation algorithm, the AEKF-SLAM has achieved reliable detection of cycles in the map and consistent map update on loop closure, which is

  13. An Improved Otsu Threshold Segmentation Method for Underwater Simultaneous Localization and Mapping-Based Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin; Martínez, José-Fernán; Eckert, Martina; López-Santidrián, Lourdes

    2016-07-22

    The main focus of this paper is on extracting features with SOund Navigation And Ranging (SONAR) sensing for further underwater landmark-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). According to the characteristics of sonar images, in this paper, an improved Otsu threshold segmentation method (TSM) has been developed for feature detection. In combination with a contour detection algorithm, the foreground objects, although presenting different feature shapes, are separated much faster and more precisely than by other segmentation methods. Tests have been made with side-scan sonar (SSS) and forward-looking sonar (FLS) images in comparison with other four TSMs, namely the traditional Otsu method, the local TSM, the iterative TSM and the maximum entropy TSM. For all the sonar images presented in this work, the computational time of the improved Otsu TSM is much lower than that of the maximum entropy TSM, which achieves the highest segmentation precision among the four above mentioned TSMs. As a result of the segmentations, the centroids of the main extracted regions have been computed to represent point landmarks which can be used for navigation, e.g., with the help of an Augmented Extended Kalman Filter (AEKF)-based SLAM algorithm. The AEKF-SLAM approach is a recursive and iterative estimation-update process, which besides a prediction and an update stage (as in classical Extended Kalman Filter (EKF)), includes an augmentation stage. During navigation, the robot localizes the centroids of different segments of features in sonar images, which are detected by our improved Otsu TSM, as point landmarks. Using them with the AEKF achieves more accurate and robust estimations of the robot pose and the landmark positions, than with those detected by the maximum entropy TSM. Together with the landmarks identified by the proposed segmentation algorithm, the AEKF-SLAM has achieved reliable detection of cycles in the map and consistent map update on loop closure, which is

  14. An Improved Otsu Threshold Segmentation Method for Underwater Simultaneous Localization and Mapping-Based Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this paper is on extracting features with SOund Navigation And Ranging (SONAR sensing for further underwater landmark-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM. According to the characteristics of sonar images, in this paper, an improved Otsu threshold segmentation method (TSM has been developed for feature detection. In combination with a contour detection algorithm, the foreground objects, although presenting different feature shapes, are separated much faster and more precisely than by other segmentation methods. Tests have been made with side-scan sonar (SSS and forward-looking sonar (FLS images in comparison with other four TSMs, namely the traditional Otsu method, the local TSM, the iterative TSM and the maximum entropy TSM. For all the sonar images presented in this work, the computational time of the improved Otsu TSM is much lower than that of the maximum entropy TSM, which achieves the highest segmentation precision among the four above mentioned TSMs. As a result of the segmentations, the centroids of the main extracted regions have been computed to represent point landmarks which can be used for navigation, e.g., with the help of an Augmented Extended Kalman Filter (AEKF-based SLAM algorithm. The AEKF-SLAM approach is a recursive and iterative estimation-update process, which besides a prediction and an update stage (as in classical Extended Kalman Filter (EKF, includes an augmentation stage. During navigation, the robot localizes the centroids of different segments of features in sonar images, which are detected by our improved Otsu TSM, as point landmarks. Using them with the AEKF achieves more accurate and robust estimations of the robot pose and the landmark positions, than with those detected by the maximum entropy TSM. Together with the landmarks identified by the proposed segmentation algorithm, the AEKF-SLAM has achieved reliable detection of cycles in the map and consistent map update on loop

  15. Study of a distributed feedback diode laser based hygrometer combined Herriot-gas cell and waterless optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yubin; Chang, Jun; Lian, Jie; Wang, Qiang; Wei, Wei

    2016-09-01

    A distributed feedback diode laser (DFB-DL) based hygrometer combined with a long-path-length Herriot gas cell and waterless optical components was proposed and investigated. The main function of this sensor was to simultaneously improve the measurement reliability and resolution. A comparison test between a 10-cm normal transmission-type gas cell and a 3-m Herriot gas cell was carried out to demonstrate the improvement. Reliability improvement was achieved by influence suppression of water vapor inside optical components (WVOC) through combined action of the Herriot gas cell and waterless optical components. The influence of WVOC was suppressed from 726 ppmv to 25 ppmv using the Herriot gas cell. Moreover, combined with waterless optical components, the influence of WVOC was further suppressed to no more than 4 ppmv. Resolution improvement from 11.7 ppmv to 0.32 ppmv was achieved mainly due to the application of the long-path-length Herriot gas cell. The results show that the proposed sensor has a good performance and considerable potential application in gas sensing, especially when probed gas possibly permeates into optical components.

  16. Component-Based Approach for Educating Students in Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, D.; Venkatraman, N.; Hansen, C.; Singh, G.

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing need for an effective method of teaching bioinformatics. Increased progress and availability of computer-based tools for educating students have led to the implementation of a computer-based system for teaching bioinformatics as described in this paper. Bioinformatics is a recent, hybrid field of study combining elements of…

  17. Principal component analysis based methodology to distinguish protein SERS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, G.; Gentile, F.; Coluccio, M. L.; Perri, A. M.; Nicastri, A.; Mecarini, F.; Cojoc, G.; Candeloro, P.; Liberale, C.; De Angelis, F.; Di Fabrizio, E.

    2011-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were fabricated using electro-plating and e-beam lithography techniques. Nano-structures were obtained comprising regular arrays of gold nanoaggregates with a diameter of 80 nm and a mutual distance between the aggregates (gap) ranging from 10 to 30 nm. The nanopatterned SERS substrate enabled to have better control and reproducibility on the generation of plasmon polaritons (PPs). SERS measurements were performed for various proteins, namely bovine serum albumin (BSA), myoglobin, ferritin, lysozyme, RNase-B, α-casein, α-lactalbumin and trypsin. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to organize and classify the proteins on the basis of their secondary structure. Cluster analysis proved that the error committed in the classification was of about 14%. In the paper, it was clearly shown that the combined use of SERS measurements and PCA analysis is effective in categorizing the proteins on the basis of secondary structure.

  18. Component Thermodynamical Selection Based Gene Expression Programming for Function Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolu Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression programming (GEP, improved genetic programming (GP, has become a popular tool for data mining. However, like other evolutionary algorithms, it tends to suffer from premature convergence and slow convergence rate when solving complex problems. In this paper, we propose an enhanced GEP algorithm, called CTSGEP, which is inspired by the principle of minimal free energy in thermodynamics. In CTSGEP, it employs a component thermodynamical selection (CTS operator to quantitatively keep a balance between the selective pressure and the population diversity during the evolution process. Experiments are conducted on several benchmark datasets from the UCI machine learning repository. The results show that the performance of CTSGEP is better than the conventional GEP and some GEP variations.

  19. Reliability-Based Design Optimization of a Composite Airframe Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Pai, Shantaram S.; Coroneos, Rula M.

    2009-01-01

    A stochastic design optimization methodology (SDO) has been developed to design components of an airframe structure that can be made of metallic and composite materials. The design is obtained as a function of the risk level, or reliability, p. The design method treats uncertainties in load, strength, and material properties as distribution functions, which are defined with mean values and standard deviations. A design constraint or a failure mode is specified as a function of reliability p. Solution to stochastic optimization yields the weight of a structure as a function of reliability p. Optimum weight versus reliability p traced out an inverted-S-shaped graph. The center of the inverted-S graph corresponded to 50 percent (p = 0.5) probability of success. A heavy design with weight approaching infinity could be produced for a near-zero rate of failure that corresponds to unity for reliability p (or p = 1). Weight can be reduced to a small value for the most failure-prone design with a reliability that approaches zero (p = 0). Reliability can be changed for different components of an airframe structure. For example, the landing gear can be designed for a very high reliability, whereas it can be reduced to a small extent for a raked wingtip. The SDO capability is obtained by combining three codes: (1) The MSC/Nastran code was the deterministic analysis tool, (2) The fast probabilistic integrator, or the FPI module of the NESSUS software, was the probabilistic calculator, and (3) NASA Glenn Research Center s optimization testbed CometBoards became the optimizer. The SDO capability requires a finite element structural model, a material model, a load model, and a design model. The stochastic optimization concept is illustrated considering an academic example and a real-life raked wingtip structure of the Boeing 767-400 extended range airliner made of metallic and composite materials.

  20. Luminex-Based Triplex Immunoassay for the Simultaneous Detection of Soy, Pea and Soluble Wheat proteins in Milk Powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Pre, du J.G.

    2007-01-01

    An automated fluorescent microsphere-based flow cytometric triplex immunoassay, using the Luminex 100 flow analyzer with MultiAnalyte Profiling (xMAP) technology, was developed for the simultaneous detection of proteins from three vegetable sources as potential fraudulent adulterants in milk powder.

  1. In vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of brain energy substrates with a multiplex amperometric enzyme-based biosensor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lima Braga Lopes Cordeiro, Carlos; de Vries, M.G.; Ngabi, W; Oomen, P.E.; Cremers, T.I.F.H.; Westerink, B.H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-based amperometric biosensors are widely used for monitoring key biomarkers. In experimental neuroscience there is a growing interest in in vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of metabolism-related biomarkers, like glucose, lactate and pyruvate. The use of multiplex biosensors will pr

  2. Critical components for diamond-based quantum coherent devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessary elements for practical devices exploiting quantum coherence in diamond materials are summarized, and progress towards their realization documented. A brief review of future prospects for diamond-based devices is also provided

  3. Simultaneous structure and geometry detail completion based on interactive user sketches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shen; QI Yue; QIN Hong

    2012-01-01

    We articulate a novel approach to geometric model completion via interactive sketches in this paper.First,the initial incomplete model (with holes) is decomposed into a base model and a high-frequency component,which represents global rough shape and geometric details,respectively.We then repair the base model via smooth hole-filling,and compute the geometry detail image using high frequency information.One novel element of our approach is that we allow users to interactively sketch a few structural curves that span across hole regions,with a goal to repair both local geometric details and global structure.With the help of local parameterization,we convert detailed geometry into gradient-domain images which can propagate along user-specified sketches.By integrating recovered gradient-domain images and base shape,we can generate a complete model that faithfully recovers both global structure and local details.The salient contribution of this paper is the unified approach for user interaction,global structure,and geometry details towards high-fidelity model completion.We demonstrate our new approach using a number of examples that exhibit salient global structure as well as local geometry details.

  4. EEG-Based Emotion Recognition Using Deep Learning Network with Principal Component Based Covariate Shift Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwicha Jirayucharoensak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic emotion recognition is one of the most challenging tasks. To detect emotion from nonstationary EEG signals, a sophisticated learning algorithm that can represent high-level abstraction is required. This study proposes the utilization of a deep learning network (DLN to discover unknown feature correlation between input signals that is crucial for the learning task. The DLN is implemented with a stacked autoencoder (SAE using hierarchical feature learning approach. Input features of the network are power spectral densities of 32-channel EEG signals from 32 subjects. To alleviate overfitting problem, principal component analysis (PCA is applied to extract the most important components of initial input features. Furthermore, covariate shift adaptation of the principal components is implemented to minimize the nonstationary effect of EEG signals. Experimental results show that the DLN is capable of classifying three different levels of valence and arousal with accuracy of 49.52% and 46.03%, respectively. Principal component based covariate shift adaptation enhances the respective classification accuracy by 5.55% and 6.53%. Moreover, DLN provides better performance compared to SVM and naive Bayes classifiers.

  5. EEG-based emotion recognition using deep learning network with principal component based covariate shift adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirayucharoensak, Suwicha; Pan-Ngum, Setha; Israsena, Pasin

    2014-01-01

    Automatic emotion recognition is one of the most challenging tasks. To detect emotion from nonstationary EEG signals, a sophisticated learning algorithm that can represent high-level abstraction is required. This study proposes the utilization of a deep learning network (DLN) to discover unknown feature correlation between input signals that is crucial for the learning task. The DLN is implemented with a stacked autoencoder (SAE) using hierarchical feature learning approach. Input features of the network are power spectral densities of 32-channel EEG signals from 32 subjects. To alleviate overfitting problem, principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to extract the most important components of initial input features. Furthermore, covariate shift adaptation of the principal components is implemented to minimize the nonstationary effect of EEG signals. Experimental results show that the DLN is capable of classifying three different levels of valence and arousal with accuracy of 49.52% and 46.03%, respectively. Principal component based covariate shift adaptation enhances the respective classification accuracy by 5.55% and 6.53%. Moreover, DLN provides better performance compared to SVM and naive Bayes classifiers. PMID:25258728

  6. EEG-Based Emotion Recognition Using Deep Learning Network with Principal Component Based Covariate Shift Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirayucharoensak, Suwicha; Pan-Ngum, Setha; Israsena, Pasin

    2014-01-01

    Automatic emotion recognition is one of the most challenging tasks. To detect emotion from nonstationary EEG signals, a sophisticated learning algorithm that can represent high-level abstraction is required. This study proposes the utilization of a deep learning network (DLN) to discover unknown feature correlation between input signals that is crucial for the learning task. The DLN is implemented with a stacked autoencoder (SAE) using hierarchical feature learning approach. Input features of the network are power spectral densities of 32-channel EEG signals from 32 subjects. To alleviate overfitting problem, principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to extract the most important components of initial input features. Furthermore, covariate shift adaptation of the principal components is implemented to minimize the nonstationary effect of EEG signals. Experimental results show that the DLN is capable of classifying three different levels of valence and arousal with accuracy of 49.52% and 46.03%, respectively. Principal component based covariate shift adaptation enhances the respective classification accuracy by 5.55% and 6.53%. Moreover, DLN provides better performance compared to SVM and naive Bayes classifiers. PMID:25258728

  7. Development of spiropyran-based electrochemical sensor via simultaneous photochemical and target-activatable electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jia; Li, Yinhui; Zhao, Peng; Li, Jishan; Duan, Yu; Zhao, Wenjie; Yang, Ronghua

    2014-12-15

    In traditional electrochemical sensors, the electrochemical signal transduction of the redox-active material is usually controlled by the analytical target. Due to non-specific interaction between the redox mediator and the target, false signal by single stimulus may not be avoided. To address this issue, we have developed a new electrochemical sensor that uses a functional spiropyran, an important class of photo and thermochromic compounds, as both recognition receptor and latent redox mediator, to realize simultaneous photochemical and target-modulated electron transfer. As a proof of principle, β-galactosidase was chosen as a model target. The new synthesized spiropyran probe, SP-β-gal, undergoes reversibly structural isomerization to form merocyanine under UV light irradiation. After the glycosidic bond being cleaved by β-galactosidase, the opened merocyanine of SP-β-gal forms redox-active 2-(2.5-dihydroxystyryl)-1.3.3-trimethyl-3H-indolium, and thus produces a pair of reversible redox current peaks under the electrochemical scanning. To amplify the detection signal, SP-β-gal was self-assembled with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on the surface of glass carbon electrode. Kinetics experiments confirm that the probe is an ideal candidate for the determination of different concentrations of β-galactosidase digestion kinetics. Further, the SP-β-gal/SWCNTs-modified electrode is chemically stable in complex biological fluids. It was successfully applied to monitor β-galactosidase activity in the 10% calf thymus. This work represents not only a significant step forward in the further development of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials/small organic molecular probes-based electrochemical biosensors, but also a new platform which may be extended to the assay of other enzyme such as β-D-glycosidase and so on by translating the biorecognition into electrochemical signal responses. PMID:24997369

  8. Identification of Analytical Factors Affecting Complex Proteomics Profiles Acquired in a Factorial Design Study with Analysis of Variance: Simultaneous Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Vikram; Govorukhina, Natalia; Zwanenburg, Gooitzen; Hoefsloot, Huub; Westra, Inge; Smilde, Age; Reijmers, Theo; van der Zee, Ate G J; Suits, Frank; Bischoff, Rainer; Horvatovich, Péter

    2016-04-19

    Complex shotgun proteomics peptide profiles obtained in quantitative differential protein expression studies, such as in biomarker discovery, may be affected by multiple experimental factors. These preanalytical factors may affect the measured protein abundances which in turn influence the outcome of the associated statistical analysis and validation. It is therefore important to determine which factors influence the abundance of peptides in a complex proteomics experiment and to identify those peptides that are most influenced by these factors. In the current study we analyzed depleted human serum samples to evaluate experimental factors that may influence the resulting peptide profile such as the residence time in the autosampler at 4 °C, stopping or not stopping the trypsin digestion with acid, the type of blood collection tube, different hemolysis levels, differences in clotting times, the number of freeze-thaw cycles, and different trypsin/protein ratios. To this end we used a two-level fractional factorial design of resolution IV (2(IV)(7-3)). The design required analysis of 16 samples in which the main effects were not confounded by two-factor interactions. Data preprocessing using the Threshold Avoiding Proteomics Pipeline (Suits, F.; Hoekman, B.; Rosenling, T.; Bischoff, R.; Horvatovich, P. Anal. Chem. 2011, 83, 7786-7794, ref 1) produced a data-matrix containing quantitative information on 2,559 peaks. The intensity of the peaks was log-transformed, and peaks having intensities of a low t-test significance (p-value > 0.05) and a low absolute fold ratio (<2) between the two levels of each factor were removed. The remaining peaks were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA)-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). Permutation tests were used to identify which of the preanalytical factors influenced the abundance of the measured peptides most significantly. The most important preanalytical factors affecting peptide intensity were (1) the hemolysis level

  9. Identification of Analytical Factors Affecting Complex Proteomics Profiles Acquired in a Factorial Design Study with Analysis of Variance: Simultaneous Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Vikram; Govorukhina, Natalia; Zwanenburg, Gooitzen; Hoefsloot, Huub; Westra, Inge; Smilde, Age; Reijmers, Theo; van der Zee, Ate G J; Suits, Frank; Bischoff, Rainer; Horvatovich, Péter

    2016-04-19

    Complex shotgun proteomics peptide profiles obtained in quantitative differential protein expression studies, such as in biomarker discovery, may be affected by multiple experimental factors. These preanalytical factors may affect the measured protein abundances which in turn influence the outcome of the associated statistical analysis and validation. It is therefore important to determine which factors influence the abundance of peptides in a complex proteomics experiment and to identify those peptides that are most influenced by these factors. In the current study we analyzed depleted human serum samples to evaluate experimental factors that may influence the resulting peptide profile such as the residence time in the autosampler at 4 °C, stopping or not stopping the trypsin digestion with acid, the type of blood collection tube, different hemolysis levels, differences in clotting times, the number of freeze-thaw cycles, and different trypsin/protein ratios. To this end we used a two-level fractional factorial design of resolution IV (2(IV)(7-3)). The design required analysis of 16 samples in which the main effects were not confounded by two-factor interactions. Data preprocessing using the Threshold Avoiding Proteomics Pipeline (Suits, F.; Hoekman, B.; Rosenling, T.; Bischoff, R.; Horvatovich, P. Anal. Chem. 2011, 83, 7786-7794, ref 1) produced a data-matrix containing quantitative information on 2,559 peaks. The intensity of the peaks was log-transformed, and peaks having intensities of a low t-test significance (p-value > 0.05) and a low absolute fold ratio (ANOVA)-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). Permutation tests were used to identify which of the preanalytical factors influenced the abundance of the measured peptides most significantly. The most important preanalytical factors affecting peptide intensity were (1) the hemolysis level, (2) stopping trypsin digestion with acid, and (3) the trypsin/protein ratio. This provides guidelines for the

  10. Component-based Construction of Heterogeneous Real-time Systems in BIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifakis, Joseph

    We present a framework for the component-based construction of real-time systems. The framework is based on the BIP (Behaviour, Interaction, Priority) semantic model, characterized by a layered representation of components. Compound components are obtained as the composition of atomic components specified by their behaviour and interface, by using connectors and dynamic priorities. Connectors describe structured interactions between atomic components, in terms of two basic protocols: rendezvous and broadcast. Dynamic priorities are used to select amongst possible interactions - in particular, to express scheduling policies.

  11. Method for rapid measuring retardation of a quarter-wave plate based on simultaneous phase shifting technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Yang; Aijun Zeng; Xiangzhao Wang; Feng Tang; Hua Wang

    2008-01-01

    A method for rapid measuring retardation of a quarter-wave plate based on simultaneous phase shifting technique is presented. The simultaneous phase shifting function is realized by an orthogonal grating, a diaphragm, an analyzer array, and a 4-quadrant detector. The intensities of the light beams from the four analyzers with different azimuths are measured simultaneously. The retardation of the quarter-wave plate is obtained through the four light intensity values. In this method, the major axis position of the quarter-wave plate need not be determined in advance. In addition, the measured result is free of the intensity fluctuation of light source. The feasibility of the method is verified by the experiments.

  12. Multiparameter Analysis-Based Electrochemiluminescent Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Biomarker Proteins on a Single Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenbin; Fan, Chenchen; Zhuo, Ying; Zheng, Yingning; Xiong, Chengyi; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-05-01

    Electrochemiluminescent (ECL) assay with high sensitivity has been considered as one of the potential strategies to simultaneously detect multiple biomarker proteins. However, it was essential, but full of challenges, to overcome the limitation caused by cross reactions among different ECL indicators. Herein, the multiparameter analysis of ECL-potential signals demonstrated by multivariate linear algebraic equations was first employed in the simultaneous ECL assay to realize multiple detection of biomarker proteins on a single interface. Additionally, owing to the exponential amplification of self-synthesized nucleotide dendrimer by hybridization chain reaction (HCR) and rolling circle amplification (RCA), the developed simultaneous ECL assay showed improved sensitivity and satisfactory accuracy for the detection of N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (BNPT) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI). Furthermore, a self-designed magnetic beads-based flow system was also employed to improve the feasibility and analysis speed of the simultaneous ECL assay. Importantly, the proposed strategy enabled simultaneous detection of multiple biomarker proteins simply, which could be readily expanded for the multiplexed estimation of various kinds of proteins and nucleotide sequence also, revealing a new avenue for early disease diagnosis with higher efficiency. PMID:27064937

  13. Multidimensional catalogs for systematic exploration of component-based design spaces

    OpenAIRE

    López, Claudia; Astudillo, Hernán

    2006-01-01

    Most component-based approaches to elaborate software require complete and consistent descriptions of components, but in practical settings components information is incomplete, imprecise and changing, and requirements may be likewise. More realistically deployable are approaches that combine exploration of candidate architectures with their evaluation vis-a-vis requirements, and deal with the fuzzyness of available component information. This article presents an approach to systematic genera...

  14. Implementation of the safety components base on industrial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, P.; Hetmańczyk, M. P.

    2015-11-01

    Capabilities of modern automation systems, especially in the field of industrial networks applications, encouraging them to favor during the process of developing the automation project [2,3,5]. Extensive network topologies and simplicity and clear structure causing displacement of the classic wiring. The article presents: project workflow for creating laboratory stand based on industrial network and base on it implementing the safety system. The individual steps of the process are described. In addition, the paper presents the main concept for controlling the safety functions of the system.

  15. Alpha-beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D.; Orion, I.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha-beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha-beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha-beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  16. Visual-based simultaneous localization and mapping and global positioning system correction for geo-localization of a mobile robot

    OpenAIRE

    Berrabah, Sid Ahmed; Sahli, Hichem; Baudoin, Yvan

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces an approach combining visual-based simultaneous localization and mapping (V-SLAM) and global positioning system (GPS) correction for accurate multi-sensor localization of an outdoor mobile robot in geo-referenced maps. The proposed framework combines two extended Kalman filters (EKF); the first one, referred to as the integration filter, is dedicated to the improvement of the GPS localization based on data from an inertial navigation system and wheels’ encode...

  17. Research on the Component-based Software Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Computer software has been becoming more and more c om plex with the development of hardware. Thus, how to efficiently develop extensib le, maintainable and adaptable software occurs to be an urgent problem. The comp onent-based software development technique is a better method to solve the prob lem. In this paper, we first discuss the concept, description method and some fa miliar styles of software architecture, and then analyze the merits of using the software architecture to guide the software developm...

  18. Supporting software evolution in component-based FOSS systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cosmo R.; Di Ruscio D.; Pelliccione P.; Pierantonio A.; Zacchiroli S.

    2011-01-01

    FOSS (Free and Open Source Software) systems present interesting challenges in system evolution. On one hand, most FOSS systems are based on very fine-grained units of software deployment-called packages-which promote system evolution; on the other hand, FOSS systems are among the largest software systems known and require sophisticated static and dynamic conditions to be verified, in order to successfully deploy upgrades on users' machines. The slightest error in one of these conditions can ...

  19. A Component-Based Software Configuration Management Model and Its Supporting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅宏; 张路; 杨芙清

    2002-01-01

    Software configuration management (SCM) is an important key technology in software development. Component-based software development (CBSD) is an emerging paradigm in software development. However, to apply CBSD effectively in real world practice,supporting SCM in CBSD needs to be further investigated. In this paper, the objects that need to be managed in CBSD is analyzed and a component-based SCM model is presented. In this model, components, as the integral logical constituents in a system, are managed as the basic configuration items in SCM, and the relationships between/among components are defined and maintained. Based on this model, a configuration management system is implemented.

  20. Low-power adaptive filter based on RNS components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernocchi, Gian Luca; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Del Re, Andrea;

    2007-01-01

    least mean squares (LMS) algorithm, is allowed. Previous work showed that the use of the residue number system (RNS) for the variable FIR filter grants advantages both in area and power consumption. On the other hand, the use of a binary serial implementation of the adaptation algorithm eliminates the......In this paper a low-power implementation of an adaptive FIR filter is presented. The filter is designed to meet the constraints of channel equalization for fixed wireless communications that typically requires a large number of taps, but a serial updating of the filter coefficients, based on the...

  1. A New Method for Sex Determination Based on Detection of SRY, STS and Amelogenin Gene Regions with Simultaneous Amplification of Their Homologous Sequences by a Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morikawa,Toshio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new method for sex determination based on simultaneous detection of the SRY (sex-determining region Y, STS (steroid sulfatase and amelogenin (AMELX and AMELY gene regions and their homologous sequences. The sex of 246 blood samples was correctly determined by this method. An AMELY-deleted male sample, which would have been erroneously considered female based solely on analysis of the amelogenin locus, was successfully identified as male by the present method. The detection limit of this method was 63 pg of genomic DNA, and the male DNA component could be detected from mixed samples having a male:female ratio as low as 1:10. This method was useful for degraded DNA and possessed the human specificity. Practical application to 35 autopsy cases is described.

  2. Identification and Simultaneous Determination of Twelve Active Components in the Methanol Extract of Traditional Medicine Weichang’an Pill by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jingze; Gao, Wenyuan; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Zhidan

    2013-01-01

    Weichang’an (WCA) pill, a traditional Chinese patent medicine consisting of ten Chinese medicinal herbs, has been used to treat irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia for several decades. In this study, twelve bioactive constituents in the methanol extract of WCA were accurately identified since MS/MS fragmentation behavior of the references and the standards by using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis and a reliable and accurate method for the simultaneous determination was developed. Tw...

  3. Phase Change-based Fixturing for Arbitrarily Shaped Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bei-zhi; YANG Jian-guo; ZHOU Li-bing; XIANG Qian

    2002-01-01

    Issues in industrialization of RFPE (Reference Free Part Encapsulation) are discussed in this paper. The issues technique. A new method - adaptable location system (ATLS) is presented in this paper. ATLS consists of an array of pins which are controlled manually or automatically by an actuator. The actuation force comes from a shape memory alloy (SMA). Material properties of filler are very important for RFPE. The experiment has shown that machining error can be reduced by using conservative cutting parameters. Based on finite element analysis, the relationship between the deformation of the workpiece, the filler and the machining parameters has been achieved. A new approach, partial cage with active side wall (PCASW), allows machine tools to easily access any feature of the workpiece from different directions. It is convenient for every new setup.

  4. FPGA-based RF interference reduction techniques for simultaneous PET-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, P.; Wehner, J.; Weissler, B.; Botnar, R.; Marsden, P. K.; Schulz, V.

    2016-05-01

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a multi-modal imaging technique is considered very promising and powerful with regard to in vivo disease progression examination, therapy response monitoring and drug development. However, PET-MRI system design enabling simultaneous operation with unaffected intrinsic performance of both modalities is challenging. As one of the major issues, both the PET detectors and the MRI radio-frequency (RF) subsystem are exposed to electromagnetic (EM) interference, which may lead to PET and MRI signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) deteriorations. Early digitization of electronic PET signals within the MRI bore helps to preserve PET SNR, but occurs at the expense of increased amount of PET electronics inside the MRI and associated RF field emissions. This raises the likelihood of PET-related MRI interference by coupling into the MRI RF coil unwanted spurious signals considered as RF noise, as it degrades MRI SNR and results in MR image artefacts. RF shielding of PET detectors is a commonly used technique to reduce PET-related RF interferences, but can introduce eddy-current-related MRI disturbances and hinder the highest system integration. In this paper, we present RF interference reduction methods which rely on EM field coupling-decoupling principles of RF receive coils rather than suppressing emitted fields. By modifying clock frequencies and changing clock phase relations of digital circuits, the resulting RF field emission is optimised with regard to a lower field coupling into the MRI RF coil, thereby increasing the RF silence of PET detectors. Our methods are demonstrated by performing FPGA-based clock frequency and phase shifting of digital silicon photo-multipliers (dSiPMs) used in the PET modules of our MR-compatible Hyperion II D PET insert. We present simulations and magnetic-field map scans visualising the impact of altered clock phase pattern on the spatial RF field distribution

  5. Short-course PET based simultaneous integrated boost for locally advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with large, locally advanced cervical cancers (LACC) are challenging to treat. The purpose of this work is to use 18F-FDG PET as planning basis for a short-course simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in external beam radiotherapy of LACC in order to increase tumour shrinkage and likelihood of local control. Ten previously treated patients with LACC were included, all with pre-treatment FDG PET/CT images available. The FDG avid tumour volume, MTV50, was dose escalated in silico by intensity modulated radiotherapy from the standard 1.8 Gy to 2.8 Gy per fraction for the 10 first fractions; a short-course SIB. For the 18 remaining external fractions, standard pelvic treatment followed to total PTV and MTV50 doses of 50.4 Gy and 60.4 Gy, respectively. Photon and proton treatment were considered using volumetric modulated arc treatment (VMAT) and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), respectively. All treatment plans were generated using the Eclipse Treatment Planning System (TPS). The impact of tumour shrinkage on doses to organs at risk (OARs) was simulated in the TPS for the SIB plans. Dose escalation could be implemented using both VMAT and IMPT, with a D98 ≥ 95 % for MTV50 being achieved in all cases. The sum of the 10 fraction short-course SIB and subsequent 18 standard fractions was compared to the standard non-SIB approach by dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis. Only marginal increase of dose to OARs was found for both modalities and a small further increase estimated from tumour shrinkage. Most DVH parameters showed a mean difference below 2 %. IMPT had, compared to VMAT, reduced OAR doses in the low to intermediate dose range, but showed no additional advantage in dose escalation. Planning of dose escalation based on a FDG avid boost volume was here demonstrated feasible. The concept may allow time for enhanced tumour shrinkage before brachytherapy. Thus, this strategy may prove clinically valuable, in particular for patients with large tumours

  6. FPGA-based RF interference reduction techniques for simultaneous PET-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, P; Wehner, J; Weissler, B; Botnar, R; Marsden, P K; Schulz, V

    2016-05-01

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a multi-modal imaging technique is considered very promising and powerful with regard to in vivo disease progression examination, therapy response monitoring and drug development. However, PET-MRI system design enabling simultaneous operation with unaffected intrinsic performance of both modalities is challenging. As one of the major issues, both the PET detectors and the MRI radio-frequency (RF) subsystem are exposed to electromagnetic (EM) interference, which may lead to PET and MRI signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) deteriorations. Early digitization of electronic PET signals within the MRI bore helps to preserve PET SNR, but occurs at the expense of increased amount of PET electronics inside the MRI and associated RF field emissions. This raises the likelihood of PET-related MRI interference by coupling into the MRI RF coil unwanted spurious signals considered as RF noise, as it degrades MRI SNR and results in MR image artefacts. RF shielding of PET detectors is a commonly used technique to reduce PET-related RF interferences, but can introduce eddy-current-related MRI disturbances and hinder the highest system integration. In this paper, we present RF interference reduction methods which rely on EM field coupling-decoupling principles of RF receive coils rather than suppressing emitted fields. By modifying clock frequencies and changing clock phase relations of digital circuits, the resulting RF field emission is optimised with regard to a lower field coupling into the MRI RF coil, thereby increasing the RF silence of PET detectors. Our methods are demonstrated by performing FPGA-based clock frequency and phase shifting of digital silicon photo-multipliers (dSiPMs) used in the PET modules of our MR-compatible Hyperion II (D) PET insert. We present simulations and magnetic-field map scans visualising the impact of altered clock phase pattern on the spatial RF field

  7. Research on development model of nuclear component based on life cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present the development process of nuclear component, even nuclear component itself, is more and more supported by computer technology. This increasing utilization of the computer and software has led to the faster development of nuclear technology on one hand and also brought new problems on the other hand. Especially, the combination of hardware, software and humans has increased nuclear component system complexities to an unprecedented level. To solve this problem, Life Cycle Management technology is adopted in nuclear component system. Hence, an intensive discussion on the development process of a nuclear component is proposed. According to the characteristics of the nuclear component development, such as the complexities and strict safety requirements of the nuclear components, long-term design period, changeable design specifications and requirements, high capital investment, and satisfaction for engineering codes/standards, the development life-cycle model of nuclear component is presented. The development life-cycle model is classified at three levels, namely, component level development life-cycle, sub-component development life-cycle and component level verification/certification life-cycle. The purposes and outcomes of development processes are stated in detailed. A process framework for nuclear component based on system engineering and development environment of nuclear component is discussed for future research work. (authors)

  8. Modeling media as latent semantics based on cognitive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    Though one might think of media as an audiovisual stream of consciousness, we frequently encode frames of video sequences and waves of sound into strings of text. Language allows us to both share the internal representations of what we perceive as mental concepts, as well as categorizing them as ...... with aspects of cognitive linguistics that potentially could be utilized in applications ranging from information retrieval and media personalization, to emotional brand building or neuroscientific modeling of syntax and semantics....... and share the meaning contained within a sentence or a melodic phrase. As both low-level semantic structure of texts and our affective responses can be encoded in words, a simplified cognitive model can be constructed which uses LSA latent semantic analysis to emulate how we perceive the emotional context...... of media based on lyrics, synopses, subtitles, blogs or web pages associated with the content. In the proposed model the bottom-up generated sensory input is a matrix of tens of thousands of words co-occurring within multiple contexts, that are in turn represented as vectors in a semantic space of reduced...

  9. Condition Based Monitoring of Gas Turbine Combustion Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulerich, Nancy; Kidane, Getnet; Spiegelberg, Christine; Tevs, Nikolai

    2012-09-30

    The objective of this program is to develop sensors that allow condition based monitoring of critical combustion parts of gas turbines. Siemens teamed with innovative, small companies that were developing sensor concepts that could monitor wearing and cracking of hot turbine parts. A magnetic crack monitoring sensor concept developed by JENTEK Sensors, Inc. was evaluated in laboratory tests. Designs for engine application were evaluated. The inability to develop a robust lead wire to transmit the signal long distances resulted in a discontinuation of this concept. An optical wear sensor concept proposed by K Sciences GP, LLC was tested in proof-of concept testing. The sensor concept depended, however, on optical fiber tips wearing with the loaded part. The fiber tip wear resulted in too much optical input variability; the sensor could not provide adequate stability for measurement. Siemens developed an alternative optical wear sensor approach that used a commercial PHILTEC, Inc. optical gap sensor with an optical spacer to remove fibers from the wearing surface. The gap sensor measured the length of the wearing spacer to follow loaded part wear. This optical wear sensor was developed to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. It was validated in lab tests and installed on a floating transition seal in an F-Class gas turbine. Laboratory tests indicate that the concept can measure wear on loaded parts at temperatures up to 800{degrees}C with uncertainty of < 0.3 mm. Testing in an F-Class engine installation showed that the optical spacer wore with the wearing part. The electro-optics box located outside the engine enclosure survived the engine enclosure environment. The fiber optic cable and the optical spacer, however, both degraded after about 100 operating hours, impacting the signal analysis.

  10. Case-Based Reasoning Topological Complexity Calculation of Design for Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Directly calculating the topological and geometric complexity from the STEP (standard for the exchange of product model data, ISO 10303) file is a huge task. So, a case-based reasoning approach is presented, which is based on the similarity between the new component and the old one, to calculate the topological and geometric complexity of new components. In order to index, retrieve in historical component database, a new way of component representation is brought forth. And then an algorithm is given to extract topological graph from its STEP files. A mathematical model, which describes how to compare the similarity, is discussed. Finally, an example is given to show the result.

  11. Performance-based seismic design of nonstructural building components: The next frontier of earthquake engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiatrault, Andre; Sullivan, Timothy

    2014-08-01

    With the development and implementation of performance-based earthquake engineering, harmonization of performance levels between structural and nonstructural components becomes vital. Even if the structural components of a building achieve a continuous or immediate occupancy performance level after a seismic event, failure of architectural, mechanical or electrical components can lower the performance level of the entire building system. This reduction in performance caused by the vulnerability of nonstructural components has been observed during recent earthquakes worldwide. Moreover, nonstructural damage has limited the functionality of critical facilities, such as hospitals, following major seismic events. The investment in nonstructural components and building contents is far greater than that of structural components and framing. Therefore, it is not surprising that in many past earthquakes, losses from damage to nonstructural components have exceeded losses from structural damage. Furthermore, the failure of nonstructural components can become a safety hazard or can hamper the safe movement of occupants evacuating buildings, or of rescue workers entering buildings. In comparison to structural components and systems, there is relatively limited information on the seismic design of nonstructural components. Basic research work in this area has been sparse, and the available codes and guidelines are usually, for the most part, based on past experiences, engineering judgment and intuition, rather than on objective experimental and analytical results. Often, design engineers are forced to start almost from square one after each earthquake event: to observe what went wrong and to try to prevent repetitions. This is a consequence of the empirical nature of current seismic regulations and guidelines for nonstructural components. This review paper summarizes current knowledge on the seismic design and analysis of nonstructural building components, identifying major

  12. Coupling non invasive and fast sampling of proteins from work of art surfaces to surface plasmon resonance biosensing: Differential and simultaneous detection of egg components for cultural heritage diagnosis and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarano, S; Carretti, E; Dei, L; Baglioni, P; Minunni, M

    2016-11-15

    Despite the wide application of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to a broad area of interests, from environment to food analysis, from drug discovery to diagnostics, its exploitation in cultural heritage conservation is still unexplored. Water-based highly viscous polymeric dispersions (HVPD) composed by partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl acetate (PVA), borax, and water, were recently developed and successfully applied for the selective removal of surface degradation patinas (i.e. protein materials, natural resins etc.) from paintings of historical and artistic interest. This approach is here coupled for the first time to a SPR biosensor to simultaneously recognize albumen, yolk, or their mixtures in HVPD extracts. Ovalbumin and immunoglobulin Y are selected as analytes for egg white and yolk recognition, respectively. The biosensor was first characterized on standard analytes within the range 0-400mgL(-1) and then on fresh and dried egg albumen and yolk down to 2·10(^4) and 1·10(^5) dilution factors, respectively. Once optimized, the biosensor was combined to the HVPD application on simulated and real art samples for the evaluation of hen egg presence in the extract, i.e. albumen, yolk, or their co-presence in the matrix. For a contemporary 'sacred icon', realized by the traditional egg tempera procedure described by Cennino Cennini, the biosensor successfully distinguished different uses of egg components for the realization of painted and gilded areas, i.e. yolk and albumen, respectively. Finally, a XVIII century italian painting whose the realization technique is unknown, was tested confirming its egg tempera-based realization technique.

  13. Coupling non invasive and fast sampling of proteins from work of art surfaces to surface plasmon resonance biosensing: Differential and simultaneous detection of egg components for cultural heritage diagnosis and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarano, S; Carretti, E; Dei, L; Baglioni, P; Minunni, M

    2016-11-15

    Despite the wide application of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to a broad area of interests, from environment to food analysis, from drug discovery to diagnostics, its exploitation in cultural heritage conservation is still unexplored. Water-based highly viscous polymeric dispersions (HVPD) composed by partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl acetate (PVA), borax, and water, were recently developed and successfully applied for the selective removal of surface degradation patinas (i.e. protein materials, natural resins etc.) from paintings of historical and artistic interest. This approach is here coupled for the first time to a SPR biosensor to simultaneously recognize albumen, yolk, or their mixtures in HVPD extracts. Ovalbumin and immunoglobulin Y are selected as analytes for egg white and yolk recognition, respectively. The biosensor was first characterized on standard analytes within the range 0-400mgL(-1) and then on fresh and dried egg albumen and yolk down to 2·10(^4) and 1·10(^5) dilution factors, respectively. Once optimized, the biosensor was combined to the HVPD application on simulated and real art samples for the evaluation of hen egg presence in the extract, i.e. albumen, yolk, or their co-presence in the matrix. For a contemporary 'sacred icon', realized by the traditional egg tempera procedure described by Cennino Cennini, the biosensor successfully distinguished different uses of egg components for the realization of painted and gilded areas, i.e. yolk and albumen, respectively. Finally, a XVIII century italian painting whose the realization technique is unknown, was tested confirming its egg tempera-based realization technique. PMID:27155120

  14. Mobile robot simultaneous localization and map building based on improved particle filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Maohai; Hong Bingrong; Wei Zhenhua

    2006-01-01

    We present an investigation into the use of pan tilt zoom camera and sonar sensors for simultaneous localization and mapping with artificial colored landmarks. An improved particle filter is applied to estimate a posterior of the pose of the robot, in which each particle has associated it with an entire map. The distributions of landmarks are also represented by particle sets, where separate particles are used to represent the robot and the landmarks. Hough transform is used to extract line segments from sonar observations and build map simultaneously. The key advantage of our method is that the full posterior over robot poses and landmarks can be nonlinearly approximated at every point in time by particles. Especially the landmarks are affixed on the moving robots, which can reduce the impact of the depletion problem and the impoverishment problem produced by basic particle filter. Experimental results show that this approach has advantages over the basic particle filter and the extended Kalman filter.

  15. Research and Implementation of Distributed Virtual Simulation Platform Based on Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhi-xin; WANG Ru-chuan; WANG Shao-di

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a combination of system's theoretic simulation methodology with the virtual reality technology as a basis for a component-based virtual simulation framework. The created universal framework can be used in different fields, such as drive training, airplane fighting training, and so on. The result of the synergism is a powerful component-based virtual simulation framework. After having briefly introduced the concepts and principles of the distributed component object, the paper describes a software development method based on components. Then a method of virtual simulation system modeling based on components is proposed, and the integrated framework supporting distributed virtual simulation and its key technologies are discussed at length. Our experiments indicate that the framework can be widely used in simulation fields such as arms antagonism, driving simulation and so on.

  16. Simultaneous measurement of flow and temperature fields based on color image information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An image processing measurement system was developed to obtain simultaneously both the velocity and temperature distributions from the images of dynamic behavior of the thermal stratification, visualized by using liquid crystal tracers. The correlation method was used to obtain the velocity vector distributions. In addition, an algorism for color discrimination using RGB notation system was applied to the color images to obtain the temperature distributions. Consequently, the efficiency of this system was confirmed. (author)

  17. A Simple Laser-Based Device for Simultaneous Microbial Culture and Absorbance Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Abrevaya, X C; Areso, O; Mauas, P J D

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present a device specifically designed to study microbial growth with several applications related to environmental microbiology and other areas of research as astrobiology. The Automated Measuring and Cultivation device (AMC-d) enables semi-continuous absorbance measurements directly during cultivation. It can measure simultaneously up to 16 samples. Growth curves using low and fast growing microorganism were plotted, including: Escherichia coli, and Haloferax volcanii, an halophilic archaeon.

  18. Prototype Development of an Electrical Impedance Based Simultaneous Respiratory and Cardiac Monitoring System for Gated Radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kohli, Kirpal; Liu, Jeff; Schellenberg, Devin; Karvat, Anand; Parameswaran, Ash; Grewal, Parvind; Thomas, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background In radiotherapy, temporary translocations of the internal organs and tumor induced by respiratory and cardiac activities can undesirably lead to significantly lower radiation dose on the targeted tumor but more harmful radiation on surrounding healthy tissues. Respiratory and cardiac gated radiotherapy offers a potential solution for the treatment of tumors located in the upper thorax. The present study focuses on the design and development of simultaneous acquisition of respira...

  19. A Simple Laser-Based Device for Simultaneous Microbial Culture and Absorbance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Abrevaya, X. C.; Cortón, E.; Areso, O.; Mauas, P. J. D

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present a device specifically designed to study microbial growth with several applications related to environmental microbiology and other areas of research as astrobiology. The Automated Measuring and Cultivation device (AMC-d) enables semi-continuous absorbance measurements directly during cultivation. It can measure simultaneously up to 16 samples. Growth curves using low and fast growing microorganism were plotted, including: Escherichia coli, and Haloferax volcanii, an ha...

  20. Production of L-Lactic Acid by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Using Unsterilized Defatted Rice Bran as a Carbon Source and Nutrient Components

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Masayuki; Hoshina, Masahiro; Tanabe, Suguru; HIGUCHI, Yuki; Sakai, Kenji; Ohtsubo, Sadami; Hoshino, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Takaaki

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of growth rate at low pH, yield of lactic acid from glucose, and optical purity of lactic acid produced, we selected lactic acid bacteria favorable for production of optically pure L-lactic acid from defatted rice bran without sterilization. Of 21 strains tested, strains Nos. 13 and 16 produced 27-29kgm-3 of lactic acid with high optical purity from 100kgm-3 of unsterilized defatted rice bran in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with MRS medium at pH 4.5, a lev...

  1. A Component Based Heuristic Search method with Adaptive Perturbations for Hospital Personnel Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jingpeng; Burke, Edmund

    2008-01-01

    Nurse rostering is a complex scheduling problem that affects hospital personnel on a daily basis all over the world. This paper presents a new component-based approach with adaptive perturbations, for a nurse scheduling problem arising at a major UK hospital. The main idea behind this technique is to decompose a schedule into its components (i.e. the allocated shift pattern of each nurse), and then mimic a natural evolutionary process on these components to iteratively deliver better schedules. The worthiness of all components in the schedule has to be continuously demonstrated in order for them to remain there. This demonstration employs a dynamic evaluation function which evaluates how well each component contributes towards the final objective. Two perturbation steps are then applied: the first perturbation eliminates a number of components that are deemed not worthy to stay in the current schedule; the second perturbation may also throw out, with a low level of probability, some worthy components. The eli...

  2. An XML-based Software Component Description Method for Program Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOUYuhong; ZHANGYaoxue; LIXing

    2004-01-01

    As Internet is rapidly emerging as a largescale distributed computing platform, service customization and on-demand computing become an important research issue. Program mining is a novel computingparadigm to achieve this goal through dynamically component discovery and composition from on-line component repositories1. However, components in different repositories are described and classified in ad hoc ways, laying obstacles for the provision of program mining. In this paper, we present an XML-based component description method, depicting the static properties, interface specification and classification information of software components in a standard way. Based on this description, distributed component directory can be established to provide a wellorganized mining resource for program mining.

  3. An ontology for component-based models of water resource systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elag, Mostafa; Goodall, Jonathan L.

    2013-08-01

    Component-based modeling is an approach for simulating water resource systems where a model is composed of a set of components, each with a defined modeling objective, interlinked through data exchanges. Component-based modeling frameworks are used within the hydrologic, atmospheric, and earth surface dynamics modeling communities. While these efforts have been advancing, it has become clear that the water resources modeling community in particular, and arguably the larger earth science modeling community as well, faces a challenge of fully and precisely defining the metadata for model components. The lack of a unified framework for model component metadata limits interoperability between modeling communities and the reuse of models across modeling frameworks due to ambiguity about the model and its capabilities. To address this need, we propose an ontology for water resources model components that describes core concepts and relationships using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). The ontology that we present, which is termed the Water Resources Component (WRC) ontology, is meant to serve as a starting point that can be refined over time through engagement by the larger community until a robust knowledge framework for water resource model components is achieved. This paper presents the methodology used to arrive at the WRC ontology, the WRC ontology itself, and examples of how the ontology can aid in component-based water resources modeling by (i) assisting in identifying relevant models, (ii) encouraging proper model coupling, and (iii) facilitating interoperability across earth science modeling frameworks.

  4. A Metadata Model Based on Coupling Testing Information to Increase Testability of Component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Liang-li; GUO Fu-liang; WU Zhao-hui

    2008-01-01

    A software component must be tested every time it is reused in order to assure quality of component itself and system in which it is to be integrated. So how to increase testability of component has become a key technology in the software engineering community. Here a method is introduced to increase component testability. And meanings of component testability and relative effective ways to increase testability are summarized. Then definitions of component coupling testing criterion, DU-I (Definition-Use Information) and OP-Vs (Observation-Point Values) are given. Base on these, a definition-use table is introduced, which includes DU-A and OP-Vs item, to help component testers to understand and observe interior details about component under test better. Then a framework of testable component based on above DU-table is given. These facilities provide ways to detect errors, observe state variables by observation-points based monitor mechanism. Moreover, above methods are applied to our application developed by ourselves before, and some test cases are generated. Then our method is compared with Orso method and Kan method using the same example, presenting the comparison results. The results illustrate the validity of our method, effectively generating test cases and killing more mutants.

  5. Seismic Response of Base-Isolated Structures under Multi-component Ground Motion Excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of a base-isolated structure for multi-component random ground motion is presented. The mean square response of the system is obtained under different parametric variations. The effectiveness of main parameters and the torsional component during an earthquake is quantified with the help of the response ratio and the root mean square response with and without base isolation. It is observed that the base isolation has considerable influence on the response and the effect of the torsional component is not ignored.

  6. Methods of Si based ceramic components volatilization control in a gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John; Dion Ouellet, Noemie

    2016-09-06

    A method of controlling volatilization of silicon based components in a gas turbine engine includes measuring, estimating and/or predicting a variable related to operation of the gas turbine engine; correlating the variable to determine an amount of silicon to control volatilization of the silicon based components in the gas turbine engine; and injecting silicon into the gas turbine engine to control volatilization of the silicon based components. A gas turbine with a compressor, combustion system, turbine section and silicon injection system may be controlled by a controller that implements the control method.

  7. A CORBA BASED ARCHITECTURE FOR ACCESSING REUSABLE SOFTWARE COMPONENTS ON THE WEB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cenk ERDUR

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In a very near future, as a result of the continious growth of Internet and advances in networking technologies, Internet will become the common software repository for people and organizations who employ component based reuse approach in their software development life cycles. In order to use the reusable components such as source codes, analysis, designs, design patterns during new software development processes, environments that support the identification of the components over Internet are needed. Basic elements of such an environment are the coordinator programs which deliver user requests to appropriate component libraries, user interfaces for querying, and programs that wrap the component libraries. First, a CORBA based architecture is proposed for such an environment. Then, an alternative architecture that is based on the Java 2 platform technologies is given for the same environment. Finally, the two architectures are compared.

  8. A Study on Components of Internal Control-Based Administrative System in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montri, Paitoon; Sirisuth, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the components of the internal control-based administrative system in secondary schools, and make a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm the goodness of fit of empirical data and component model that resulted from the CFA. The study consisted of three steps: 1) studying of principles, ideas, and theories…

  9. Prediction of Pure Component Adsorption Equilibria Using an Adsorption Isotherm Equation Based on Vacancy Solution Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis; Aasberg-Petersen, K.; Krøll, Annette Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    An adsorption isotherm equation for nonideal pure component adsorption based on vacancy solution theory and the Non-Random-Two-Liquid (NRTL) equation is found to be useful for predicting pure component adsorption equilibria at a variety of conditions. The isotherm equation is evaluated successfully...... adsorption systems, spreading pressure and isosteric heat of adsorption are also calculated....

  10. A service component-based accounting and charging architecture to support interim mechanisms across multiple domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, M. van; Beijnum, B.J.F. van; Huitema, G.B.

    2004-01-01

    Today, telematics services are often compositions of different chargeable service components offered by different service providers. To enhance component-based accounting and charging, the service composition information is used to match with the corresponding charging structure of a service session

  11. A Service Component-based Accounting and Charging Architecture to Support Interim Mechanisms across Multiple Domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, van M.; Beijnum, van B.J.F.; Huitema, G.B.

    2004-01-01

    Today, telematics services are often compositions of different chargeable service components offered by different service providers. To enhance component-based accounting and charging, the service composition information is used to match with the corresponding charging structure of a service session

  12. Intracellular self-assembly based multi-labeling of key viral components: Envelope, capsid and nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Lu, Wen; Lv, Cheng; Chen, Zhi-Liang; Wang, Han-Zhong; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2016-08-01

    Envelope, capsid and nucleic acids are key viral components that are all involved in crucial events during virus infection. Thus simultaneous labeling of these key components is an indispensable prerequisite for monitoring comprehensive virus infection process and dissecting virus infection mechanism. Baculovirus was genetically tagged with biotin on its envelope protein GP64 and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) on its capsid protein VP39. Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9) cells were infected by the recombinant baculovirus and subsequently fed with streptavidin-conjugated quantum dots (SA-QDs) and cell-permeable nucleic acids dye SYTO 82. Just by genetic engineering and virus propagation, multi-labeling of envelope, capsid and nucleic acids was spontaneously accomplished during virus inherent self-assembly process, significantly simplifying the labeling process while maintaining virus infectivity. Intracellular dissociation and transportation of all the key viral components, which was barely reported previously, was real-time monitored based on the multi-labeling approach, offering opportunities for deeply understanding virus infection and developing anti-virus treatment. PMID:27209260

  13. GPS-based ionospheric tomography with a constrained adaptive simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wen Debao; Zhang Xiao; Tong Yangjin; Zhang Guangsheng; Zhang Min; Leng Rusong

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a constrained adaptive simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (CASART) is presented to obtain high-quality reconstructions from insufficient projections. According to the continuous smoothness of the variations of ionospheric electron density (IED) among neighbouring voxels, Gauss weighted function is introduced to constrain the tomography system in the new method. It can resolve the dependence on the initial values for those voxels without any GPS rays traversing them. Numerical simulation scheme is devised to validate the feasibility of the new algorithm. Some comparisons are made to demonstrate the superiority of the new method. Finally, the actual GPS observations are applied to further validate the feasibility and superiority of the new algorithm.

  14. Multianalyte Biosensors for the Simultaneous Determination of Glucose and Galactose Based on Thin Film Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neng Qin JIA; Zong Rang ZHANG; Jiang Zhong ZHU; Guo Xiong ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    A multianalyte biosensor for the simultaneous determination of glucose and galactose was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) and galactose oxidase (GAO) on Nafion-modified thin film platinum disk electrodes. The dual Pt working electrodes with disk shape and the surrounding ring shaped counter electrode were fabricated by thin film technology, which were integrated onto the same microchip. The response of the designed biosensor for glucose and galactose were linear up to 6.0 mmol/L and 3.5 mmol/L with sensitivities of 0.3 (A/mmol/L and 0.12 μA/mmol/L, respectively. No cross-talking effect was observed.

  15. Bidirectional and simultaneous FTTX/Ethernet services using RSOA based remodulation and polarization multiplexing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindya S.; Patra, Ardhendu S.

    2015-08-01

    A bidirectional and simultaneous transmission of Ethernet, FTTX services through single optical carrier wavelength employing polarization multiplexing technique in the transmitter end and the user end. 10 Gbps and 2.5 Gbps datarates are transmitted over 50 km single mode fiber employing POLMUX technique at OLT and ONU to provide Ethernet and FTTX services concurrently to the user. Reflective semiconductor optical amplifier is used to reuse and remodulate the downlink signal to uplink transmission. The upstream and the downstream transmission performances are observed by the bit error rate values and the eye diagrams obtained by the BER analyzer.

  16. Simultaneous Distillation Extraction of Some Volatile Flavor Components from Pu-erh Tea Samples—Comparison with Steam Distillation-Liquid/Liquid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xungang Gu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simutaneous distillation extraction (SDE combined GC method was constructed for determination of volatile flavor components in Pu-erh tea samples. Dichloromethane and ethyl decylate was employed as organic phase in SDE and internal standard in determination, respectively. Weakly polar DB-5 column was used to separate the volatile flavor components in GC, 10 of the components were quantitatively analyzed, and further confirmed by GC-MS. The recovery covered from 66.4%–109%, and repeatability expressed as RSD was in range of 1.44%–12.6%. SDE was most suitable for the extraction of the anlytes by comparing with steam distillation-liquid/liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Commercially available Pu-erh tea samples, including Pu-erh raw tea and ripe tea, were analyzed by the constructed method. the high-volatile components, such as benzyl alcohol, linalool oxide, and linalool, were greatly rich in Pu-erh raw teas, while the contents of 1,2,3-Trimethoxylbenzene and 1,2,4-Trimethoxylbenzene were much high in Pu-erh ripe teas.

  17. Simultaneous determination of seven bioactive components in Guizhi Fuling capsule by microwave-assisted extraction combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yang; Zhao, Long-Shan; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Zhao, Yu-Tong; Xiao, Wei; Xiong, Zhi-Li

    2016-01-01

    A simple, rapid and reliable microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous determination of the seven bioactive constituents in Guizhi Fuling capsule (GFC), namely gallic acid, amygdalin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, paeonol, cinnamic acid and pachymic acid, respectively. The operation of MAE optimised through orthogonal array design experiment was performed at 80°C for 10 min with methanol-water (70:30, v/v) as the extracting solvent. The method was validated including intra- and inter-day precision, repeatability and stability, with relative standard deviation less than 3.9%, 3.3%, 4.4% and 3.1%, respectively. All analytes showed the good linearity (r >0.999), and their average recoveries varied between 98.2% and 101.2%. The results indicated that this method was simple, effective and suitable for the quality control of GFC. PMID:26189716

  18. Dual-particle imaging system based on simultaneous detection of photon and neutron collision events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dual-particle imaging (DPI) system capable of simultaneously detecting and imaging fast neutrons and photons has been designed and built. Imaging fast neutrons and photons simultaneously is particularly desirable for nuclear nonproliferation and/or safeguards applications because typical sources of interest (special nuclear material) emit both particle types. The DPI system consists of three detection planes: the first two planes consist of organic-liquid scintillators and the third plane consists of NaI(Tl) inorganic scintillators. Pulse shape discrimination technique(s) may be used for the liquid scintillators to differentiate neutron and photon pulses whereas the NaI(Tl) scintillators are highly insensitive to neutrons. A prototype DPI system was set up using a digital data acquisition system as a proof of concept. Initial measurements showed potential for use of the DPI system with special nuclear material. The DPI system has efficiencies of the order of 10−4 correlated counts per incident particles for both neutron and photon correlated counts, with simple-backprojection images displaying peaks within a few degrees of the source location. This uncertainty is expected to decrease with more extensive data interpretation

  19. Electrochemical immunosensor for simultaneous detection of multiplex cancer biomarkers based on graphene nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Jia, Xinle; Han, Jingman; Ma, Jie; Ma, Zhanfang

    2013-12-15

    In this work, a sandwich-format electrochemical immunosensor for simultaneous determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was fabricated using biofunctional carboxyl graphene nanosheets (CGS) as immunosensing probes, which were fabricated by means of immobilization of toluidine blue (TB) and labeled anti-CEA (Ab2,1), Prussian blue (PB) and anti-AFP (Ab2,2) successively on CGS. The capture anti-CEA (Ab1,1) and anti-AFP (Ab1,2) were immobilized onto the chitosan-Au nanoparticles (CHIT-AuNPs) modified electrode through 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxy succinimide (EDC/NHS). Experimental results revealed that this sandwich-type immunoassay enabled simultaneous detection of CEA and AFP with linear range of 0.5-60 ng mL(-1) for both analytes. The detection limit was 0.1 ng mL(-1) for CEA and 0.05 ng mL(-1) for AFP (S/N=3). The assay results of serum samples with the proposed method were in a good agreement with the reference values from the standard ELISA method. And the negligible cross-reactivity between the two analytes allows it to possess potential promise in clinical diagnosis. PMID:23891798

  20. Gold Nanorods-Based Theranostics for Simultaneous Fluorescence/Two-Photon Luminescence Imaging and Synergistic Phototherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanorods (GNRs have shown great potential applications in cancer theranostics due to the unique phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance, which leads to strong electric fields on the surface and consequently enhances the absorption and scattering in the near-infrared (NIR region. Indocyanine green (ICG, an amphipathic dye, is not only an excellent NIR imaging agent but also an ideal light absorber for laser-mediated photodynamic and photothermal therapy. In this study, in order to integrate the merits of GNRs and ICG in biomedical applications, we developed ICG conjugated silica-coated GNRs (GNR@SiO2-ICG for cancer imaging and phototherapy. The covalent coupling strategy reduces the probability of leakage/desorption during the delivery. The as-prepared GNR@SiO2-ICG could serve as efficient probes to simultaneously enhance fluorescence (FL imaging and two-photon luminescence (TPL imaging. In vitro experiments indicated that A375 cells could be killed through synergistic phototherapies effect of GNRs and ICG using single wavelength continuous-wave laser irradiation. Our results indicated that the synthesized GNR@SiO2-ICG are effective for simultaneously enhancing FL/TPL imaging and synergistic phototherapies.

  1. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers with a rapid and sensitive multicolor quantum dots based immunochromatographic test strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunying; Hou, Fei; Ma, Yicai

    2015-06-15

    A novel multicolor quantum dots (QDs) based immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) was developed for simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers, by utilizing alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as models. The immunosensor could realize simultaneous quantitative detection of tumor markers with only one test line and one control line on the nitrocellulose membrane (NC membrane) due to the introduction of multicolor QDs. In this method, a mixture of mouse anti-AFP McAb and mouse anti-CEA McAb was coated on NC membrane as test line and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody was coated as control line. Anti-AFP McAb-QDs546 conjugates and anti-CEA McAb-QDs620 conjugates were mixed and applied to the conjugate pad. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers was achieved by detecting the fluorescence intensity of captured QDs labels on test line and control line using a test strip reader. Under the optimum conditions, AFP and CEA could be detected as low as 3 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL in 15 min with a sample volume of 80 μL, and no obvious cross-reactivity was observed. The immunosensor was validated with 130 clinical samples and in which it exhibited high sensitivity (93% for AFP and 87% for CEA) and specificity (94% for AFP and 97% for CEA). The immunosensor also demonstrated high recoveries (87.5-113% for AFP and 90-97.3% for CEA) and low relative standard deviations (RSDs) (2.8-6.2% for AFP and 4.9-9.6% for CEA) when testing spiked human serum. This novel multicolor QDs based ICTS provides an easy and rapid, simultaneous quantitative detecting strategy for point-of-care testing of tumor markers. PMID:25562743

  2. RF Front End Based on MEMS Components for Miniaturized Digital EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, AlphaSense, Inc. (AI) and the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) detail the development of RF front end based on MEMS components for miniaturized...

  3. RF Front End Based on MEMS Components for Miniaturized Digital EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, AlphaSense, Inc. and the Carnegie Mellon University propose to develop a RF receiver front end based on CMOS-MEMS components for miniaturized...

  4. Model-Based Design Tools for Extending COTS Components To Extreme Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this project is model-based design (MBD) tools for predicting the performance and useful life of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components and...

  5. NOVEL COMPONENT-BASED DEVELOPMENT MODEL FOR SIP-BASED MOBILE APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Barnawi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Universities and Institutions these days’ deals with issues related to with assessment of large number ofstudents. Various evaluation methods have been adopted by examiners in different institutions to examiningthe ability of an individual, starting from manual means of using paper and pencil to electronic, from oralto written, practical to theoretical and many others.There is a need to expedite the process of examination in order to meet the increasing enrolment of studentsat the universities and institutes. Sip Based Mass Mobile Examination System (SiBMMES expedites theexamination process by automating various activities in an examination such as exam paper setting,Scheduling and allocating examination time and evaluation (auto-grading for objective questions etc.SiBMMES uses the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS that is an IP communications framework providing anenvironment for the rapid development of innovative and reusable services Session Initial Protocol (SIP isa signalling (request-response protocol for this architecture and it is used for establishing sessions in anIP network, making it an ideal candidate for supporting terminal mobility in the IMS to deliver the services,with the extended services available in IMS like open APIs, common network services, Quality of Services(QoS like multiple sessions per call, Push to Talk etc often requiring multiple types of media (includingvoice, video, pictures, and text. SiBMMES is an effective solution for mass education evaluation usingmobile and web technology.In this paper, a novel hybrid component based development (CBD model is proposed for SiBMMES. AComponent based Hybrid Model is selected to the fact that IMS takes the concept of layered architectureone step further by defining a horizontal architecture where service enablers and common functions can bereused for multiple applications. This novel model tackle a new domain for IT professionals, its ideal tostart developing services as a small

  6. Power Transformer Differential Protection Based on Neural Network Principal Component Analysis, Harmonic Restraint and Park's Plots

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Tripathy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach for power transformer differential protection which is based on the wave-shape recognition technique. An algorithm based on neural network principal component analysis (NNPCA) with back-propagation learning is proposed for digital differential protection of power transformer. The principal component analysis is used to preprocess the data from power system in order to eliminate redundant information and enhance hidden pattern of differential current to disc...

  7. Mutual dependency grid for stakeholder mapping: a component-based approach to supply chain participant analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Yu-Chun; Tang, Yinshan; Gulliver, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Stakeholder analysis plays a critical role in business analysis. However, the majority of the stakeholder identification and analysis methods focus on the activities and processes and ignore the artefacts being processed by human beings. By focusing on the outputs of the organisation, an artefact-centric view helps create a network of artefacts, and a component-based structure of the organisation and its supply chain participants. Since the relationship is based on the components, i.e. after ...

  8. Component-based Software Design and Implementation for Network Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchao Han

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer network intrusion detection and prevention system consists of collecting network traffic data, discovering user behavior patterns as intrusion detection rules, and applying these rules to prevent malicious and misuse. Many commercial off-the-shelf (COTS products have been developed to perform each of these tasks. In this paper, the component-based software engineering approach is exploited to integrate these COTS products as components into a computerized system to automatically detect intrusion rules from network traffic data and setup IPTables to prevent future potential attacks. The component- based software architecture of this kind of system is designed, COTS components are analyzed and selected, adaptor components to connect COTS products are developed, the system implementation is illustrated, and the preliminary system experiment is presented.

  9. Rapid simultaneous determination of twelve major components in Pien Tze Huang by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingqing; Zhao, Haiyu; Xu, Wei; Chu, Kedan; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun; Chen, Lidian

    2013-12-01

    An efficient method using ultra-performance LC coupled with triple quadrupole MS was developed for the rapid determination of 12 major active components in Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-known traditional Chinese formula. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters XBridge BEH RP18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm id, 1.7 μm) with a gradient mobile phase (A: 0.1% aqueous formic acid and B: acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The chromatographic peaks of 12 components were identified by comparing their retention time and MS data with the related reference compounds. Multiple-reaction monitoring was employed for the quantitative analysis. Ten batches of PZH were analyzed with a good linear regression relationship (r, 0.9987–0.9995), intraday precisions (RSD, 2.05–4.80%), interday precisions (RSD, 1.99–4.98%), repeatability (RSD, 2.21–4.20%), stability (RSD, 3.52–4.81%), and recovery (95.63–104.80%). By using this established method, the present study offered highly sensitive, specific, and speedy determination of 12 major components, which promoted the quality control investigation of PZH greatly.

  10. A Model-Based Methodology for Simultaneous Design and Control of a Bioethanol Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Abd.Hamid, Mohd-Kamaruddin; Sin, Gürkan;

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a framework for the simultaneous solution of design and control problems is presented. Within this framework, two methodologies are presented, the integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) methodology and the process-group contribution (PGC) methodology. The concepts...... of attainable region (AR), driving force (DF), process-group (PG) and reverse simulation are used within these methodologies. The IPDC methodology is used to find the optimal design-control strategy of a process by locating the maximum point in the AR and DF diagrams for reactor and separator, respectively....... The PGC methodology is used to generate more efficient separation designs in terms of energy consumption by targeting the separation task at the largest DF. Both methodologies are highlighted through the application of two case studies, a bioethanol production process and a succinic acid production...

  11. Chromatographic Fingerprint and the Simultaneous Determination of Five Bioactive Components of Geranium carolinianum L. Water Extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fang Liu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive HPLC method has been developed in combination with fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of five markers, namely gallic acid, corilagin, methyl brevifolincarboxylate, ellagic acid and rutin for evaluation and quality control of Geranium carolinianum L. water extract. Extraction methods were optimized by comparing the hydrolysis efficiency of geraniin, a major tannin of the herb, resulting in the method of extraction with water under reflux. Water extracts were analyzed by HPLC, with a mobile phase of 0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid (v/v and acetonitrile in a gradient program within 65 min. Compounds were detected at 274 nm UV wavelength. For fingerprint analysis, 17 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of different samples collected from the suburb of Nanjing. The correlation coefficients of similarity were greater than 0.993. In quantitative analysis, the five selected markers showed good regression (R > 0.9991 within test ranges, and the average recoveries were between 97.2–101.7% and their RSD values were less than 4.50%. The total contents of the five markers varied from 44.28 to 71.84 mg/g. The method can be very useful for further development of G. carolinianum L. extracts and preparations.

  12. Textile-Based Electronic Components for Energy Applications: Principles, Problems, and Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Kaushik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Textile-based electronic components have gained interest in the fields of science and technology. Recent developments in nanotechnology have enabled the integration of electronic components into textiles while retaining desirable characteristics such as flexibility, strength, and conductivity. Various materials were investigated in detail to obtain current conductive textile technology, and the integration of electronic components into these textiles shows great promise for common everyday applications. The harvest and storage of energy in textile electronics is a challenge that requires further attention in order to enable complete adoption of this technology in practical implementations. This review focuses on the various conductive textiles, their methods of preparation, and textile-based electronic components. We also focus on fabrication and the function of textile-based energy harvesting and storage devices, discuss their fundamental limitations, and suggest new areas of study.

  13. An rpoB gene-based PCR-DGGE method for simultaneous detection of multiple Vibrio species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Peng; Hu Chaoqun; Ren Chunhua; Zhang Lvping

    2008-01-01

    Using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting the RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) gene, a simultaneous detection method for Vibrio species was established. rpoB gene-based PCR-DGGE was carried out with eight Vibrio Reference strains (each from different species), mixed sample (including these Vibrio Reference strains),two non Vibrio strains, four environmental Vibrio strains, and three unidentified environmental strains. For comparison, 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-DGGE of the eight Vibrio Reference strains was performed with universal primers. In addition, three unidentified strains were identified by 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequencing and API20E system in order to confirm the accuracy of rpoB gene-based PCR-DGGE detection. Results revealed that rpoB-based PCR-DGGE could well discriminate eight Vibrio Reference strains and could not discriminate different strains within the same species. The bands derived from two non Vibrio strains could not match with any bands in Reference marker. Meanwhile, 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE failed to distinguish these Reference strains. Furthermore, four out of eight Vibrio species exhibited heterogenous bands in 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE. Sequencing and API 20E identification of unidentified strains coincided with the detection by rpoB gene-based PCR-DGGE. The results demonstrated that rpoB-based PCR-DGGE provided a rapid and efficient method for simultaneous detection of multiple Vibrio species, which can avoid the limitations inherent in 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-DGGE.

  14. Fuzzy, copper-based multi-functional composite particles serving simultaneous catalytic and signal-enhancing roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangming; Hu, Yingmo; An, Qi; Luan, Xinglong; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Yihe

    2016-04-01

    Multifunctional plasmonic particles serving simultaneously as catalysts and label-free reporting agents are highly pursued due to their great potential in enhancing reaction operational efficiencies. Copper is an abundant and economic resource, and it possesses practical applicability in industries, but no dual-functional copper-based catalytic and self-reporting particles have been reported so far. This study proposes a facile strategy to prepare high-performance dual-functional copper-based composite particles that catalyze reactions and simultaneously serve as a SERS (surface enhanced Raman spectra) active, label-free reporting agent. Polyelectrolyte-modified reduced graphene oxide particles are used as the reactive precursors in the fabrication method. Upon adding Cu(NO3)2 solutions into the precursor dispersions, composite particles comprised by copper/copper oxide core and polyelectrolyte-graphene shell were facilely obtained under sonication. The as-prepared composite particles efficiently catalyzed the conversion of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol and simultaneously acted as the SERS-active substrate to give enhanced Raman spectra of the produced 4-aminophenol. Taking advantage of the assembling capabilities of polyelectrolyte shells, the composite particles could be further assembled onto a planar substrate to catalyze organic reactions, facilitating their application in various conditions. We expect this report to promote the fabrication and application of copper-based multifunctional particles.Multifunctional plasmonic particles serving simultaneously as catalysts and label-free reporting agents are highly pursued due to their great potential in enhancing reaction operational efficiencies. Copper is an abundant and economic resource, and it possesses practical applicability in industries, but no dual-functional copper-based catalytic and self-reporting particles have been reported so far. This study proposes a facile strategy to prepare high

  15. Ca analysis: an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular calcium transients including multiple, simultaneous regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensmith, David J

    2014-01-01

    Here I present an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular Ca transients recorded using fluorescent indicators. The program can perform all the necessary steps which convert recorded raw voltage changes into meaningful physiological information. The program performs two fundamental processes. (1) It can prepare the raw signal by several methods. (2) It can then be used to analyze the prepared data to provide information such as absolute intracellular Ca levels. Also, the rates of change of Ca can be measured using multiple, simultaneous regression analysis. I demonstrate that this program performs equally well as commercially available software, but has numerous advantages, namely creating a simplified, self-contained analysis workflow.

  16. High Temperature Corrosion Problem of Boiler Components in presence of Sulfur and Alkali based Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Mitra, Swapan Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Material degradation and ageing is of particular concern for fossil fuel fired power plant components. New techniques/approaches have been explored in recent years for Residual Life assessment of aged components and material degradation due to different damage mechanism like creep, fatigue, corrosion and erosion etc. Apart from the creep, the high temperature corrosion problem in a fossil fuel fired boiler is a matter of great concern if the fuel contains sulfur, chlorine sodium, potassium and vanadium etc. This paper discusses the material degradation due to high temperature corrosion in different critical components of boiler like water wall, superheater and reheater tubes and also remedial measures to avoid the premature failure. This paper also high lights the Residual Life Assessment (RLA) methodology of the components based on high temperature fireside corrosion. of different critical components of boiler.

  17. Bioimpedance-based measurement method for simultaneous acquisition of respiratory and cardiac gating signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory and cardiac motion artefacts impair the quality and reliability of medical imaging, particularly in nuclear medicine. At worst, the interpretation of distorted images may lead to inadequate or unnecessary treatment. Image artefacts can be minimized by gating the image acquisition according to respiratory phase and cardiac contractions. However, currently there are no clinically established dual-gating methods in nuclear medicine imaging. The aim of this study is to validate a previously determined optimized bioimpedance measurement configuration against traditional respiratory and cardiac measurement systems in 12 volunteers. High agreement and excellent correlations (r = 0.944–0.999) were found between respiratory peak-to-peak amplitudes as well as temporal respiratory and cardiac intervals. Above all, good quality respiratory and cardiac gating signals were obtained from all test subjects with a fairly regular sinus rhythm. Importantly, both signals were acquired simultaneously with a single device. Due to the simplicity of this inexpensive method, the technique has high potential to be adopted for dual-gating in clinical practice in the future. (paper)

  18. Integrated Approach to Design and Manufacture of Gas Turbine Components Based on Group Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jawaharlal

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a new method that provides an integrated approach to design and manufacture of gas turbine components by using the group theory and customising standard computer aided design and manufacturing system. With this approach time consuming and iterative design procedure and process planning are automated and become more efficient. Due to the intricate and diverse nature of gas turbine components, grouping them is not easy as in other industries. A possible way of grouping the gas turbine components based on design and manufacturing attributes on a broad basis is presented. A case study of high pressure turbine disc is included with illustrations for design and process planning of this component. The proposed system is implemented on a personal computer and offers an alternate solution to sophisticated and expensive main frame based systems.

  19. Optimal condition-based maintenance decisions for systems with dependent stochastic degradation of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Components in engineered systems are subjected to stochastic deterioration due to the operating environmental conditions, and the uncertainty in material properties. The components need to be inspected and possibly replaced based on preventive or failure replacement criteria to provide the intended and safe operation of the system. In the present study, we investigate the influence of dependent stochastic degradation of multiple components on the optimal maintenance decisions. We use copula to model the dependent stochastic degradation of components, and formulate the optimal decision problem based on the minimum expected cost rule and the stochastic dominance rules. The latter is used to cope with decision maker's risk attitude. We illustrate the developed probabilistic analysis approach and the influence of the dependency of the stochastic degradation on the preferred decisions through numerical examples

  20. Single-Trial Estimation and Analysis of PVEP Based on Independent ComPonent Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪波; 杨福生; 潘映辐; 唐庆玉; 陈奎; 铁艳梅

    2001-01-01

    A novel method based on the extended infomax approach of independent component analysis (ICA) is proposed for the single-trial estimation of multi-channel pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (PVEP). The clinical applications illustrate the encouraging performance of the method. The number of trials needed is reduced to 3, but the estimated VEP complex is clearer than that obtained by conventional ensemble averaging with 50 trials. By analyzing the time course and spatial pattern of the independent components (ICs) of the multi-channel PVEP, one component is found to be reasonably related to the P100 peak.

  1. Nonbulk motion system for simultaneously measuring the refractive index and thickness of a sample using tunable optics and spatial signal processing-based Gaussian beam imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Syed Azer; Qasim, Muhammad

    2016-01-10

    This paper presents a novel approach to simultaneously measuring the thickness and refractive index of a sample. The design uses an electronically controlled tunable lens (ECTL) and a microelectromechanical-system-based digital micromirror device (DMD). The method achieves the desired results by using the DMD to characterize the spatial profile of a Gaussian laser beam at different focal length settings of the ECTL. The ECTL achieves tunable lensing through minimal motion of liquid inside a transparent casing, whereas the DMD contains an array of movable micromirrors, which make it a reflective spatial light modulator. As the proposed system uses an ECTL, a DMD, and other fixed optical components, it measures the thickness and refractive index without requiring any motion of bulk components such as translational and rotational stages. A motion-free system improves measurement repeatability and reliability. Moreover, the measurement of sample thickness and refractive index can be completely automated because the ECTL and DMD are controlled through digital signals. We develop and discuss the theory in detail to explain the measurement methodology of the proposed system and present results from experiments performed to verify the working principle of the method. Refractive index measurement accuracies of 0.22% and 0.2% were achieved for two BK-7 glass samples used, and the thicknesses of the two samples were measured with a 0.1 mm accuracy for each sample, corresponding to a 0.39% and 0.78% measurement error, respectively, for the aforementioned samples.

  2. Development of a Component-Based Modeling Framework for Agricultural Water-Resource Management

    OpenAIRE

    Moon-Seong Kang; Puneet Srivastava; Jung-Hun Song; Jihoon Park; Younggu Her; Sang Min Kim; Inhong Song

    2016-01-01

    Because hydrologic responses of an agricultural watershed are influenced by many natural and man-made factors including pond/reservoir, management practices, and/or irrigation/drainage, strategies of hydrological modeling for the watershed must be case-dependent and thus carefully designed to effectively reflect their roles as critical hydrologic components in simulation processes. In this study, we propose a component-based modeling framework that accommodates a flexible modeling approach to...

  3. Synthesizing Glue Operators from Glue Constraints for the Construction of Component-Based Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Apel, Sven; Jackson, Ethan; Bliudze, Simon; Sifakis, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We study glue operators used in component-based frameworks to obtain systems as the composition of atomic components described as labeled transition systems (LTS). Glue operators map tuples of LTS into LTS. They restrict the behavior of their arguments by performing memoryless coordination. In a previous paper, we have proposed a simple format for SOS rules that captures, in particular, glue operators from known frameworks such as CCS, SCCS, CSP, and BIP. This paper studies a new way for cha...

  4. Small Target Extraction Based on Independent Component Analysis for Hyperspectral Imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei; YU Xuchu

    2006-01-01

    A small target detection approach based on independent component analysis for hyperspectral data is put forward. In this algorithm, firstly the fast independent component analysis(FICA) is used to collect target information hided in high-dimensional data and projects them into low-dimensional space.Secondly, the feature images are selected with kurtosis .At last, small targets are extracted with histogram image segmentation which has been labeled by skewness.

  5. A Service Component-based Accounting and Charging Architecture to Support Interim Mechanisms across Multiple Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Lé Beijnum, van, Bert-Jan; Huitema, G.B.

    2004-01-01

    Today, telematics services are often compositions of different chargeable service components offered by different service providers. To enhance component-based accounting and charging, the service composition information is used to match with the corresponding charging structure of a service session. This enables the sharing of revenues among the service providers, and calculation of the total cost for the end-user. When multiple independent service providers are involved, it is a great chall...

  6. R-MOM: A Component-Based Framework for Interoperable and Adaptive Asynchronous Middleware Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Labéjof, Jonathan; Léger, Antoine; Merle, Philippe; Seinturier, Lionel; Vincent, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    International audience Systems of systems (SoS) are composed of subsystems such as Distributed, Information Technology, Real-Time and Embedded systems. Among distributed systems, Message- Oriented Middleware (MOM) is used by SoS in order to share status information from system elements (component, service, etc.). Often several different MOM technologies are used in one SoS, then interoperability between these MOM is a requirement. In this paper, we present R-MOM, a component-based framewor...

  7. Deep Eutectic Solvent-Based Microwave-Assisted Method for Extraction of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep eutectic solvents (DESs have attracted significant attention as a promising green media. In this work, twenty-five kinds of benign choline chloride-based DESs with microwave-assisted methods were applied to quickly extract active components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae. The extraction factors, including temperature, time, power of microwave, and solid/liquid ratio, were investigated systematically by response surface methodology. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic ingredients were extracted simultaneously under the optimized conditions: 20 vol% of water in choline chloride/1,2-propanediol (1:1, molar ratio as solvent, microwave power of 800 W, temperature at 70 °C, time at 11.11 min, and solid/liquid ratio of 0.007 g·mL−1. The extraction yield was comparable to, or even better than, conventional methods with organic solvents. The microstructure alteration of samples before and after extraction was also investigated. The method validation was tested as the linearity of analytes (r2 > 0.9997 over two orders of magnitude, precision (intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD < 2.49 and inter-day RSD < 2.96, and accuracy (recoveries ranging from 95.04% to 99.93%. The proposed DESs combined with the microwave-assisted method provided a prominent advantage for fast and efficient extraction of active components, and DESs could be extended as solvents to extract and analyze complex environmental and pharmaceutical samples.

  8. Simultaneous biosorption of selenium, arsenic and molybdenum with modified algal-based biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Charlotte L; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Roberts, David A

    2016-01-01

    Ash disposal waters from coal-fired power stations present a challenging water treatment scenario as they contain high concentrations of the oxyanions Se, As and Mo which are difficult to remove through conventional techniques. In an innovative process, macroalgae can be treated with Fe and processed through slow pyrolysis into Fe-biochar which has a high affinity for oxyanions. However, the effect of production conditions on the efficacy of Fe-biochar is poorly understood. We produced Fe-biochar from two algal sources; "Gracilaria waste" (organic remnants after agar is extracted from cultivated Gracilaria) and the freshwater macroalgae Oedogonium. Pyrolysis experiments tested the effects of the concentration of Fe(3+) in pre-treatment, and pyrolysis temperatures, on the efficacy of the Fe-biochar. The efficacy of Fe-biochar increased with increasing concentrations of Fe(3+) in the pre-treatment solutions, and decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. The optimized Fe-biochar for each biomass was produced by treatment with a 12.5% w/v Fe(3+) solution, followed by slow pyrolysis at 300 °C. The Fe-biochar produced in this way had higher a biosorption capacity for As and Mo (62.5-80.7 and 67.4-78.5 mg g(-1) respectively) than Se (14.9-38.8 mg g(-1)) in single-element mock effluents, and the Fe-biochar produced from Oedogonium had a higher capacity for all elements than the Fe-biochar produced from Gracilaria waste. Regardless, the optimal Fe-biochars from both biomass sources were able to effectively treat Se, As and Mo simultaneously in an ash disposal effluent from a power station. The production of Fe-biochar from macroalgae is a promising technique for treatment of complex effluents containing oxyanions.

  9. Simultaneous biosorption of selenium, arsenic and molybdenum with modified algal-based biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Charlotte L; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Roberts, David A

    2016-01-01

    Ash disposal waters from coal-fired power stations present a challenging water treatment scenario as they contain high concentrations of the oxyanions Se, As and Mo which are difficult to remove through conventional techniques. In an innovative process, macroalgae can be treated with Fe and processed through slow pyrolysis into Fe-biochar which has a high affinity for oxyanions. However, the effect of production conditions on the efficacy of Fe-biochar is poorly understood. We produced Fe-biochar from two algal sources; "Gracilaria waste" (organic remnants after agar is extracted from cultivated Gracilaria) and the freshwater macroalgae Oedogonium. Pyrolysis experiments tested the effects of the concentration of Fe(3+) in pre-treatment, and pyrolysis temperatures, on the efficacy of the Fe-biochar. The efficacy of Fe-biochar increased with increasing concentrations of Fe(3+) in the pre-treatment solutions, and decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. The optimized Fe-biochar for each biomass was produced by treatment with a 12.5% w/v Fe(3+) solution, followed by slow pyrolysis at 300 °C. The Fe-biochar produced in this way had higher a biosorption capacity for As and Mo (62.5-80.7 and 67.4-78.5 mg g(-1) respectively) than Se (14.9-38.8 mg g(-1)) in single-element mock effluents, and the Fe-biochar produced from Oedogonium had a higher capacity for all elements than the Fe-biochar produced from Gracilaria waste. Regardless, the optimal Fe-biochars from both biomass sources were able to effectively treat Se, As and Mo simultaneously in an ash disposal effluent from a power station. The production of Fe-biochar from macroalgae is a promising technique for treatment of complex effluents containing oxyanions. PMID:26413805

  10. Crop area and leaf area index simultaneous retrieval based on spatial scaling transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Accurate estimation of crop yields is crucial for ensuring food security. However, crops are distributed so fragmentally in China that mixed pixels account for a large proportion in moderate and coarse resolution remote sensing images. As a result, unmixing of mixed pixel becomes a major problem to estimate crop yield by means of remote sensing method. Aimed at mixed pixels, we developed a new method to introduce additional information contained in the spatial scaling transformation equation to the canopy reflectance model. The crop area and LAI can be retrieved simultaneously. On the basis of a precise and simple canopy reflectance model, directional second derivative method was chosen to retrieve LAI from optimal bands of hyper-spectral data; this method can reduce the impact of the canopy non-isotropic features and soil background. To evaluate the performance of the method, Yingke Oasis, Zhangye City, Gansu Province, was chosen as the validation area. This area was covered mainly by maize and wheat. A Hyperion/EO-1 image with the 30 m spatial resolution was acquired on July 15, 2008. Images of 180 m and 1080 m resolutions were generated by linearly interpolating the original Hyperion image to coarser resolutions. Then a multi-scale image serial was obtained. Using the proposed method, we calculated crop area and the average LAI of every 1080 m pixel. A SPOT-5 classification figure serves as the validation data of crop area proportion. Results show that the pattern of crop distribution accords with the classification figure. The errors are restrained mainly to -0.1-0.1, and approximate a Normal Distribution. Meanwhile, 85 LAI values obtained using LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer, equipped with GPS, were taken as the ground reference. Results show that the standard deviation of the errors is 0.340. The method proposed in the paper is reliable.

  11. Pulse artifact detection in simultaneous EEG-fMRI recording based on EEG map topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Giannina R; Pittau, Francesca; Michel, Christoph M; Vulliemoz, Serge; Grouiller, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    One of the major artifact corrupting electroencephalogram (EEG) acquired during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the pulse artifact (PA). It is mainly due to the motion of the head and attached electrodes and wires in the magnetic field occurring after each heartbeat. In this study we propose a novel method to improve PA detection by considering the strong gradient and inversed polarity between left and right EEG electrodes. We acquired high-density EEG-fMRI (256 electrodes) with simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) at 3 T. PA was estimated as the voltage difference between right and left signals from the electrodes showing the strongest artifact (facial and temporal). Peaks were detected on this estimated signal and compared to the peaks in the ECG recording. We analyzed data from eleven healthy subjects, two epileptic patients and four healthy subjects with an insulating layer between electrodes and scalp. The accuracy of the two methods was assessed with three criteria: (i) standard deviation, (ii) kurtosis and (iii) confinement into the physiological range of the inter-peak intervals. We also checked whether the new method has an influence on the identification of epileptic spikes. Results show that estimated PA improved artifact detection in 15/17 cases, when compared to the ECG method. Moreover, epileptic spike identification was not altered by the correction. The proposed method improves the detection of pulse-related artifacts, particularly crucial when the ECG is of poor quality or cannot be recorded. It will contribute to enhance the quality of the EEG increasing the reliability of EEG-informed fMRI analysis. PMID:25307731

  12. Simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid based on tryptophan functionalized graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Qianwen; He, Zhifang; He, Qian; Luo, Ai; Yan, Kaiwang; Zhang, Dongxia [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry and Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Geography and Environment Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Lu, Xiaoquan, E-mail: Luxq@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry and Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Zhou, Xibin, E-mail: zhouxb@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry and Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Geography and Environment Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Trp-GR was synthesized by utilizing a facile ultrasonic method. • The material as prepared had well dispersivity in water and better conductivity than pure GR. • Trp-GR/GCE showed excellent potential for the determination of AA, DA and UA. • The proposed method was applied for the analysis of AA, DA and UA in real samples. - Abstract: A new type of tryptophan-functionalized graphene nanocomposite (Trp-GR) was synthesized by utilizing a facile ultrasonic method via π–π conjugate action between graphene (GR) and tryptophan (Trp) molecule. The material as prepared had well dispersivity in water and better conductivity than pure GR. The surface morphology of Trp-GR was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) on the surface of Trp-GR. The separation of the oxidation peak potentials for AA–DA, DA–UA and UA–AA was about 182 mV, 125 mV and 307 mV, which allowed simultaneously determining AA, DA, and UA. Differential pulse voltammetery (DPV) was used for the determination of AA, DA, and UA in their mixture. Under optimum conditions, the linear response ranges for the determination of AA, DA, and UA were 0.2–12.9 mM, 0.5–110 μM, and 10–1000 μM, with the detection limits (S/N = 3) of 10.09 μM, 0.29 μM and 1.24 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the modified electrode was investigated for real sample analysis.

  13. Simultaneous Determinations of Eleven Bioactive Components in Suanzaoren Decoction Granules by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Its Application to the Quality Control in Productive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yali; He, Bosai; DU, Yiyang; Li, Jiahui; Wang, Di; Bi, Kaishun; Li, Qing

    2016-01-01

    A simple and reliable method using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was firstly established for the determinations of eleven bioactive compounds (neomangiferin, mangiferin, spinosin, liquiritin apioside, liquiritin, fumalic acid, 6'''-feruloylspinosin, senkyunolide I, isoliquiritin, glycyrrhizic acid and senkyunolide A) in Suanzaoren decoction (SZRD) extract and its granules. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 column at 30°C. Excellent linear behaviors over the investigated concentration ranges were observed with the values of R(2) being higher than 0.9990 for all analytes. The developed method showed good precision and accuracy with overall intra- and inter-day variations of less than 2.0%, and overall recoveries in the range of 97.2 - 102.1%. The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of eleven components in SZRD samples from different production batches, including SZRD extract, lab-made SZRD granules and clinical medicine. This accurate and reliable HPLC-PDA method will be helpful for improving the quality evaluation of SZRD granules and its quality control in productive processes. PMID:27682396

  14. SIMULTANEOUS CONTROL OF HGO, SO2, AND NOX BY NOVEL OXIDIZED CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an investigation of two classes of calcium (Ca)-based sorbents (hydrated limes and silicate compounds). (NOTE: Efforts to develop multipollutant control strategies have demonstrated that adding certain oxidants to different classes of Ca-based sorbents...

  15. SIMULTANEOUS CONTROL OF HG(0), SO2, AND NOX BY NOVEL OXIDIZED CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an investigation of two classes of calcium (Ca)-based sorbents (hydrated limes and silicate compounds). {NOTE: Efforts to develop multipollutant control strategies have demonstrated that adding certain oxidants to different classes of Ca-based sorbents ...

  16. NMR Based Cerebrum Metabonomic Analysis Reveals Simultaneous Interconnected Changes during Chick Embryo Incubation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Feng

    Full Text Available To find out if content changes of the major functional cerebrum metabolites are interconnected and formed a network during the brain development, we obtained high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HR-MAS 1H NMR spectra of cerebrum tissues of chick embryo aged from incubation day 10 to 20, and postnatal day 1, and analyzed the data with principal component analysis (PCA. Within the examined time window, 26 biological important molecules were identified and 12 of them changed their relative concentration significantly in a time-dependent manner. These metabolites are generally belonged to three categories, neurotransmitters, nutrition sources, and neuronal or glial markers. The relative concentration changes of the metabolites were interconnected among/between the categories, and, more interestingly, associated with the number and size of Nissl-positive neurons. These results provided valuable biochemical and neurochemical information to understand the development of the embryonic brain.

  17. A new estimate of afrotherian phylogeny based on simultaneous analysis of genomic, morphological, and fossil evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiffert Erik R

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The placental mammalian clade Afrotheria is now supported by diverse forms of genomic data, but interordinal relationships within, and morphological support for, the group remains elusive. As a means for addressing these outstanding problems, competing hypotheses of afrotherian interordinal relationships were tested through simultaneous parsimony analysis of a large data set (> 4,590 parsimony informative characters containing genomic data (> 17 kb of nucleotide data, chromosomal associations, and retroposons and 400 morphological characters scored across 16 extant and 35 extinct afrotherians. Results Parsimony analysis of extant taxa alone recovered the interordinal topology (Afrosoricida, ((Macroscelidea, Tubulidentata, (Hyracoidea, (Proboscidea, Sirenia. Analysis following addition of extinct taxa instead supported Afroinsectivora (Afrosoricida + Macroscelidea and Pseudoungulata (Tubulidentata + Paenungulata, as well as Tethytheria (Proboscidea + Sirenia. This latter topology is, however, sensitive to taxon deletion and different placements of the placental root, and numerous alternative interordinal arrangements within Afrotheria could not be statistically rejected. Relationships among extinct stem members of each afrotherian clade were more stable, but one alleged stem macroscelidean (Herodotius never grouped with that clade and instead consistently joined pseudoungulates or paenungulates. When character transformations were optimized onto a less resolved afrotherian tree that reflects uncertainty about the group's interordinal phylogeny, a total of 21 morphological features were identified as possible synapomorphies of crown Afrotheria, 9 of which optimized unambiguously across all character treatments and optimization methods. Conclusion Instability in afrotherian interordinal phylogeny presumably reflects rapid divergences during two pulses of cladogenesis – the first in the Late Cretaceous, at and just after the

  18. In vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of brain energy substrates with a multiplex amperometric enzyme-based biosensor device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, C A; de Vries, M G; Ngabi, W; Oomen, P E; Cremers, T I F H; Westerink, B H C

    2015-05-15

    Enzyme-based amperometric biosensors are widely used for monitoring key biomarkers. In experimental neuroscience there is a growing interest in in vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of metabolism-related biomarkers, like glucose, lactate and pyruvate. The use of multiplex biosensors will provide better understanding of brain energy metabolism and its role in neuropathologies such as diabetes, ischemia, and epilepsy. We have developed and characterized an implantable multiplex microbiosensor device (MBD) for simultaneous and continuous in vivo monitoring of glucose, lactate, and pyruvate. First, we developed and characterized amperometric microbiosensors for monitoring lactate and pyruvate. In vitro evaluation allowed us to choose the most suitable biosensors for incorporation into the MBD, along with glucose and background biosensors. Fully assembled MBDs were characterized in vitro. The calculated performance parameters (LOD, LR, LRS, IMAX and appKM) showed that the multiplex MBD was highly selective and sensitive (LRS≥100 nA/mM) for each analyte and within an adequate range for in vivo application. Finally, MBDs were implanted in the mPFC of anesthetized adult male Wistar rats for in vivo evaluation. Following an equilibration period, baseline brain levels of glucose (1.3±0.2 mM), lactate (1.5±0.4 mM) and pyruvate (0.3±0.1 mM) were established. Subsequently, the MBDs recorded the responses of the animals when submitted to hyperglycemic (40% glucose i.v.) and hypoglycemic (5 U/kg insulin i.v.) challenges. Afterwards, MBDs were recalibrated to convert electrochemical readings into accurate substrate concentrations and to assess biofouling. The presented MBD can monitor simultaneously multiple biomarkers in vivo. PMID:25459054

  19. Visual-based simultaneous localization and mapping and global positioning system correction for geo-localization of a mobile robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces an approach combining visual-based simultaneous localization and mapping (V-SLAM) and global positioning system (GPS) correction for accurate multi-sensor localization of an outdoor mobile robot in geo-referenced maps. The proposed framework combines two extended Kalman filters (EKF); the first one, referred to as the integration filter, is dedicated to the improvement of the GPS localization based on data from an inertial navigation system and wheels' encoders. The second EKF implements the V-SLAM process. The linear and angular velocities in the dynamic model of the V-SLAM EKF filter are given by the GPS/INS/Encoders integration filter. On the other hand, the output of the V-SLAM EKF filter is used to update the dynamics estimation in the integration filter and therefore the geo-referenced localization. This solution increases the accuracy and the robustness of the positioning during GPS outage and allows SLAM in less featured environments

  20. Simultaneous Computation of Two Independent Tasks Using Reservoir Computing Based on a Single Photonic Nonlinear Node With Optical Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Verschaffelt, Guy; Danckaert, Jan; Van der Sande, Guy

    2015-12-01

    In this brief, we numerically demonstrate a photonic delay-based reservoir computing system, which processes, in parallel, two independent computational tasks even when the two tasks have unrelated input streams. Our approach is based on a single-longitudinal mode semiconductor ring laser (SRL) with optical feedback. The SRL emits in two directional optical modes. Each directional mode processes one individual task to mitigate possible crosstalk. We illustrate the feasibility of our scheme by analyzing the performance on two benchmark tasks: 1) chaotic time series prediction and 2) nonlinear channel equalization. We identify some feedback configurations for which the results for simultaneous prediction/classification indicate a good performance, but with slight degradation (as compared with the performance obtained for single task processing) due to nonlinear and linear interactions between the two directional modes of the laser. In these configurations, the system performs well on both tasks for a broad range of the parameters. PMID:25751880

  1. Fiber based optical tweezers for simultaneous in situ force exertion and measurements in a 3D polyacrylamide gel compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Chaoyang; Thomas, Gawain M; Ren, Yundong; Zhang, Rui; Wen, Qi; Liu, Yuxiang

    2015-07-01

    Optical tweezers play an important role in biological applications. However, it is difficult for traditional optical tweezers based on objective lenses to work in a three-dimensional (3D) solid far away from the substrate. In this work, we develop a fiber based optical trapping system, namely inclined dual fiber optical tweezers, that can simultaneously apply and measure forces both in water and in a 3D polyacrylamide gel matrix. In addition, we demonstrate in situ, non-invasive characterization of local mechanical properties of polyacrylamide gel by measurements on an embedded bead. The fiber optical tweezers measurements agree well with those of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The inclined dual fiber optical tweezers provide a promising and versatile tool for cell mechanics study in 3D environments.

  2. Simultaneous Computation of Two Independent Tasks Using Reservoir Computing Based on a Single Photonic Nonlinear Node With Optical Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Verschaffelt, Guy; Danckaert, Jan; Van der Sande, Guy

    2015-12-01

    In this brief, we numerically demonstrate a photonic delay-based reservoir computing system, which processes, in parallel, two independent computational tasks even when the two tasks have unrelated input streams. Our approach is based on a single-longitudinal mode semiconductor ring laser (SRL) with optical feedback. The SRL emits in two directional optical modes. Each directional mode processes one individual task to mitigate possible crosstalk. We illustrate the feasibility of our scheme by analyzing the performance on two benchmark tasks: 1) chaotic time series prediction and 2) nonlinear channel equalization. We identify some feedback configurations for which the results for simultaneous prediction/classification indicate a good performance, but with slight degradation (as compared with the performance obtained for single task processing) due to nonlinear and linear interactions between the two directional modes of the laser. In these configurations, the system performs well on both tasks for a broad range of the parameters.

  3. Wavelet decomposition based principal component analysis for face recognition using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Sharma, Shashikant; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn; Ranjan, Aashish

    2016-03-01

    For the realization of face recognition systems in the static as well as in the real time frame, algorithms such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, linear discriminate analysis, neural networks and genetic algorithms are used for decades. This paper discusses an approach which is a wavelet decomposition based principal component analysis for face recognition. Principal component analysis is chosen over other algorithms due to its relative simplicity, efficiency, and robustness features. The term face recognition stands for identifying a person from his facial gestures and having resemblance with factor analysis in some sense, i.e. extraction of the principal component of an image. Principal component analysis is subjected to some drawbacks, mainly the poor discriminatory power and the large computational load in finding eigenvectors, in particular. These drawbacks can be greatly reduced by combining both wavelet transform decomposition for feature extraction and principal component analysis for pattern representation and classification together, by analyzing the facial gestures into space and time domain, where, frequency and time are used interchangeably. From the experimental results, it is envisaged that this face recognition method has made a significant percentage improvement in recognition rate as well as having a better computational efficiency.

  4. Predictive based monitoring of nuclear plant component degradation using support vector regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Dept. of Human Factors, Controls, Statistics; Alamaniotis, Miltiadis [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Nuclear Engineering; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Nuclear Engineering

    2015-02-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are large installations comprised of many active and passive assets. Degradation monitoring of all these assets is expensive (labor cost) and highly demanding task. In this paper a framework based on Support Vector Regression (SVR) for online surveillance of critical parameter degradation of NPP components is proposed. In this case, on time replacement or maintenance of components will prevent potential plant malfunctions, and reduce the overall operational cost. In the current work, we apply SVR equipped with a Gaussian kernel function to monitor components. Monitoring includes the one-step-ahead prediction of the component’s respective operational quantity using the SVR model, while the SVR model is trained using a set of previous recorded degradation histories of similar components. Predictive capability of the model is evaluated upon arrival of a sensor measurement, which is compared to the component failure threshold. A maintenance decision is based on a fuzzy inference system that utilizes three parameters: (i) prediction evaluation in the previous steps, (ii) predicted value of the current step, (iii) and difference of current predicted value with components failure thresholds. The proposed framework will be tested on turbine blade degradation data.

  5. Selection of Component Codes for Turbo Coding Based on Convergence properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1999-01-01

    on the performance at high SNR's. We will show that it is important to base the choice on the performance at low SNR's, i.e. the convergence properties, as well. Further, the study of the performance with different component codes may lead to an understanding of the convergence process in the turbo codes.......The turbo decoding is a sub-optimal decoding, i.e. it is not a maximum likelihood decoding. It is important to be aware of this fact when the parameters for the scheme are chosen. This goes especially for the selection of component codes, where the selection often has been based solely...

  6. Towards a Component Framework for Architecture-Based Self-Adaptive Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yu; MA Xiaoxing; TAO Xianping; LU Jian

    2006-01-01

    Self-adaptive software is an efficient way to cope with highly dynamic nature of the environment where it is situated. In this paper, from the perspective of software architecture, we propose a component framework for supporting the architecture-based design and development of self-adaptive applications. It captures some key elements of the research on software architecture and provides more flexible facilities to decouple interacting components. Based on that, a prototype is implemented to demonstrate its feasibility, and at last a case study is presented to illustrate our framework.

  7. Component-Based Development of Runtime Observers in the COMDES Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Wei; Li, Gang; Angelov, Christo K.;

    2013-01-01

    Formal verification methods, such as exhaustive model checking, are often infeasible because of high computational complexity. Runtime observers (monitors) provide an alternative, light-weight verification method, which offers a non-exhaustive but still feasible approach to monitor system behavior...... against formally specified properties. This paper presents a component-based design method for runtime observers in the context of COMDES framework—a component-based framework for distributed embedded system and its supporting tools. Therefore, runtime verification is facilitated by model...

  8. A local fast marching-based diffusion tensor image registration algorithm by simultaneously considering spatial deformation and tensor orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhong; Li, Hai; Guo, Lei; Wong, Stephen T C

    2010-08-01

    It is a key step to spatially align diffusion tensor images (DTI) to quantitatively compare neural images obtained from different subjects or the same subject at different timepoints. Different from traditional scalar or multi-channel image registration methods, tensor orientation should be considered in DTI registration. Recently, several DTI registration methods have been proposed in the literature, but deformation fields are purely dependent on the tensor features not the whole tensor information. Other methods, such as the piece-wise affine transformation and the diffeomorphic non-linear registration algorithms, use analytical gradients of the registration objective functions by simultaneously considering the reorientation and deformation of tensors during the registration. However, only relatively local tensor information such as voxel-wise tensor-similarity is utilized. This paper proposes a new DTI image registration algorithm, called local fast marching (FM)-based simultaneous registration. The algorithm not only considers the orientation of tensors during registration but also utilizes the neighborhood tensor information of each voxel to drive the deformation, and such neighborhood tensor information is extracted from a local fast marching algorithm around the voxels of interest. These local fast marching-based tensor features efficiently reflect the diffusion patterns around each voxel within a spherical neighborhood and can capture relatively distinctive features of the anatomical structures. Using simulated and real DTI human brain data the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is more accurate compared with the FA-based registration and is more efficient than its counterpart, the neighborhood tensor similarity-based registration. PMID:20382233

  9. Prognostic Health Monitoring System: Component Selection Based on Risk Criteria and Economic Benefit Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binh T. Pham; Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J Lybeck; Magdy S Tawfik

    2012-05-01

    Prognostic health monitoring (PHM) is a proactive approach to monitor the ability of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to withstand structural, thermal, and chemical loadings over the SSCs planned service lifespans. The current efforts to extend the operational license lifetime of the aging fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants from 40 to 60 years and beyond can benefit from a systematic application of PHM technology. Implementing a PHM system would strengthen the safety of nuclear power plants, reduce plant outage time, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. However, a nuclear power plant has thousands of SSCs, so implementing a PHM system that covers all SSCs requires careful planning and prioritization. This paper therefore focuses on a component selection that is based on the analysis of a component's failure probability, risk, and cost. Ultimately, the decision on component selection depend on the overall economical benefits arising from safety and operational considerations associated with implementing the PHM system.

  10. Forecast method for used number of parts and components based on complex network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fu-yun; QI Guo-ning; YANG Qing-hai

    2006-01-01

    Applying directed complex network to model the main structure of a product family,according to in-degree bi-logarithmic coordinate distribution curve and distribution rule of nodes of the network,in-degree evolving rule of nodes of the network is presented and analytic expression of in-degree probability density of nodes is derived.Through the analysis of the relation between existing kinds of components and existing product numbers,an expression of the relation between kinds of components and product numbers is derived.A forecast method for the increment of component numbers and parts based on the increment of products is presented.As an example,the component numbers of an industrial steam turbine product family is forecasted,forecast result verified and forecast error analyzed.

  11. Prognostic Health Monitoring System: Component Selection Based on Risk Criteria and Economic Benefit Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prognostic health monitoring (PHM) is a proactive approach to monitor the ability of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to withstand structural, thermal, and chemical loadings over the SSCs planned service lifespans. The current efforts to extend the operational license lifetime of the aging fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants from 40 to 60 years and beyond can benefit from a systematic application of PHM technology. Implementing a PHM system would strengthen the safety of nuclear power plants, reduce plant outage time, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. However, a nuclear power plant has thousands of SSCs, so implementing a PHM system that covers all SSCs requires careful planning and prioritization. This paper therefore focuses on a component selection that is based on the analysis of a component's failure probability, risk, and cost. Ultimately, the decision on component selection depend on the overall economical benefits arising from safety and operational considerations associated with implementing the PHM system.

  12. Prognostic Health Monitoring System: Component Selection Based on Risk Criteria and Economic Benefit Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prognostic health monitoring (PHM) is a proactive approach to monitor the ability of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to withstand structural, thermal, and chemical loadings over the SSCs planned service lifespan. The current efforts to extend the operational license lifetime of the aging fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants from 40 to 60 years and beyond can benefit from a systematic application of PHM technology. Implementing a PHM system would strengthen the safety of nuclear power plants, reduce plant outage time, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. However, a nuclear power plant has thousands of SSCs, so implementing a PHM system that covers all SSCs requires careful planning and prioritization. This paper therefore focuses on a component selection that is based on the analysis of a component's failure probability, risk, and cost. Ultimately, the decision on component selection depends on the overall economical benefits arising from safety and operational considerations associated with implementing the PHM system. (author)

  13. A new process monitoring method based on noisy time structure independent component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianfang Cai; Xuemin Tian

    2015-01-01

    Conventional process monitoring method based on fast independent component analysis (FastICA) cannot take the ubiquitous measurement noises into account and may exhibit degraded monitoring performance under the adverse effects of the measurement noises. In this paper, a new process monitoring approach based on noisy time structure ICA (NoisyTSICA) is proposed to solve such problem. A NoisyTSICA algorithm which can consider the measurement noises explicitly is firstly developed to estimate the mixing matrix and extract the independent components (ICs). Subsequently, a monitoring statistic is built to detect process faults on the basis of the recur-sive kurtosis estimations of the dominant ICs. Lastly, a contribution plot for the monitoring statistic is constructed to identify the fault variables based on the sensitivity analysis. Simulation studies on the continuous stirred tank reactor system demonstrate that the proposed NoisyTSICA-based monitoring method outperforms the conven-tional FastICA-based monitoring method.

  14. Issues on Component Based Architectures Utilization for Real Time Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZMARANDA Doina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Generally, real-time embedded controlsystems are very demanding from the timing pointof view. Increasing complexity and criticality ofsuch systems leads to a challenge regarding theirdesign and programming model. Severaldevelopment models were proposed in the literature,all of them could be grouped into two categories:models based on event triggered approach andmodels based on timed triggered approach. Thispaper focuses on two of the most knownprogramming models that exhibit componentarchitecture: Giotto - based on timed triggeredapproach, and timed multitasking - based on eventtriggered approach. Based on the survey of eachmodel capabilities and component structure, theadvantages and drawbacks in utilization for realtimeembedded systems are analyzed in the paperand several conclusions are drawn.

  15. The global classroom model simultaneous campus- and home-based education using videoconferencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke; Ørngreen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses findings about how students, teachers, and the organization experience a start-up-project applying videoconferences between campus and home. This is new territory for adult learning centers. The research is based on the Global Classroom Model as it is implemented...

  16. Neural network based online simultaneous policy update algorithm for solving the HJI equation in nonlinear H∞ control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huai-Ning; Luo, Biao

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that the nonlinear H∞ state feedback control problem relies on the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs (HJI) equation, which is a nonlinear partial differential equation that has proven to be impossible to solve analytically. In this paper, a neural network (NN)-based online simultaneous policy update algorithm (SPUA) is developed to solve the HJI equation, in which knowledge of internal system dynamics is not required. First, we propose an online SPUA which can be viewed as a reinforcement learning technique for two players to learn their optimal actions in an unknown environment. The proposed online SPUA updates control and disturbance policies simultaneously; thus, only one iterative loop is needed. Second, the convergence of the online SPUA is established by proving that it is mathematically equivalent to Newton's method for finding a fixed point in a Banach space. Third, we develop an actor-critic structure for the implementation of the online SPUA, in which only one critic NN is needed for approximating the cost function, and a least-square method is given for estimating the NN weight parameters. Finally, simulation studies are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24808144

  17. Fitting model-based psychometric functions to simultaneity and temporal-order judgment data: MATLAB and R routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío; García-Pérez, Miguel A

    2013-12-01

    Research on temporal-order perception uses temporal-order judgment (TOJ) tasks or synchrony judgment (SJ) tasks in their binary SJ2 or ternary SJ3 variants. In all cases, two stimuli are presented with some temporal delay, and observers judge the order of presentation. Arbitrary psychometric functions are typically fitted to obtain performance measures such as sensitivity or the point of subjective simultaneity, but the parameters of these functions are uninterpretable. We describe routines in MATLAB and R that fit model-based functions whose parameters are interpretable in terms of the processes underlying temporal-order and simultaneity judgments and responses. These functions arise from an independent-channels model assuming arrival latencies with exponential distributions and a trichotomous decision space. Different routines fit data separately for SJ2, SJ3, and TOJ tasks, jointly for any two tasks, or also jointly for the three tasks (for common cases in which two or even the three tasks were used with the same stimuli and participants). Additional routines provide bootstrap p-values and confidence intervals for estimated parameters. A further routine is included that obtains performance measures from the fitted functions. An R package for Windows and source code of the MATLAB and R routines are available as Supplementary Files.

  18. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction-based System for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Lily-infecting Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yeon Kwon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A detection system based on a multiplex reverse transcription (RT polymerase chain reaction (PCR was developed to simultaneously identify multiple viruses in the lily plant. The most common viruses infecting lily plants are the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, lily mottle virus (LMoV, lily symptomless virus (LSV. Leaf samples were collected at lily-cultivation facilities located in the Kangwon province of Korea and used to evaluate the detection system. Simplex and multiplex RT-PCR were performed using virus-specific primers to detect single-or mixed viral infections in lily plants. Our results demonstrate the selective detection of 3 different viruses (CMV, LMoV and LSV by using specific primers as well as the potential of simultaneously detecting 2 or 3 different viruses in lily plants with mixed infections. Three sets of primers for each target virus, and one set of internal control primers were used to evaluate the detection system for efficiency, reliability, and reproducibility.

  19. Simultaneous voltammetric determination for DA, AA and NO₂⁻ based on graphene/poly-cyclodextrin/MWCNTs nanocomposite platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Li, Wenjuan; Zhong, Xia; Zhong, Huaan

    2011-05-15

    In the present work, graphene sheets (GS) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dispersed in the mixed solution of cyclodextrin (CD) and cyclodextrin prepolymer (pre-CD) and were used as modifier to fabricate chemical modified electrode to simultaneous detect dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA) and nitrite (NO2(-)). CD cross-linked pre-CD (CDP) displays excellent film forming ability, which made the electrode stable. Comparing with CDP-GS, CDP-MWCNTs and CDP-GS-MWCNTs modified electrodes, the CDP-GS-MWCNTs displays higher catalytic activity and selectivity toward the oxidation of DA, AA and NO2(-), revealing that MWCNTs effectively inhibited the stacking of individual GS and enhanced the utilization of GS based composites. The host-guest chemical reaction ability of CD and π-π stacking interaction between detected molecules and GS-MWCNTs surface were considered as the main reasons of the successfully simultaneous detection of DA, AA and NO2(-). Cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and different pulse voltammetry (DPV) were employed to characterize the biosensor. The linear response range for AA, DA and NO2(-) were 5 μM-0.48 mM, 0.15-21.65 μM and 5 μM-6.75 mM, respectively and the detection limits were 1.65 μM, 0.05 μM and 1.65 μM. PMID:21497078

  20. Simultaneous determination of pH, urea, acetylcholine and heavy metals using array-based enzymatic optical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiao-chung; Doong, Ruey-an

    2005-03-15

    An array-based optical biosensor for the simultaneous analysis of multiple samples in the presence of unrelated multi-analytes was fabricated. Urease and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were used as model enzymes and were co-entrapped with the sensing probe, FITC-dextran, in the sol-gel matrix to measure pH, urea, acetylcholine (ACh) and heavy metals (enzyme inhibitors). Environmental and biological samples spiked with metal ions were also used to evaluate the application of the array biosensor to real samples. The biosensor exhibited high specificity in identifying multiple analytes. No obvious cross-interference was observed when a 50-spot array biosensor was used for simultaneous analysis of multiple samples in the presence of multiple analytes. The sensing system can determine pH over a dynamic range from 4 to 8.5. The limits of detection (LODs) of 2.5-50 microM with a dynamic range of 2-3 orders of magnitude for urea and ACh measurements were obtained. Moreover, the urease-encapsulated array biosensor was used to detect heavy metals. The analytical ranges of Cd(II), Cu(II), and Hg(II) were between 10 nM and 100 mM. When real samples were spiked with heavy metals, the array biosensor also exhibited potential effectiveness in screening enzyme inhibitors.

  1. A wavelet based algorithm for the identification of oscillatory event-related potential components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniyan, Arun Kumar; Philip, Ninan Sajeeth; Samar, Vincent J; Desjardins, James A; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2014-08-15

    Event related potentials (ERPs) are very feeble alterations in the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) and their detection is a challenging problem. Based on the unique time-based parameters derived from wavelet coefficients and the asymmetry property of wavelets a novel algorithm to separate ERP components in single-trial EEG data is described. Though illustrated as a specific application to N170 ERP detection, the algorithm is a generalized approach that can be easily adapted to isolate different kinds of ERP components. The algorithm detected the N170 ERP component with a high level of accuracy. We demonstrate that the asymmetry method is more accurate than the matching wavelet algorithm and t-CWT method by 48.67 and 8.03 percent, respectively. This paper provides an off-line demonstration of the algorithm and considers issues related to the extension of the algorithm to real-time applications. PMID:24931710

  2. Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of SWRO Process Based on Simultaneous Method

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Aipeng; Ding, Qiang; Wang, Jian; Jiangzhou, Shu; Cheng, Wen; Xing, Changxin

    2014-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) technique is one of the most efficient ways for seawater desalination to solve the shortage of freshwater. For prediction and analysis of the performance of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) process, an accurate and detailed model based on the solution-diffusion and mass transfer theory is established. Since the accurate formulation of the model includes many differential equations and strong nonlinear equations (differential and algebraic equations, DAEs), to solve the pro...

  3. Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of SWRO Process Based on Simultaneous Method

    OpenAIRE

    Aipeng Jiang; Qiang Ding; Jian Wang; Shu Jiangzhou; Wen Cheng; Changxin Xing

    2013-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) technique is one of the most efficient ways for seawater desalination to solve the shortage of freshwater. For prediction and analysis of the performance of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) process, an accurate and detailed model based on the solution-diffusion and mass transfer theory is established. Since the accurate formulation of the model includes many differential equations and strong nonlinear equations (differential and algebraic equations, DAEs), to solve the pro...

  4. Differential Cyclic Voltammetry - a Novel Technique for Selective and Simultaneous Detection using Redox Cycling Based Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Odijk, M.; Wiedemair, J.; Megen, M.J.J; Olthuis, W.; Van den Berg, A.

    2010-01-01

    Redox cycling (RC) is an effect that is used to amplify electrochemical signals. However, traditional techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) do not provide clear insight for a mixture of multiple redox couples while RC is applied. Thus, we have developed a new measurement technique which delivers electrochemical spectra of all reversible redox couples present based on concentrations and standard potentials. This technique has been named differential cyclic voltammetry (DCV). We have fabri...

  5. Nanoscale spatially resolved simultaneous measurement of in-plane and out-of-plane force components on surfaces: a novel operational mode in atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gregory S.; Dinte, Bradley P.; Blach, Jolanta A.; Myhra, Sverre

    2002-11-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) allows investigation of the properties of surfaces and interfaces at atomic scale resolution. However, several different operational modes, (imaging, force versus distance and lateral force modes), need to be deployed in order to gain insight into the structure, tribological and mechanical properties. A new method, based on a variation of the force versus distance mode, has been developed. In essence, a coupling of the deformational modes of the probe is exploited whereby the tip is induced to undergo lateral travel in response to application of an out-of-plane force (and thus normal bending of the force-sensing lever). The lateral travel induces in-plane forces that are then measurable as a consequence of stimulation of the 'buckling' deformational mode of the lever. Due to the lever geometry, the technique offers an increase in resolution of an order of magnitude over existing AFM methods for measurement of atomic scale stick-slip events. In addition, the method allows measurement of the lateral deformation of the sample as well as scanner calibration. Outcomes will be demonstrated for atomically flat surfaces such as WTe2 and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  6. Multi-component based cross correlation beat detection in electrocardiogram analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owens Frank J

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first stage in computerised processing of the electrocardiogram is beat detection. This involves identifying all cardiac cycles and locating the position of the beginning and end of each of the identifiable waveform components. The accuracy at which beat detection is performed has significant impact on the overall classification performance, hence efforts are still being made to improve this process. Methods A new beat detection approach is proposed based on the fundamentals of cross correlation and compared with two benchmarking approaches of non-syntactic and cross correlation beat detection. The new approach can be considered to be a multi-component based variant of traditional cross correlation where each of the individual inter-wave components are sought in isolation as opposed to being sought in one complete process. Each of three techniques were compared based on their performance in detecting the P wave, QRS complex and T wave in addition to onset and offset markers for 3000 cardiac cycles. Results Results indicated that the approach of multi-component based cross correlation exceeded the performance of the two benchmarking techniques by firstly correctly detecting more cardiac cycles and secondly provided the most accurate marker insertion in 7 out of the 8 categories tested. Conclusion The main benefit of the multi-component based cross correlation algorithm is seen to be firstly its ability to successfully detect cardiac cycles and secondly the accurate insertion of the beat markers based on pre-defined values as opposed to performing individual gradient searches for wave onsets and offsets following fiducial point location.

  7. A Service Discovery and Automatic Deployment Component-Based Software Infrastructure for Ubiquitous Computing

    OpenAIRE

    FLISSI, A; GRANSART, C; Merle, P.

    2005-01-01

    International audience Software applications running on mobile devices are more and more needed. These applications have strong requirements to address: device heterogeneity, limited resources, networked communications, and security. Moreover it is required to have appropriate application design, discovery, deployment, and execution paradigms. These requirements are similar to those of any ubiquitous computing application. In this paper, we present a component-based software infrastructure...

  8. Refinement and verification in component-based model-driven design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhenbang; Liu, Zhiming; Ravn, Anders Peter;

    2009-01-01

    Modern software development is complex as it has to deal with many different and yet related aspects of applications. In practical software engineering this is now handled by a UML-like modelling approach in which different aspects are modelled by different notations. Component-based and object...

  9. Prototypic implementations of the building block for component based open Hypermedia systems (BB/CB-OHSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Omer I. Eldai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the prototypic implementations of the BuildingBlock (BB/CB-OHSs) that proposed to address some of the Component-based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHSs) issues, including distribution and interoperability [4, 11, 12]. Four service implementations were described below. The...

  10. Effective Web Design and Core Communication Issues: The Missing Components in Web-Based Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Randall O.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of Web-based distance education focuses on communication issues. Highlights include Internet communications; components of a Web site, including site architecture, user interface, information delivery method, and mode of feedback; elements of Web design, including conceptual design, sensory design, and reactive design; and a Web…

  11. Development of geophysical and geochemical data processing software based on component GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on component GIS and mixed programming techniques, a software which combines the basic GIS functions, conventional and unconventional data process methods for the regional geophysical and geochemical data together, is designed and developed. The software has many advantages, such as friendly interface, easy to use and utility functions and provides a useful platform for regional geophysical and geochemical data processing. (authors)

  12. System Description and First Application of an FPGA-Based Simultaneous Multi-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar Santos, Susana; Robens, Anne; Boehm, Anna; Leonhardt, Steffen; Teichmann, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A new prototype of a multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography system is presented. The system uses a field-programmable gate array as a main controller and is configured to measure at different frequencies simultaneously through a composite waveform. Both real and imaginary components of the data are computed for each frequency and sent to the personal computer over an ethernet connection, where both time-difference imaging and frequency-difference imaging are reconstructed and visualized. The system has been tested for both time-difference and frequency-difference imaging for diverse sets of frequency pairs in a resistive/capacitive test unit and in self-experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first work that shows preliminary frequency-difference images of in-vivo experiments. Results of time-difference imaging were compared with simulation results and shown that the new prototype performs well at all frequencies in the tested range of 60 kHz-960 kHz. For frequency-difference images, further development of algorithms and an improved normalization process is required to correctly reconstruct and interpreted the resulting images. PMID:27463715

  13. System Description and First Application of an FPGA-Based Simultaneous Multi-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Aguiar Santos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new prototype of a multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography system is presented. The system uses a field-programmable gate array as a main controller and is configured to measure at different frequencies simultaneously through a composite waveform. Both real and imaginary components of the data are computed for each frequency and sent to the personal computer over an ethernet connection, where both time-difference imaging and frequency-difference imaging are reconstructed and visualized. The system has been tested for both time-difference and frequency-difference imaging for diverse sets of frequency pairs in a resistive/capacitive test unit and in self-experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first work that shows preliminary frequency-difference images of in-vivo experiments. Results of time-difference imaging were compared with simulation results and shown that the new prototype performs well at all frequencies in the tested range of 60 kHz–960 kHz. For frequency-difference images, further development of algorithms and an improved normalization process is required to correctly reconstruct and interpreted the resulting images.

  14. A Wavelet Based Algorithm for the Identification of Oscillatory Event-Related Potential Components

    OpenAIRE

    A., Arun Kumar; Philip, Ninan Sajeeth; Samar, Vincent J; Desjardins, James A; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2014-01-01

    Event Related Potentials (ERPs) are very feeble alterations in the ongoing Electroencephalogram (EEG) and their detection is a challenging problem. Based on the unique time-based parameters derived from wavelet coefficients and the asymmetry property of wavelets a novel algorithm to separate ERP components in single-trial EEG data is described. Though illustrated as a specific application to N170 ERP detection, the algorithm is a generalized approach that can be easily adapted to isolate diff...

  15. Real-time measurement of the fast axis angle of a quarter-wave plate based on simultaneous phase shifting technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Yang; Aijun Zeng; Xiangzhao Wang; Hua Wang; Feng Tang

    2008-01-01

    Real-time measurement of the fast axis angle of a quarter-wave plate based on simultaneous phase shifting technique is presented. The simultaneous phase shifting function is realized by an orthogonal grating, a diaphragm, an analyzer array, and a 4-quadrant detector. The intensities of the light beams from the four analyzers with different azimuths are measured simultaneously. The fast axis angle of the quarter-wave plate is obtained through the four light intensity values. In this method, rotating elements are not required, so real-time measurement is achieved.

  16. A Network Framework Based on MechanicalComponent Design and Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾立志; 陈光军; 杨康

    2004-01-01

    Network manufacturing has been rapidly developed and is going to play an important role in modern indusu'y. The core of network manufacturing of mechanical products is the design and manufacturing based on the computer network technology. A network framework is introduced for manufacturing mechanical components at two main levels. On the design level features of the component are initially studied based on the structure and functions of the component. Details of the design procedure and contents are then analyzed with three main kinds of components. In this stage, selection of materials, calculation of sla'ess and deflection under load, determination of the size are carried out using CAD. On the manufacturing level various aspects of CAPP are discussed, including the principle and the modes of positioning the component, the exerted clamping forces, cutting engagement and input parameters, machine tools used, and machining fluids if necessary. Finally a prototype of the network framework is presented with several pieces of data terminal equipment through a local area network, the topological structure, and data sharing and security, without concerning the use of the concurrent engineering techniques and virtual manufacturing, and virtual measuring techniques.

  17. Color Image Watermarking using Cycle Spinning based Sharp Frequency Localized Contourlet Transform and Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Kishore Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new approach for color image watermarking using Cycle Spinning based Sharp Frequency Localized Contourlet Transform and Principal Component Analysis. The approach starts with decomposition of images into various subbands using Contourlet Transform(CT successively for all the color spaces of both host and watermark images. Then principal components of middle band(x bands are considered for inserting operation. The ordinary contourlet transform suffers from lack of frequency localization. The localization being the most important criterion for watermarking, the conventional CT is not very suitable for watermarking. This problem of CT is over come by Sharp Frequency Localized Contourlet, but this lacks of translation invariance. Hence the cycle spinning based sharp frequency localized contourlet chosen for watermarking. Embedding at middle level sub bands(x band preserves the curve nature of edges in the host image hence less disturbance is observed when host and watermark images are compared. This result in very good Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR instead of directly adding of mid frequency components of watermark and host images the principal components are only added. Likewise the amount of payload to be added is reduced hence host images get very less distortion. Usage of principal components also helps in fruitful extraction of watermark information from host image hence gives good correlation between input watermark and extracted one. This technique has shown a very high robustness under various intentional and non intentional attacks.

  18. Simultaneous Removal of COS and H2S at Low Temperatures over Nanoparticle α-FeOOH Based Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Gao; Chunhu Li; Kechang Xie

    2003-01-01

    Catalysts using α-FeOOH nanoparticles as the active ingredient were tested by a microreactor-chromatography assessing apparatus at atmospheric pressure between 25 and 60 ℃ with a gas hourly spacevelocity of 10,000 h-1, while the removal performance of H2S with catalysts was investigated using thethermal gravimetric method. The results show that the catalysts are highly active for COS hydrolysis atlow temperatures (≤60 ℃) and high gas hourly space velocity, and the highest activity can reach 100%. Thecatalyst is particularly stable for 12 h, and no deactivation is observed. Nanoparticle α-FeOOH preparedusing hydrated iron sulfate shows higher COS hydrolysis activity, and the optimum calcination temperaturefor the catalyst is 260 ℃. In addition, the catalysts can remove COS and H2S simultaneously, and 60 ℃ isfavorable for the removal of H2S. The compensation effect exists in nanoparticle-based catalysts.

  19. Simultaneous acquisition of 3D shape and deformation by combination of interferometric and correlation-based laser speckle metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekiff, Markus; Berssenbrügge, Philipp; Kemper, Björn; Denz, Cornelia; Dirksen, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    A metrology system combining three laser speckle measurement techniques for simultaneous determination of 3D shape and micro- and macroscopic deformations is presented. While microscopic deformations are determined by a combination of Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI) and Digital Speckle Photography (DSP), macroscopic 3D shape, position and deformation are retrieved by photogrammetry based on digital image correlation of a projected laser speckle pattern. The photogrammetrically obtained data extend the measurement range of the DHI-DSP system and also increase the accuracy of the calculation of the sensitivity vector. Furthermore, a precise assignment of microscopic displacements to the object's macroscopic shape for enhanced visualization is achieved. The approach allows for fast measurements with a simple setup. Key parameters of the system are optimized, and its precision and measurement range are demonstrated. As application examples, the deformation of a mandible model and the shrinkage of dental impression material are measured.

  20. Simultaneous acquisition of 3D shape and deformation by combination of interferometric and correlation-based laser speckle metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekiff, Markus; Berssenbrügge, Philipp; Kemper, Björn; Denz, Cornelia; Dirksen, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    A metrology system combining three laser speckle measurement techniques for simultaneous determination of 3D shape and micro- and macroscopic deformations is presented. While microscopic deformations are determined by a combination of Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI) and Digital Speckle Photography (DSP), macroscopic 3D shape, position and deformation are retrieved by photogrammetry based on digital image correlation of a projected laser speckle pattern. The photogrammetrically obtained data extend the measurement range of the DHI-DSP system and also increase the accuracy of the calculation of the sensitivity vector. Furthermore, a precise assignment of microscopic displacements to the object's macroscopic shape for enhanced visualization is achieved. The approach allows for fast measurements with a simple setup. Key parameters of the system are optimized, and its precision and measurement range are demonstrated. As application examples, the deformation of a mandible model and the shrinkage of dental impression material are measured. PMID:26713197

  1. Simultaneous generation of tunable giant dispersive waves in the visible and mid-infrared regions based on photonic crystal fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherenkov radiation (CR) in both the visible and mid-infrared regions is simultaneously generated experimentally based on a photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths. The generation of CR in the visible region originates from solitons located in the anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD) regime which are perturbed by positive third order dispersion. Conversely, the generation of CR in the mid-infrared region requires that the solitons in the anomalous GVD regime are perturbed by negative third order dispersion. The peak wavelength of the CR in the visible region can be tuned from 498 to 425 nm by increasing the average input pump power from 70 to 400 mW, while the peak wavelength of the CR in the mid-infrared region can be tuned from 1986 to 2279 nm by increasing the average input pump power from 70 to 320 mW. (paper)

  2. DNA-based Simultaneous Identification of Three Terminalia Species Targeting Adulteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonal; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various parts of three Terminalia species, namely, Terminalia arjuna (stem bark), Terminalia bellirica (fruit), and Terminalia chebula (fruit) are widely known for their therapeutic principles and other commercial values. However, stem bark of T. bellirica and T. chebula along with Terminalia tomentosa are reported as adulterants of T. arjuna. Correct botanical identification is very critical for safe and effective herbal drugs. DNA-based identification approaches are advancing the conventional methods and sometime proved more beneficial. Objective: The purpose of the study was to develop polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region to ascertain the identity of T. arjuna herbal material as well as detection of mixing of other three Terminalia species. Materials and Methods: DNA from stem barks samples were isolated and subjected to ITS region amplification and sequencing. Sequences were compared for polymorphic nucleotides determination to develop species-specific primers. Final primers were selected on the basis of in silico analysis and experimentally validated. PCR assays for botanical identification of Terminalia species were developed. Sensitivity testing and assay validation were also performed. Results: The PCR assays developed for Terminalia species were resulted in definite amplicons of the corresponding species. No cross-reactivity of the primers was detected. Sensitivity was found enough to amplify as low as 2 ng of DNA. Mixing of DNA in various concentrations for validation also proved the sensitivity of assay to detect original botanicals in the mixture. The developed methods proved very specific and sensitive to authenticate Arjuna bark to develop evidence-based herbal medicines. SUMMARY Internal transcribed spacer-based species-specific polymerase chain reaction.(PCR) assays were developed to authenticate Terminalia arjuna stem bark and to identify substitution/adulteration of Terminalia bellirica

  3. Simultaneous genomic identification and profiling of a single cell using semiconductor-based next generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Watanabe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining single-cell methods and next-generation sequencing should provide a powerful means to understand single-cell biology and obviate the effects of sample heterogeneity. Here we report a single-cell identification method and seamless cancer gene profiling using semiconductor-based massively parallel sequencing. A549 cells (adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell line were used as a model. Single-cell capture was performed using laser capture microdissection (LCM with an Arcturus® XT system, and a captured single cell and a bulk population of A549 cells (≈106 cells were subjected to whole genome amplification (WGA. For cell identification, a multiplex PCR method (AmpliSeq™ SNP HID panel was used to enrich 136 highly discriminatory SNPs with a genotype concordance probability of 1031–35. For cancer gene profiling, we used mutation profiling that was performed in parallel using a hotspot panel for 50 cancer-related genes. Sequencing was performed using a semiconductor-based bench top sequencer. The distribution of sequence reads for both HID and Cancer panel amplicons was consistent across these samples. For the bulk population of cells, the percentages of sequence covered at coverage of more than 100× were 99.04% for the HID panel and 98.83% for the Cancer panel, while for the single cell percentages of sequence covered at coverage of more than 100× were 55.93% for the HID panel and 65.96% for the Cancer panel. Partial amplification failure or randomly distributed non-amplified regions across samples from single cells during the WGA procedures or random allele drop out probably caused these differences. However, comparative analyses showed that this method successfully discriminated a single A549 cancer cell from a bulk population of A549 cells. Thus, our approach provides a powerful means to overcome tumor sample heterogeneity when searching for somatic mutations.

  4. A new approach for simultaneously retrieving cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based shortwave radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface-based measurements of shortwave (SW) radiative fluxes contain valuable information on cloud properties, but have not been fully used to infer those properties. Here a new analytical approach is presented that simultaneously infers cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based measurements of total and direct radiative fluxes. An inspection of the analytical formulation reveals that cloud fraction is primarily determined by the relative cloud radiative forcing for the direct radiation, defined as the difference between the clear-sky and all-sky direct downwelling radiative fluxes normalized by the clear-sky direct downwelling radiative fluxes, while cloud albedo is primarily determined by the ratio of the relative cloud radiative forcing for the total downwelling radiation to the relative cloud radiative forcing for the direct radiation. The new analytical approach is validated using synthetic measurements generated by the rapid radiative transfer model (RRTM) algorithm with known cloud inputs and some surface- and satellite-based measurements. The effect of cloud absorption is further corrected based on a suite of numerical experiments. The new approach demonstrates the utility of partitioning total radiation into direct and diffuse radiation, and eliminates the potential contamination of errors in existing approaches that retrieve cloud fraction and cloud albedo separately. (letter)

  5. Spectroelectrochemical sensing based on multimode selectivity simultaneously achievable in a single device. 16. Sensing by fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaval, Necati; Seliskar, Carl J; Heineman, William R

    2003-11-15

    A fluorescence spectroelectrochemical sensor capable of detecting very low concentrations of metal complexes is described. The sensor is based on a novel spectroelectrochemical sensor that incorporates multiple internal reflection spectroscopy at an optically transparent electrode (OTE) coated with a selective film to enhance detection limits by preconcentrating the analyte at the OTE surface. Nafion was used as the selective cation exchange film for detecting Ru(bpy)(3)(2+), the model analyte, which fluoresces at 605 nm when excited with a 441.6-nm HeCd laser. The unoptimized linear dynamic range of the sensor for Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) is between 1 x 10(-)(11) and 1 x 10(-)(7) M with a calculated 2 x 10(-)(13) M detection limit. The sensor employs extremely thin films ( approximately 12 nm) without significantly sacrificing its sensitivity. The sensor response is demonstrated with varying film thicknesses. A state-of-the-art flow cell design allows variable cell volumes as low as approximately 4 microL. Fluorescence of the sample can be controlled by electromodulation between 0.7 and 1.3 V. Sensor operation is not reversible for the chosen model film (Nafion) and sample (Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)) but it can be regenerated with ethanol for multiple uses.

  6. An Automated Video Object Extraction System Based on Spatiotemporal Independent Component Analysis and Multiscale Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiao-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Video content analysis is essential for efficient and intelligent utilizations of vast multimedia databases over the Internet. In video sequences, object-based extraction techniques are important for content-based video processing in many applications. In this paper, a novel technique is developed to extract objects from video sequences based on spatiotemporal independent component analysis (stICA and multiscale analysis. The stICA is used to extract the preliminary source images containing moving objects in video sequences. The source image data obtained after stICA analysis are further processed using wavelet-based multiscale image segmentation and region detection techniques to improve the accuracy of the extracted object. An automated video object extraction system is developed based on these new techniques. Preliminary results demonstrate great potential for the new stICA and multiscale-segmentation-based object extraction system in content-based video processing applications.

  7. Quality evaluation of semen oroxyli based on the determination of multiple components with a single reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yangyang; Yan, Renyi; Yang, Lixin; Guo, Jian; Liu, Hongliang; Zhang, Jianyong; Yang, Bin; Huang, Luqi

    2013-01-01

    The determination of multiple components is considered to be one of the key methods to control the quality of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), because the clinical efficacy of TCM is derived from the synergistic action of multi-components. When simultaneously determining multi-components in TCM with multiple reference standards (MRS), the limited availability and high expense of various reference standards is a major obstacle. Currently, a practical method determining multi-components with a single reference standard (SRS) is needed to solve the problem, in which the contents of those components without reference standards can be calculated using relative conversion factor. In the present paper, both MRS and SRS methods were established for the simultaneous quantitative determination of seven bioactive flavonoids in Muhudie (MHD), the seed of Oroxylum indicum L., a traditional Chinese herb that has been used for centuries. Forty samples were assayed and data obtained from the two methods were compared, and no statistically significant difference was observed by a T-test (P > 0.05), thus, the SRS method can be applied for quality analysis of MHD. At the same time, a certain correlation was discovered between the contents of the bioactive components and the morphological character of MHD.

  8. Structure Analysis of Network Traffic Matrix Based on Relaxed Principal Component Pursuit

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhe; Xu, Ke; Yin, Baolin

    2011-01-01

    The network traffic matrix is a kind of flow-level Internet traffic data and is widely applied to network operation and management. It is a crucial problem to analyze the composition and structure of traffic matrix; some mathematical approaches such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used to handle that problem. In this paper, we first argue that PCA performs poorly for analyzing traffic matrixes polluted by large volume anomalies, then propose a new composition model of the network traffic matrix. According to our model, structure analysis can be formally defined as decomposing a traffic matrix into low-rank, sparse, and noise sub-matrixes, which is equal to the Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) problem defined in [13]. Based on the Relaxed Principal Component Pursuit (Relaxed PCP) method and the Accelerated Proximal Gradient (APG) algorithm, an iterative algorithm for decomposing a traffic matrix is presented, and our experiment results demonstrate its efficiency and flexibility. At last, f...

  9. Robust multi-stream speech recognition based on weighting the output probabilities of feature components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; WEI Gang; YU Hua; NING Genxin

    2009-01-01

    In the traditional multi-stream fusion methods of speech recognition, all the feature components in a data stream share the same stream weight, while their distortion levels are usually different when the speech recognizer works in noisy environments. To overcome this limitation of the traditional multi-stream frameworks, the current study proposes a new stream fusion method that weights not only the stream outputs, but also the output probabilities of feature components. How the stream and feature component weights in the new fusion method affect the decision is analyzed and two stream fusion schemes based on the 03iginalisation and soft decision models in the missing data techniques are proposed. Experimental results on the hybrid sub-band multi-stream speech recognizer show that the proposed schemes can adjust the stream influences on the decision adaptively and outperform the traditional multi-stream methods in various noisy environments.

  10. Multi-polarization reconstruction from compact polarimetry based on modified four-component scattering decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjun Yin; Jian Yang

    2014-01-01

    An improved algorithm for multi-polarization recon-struction from compact polarimetry (CP) is proposed. According to two fundamental assumptions in compact polarimetric reconstruc-tion, two improvements are proposed. Firstly, the four-component model-based decomposition algorithm is modified with a new vol-ume scattering model. The decomposed helix scattering compo-nent is then used to deal with the non-reflection symmetry con-dition in compact polarimetric measurements. Using the decom-posed power and considering the scattering mechanism of each component, an average relationship between co-polarized and cross-polarized channels is developed over the original polariza-tion state extrapolation model. E-SAR polarimetric data acquired over the Oberpfaffenhofen area and JPL/AIRSAR polarimetric data acquired over San Francisco are used for verification, and good re-construction results are obtained, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Integrated ultracompact and broadband wavelength demultiplexer based on multi-component nano-cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cuicui; Liu, Yong-Chun; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-06-01

    Integrated nanoscale photonic devices have wide applications ranging from optical interconnects and optical computing to optical communications. Wavelength demultiplexer is an essential on-chip optical component which can separate the incident wavelength into different channels; however, the experimental progress is very limited. Here, using a multi-component nano-cavity design, we realize an ultracompact, broadband and high-contrast wavelength demultiplexer, with 2.3 μm feature size, 200 nm operation bandwidth (from 780 nm to 980 nm) and a contrast ratio up to 13.7 dB. The physical mechanism is based on the strong modulation of the surface plasmon polaritons induced by the multi-component nano-cavities, and it can be generalized to other nanoscale photonic devices. This provides a strategy for constructing on-chip photon routers, and also has applications for chip-integrated optical filter and optical logic gates.

  12. Corrosion of stainless steel battery components by bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide based ionic liquid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tyler; Olson, Jarred; Bhat, Vinay; Lee, Se-Hee

    2014-12-01

    While the anodic behavior of aluminum foil current collectors in imide-based room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) is relatively well understood, interactions between such RTILs and other passive battery components have not been studied extensively. This study presents the solvent and potential dependent oxidation of SS316 coin-cell components in the N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR13FSI) RTIL. While this phenomenon prohibits high-voltage cycling of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathodes in SS316 coin-type cells, Al-clad cell components or alternative cell configurations can be utilized to avoid SS316 oxidation-induced cell failure.

  13. Optimisation of Simultaneous Tl-201/Tc-99m Dual Isotope Reconstruction with Monte-Carlo-Based Scatter Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Kangasmaa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Tl-201/Tc-99m dual isotope myocardial perfusion SPECT is seriously hampered by down-scatter from Tc-99m into the Tl-201 energy window. This paper presents and optimises the ordered-subsets-expectation-maximisation-(OS-EM- based reconstruction algorithm, which corrects the down-scatter using an efficient Monte Carlo (MC simulator. The algorithm starts by first reconstructing the Tc-99m image with attenuation, collimator response, and MC-based scatter correction. The reconstructed Tc-99m image is then used as an input for an efficient MC-based down-scatter simulation of Tc-99m photons into the Tl-201 window. This down-scatter estimate is finally used in the Tl-201 reconstruction to correct the crosstalk between the two isotopes. The mathematical 4D NCAT phantom and physical cardiac phantoms were used to optimise the number of OS-EM iterations where the scatter estimate is updated and the number of MC simulated photons. The results showed that two scatter update iterations and 105 simulated photons are enough for the Tc-99m and Tl-201 reconstructions, whereas 106 simulated photons are needed to generate good quality down-scatter estimates. With these parameters, the entire Tl-201/Tc-99m dual isotope reconstruction can be accomplished in less than 3 minutes.

  14. Optimisation of simultaneous tl-201/tc-99m dual isotope reconstruction with monte-carlo-based scatter correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasmaa, Tuija; Kuikka, Jyrki; Sohlberg, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous Tl-201/Tc-99m dual isotope myocardial perfusion SPECT is seriously hampered by down-scatter from Tc-99m into the Tl-201 energy window. This paper presents and optimises the ordered-subsets-expectation-maximisation-(OS-EM-) based reconstruction algorithm, which corrects the down-scatter using an efficient Monte Carlo (MC) simulator. The algorithm starts by first reconstructing the Tc-99m image with attenuation, collimator response, and MC-based scatter correction. The reconstructed Tc-99m image is then used as an input for an efficient MC-based down-scatter simulation of Tc-99m photons into the Tl-201 window. This down-scatter estimate is finally used in the Tl-201 reconstruction to correct the crosstalk between the two isotopes. The mathematical 4D NCAT phantom and physical cardiac phantoms were used to optimise the number of OS-EM iterations where the scatter estimate is updated and the number of MC simulated photons. The results showed that two scatter update iterations and 10(5) simulated photons are enough for the Tc-99m and Tl-201 reconstructions, whereas 10(6) simulated photons are needed to generate good quality down-scatter estimates. With these parameters, the entire Tl-201/Tc-99m dual isotope reconstruction can be accomplished in less than 3 minutes.

  15. STING Millennium: a web-based suite of programs for comprehensive and simultaneous analysis of protein structure and sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshich, Goran; Togawa, Roberto C.; Mancini, Adauto L.; Kuser, Paula R.; Yamagishi, Michel E. B.; Pappas, Georgios; Torres, Wellington V.; Campos, Tharsis Fonseca e; Ferreira, Leonardo L.; Luna, Fabio M.; Oliveira, Adilton G.; Miura, Ronald T.; Inoue, Marcus K.; Horita, Luiz G.; de Souza, Dimas F.; Dominiquini, Fabiana; Álvaro, Alexandre; Lima, Cleber S.; Ogawa, Fabio O.; Gomes, Gabriel B.; Palandrani, Juliana F.; dos Santos, Gabriela F.; de Freitas, Esther M.; Mattiuz, Amanda R.; Costa, Ivan C.; de Almeida, Celso L.; Souza, Savio; Baudet, Christian; Higa, Roberto H.

    2003-01-01

    STING Millennium Suite (SMS) is a new web-based suite of programs and databases providing visualization and a complex analysis of molecular sequence and structure for the data deposited at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). SMS operates with a collection of both publicly available data (PDB, HSSP, Prosite) and its own data (contacts, interface contacts, surface accessibility). Biologists find SMS useful because it provides a variety of algorithms and validated data, wrapped-up in a user friendly web interface. Using SMS it is now possible to analyze sequence to structure relationships, the quality of the structure, nature and volume of atomic contacts of intra and inter chain type, relative conservation of amino acids at the specific sequence position based on multiple sequence alignment, indications of folding essential residue (FER) based on the relationship of the residue conservation to the intra-chain contacts and Cα–Cα and Cβ–Cβ distance geometry. Specific emphasis in SMS is given to interface forming residues (IFR)—amino acids that define the interactive portion of the protein surfaces. SMS may simultaneously display and analyze previously superimposed structures. PDB updates trigger SMS updates in a synchronized fashion. SMS is freely accessible for public data at http://www.cbi.cnptia.embrapa.br, http://mirrors.rcsb.org/SMS and http://trantor.bioc.columbia.edu/SMS. PMID:12824333

  16. Comparison of markerless and marker-based motion capture technologies through simultaneous data collection during gait: proof of concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ceseracciu

    Full Text Available During the last decade markerless motion capture techniques have gained an increasing interest in the biomechanics community. In the clinical field, however, the application of markerless techniques is still debated. This is mainly due to a limited number of papers dedicated to the comparison with the state of the art of marker based motion capture, in term of repeatability of the three dimensional joints' kinematics. In the present work the application of markerless technique to data acquired with a marker-based system was investigated. All videos and external data were recorded with the same motion capture system and included the possibility to use markerless and marker-based methods simultaneously. Three dimensional markerless joint kinematics was estimated and compared with the one determined with traditional marker based systems, through the evaluation of root mean square distance between joint rotations. In order to compare the performance of markerless and marker-based systems in terms of clinically relevant joint angles estimation, the same anatomical frames of reference were defined for both systems. Differences in calibration and synchronization of the cameras were excluded by applying the same wand calibration and lens distortion correction to both techniques. Best results were achieved for knee flexion-extension angle, with an average root mean square distance of 11.75 deg, corresponding to 18.35% of the range of motion. Sagittal plane kinematics was estimated better than on the other planes also for hip and ankle (root mean square distance of 17.62 deg e.g. 44.66%, and 7.17 deg e.g. 33.12%, meanwhile estimates for hip joint were the most incorrect. This technique enables users of markerless technology to compare differences with marker-based in order to define the degree of applicability of markerless technique.

  17. A Novel Prediction Method about Single Components of Analog Circuits Based on Complex Field Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Few researches pay attention to prediction about analog circuits. The few methods lack the correlation with circuit analysis during extracting and calculating features so that FI (fault indicator calculation often lack rationality, thus affecting prognostic performance. To solve the above problem, this paper proposes a novel prediction method about single components of analog circuits based on complex field modeling. Aiming at the feature that faults of single components hold the largest number in analog circuits, the method starts with circuit structure, analyzes transfer function of circuits, and implements complex field modeling. Then, by an established parameter scanning model related to complex field, it analyzes the relationship between parameter variation and degeneration of single components in the model in order to obtain a more reasonable FI feature set via calculation. According to the obtained FI feature set, it establishes a novel model about degeneration trend of analog circuits’ single components. At last, it uses particle filter (PF to update parameters for the model and predicts remaining useful performance (RUP of analog circuits’ single components. Since calculation about the FI feature set is more reasonable, accuracy of prediction is improved to some extent. Finally, the foregoing conclusions are verified by experiments.

  18. Bioinspired Protein Channel-Based Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy (Bio-SICM) for Simultaneous Conductance and Specific Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macazo, Florika C; White, Ryan J

    2016-03-01

    The utility of stochastic single-molecule detection using protein nanopores has found widespread application in bioanalytical sensing as a result of the inherent signal amplification of the resistive pulse method. Integration of protein nanopores with high-resolution scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) extends the utility of SICM by enabling selective chemical imaging of specific target molecules, while simultaneously providing topographical information about the net ion flux through a pore under a concentration gradient. In this study, we describe the development of a bioinspired scanning ion conductance microscopy (bio-SICM) approach that couples the imaging ability of SICM with the sensitivity and chemical selectivity of protein channels to perform simultaneous pore imaging and specific molecule mapping. To establish the framework of the bio-SICM platform, we utilize the well-studied protein channel α-hemolysin (αHL) to map the presence of β-cyclodextrin (βCD) at a substrate pore opening. We demonstrate concurrent pore and specific molecule imaging by raster scanning an αHL-based probe over a glass membrane containing a single 25-μm-diameter glass pore while recording the lateral positions of the probe and channel activity via ionic current. We use the average channel current to create a conductance image and the raw current-time traces to determine spatial localization of βCD. With further optimization, we believe that the bio-SICM platform will provide a powerful analytical methodology that is generalizable, and thus offers significant utility in a myriad of bioanalytical applications. PMID:26848947

  19. Full spectrum and selected spectrum based multivariate calibration methods for simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate, clotrimazole and benzyl alcohol: Development, validation and application on commercial dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hany W; Elzanfaly, Eman S; Saad, Ahmed S; Abdelaleem, Abdelaziz El-Bayoumi

    2016-12-01

    Five different chemometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate (BMD), clotrimazole (CT) and benzyl alcohol (BA) in their combined dosage form (Lotriderm® cream). The applied methods included three full spectrum based chemometric techniques; namely principal component regression (PCR), Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), while the other two methods were PLS and ANN preceded by genetic algorithm procedure (GA-PLS and GA-ANN) as a wavelength selection procedure. A multilevel multifactor experimental design was adopted for proper construction of the models. A validation set composed of 12 mixtures containing different ratios of the three analytes was used to evaluate the predictive power of the suggested models. All the proposed methods except ANN, were successfully applied for the analysis of their pharmaceutical formulation (Lotriderm® cream). Results demonstrated the efficiency of the four methods as quantitative tool for analysis of the three analytes without prior separation procedures and without any interference from the co-formulated excipient. Additionally, the work highlighted the effect of GA on increasing the predictive power of PLS and ANN models. PMID:27327260

  20. A Component-Based Vocabulary-Extensible Sign Language Gesture Recognition Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengjing; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Xidong; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Sign language recognition (SLR) can provide a helpful tool for the communication between the deaf and the external world. This paper proposed a component-based vocabulary extensible SLR framework using data from surface electromyographic (sEMG) sensors, accelerometers (ACC), and gyroscopes (GYRO). In this framework, a sign word was considered to be a combination of five common sign components, including hand shape, axis, orientation, rotation, and trajectory, and sign classification was implemented based on the recognition of five components. Especially, the proposed SLR framework consisted of two major parts. The first part was to obtain the component-based form of sign gestures and establish the code table of target sign gesture set using data from a reference subject. In the second part, which was designed for new users, component classifiers were trained using a training set suggested by the reference subject and the classification of unknown gestures was performed with a code matching method. Five subjects participated in this study and recognition experiments under different size of training sets were implemented on a target gesture set consisting of 110 frequently-used Chinese Sign Language (CSL) sign words. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed framework can realize large-scale gesture set recognition with a small-scale training set. With the smallest training sets (containing about one-third gestures of the target gesture set) suggested by two reference subjects, (82.6 ± 13.2)% and (79.7 ± 13.4)% average recognition accuracy were obtained for 110 words respectively, and the average recognition accuracy climbed up to (88 ± 13.7)% and (86.3 ± 13.7)% when the training set included 50~60 gestures (about half of the target gesture set). The proposed framework can significantly reduce the user's training burden in large-scale gesture recognition, which will facilitate the implementation of a practical SLR system. PMID:27104534

  1. A Component-Based Vocabulary-Extensible Sign Language Gesture Recognition Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjing Wei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sign language recognition (SLR can provide a helpful tool for the communication between the deaf and the external world. This paper proposed a component-based vocabulary extensible SLR framework using data from surface electromyographic (sEMG sensors, accelerometers (ACC, and gyroscopes (GYRO. In this framework, a sign word was considered to be a combination of five common sign components, including hand shape, axis, orientation, rotation, and trajectory, and sign classification was implemented based on the recognition of five components. Especially, the proposed SLR framework consisted of two major parts. The first part was to obtain the component-based form of sign gestures and establish the code table of target sign gesture set using data from a reference subject. In the second part, which was designed for new users, component classifiers were trained using a training set suggested by the reference subject and the classification of unknown gestures was performed with a code matching method. Five subjects participated in this study and recognition experiments under different size of training sets were implemented on a target gesture set consisting of 110 frequently-used Chinese Sign Language (CSL sign words. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed framework can realize large-scale gesture set recognition with a small-scale training set. With the smallest training sets (containing about one-third gestures of the target gesture set suggested by two reference subjects, (82.6 ± 13.2% and (79.7 ± 13.4% average recognition accuracy were obtained for 110 words respectively, and the average recognition accuracy climbed up to (88 ± 13.7% and (86.3 ± 13.7% when the training set included 50~60 gestures (about half of the target gesture set. The proposed framework can significantly reduce the user’s training burden in large-scale gesture recognition, which will facilitate the implementation of a practical SLR system.

  2. In vivo quantitative evaluation of vascular parameters for angiogenesis based on sparse principal component analysis and aggregated boosted trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fengjun; Liu, Junting; Qu, Xiaochao; Xu, Xianhui; Chen, Xueli; Yang, Xiang; Cao, Feng; Liang, Jimin; Tian, Jie

    2014-12-01

    To solve the multicollinearity issue and unequal contribution of vascular parameters for the quantification of angiogenesis, we developed a quantification evaluation method of vascular parameters for angiogenesis based on in vivo micro-CT imaging of hindlimb ischemic model mice. Taking vascular volume as the ground truth parameter, nine vascular parameters were first assembled into sparse principal components (PCs) to reduce the multicolinearity issue. Aggregated boosted trees (ABTs) were then employed to analyze the importance of vascular parameters for the quantification of angiogenesis via the loadings of sparse PCs. The results demonstrated that vascular volume was mainly characterized by vascular area, vascular junction, connectivity density, segment number and vascular length, which indicated they were the key vascular parameters for the quantification of angiogenesis. The proposed quantitative evaluation method was compared with both the ABTs directly using the nine vascular parameters and Pearson correlation, which were consistent. In contrast to the ABTs directly using the vascular parameters, the proposed method can select all the key vascular parameters simultaneously, because all the key vascular parameters were assembled into the sparse PCs with the highest relative importance.

  3. Blind Separation of Acoustic Signals Combining SIMO-Model-Based Independent Component Analysis and Binary Masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiekata Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new two-stage blind source separation (BSS method for convolutive mixtures of speech is proposed, in which a single-input multiple-output (SIMO-model-based independent component analysis (ICA and a new SIMO-model-based binary masking are combined. SIMO-model-based ICA enables us to separate the mixed signals, not into monaural source signals but into SIMO-model-based signals from independent sources in their original form at the microphones. Thus, the separated signals of SIMO-model-based ICA can maintain the spatial qualities of each sound source. Owing to this attractive property, our novel SIMO-model-based binary masking can be applied to efficiently remove the residual interference components after SIMO-model-based ICA. The experimental results reveal that the separation performance can be considerably improved by the proposed method compared with that achieved by conventional BSS methods. In addition, the real-time implementation of the proposed BSS is illustrated.

  4. Quantitative profiling of polar metabolites in herbal medicine injections for multivariate statistical evaluation based on independence principal component analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Jiang

    Full Text Available Botanical primary metabolites extensively exist in herbal medicine injections (HMIs, but often were ignored to control. With the limitation of bias towards hydrophilic substances, the primary metabolites with strong polarity, such as saccharides, amino acids and organic acids, are usually difficult to detect by the routinely applied reversed-phase chromatographic fingerprint technology. In this study, a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR profiling method was developed for efficient identification and quantification of small polar molecules, mostly primary metabolites in HMIs. A commonly used medicine, Danhong injection (DHI, was employed as a model. With the developed method, 23 primary metabolites together with 7 polyphenolic acids were simultaneously identified, of which 13 metabolites with fully separated proton signals were quantified and employed for further multivariate quality control assay. The quantitative 1H NMR method was validated with good linearity, precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy. Based on independence principal component analysis (IPCA, the contents of 13 metabolites were characterized and dimensionally reduced into the first two independence principal components (IPCs. IPC1 and IPC2 were then used to calculate the upper control limits (with 99% confidence ellipsoids of χ2 and Hotelling T2 control charts. Through the constructed upper control limits, the proposed method was successfully applied to 36 batches of DHI to examine the out-of control sample with the perturbed levels of succinate, malonate, glucose, fructose, salvianic acid and protocatechuic aldehyde. The integrated strategy has provided a reliable approach to identify and quantify multiple polar metabolites of DHI in one fingerprinting spectrum, and it has also assisted in the establishment of IPCA models for the multivariate statistical evaluation of HMIs.

  5. Risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes application of different modules of the MPA-System ALIAS in risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components. The system allows comprehensive coverage of all aspects of the remaining life management, including also the risk analysis and risk management. In addition, thanks to the modular character of the system it is also possible to implement new methods: In the case described here, a new (probabilistic) method for determination of the next inspection time for the components exposed to creep loading has been developed and implemented in the system. Practical application of the method has shown (a) that the mean values obtained by the method fall into the range of results obtained by other methods (based on expert knowledge), and (b) that it is possible to quantify the probability of aberration from the mean values. This in turn allows quantifying the additional risks linked to e.g. prolonging of inspection intervals. (orig.)

  6. Improved gene prediction by principal component analysis based autoregressive Yule-Walker method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Manidipa; Barman, Soma

    2016-01-10

    Spectral analysis using Fourier techniques is popular with gene prediction because of its simplicity. Model-based autoregressive (AR) spectral estimation gives better resolution even for small DNA segments but selection of appropriate model order is a critical issue. In this article a technique has been proposed where Yule-Walker autoregressive (YW-AR) process is combined with principal component analysis (PCA) for reduction in dimensionality. The spectral peaks of DNA signal are used to detect protein-coding regions based on the 1/3 frequency component. Here optimal model order selection is no more critical as noise is removed by PCA prior to power spectral density (PSD) estimation. Eigenvalue-ratio is used to find the threshold between signal and noise subspaces for data reduction. Superiority of proposed method over fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method and autoregressive method combined with wavelet packet transform (WPT) is established with the help of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and discrimination measure (DM) respectively.

  7. Spectral network based on component cells under the SOPHIA European project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Núñez, Rubén, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Antón, Ignacio; Askins, Steve; Sala, Gabriel [Instituto de Energía Solar - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Domínguez, César; Voarino, Philippe [CEA-INES, 50 avenue du Lac Léman, 73375 Le Bourget-du-Lac (France); Steiner, Marc; Siefer, Gerald [Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Fucci, Rafaelle; Roca, Franco [ENEA, P.le E.Fermi 1, Località Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy); Minuto, Alessandro; Morabito, Paolo [RSE, Via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milan (Italy)

    2015-09-28

    In the frame of the European project SOPHIA, a spectral network based on component (also called isotypes) cells has been created. Among the members of this project, several spectral sensors based on component cells and collimating tubes, so-called spectroheliometers, were installed in the last years, allowing the collection of minute-resolution spectral data useful for CPV systems characterization across Europe. The use of spectroheliometers has been proved useful to establish the necessary spectral conditions to perform power rating of CPV modules and systems. If enough data in a given period of time is collected, ideally a year, it is possible to characterize spectrally the place where measurements are taken, in the same way that hours of annual irradiation can be estimated using a pyrheliometer.

  8. 'Traffic light' immunochromatographic test based on multicolor quantum dots for the simultaneous detection of several antibiotics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranova, N A; Berlina, A N; Zherdev, A V; Dzantiev, B B

    2015-01-15

    An immunochromatographic test was developed for the simultaneous detection of several compounds in a complex sample matrix. The system was designed in a 'traffic light' format comprising three lines of different colors on a test strip, thereby providing an easy tool with which to identify an analyte of interest based on the visible color of the line formed (qualitative analysis), and to determine the amount of the analytes present based on the fluorescence intensity of the lines (quantitative analysis). For the development of the multicolor immunochromatographic test, we used antibodies against antibiotics of three different classes as selective binders. Each antibody was labeled with water-soluble quantum dots with emission maximum at either 525, 585, or 625 nm. The test system exhibited high sensitivity, with limits of detection for ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin of 0.3, 0.12, and 0.2 ng mL(-1), respectively. These values are 80-200 times lower than those achievable with ELISA using the same antibodies. Using the 'traffic light' assay, these antibiotics could be detected in milk samples within 10 min without any sample preparation. The 'traffic light' assay also demonstrated a high degree of analyte detection when testing spiked milk samples (92-101%) and accuracy (quantitation error <8% of the mean).

  9. Simultaneous nonlinear encryption of grayscale and color images based on phase-truncated fractional Fourier transform and optical superposition principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

    2013-09-01

    A nonlinear color and grayscale images cryptosystem based on phase-truncated fractional Fourier transform and optical superposition principle is proposed. In order to realize simultaneous encryption of color and grayscale images, each grayscale image is first converted into two phase masks by using an optical coherent superposition, one of which is treated as a part of input information that will be fractional Fourier transformed while the other in the form of a chaotic random phase mask (CRPM) is used as a decryption key. For the purpose of optical performance, all the processes are performed through three channels, i.e., red, green, and blue. Different from most asymmetric encryption methods, the decryption process is designed to be linear for the sake of effective decryption. The encryption level of a double random phase encryption based on phase-truncated Fourier transform is enhanced by extending it into fractional Fourier domain and the load of the keys management and transmission is lightened by using CRPMs. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is discussed and computer simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  10. Development of a multiplexed bead-based immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies to 17 pneumococcal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoma, S; Verkaik, N J; de Vogel, C P; Hermans, P W M; van Selm, S; Mitchell, T J; van Roosmalen, M; Hossain, S; Rahman, M; Endtz, H Ph; van Wamel, W J B; van Belkum, A

    2011-04-01

    Presently, several pneumococcal proteins are being evaluated as potential vaccine candidates. Here, we gather novel insights in the immunogenicity of PLY, PsaA, PspA, PspC, NanA, Hyl, PpmA, SlrA, Eno, IgA1-protease, PdBD, BVH-3, SP1003, SP1633, SP1651, SP0189 and SP0376. We developed a multiplex bead-based immunoassay (xMAP(®) Technology, Luminex Corporation) to simultaneously quantify antibodies against these 17 pneumococcal proteins in serum. The median fluorescence intensity (MFI) values obtained for human pooled serum with the multiplex assay were between 82% and 111% (median 94%) of those obtained with the singleplex assays. For IgG, the coefficient of variation (CV) in serum ranged from 2% to 9%, for IgA, the CV ranged from 3% to 14% and for IgM, the CV ranged from 11% to 15%. Using this immunoassay, we showed that anti-pneumococcal antibody levels exhibited extensive inter-individual variability in young children suffering from invasive pneumococcal disease. All proteins, including the proteins with, as yet, unknown function, were immunogenic. In conclusion, the multiplex Streptococcus pneumoniae immunoassay based on proteins is reproducible. This assay can be used to monitor anti-S. pneumoniae antibody responses in a material- and time-saving manner. PMID:21086008

  11. Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Optical Properties from Combined Airborne- and Ground-Based Direct and Diffuse Radiometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Dubovik, O.; King, M. D.; Sinyuk, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and AERONET data). A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34-2.30 m) and angular range (180 ) of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a) the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b) the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c) Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d) the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  12. Generalized Bloch's theorem for viscous metamaterials: Dispersion and effective properties based on frequencies and wavenumbers that are simultaneously complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Michael J.; Hussein, Mahmoud I.

    2016-05-01

    It is common for dispersion curves of damped periodic materials to be based on real frequencies as a function of complex wavenumbers or, conversely, real wavenumbers as a function of complex frequencies. The former condition corresponds to harmonic wave motion where a driving frequency is prescribed and where attenuation due to dissipation takes place only in space alongside spatial attenuation due to Bragg scattering. The latter condition, on the other hand, relates to free wave motion admitting attenuation due to energy loss only in time while spatial attenuation due to Bragg scattering also takes place. Here, we develop an algorithm for 1D systems that provides dispersion curves for damped free wave motion based on frequencies and wavenumbers that are permitted to be simultaneously complex. This represents a generalized application of Bloch's theorem and produces a dispersion band structure that fully describes all attenuation mechanisms, in space and in time. The algorithm is applied to a viscously damped mass-in-mass metamaterial exhibiting local resonance. A frequency-dependent effective mass for this damped infinite chain is also obtained. xml:lang="fr"

  13. A pattern language for the evolution of component-based software architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Aakash; Jamshidi, Pooyan; Pahl, Claus; Khaliq, Fawad

    2014-01-01

    Architecture-centric software evolution enables change in a system’s structure and behaviour while maintaining a global view of the software to address evolution-centric trade-offs. The existing solutions for architectural maintenance and evolution fall short of exploiting generic and reusable expertise to address recurring evolution problems. We present a pattern language as a collection of interconnected change patterns that enable reuse-driven and consistent evolution of component-based so...

  14. FORECASTING THE FINANCIAL RETURNS FOR USING MULTIPLE REGRESSION BASED ON PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nop Sopipan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to forecast the returns for the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET Index by adding some explanatory variables and stationary Autoregressive order p (AR (p in the mean equation of returns. In addition, we used Principal Component Analysis (PCA to remove possible complications caused by multicollinearity. Results showed that the multiple regressions based on PCA, has the best performance.

  15. An Intuitionistic Fuzzy Methodology for Component-Based Software Reliability Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Grigore, Albeanu; Popenţiuvlǎdicescu, Florin

    2012-01-01

    Component-based software development is the current methodology facilitating agility in project management, software reuse in design and implementation, promoting quality and productivity, and increasing the reliability and performability. This paper illustrates the usage of intuitionistic fuzzy...... degree approach in modelling the quality of entities in imprecise software reliability computing in order to optimize management results. Intuitionistic fuzzy optimization algorithms are proposed to be used for complex software systems reliability optimization under various constraints....

  16. [Determination of film thickness, component and content based on glass surface by using XRF spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yan; Ma, Mi-Xia; Nie, Zuo-Ren

    2013-12-01

    Film thickness, component and content based on glass surface were determined by using XRF technic, measure condition and instrument work condition in every layer were set and adjusted for the best measure effect for every element. Background fundamental parameter (BG-FP) method was built up. Measure results with this method were consistent with the actual preparation course and the method could fit to production application. PMID:24611412

  17. An engineering process for security patterns application in component based models

    OpenAIRE

    Bouaziz, Rahma; Kallel, Slim; Coulette, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Security engineering with patterns is currently a very active area of research. Security patterns - an adaptation of Design Patterns to security - capture experts' experience in order to solve recurrent security problems in a structured and reusable way. In this paper, our objective is to describe an engineering process, called SCRIP (SeCurity patteRn Integration Process), which provides guidelines for integrating security patterns into component-based models. SCRIP defines activities and pro...

  18. A Component-Based Conference Control Model and Implementation for Loosely Coupled Sessions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Conference control is a very important core part to compose a complete Internet multimedia conference system and has been a hot research area over the years, but there are currently no widely accepted robust and scalable solutions and standards. This paper proposes a component-based conference control model for loosely coupled sessions in which media applications can collaborate with a Session Controller(SC) to provide the conference control. A SC prototype has been built.

  19. Eight-component retrievals from ground-based MAX-DOAS observations

    OpenAIRE

    Irie, H.; Takashima, H; Kanaya, Y.; Boersma, K. F.; Gast, L; Wittrock, F.; Brunner, D.; Zhou, Y; Van Roozendael, M.

    2011-01-01

    We attempt for the first time to retrieve lower-tropospheric vertical profile information for 8 quantities from ground-based Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations. The components retrieved are the aerosol extinction coefficients at two wavelengths, 357 and 476 nm and NO2, HCHO, CHOCHO, H2O, SO2, and O3 volume mixing ratios. A Japanese MAX-DOAS profile ret...

  20. Sparse representation based latent components analysis for machinery weak fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haifeng; Chen, Jin; Dong, Guangming

    2014-06-01

    Weak machinery fault detection is a difficult task because of two main reasons (1) At the early stage of fault development, signature of fault related component performs incompletely and is quite different from that at the apparent failure stage. In most instances, it seems almost identical with the normal operating state. (2) The fault feature is always submerged and distorted by relatively strong background noise and macro-structural vibrations even if the fault component already performs completely, especially when the structure of fault components and interference are close. To solve these problems, we should penetrate into the underlying structure of the signal. Sparse representation provides a class of algorithms for finding succinct representations of signal that capture higher-level features in the data. With the purpose of extracting incomplete or seriously overwhelmed fault components, a sparse representation based latent components decomposition method is proposed in this paper. As a special case of sparse representation, shift-invariant sparse coding algorithm provides an effective basis functions learning scheme for capturing the underlying structure of machinery fault signal by iteratively solving two convex optimization problems: an L1-regularized least squares problem and an L2-constrained least squares problem. Among these basis functions, fault feature can be probably contained and extracted if optimal latent component is filtered. The proposed scheme is applied to analyze vibration signals of both rolling bearings and gears. Experiment of accelerated lifetime test of bearings validates the proposed method's ability of detecting early fault. Besides, experiments of fault bearings and gears with heavy noise and interference show the approach can effectively distinguish subtle differences between defect and interference. All the experimental data are analyzed by wavelet shrinkage and basis pursuit de-noising (BPDN) method for comparison.

  1. Damage Assessment of Aerospace Structural Components by Impedance Based Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Martin, Richard E.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses recent efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field relating to the set-up and assessment of electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance based structural health monitoring. The overall aim is the application of the impedance based technique to aeronautic and space based structural components. As initial steps, a laboratory was created, software written, and experiments conducted on aluminum plates in undamaged and damaged states. A simulated crack, in the form of a narrow notch at various locations, was analyzed using piezoelectric-ceramic (PZT: lead, zirconate, titarate) patches as impedance measuring transducers. Descriptions of the impedance quantifying hardware and software are provided as well as experimental results. In summary, an impedance based health monitoring system was assembled and tested. The preliminary data showed that the impedance based technique was successful in recognizing the damage state of notched aluminum plates.

  2. Nonlinear Statistical Process Monitoring Based on Control Charts with Memory Effect and Kernel Independent Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel nonlinear combination process monitoring method was proposed based on techniques with memory effect (multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA)) and kernel independent component analysis (KICA). The method was developed for dealing with nonlinear issues and detecting small or moderate drifts in one or more process variables with autocorrelation. MEWMA charts use additional information from the past history of the process for keeping the memory effect of the process behavior trend. KICA is a recently developed statistical technique for revealing hidden, nonlinear statistically independent factors that underlie sets of measurements and it is a two-phase algorithm: whitened kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) plus independent component analysis (ICA). The application to the fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) simulated process indicates that the proposed combined method based on MEWMA and KICA can effectively capture the nonlinear relationship and detect small drifts in process variables. Its performance significantly outperforms monitoring method based on ICA, MEWMA-ICA and KICA, especially for long-term performance deterioration.

  3. Small target detection based on three-dimensional principal component analysis in hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Wen, Gongjian

    2014-10-01

    Research on target detection in hyperspectral imagery (HSI) has drawn much attention recently in many areas. Due to the limitation of the HSI sensor's spatial resolution, the target of interest normally occupies only a few pixels, sometimes are even present as subpixels. This may increase the difficulties in target detection. Moreover, in some cases, such as in the rescue and surveillance tasks, small targets are the most significant information. Therefore, it is very difficult but important to effectively detect the interested small target. Using a three-dimensional tensor to model an HSI data cube can preserve as many as possible the original spatial-spectral constraint structures, which is conducive to utilize the whole information for small target detection. This paper proposes a novel and effective algorithm for small target detection in HSI based on three-dimensional principal component analysis (3D-PCA). According to the 3D-PCA, the significant components usually contain most information of imagery, in contrast, the details of small targets exist in the insignificant components. So, after 3D-PCA implemented on the HSI, the significant components which indicate the background of HSI are removed and the insignificant components are used to detect small targets. The algorithm is outstanding thanks to the tensor-based method which is applied to process the HSI directly, making full use of spatial and spectral information, by employing multilinear algebra. Experiments with a real HSI show that the detection probability of interested small targets improved greatly compared to the classical RX detector.

  4. Aquarius' Object-Oriented, Plug and Play Component-Based Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alexander; Shahabuddin, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The Aquarius mission involves a combined radiometer and radar instrument in low-Earth orbit, providing monthly global maps of Sea Surface Salinity. Operating successfully in orbit since June, 2011, the spacecraft bus was furnished by the Argentine space agency, Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE). The instrument, built jointly by NASA's Caltech/JPL and Goddard Space Flight Center, has been successfully producing expectation-exceeding data since it was powered on in August of 2011. In addition to the radiometer and scatterometer, the instrument contains an command & data-handling subsystem with a computer and flight software (FSW) that is responsible for managing the instrument, its operation, and its data. Aquarius' FSW is conceived and architected as a Component-based system, in which the running software consists of a set of Components, each playing a distinctive role in the subsystem, instantiated and connected together at runtime. Component architectures feature a well-defined set of interfaces between the Components, visible and analyzable at the architectural level (see [1]). As we will describe, this kind of an architecture offers significant advantages over more traditional FSW architectures, which often feature a monolithic runtime structure. Component-based software is enabled by Object-Oriented (OO) techniques and languages, the use of which again is not typical in space mission FSW. We will argue in this paper that the use of OO design methods and tools (especially the Unified Modeling Language), as well as the judicious usage of C++, are very well suited to FSW applications, and we will present Aquarius FSW, describing our methods, processes, and design, as a successful case in point.

  5. Simultaneous Multi-vehicle Detection and Tracking Framework with Pavement Constraints Based on Machine Learning and Particle Filter Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ke; HUANG Zhi; ZHONG Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    Due to the large variations of environment with ever-changing background and vehicles with different shapes, colors and appearances, to implement a real-time on-board vehicle recognition system with high adaptability, efficiency and robustness in complicated environments, remains challenging. This paper introduces a simultaneous detection and tracking framework for robust on-board vehicle recognition based on monocular vision technology. The framework utilizes a novel layered machine learning and particle filter to build a multi-vehicle detection and tracking system. In the vehicle detection stage, a layered machine learning method is presented, which combines coarse-search and fine-search to obtain the target using the AdaBoost-based training algorithm. The pavement segmentation method based on characteristic similarity is proposed to estimate the most likely pavement area. Efficiency and accuracy are enhanced by restricting vehicle detection within the downsized area of pavement. In vehicle tracking stage, a multi-objective tracking algorithm based on target state management and particle filter is proposed. The proposed system is evaluated by roadway video captured in a variety of traffics, illumination, and weather conditions. The evaluating results show that, under conditions of proper illumination and clear vehicle appearance, the proposed system achieves 91.2% detection rate and 2.6% false detection rate. Experiments compared to typical algorithms show that, the presented algorithm reduces the false detection rate nearly by half at the cost of decreasing 2.7%–8.6% detection rate. This paper proposes a multi-vehicle detection and tracking system, which is promising for implementation in an on-board vehicle recognition system with high precision, strong robustness and low computational cost.

  6. Robust and discriminating method for face recognition based on correlation technique and independent component analysis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate a novel technique for face recognition. Our approach relies on the performances of a strongly discriminating optical correlation method along with the robustness of the independent component analysis (ICA) model. Simulations were performed to illustrate how this algorithm can identify a face with images from the Pointing Head Pose Image Database. While maintaining algorithmic simplicity, this approach based on ICA representation significantly increases the true recognition rate compared to that obtained using our previously developed all-numerical ICA identity recognition method and another method based on optical correlation and a standard composite filter. PMID:21368935

  7. Minor Component Analysis-based Landing Forecast System for Ship-borne Helicopter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bo,; SHI Ai-guo; WAN Lin; YANG Bao-zhang

    2005-01-01

    The general structure of ship-borne helicopter landing forecast system is presented, and a novel ship motion prediction model based on minor component analysis (MCA) is built up to improve the forecast effectiveness. To validate the feasibility of this landing forecast system, time series for the roll, pitch and heave are generated by simulation and then forecasted based on MCA. Simulation results show that ship-borne helicopters can land safely in higher sea condition while carrying on rescue or replenishment tasks at sea in terms of the landing forecast system.

  8. Spectral characterisation of colour printer based on a novel grey component replacement method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyi Guo; Haisong Xu; M.Ronnier Luo; Binyu Wang

    2011-01-01

    Conventional printer characterisation models are generally based on the assumption that the densities of primary colours are additive.However,additivity failure frequently occurs in practice.We propose a novel grey component replacement(GCR) method based on the spectral density sub-additivity equations in this letter for spectral characterisation of a 4-ink colour printer.The method effectively correct the feasibility of the proposed method and to evaluate the model performance.Finally,the GCR model for characterising colour printer with high spectral and colorimetric prediction accuracy is established.

  9. Software Engineering Environment for Component-based Design of Embedded Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yu

    2010-01-01

    by integrated model-driven development frameworks such as the Eclipse Modelling Framework, Graphical Modelling Framework, etc. Based on theoretical investigations and hands-on experiences, this thesis focuses on the practical aspects of building the COMDES software engineering environment on the Eclipse...... software technology, which is largely based on informal design methods and manual coding techniques. That is why it is necessary to develop new design methods and tools that will eventually help improve existing practices. These considerations have motivated the development of the framework -- Component...

  10. Component-based algebraic specification and verification in cafeOBJ

    OpenAIRE

    Diaconescu, Razvan; Futatsugi, Kokichi; Iida, Shusaku

    1999-01-01

    We present a formal method for component-based system specification and verification which is based on the new algebraic specification language CafeOBJ, which is a modern successor of OBJ incorporating several new developments in algebraic specification theory and practice. We first give an overview of the origins and of the main features of CafeOBJ, including its logical foundations, and then we focus on the behavioural specification paradigm in CafeOBJ, surveying the object-oriented CafeOBJ...

  11. A perspective on the reliability of MEMS-based components for telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, John C.

    2008-02-01

    Despite the initial skepticism of OEM companies regarding reliability, MEMS-based devices are increasingly common in optical networking. This presentation will discuss the use and reliability of MEMS in a variety of network applications, from tunable lasers and filters to variable optical attenuators and dynamic channel equalizers. The failure mechanisms of these devices will be addressed in terms of reliability physics, packaging methodologies, and process controls. Typical OEM requirements will also be presented, including testing beyond of the scope of Telcordia qualification standards. The key conclusion is that, with sufficiently robust design and manufacturing controls, MEMS-based devices can meet or exceed the demanding reliability requirements for telecommunications components.

  12. GOMMA: a component-based infrastructure for managing and analyzing life science ontologies and their evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Toralf

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ontologies are increasingly used to structure and semantically describe entities of domains, such as genes and proteins in life sciences. Their increasing size and the high frequency of updates resulting in a large set of ontology versions necessitates efficient management and analysis of this data. Results We present GOMMA, a generic infrastructure for managing and analyzing life science ontologies and their evolution. GOMMA utilizes a generic repository to uniformly and efficiently manage ontology versions and different kinds of mappings. Furthermore, it provides components for ontology matching, and determining evolutionary ontology changes. These components are used by analysis tools, such as the Ontology Evolution Explorer (OnEX and the detection of unstable ontology regions. We introduce the component-based infrastructure and show analysis results for selected components and life science applications. GOMMA is available at http://dbs.uni-leipzig.de/GOMMA. Conclusions GOMMA provides a comprehensive and scalable infrastructure to manage large life science ontologies and analyze their evolution. Key functions include a generic storage of ontology versions and mappings, support for ontology matching and determining ontology changes. The supported features for analyzing ontology changes are helpful to assess their impact on ontology-dependent applications such as for term enrichment. GOMMA complements OnEX by providing functionalities to manage various versions of mappings between two ontologies and allows combining different match approaches.

  13. Non-negative matrix factorization based unmixing for principal component transformed hyperspectral data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-rui GENG; Lu-yan JI; Kang SUN

    2016-01-01

    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has been widely used in mixture analysis for hyperspectral remote sensing. When used for spectral unmixing analysis, however, it has two main shortcomings: (1) since the dimensionality of hyperspectral data is usually very large, NMF tends to suffer from large computational complexity for the popular multiplicative iteration rule;(2) NMF is sensitive to noise (outliers), and thus the corrupted data will make the results of NMF meaningless. Although principal component analysis (PCA) can be used to mitigate these two problems, the transformed data will contain negative numbers, hindering the direct use of the multiplicative iteration rule of NMF. In this paper, we analyze the impact of PCA on NMF, and fi nd that multiplicative NMF can also be applicable to data after principal component transformation. Based on this conclusion, we present a method to perform NMF in the principal component space, named ‘principal component NMF’ (PCNMF). Experimental results show that PCNMF is both accurate and time-saving.

  14. Identifying and Analyzing Strong Components of an Industrial Network Based on Cycle Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of big data and cloud computing, data research focuses not only on describing the individual characteristics but also on depicting the relationships among individuals. Studying dependence and constraint relationships among industries has aroused significant interest in the academic field. From the network perspective, this paper tries to analyze industrial relational structures based on cycle degree. The cycle degree of a vertex, that is, the number of cycles through a vertex in an industrial network, can describe the roles of the vertices of strong components in industrial circulation. In most cases, different vertices in a strong component have different cycle degrees, and the one with a larger cycle degree plays more important roles. However, the concept of cycle degree does not involve the lengths of the cycles, which are also important for circulations. The more indirect the relationship between two industries is, the weaker it is. In order to analyze strong components thoroughly, this paper proposes the concept of circular centrality taking into consideration the influence by two factors: the lengths and the numbers of cycles through a vertex. Exemplification indicates that a profound analysis of strong components in an industrial network can reveal the features of an economy.

  15. Growth of silver nanoparticles of variable and controlled diameter in silica-based and soda-lime glasses by simultaneous continuous ultraviolet irradiation and heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the space-selective precipitation of silver nanoparticles in silica-based and silver-exchanged soda-lime glasses by simultaneous continuous wave ultraviolet exposure and heat treatment. In silica-based glasses, we explain that simultaneous treatments lead to much higher silver nanoparticles concentration than similar treatments performed into two separated steps by minimizing the detrimental influence of oxidation on the nanoparticles' growth. In the case of silver-exchanged soda-lime glasses, nanoparticles are observed with both small and larger diameters of about 1 and 7 nm, whose concentrations depend both on the laser power density and on the heating temperature.

  16. 霉苋菜梗同时蒸馏萃取液中挥发性香味成分分析%Analysis of Volatile Flavor Components in a Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction Extract of Fermented Amaranthus Stem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉平; 杨俊凯; 黄明泉; 陈海涛; 孙宝国

    2011-01-01

    以乙醚为溶剂,采用同时蒸馏萃取法提取市售和自制霉苋菜梗中的挥发性香味成分.采用单因素试验考察提取时间对精油中组分数的影响.提取6 h时,市售霉苋菜梗中挥发性成分最多达119种;提取9 h时,自制苋菜梗中挥发性成分最多达 187种.经GC-MS检测,从市售霉苋菜梗中鉴定出53种化合物,从自制霉苋菜梗中鉴定出98种化合物,其中两者共有的化合物49种.这些化合物中,苯及其同系物15种,酸类9种,酮类5种,酯类4种,醛类3种,酚类3种,硫醚类3种,烃类2种,醇类1种,含氮类化合物4种.其中特征性的香味成分是二甲基二硫、甲基乙基二硫、二乙基二硫、吲哚等.%Volatile flavor components in two kinds of fermented amaranthus stem (one is factory-made, the other is homemade) were extracted by using simultaneous distillation-extraction and ethyl ether. Single factor experiments were adopted to investigate the effects of extracting time on the number of the volatile components in the extract. When the factory-made fermented amaranthus stem was extracted for 6 h, there were 119 volatile constituents in the extraction; while the homemade fermented amaranthus stem was extracted for 9 h, there were 187 volatile constituents in the extraction. Fifty-three volatile flavor constituents were identified from the extract of factory-made fermented amaranthus stem by GC-MS, and ninety-eight volatile flavor constituents from homemade fermented amaranthus stem. All of the components identified in the two kinds of fermented amaranthus stem, forty-nine volatile constituents were same. They are 15 benzene and its homologue, 9 carboxylic acids, 5 ketones, 4 esters, 3 aldehydes, 3 phenols, 3 sulfides, 2 hydrocarbons,1 alcohol, 4 nitrogen-containing compounds. The characteristic flavor components in the fermented amaranthus stem are dimethyl disulfide, methyl ethyl disulfide, diethyl disulfide, indole, and so on.

  17. Use of Yb-based catalyst for AGET ATRP of acrylonitrile to simultaneously control molecular mass distribution and tacticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for atom transfer radical polymerization using activators generated by electron transfer (AGET ATRP) of acrylonitrile (AN) with 2-bromopropionitrile (BPN) as initiator, 2, 2′-bipyridine (bipy) as ligand, and tisn(II) bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (Sn(EH)2) as reducing agent in the presence of air. With respect to AGET ATRP of AN catalyzed by CuBr2, an evident increase of polymer tacticity was observed for AGET ATRP of AN. The increase of syndiotacticity became more and more pronounced than the increase of isotacticity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) along with YbBr3 content. The block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA with molecular weight at 60,000 and polydispersity at 1.36 was successfully prepared. - Graphical abstract: Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for AGET ATRP of AN with BPN as the initiator, bipy as the ligand, and Sn(EH)2 as the reducing agent in the presence of air. With respect to AGET ATRP with CuBr2 as catalyst, an obvious increase of polymer tacticity was observed for AGET ATRP of AN. The increase of syndiotacticity became more and more pronounced than the increase of isotacticity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) along with YbBr3 content. The block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA with molecular weight at 60000 and polydispersity at 1.36 was successfully prepared. Highlights: ► Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for AGET ATRP of AN. ► The reaction simultaneously controls polydispersity and tacticity of PAN. ► Well-defined block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA was successfully prepared.

  18. Use of Yb-based catalyst for AGET ATRP of acrylonitrile to simultaneously control molecular mass distribution and tacticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jing; Chen Hou, E-mail: lduchenhou@hotmail.com; Zhang Min; Wang Chunhua; Zhang Ying; Qu Rongjun

    2012-08-01

    Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for atom transfer radical polymerization using activators generated by electron transfer (AGET ATRP) of acrylonitrile (AN) with 2-bromopropionitrile (BPN) as initiator, 2, 2 Prime -bipyridine (bipy) as ligand, and tisn(II) bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (Sn(EH){sub 2}) as reducing agent in the presence of air. With respect to AGET ATRP of AN catalyzed by CuBr{sub 2}, an evident increase of polymer tacticity was observed for AGET ATRP of AN. The increase of syndiotacticity became more and more pronounced than the increase of isotacticity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) along with YbBr{sub 3} content. The block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA with molecular weight at 60,000 and polydispersity at 1.36 was successfully prepared. - Graphical abstract: Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for AGET ATRP of AN with BPN as the initiator, bipy as the ligand, and Sn(EH){sub 2} as the reducing agent in the presence of air. With respect to AGET ATRP with CuBr{sub 2} as catalyst, an obvious increase of polymer tacticity was observed for AGET ATRP of AN. The increase of syndiotacticity became more and more pronounced than the increase of isotacticity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) along with YbBr{sub 3} content. The block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA with molecular weight at 60000 and polydispersity at 1.36 was successfully prepared. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for AGET ATRP of AN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reaction simultaneously controls polydispersity and tacticity of PAN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Well-defined block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA was successfully prepared.

  19. An analytically based model for the simultaneous leaching-chain decay of radionuclides from contaminated ground surface soil layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzemba, M S; Manteufel, R D

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes an analytically based method for modeling the time-dependent radionuclide areal densities of contaminated soil surface layers when the soil experiences simultaneous leaching, surface erosion and chain radioactive decay. The model is used to predict time-dependent radionuclide areal densities in a volcanic ash blanket contaminated with spent nuclear fuel particles for the purpose of assessing the risks of radiation exposure from an extrusive volcanic event near a proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The method uses general analytical solutions (an expansion of the Bateman equations) for calculating serial decay, including non-radioactive decay loss terms, in order to calculate time-dependent radionuclide areal densities in the ash blanket. In the presented example, 43 "key" radionuclides are tracked and their concentrations in the blanket are displayed for a 10,000-y time period following the volcanic event. Although the analysis presented herein is for modeling contaminated volcanic ash blankets, the model would work equally well for modeling time-dependent radionuclide contamination of land surfaces in, for example, site decommissioning. It is suggested that the general solutions for serial decay (with non-radioactive decay loss terms) can also be used to model the release of radionuclides from the waste packages under anticipated repository conditions. PMID:9373070

  20. Effects of various LED light wavelengths and intensities on microalgae-based simultaneous biogas upgrading and digestate nutrient reduction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongjun; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Cheng; Zhang, Yuejin

    2013-05-01

    Biogas is a well-known, primary renewable energy source, but its utilizations are possible only after upgrading. The microalgae-based bag photo-bioreactor utilized in this research could effectively upgrade biogas and simultaneously reduce the nutrient content in digestate. Red light was determined as the optimal light wavelength for microalgae growth, biogas upgrading, and digestate nutrient reduction. In the range of moderate light intensities (i.e., 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 μmol m(-2) s(-1)), higher light intensities achieved higher biogas upgrade and larger digestate nutrient reduction. Methane content attained the highest value of 92.74±3.56% (v/v). The highest chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus reduction efficiency of digestate were 85.35±1.04%, 77.98±1.84%, and 73.03±2.14%, respectively. Considering the reduction and economic efficiencies of the carbon dioxide content of biogas and digestate nutrient as well as the biogas upgrading standard, the optimal light intensity range was determined to be from 1200 to 1600 μmol m(-2) s(-1). PMID:23567717