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Sample records for based safe motherhood

  1. Safe motherhood at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A

    1996-12-01

    Health professionals' negative attitudes toward clients often exacerbate the problems women face in terms of health status and access to health care. Thus, the health professionals can themselves be obstacles to women seeking the health care they need. A key challenge to midwives, in addition to providing technically competent services, is gaining insight into the people for whom they are responsible so that childbirth traditions are treated with respect and women are offered dignity. Safe motherhood requires intersectoral collaboration. Many innovative approaches to safe motherhood are based on the community's participation in planning services that meet the needs of women. Other approaches are based on decentralization of services. For example, a large university teaching hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, set up birthing centers around the city to take the pressure off the hospital. Midwives head up these centers, which are close to the women's homes. Decentralization of delivery services has improved the physical and emotional outcomes for mothers and newborns. Midwives must be prepared to articulate concerns about inequalities and deficiencies in the health care system in order to persuade the government to change. Women, including midwives, need to form multidisciplinary alliances to work together to effect change. The front-line workers in maternity care are midwives. They should adopt the following strategies to become even more effective in their efforts to make motherhood safer. They should listen to what women say about their needs. They should scale services to a manageable, human scale. They should learn the skills to become politically active advocates. They should work with other midwives, women, leaders, and other professional groups. Motherhood can be safe when women have more control over their own decision making, the education to liberate themselves to make their own decisions, and access to skilled care.

  2. Mother Rights Aspects of Safe Motherhood

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    Emre Yanikkerem

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The safe motherhood is aimed to reduce deaths and illnesses among women and infants, maternal deaths in developing countries are often the ultimate tragic outcome of the cumulative denial of women’s human rights. Women and infants are dying because of preventable disease. Safe motherhood is now on the world agenda as one of eight millennium Development Goals. The global community of health professionals has a major responsibility to help make motherhood safer for all women. This article is aimed to identify the important critical women and child rights the aspect of safe motherhood. This article included human rights the aspect of safe motherhood, women’s human right and convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, International Conference on Population and Development the aspect of safe motherhood, reproduction and sexual rights declaration, child rights the aspect of safe motherhood, mother and child rights declaration. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 179-186

  3. Mother Rights Aspects of Safe Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Yanikkerem

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The safe motherhood is aimed to reduce deaths and illnesses among women and infants, maternal deaths in developing countries are often the ultimate tragic outcome of the cumulative denial of women’s human rights. Women and infants are dying because of preventable disease. Safe motherhood is now on the world agenda as one of eight millennium Development Goals. The global community of health professionals has a major responsibility to help make motherhood safer for all women. This article is aimed to identify the important critical women and child rights the aspect of safe motherhood. This article included human rights the aspect of safe motherhood, women’s human right and convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, International Conference on Population and Development the aspect of safe motherhood, reproduction and sexual rights declaration, child rights the aspect of safe motherhood, mother and child rights declaration. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 179-186

  4. Safe motherhood: when to begin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M; Chhatwal, J; Mathew, E

    1994-08-01

    Two thousand five hundred college girls were assessed for their knowledge and attitudes regarding sex, pregnancy and child rearing with the help of a pretested questionnaire. The site of menstruation was known to only 35.3% of the girls. The knowledge about the time and site of conception was 25.3% and 58.2%, respectively. Only 16.3% of the respondents knew the normal route of delivery although the duration of normal pregnancy was known to majority (87.7%). The girls were aware of the ideal timing of abortion (67.5%) but the safe method and legality were poorly known facts. Only 5% of the girls believed in pre-marital sex. More than half (54.9%) of the girls knew about some form of contraceptive, Copper-T being the best known. Nearly one fifth of the girls were either undecided or wished family members to decide about antenatal check-ups. The need for better diet and injections during pregnancy was well known although few (15.2%) were aware of the injections being tetanus toxoid. Only about 10% wanted a home delivery but one fourth felt that a Dai or a relative was suitable for conducting the delivery. An overwhelming majority of the students stated that knowledge about above facts was important and they would like to learn about them preferably during college education. It is recommended that 'Family life education' be provided during pre-adolescent and adolescent years to ensure a safe motherhood and a healthy child.

  5. Promoting safe motherhood in rural India.

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    Maclean, G

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies some activities performed to promote safe motherhood in rural India. Nurses from a voluntary organization in Hyderabad, India, trained women's groups from 32 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh state over 3 days in 1996 in maternal and child care, health and family welfare, gender issues, sanitation, leadership, literacy, negotiating skills, and health monitoring. The women were encouraged to perform health activities in their villages. In October 1996, a Conference of Women celebrated the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, with women's groups reporting on health activities in specific villages. Each women's group had its own banner. Every woman wore a conference delegate badge. One woman's group was rewarded for making the most significant progress. Participants included women from 29 villages and auxiliary nurse-midwives. For some women, this was the first time away from home. Conference delegates toured the primary health center facilities at Shamirpet and met with staff. The aim was to reduce fear and reluctance to use the services and to promote awareness of available health care. Most villages in India rely on auxiliary nurse-midwives for maternal and child health care. Promotion of safe motherhood requires close cooperation between the auxiliary nurse-midwifes and women's groups. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India is introducing in-service training to improve the clinical skills of auxiliary nurse-midwives in eight states. The nurse-midwives use adapted and new educational material from WHO's safe motherhood midwifery training modules. A workshop was used to introduce the new modules and to propose teaching methods for senior project staff. The five modules include a trainers' manual of educational methods.

  6. Programming for safe motherhood: a guide to action.

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    Koblinsky, M A; Tinker, A; Daly, P

    1994-09-01

    The Safe Motherhood Initiative has successfully stimulated much interest in reducing maternal mortality. To accelerate programme implementation, this paper reviews lessons learned from the experience of industrial countries and from demonstration projects in developing countries, and proposes intervention strategies of policy dialogue, improved services and behavioural change. A typological approach with three hypothetical settings from resource poor to resource rich environments is used to address the variability in health behaviours and infrastructure encountered when programming for safe motherhood.

  7. Rights to safe motherhood and newborn health: ethical issues.

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    Milliez, Jacques

    2009-08-01

    Worldwide, one woman dies every minute as a result of being pregnant. This statistic highlights the denial of women's rights to safe motherhood in many parts of the world, particularly in low-resource countries where 98% all maternal deaths occur. The majority of pregnant women die because they deliver unattended by a properly trained birth professional. According to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, every woman has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of herself and her family, including medical care. The principle of moral philosophy supporting women's rights to safe motherhood may be difficult to implement. Philanthropy is diverted by other competing needs, such as HIV prevention and treatment, or provision of urgent food supplies. Equity is denied because women's health is too often set as a low priority. Utilitarianism advocates that safe motherhood is an investment of societal shared interest.

  8. The state of political priority for safe motherhood in India.

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    Shiffman, J; Ved, R R

    2007-07-01

    Approximately one-quarter of all maternal deaths occur in India, far more than in any other nation on earth. Until 2005, maternal mortality reduction was not a priority in the country. In that year, the cause emerged on the national political agenda in a meaningful way for the first time. An unpredictable confluence of events concerning problem definition, policy alternative generation and politics led to this outcome. By 2005, evidence had accumulated that maternal mortality in India was stagnating and that existing initiatives were not addressing the problem effectively. Also in that year, national government officials and donors came to a consensus on a strategy to address the problem. In addition, a new government with social equity aims came to power in 2004, and in 2005, it began a national initiative to expand healthcare access to the poor in rural areas. The convergence of these developments pushed the issue on to the national agenda. This paper draws on public policy theory to analyse the Indian experience and to develop guidance for safe motherhood policy communities in other high maternal mortality countries seeking to make this cause a political priority.

  9. Evaluation of a Safe Motherhood project in Ntcheu district, Malawi

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    Mseu D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dennis Mseu,1 Betty Mkwinda Nyasulu,2 Sadandaula Rose Muheriwa3 1Nurses and Midwives Council of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi; 2Basic Studies Department, Kamuzu College of Nursing, University of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi; 3Department of Maternal and Child Health, Kamuzu College of Nursing, University of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi Purpose: This study evaluated knowledge and practices of childbearing women on key childcare practices within the Safe Motherhood project, administered by the Ntcheu District Health Office in the Republic of Malawi. The study excluded men and elderly women. Methods: The design was cross-sectional, and utilized quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis procedures. Data were also collected through review of participant health records. Results: Although the findings showed that all participants (100%, n=400 had general knowledge on maternal and child health care, they did not have comprehensive information, and few mothers were practicing the recommended key child health care practices. Only 42.4% (n=170 knew the appropriate number of visits a woman should make to the antenatal clinic, and very few knew the appropriate time at which to access antenatal care. Only 55% (n=220 of participants breastfed their babies exclusively. Some participants introduced supplementary feeds as early as a month after birth, and not all women delivered at the health facility. Failure to actively involve men and elderly women in maternal and child health issues had a negative impact on women's ability to fully implement key maternal and childcare practices. Conclusion and recommendations: There is a need to actively involve men and elderly women in maternal and child health issues since, in the ideal Malawian context, a child is raised not just by the mother, but also by all who live in the village. Additionally, elderly women are the guardians of members of the childbearing group, and are a traditional reservoir of experience into

  10. An impact evaluation of the safe motherhood promotion project in Bangladesh: evidence from Japanese aid-funded technical cooperation.

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    Kamiya, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Yukie; Islam, Mohammad Tajul

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports the findings from a quasi-experimental impact evaluation of the Safe Motherhood Promotion Project (SMPP) conducted in the Narsingdi district of Bangladesh. SMPP is a Japanese aid-funded technical cooperation project aimed at developing local capacities to tackle maternal and newborn health problems in rural areas. We assessed whether the project interventions, in particular, community-based activities under the Model Union approach, had a favorable impact on women's access to and knowledge of maternal health care during pregnancy and childbirth. The project comprises a package of interlinked interventions to facilitate safe motherhood practices at primary and secondary care levels. The primary-level activities focused on community mobilization through participatory approaches. The secondary-level activities aimed at strengthening organizational and personnel capacities for delivering emergency obstetric care (EmOC) at district and sub-district level hospitals. The project impact was estimated by difference-in-differences logistic regressions using two rounds of cross-sectional household survey data. The results showed that the project successfully increased the utilization of antenatal visits and postpartum EmOC services and also enhanced women's knowledge of danger signs during pregnancy and delivery. The project also reduced income inequalities in access to antenatal care. In contrast, we found no significant increase in the use of skilled birth attendants (SBA) in the project site. Nonetheless, community mobilization activities and the government's voucher scheme played a complementary role in promoting the use of SBA.

  11. Shaping the Health Policy Agenda: The Case of Safe Motherhood Policy in Vietnam

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    Bui Thi Thu Ha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Maternal health remains a central policy concern in Vietnam. With a commitment to achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5 target of maternal mortality rate (MMR of 70/100 000 by 2015, the Ministry of Health (MoH issued the National Plan for Safe Motherhood (NPSM 2003-2010. In 2008, reproductive health, including safe motherhood (SM became a national health target program with annual government funding. Methods A case study of how SM emerged as a political priority in Vietnam over the period 2001-2008, drawing on Kingdon’s theory of agenda-setting was conducted. A mixed method was adopted for this study of the NPSM. Results Three related streams contributed to SM priority in Vietnam: (1 the problem of high MMR was officially recognized from high-quality research, (2 the strong roles of policy champion from MoH in advocating for the needs to reducing MMR as well as support from government and donors, and (3 the national and international events, providing favorable context for this issue to emerge on policy agenda. Conclusion This paper draws on the theory of agenda-setting to analyze the Vietnam experience and to develop guidance for SM a political priority in other high maternal mortality communities.

  12. Scope of health systems research in Child Survival and Safe Motherhood programme.

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    Dutta, P K

    1993-01-01

    Editorial commentary focused on several Health System Research (HSR) approaches which exemplified some of the key issues for application of HSR for further improvement in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services in India. The goals of HSR are to delineate health policy which improves the operations of the health care delivery system for sustainability at the district level. HSR is part of a global effort of Health For All by 2000 AD and India's Child Survival and Safe Motherhood (CSSM) program, sponsored by IDA/UNICEF. CSSM aims also to end polio by 2000 AD, eliminate neonatal tetanus by 1995, and prevent deaths and morbidity from measles, diarrheal diseases, and acute respiratory infection. MCH services will be expanded at the village, subcenter, primary health center, and community health center levels in order to reduce maternal mortality to below 2/1000 from the 1990 5/1000 and to reduce mortality of children aged 1-4 years to less than 10/1000 live births from 80/1000 by 2000 AD. States with particularly high levels of child and maternal mortality are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh, which have about 40% of India's population. These states have low marriage ages, low female literacy, and few women in nonagricultural employment. There are about 90 districts in these states with particularly low demographic indicators. India policy directs all CSSM work to be carried out by existing staff; the program emphasis will be training, supervision, and logistics. IEC will need to be directed to attitudinal change in rural areas and urban slums. Research has found that coverage is uneven and quality of MCH services, poor. One study will evaluate the performance over 5 years in Gwalior district in a nutrition and school health program. Another research effort will perform quality assessment of MCH care at the primary health care level and promote community awareness and increased utilization. An ongoing study is evaluating nationally the family welfare

  13. Threats to safe motherhood in Honduran Miskito communities: local perceptions of factors that contribute to maternal mortality.

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    Arps, Shahna

    2009-08-01

    Despite global initiatives to lower rates of maternal death, barriers to safe motherhood persist, particularly in socially and economically marginalized communities. This article describes the risks that women in Honduran Miskito villages encounter during pregnancy and childbirth. Ethnographic data are used to examine emic understandings of the underlying causes of maternal death. Participant observation, four community discussions, individual interviews with 218 women and five midwives, and a maternal mortality survey were conducted during November 2004 through November 2005. Case studies are drawn from the 55 death histories collected during the survey to illustrate the factors that contribute to maternal mortality. Community members identified poverty, gender inequality, witchcraft, and sorcery as major threats to safe motherhood. All of these factors influence women's health-related behaviors; and therefore, each issue deserves attention from public health officials. Designing appropriate interventions to improve maternal health depends on understanding the forces that increase women's vulnerability during pregnancy and childbirth. Local perspectives of risk, even when they diverge from biomedical understandings, point to specific needs, issues to address, and avenues for effective intervention.

  14. The safe motherhood referral system to reduce cesarean sections and perinatal mortality - a cross-sectional study [1995-2006

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    Rudge Marilza VC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs set targets for reducing child mortality and improving maternal health by 2015. Objective To evaluate the results of a new education and referral system for antenatal/intrapartum care as a strategy to reduce the rates of Cesarean sections (C-sections and maternal/perinatal mortality. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Botucatu Medical School, Sao Paulo State University/UNESP, Brazil. Population: 27,387 delivering women and 27,827 offspring. Data collection: maternal and perinatal data between 1995 and 2006 at the major level III and level II hospitals in Botucatu, Brazil following initiation of a safe motherhood education and referral system. Main outcome measures: Yearly rates of C-sections, maternal (/100,000 LB and perinatal (/1000 births mortality rates at both hospitals. Data analysis: Simple linear regression models were adjusted to estimate the referral system's annual effects on the total number of deliveries, C-section and perinatal mortality ratios in the two hospitals. The linear regression were assessed by residual analysis (Shapiro-Wilk test and the influence of possible conflicting observations was evaluated by a diagnostic test (Leverage, with p Results Over the time period evaluated, the overall C-section rate was 37.3%, there were 30 maternal deaths (maternal mortality ratio = 109.5/100,000 LB and 660 perinatal deaths (perinatal mortality rate = 23.7/1000 births. The C-section rate decreased from 46.5% to 23.4% at the level II hospital while remaining unchanged at the level III hospital. The perinatal mortality rate decreased from 9.71 to 1.66/1000 births and from 60.8 to 39.6/1000 births at the level II and level III hospital, respectively. Maternal mortality ratios were 16.3/100,000 LB and 185.1/100,000 LB at the level II and level III hospitals. There was a shift from direct to indirect causes of

  15. Can reproductive health voucher programs improve quality of postnatal care? A quasi-experimental evaluation of Kenya's safe motherhood voucher scheme.

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    Watt, Claire; Abuya, Timothy; Warren, Charlotte E; Obare, Francis; Kanya, Lucy; Bellows, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the group-level causal relationship between the expansion of Kenya's Safe Motherhood voucher program and changes in quality of postnatal care (PNC) provided at voucher-contracted facilities. We compare facilities accredited since program inception in 2006 (phase I) and facilities accredited since 2010-2011 (phase II) relative to comparable non-voucher facilities. PNC quality is assessed using observed clinical content processes, as well as client-reported outcome measures. Two-tailed unpaired t-tests are used to identify differences in mean process quality scores and client-reported outcome measures, comparing changes between intervention and comparison groups at the 2010 and 2012 data collection periods. Difference-in-differences analysis is used to estimate the reproductive health (RH) voucher program's causal effect on quality of care by exploiting group-level differences between voucher-accredited and non-accredited facilities in 2010 and 2012. Participation in the voucher scheme since 2006 significantly improves overall quality of postnatal care by 39% (p=0.02), where quality is defined as the observable processes or components of service provision that occur during a PNC consultation. Program participation since phase I is estimated to improve the quality of observed maternal postnatal care by 86% (p=0.02), with the largest quality improvements in counseling on family planning methods (IRR 5.0; p=0.01) and return to fertility (IRR 2.6; p=0.01). Despite improvements in maternal aspects of PNC, we find a high proportion of mothers who seek PNC are not being checked by any provider after delivery. Additional strategies will be necessary to standardize provision of packaged postnatal interventions to both mother and newborn. This study addresses an important gap in the existing RH literature by using a strong evaluation design to assess RH voucher program effectiveness on quality improvement.

  16. Can reproductive health voucher programs improve quality of postnatal care? A quasi-experimental evaluation of Kenya's safe motherhood voucher scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Watt

    Full Text Available This study tests the group-level causal relationship between the expansion of Kenya's Safe Motherhood voucher program and changes in quality of postnatal care (PNC provided at voucher-contracted facilities. We compare facilities accredited since program inception in 2006 (phase I and facilities accredited since 2010-2011 (phase II relative to comparable non-voucher facilities. PNC quality is assessed using observed clinical content processes, as well as client-reported outcome measures. Two-tailed unpaired t-tests are used to identify differences in mean process quality scores and client-reported outcome measures, comparing changes between intervention and comparison groups at the 2010 and 2012 data collection periods. Difference-in-differences analysis is used to estimate the reproductive health (RH voucher program's causal effect on quality of care by exploiting group-level differences between voucher-accredited and non-accredited facilities in 2010 and 2012. Participation in the voucher scheme since 2006 significantly improves overall quality of postnatal care by 39% (p=0.02, where quality is defined as the observable processes or components of service provision that occur during a PNC consultation. Program participation since phase I is estimated to improve the quality of observed maternal postnatal care by 86% (p=0.02, with the largest quality improvements in counseling on family planning methods (IRR 5.0; p=0.01 and return to fertility (IRR 2.6; p=0.01. Despite improvements in maternal aspects of PNC, we find a high proportion of mothers who seek PNC are not being checked by any provider after delivery. Additional strategies will be necessary to standardize provision of packaged postnatal interventions to both mother and newborn. This study addresses an important gap in the existing RH literature by using a strong evaluation design to assess RH voucher program effectiveness on quality improvement.

  17. Promotion of the health of rural women towards safe motherhood--an intervention project in northeast Thailand.

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    Saowakontha, S; Pongpaew, P; Vudhivai, N; Tungtrongchitr, R; Sanchaisuriya, P; Mahaweerawat, U; Laohasiriwong, W; Intarakhao, C; Leelapanmetha, P; Chaisiri, K; Vatanasapt, V; Merkle, A; Schelp, F P

    2000-01-01

    An intervention project focusing on the health of women in the reproductive age was conducted in three districts of Khon Kaen Province, northeast Thailand between 1991 and 1996. Main emphasis was placed on improving reproductive health, the nutritional status including the iron deficiency anemia (IDA) as well as iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), and the parasitic diseases liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) and hookworm. For implementation a community based Primary Health Care approach was used including the training of health officials in health matters, primary health care workers and villagers as well as enhancing health education and the dissemination of health information. The health delivery system was encouraged to take appropriate actions such as in the treatment of parasitic diseases and the control of IDA and IDD. Monitoring was done on a regular basis. The outcome of the project was assessed by comparing baseline data compiled from a random sample of the target population with the results of the final evaluation. An attempt to compare results obtained from villages within and outside of the project area failed most probably because of spill over effects. A number of important indicators on family planning and mother and child health care improved during the time the project was implemented; this included practising family planning, and participation in antenatal care. Also the proportion of females becoming pregnant for the first time when 20 years or older increased. Child-raising also improved in that almost all females gave colostrum to their babies by this time. Almost 75% of the women breast-fed their children. Improvements occurred in the nutritional status as far as the micronutrients iron and iodine were concerned, however the overall nutritional status of females did not change, but a rather high proportion of females were found to be overnourished. The project failed in reducing abortion and the proportion of females becoming pregnant when

  18. Perinatal Risks in "Late Motherhood" Defined Based On Parity and Preterm Birth Rate - an Analysis of the German Perinatal Survey (20th Communication).

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    Schure, V; Voigt, M; Schild, R L; Hesse, V; Carstensen, M; Schneider, K T M; Straube, S

    2012-01-01

    Aim: "Late motherhood" is associated with greater perinatal risks but the term lacks precise definition. We present an approach to determine what "late motherhood" associated with "high risk" is, based on parity and preterm birth rate. Materials and Methods: Using data from the German Perinatal Survey of 1998-2000 we analysed preterm birth rates in women with zero, one, or two previous live births. We compared groups of "late" mothers (with high preterm birth rates) with "control" groups of younger women (with relatively low preterm birth rates). Data of 208 342 women were analysed. For women with zero (one; two) previous live births, the "control" group included women aged 22-26 (27-31; 29-33) years. Women in the "late motherhood" group were aged > 33 (> 35; > 38) years. Results: The "late motherhood" groups defined in this way were also at higher risk of adverse perinatal events other than preterm birth. For women with zero (one; two) previous live births, normal cephalic presentation occurred in 89 % (92.7 %; 93.3 %) in the "control" group, but only in 84.5 % (90 %; 90.4 %) in the "late motherhood" group. The mode of delivery was spontaneous or at most requiring manual help in 71.3 % (83.4 %; 85.8 %) in the "control" group, but only in 51.4 % (72.2 %; 76.4 %) in the "late motherhood" group. Five-minute APGAR scores were likewise worse for neonates of "late" mothers and the proportion with a birth weight ≤ 2499 g was greater. Conclusion: "Late motherhood" that is associated with greater perinatal risks can be defined based on parity and preterm birth rate.

  19. Country focus -- Nepal. A race for survival: community-based transport for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    In Nepal, a community came up with a unique way to transport a woman facing labor complications to the nearest district hospital (25 km away) that saved the woman's life. The 17-year-old woman lived in a mountain village with only steep and narrow paths leading up to and away from the village. She had been burned as a child, and the scar tissue at her perineum could not expand enough to deliver the baby. At 3:00 am, she asked to be taken to the hospital. The husband asked his neighbors to help him transport her to the hospital, but they suggested that they wait until the morning. At 8:00 am, 12 men took turns transporting her on doli, a reclining seat fixed to a pole and used to carry a bride to her wedding and to her husband's home. Two men at a time carried her while running. Via uneven mountain paths, they arrived at the hospital four hours after departing the village. A chest specialist with one year's experience in a maternity hospital performed an episiotomy allowing the woman to deliver vaginally. The physician had to repair her damaged genital tract. She delivered a stillborn. She was discharged a week later and walked back to her village. The physician recommended she go to the hospital before delivery for her next pregnancy. Lessons learned include: people will go to a hospital if they believe they can be helped, they will use any way possible to transport persons in need to the hospital, delay increases the probability of a poor outcome, access to prenatal care may have prevented this tragedy, and there is a need for obstetricians at district hospitals.

  20. Teen motherhood in cross-cultural perspective.

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    Kramer, Karen L; Lancaster, Jane B

    2010-01-01

    Teen motherhood is the prevalent childbearing pattern in most traditional populations. Yet early motherhood is associated with negative biological and social outcomes in the developed world. We review the teen pregnancy literature in light of this discrepancy, emphasizing two core debates. The first debate centers on whether teens have poor pregnancy outcomes compared to older women, and whether negative outcomes are biologically based. Second, we consider the debate over the confounding effects of socio-economic conditions associated with being young. When teens are considered as a group, results are inconsistent across studies. When teens are disaggregated by age, the strongest finding across studies is that biological risk is concentrated in only the youngest of mothers. Negative consequences are associated with teen motherhood not because of chronological age per se, but because of relative developmental maturity and the availability of non-maternal support. In most traditional societies as well as in some sectors of developed societies, teen motherhood occurs within the context of extended kin networks and is subsidized through reliable economic and childcare assistance. Child-rearing practices, rather than pregnancy per se, may explain much of the discrepancy in the prevalence, success and attitudes toward teen motherhood in traditional and developed societies.

  1. Motivations for Motherhood.

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    Gerson, Mary-Joan

    A multivariate exploration of the characteristics of women who want children and what women see as the benefits and costs of motherhood are presented. Among unmarried, childless female college undergraduates (N=184), positive memories of early childhood maternal love, traditional feminine sex role identification and anti-feminist sympathy were the…

  2. Safe and Secure Services Based on NGN

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    Fukazawa, Tomoo; Nisase, Takemi; Kawashima, Masahisa; Hariu, Takeo; Oshima, Yoshihito

    Next Generation Network (NGN), which has been undergoing standardization as it has developed, is expected to create new services that converge the fixed and mobile networks. This paper introduces the basic requirements for NGN in terms of security and explains the standardization activities, in particular, the requirements for the security function described in Y.2701 discussed in ITU-T SG-13. In addition to the basic NGN security function, requirements for NGN authentication are also described from three aspects: security, deployability, and service. As examples of authentication implementation, three profiles-namely, fixed, nomadic, and mobile-are defined in this paper. That is, the “fixed profile” is typically for fixed-line subscribers, the “nomadic profile” basically utilizes WiFi access points, and the “mobile profile” provides ideal NGN mobility for mobile subscribers. All three of these profiles satisfy the requirements from security aspects. The three profiles are compared from the viewpoint of requirements for deployability and service. After showing that none of the three profiles can fulfill all of the requirements, we propose that multiple profiles should be used by NGN providers. As service and application examples, two promising NGN applications are proposed. The first is a strong authentication mechanism that makes Web applications more safe and secure even against password theft. It is based on NGN ID federation function. The second provides an easy peer-to-peer broadband virtual private network service aimed at safe and secure communication for personal/SOHO (small office, home office) users, based on NGN SIP (session initiation protocol) session control.

  3. Safe motherhood: impossible dream or achievable reality?

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    O'Loughlin, J

    In 1990, the maternal mortality rate in Australia was among the lowest in the world at 9/100,000 live births, but the rate among Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders was 40/100,000 vs. 2-3/100,000 among other women. The situation of the Aboriginal women reflects that seen in developing countries where 99% of maternal deaths occur. For every maternal death, another 30 women suffer severe and permanent maternal morbidity, including vesicovaginal fistula and damage due to delivery in women who have undergone female genital mutilation. The 585,000 annual victims of maternal mortality leave at least a million vulnerable motherless children and are no longer available to produce food and to care for households. Maternal mortality and morbidity are caused by poverty; poor access to health services; pregnancies that are "too many, too close, too early, too late"; poor nutrition and health; and women's low socioeconomic status. Since nearly all conditions that lead to maternal morbidity and mortality are preventable or treatable, many programs have been initiated to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity by half by the year 2000. The problem is greater than indicated by initial estimates, however, and will require major interventions. Relatively small increases in overall health budgets or minor changes in health care priorities would save lives and produce great economic benefits. Women's health will not receive greater priority until women become empowered to improve their social status.

  4. Early and late motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Lausten, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates parental child rearing methods, structural factors relating to the family during adolescence geographic segregation, individual resource deficits and social background of first time late live births among 32 to 37 years old women and compare to teenagers before becoming...... teenage mothers. The purpose is to study if results will be consistent with the hypotheses that poverty, social deprivation during adolescence and low education are causes of teen childbearing but also childlessness among elder women in the age group 32 to 37 years old. Could childlessness as well...... pregnant teenagers who had an induced abortion. Quite the opposite pattern is disclosed for late motherhood....

  5. Thinking Intergenerationally about Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Thomson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on The Making of Modern Motherhoods study, which explores how a contemporary generation of women are creating motherhood, and how intergenerational dynamics of mother daughter relationships can provide insight into the interplay of historical, biographical and generational processes. The study combines an intergeneration and longtitudinal research design, building 12 case studies from an initial interview sample of 62 expectant first time mothers. The paper begins with a review of the conceptual tools employed within the study in order to make sense of rich empirical data, including memory, generation, co-existence and configuration. These themes are then realised through a detailed case history of the Calder family – tracing the impact of the arrival of a new generation. This thick description enables us to see beyond the individual towards the historically contingent configuration that is a ‘family’. By counter posing the horizontal dimensions of the generation against the vertical dimension of historical process and intergenerational change it is possible to capture a sense of how people live, creating change in order to establish continuity. The paper concludes by exploring the contingency of formations of mothering and their connectedness over time, through reflections on the interplay of historical, generational and biographical temporalities.

  6. Motherhood and the Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Nikolchina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In her conceptualization of the human as defined by the capacity for revolt Kristeva unavoidably touches upon issues of robotization, technology, and the virtual. The concepts of animal and machine, however, although they do appear occasionally and in important ways, are never at the focus of her inquiries and are absent in her “New Forms of Revolt.” Yet these two concepts to a large extent define the field of contemporary philosophical debates of the human giving rise to three major theoretical orientations. On the one hand, there is the trend which tries to come to terms with technological novelties and the merging of human and machine that they imply. This trend unfolds under the rubric of “transhuman” or “posthuman” and of the “enhancement” of man. The second trend predominates in animal studies. Mostly in an ethical perspective but also ontologically, this trend, to which Derrida’s later writing made a significant contribution, questions the idea of the “human exception” and the rigorous distinction between man and animal on which this exception rests. While apparently antagonistic, both trends align the human with the animal and oppose it to technology. The third trend collapses the distinctions on which the previous two rely through the lens of biopolitics: drawing on Heidegger, Kojève, and Foucault, it regards contemporary technological transformations as amounting to the animalization of man.  The human disappears in the animal, in the machine, or in the indistinguishability of the two, confirming what Agamben has described as the inoperativeness of the anthropological machine. The present text turns to Kristeva’s conceptions of motherhood and revolt as introducing a powerful inflection in this tripartite field. Remarkably, it is precisely new sagas of rebellious machines like Battlestar “Galactica” that foreground the relevance of Kristeva’s approach.

  7. Early marriage, adolescent motherhood, and reproductive rights for young Sasak mothers in Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rae Bennett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Indonesian adolescents who are wives and mothers, demonstrating how early marriage and adolescent motherhood are normative among women from poor Sasak communities in Western Lombok. It is based on ethnographic research with 28 young mothers that included focus group discussions, in depth interviews, and observations. Demographic and ethnographic data on the aetiology of early marriage and adolescent motherhood are discussed, and confirm that low educational attainment for girls, lack of employment prospects, poverty, and low levels of economic development are all associated with a higher probability of adolescent marriage and motherhood in Indonesia. The article also reveals how conservative sexual morality and local marriage customs can propel girls into early marriage. It provides a human rights analysis that demonstrates how early marriage and adolescent motherhood intersect with the neglect of girls’ rights to education, employment, equality in marriage, health information, family planning, and maternal health.

  8. Attitudes to motherhood in different cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razina N.V.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of motherhood is a promising and relevant field of psychology. This article represents the results of a study in which a socio-psychological analysis of reproductive attitudes and demographic behaviour was conducted. The study also shows the relationship between attitudes related to motherhood and women’s cultural affiliations. The factors that contribute to the nature of attitudes towards motherhood and the interaction between these factors were studied. According to the results of this study, we distinguished the most significant characteristics of the attitudes to motherhood that influence the nature of the relationship between a mother and her unborn child. The model of the development of attitudes to motherhood proposed by R. V. Ovcharova was detailed. We considered the influence of factors on the nature of attitudes to motherhood as well as the influence of factors on each other. The results of this study allow us to describe the psychological portraits of women with different attitudes to motherhood.

  9. An analysis of situation of carriing out"Safe Motherhood Project" in 3 years period in Longgang district of Shenzhen city%深圳市龙岗区三年来"降消"项目实施情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贵敏; 高玉山; 李慧丽; 夏洪波; 任路忠

    2009-01-01

    Objecttive To evaluate implementing effect of "Safe Motherhood Project" to reduce maternal mortality rate and eliminating neonatal tetanus in Longgang district of Shenzhen city.Methods The date of maternal death and neonatal tetanus in a period from 2005 to 2008 in Longgang district of Shenzhen city were collected. The effect of this project was evaluated by comparing maternal mortality rate and incidence rate of neonatal tetanus before and after implementation of the project. Results The maternal mortality rate from 2005 to 2008 in Longgang district was 78.59/100 000, 38.14/100 000, 38.21/100 000 and 12.19/100 000 respectively and the incidence rate of neonatal tetanus in the period in Longgang district was 0.74‰, 0.84‰ , 0.29‰ and 0.22‰ respectively. It is obvious that after implementation of this project the maternal mortality rate and incidence rate of neonatal tetanus in whole population were decreased year by year from 2005 to 2008 in Longgang district, there were significant differences ( χ2 trend =14.743,P=0.0001; χ2 trend=14.666,P=0.0001). Conclusion The implementation of "Safe Motherhood Project" effectively reduces maternal mortality rate and incidence rate of neonatal tetanus.%目的 评价深圳市龙岗区"降低孕产妇死亡率、消除新生儿破伤风"项目的 实施效果.方法 收集深圳市龙岗区2005~2008年孕产妇死亡及新生儿破伤风资料,比较项目实施初期与后期孕产妇死亡率及新生儿破伤风发病率,评价"降消"项目实施效果.结果 2005~2008年孕产妇死亡率分别为78.59/10万、38.14/10万、38.21/10万、12.19/10万,新生儿破伤风发病率分别为0.74‰、0.84‰、0.29‰、0.22‰. "降消"项目实施后,该区孕产妇死亡率(趋势χ2=14.743,P=0.0001)及新生儿破伤风发病率(趋势χ2=14.666,P=0.0001)呈逐年下降趋势,差异有统计学意义.结论 深圳市龙岗区"降消"项目的 实施,有效降低了孕产妇死亡率和新生儿破伤风发病率.

  10. Balancing Motherhood and Career in STEM Jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Bhattacharyya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Proportion of women working in the hitherto male-dominated sectors such as Science, Technology, Engineering, and Maths (STEM jobs are primarily low because of gender stereotyping and motherhood roles. Using the findings of the article titled Entitled to a Sustainable Career? Motherhood in Science, Engineering, and Technology published in the Journal of Social Issues, this report attempts to explain as to how STEM jobs can retain more women.

  11. Safe motherhood: preparedness for birth in rural Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Haan, O. de

    2007-01-01

    Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, both former Soviet republics, are neighbouring states in Central Asia. In Central Asia most maternal deaths are due to five major medical causes: severe bleeding; infection; unsafe abortion complications; hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; and obstructed labour. Some of

  12. Obstetric emergencies: preparedness among nurses for safe motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Verma

    2016-04-01

    Results: Total study participants were 36 (100% response rate. Majority (83% were aware about the two leading causes of maternal mortality (PE, PPH. Twenty four (67% knew the warning signs of eclampsia and 61% knew the signs of eclampsia but only 17% were aware of MgSO4 toxicity. Only 56% could correctly prepare the loading dose of MgSO4. All were aware about PPH; however only17% knew methergine as the drug for active management. Grossly wrong attitude noted only in 27% for PPH and 27% for severe PE. Overall preparedness for emergency was satisfactory in LR and PNC. Conclusions: Though the overall awareness for identifying emergencies (PE, PPH was satisfactory, lacunae in awareness were noted about components of eclampsia, magnesium toxicity and drugs required for initial management of PE and PPH. Preparedness of nurses in labour room and postnatal ward was fairly good. Regular assessment of awareness and preparedness for obstetric emergencies would be desirable to optimize the overall delivery outcomes especially at peripheral rural centres where nurses are primarily involved in the care of labouring women. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 998-1001

  13. Points-based Safe Path Planning of Continuum Robots

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    Khuram Shahzad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuum robots exhibit great potential in a number of challenging applications where traditional rigid link robots pose certain limitations, e.g.,working in unstructured environments. In order to enable the usage of continuum robots in safety-critical applications, such as surgery and nuclear decontamination, it is extremely important to ensure a safe path for the robot’s movement. Existing algorithms for continuum robot path planning have certain limitations that need to be addressed. These include the fact that none of the algorithms provide safety assurance parameters and control for path planning. They are computationally expensive, applicable to a specific type of continuum robots, and mostly they do not incorporate design and kinematics constraints. In this paper, we propose a points-based path planning (PoPP algorithm for continuum robots that computes the path by imposing safety constraints and improves upon the limitations of existing approaches. In the algorithm, we exploit the constant curvature-bending property of continuum robots in their path planning process. The algorithm is computationally efficient and provides a good tradeoff between accuracy and efficiency that can be implemented to enable the safety-critical application of continuum robots. This algorithm also provides information regarding path volume and flexibility in movement. Simulation results confirm that the algorithm possesses promising potential for all types of continuum robots (following the constant curvature-bending property. We believe that this effectively balances the desired safety and efficiency requirements.

  14. (MOthering: Feminist Motherhood, Neoliberal Discourses and the Other’

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    Marianna Leite

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Feminist theory often gravitates around the rejection and recuperation of motherhood. The recuperation of feminist motherhood demonstrates the importance of understanding the duality between feminist motherhood and the patriarchal concept of motherhood. Here, I will argue that in recuperating motherhood, feminists and non-feminists alike should also acknowledge the coexisting realities that reject it. I am specifically thinking of feminist non-motherhood but also of feminist notions of pregnancy that reject motherhood. The mother without the maternal bond or even the 'falling out of motherhood after motherhood'. These, I think, as opposed to submissive realities and resistance strategies, represent a move away from patriarchal values and create a social reality that uses something else as a parameter. In order support my argument, I will rely on a case study analysing maternal health policies and strategies, in particular feminist activists' discourses related to maternal mortality in Brazil. The data collected during this fieldwork demonstrates the importance of acknowledging non-motherhood as crucial to radical constructions of feminist motherhood. The article concludes that, sadly, there is not such thing as a post-feminist society in Brazil. The Brazilian case study demonstrates that, in fact, public policies, and the discourses built around them, are still oriented towards a neoliberal re-packaging of patriarchy that partially co-opts feminist motherhood. That is, neoliberalism partially accepts feminist motherhood as a way to reject all other feminist claims. In this sense, it its crucial for feminists and non-feminists alike to acknowledge and accept all concepts of motherhood, positive and negative. That is, it is absolutely necessary to recognise '''the 'other' ' in order not to contribute to further marginalisation of non-motherhood attitudes as promoted by neoliberal policies and discourses.

  15. Making existential meaning in transition to motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina Lange; Mogensen, Ole; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Objective to provide a thematic overview of the existing literature on existential meaning-making related to transition to motherhood among mothers of full term born babies in Western oriented countries and to discuss the themes from a existential psychology perspective. Design...... to motherhood were selected. Eleven papers were included in the synthesis, all using qualitative interviews. The following data were extracted from each study: (a) author(s), year of publication, study location, (b) aims of the study, (c) participants, (d) research design, (e) data collection method, (f...

  16. Motherhood transition through an existential lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina Lange

    2015-01-01

    Motherhood transition is a significant life event. Research from various disciplines outlines pregnancy, birth and the initial period of motherhood as a period of life in which a woman might experience disruption and gain new perspectives in a bodily, psychological, social and existential way....... No Danish studies were found during the literature search. The questionnaire survey among Danish mothers was thus conducted in 2011 and had a response rate of 57%. There were no statistically significant differences between the responding FT and PT mothers in terms of age, cohabiting status, educational...

  17. Narratives About Necessity--Constructions of Motherhood Among Drug Using Sex-Sellers in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjønness, Jeanett

    2015-05-01

    This ethnographic study explores norms and practices concerning motherhood among 37 drug-using female sex-sellers in Denmark. It is based on extended fieldwork in a drop-in center and narrative interviews with clients and staff in this center from 2001-2005. A strong norm guiding the staff's relation to the users is that drug-use, prostitution, and motherhood are incompatible. The women meet such institutional expectations and norms about motherhood either by constructing norm-conforming narratives or by opposing the institutional view. As the institution offers no 'backstage', the women's self-representations often appear chaotic and inconsistent. Either way their strategies often become contributions to the reproduction of the structures they resist.

  18. Modeling of Car-Following Required Safe Distance Based on Molecular Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Dayi Qu; Xiufeng Chen; Wansan Yang; Xiaohua Bian

    2014-01-01

    In car-following procedure, some distances are reserved between the vehicles, through which drivers can avoid collisions with vehicles before and after them in the same lane and keep a reasonable clearance with lateral vehicles. This paper investigates characters of vehicle operating safety in car following state based on required safe distance. To tackle this problem, we probe into required safe distance and car-following model using molecular dynamics, covering longitudinal and lateral safe...

  19. Study on characteristics of base isolation system with fail-safe devices. ; Fundamental dynamic characteristic of fail-safe devices. Menshin sochi no fail-safe kiko ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Fail-safe sochi no kihon dotokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teramura, A.; Nakamura, T.; Suzuki, T.; Nohata, A.; Tsunoda, T.; Okada, H.; Yasui, Y. (Obayashi, Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-08-10

    This study describes fail-safe mechanisms to be built in the laminated rubber base isolation devices for the purpose of developing a base isolation system necessary for the application to nuclear fuel facilities. There are two types of fail-safe devices developed in the fundamental study; a landing type on which the bottom of the building is supported and a stopper type for restricting excessive development. The basic characteristics of these devices were investigated through static and dynamic fundamental tests and input of earthquake force on a shaking table. As a result of these tests and analyses, it was proved that the whole restoring force characteristics of the two types of fail-safe devices were almost the same as expected, and their earthquake response characteristics met the initially designed performance. Moreover, it was shown that they prevent buckling of rubber bearings under input of excessive earthquake forces and consequently enhance safety of superstructures of the buildings. 4 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  20. How Motherhood Triumphs Over Trauma Among Mothers With Children From Genocidal Rape in Rwanda

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    Odeth Kantengwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rape is a common occurrence during genocide and the presence of children born as a result of rape poses a challenge to post-genocide recovery processes. This paper treats mothers of children born as a result of genocidal rape during the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi as a separate category of survivors and explores the contribution of a positive embrace of motherhood in their recovery. It is based upon a study that included fourteen women from Kigali city, Karongi District in the Western Province and Huye District in the Southern Province. Qualitative analysis of individual interviews and focus groups provided a means to explore in-depth the perceptions of mothers and the value of motherhood. It was found that mothers of children of rape experienced challenges raising their children, especially in the early stages of parenting. Social stigma related to rape and children born of rape created challenges, as did the lack of psychosocial resources for the women, particularly when faced with disclosing paternity to the children. However, despite these and other difficulties, motherhood played a positive role for many women, often providing a reason to live again after the genocide. These findings show that positive experiences of motherhood can be key to the recovery of survivors of genocidal rape in Rwanda and points to future directions for research and health promotion among populations affected by conflict-related sexual violence.

  1. Modeling of Car-Following Required Safe Distance Based on Molecular Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayi Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In car-following procedure, some distances are reserved between the vehicles, through which drivers can avoid collisions with vehicles before and after them in the same lane and keep a reasonable clearance with lateral vehicles. This paper investigates characters of vehicle operating safety in car following state based on required safe distance. To tackle this problem, we probe into required safe distance and car-following model using molecular dynamics, covering longitudinal and lateral safe distance. The model was developed and implemented to describe the relationship between longitudinal safe distance and lateral safe distance under the condition where the leader keeps uniform deceleration. The results obtained herein are deemed valuable for car-following theory and microscopic traffic simulation.

  2. Provably Safe and Robust Learning-Based Model Predictive Control

    CERN Document Server

    Aswani, Anil; Sastry, S Shankar; Tomlin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Controller design for systems typically faces a trade-off between robustness and performance, and the reliability of linear controllers has caused many control practitioners to focus on the former. However, there is a renewed interest in improving system performance to deal with growing energy and pollution constraints. This paper describes a learning-based model predictive control (MPC) scheme. The MPC provides deterministic guarantees on robustness and safety, and the learning is used to identify richer models of the system to improve controller performance. Our scheme uses a linear model with bounds on its uncertainty to construct invariant sets which help to provide the guarantees, and it can be generalized to other classes of models and to pseudo-spectral methods. This framework allows us to handle state and input constraints and optimize system performance with respect to a cost function. The learning occurs through the use of an oracle which returns the value and gradient of unmodeled dynamics at discr...

  3. Benevolent Sexism, Attitudes Toward Motherhood, and Reproductive Rights: A Multi-Study Longitudinal Examination of Abortion Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanshu; Davies, Paul G; Sibley, Chris G; Osborne, Danny

    2016-07-01

    Although Benevolent Sexism (BS)-an ideology that highly reveres women who conform to traditional gender roles-is cloaked in a superficially positive tone, being placed upon a pedestal is inherently restrictive. Accordingly, because the paternalistic beliefs associated with BS are based on the idealization of traditional gender roles (which include motherhood), BS should predict people's attitudes toward women's reproductive rights. Using data from a nationwide longitudinal panel study (N = 12,299), Study 1 showed that BS (but not Hostile Sexism) had cross-lagged effects on opposition to both elective and traumatic abortion. Study 2 (N = 309) extended these findings by showing that the relationship between BS and support for abortion was fully mediated by attitudes toward motherhood. These results highlight the pernicious nature of BS by demonstrating that the idealization of women-and motherhood, in particular-comes at a substantial cost (namely, the restriction of women's reproductive rights).

  4. Childhood Poverty, Early Motherhood and Adult Social Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the political agenda. The key new issue addressed in this research is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? If there are powerful associations of both childhood poverty and early parenthood with later adult outcomes, there are a num...

  5. Unmarried motherhood in twentieth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thane, Pat

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of unmarried mothers who kept and tried to raise their children between World War One and the end of the twentieth century. It argues that there has not been a simple progression from their experiencing social stigma and ostracism to more enlightened attitudes since the 1970s. Rather there is a great deal that has hitherto been unknown about what the evidence suggests were very diverse experiences and attitudes throughout the period. A major change since the 1970s has been from pervasive secrecy about unmarried motherhood, cohabitation, adultery and similar 'irregular' practices, especially among the middle classes, to greater openness. The article uses a variety of sources, including the records of the National Council for the Unmarried Mother and Her Child (founded in 1918, now One Parent Families), oral histories, contemporary interviews and official and unofficial investigations.

  6. Design and Vibration Control of Safe Robot Arm with MR-Based Passive Compliant Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seung-Kook; Yoon, Seong-Sik; Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang

    In this paper, vibration control of a safe arm with passive compliant joints and visco-elastic covering for a human-friendly service robot is presented. The passive compliant joint (PCJ) is designed to passively attenuate the applied force. The rotary spring gives the arm compliant property, and yet it can be a source of vibration. We use an input-preshaping method which is motivated by the input shaping technique (IST) based on impulse responses. Experiments prove that both of fast motion and force attenuation of the safe arm can be achieved.

  7. Safe in the city: developing an effective video-based intervention for STD clinic waiting rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint-U, Athi; Bull, Sheana; Greenwood, Gregory L; Patterson, Jocelyn; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A; Vrungos, Shelley; Warner, Lee; Moss, Jesse; O'Donnell, Lydia N

    2010-05-01

    There is a strong need for inexpensive, easily administered HIV and STD prevention interventions that are highly replicable and appealing to diverse clinic audiences. This article describes the four-step iterative and collaborative process used by the Safe City Study Group to design and develop a brief video-based intervention: Safe in the City. Step 1 involves identification of an appropriate intervention medium, a theoretical framework, and key messages; Step 2, collaboration with a film company to integrate the framework and key messages into an entertaining product; Step 3, facilitation of a multistep participatory process involving input from members of the priority audience (clinic patients), clinic staff, and community reviewers; and Step 4, pilot-testing to determine structural barriers to patients' viewing the video in clinic waiting rooms. Safe in the City has been demonstrated to reduce incident STDs among clinic patients in three cities in the United States.

  8. Scaffolding young Australian women's journey to motherhood: a narrative understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Gabrielle; Morrison, Paul; Down, Barry; WestBrook, Be

    2014-09-01

    Pregnant and young mothers' stories often go untold within community social and health service policy, planning and practice. Consequently, there is a significant gap between young women's experiences of motherhood and current service provision. This study was undertaken in response to a paucity of observational and contextually rich research that explores young women's experiences of pregnancy and motherhood, including the role a community service played in scaffolding their motherhood journeys. Fundamental to this study's purpose was the premise that to improve planning and delivery of more appropriate services for this group, we need to listen, consult and consider what life is like for young mothers. The purpose of this paper is to describe the role a community service played in scaffolding young women's experiences as they transitioned to motherhood. Using a narrative approach, this study draws on data collected from contextual observations of 31 informants and 11 in-depth interviews over 7 months of fieldwork in 2010 at a community service in the Peel region of Western Australia. The integral role a community service played in the young women's transition to motherhood was analysed thematically and captured in three metaphorical themes, finding a circle of friends, weaving a tapestry and turning the page. The young women's storied experiences of motherhood present a strong argument for radical re-visioning of community and social health policy, practice and service delivery for young mothers. The findings revealed that judgement-free services that foster social and supportive relationships were integral in developing positive motherhood identities. The power of narrative and social learning when working with young mothers suggests that social models of health that foster a relational, narrative approach to practice are fundamental to young mothers finding their own voices and solutions and becoming active agents in re-authoring future narratives of hope

  9. Trajectory Generation Model-Based IMM Tracking for Safe Driving in Intersection Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Tracking the actions of vehicles at crossroads and planning safe trajectories will be an effective method to reduce the rate of traffic accident at intersections. It is to resolve the problem of the abrupt change because of the existence of drivers' voluntary choices. In this paper, we make approach of an improved IMM tracking method based on trajectory generation, abstracted by trajectory generation algorithm, to improve this situation. Because of the similarity between human-driving traject...

  10. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Background Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. Methods The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. Results There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59–9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95–6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31–2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05–2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17–2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06–3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25–0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40–0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Conclusions Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood

  11. Missing Motherhood: Jordanian Women's Experiences with Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Mahmoud Obeidat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim, Background, and Introduction. Bearing and rearing children are an important part of life in nearly all cultures and are a central role for Jordanian Muslim women. Infertility can create anxiety, stress, and depression for couples who are infertile. Women frequently bear the emotional stigma of a couple’s infertility. There is a paucity of literature focusing on Jordanian Muslim women experiencing infertility and failed assistive reproductive technology. Therefore, this study explored these women’s lived experience. Methods. Qualitative data were collected through interviews with 30 Jordanian Muslim women who experienced failed assistive reproductive technology for infertility. Perceptions of experiences with failed treatment of infertility were documented and analyzed. Results. Major themes were identified: missing out on motherhood and living with infertility, experiencing marital stressors, feeling social pressure, experiencing depression and disappointment, having treatment associated difficulties, appreciating support from family and friends, using coping strategies, and fear of an unknown future. Discussion, Conclusion, and Implications for Clinical Practice. Being infertile significantly influences the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual health of Jordanian Muslim women as well as their quality of life. Perceived social support and personal coping strategies were used by study participants to mediate failed attempts to conceive. Designing and implementing culturally appropriate interventions for Muslim women globally who are experiencing infertility are essential.

  12. Technology-Based Innovations in Child Maltreatment Prevention Programs: Examples from SafeCare®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Cowart-Osborne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Each year, hundreds of thousands of children in the U.S. are victims of child maltreatment. Experts recommend behavioral, skill-based parent training programs as a strategy for the prevention of child abuse and neglect. These programs can be enhanced using innovative technology strategies. This paper presents a brief history of the use of technology in SafeCare®, a home visiting program shown to prevent child neglect and physical abuse, and highlights current work that takes a technology-based hybrid approach to SafeCare delivery. With this unique approach, the provider brings a tablet computer to each session, and the parent interacts with the software to receive psychoeducation and modeling of target skills. The provider and parent then work together to practice the targeted skills until mastery is achieved. Initial findings from ongoing research of both of these strategies indicate that they show potential for improving engagement and use of positive parenting skills for parents and ease of implementation for providers. Future directions for technology enhancements in SafeCare are also presented.

  13. Sodium Based Heat Pipe Modules for Space Reactor Concepts: Stainless Steel SAFE-100 Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James J.; Reid, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    A heat pipe cooled reactor is one of several candidate reactor cores being considered for advanced space power and propulsion systems to support future space exploration applications. Long life heat pipe modules, with designs verified through a combination of theoretical analysis and experimental lifetime evaluations, would be necessary to establish the viability of any of these candidates, including the heat pipe reactor option. A hardware-based program was initiated to establish the infrastructure necessary to build heat pipe modules. This effort, initiated by Los Alamos National Laboratory and referred to as the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) project, set out to fabricate and perform non-nuclear testing on a modular heat pipe reactor prototype that can provide 100 kilowatt from the core to an energy conversion system at 700 C. Prototypic heat pipe hardware was designed, fabricated, filled, closed-out and acceptance tested.

  14. Adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh: Evidence from 2007 BDHS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mostafa Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the factors affecting adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh using the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Overall, 69.3 per cent of the married adolescents began childbearing. Among them 56.4 per cent were already mothers and 12.9per cent were pregnant for the first time. Of the adult married women age 20–49, 62.1 per cent initiated childbearing before age 19. The multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s education, husband’s education, place of residence, ever use of contraceptive method, religion, wealth and region are important determinants of adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh.

  15. Automatic discrimination between safe and unsafe swallowing using a reputation-based classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikjoo Mohammad S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swallowing accelerometry has been suggested as a potential non-invasive tool for bedside dysphagia screening. Various vibratory signal features and complementary measurement modalities have been put forth in the literature for the potential discrimination between safe and unsafe swallowing. To date, automatic classification of swallowing accelerometry has exclusively involved a single-axis of vibration although a second axis is known to contain additional information about the nature of the swallow. Furthermore, the only published attempt at automatic classification in adult patients has been based on a small sample of swallowing vibrations. Methods In this paper, a large corpus of dual-axis accelerometric signals were collected from 30 older adults (aged 65.47 ± 13.4 years, 15 male referred to videofluoroscopic examination on the suspicion of dysphagia. We invoked a reputation-based classifier combination to automatically categorize the dual-axis accelerometric signals into safe and unsafe swallows, as labeled via videofluoroscopic review. From these participants, a total of 224 swallowing samples were obtained, 164 of which were labeled as unsafe swallows (swallows where the bolus entered the airway and 60 as safe swallows. Three separate support vector machine (SVM classifiers and eight different features were selected for classification. Results With selected time, frequency and information theoretic features, the reputation-based algorithm distinguished between safe and unsafe swallowing with promising accuracy (80.48 ± 5.0%, high sensitivity (97.1 ± 2% and modest specificity (64 ± 8.8%. Interpretation of the most discriminatory features revealed that in general, unsafe swallows had lower mean vibration amplitude and faster autocorrelation decay, suggestive of decreased hyoid excursion and compromised coordination, respectively. Further, owing to its performance-based weighting of component classifiers, the static

  16. A Proactive Strategy for Safe Human-Robot Collaboration based on a Simplified Risk Analysis

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    Audun Sanderud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In an increasing demand for human-robot collaboration systems, the need for safe robots is crucial. This paper presents a proactive strategy to enable an awareness of the current risk for the robot. The awareness is based upon a map of historically occupied space by the operator. The map is built based on a risk evaluation of each pose presented by the operator. The risk evaluation results in a risk field that can be used to evaluate the risk of a collaborative task. Based on this risk field, a control algorithm that constantly reduces the current risk within its task constraints was developed. Kinematic redundancy was exploited for simultaneous task performance within task constraints, and risk minimization. Sphere-based geometric models were used both for the human and robot. The strategy was tested in simulation, and implemented and experimentally tested on a NACHI MR20 7-axes industrial robot.

  17. Task-driven equipment inspection system based on safe workflow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyou; Liu, Yangguang

    2010-12-01

    An equipment inspection system is one that contains a number of equipment queues served in cyclic order. In order to satisfy multi-task scheduling and multi-task combination requirements for equipment inspection system, we propose a model based on inspection workflow in this paper. On the one hand, the model organizes all kinds of equipments according to inspection workflow, elemental work units according to inspection tasks, combination elements according to the task defined by users. We proposed a 3-dimensional workflow model for equipments inspection system including organization sub-model, process sub-model and data sub-model. On the other hand, the model is based on the security authorization which defined by relation between roles, tasks, pre-defined business workflows and inspection data. The system based on proposed framework is safe and efficient. Our implement shows that the system is easy to operate and manage according to the basic performance.

  18. Setting safe acute exposure limits for halon replacement chemicals using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, A; Jepson, G W; Cisneros, M; Rubenstein, R; Brock, W J

    2000-08-01

    Most proposed replacements for Halon 1301 as a fire suppressant are halogenated hydrocarbons. The acute toxic endpoint of concern for these agents is cardiac sensitization. An approach is described that links the cardiac endpoint as assessed in dogs to a target arterial concentration in humans. Linkage was made using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Monte Carlo simulations, which account for population variability, were used to establish safe exposure times at different exposure concentrations for Halon 1301 (bromotrifluoromethane), CF(3)I (trifluoroiodomethane), HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane), HFC-227ea (1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane), and HFC-236fa (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane). Application of the modeling technique described here not only makes use of the conservative cardiac sensitization endpoint, but also uses an understanding of the pharmacokinetics of the chemical agents to better establish standards for safe exposure. The combined application of cardiac sensitization data and physiologically based modeling provides a quantitative approach, which can facilitate the selection and effective use of halon replacement candidates.

  19. The safe zone for blinded sternal interventions based on CT evaluation of midline congenital sternal foramina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boruah, Deb K.; Dhingani, Dhaval D.; Achar, Shashidhar; Augustine, Antony; Mahanta, Kangkana [Assam Medical College and Hospital, Department of Radio-diagnosis, Dibrugarh, Assam (India); Prakash, Arjun [NIMHANS, Department of Radio-diagnosis, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Yadav, Rajnikant R. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute and Medical Sciences, Department of Radio-diagnosis, Lucknow (India)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safe zone for performing blind sternal procedures based on computed tomography (CT) evaluation of congenital midline sternal foramina using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). This retrospective study was carried out on 1,180 patients who underwent MDCT of the thorax from March 2015 to February 2016. The MDCT images were evaluated in axial and reformatted planes. Morphometry and prevalence of midline congenital sternal foramina (SF) and manubrio-foraminal distance (MFD) were evaluated. The safe zone was defined for a blinded intervention, based on palpable anatomical landmarks. Data were presented in terms of percentage, mean ± standard deviation and calculations were carried out using Microsoft Excel. The prevalence of SF in our study sample was 11.6 %. The majority of SF were located in a typical position in the lower sternal body at the level of fifth costo-chondral junction (CCJ) in 108 patients (78.8 %). The structure directly beneath the SF was mediastinal fat in 73 patients (53.3 %), followed by anterior pericardium in 44 patients (32.1 %) and lung parenchyma in 20 patients (14.6 %). The mean MFD in our study population was 11.90 ± 1.31 cm. Sternal interventions should be avoided at the level of fourth to sixth CCJ, which is considered the danger zone. An intervention at the fourth to sixth CCJ may lead to disastrous consequences in patients who have SF. (orig.)

  20. Young females' images of motherhood in relation to television viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ex, C.T.G.M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between television viewing and young females' images of motherhood. The respondents were 166 Dutch adolescents (age 15–17) and young women (age 20–22) with various educational backgrounds. None were mothers. We examined the young females' self-image and ideal ima

  1. Young Females' Images of Motherhood in Relation to Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ex, Carine T. G. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines young Dutch adolescent and young females' self-image and ideal image of motherhood and the extent to which television viewing and viewing motives were related to these images. Notes none of the subjects were mothers and all were selected from a variety of educational settings. Concludes that sitcoms and soaps that portrayed mothers with a…

  2. Motherhood in the teens and twenties: some surprises.

    OpenAIRE

    Cupples, M.E.; Bradley, T; Irvine, H.; McCann, B.; Wilson-Davis, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report a study of the association of health and social support variables with motherhood in teenagers and older mothers. Both teenage and older mothers reported poorer physical and mental health and fewer and less frequent social contacts than their nulliparous peers. Contrary to expectation, however, older mothers reported less extensive and less adequate social support networks than did teenagers.

  3. The Motherhood Earnings Dip: Evidence from Administrative Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Kranz, Daniel; Lacuesta, Aitor; Rodriguez-Planas, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Using Spanish Social Security records, we document the channels through which mothers fall onto a lower earnings track, such as shifting into part- time work, accumulating lower experience, or transitioning to lower-paying jobs, and are able to explain 71 percent of the unconditional individual fixed- effects motherhood wage gap. The earnings…

  4. Maternal Silences: Motherhood and Voluntary Childlessness in Contemporary Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Llewellyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Christianity, there is an ideology of motherhood that pervades scripture, ritual, and doctrine, yet there is an academic silence that means relatively little space has been given to motherhood and mothering, and even less to voluntary childlessness, from a faith perspective. By drawing on qualitative in-depth interviews with Christian women living in Britain, narrating their experiences of motherhood and voluntary childlessness, I suggest there are also lived maternal silences encountered by women in contemporary Christianity. There is a maternal expectation produced through church teaching, liturgy and culture that constructs women as ‘maternal bodies’ (Gatrell 2008; this silences and marginalises women from articulating their complex relationship with religion, motherhood, and childlessness in ways that challenge their spiritual development. However, this article also introduces the everyday and intentional tactics women employ to disrupt the maternal expectation, and hereby interrupt the maternal silence.

  5. Amorphous Silica Based Nanomedicine with Safe Carrier Excretion and Enhanced Drug Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Silu

    With recent development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, a great amount of efforts have been devoted to nanomedicine development. Among various nanomaterials, silica nanoparticle (NP) is generally accepted as non-toxic, and can provide a versatile platform for drug loading. In addition, the surface of the silica NP is hydrophilic, being favorable for cellular uptake. Therefore, it is considered as one of the most promising candidates to serve as carriers for drugs. The present thesis mainly focuses on the design of silica based nanocarrier-drug systems, aiming at achieving safe nanocarrier excretion from the biological system and enhanced drug efficacy, which two are considered as most important issues in nanomedicine development. To address the safe carrier excretion issue, we have developed a special type of selfdecomposable SiO2-drug composite NPs. By creating a radial concentration gradient of drug in the NP, the drug release occurred simultaneously with the silica carrier decomposition. Such unique characteristic was different from the conventional dense SiO2-drug NP, in which drug was uniformly distributed and can hardly escape the carrier. We found that the controllable release of the drug was primarily determined by diffusion, which was caused by the radial drug concentration gradient in the NP. Escape of the drug molecules then triggered the silica carrier decomposition, which started from the center of the NP and eventually led to its complete fragmentation. The small size of the final carrier fragments enabled their easy excretion via renal systems. Apart from the feature of safe carrier excretion, we also found the controlled release of drugs contribute significantly to the drug efficacy enhancement. By loading an anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) to the decomposable SiO 2-methylene blue (MB) NPs, we achieved a self-decomposable SiO 2(MB)-Dox nanomedicine. The gradual escape of drug molecules from NPs and their enabled cytosolic release by optical

  6. Surrogate motherhood as a medical treatment procedure for women's infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Olga S

    2011-03-01

    The content of this work is conceived on the research of the consequences of surrogate motherhood as a process of assisted procreation, which represent a way of parenthood in cases when it is not possible to realize parenthood through a natural way. Surrogate motherhood is a process in which a woman (surrogate mother) agrees to carry a pregnancy with the intent to give the child to the couple with whom she has made a contract on surrogate maternity after the birth. This process of conception and birth makes the determination of the child's origin on its mother's side hard to determine, because of the distinction of the genetic and gestation phases of the two women. The concept of surrogate motherhood is to appear in two forms, depending on the existence or the non-existence of the genetic link between the surrogate mother and the child she gives birth to. There are gestation (full) and genetic (partial) surrogates each with different modalities and legal and ethical implications. In Serbia, Infertility Treatment and the Bio-medically Assisted Procreation Act from 2009 explicitly forbids surrogate motherhood, despite the fact that an infertile couple decides to use it, as a rule, after having tried all other treatment procedures, in cases when there is a diagnosis but the conventional treatment applied has not produced the desired results. Given the fact that no one has the right to ignore the sufferings of people who cannot procreate naturally, the medical practice and legal science in our country plead for a formulation of a legal framework in which to apply surrogate motherhood as an infertility treatment, under particular conditions.

  7. Should Postponing Motherhood via “Social Freezing” Be Legally Banned? An Ethical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bernstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In industrial societies, women increasingly postpone motherhood. While men do not fear a loss of fertility with age, women face the biological boundary of menopause. The freezing of unfertilized eggs can overcome this biological barrier. Due to technical improvements in vitrification, so-called “social freezing” (SF for healthy women is likely to develop into clinical routine. Controversial ethical debates focus on the risks of the technique for mother and child, the scope of reproductive autonomy, and the medicalization of reproduction. Some criticize the use of the technique in healthy women in general, while others support a legally defined maximum age for women at the time of an embryo transfer after oocyte cryopreservation. Since this represents a serious encroachment on the reproductive autonomy of the affected women, the reasons for and against must be carefully examined. We analyze arguments for and against SF from a gendered ethical perspective. We show that the risk of the cryopreservation of oocytes for mother and future child is minimal and that the autonomy of the women involved is not compromised. The negative ethical evaluation of postponed motherhood is partly due to a biased approach highlighting only the medical risks for the female body without recognizing the potential positive effects for the women involved. In critical accounts, age is associated in an undifferentiated way with morbidity and psychological instability and is thus used in a discriminatory way. We come to the conclusion that age as a predictor of risk in the debate about SF is, from an ethical point of view, an empty concept based on gender stereotypes and discriminatory connotations of aging. A ban on postponing motherhood via SF is not justified.

  8. Myths of motherhood. The role of culture in the development of postpartum depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ambrosini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This paper intends to offer a theoretical insight into the myths of motherhood and how these myths can bear on the pathogenesis of postpartum depression. METHODS: From a man's view motherhood is conceptualized as a necessary stage in the progress towards the attainment of femininity. This view is impersonal and external to the experience of motherhood. From a female perspective, motherhood presents itself as a conflicting situation. We will then focus on the necessity to construct a discourse on motherhood by using a code which belongs to women rather than men. The analysis of a blog and a comedy show will provide evidence concerning the evolution of the female discourse on motherhood thus contributing to the debunking of the myths of motherhood. The final section discusses ways in which myths of motherhood can bear on the pathogenesis of postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: Among "melancholic type" women, who tend to abide by social norms, play established social roles and hide their inner conflicts, myths of motherhood contribute to suppress the contradiction which is intrinsic to motherhood itself making this contradiction uncontrollable and potentially devastating.

  9. Trajectory Generation Model-Based IMM Tracking for Safe Driving in Intersection Scenario

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    Tingting Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking the actions of vehicles at crossroads and planning safe trajectories will be an effective method to reduce the rate of traffic accident at intersections. It is to resolve the problem of the abrupt change because of the existence of drivers' voluntary choices. In this paper, we make approach of an improved IMM tracking method based on trajectory generation, abstracted by trajectory generation algorithm, to improve this situation. Because of the similarity between human-driving trajectory and programming trajectory which is generated by trajectory-generated algorithm, the improved IMM method performs well in tracking moving vehicles with some sudden changes of its movement. A set of data is collected for experiments when an object vehicle takes a sudden left turn in intersection scenario. To compare the experiment results between IMM method with trajectory generation model and the one without, tracking error of the former decreases by 75% in particular scenario.

  10. Safe, high-energy supercapacitors based on solvent-free ionic liquid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbizzani, Catia; Biso, Maurizio; Cericola, Dario; Lazzari, Mariachiara; Soavi, Francesca; Mastragostino, Marina [University of Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienza dei Metalli, Elettrochimica e Tecniche Chimiche, via S. Donato 15, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2008-12-01

    Safety is the main concern for energy storage-system application in hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEVs) and ionic liquids (ILs) of low vapor pressure and high thermal stability represent a strategy to meet this key requisite. The use of solvent-free ILs in supercapacitors enables the high cell voltages required for increasing supercapacitor energy up to the values for power-assist application in HEVs. In order to exploit the wide electrochemical stability window of ILs, tailored electrode materials and cell configurations have to be used. The performance of asymmetric double-layer carbon supercapacitors (AEDLCs) and carbon/poly(3-methylthiophene) hybrid supercapacitors operating with different pyrrolidinium-based ILs are reported and compared. This study demonstrates that a design-optimized AEDLC operating with safe, solvent-free IL electrolyte meets cycling stability and the energy and power requisites for power-assisted HEVs at the investigated temperatures. (author)

  11. WHEY PROTEIN-BASED WATER RESISTANT AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE ADHESIVES FOR PLYWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyan Zhao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein is a renewable and environmentally safe biomaterial, a by-product of cheese production. It can be utilized for non-food applications for value-added products. The substances glyoxal (GO, glutaraldehyde (GA, polymeric methylene biphenyl diisocyanate (p-MDI, urea-formaldehyde (UF resin, and phenol-formaldehyde oligomer (PFO that contain reactive groups were applied together with whey protein as modifier in order to increase crosslinking density and molecular weight for improving the bond strength and water resistance of whey protein. A water-resistant and environmentally safe whey protein-based wood adhesive for plywood was developed by evaluating the effects of these modifiers on the bond strength, bond durability, and free formaldehyde emission of the resulting plywood panels. Results of FTIR and SEM analyses and bond evaluation indicated that GO, GA, and p-MDI were not suitable to modify whey proteins due to their high reactivity with whey proteins, causing phase separation. UF resin was not a good modifier for whey proteins because of either its poor water-resistance or higher emission of hazardous formaldehyde. Whey protein adhesives modified with PFO had a dry shear bond strength of 1.98 MPa and a 28h-boiling-dry-boiling wet shear strength of 1.73 MPa, which were both much higher than the required values for structural use according to standard JIS K6806-2003, while its formaldehyde emission was 0.067mg/L, much lower than the required value for green plywood according to standard JIS A5908.

  12. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available.

  13. Derivation of safe health-based exposure limits for potential consumer exposure to styrene migrating into food from food containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbke, Heinz-Peter; Banton, Marcy; Faes, Eric; Leibold, Edgar; Pemberton, Mark; Duhayon, Sophie

    2014-02-01

    Residual styrene present in polystyrene food packaging may migrate into food at low levels. To assure safe use, safe exposure levels are derived for consumers potentially exposed via food using No/Low Adverse Effect Levels from animal and human studies and assessment factors proposed by European organisations (EFSA, ECHA, ECETOC). Ototoxicity and developmental toxicity in rats and human ototoxicity and effects on colour discrimination have been identified as the most relevant toxicological properties for styrene health assessments. Safe exposure levels derived from animal studies with assessment factors of EFSA and ECHA were expectedly much lower than those using the ECETOC approach. Comparable safe exposure levels were obtained from human data with all sets of assessment factors while ototoxicity in rats led to major differences. The safe exposure levels finally selected based on criteria of science and health protection converged to the range of 90-120 mg/person/d. Assuming a consumption of 1 kg food/d for an adult, this translates to 90 mg styrene migration into 1 kg food as safe for consumers. This assessment supports a health based Specific Migration Limit of 90 ppm, a value somewhat higher than the current overall migration limit of 60 ppm in the European Union.

  14. The effects of the evidence-based Safe Dates dating abuse prevention program on other youth violence outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Luz McNaughton; Agnew-Brune, Christine B; Simon, Thomas R; Vagi, Kevin J; Lee, Rosalyn D; Suchindran, Chiravath

    2014-12-01

    In response to recent calls for programs that can prevent multiple types of youth violence, the current study examined whether Safe Dates, an evidence-based dating violence prevention program, was effective in preventing other forms of youth violence. Using data from the original Safe Dates randomized controlled trial, this study examined (1) the effectiveness of Safe Dates in preventing peer violence victimization and perpetration and school weapon carrying 1 year after the intervention phase was completed and (2) moderation of program effects by the sex or race/ethnicity of the adolescent. Ninety percent (n = 1,690) of the eighth and ninth graders who completed baseline questionnaires completed the 1-year follow-up assessment. The sample was 51 % female and 26 % minority (of whom 69 % was black and 31 % was of another minority race/ethnicity). There were no baseline treatment group differences in violence outcomes. Treatment condition was significantly associated with peer violence victimization and school weapon carrying at follow-up; there was 12 % less victimization and 31 % less weapon carrying among those exposed to Safe Dates than those among controls. Treatment condition was significantly associated with perpetration among the minority but not among white adolescents; there was 23 % less violence perpetration among minority adolescents exposed to Safe Dates than that among controls. The observed effect sizes were comparable with those of other universal school-based youth violence prevention programs. Implementing Safe Dates may be an efficient way of preventing multiple types of youth violence.

  15. Between Office and Motherhood: Municipal Authorities in Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Vázquez García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In México, women's participation in municipal politics faces, among other difficulties, that of reconciling domestic and public responsibilities. Drawing on research conducted with eighteen female mayors of Oaxaca, this paper analyzes the ways in which women perceive the relationship between motherhood, double burden (child raising and domestic work and their presidential position. All the women who have ruled a Custom and Practice municipality in Oaxaca since 1996 were interviewed. Two main conclusions are drawn from the analysis. First, the relationship between motherhood and presidential position varies according to women's marital status; the age of their children; and their chances of hiring domestic help. Second, even if women assume a public position of prestige and responsibility, they continue to perform domestic duties; household chores do not get redistributed among its members.

  16. Discourses of Motherhood and Consumption Practices of Turkish Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Ozhan Dedeoglu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Being primarily responsible of conducting logistical and emotional work of child-rearing, mothers have agency in formation of the child’s future identity, cultural values and dispositions, and serve as role models, sources of social pressure, and interpersonal support. This article aims to discover discourses of motherhood of Turkish mothers, especially educated and middle class, who have children dependent on their consumption decisions and how their discourses figure in their consumption practices of products, such as food and clothing, which they buy on behalf of their children. Discursive and consumption practices of Turkish mothers who are participating in selected virtual communities are analyzed by means of qualitative research methods. Main discourses that can be observed in their told consumption practices appeared to be the “good mothering” and “motherhood as personal achievement”. Backgrounding and absent discourses are also discussed.

  17. Commercial agencies and surrogate motherhood: a transaction cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Mhairi; McLachlan, Hugh V; Swales, J Kim

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the legal arrangements involved in UK surrogate motherhood from a transaction-cost perspective. We outline the specific forms the transaction costs take and critically comment on the way in which the UK institutional and organisational arrangements at present adversely influence transaction costs. We then focus specifically on the potential role of surrogacy agencies and look at UK and US evidence on commercial and voluntary agencies. Policy implications follow.

  18. Childhood poverty, early motherhood and adult social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobcraft, J; Kiernan, K

    2001-09-01

    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the current political agenda. The key new issue that this research addresses is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? Subsidiary questions relate to the magnitude of these associations, the particular levels of childhood poverty that prove most critical, and whether, as often assumed, only teenage mothers are subsequently disadvantaged, or are those who have their first birth in their early twenties similarly disadvantaged? The source of data for this study is the National Child Development Study. We examine outcomes at age 33 for several domains of adult social exclusion: welfare, socio-economic, physical health, emotional well-being and demographic behaviour. We control for a wide range of childhood factors: poverty; social class of origin and of father; mother's and father's school leaving age; family structure; housing tenure; mother's and father's interest in education; personality attributes; performance on educational tests; and contact with the police by age 16. There are clear associations for the adult outcomes with age at first birth, even after controlling for childhood poverty and the other childhood background factors. Moreover, we demonstrate that the widest gulf in adult outcomes occurs for those who enter motherhood early (before age 23), though further reinforced by teenage motherhood for most adult outcomes. We also show that any experience of childhood poverty is clearly associated with adverse outcomes in adulthood, with reinforcement for higher levels of childhood poverty for a few outcomes.

  19. Social status of motherhood with special reference to Serbia today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić Nada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of the theoretical exploration of maternity and motherhood as a feminist political idea and includes the overview of the social practices and methods aimed at strengthening maternity and parenting in modern states, emphasizing the issue of the political support and social status of motherhood in Serbia today. The general trend in current changes is the separation of the population policy from the social policy of family planning, and deterioration of the social status of parenthood and motherhood, while the formal legal framework and ideas for improving the gender equality has been nominally improved, which contributes to their impracticability. Recent changes and adoption of new laws dealing with family and parenthood are fully adapted to the neoliberal transformation of Serbia, within which the social position of women is getting worse. In response, nationalist and patriarchal family policy are reinforced in the broader society. The article highlights the importance of examining women’s experiences and needs of women related to their reproduction and maternity, as a necessary starting point for developing appropriate policies in the wider society. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179035: Izazovi nove društvene integracije u Srbiji - koncepti i akteri

  20. Implementation Evaluation of "Steering Teens Safe": Engaging Parents to Deliver a New Parent-Based Teen Driving Intervention to Their Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Young, Tracy; Roth, Lisa; Garinger, Anne; Snetselaar, Linda; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Parents play a fundamental role in teaching their children safe driving skills to reduce risk of motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause of death for teens. "Steering Teens Safe" is a new parent-based intervention that equips parents with communication skills to talk about, demonstrate, and practice safe driving behaviors and skills…

  1. Evaluation of cognitive and behavioral effects of peer education model-based intervention to sun safe in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been many studies that evidence the health hazards of sunlight exposure, but less study on sun safe intervention model, especially in China. Our aim was to evaluate the cognitive and behavioral effects of a peer education model-based intervention to sun safe in children.Cluster random control intervention was conducted in one district in Chongqing, China. Two primary schools, selected through stratified clustered sampling approach (two grades in each school, three classes in each grade were designated as intervention (n=304 and control schools (n=305 randomly. 36 students, selected as peer educators in intervention group, were trained for one month. Educational activities such as discussions were organized by peer educator for one month. There was no sun safe education to participants in control school during the project period. The evaluation of changes of sun safe knowledge (the primary outcome, attitude and behavior (the secondary outcome measures were conducted before intervention and at months of 0, 1 and 6 of the intervention to two groups using quantitative and qualitative methods.After the intervention, sun safe knowledge score which gained by the students from intervention group has been remarkably improved, compared to baseline survey (24.48±6.17 vs. 29.51±6.75 (P<0.001, and it kept this high level (29.02±7.96 and. 28.65±8.96, while control group students' scores have made no difference (P=0.410. Most of students have changed their sun safe behavior after the intervention.Peer education program is somewhat effective in some dimensions for improving children's understanding of sun safe knowledge and behavior.

  2. Explaining the motherhood wage penalty during the early occupational career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T

    2012-02-01

    Prior research shows that mothers earn lower hourly wages than women without children, and that this maternal wage penalty cannot be fully explained by differences between mothers and other women in work experience and job characteristics. This research examines whether the residual motherhood wage penalty results from differences between mothers and other women in the accumulation of work interruptions and breaks in schooling. Using longitudinal data for 486 women followed from ages 19 to 31 in the Minnesota Youth Development Study, we find that accumulated months not in the labor force and not enrolled in school explain the residual pay gap between mothers and other women.

  3. Simone De Beauvoir: Transgressing Immanence, Motherhood And Social Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZELINKA ELISABETA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thesis of the present paper is to investigate the reasons why it may become difficult for the 20th century Western woman to avoid feeling trapped within her status of motherhood and to transcend her immanence as a woman. Simone de Beauvoir argues in The Second Sex, Part V, chapter XVII (“The Mother” that the modern Western woman proves unable to transgress her own immanence. What are the three factors that stand in the way of the woman's existential telos? What is the natural consequence of her Snow White-type of imprisonment? Will she impose the same pattern of panoptic surveillance upon her own offspring?

  4. Rapid and efficient filtration-based procedure for separation and safe analysis of CBRN mixed samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Bentahir

    Full Text Available Separating CBRN mixed samples that contain both chemical and biological warfare agents (CB mixed sample in liquid and solid matrices remains a very challenging issue. Parameters were set up to assess the performance of a simple filtration-based method first optimized on separate C- and B-agents, and then assessed on a model of CB mixed sample. In this model, MS2 bacteriophage, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis baculovirus (AcNPV, Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores were used as biological agent simulants whereas ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA and pinacolyl methylphophonic acid (PMPA were used as VX and soman (GD nerve agent surrogates, respectively. Nanoseparation centrifugal devices with various pore size cut-off (30 kD up to 0.45 µm and three RNA extraction methods (Invisorb, EZ1 and Nuclisens were compared. RNA (MS2 and DNA (AcNPV quantification was carried out by means of specific and sensitive quantitative real-time PCRs (qPCR. Liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS methods was used for quantifying EMPA and PMPA. Culture methods and qPCR demonstrated that membranes with a 30 kD cut-off retain more than 99.99% of biological agents (MS2, AcNPV, Bacillus Atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores tested separately. A rapid and reliable separation of CB mixed sample models (MS2/PEG-400 and MS2/EMPA/PMPA contained in simple liquid or complex matrices such as sand and soil was also successfully achieved on a 30 kD filter with more than 99.99% retention of MS2 on the filter membrane, and up to 99% of PEG-400, EMPA and PMPA recovery in the filtrate. The whole separation process turnaround-time (TAT was less than 10 minutes. The filtration method appears to be rapid, versatile and extremely efficient. The separation method developed in this work constitutes therefore a useful model for further evaluating and comparing additional separation alternative procedures for a safe handling and

  5. Teenage motherhood: its relationship to undetected learning problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch-Elnekave, H

    1994-01-01

    This study describes characteristics of a group of 64 adolescent mothers and their infants who participated in a program for teenage mothers run by a local health department. A majority of the girls for whom California Achievement Test (CAT) scores were available scored one or more years below grade level in reading and in language skills. Relative delays in infant development (language and social domains) were also documented. High levels of self-esteem as well as general social acceptance (by adults and peers) of early out-of-wedlock parenting suggest that early motherhood may represent an alternative avenue to experiencing success for girls who are having academic difficulties. These findings, which suggest the likelihood of a high incidence of undetected learning problems in this population, indicate that these difficulties may have a significant relationship to the high rate of school dropout associated with adolescent motherhood. The findings bring into question the notion of "unintended pregnancies" and the wisdom of current federal policies for preventing adolescent parenthood that rely on the promotion of abstinence.

  6. Regulating Lesbian Motherhood: Gender, Sexuality and Medically Assisted Reproduction in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Cristina Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses juridical discourses about Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR in Portugal, focusing specifically on the access of lesbians to this type of intervention. Empirical data refer to an exploratory research that combined the analysis of legislation with non-directive interviews to five judges from Family and Juvenile Courts of Law of the Northern Region of Portugal. One argues that the representation of motherhood present in the law reinforces and reproduces normative sexuality and femininity while simultaneously justifies the exclusion of lesbians from MAR. As such, although Portuguese legislation emerges as a mechanism of partial deregulation of the gender regime since it appears to weaken the practical and causal association between sexuality and procreation, in fact, it ends up reinforcing dominant ideas of femininity and family. As for the judges who were interviewed, their representations of motherhood are broad enough to encompass medically assisted motherhood and/or motherhood accomplished within a lesbian couple. This is achieved through a process of normalisation of the lesbian and/or of lesbian motherhood, which may resort to five different assumptions: (i parenthood as a desire inherent to every human being; (ii motherhood as a defining element of femininity; (iii motherhood as a project framed by a stable conjugal relationship; (iv lesbian motherhood as something that can be accomplished through “natural” means; (v parenthood as a mechanism of social reproduction of the gender regime. These assumptions are differently combined and support different positions regarding lesbian motherhood: although some judges seem to concur with the preservation of heteronormativity, most favour legal changes to encompass other models of sexuality and family.

  7. Sally's Corner: Coping with Unmarried Motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Harriet B.

    1980-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal survey of first parity, mostly Black mothers in New York City, examines the coping strategies of unmarried mothers. Analyzes the expansion of role responsibilities and support systems utilized and discusses the relationship between support systems and subsequent fertility. Presents three case studies. (Author/GC)

  8. Motherhood and induced abortion among teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The study investigates the social background of teenagers before being teenage mothers or having an induced abortion. A discrete-time proportional hazard modelling was used to analyse the longitudinal observations of population-based registers covering all children born in Denmark in 1966...

  9. Controversial issue: is it safe to employ mesenchymal stem cells in cell-based therapies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepperdinger, Günter; Brunauer, Regina; Jamnig, Angelika

    2008-01-01

    cells, which have been expanded in vitro in the presence of xenogenic compounds, can hardly be anticipated and methods for the culture and manipulation of "safe" MSC ex vivo are being investigated. During in vitro expansion, stem cells experience a long replicative history and are thus subject to damage...... advancement, which applies human serum platelet lysates as an alternative source for growth factors and essential supplements, allows the unimpaired proliferation of MSC in the absence of animal sera. Here, we present an update regarding cellular senescence of MSC and recent insights concerning potential...

  10. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 1402 - Recommended Outline for Instruction Booklet on “How To Safely Install Your CB Base Station Antenna”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on âHow To Safely Install Your CB Base Station Antennaâ I Appendix I to Part 1402 Commercial... ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES Pt. 1402, App. I Appendix I to Part 1402—Recommended Outline for Instruction Booklet on “How To Safely Install Your CB Base Station Antenna” I....

  11. Factors associated with safe delivery service utilization among women in Sheka zone, southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asres, Abyot; Davey, Gail

    2015-04-01

    Attempts to predict pregnancy and childbirth complications before they occur have not been successful. Provision of safe delivery service for all births is considered to be a critical intervention for ensuring safe motherhood. Hence the aim of the study was to assess factors associated with safe delivery service utilization among women in Sheka Zone South West Ethiopia. A community based comparative cross sectional survey was conducted among 554 women in Sheka Zone from February to March 2008. Data were collected through structured pre-tested questionnaire and entered into Epinfo version 3.3. Analyses were done with SPSS version 13 computer software with which bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were carried out. Mothers who completed at least secondary school were more likely to give birth at health facility than those uneducated (AOR = 3.26, 95 % CI 1.51-7.06). Women with birth order above four were less likely to give birth in a health facility than those with first order births (AOR = 0.21, 95 %CI 0.10-0.43). Women who had encountered problems in their immediate birth and received prenatal care were more likely to give birth at health facilities AOR = 33.78 95 % CI 16.44-69.39) and (AOR = 2.55, 95 % CI 1.05-6.21) respectively. Factors associated with safe delivery service utilization are related to the women's socioeconomic status and obstetric experiences. Consequently promotion of maternal education, prenatal care utilization, information education and communication on obstetric risks and general health service expansion are needed to ensure safe delivery service.

  12. Is Legalising Surrogacy - An Outsourcing Motherhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, Mula. Sneha; Sunkara, Abhiram

    2012-09-01

    The roots of surrogacy can be traced long back in Indian history. The world's second and India's first IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) is a baby - Kanupriya alias Durga in 1978. Since then the field of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) has developed rapidly. But legally the laws related to surrogacy are still in the nascent stage. At present the agreement between the parties based on the ART Guidelines are the guiding force of such treatment and the codified law is yet to be adopted and implemented. With the recent growth in the Intended parents opting for surrogacy, India has become the much sought after surrogacy destination. In my opinion, the acceptance of same sex marriages/union and the recognition of the basic human right to have family and children had given rise to surrogacy manifold. However, at the same time nations all across the globe are condemning commercial surrogacy as it results in commercialization of human reproductive system and co modification of children. For it has various socio-ethical reasons, surrogacy has also became a topic of deep interest amongst the government of different nations, medico-legal luminaries as well as public at large.

  13. Passivity-based control of robotic manipulators for safe cooperation with humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchettin, Andrea Maria; Lacevic, Bakir; Rocco, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the control of articulated robots in unstructured environments. The proposed control ensures several properties. First, the controller guarantees the achievement of a goal position without getting stuck in local minima. Then, the controller makes the closed-loop system passive, which renders the approach attractive for applications where the robot needs to safely interact with humans. Finally, the control law is explicitly shaped by the safety measure - the danger field. The proposed control law has been implemented and validated in a realistic experimental scenario, demonstrating the effectiveness in driving the robot to a given configuration in a cluttered environment, without any offline planning phase. Furthermore, the passivity of the system enables the robot to easily accommodate external forces on the tool, when a physical contact between the robot and the environment is established.

  14. More U.S. Women Hope for Motherhood, with 2 Kids Ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161476.html More U.S. Women Hope for Motherhood, With 2 Kids Ideal Federal ... THURSDAY, Oct. 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- More American women want to become mothers, and their dream family ...

  15. Review of Marilyn Francus, Monstrous Motherhood: Eighteenth-Century Culture and the Ideology of Domesticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Ann Thompson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of Marilyn Francus. Monstrous Motherhood: Eighteenth-Century Culture and the Ideology of Domesticity. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP, 2012. Xi + 297pp. Index. ISBN 978-1-4214-0737-1.

  16. Transition to Motherhood as an Immigrant: Risks and Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruveyde Aydin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of transition to motherhood that brings along a number of vital changes may be full of risks and difficulties for immigrant mothers. Poverty, being unfamiliar with the language of the country that the mother migrated, inability of healthcare policies in covering healthcare expenses of immigrants, insufficiency of social assistance and loneliness may negatively affect health of mother and infant. Postpartum immigrant mothers are seen depression, anxiety, stress and social isolation because of these obstacles. Therefore, health care professionals, who provide care to immigrant mothers, should clarify immigrant mothers' religious, cultural beliefs and attitudes. Procurement of peer support is important by developing care programs special to immigrant mothers and ensuring immigrant women to come together. Increase in the number of translators in hospitals and prepara-tion of education materials in native language of mothers will improve the level of benefiting from healthcare services. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 250-262

  17. Safe environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-28

    A new film on the Social Care Institute for Excellence website aims to encourage health and social care organisations to create safe environments in which staff can raise concerns as part of normal practice. Key points raised in the film include that managers should listen to what whistleblowers say and ensure the concerns raised are managed well, and that open cultures in which concerns can be raised help build safer working environments and effective learning organisations. You can view the film at tinyurl.com/oh3dk3q.

  18. Studies on GIS Based Tracing and Traceability of Safe Crop Product in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Xiao-hui; ZHUANG Da-fang; QIU Dong-sheng

    2007-01-01

    The safety of safe crop products (SCP) is critical to maintain people's health and living standard. With the global efforts on the improvement of the traceability of food products, it is inevitable to establish corresponding traceability systems to monitor the safety of crop products in China. In this article, the supply chain pattern of SCP in China has been analyzed and its spatial characters have been described in detail. The study deals with on how to relate traceability technology with GIS, and on how to trace and retrace the safety of SCP using the function of excellent spatial representation, spatial locating, and spatial analysis provided in GIS, which has been discussed from several aspects, such as coding technique of traceability information, transferring technique of traceability information, spatialization of traceability information, and application integration of traceability system. A pilot study was carried out to present the basic functions of the system, which provided an efficient and credible way to trace and retrace the safety of SCP in a real supply chain. An innovative idea has been brought forward for how to establish an efficient, credible, applied traceability system of SCP.

  19. Assessing the 'system' in safe systems-based road designs: using cognitive work analysis to evaluate intersection designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, M; Salmon, P M; Stanton, N A; McClure, R

    2015-01-01

    While a safe systems approach has long been acknowledged as the underlying philosophy of contemporary road safety strategies, systemic applications are sparse. This article argues that systems-based methods from the discipline of Ergonomics have a key role to play in road transport design and evaluation. To demonstrate, the Cognitive Work Analysis framework was used to evaluate two road designs - a traditional Melbourne intersection and a cut-through design for future intersections based on road safety safe systems principles. The results demonstrate that, although the cut-through intersection appears different in layout from the traditional intersection, system constraints are not markedly different. Furthermore, the analyses demonstrated that redistribution of constraints in the cut-through intersection resulted in emergent behaviour, which was not anticipated and could prove problematic. Further, based on the lack of understanding of emergent behaviour, similar design induced problems are apparent across both intersections. Specifically, incompatibilities between infrastructure, vehicles and different road users were not dealt with by the proposed design changes. The importance of applying systems methods in the design and evaluation of road transport systems is discussed.

  20. Polylactic Acid Based Nanocomposites: Promising Safe and Biodegradable Materials in Biomedical Field

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Sha; Zhaofeng Chen; Zhou Chen; Aili Zhang; Zhaogang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is widely used in biological areas due to its excellent compatibility, bioabsorbability, and degradation behavior in human bodies. Pure polylactic acid has difficulty in meeting all the requirements that specific field may demand. Therefore, PLA based nanocomposites are extensively investigated over the past few decades. PLA based nanocomposites include PLA based copolymers in nanometer size and nanocomposites with PLA or PLA copolymers as matrix and nanofillers as annex...

  1. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  2. Design of energy-efficient MRF-based clutches with defined fail-safe behavior for integration in hybrid powertrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbis, Vadim; Hegger, Christian; Güth, Dirk; Maas, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Drag losses in the powertrain are a serious deficiency for any energy-efficient application, especially for hybrid electrical vehicles. A promising approach for fulfilling requirements like efficiency, wear, safety and dynamics is the use of an innovative MRF-based clutch design for the transmission of power that is based on magnetorheological fluids (MRF). MRF are smart fluids with the particular characteristics of changing their apparent viscosity significantly under influence of the magnetic field. Their characteristics are fast switching times and a smooth torque control in the powertrain. In this paper, a novel clutch concept is investigated that facilitates the controlled movement of the MRF from an active torque-transmitting region into an inactive region of the shear gap. This concept enables a complete disengagement of the fluid engaging surfaces in a way that viscous drag torque can be eliminated. Therefore, a simulation based design for such MRF-based clutches is used to design the required magnetic excitation systems for enabling a well-defined safety behavior by the fluid control. Based on this approach, an MRF-based clutch is developed in detail which provides a loss-reduced alternative to conventional disengagement devices in the powertrain. The presented MRF-based clutch enables a investigation of different systems in one design by changing the magnetic excitation. Especially, different possibilities for the fail-safe behavior of the MRF-based clutch are considered to ensure a well-defined condition in electrical or hybrid powertrains in case of a system failure.

  3. Specificity assessment from fractionation experiments (SAFE): a novel method to evaluate microarray probe specificity based on hybridisation stringencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshev, Alexei L; Machka, Christine; Horsch, Marion; Seltmann, Matthias; Liebscher, Volkmar; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Beckers, Johannes

    2003-01-15

    The cDNA-chip technology is a highly versatile tool for the comprehensive analysis of gene expression at the transcript level. Although it has been applied successfully in expression profiling projects, there is an ongoing dispute concerning the quality of such expression data. The latter critically depends on the specificity of hybridisation. SAFE (specificity assessment from fractionation experiments) is a novel method to discriminate between non- specific cross-hybridisation and specific signals. We applied in situ fractionation of hybridised target on DNA-chips by means of repeated washes with increasing stringencies. Different fractions of hybridised target are washed off at defined stringencies and the collected fluorescence intensity data at each step comprise the fractionation curve. Based on characteristic features of the fractionation curve, unreliable data can be filtered and eliminated from subsequent analyses. The approach described here provides a novel experimental tool to identify probes that produce specific hybridisation signals in DNA-chip expression profiling approaches. The iterative use of the SAFE procedure will result in increasingly reliable sets of probes for microarray experiments and significantly improve the overall efficiency and reliability of RNA expression profiling data from DNA-chip experiments.

  4. Developing and testing theory-based and evidence-based interventions to promote switching to arsenic-safe wells in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, Jennifer; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-12-01

    Millions of people in Bangladesh drink arsenic-contaminated water despite increased awareness of consequences to health. Theory-based and evidence-based interventions are likely to have greater impact on people switching to existing arsenic-safe wells than providing information alone. To test this assumption, we first developed interventions based on an empirical test of the Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities and Self-regulation (RANAS) model of behaviour change. In the second part of this study, a cluster-randomised controlled trial revealed that in accordance with our hypotheses, information alone showed smaller increases in switching to arsenic-safe wells than information with reminders or information with reminders and implementation intentions.

  5. Creating Safe Places: An Exploratory Evaluation of a School-Based Emotional Support Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrott, Jeremy; Rothwell, Heather; Thomas, Menna

    2013-01-01

    School-based interventions for young people with emotional/mental health problems are often provided by external practitioners and their relationship with host schools is a key influence on implementation. Poor integration within school systems, schools' tendency to define interventions around pupils' behaviour and teachers' control over access,…

  6. Safe Certificate-Based Maneuvers for Teams of Quadrotors Using Differential Flatness

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li; Ames, Aaron D.; Egerstedt, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Safety Barrier Certificates that ensure collision-free maneuvers for teams of differential flatness-based quadrotors are presented in this paper. Synthesized with control barrier functions, the certificates are used to modify the nominal trajectory in a minimally invasive way to avoid collisions. The proposed collision avoidance strategy complements existing flight control and planning algorithms by providing trajectory modifications with provable safety guarantees. The effectiveness of this ...

  7. Moral implications of obstetric technologies for pregnancy and motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    Drawing on sociological and anthropological studies, the aim of this article is to reconstruct how obstetric technologies contribute to a moral conception of pregnancy and motherhood, and to evaluate that conception from a normative point of view. Obstetrics and midwifery, so the assumption, are value-laden, value-producing and value-reproducing practices, values that shape the social perception of what it means to be a "good" pregnant woman and to be a "good" (future) mother. Activities in the medical field of reproduction contribute to "kinning", that is the making of particular social relationships marked by closeness and special moral obligations. Three technologies, which belong to standard procedures in prenatal care in postmodern societies, are presently investigated: (1) informed consent in prenatal care, (2) obstetric sonogram, and (3) birth plan. Their widespread application is supposed to serve the moral (and legal) goal of effecting patient autonomy (and patient right). A reconstruction of the actual moral implications of these technologies, however, reveals that this goal is missed in multiple ways. Informed consent situations are marked by involuntariness and blindness to social dimensions of decision-making; obstetric sonograms construct moral subjectivity and agency in a way that attribute inconsistent and unreasonable moral responsibilities to the pregnant woman; and birth plans obscure the need for a healthcare environment that reflects a shared-decision-making model, rather than a rational-choice-framework.

  8. Rosie Carpe and the Virgin Mary: Modelling Modern Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Eaton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie NDiaye’s 2001 novel, Rosie Carpe, incorporates, as one of its several instances of parenting failure, the narrative of the decline of a single mother from adequacy to abuse. This narrative, which is the focus of this article, might be said to put flesh on the bones of Julia Kristeva’s deconstruction of the Virgin Mary in her 1980s essay ‘Stabat Mater’. Kristeva saw the Marian model as out of date but she interrogated its enduring power and its continuing influence on our cultural perceptions of maternity. NDiaye’s eponymous Rosie realises she is pregnant but has no idea how this has come about. Rosie is not represented as a woman who has a religious faith but she decides to accept her child as a holy miracle. This article analyses how the ‘mythology’ of the Virgin Mary, and other biblical intertext, is woven into the narrative of Rosie’s experience of motherhood, so as to counterpoint and illuminate Rosie’s bleak and raw inner experience of maternity, an experience which, while confirming that Rosie is not, and never could have been, a modern Virgin Mary nevertheless refreshes the human stories at the root of the Christian narrative.

  9. Prehospital Ketamine is a Safe and Effective Treatment for Excited Delirium in a Community Hospital Based EMS System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaggs, Thomas R; Glass, David M; Hutchcraft, Megan Gleason; Weir, William B

    2016-10-01

    administered by paramedics in the prehospital setting of a community hospital based Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system is a safe and effective treatment for ExDS. Scaggs TR , Glass DM , Hutchcraft MG , Weir WB . Prehospital ketamine is a safe and effective treatment for excited delirium in a community hospital based EMS system. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):563-569.

  10. A Safe Interaction of Robot Assisted Rehabilitation, Based on Model-Free Impedance Control with Singularity Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Sharifi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a singularity-free control methodology for the safe robot-human interaction is proposed using a hybrid control technique in robotic rehabilitation applications. With the use of max-plus algebra, a hybrid controller is designed to guarantee feasible robot motion in the vicinity of the kinematic singularities or going through and staying at the singular configuration. The approach taken in this paper is based on model-free impedance control and hence does not require any information about the model except the upper bounds on the system matrix. The stability of the approach is investigated using multiple Lyapunov function theory. The proposed control algorithm is applied to PUMA 560 robot arm, a six-axis industrial robot. The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed control scheme.

  11. Mometasone-based triple combination therapy in melasma: Is it really safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Imran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kligman′s triple combination formula has been one of the most popular treatment options in melasma over the last three decades. The original Kligman′s formula has been modified in many ways over the years and the most recent modification that has been introduced is a triple combination of 2% hydroquinone, 0.025% tretinoin, and 1% mometasone. The use of this triple combination in patients with melasma has seen a sharp rise over the last few years and with this rampant use the side-effect profile of this triple combination has also come to the fore. Aim : The aim of the present study was to assess the overall safety of the mometasone-based triple combination treatment in the management of melasma. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed on 60 patients of melasma who had used a mometasone-based triple combination treatment for at least 3 weeks anytime in the previous 1 year. The patients were given a preformed questionnaire wherein they assessed the overall effect of the triple combination treatment on their melasma during its use as well as after its withdrawal. The patients were specifically asked about the status of their disease as well as the sun sensitivity of their skin before and after the use of triple combination treatment. In addition, the patients were assessed by a single trained dermatologist for the presence of any adverse effects arising out of the triple combination treatment in the form of telangiectasia, hypertrichosis, acne, skin atrophy, etc. Results: Majority of patients (51.7% had used the combination treatment well beyond the recommended duration. About one-third (36.7% of the patients rated their melasma as worse at the time of filling the questionnaire as compared with their disease before the use of triple combination treatment. On clinical examination, the evidence of steroid side effects was seen in 26 patients (43.3%. Steroid-induced telangiectasia was the commonest finding, seen

  12. MOMETASONE-BASED TRIPLE COMBINATION THERAPY IN MELASMA: IS IT REALLY SAFE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Imran

    2010-01-01

    Background: Kligman's triple combination formula has been one of the most popular treatment options in melasma over the last three decades. The original Kligman's formula has been modified in many ways over the years and the most recent modification that has been introduced is a triple combination of 2% hydroquinone, 0.025% tretinoin, and 1% mometasone. The use of this triple combination in patients with melasma has seen a sharp rise over the last few years and with this rampant use the side-effect profile of this triple combination has also come to the fore. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess the overall safety of the mometasone-based triple combination treatment in the management of melasma. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed on 60 patients of melasma who had used a mometasone-based triple combination treatment for at least 3 weeks anytime in the previous 1 year. The patients were given a preformed questionnaire wherein they assessed the overall effect of the triple combination treatment on their melasma during its use as well as after its withdrawal. The patients were specifically asked about the status of their disease as well as the sun sensitivity of their skin before and after the use of triple combination treatment. In addition, the patients were assessed by a single trained dermatologist for the presence of any adverse effects arising out of the triple combination treatment in the form of telangiectasia, hypertrichosis, acne, skin atrophy, etc. Results: Majority of patients (51.7%) had used the combination treatment well beyond the recommended duration. About one-third (36.7%) of the patients rated their melasma as worse at the time of filling the questionnaire as compared with their disease before the use of triple combination treatment. On clinical examination, the evidence of steroid side effects was seen in 26 patients (43.3%). Steroid-induced telangiectasia was the commonest finding, seen in all of these 26

  13. The Motherhood Penalty at Midlife: Long-Term Effects of Children on Women's Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Joan R; García-Manglano, Javier; Bianchi, Suzanne M

    2014-02-01

    The authors build on prior research on the motherhood wage penalty to examine whether the career penalties faced by mothers change over the life course. They broaden the focus beyond wages to also consider labor force participation and occupational status and use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women to model the changing impact of motherhood as women age from their 20s to their 50s (n = 4,730). They found that motherhood is "costly" to women's careers, but the effects on all 3 labor force outcomes attenuate at older ages. Children reduce women's labor force participation, but this effect is strongest when women are younger, and is eliminated by the 40s and 50s. Mothers also seem able to regain ground in terms of occupational status. The wage penalty for having children varies by parity, persisting across the life course only for women who have 3 or more children.

  14. Representation of Motherhood and Age Characteristics of Infants in Girls in their Late Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krys’ko A.A.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe and analyze data on changes in the representations of motherhood and age characteristics of infants under the influence of pregnancy and motherhood experiences with girls in their late teens (we studied three groups: having no children, pregnant women and young mothers. We used questionnaire “Representations of characteristics of children in each period of their development” (designed by M.E. Lantsburg, A.A. Krys’ko, pictorial projective test, “Me and my child”, projective technique “Mothers TAT”, with 5 reproductions of paintings “Motherhood” by S. Krasauskas representing parenting, motherhood and childbirth, selected as stimulus material. The results of analysis were used to identify the main trends for each of the three groups of subjects.

  15. Is Intake of Flavonoid-based Food Supplements during Pregnancy Safe for the Developing Child? A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenys, Marta; Masjosthusmann, Stefan; Fritsche, Ellen

    2015-08-04

    Due to potential health benefits and the general assumption that natural products are safe, there is an increasing trend in the general population - including pregnant women - to supplement their diet with flavonoid-based food supplements. In addition, preclinical studies aim to prevent developmental adverse effects induced by toxic substances, infections, maternal or genetic diseases of the unborn child by administration of flavonoids at doses far above those reached by normal diets. Because these substances do not undergo classical risk assessment processes, our aim was to review the available literature on the potential adverse effects of maternal diet supplementation with flavonoid-based products for the developing child. A systematic literature search was performed in three databases and screened following four exclusion criteria. Selected studies were classified into two groups: 1. Studies on the developmental toxicity of single flavonoids in vitro or in animals in vivo, and 2. Studies on the developmental toxicity of single flavonoids or on flavonoid-mixtures in humans. The data collected indicates that there is a concern for the safety of some flavonoids within realistic human exposure scenarios. This concern is accompanied by a tremendous lack of studies on safety of these compounds during development making definite safety decisions impossible. Besides studies of survival, especially the more specific developmental processes like nervous system development need to be addressed experimentally. Before new high-dose, flavonoid-based therapeutic strategies are developed for pregnant women further research on the safety of these compounds is clearly needed.

  16. SafeCare: Historical Perspective and Dynamic Development of an Evidence-Based Scaled-Up Model for the Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn M. Guastaferro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available SafeCare is an evidence-based parent-training program that reduces child maltreatment, particularly neglect. The risk of child maltreatment, a public health issue affecting millions of U.S. children each year, can be markedly reduced by interventions such as SafeCare that deliver in-home services. Drawing from applied behavioral analysis roots, SafeCare focuses on providing parents with concrete skills in three areas: health, home safety, and parent-child/-infant interaction. This paper will include an overview of the SafeCare model, an historical perspective of its history and dynamic development, description of the theoretical underpinnings of the model, a description of the program targets and content by describing its modules and delivery, an overview of program outcomes, and data discussion of dissemination and implementation.

  17. Experiences of pregnancy and motherhood among teenage mothers in a suburb of Accra, Ghana: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyesaw NYK

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nana Yaa Konadu Gyesaw,1 Augustine Ankomah2 1Regional Health Directorate, Ghana Health Service, Koforidua, Eastern Region, 2Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana Background: The proportion of teenage girls who are mothers or who are currently pregnant in sub-Saharan African countries is staggering. There are many studies regarding teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortions, and family planning among teenagers, but very little is known about what happens after pregnancy, ie, the experience of teenage motherhood. Several studies in Ghana have identified the determinants of early sexual activity, contraception, and unsafe abortion, with teenage motherhood only mentioned in passing. Few studies have explored the experiences of adolescent mothers in detail with regard to their pregnancy and childbirth. This qualitative study explores the experiences of adolescent mothers during pregnancy, childbirth, and care of their newborns. Methods: This qualitative study was based on data from focus group discussions and indepth interviews with teenage mothers in a suburb in Accra. Participants were recruited from health facilities as well as by snowball sampling. Results: Some of the participants became pregnant as a result of transactional sex in order to meet their basic needs, while others became pregnant as a result of sexual violence and exploitation. A few others wanted to become pregnant to command respect from people in society. In nearly all cases, parents and guardians of the adolescent mothers were upset in the initial stages when they heard the news of the pregnancy. One key finding, quite different from in other societies, was how often teenage pregnancies are eventually accepted, by both the young women and their families. Also observed was a rarity of willingness to resort to induced abortion. Conclusion: Special programs should be initiated by the government and the various

  18. Mother's educational level and single motherhood: Comparing Spain and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Garriga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the second half of the 20th century there was a positive relationship between single parenthood and the mother's educational level in Spain and Italy. Objective: However, several important transformations contemplated by Goode (1993 and McLanahan (2004 suggest that this relationship may have been inverted in Spain but perhaps not in Italy. The purpose of our study is to test this hypothesis. Methods: We use EU_SILC data from waves 2005 and 2011 and logistic regressions. Results: We found the relationship between the mother's educational level and being a single mother is negative in Spain, while it is not significant in Italy. However, we found that for Italian mothers aged 40 and younger and mothers from northwest Italy, this relationship is also negative. By contrast, for older mothers and mothers from the islands or southern Italy, this association is positive. Meanwhile, for mothers from the central and northeast regions, the relationship between educational level and single motherhood is not significant. Conclusions: These results show how Spain and some parts of Italian society are moving towards family models similar to those in the Northern European countries. As Sara McLanahan (2004 noted for the United States, this social transformation in Southern Europe cannot be considered without recognizing the potential negative consequence for future generations. The single-mother households dealing with the economic crisis that started in 2008 have lower socioeconomic backgrounds than the single mothers who suffered through previous crises, and therefore the consequences of this crisis for children in single-parent families might be even more negative, especially in Spain.

  19. Novel choline-based ionic liquids as safe electrolytes for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Tianqiao; Zhang, Lingzhi; Wang, Jinglun; Mai, Yongjin; Yan, Xiaodan; Zhao, Xinyue

    2016-10-01

    Three choline-based ionic liquids functionalized with trimethylsilyl, allyl, and cynoethyl groups are synthesized in an inexpensive route as safe electrolytes for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries. The thermal stabilities, viscosities, conductivities, and electrochemical windows of these ILs are reported. Hybrid electrolytes were formulated by doping with 0.6 M LiPF6/0.4 M lithium oxalydifluoroborate (LiODFB) as salts and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as co-solvent. By using 0.6 M LiPF6/0.4 M LiODFB trimethylsilylated choline-based IL (SN1IL-TFSI)/DMC as electrolyte, LiCoO2/graphite full cell showed excellent cycling performance with a capacity of 152 mAh g-1 and 99% capacity retention over 90 cycles at a cut-off voltage of 4.4 V. The propagation rate of SN1IL-TFSI)/DMC electrolyte is only one quarter of the commercial electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 EC/DEC/DMC, v/v/v = 1/1/1), suggesting a better safety feature.

  20. An aqueous, polymer-based redox-flow battery using non-corrosive, safe, and low-cost materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoschka, Tobias; Martin, Norbert; Martin, Udo; Friebe, Christian; Morgenstern, Sabine; Hiller, Hannes; Hager, Martin D.; Schubert, Ulrich S.

    2015-11-01

    For renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric to be effectively used in the grid of the future, flexible and scalable energy-storage solutions are necessary to mitigate output fluctuations. Redox-flow batteries (RFBs) were first built in the 1940s and are considered a promising large-scale energy-storage technology. A limited number of redox-active materials--mainly metal salts, corrosive halogens, and low-molar-mass organic compounds--have been investigated as active materials, and only a few membrane materials, such as Nafion, have been considered for RFBs. However, for systems that are intended for both domestic and large-scale use, safety and cost must be taken into account as well as energy density and capacity, particularly regarding long-term access to metal resources, which places limits on the lithium-ion-based and vanadium-based RFB development. Here we describe an affordable, safe, and scalable battery system, which uses organic polymers as the charge-storage material in combination with inexpensive dialysis membranes, which separate the anode and the cathode by the retention of the non-metallic, active (macro-molecular) species, and an aqueous sodium chloride solution as the electrolyte. This water- and polymer-based RFB has an energy density of 10 watt hours per litre, current densities of up to 100 milliamperes per square centimetre, and stable long-term cycling capability. The polymer-based RFB we present uses an environmentally benign sodium chloride solution and cheap, commercially available filter membranes instead of highly corrosive acid electrolytes and expensive membrane materials.

  1. Figuras da maternidade em Clarice Lispector ou a maternidade para além do falo The figures of motherhood in Clarice Lispector or motherhood beyond the phallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marcos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A maternidade é freqüentemente situada na lógica fálica. Nossa proposta é nos interrogarmos sobre o que, da maternidade e da gestação, não se reduz ao falo. As figuras da maternidade em Clarice Lispector exibem o que há aí de incomensurável, de impossível a simbolizar e aparecem ligadas ao mundo orgânico, ou, ainda, a um gozo animal e excessivo, lembrando o que Lacan nomeia como gozo outro. A criança é, para a mulher, um modo de relação com o falo, e não dizemos o contrário, entretanto Clarice nos dá a ver que a criança torna também presente um real incomensurável.Motherhood is often situated in a phallic logic. But something in motherhood is not reduced to the phallus. The figures of motherhood in Clarice Lispector shows what is incommensurable in it, what cannot be symbolized and is still linked to the organic world, to an animal and excessive jouissance. The child is, for the woman, a kind of relation with the phallus, but also the incommensurable real.

  2. Indoor Tanning Is Not Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trends Behavior Rates What CDC Is Doing Skin Cancer Prevention Progress Report The Burning Truth Initiative A Base Tan Is Not a Safe Tan Tanned Skin Is Not Healthy Skin Controlled Tanning Is Not Safe Tanning Guidelines for School ... Melanoma Surveillance in the U.S. Related Links ...

  3. Shared Secrets: Motherhood and Male Homosexuality in Doppelgänger Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sencindiver, Susan Yi

    2011-01-01

    narratives. Enlisting Joseph Conrad’s short story, “The Secret Sharer,” among others, as both a paradigmatic yet self-conscious example, I examine the intersecting hotbed of these two strange bedfellows, motherhood and homosexuality, as well as the significance of gender in the male doppelgänger imaginary....

  4. Impact of Teenage Motherhood on the Academic Performance in Public Primary Schools in Bungoma County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmao-Kiptanui, Catherine; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga; Lelan, Joseph K.

    2015-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy and motherhood is a concern in both developed and developing countries and is a complex reality of contemporary society however the re-entry of teenage mothers into the school system continues to demand attention as society's negative attitude towards pregnant girls and teenage mothers persists. Those who do return to school…

  5. Presurgical orthopedics and satisfaction in motherhood: a randomized clinical trial (Dutchcleft).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prahl, C.; Prahl-Andersen, B.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of infant orthopedics on satisfaction in motherhood. DESIGN: Prospective two-arm randomized controlled trial in parallel with three participating academic cleft palate centers. Treatment allocation was concealed and was performed by means of a computerized balanced all

  6. Disciplining Youth, Disciplining Women: Motherhood, Delinquency, and Race in Postwar American Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This article brings together, and builds upon, previous scholarship on juvenile delinquency, motherhood, and education in 1950s America, and explores how the widespread contention that inadequate mothering was responsible for a rise in juvenile crime and social deviance helped shape the organization of schooling in the postwar era. In the first…

  7. Scales for Measuring College Student Views of Traditional Motherhood and Fatherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Mark; Knox, David

    2005-01-01

    College students rank "raising a family" as one of their primary values (American Council on Education and University of California, 2003). Yet, little is known about their understanding of the respective roles of motherhood and fatherhood. Feminism, dual career marriages, and more egalitarian role models may have altered adherence to…

  8. For better or for worse? The dilemmas of unmarried motherhood in mid-twentieth-century popular British film and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates representations of unmarried motherhood in the late 1940s and early 1950s through readings of popular British film and fiction. These sources are used to illustrate contradictions and conflicts in the meanings afforded to unmarried motherhood and, in turn, to highlight how the unmarried mother was used as a motif for exploring post-war normative boundaries around marriage, motherhood, and female sexuality. The article draws upon Raymond Williams's idea of a 'structure of feeling' to make connections between these representations and issues and debates about the role and status of women and mothers more generally in post-war Britain.

  9. From motherhood penalties to husband premia: the new challenge for gender equality and family policy, lessons from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Trond; Penner, Andrew M; Høgsnes, Geir

    2014-03-01

    Given the key role that processes occurring in the family play in creating gender inequality, the family is a central focus of policies aimed at creating greater gender equality. We examine how family status affects the gender wage gap using longitudinal matched employer-employee data from Norway, 1979-96, a period with extensive expansion of family policies. The motherhood penalty dropped dramatically from 1979 to 1996. Among men the premia for marriage and fatherhood remained constant. In 1979, the gender wage gap was primarily due to the motherhood penalty, but by 1996 husband premia were more important than motherhood penalties.

  10. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  11. Implementation evaluation of steering teens safe: engaging parents to deliver a new parent-based teen driving intervention to their teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Young, Tracy; Roth, Lisa; Garinger, Anne; Snetselaar, Linda; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-08-01

    Parents play a fundamental role in teaching their children safe driving skills to reduce risk of motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause of death for teens. Steering Teens Safe is a new parent-based intervention that equips parents with communication skills to talk about, demonstrate, and practice safe driving behaviors and skills with their teens. This implementation evaluation focuses on a sample of 83 parents who delivered Steering Teens Safe to their teens. One-, 2- and 3-month follow-up assessments were conducted with intervention parents to evaluate the self-reported quantity and quality of talking about, demonstrating, and practicing safe driving goals with teens; perceived success and benefit of the program; and barriers to implementation. Over 3 months of follow-up, parents discussed driving goals with their teens for a median of 101.5 minutes. The most frequently addressed topics were general safety principles, including distracted driving, driving in bad weather, wearing a seat belt, and being a safe passenger. Parents spent a median of 30 minutes practicing safe driving skills such as changing lanes. Sixty-seven percent of parents talked to their children about rural road safety, but just 36% demonstrated and half practiced these skills with their teens. Barriers to implementation include time and opportunity barriers and resistant attitudes of their teens. However, barriers neither affected frequency of engagement nor parents' perceived benefit and comfort in delivering the program. Parents with time/opportunity barriers also had higher practice and demonstration times than parents without these barriers. Findings indicate high acceptability among parent implementers and promise for real-world delivery. Future studies are needed to assess intervention impact.

  12. Safe use of nanomaterials

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials  is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN.   A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures.   We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment   You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have.   The HSE Unit

  13. Proposal for a new normalization reference in LCA based on “safe operating space”: presentation of framework and global factors at midpoint level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    normalization factors were compared with existing normalization factors that are based on global impacts currently taking place. The impact categories climate change, land use and terrestrial acidification were found to have their safe operating space exceeded on average globally, while the opposite was true......Planetary boundaries have been suggested for a range of environmental impacts,such as climate change, eutrophying nutrients and land use. The boundaries demarcate the safe operating space of humanity: Staying within the space ensures environmental sustainability, while exceeding it risks pushing...... ecosystems into alternative regimes, leading to adverse effects for humanity. Planetary boundaries can be applied as policy targets. To promote a societal development in the direction of these targets, an indicator system is needed that measures the fraction of the safe operating space that a given activity...

  14. "You're Really Gonna Kick Us All Out?" Sustaining Safe Spaces for Community-Based HIV Prevention and Control among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Garcia

    Full Text Available Black men who have sex with men (BMSM experience among the highest rates of HIV infection in the United States. We conducted a community-based ethnography in New York City to identify the structural and environmental factors that influence BMSMs vulnerability to HIV and their engagement with HIV prevention services. Methods included participant observation at community-based organizations (CBOs in New York City, in-depth interviews with 31 BMSM, and 17 key informant interviews. Our conceptual framework shows how creating and sustaining safe spaces could be a critical environmental approach to reduce vulnerability to HIV among BMSM. Participant observation, in-depth and key informant interviews revealed that fear and mistrust characterized men's relation to social and public institutions, such as churches, schools, and the police. This fear and mistrust created HIV vulnerability among the BMSM in our sample by challenging engagement with services. Our findings suggest that to be successful, HIV prevention efforts must address these structural and environmental vulnerabilities. Among the CBOs that we studied, "safe spaces" emerged as an important tool for addressing these environmental vulnerabilities. CBOs used safe spaces to provide social support, to address stigma, to prepare men for the workforce, and to foster a sense of community among BMSM. In addition, safe spaces were used for HIV and STI testing and treatment campaigns. Our ethnographic findings suggest that safe spaces represent a promising but so far under-utilized part of HIV prevention infrastructure. Safe spaces seem integral to high impact comprehensive HIV prevention efforts, and may be considered more appropriately as part of HIV capacity-building rather than being nested within program-specific funding structures.

  15. Generation and generalization of safe depth-contours for hydrographc charts using a surface-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.Y.; Ledoux, H.; Meijers, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Depth-contours are an essential part of any hydrographic chart|a map of a water-body intended for safe ship navigation. Traditionally these were manually drawn by skilled hydrographers from a limited set of surveyed depth measurements. Nowadays this process of map making is shifted towards the digit

  16. Implications of the legalization of non-commercial surrogacy for local kinship and motherhood in Vietnamese society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Yuri

    2015-02-01

    Until recently, surrogacy was banned in Vietnam for all cases. The government, however, has altered its position on reproductive technology and will soon legalize non-commercial surrogacy among relatives. Motherhood is highly venerated in Vietnamese society and, under this local kinship conception, gestational process is of paramount importance in establishing a connection between the fetus and the woman. The implications of this new government decision for local kinship, motherhood and the individuals concerned will be discussed.

  17. Safe and effective sofosbuvir-based therapy in patients with mental health disease on hepatitis C virus treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lydia Shuk Yee; Masur, Jack; Sims, Zayani; Nelson, Amy; Osinusi, Anu; Kohli, Anita; Kattakuzhy, Sarah; Polis, Michael; Kottilil, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    and without MHD groups treated with sofosbuvir-based therapy. Among patients treated with sofosbuvir-based therapy, the percentage of patients with MHD who achieved SVR was the same as those without (SPARE: 60.9% of those MHD compared to 67.6% in those without, P = 0.78; SYNERGY-A: 100% of both groups; ERADICATE: 100% compared to 97.1%). There was no statistically significant difference in pill counts, adherence to study visits between groups, nor mean serum concentrations of GS-331007 for each group at week 2 of treatment (P = 0.72). Among patients with HIV co-infection, pre-treatment BDI scores were similar among patients treated with sofosbuvir, and those treated with interferon (sofosbuvir-based 5.24, IFN-based 6.96; P = 0.14); however, a dichotomous effect on was observed during treatment. Among participants treated with directly acting antiviral (DAA)-based therapy, mean BDI scores decreased from 5.24 (pre-treatment) to 3.28 during treatment (1.96 decrease, P = 0.0034) and 2.82 post-treatment. The decrease in mean score from pre- to post-treatment was statistically significant (-2.42, P = 0.0012). Among participants treated with IFN-based therapy, mean BDI score increased from 6.96 at pre-treatment to 9.19 during treatment (an increase of 2.46 points, P = 0.1), and then decreased back to baseline post-treatment (mean BDI score 6.3, P = 0.54). Overall change in mean BDI scores from pre-treatment to during treatment among participants treated with DAA-based and IFN-therapy was statistically significant (-1.96 and +2.23, respectively; P = 0.0032). This change remained statistically significant when analysis was restricted to participants who achieved SVR (-2.0 and +4.36, respectively; P = 0.0004). CONCLUSION Sofosbuvir-based therapy is safe and well tolerated in patients with MHD. A decline in BDI associated with sofosbuvir-based HCV treatment suggests additional MHD benefits, although the duration of these effects is unknown. PMID:27872683

  18. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part III: performance evaluation of place-based monitoring strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the USA. In this three part series, we present over 30 years of evidence to demonstrate unique patterns in water quality contaminants over space and time, develop alternative place-based monitoring approaches that exploit such patterns, and evaluate the economic performance of such approaches to current monitoring practice. Part III: Place-based (PBA) and current SDWA monitoring approaches were implemented on test datasets (1995-2001) from 19 water systems and evaluated based on the following criteria: percent of total detections, percent detections above threshold values (e.g. 20, 50, 90% of MCL), and cost. The PBA outperformed the current SDWA monitoring requirements in terms of total detections, missed only a small proportion of detections below the MCL, and captured all detections above 50% of the MCL. Essentially the same information obtained from current compliance monitoring requirements can be gained at approximately one-eighth the cost by implementing the PBA. Temporal sampling strategies were implemented on test datasets (1995-2001) from four water systems and evaluated by the following criteria: parameter estimation, percent deviation from "true" 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles, and number of samples versus accuracy of the estimate. Non event-based (NEB) strategies were superior in estimating percentiles 1-50, but underestimated the higher percentiles. Event-based strategies were

  19. Public health and health services development in postconflict communities: a case study of a safe motherhood project in East Timor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Penny; Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal

    2009-10-01

    Armed conflict causes suffering in many countries; it contributes to poor health and hinders health services development. The effects of conflict are evidenced by weakened community structures and can make reconstruction efforts challenging. East Timor has a history of prolonged conflict and saw a resurgence of internal violence in 2006. This participant observation study discusses considerations for implementing public health and health systems development projects in postconflict settings using a case study of a maternal and child health project. It illustrates the importance of appreciating the historical context and community dynamics when implementing development projects. The sequelae of conflict are often characterized by reduced human resource development capacity, distrust of hierarchy, and limited capacity for resource mobilization. Working in such postconflict communities requires flexibility in program design, stronger efforts for community capacity building, and rebuilding trust between various stakeholders.

  20. Safe motherhood : severe acute maternal morbidity: risk factors in the Netherlands and validation of the WHO Maternal Near Miss tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Using the results from a two-year nationwide prospective study, this thesis shows numerous (risk) factors associated with severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) in the Netherlands and validates the WHO Maternal Near Miss (MNM) tool to detect and monitor SAMM worldwide. The ratio behind the different

  1. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part II: design and development of place-based monitoring strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the United States. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Part II: Several factors affect the performance of monitoring strategies, including: measurable objectives, required precision in estimates, acceptable confidence levels of such estimates, available budget for sampling. In this paper, we develop place-based monitoring strategies based on extensive analysis of available historical water quality data (1960-1994) of 19 Iowa community water systems. These systems supply potable water to over 350,000 people. In the context of drinking water, the objective is to protect public health by utilizing monitoring resources to characterize contaminants that are detectable, and are close to exceeding health standards. A place-based monitoring strategy was developed in which contaminants were selected based on their historical occurrence, rather than their appearance on the SDWA contaminant list. In a subset of the water systems, the temporal frequency of monitoring for one ubiquitous contaminant, nitrate, was tailored to patterns in its historical occurrence and concentration. Three sampling allocation models (linear, quadratic, and cubic) based on historic patterns in peak occurrence were developed and

  2. Krótka historia macierzyństwa w ujęciu feministycznym (Brief History of Motherhood in Feminist Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Wodzik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Feminist thought of motherhood begins with First Wave, when thinkers were convinced of naturalistic point of view according to which women are predestined to be a mother (M. Wollstonecraft, J.S. Mill, H. Taylor. Women’s liberation was put down for a while by given them vote rights. The next wave of women’s liberation came back after II World War. Denaturalization of motherhood starts with Simone de Beauvoir’s Second Sex where she presents an analysis of mother stereotypes and social processes of promoting specific motherhood-mode, which works for the patriarchal culture. She does not treat motherhood and child rearing as something natural for every woman. Beauvoir’s critics set up a debate about the possibility ofnon-patriarchal motherhood where being a mother is independent from patriarchal order, as ground for woman’s identity. S. Macintyre postulates division off motherhood and marriage, which is opposite to traditional sociology paradigm. A. Rich creates a definition of motherhood institution so different from intimate experience ofmother, she gives mothers voice to speak about motherhood. N. Chodorow suggests non-patriarchal rule of „double parenting”, which is to reduce differences between sexes. E. Badinter proves that maternal instinct does not exist (in biological way, but it is the social construct exploited by patriarchal system. Works of Beauvoir,Macintyre, Rich, Firestone, Chodorow, Badinter exemplify the slow process of denaturalization of motherhood in feminist thought.

  3. Midlife women's generativity and authoritarianism: marriage, motherhood, and 10 years of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bill E; Duncan, Lauren E

    2007-09-01

    Generativity and authoritarianism assessed at age 52 were correlated with criterion variables assessed at age 62 in a sample of well-educated women (N = 81). Results indicated that generativity predicted positive personality characteristics, satisfaction with marriage and motherhood, and successful aging. By contrast, although authoritarianism is linked in the literature to endorsing traditional gender roles, authoritarianism was uncorrelated in the current study with happiness about marriage and was negatively related to perceptions of motherhood. Furthermore, authoritarianism was correlated with neuroticism later in life. These data suggest that midlife authoritarianism may be problematic as women transition from their 50s to their 60s. Midlife generativity, in contrast, seems to offer one path to life satisfaction.

  4. Marriage and motherhood are associated with lower testosterone concentrations in women

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Emily S; Tran,, N.V.; Thurston, Sally; Jasienska, Grazyna; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Ellison, Peter T.; Thune, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone has been hypothesized to modulate the trade-off between mating and parenting effort in males. Indeed, evidence from humans and other pair-bonded species suggests that fathers and men in committed relationships have lower testosterone levels than single men and men with no children. To date, only one published study has examined testosterone in relation to motherhood, finding that mothers of young children have lower testosterone than non-mothers. Here, we examine this question in...

  5. Escola segura Safe school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ferreira Liberal

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão das estratégias para tornar o ambiente escolar seguro. Inicialmente os autores contextualizam a violência e os acidentes no ambiente escolar e fazem recomendações, baseadas em dados da literatura, para a implantação de escolas seguras. FONTE DE DADOS: Artigos publicados entre 1993 e 2005 na base de dados MEDLINE. Dados nacionais epidemiológicos e da literatura também foram pesquisados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há evidência crescente de que a intervenção tem múltiplos componentes. O foco político é a prática em educação em saúde com o envolvimento de toda a comunidade. O norte dessas intervenções é ajudar estudantes e toda a comunidade a adotar um comportamento seguro e saudável. As escolas estão assumindo um envolvimento crescente na promoção da saúde, prevenção de doenças e prevenção de trauma. Nesse contexto de prevenção de causas externas de morbimortalidade, é importante reconhecer o risco ambiental, locais e comportamentos de risco como favoráveis ao trauma e à violência, além de um novo conceito de acidentes como algo que possa ser evitado. CONCLUSÃO: A implementação da escola segura representa uma nova direção promissora para o trabalho preventivo baseado na escola. É importante notar que uma escola segura deve intervir não meramente na sua estrutura física, mas também torná-la tão segura quanto possível, trabalhando com a comunidade escolar por meio de educação em saúde, discutindo principalmente o comportamento saudável.OBJECTIVE: To review the strategies to make school a safe environment. The paper first addresses the social context of accidents and violence in the school environment, and makes recommendations, based on the literature data, for the implementation of safe schools. SOURCE OF DATA: Articles published between 1993 and 2005 in the MEDLINE database. Brazilian epidemiological and literature data have also been searched. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is

  6. Motherhood: A Site of Repression or Liberation? Kristeva and Butler on the Maternal Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Söderbäck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In her reading of Julia Kristeva in 'Gender Trouble', Judith Butler speaks of a ‘compulsory obligation on women’s bodies to reproduce.’ She raises what I see as two major concerns: first, she is skeptical of the subversive potential and emancipatory status of the semiotic as articulated by Kristeva; and second, she worries that Kristeva’s alleged attempts to delimit “maternity as an essentially precultural reality” will lead to a reification of motherhood that precludes “an analysis of its cultural construction and variability.” While I think Butler’s worries are important ones, I argue that she misses the target due to some fundamental misconceptions of Kristeva’s thoughts that run through her analysis. This paper argues that Kristeva – who has been criticised by feminists for her consistent emphasis on the maternal – by no means reduces woman to the biological function of motherhood but that, rather, she returns to the maternal body partially to free women from this very reduction. The maternal body to which Kristeva urges us to return must, I argue, be understood' ''qua temporalisation': that to which we return is temporal, moving, displacing, renewing. The return, as I see it, is neither nostalgic nor aimed at preserving some essential notion of motherhood – it is one that makes possible new beginnings, allowing for a future pregnant with change and transformation.

  7. The Discursive Suppression of Women: Female Evils as the Villains of the Motherhood Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Önal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the discursive construction and control of female sexuality and sexual activity, which simultaneously lead to the definition of women as inherently evil and to their suppression. This process is reinforced through a “motherhood narrative” inaugurated by a number of discourses, wherein female evils play the role of the villains, either as evil women or as anthropomorphised female beings that harm the mother or the unborn/newborn baby. The role of the “female evil”, a universally occurring archetypal motif, is to steal, kill or harm the child or the mother during pregnancy, labour, or puerperium. This motif is taken into account particularly in the framework of discourses that can be termed as medico-religious. Case studies of female evils are given as examples in the article, with a focus on the motherhood narrative and medico-religious discourses. This focus provides an insight to the way in which female evils pertain to the suppression of women within a more general framework. Female evils appear as necessary constructs of the aforementioned discourses to be able to control female sexual activity and the motherhood related fears of women, especially through the internalisation of control and through shaping the relationship of women with other women.

  8. Experiences of motherhood when suffering from mental illness: a hermeneutic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blegen, Nina Elisabeth; Hummelvoll, Jan Kåre; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2012-10-01

    Being a mother is inseparable from women's existential life. Mothers with mental illness struggle with conflicting and distressing feelings related to motherhood. They seldom obtain the necessary support to increase their control over the determinants of their role as a mother, thus their opportunity of improving their own and their children's mental health is weakened. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of being a mother with mental illness. The research question was: How can mothers' experiences of motherhood when suffering from mental illness be understood? The understanding emerged through a hermeneutical interpretation of the empirical material on four different levels of abstraction. The inductive-deductive approach, inspired by the philosophy of Gadamer, was used. The mothers' experiences were understood in their way of struggling to become good enough mothers, managing to become the mother they longed to be, being present in the caring relationship with their child, as well as being recognized as a mother and living openly and honestly in relationships with others. Addressing the existential needs of motherhood is important for their improvement and recovery, as well as for promoting their children's mental health and well-being.

  9. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth > For Teens > Are Detox Diets Safe? ... las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that anything ...

  10. Safe havens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11 countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven to wealth, and that theoretically...... of the safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds....

  11. Simulation of metabolism-based herb-drug interaction: towards safe and efficacious use of NIPRD-AM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulus Adzu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of NIPRD-AM1 on CYP3A4 in order to generate clinically significant data for its safe and efficacious use. Materials and Methods: NIPRD-AM1 is a phytomedicine developed from aqueous root extracts of Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiaceae for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The effect of NIPRD-AM1 on CYP3A4 was measured with and without the addition of NIPRD-AM1, by testing different concentrations of the product at 37 °C in reactive mixtures with ketoconazole (2.5 µM as the positive control. Results: Results showed a very low IC50 value of 0.01 mg/ml similar to that of ketoconazole (0.016 mg/ml. Conclusion: Metabolic processes of NIPRD-AM1 are likely to inhibit CYP3A4, with potential implication on drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates. This is a promising approach for guidance towards the safe and efficacious use of NIPRD-AM1.

  12. Simulation of metabolism-based herb-drug interaction: towards safe and efficacious use of NIPRD-AM1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzu, Bulus; Mustapha, Kudirat Bola; Masimirembwa, Collen; Obodozie, Obiageri; Kirim, Rukaiyatu Abdullahi; Gamaniel, Karniyus Shingu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of NIPRD-AM1 on CYP3A4 in order to generate clinically significant data for its safe and efficacious use. Materials and Methods: NIPRD-AM1 is a phytomedicine developed from aqueous root extracts of Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiaceae) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The effect of NIPRD-AM1 on CYP3A4 was measured with and without the addition of NIPRD-AM1, by testing different concentrations of the product at 37 °C in reactive mixtures with ketoconazole (2.5 µM) as the positive control. Results: Results showed a very low IC50 value of 0.01 mg/ml similar to that of ketoconazole (0.016 mg/ml). Conclusion: Metabolic processes of NIPRD-AM1 are likely to inhibit CYP3A4, with potential implication on drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates. This is a promising approach for guidance towards the safe and efficacious use of NIPRD-AM1. PMID:25050275

  13. Cultural Collision and Women Victimization in Buchi Emecheta’s The Joys of Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fathi Helaly

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Buchi Emecheta is one of the most important female writers to emerge from Nigeria. She is distinguished for her vivid description of female subordination and conflicting cultural values in modern Africa. In Emecheta’s The Joys of Motherhood Nnu Ego, the protagonist, has to suffer as a wife both in the tribal environment in which she was born and the urban community in which she is compelled to live the rest of her life.  Nnu Ego has to suffer because these two environments have different cultures. She falls a victim of the tension of the collision of these two conflicting cultures. This collision occurs between the institutions of the traditional Ibo society and the institution of Western Europe.  The hardships that Nnu Ego experiences are the result of the clash between the Ibo traditions and the colonized Lagos. It is a clash of traditions, values and priorities. Nnu Ego is victimzed because of what the village (Ibuza community demands her to do, on the one hand, and what the rules of a European political  regime requires her to be. She finds herself in a predicament as she has to assume different roles in accordance with the values of the surrounding communities in which she has to live. She escapes from Ibuza because she is not accepted as a wife who cannot produce children. She flees to the distant city of Lagos to start a new life with another husband with the hope of fulfilling her dream of carrying children. This dream is rooted in the cultural values of the Ibo society where motherhood is the primary source of female self- esteem and public status. In Lagos Nnu Ego fulfills her dream of motherhood and begets a lot of children but the pleasures associated with motherhood are negated by the difficult economic conditions of her new urban community and its norms and values. She has to work day in and day out as a street-side peddler to sustain her children because her husband is away working for the colonizers most of the time. Nnu

  14. Safe pill-dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  15. Motherhood as Constructed by Us: Muslim Women’s Negotiations from a Space That Is Their Own

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sariya Mary Cheruvallil-Contractor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to foundational Islamic texts, motherhood is a key aspect of women’s diverse social roles; however some Muslim religious commentaries position motherhood as the only aspect of women’s contributions to society. The everyday mothering experiences of Muslim women remain absent from these discussions. This anthropological article will examine Muslim women’s narratives of motherhood and mothering in contemporary Britain. In my research, Muslim women in Britain chose motherhood, firstly, as one of the many fronts on which to challenge patriarchy that is evident in some Muslim texts and to thus ‘reclaim their faith’ as articulated in foundational Islamic texts. Secondly, in their mothering experiences, Muslim women found a space of commonality that they shared with other women – motherhood was something these Muslim women believed they shared with their ‘sisters’ who were from backgrounds different to their own. Within their diverse and multifaceted struggles, Muslim women thus identified a space which they share with other women.

  16. "I Would Want to Give My Child, Like, Everything in the World": How Issues of Motherhood Influence Women Who Have Abortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K.; Frohwirth, Lori F.; Moore, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of U.S. women who have abortions (61%) have children. This exploratory study analyzes qualitative information from 38 women obtaining abortions to examine how issues of motherhood influenced their decisions to terminate their pregnancies. Women in the sample had abortions because of the material responsibilities of motherhood, such as…

  17. [Motherhood behind bars: the struggle for citizens' rights and health for women inmates and their children in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Miriam; Simas, Luciana; Larouzé, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the links between health, rights, legislation, and public policies based on document research on legal safeguards for women and their children residing in prison. The research was conducted at the Federal level and in four States of Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso, Paraná, and São Paulo. The study aims to back measures by public agencies to guarantee such rights and to raise awareness of the problem, given the extreme vulnerability of women inmates and their children and the issue's legal and administrative invisibility. The authors identified 33 different legal provisions as points of tension, such as the possibility of house arrest and disparities in the terms and conditions for children to remain inside the prison system. Various provisions cite the Constitutional guarantee of women inmates' right to breastfeed in prison. Meanwhile, the study found gaps in other issues pertaining to motherhood in prison, expressed as dual incarceration (imprisonment arbitrarily extended to their children). It is necessary to expand and enforce the existing legislation to prevent such violations of rights.

  18. Robot Safe Motion Planning Based on Minimized Danger Index%基于危险指数最小化的机器人安全运动规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海彬; 彭爱泉; 何素梅

    2015-01-01

    为防止机器人在运动过程中与人相撞,提高机器人运动的安全性,提出一种基于危险指数最小化的机器人安全运动规划方法。该运动规划方法把机器人的运动分为全局安全路径规划、在线实时安全轨迹规划、实时避碰控制和目标再搜索等四个阶段。基于人机之间的距离、机器人惯量、人机之间相对运动速度等因素,对每一阶段进行危险程度的评估,得到危险指数,以危险指数最小化为目标规划各阶段机器人的运动。建立三自由度机器人与人共处数学模型,并在 Matlab 下对不同阶段的运动规划进行仿真。为了进一步验证算法有效性,搭建了工业机器人安全运动规划试验平台,实现了基于危险指数最小化的安全避碰。仿真与试验结果表明,基于危险指数最小化的机器人安全运动规划,可以有效确保人在机器人工作环境中的安全性。%In order to prevent robot colliding to human, and improve robot safety during motion, a method of robot safe motion planning based on minimized danger index is proposed. The motion planning of robot is divided into four steps which include global path safe planner, real-time safe trajectory planner, real-time anti-collision controller and goal re-searching. The danger degree can be estimated based on the robot inertia, the distance and relative speed between robot and human during every planning step, and it described as danger index. The motion of robot can be planned by minimizing the danger index. A mathematic model including a 3 degree of freedom robot and human is established. Every motion planning step is simulated in Matlab. To further verify the validity of the planning algorithm, a safe motion planning experiment platform of industrial robot is established, and safe avoiding collision is realized based on minimized danger index. The simulation and experiment results show that this robot safe motion

  19. Esperando o futuro: a maternidade na adolescência Awaiting the future: teenage motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alexim Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de um projeto que pretende avaliar o lugar da maternidade na constituição da subjetividade de um grupo de adolescentes. Parte da hipótese de que a gravidez na adolescência só se tornou um problema político e social dentro de uma biopolítica voltada para a produção e reprodução do corpo social que pressupõe a maternidade como um projeto racional. Nesse contexto, a gravidez na adolescência torna-se um problema de saúde pública, e os discursos sobre o tema adotam um tom homogeneizante e estigmatizante, acentuando seus aspectos negativos. A pesquisa, realizada com adolescentes de camadas populares entre 16 e 18 anos de idade, permite questionar esses discursos. Apontou a maternidade como um acontecimento fundamental para a constituição da subjetividade dessas jovens, possibilitando a construção de ideais e a articulação de um projeto de futuro.This paper is part of a research that aims to evaluate the place of motherhood in the constitution of subjectivity in a group of teenagers. It begins with the hypotheses that teenage pregnancy has become a political and social problem, inside a bio-politic targeting the production and reproduction of the social body. In this context, teenage pregnancy becomes a public health problem and the speeches about the subject tend to assume a homogenizing and stigmatizing tone, punctuating its negatives aspects. A research developed with teenagers from poor communities, between 16 and 18 years old, allows us to question these speeches. The research pointed out motherhood as a fundamental event in the constitution of these young women subjectivities. In fact, motherhood makes possible for them to built new ideals, and articulates a plan for the future.

  20. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  1. Medications: Using Them Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... young children. Store a medication syringe in a safe place out of the reach of kids. Other options ... Keep this number posted in an easily visible place in case you need it. Safe Disposal Do not give leftover medicine to others. ...

  2. Making existential meaning in transition to motherhood-A scoping review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Mogensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to provide a thematic overview of the existing literature on existential meaning-making related to transition to motherhood among mothers of full term born babies in Western oriented countries and to discuss the themes from a existential psychology perspective. DESIGN: the review follows...... selected. Eleven papers were included in the synthesis, all using qualitative interviews. The following data were extracted from each study: (a) author(s), year of publication, study location, (b) aims of the study, (c) participants, (d) research design, (e) data collection method, (f) outcome measures...

  3. From queen to mother: motherhood as discursive construction in the seventeenth century neogranadine painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Cruz Medina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines motherhood as a discursive construction, linking this construction with the neogranadine visual discourse of the seventeenth century. The image of “The Virgin with the Child”, within the post Tridentine context, stood as a place of origin of a discourse modeling the women behavior, giving specific roles in relation with their children. The tender, loving and protective mother with their children emerges in the visual discourse as a narrative truth that should be adopted by subjects in everyday behavior.

  4. [Drug information for safe use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Various information on pharmaceuticals is provided to healthcare professionals in order to ensure the safe use of pharmaceuticals. In addition to package inserts that contain information on indication, dosage, and administration, some review reports of new drugs which contain the summary of the results of clinical trials submitted for new drug application and review process as well as manuals for handling disorders due to adverse drug reactions which contain early symptoms and information on treatment of serious adverse reactions are provided. Information on drugs is renewed based on drug reactions reported to the authority. It is important that pharmacists comprehend this information and have the updated information on drugs, and disseminate this information to other healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses etc. for the safe use of pharmaceuticals. Pharmacists who have completed a six-year course are expected to utilize all this information and contribute to the safe use of pharmaceuticals.

  5. 基于控制流的Mobile Safe Ambients演算的静态分析策略%Static Analysis Scheme for Mobile Safe Ambients Based on Control Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 刘磊

    2008-01-01

    在Mobile Safe Ambients演算进程的拓扑结构抽象表示基础上, 通过识别可被激活的移动原语和通讯原语, 计算系统运行的所有动态进程拓扑结构, 并在文法规则中显示地标识约束名字和变量, 使分析结果在α变换下保持不变. 该策略可被应用于静态分析和验证基于Mobile Safe Ambients演算描述的并行与分布式系统的动态行为及属性.

  6. Key Technology of Sharing Computer-Based Patient Record Safely%电子病历信息安全共享关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高敏; 叶晰; 蒋静; 周万里; 张凯

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based patient record is the most important part of electronic medical information. The main problem for applying computer-based patient record is how to share patient information safely and protect patient privacy in the meantime. In this article, the safe sharing issues of computer-based patient record are described. The principle of dynamic password is described and an access control system based on dynamic password is designed. Dynamic password (one time password) can be produced by software, mobile phone and electric token according to the user safety level and different request of user. This identity authentication system based on dynamic password can be easily merged into most of hospital information systems. By using this technology, computer-based patient record can be shared by different organizations safely, quickly and conveniently. In the meantime, the patient privacy can be protected very well also.%电子病历作为电子医疗信息的重要组成部分,其推广应用的主要问题之一是如何方便快捷的共享各种电子病历信息,同时又保护好患者的隐私.首先分析了当前电子病历信息共享所面临的各种安全问题,介绍了动态口令技术的基本原理和技术模式,研究和开发了一种基于动态口令的访问控制体系.动态口令(或称一次性密码)根据用户的安全级别和实用性要求,可以分别用软件,手机或者电子令牌产生.该身份认证技术可以与现存的各种医院信息系统无缝融合,这样一来既保证了电子病历信息安全、快捷和方便地共享,又能保护患者的隐私不被非法用户和黑客所窃取.

  7. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part I: spatial and temporal patterns of contaminants, and design of screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the USA. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), a common list of over 90 contaminants is analyzed nationwide using EPA-authorized laboratory procedures. National and state-level summaries of SDWA data have shown that not all contaminants occur in all places at all times. This hypothesis is confirmed and extended by showing that only a few (less than seven) contaminants are of concern in any one of 19 Iowa surface water systems studied. These systems collectively serve about 350,000 people and their sizes vary between 1,200 and 120,000. The distributions of contaminants found in these systems are positively skewed, with many non-detect measurements. A screening strategy to identify such contaminants in individual systems is presented. These findings have significant implications not only for the design of alternative monitoring programs, but also in multi-billion-dollar decisions that influence the course of future drinking water infrastructure, repair, and maintenance investments.

  8. Marriage and motherhood are associated with lower testosterone concentrations in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S; Tran, Van; Thurston, Sally; Jasienska, Grazyna; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Ellison, Peter T; Thune, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone has been hypothesized to modulate the trade-off between mating and parenting effort in males. Indeed, evidence from humans and other pair-bonded species suggests that fathers and men in committed relationships have lower testosterone levels than single men and men with no children. To date, only one published study has examined testosterone in relation to motherhood, finding that mothers of young children have lower testosterone than non-mothers. Here, we examine this question in 195 reproductive-age Norwegian women. Testosterone was measured in morning serum samples taken during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and marital and maternal status were assessed by questionnaire. Mothers of young children (age ≤3) had 14% lower testosterone than childless women and 19% lower testosterone than women who only had children over age 3. Among mothers, age of the youngest child strongly predicted testosterone levels. There was a trend towards lower testosterone among married women compared to unmarried women. All analyses controlled for body mass index (BMI), age, type of testosterone assay, and time of serum sample collection. This is the first study to look at testosterone concentrations in relation to marriage and motherhood in Western women, and it suggests that testosterone may differ with marital and maternal status in women, providing further corroboration of previous findings in both sexes.

  9. Does being a mom help or hurt? Workplace incivility as a function of motherhood status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Kathi N; Pesonen, Amanda D; Smittick, Amber L; Seigel, Michael L; Clark, Emily K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which motherhood status predicts being a target of workplace incivility and moderates the relationship between incivility and negative outcomes among employed women. Participants included a nationwide sample of law school faculty members (N = 1,234; 48% female, 85% White) who completed measures of workplace incivility, parenting status, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and depression. Results showed that mothers with 3 children were treated more uncivilly than women with fewer children and that mothering mitigated negative outcomes associated with being the target of incivility. Exploratory analyses examining fatherhood status as a predictor of workplace incivility and moderator of incivility and outcomes showed that fathers reported experiencing more workplace incivility than nonfathers, but being a father did not attenuate the negative outcomes of incivility. In addition, mothers reported more incivility than fathers and childless women reported more incivility than childless men. Childless women were also the most negatively affected by incivility at work. This study advances our understanding of how motherhood status affects women's experiences at work.

  10. Motherhood of foreign women in Lombardy: Testing the effects of migration by citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Mussino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The international literature highlights the strong impact of the high risk of childbearing shortly after migration on period fertility, thus establishing a link between reproductive behaviors and migratory transitions. Objective: The present study aims to analyze how migration affects motherhood and the role played by country of citizenship. Although most of the literature has focused on analyzing post-immigration fertility behaviors, in the present work we follow the women for their entire fertility period. Methods: The data were collected in the 2010 ORIM survey, conducted by the Region of Lombardy and the Ismu Foundation. The survey covered about 8,000 immigrants in Lombardy, of whom 3,848 were women aged 14 years and over from less developed countries or Central/Eastern Europe. Using Event History Analysis, we applied discrete-time logit models to study the transition into motherhood. Results: Moroccans are characterized by a strong interrelation effect between fertility and migration. Moroccans and Albanians are the national groups with the highest risk of having a first child during the years shortly after migration. Migration does not seem to have any effect on the fertility behavior of Romanians, who have a lower risk of having a child regardless of their migration status. Conclusions: The study confirms the importance of the interrelationship between migratory and reproductive behaviors. It also highlights the different effects by country of citizenship, where different citizenships are often associated with different migration patterns and distinct gender roles.

  11. The elusive romance of motherhood:drugs, gender, and reproduction in inner-city distressed households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Eloise; Stürzenhofecker, Gabriele; Johnson, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the social contexts of reproductive decision making among poor African-American women in inner-city distressed households by focusing on women's narratives of their reproductive and maternal experiences. We explore the hidden agendas and motivations that underpin women's reproductive decisions and perceived choices within the turmoil of poverty, domestic instability, economic uncertainty, and addiction. The political economy of reproduction, within which birthing and motherhood in distressed inner-city households take place, generates the conditions for absent fathers, brittle unions, and a highly skewed gendered division of parenting. Locally constituted notions of gender, agency and autonomy are key dimensions in the cultural constructions of motherhood in these female headed households. Woven into the local maternal experiences is also the desire to 'give and receive love'. By focusing on women's own formulations of responsibility and agency in their reproductive decisions, we can see how they make sense of their reproductive histories and maternal experiences amidst the constraints of poverty, class, race, and substance abuse.

  12. A Mobile Information System Based on Crowd-Sensed and Official Crime Data for Finding Safe Routes: A Case Study of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Mata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile information systems agendas are increasingly becoming an essential part of human life and they play an important role in several daily activities. These have been developed for different contexts such as public facilities in smart cities, health care, traffic congestions, e-commerce, financial security, user-generated content, and crowdsourcing. In GIScience, problems related to routing systems have been deeply explored by using several techniques, but they are not focused on security or crime rates. In this paper, an approach to provide estimations defined by crime rates for generating safe routes in mobile devices is proposed. It consists of integrating crowd-sensed and official crime data with a mobile application. Thus, data are semantically processed by an ontology and classified by the Bayes algorithm. A geospatial repository was used to store tweets related to crime events of Mexico City and official reports that were geocoded for obtaining safe routes. A forecast related to crime events that can occur in a certain place with the collected information was performed. The novelty is a hybrid approach based on semantic processing to retrieve relevant data from unstructured data sources and a classifier algorithm to collect relevant crime data from official government reports with a mobile application.

  13. Safe Program Review System Based on 3G Network%基于3G网络的安全审片系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振华; 陈启美; 陈钊正

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the low efficiency problem of traditional review system,a safe program review system based on 3G transmission is proposed. The video transcoding, encryption and the architecture of the centre server is introduced. Using a variety of encryption and authentication to send the program to the phone safely through 3G network is proposed. The experimental results show that the system runs well, and the delay is in the range of acceptable.%为了解决传统审片效率低的问题,提出一种基于3G传输的安全的外网审片系统.介绍了视频转码和加密技术,以及中心服务器的结构,并提出可利用多种加密与认证措施,将转码后的视频通过3G发送到手机上以供审核.测试结果显示该系统运行良好,延迟在可以接受的范围内.

  14. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, David

    1981-01-01

    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  15. Stretching Safely and Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it safely and effectively. By Mayo Clinic Staff Stretching may take a back seat to your exercise routine. The main concern is exercising, not stretching, right? Not so fast. Stretching may help you: ...

  16. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  17. PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF FORMATION OF DEVIATIONS IN THE PERIOD OF PREPARATION FOR MOTHERHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Moreva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a social-psychological indicators of stress, coping mechanisms, rigidity and psychological component gestational dominant as risk factors predisposing to deviations in the context of preparedness for motherhood, marked psychological characteristics of pregnant women main group.Material and methods. The study was conducted on the basis of obstetric clinics SSMU, prenatal maternity hospital number 4 and the Centre for Medical Prevention (Cabinet crisis pregnancy. Total was attended by 52 women aged 18 to 44 years, at different stages of pregnancy – from 5 to 39 weeks. Methodological apparatus consisted of a structured interview questionnaire “Medical and social data of the pregnant woman” methodology for determining the stress and social adaptation of Holmes and Rage (1967, a questionnaire of coping R. Lazarus and S. Folkman (WCQ, 1988, Tomsk questionnaire rigidity G.V. Zalewski (TORZ, 1987, test on pregnant I.V. Dobryakova (1996. Data processing was carried out using statistical methods Spearman rank correlation coefficient, nonparametric Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis H and φ * – Fisher's angular transformation.Results. Significant psychological factors that may influence the formation of readiness for motherhood among women of the main group can be considered an unplanned pregnancy (65%, and also its not gelendost (35%.Studies of stress resistance was detected in pregnant women from the main group low stress levels (88%, and only 12% have a high degree. Most of the women from the сomparison group reverse the situation 64% have a high degree of stress, this suggests that the presence of previously state miscarriage is for this group of stress.On the formation of readiness for motherhood affects not only the presence of stressful situations, butalso how the woman in their lives. Using U-test Mann–Whitney, were statistically significant differences were observed among the main group and сomparison group in

  18. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Hamishehkar; Farhad Ranjdoost; Parina Asgharian; Ata Mahmoodpoor; Sarvin Sanaie

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MED...

  19. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sue I.; Fergenson, David P.; Srivastava, Abneesh; Bogan, Michael J.; Riot, Vincent J.; Frank, Matthias

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  20. Safe Separators for Treewidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Koster, A.M.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    A set of vertices S Í V is called a safe separator for treewidth, if S is a separator of G, and the treewidth of G equals the maximum of the treewidth over all connected components W of G - S of the graph, obtained by making S a clique in the subgraph of G, induced by W È S. We show that such safe s

  1. A safe and effective propylene glycol based capture liquid for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) traps baited with synthetic lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antifreeze is often used as the capture liquid in insect traps for its preservation and evaporation attributes. In tests reported herein, fruit fly traps using non-toxic household propylene glycol based antifreeze captured significantly more Anastrepha ludens than did traps with the automotive anti...

  2. Keeping Kids Safe from a Design Perspective: Ethical and Legal Guidelines for Designing a Video-Based App for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Hooper, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Educators can use video to gain invaluable information about their students. A concern is that collecting videos online can create an increased security risk for children. The purpose of this article is to provide ethical and legal guidelines for designing video-based apps for mobile devices and the web. By reviewing the literature, law, and code…

  3. Age, Psychological Maturity, and the Transition to Motherhood among English-Speaking Australian Women in a Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A.; Gibson, Frances L.; Boivin, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the trend toward delayed parenthood, this study examines whether older maternal age is associated with greater psychological maturity and whether greater psychological maturity provides any adaptive benefit during the transition to motherhood. A sample of 240 predominantly English-speaking Australian women in a metropolitan area…

  4. The Association of Lone-Motherhood with Smoking Cessation and Relapse: Prospective Results from an Australian National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims were to examine the association of lone-motherhood with smoking cessation and relapse, and to investigate the extent to which this association was accounted for by socioeconomic status (education, occupation, and income, social support, and mental health. We used data from 10 yearly waves (2001 to 2010 of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA survey. Response rate in the first wave was 66%. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of lone-motherhood and other covariates on smoking cessation (n = 2,878 and relapse (n = 3,242. Results showed that the age-adjusted odds of smoking cessation were 32% smaller among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p = 0.004. The age-adjusted odds of relapse was 172% greater among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p < 0.001. We found that socioeconomic status, social support, and mental health account for some of the association of lone motherhood and cessation and relapse. While efforts to reduce the smoking prevalence among lone mothers should focus on their material deprivation, availability of social support, and addressing mental health issues, other factors unique to the lives of lone mothers also need to be taken into account. More research is needed to discover other factors that can explain the association of lone-motherhood and smoking behavior.

  5. The association of lone-motherhood with smoking cessation and relapse: prospective results from an Australian national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Tibbits, Melissa; Huang, Terry T-K; Singh, Gopal K

    2013-07-12

    The aims were to examine the association of lone-motherhood with smoking cessation and relapse, and to investigate the extent to which this association was accounted for by socioeconomic status (education, occupation, and income), social support, and mental health. We used data from 10 yearly waves (2001 to 2010) of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Response rate in the first wave was 66%. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of lone-motherhood and other covariates on smoking cessation (n = 2,878) and relapse (n = 3,242). Results showed that the age-adjusted odds of smoking cessation were 32% smaller among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p = 0.004). The age-adjusted odds of relapse was 172% greater among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p social support, and mental health account for some of the association of lone motherhood and cessation and relapse. While efforts to reduce the smoking prevalence among lone mothers should focus on their material deprivation, availability of social support, and addressing mental health issues, other factors unique to the lives of lone mothers also need to be taken into account. More research is needed to discover other factors that can explain the association of lone-motherhood and smoking behavior.

  6. The meaning of postponed motherhood for women in the United States and Sweden: aspects of feminism and radical timing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welles-Nyström, B

    1997-01-01

    This exploratory study considered certain psychosocial, medical, and cultural aspects of the phenomenon of postponed motherhood for one cohort of white women born between 1947 and 1953 in Sweden and the United States. A cross-cultural comparison was made of the experience of pregnancy and the early perinatal period in 15 American and 16 Swedish women to find out (a) whether timing decisions reflected the influence of feminist ideology toward a reproductive strategy radically different from the conventional one, and (b) whether the pattern of delayed motherhood was culture specific. Results indicated that the patterns of delayed motherhood were culture specific. Feminist ideology clearly influenced the timing of the American women's first birth but was evident in Sweden. Women in the U.S. exhibited more nonconventional behaviors and attitudes, whereas Swedish women were more conventional. However, the husbands in both groups were remarkably similar in infant caretaking behaviors, regardless of culture and level of education attainment. These findings indicate postponed motherhood has different meanings in the cultural context of these two Western industrialized societies.

  7. Sensor based 3D conformal cueing for safe and reliable HC operation specifically for landing in DVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münsterer, Thomas; Kress, Martin; Klasen, Stephanus

    2013-05-01

    The paper describes the approach of a sensor based landing aid for helicopters in degraded visual conditions. The system concept presented employs a long range high resolution ladar sensor allowing for identifying obstacles in the flight and in the approach path as well as measuring landing site conditions like slope, roughness and precise position relative to the helicopter during long final approach. All these measurements are visualized to the pilot. Cueing is done by 3D conformal symbology displayed in a head-tracked HMD enhanced by 2D symbols for data which is perceived easier by 2D symbols than by 3D cueing. All 3D conformal symbology is placed on the measured landing site surface which is further visualized by a grid structure for displaying landing site slope, roughness and small obstacles. Due to the limited resolution of the employed HMD a specific scheme of blending in the information during the approach is employed. The interplay between in flight and in approach obstacle warning and CFIT warning symbology with this landing aid symbology is also investigated and exemplarily evaluated for the NH90 helicopter which has already today implemented a long range high resolution ladar sensor based obstacle warning and CFIT symbology. The paper further describes the results of simulator and flight tests performed with this system employing a ladar sensor and a head-tracked head mounted display system. In the simulator trials a full model of the ladar sensor producing 3D measurement points was used working with the same algorithms used in flight tests.

  8. "Tava morta e revivi": significado de maternidade para adolescentes com experiência de vida nas ruas "I was dead, but came back to life": the meaning of motherhood for adolescent girls with a history of living in the streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela T. Gontijo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta da sexualidade entre as adolescentes que fazem das ruas seu espaço de sobrevivência geralmente é permeada pelo desconhecimento do próprio corpo, o que resulta, muitas vezes, em comportamentos de risco para a contaminação por doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e para a gravidez. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar os significados atribuídos à maternidade por adolescentes com experiência de vida nas ruas que optaram por assumir o cuidado dos filhos fora das ruas. Com base na abordagem de pesquisa qualitativa, os dados foram coletados junto a adolescentes-mães abrigadas em uma instituição não-governamental, e analisados segundo a modalidade temática da análise de conteúdo. Os resultados foram discutidos por meio da categoria "a nova vida: mãe & filho", mostrando que a experiência da maternidade é significada de forma positiva pelas adolescentes, sendo o filho entendido como o "salvador" de uma morte certa nas ruas, depositando nele as expectativas de um futuro melhor. A título de considerações finais, observamos no exercício da maternidade uma oportunidade de estabelecimento de novas formas de estar e se relacionar no mundo, sendo o processo de construção dessa maternidade terreno fértil para a intervenção de profissionais da saúde.The discovery of sexuality by adolescent girls living in the streets generally involves lack of knowledge about their own bodies, often resulting in risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy. This study aimed to identify the meanings ascribed to motherhood by teenage girls with a history of living in the streets and who chose to assume the care for their children, off the streets. Based on a qualitative methodology, data were collected from the adolescent mothers at a nongovernmental shelter and analyzed according to the content analysis modality. The results were discussed using the category "new life: mother & child", showing that the adolescents

  9. Safe and simple detection of sparse hydrogen by Pd-Au alloy/air based 1D photonic crystal sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, S.; Biswas, T.; Chattopadhyay, R.; Ghosh, J.; Bysakh, S.; Bhadra, S. K.

    2016-11-01

    A simple integrated hydrogen sensor using Pd-Au alloy/air based one dimensional photonic crystal with an air defect layer is theoretically modeled. Structural parameters of the photonic crystal are delicately scaled to generate photonic band gap frequencies in a visible spectral regime. An optimized defect thickness permits a localized defect mode operating at a frequency within the photonic band gap region. Hydrogen absorption causes modification in the band gap characteristics due to variation of refractive index and lattice parameters of the alloy. As a result, the transmission peak appeared due to the resonant defect state gets shifted. This peak shifting is utilized to detect sparse amount of hydrogen present in the surrounding environment. A theoretical framework is built to calculate the refractive index profile of hydrogen loaded alloy using density functional theory and Bruggeman's effective medium approximation. The calculated refractive index variation of Pd3Au alloy film due to hydrogen loading is verified experimentally by measuring the reflectance characteristics. Lattice expansion properties of the alloy are studied through X-ray diffraction analyses. The proposed structure shows about 3 nm red shift of the transmission peak for a rise of 1% atomic hydrogen concentration in the alloy.

  10. The Safe Lambda Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, William

    2009-01-01

    Safety is a syntactic condition of higher-order grammars that constrains occurrences of variables in the production rules according to their type-theoretic order. In this paper, we introduce the safe lambda calculus, which is obtained by transposing (and generalizing) the safety condition to the setting of the simply-typed lambda calculus. In contrast to the original definition of safety, our calculus does not constrain types (to be homogeneous). We show that in the safe lambda calculus, there is no need to rename bound variables when performing substitution, as variable capture is guaranteed not to happen. We also propose an adequate notion of beta-reduction that preserves safety. In the same vein as Schwichtenberg's 1976 characterization of the simply-typed lambda calculus, we show that the numeric functions representable in the safe lambda calculus are exactly the multivariate polynomials; thus conditional is not definable. We also give a characterization of representable word functions. We then study the ...

  11. Design and Development of Intracavity Optical Parametric Oscillator-based Eye Safe Laser Operating at 20 Hz without Forced Air Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Bhardwaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the design and development of an electro-optically Q-switched diode pumped Nd:YAG laser with intracavity optical parametric oscillator, generating ~ 5 ns laser pulses of ~8 mJ energy at eye safe wavelength of 1534 nm. A Z-shaped laser resonator has been designed with porro prism end reflector in Q-switch arm containing RTP Q-Switch and a suitably oriented waveplate. The gain arm consists of a Ø3 x 72 mm Nd: YAG laser rod, pumped from one side by 3 x 5 bar laser diode array stack emitting total optical peak power of 740 W at 804 nm at 38 °C. Thermoelectric coolers (TECs have been employed to maintain the optimum temperature of laser diode arrays and the combined heat load from the pump chamber and TECs is distributed over the system base plate with embedded heat pipes. Such cooling mechanism has eliminated the requirement of fins and fans in the laser system. Eye safe radiation is out-coupled through intra cavity KTA OPO (5 x 5 x 20 mm3 placed in the gain arm. Laser was operated at 20 Hz for several duty cycles of 10 min on and 10 min off and output energy remained stable within ±0.5 mJ without any forced air/liquid cooling.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(6, pp.599-605, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.5759

  12. Does the kin orientation of a British woman's social network influence her entry into motherhood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Mathews

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The influence of family and friends on an individual's fertility has long been an important topic within demography. Researchers who focus on social network effects and evolutionary demography have shown a renewed interest in this issue in recent years. However, only a few studies have been conducted in contemporary low-fertility, resource-rich settings. OBJECTIVE This study investigates whether a British woman's entry into motherhood (i.e., her first birth is influenced by the kin orientation of her close social network. Specifically, we test the prediction derived from evolutionary theory that individuals with a kin-oriented network will have higher fertility than those with fewer relatives in their close social networks. We consider two potential proximate mechanisms by which kin may influence fertility. First, relatives could provide practical resources, such as childcare, which reduce the costs of reproduction, thereby increasing fertility. Second, family members might communicate relatively pro-natal messages that could help to "persuade" childless women to become mothers. METHODS We use data from the British Household Panel Study (1992 to 2003, and base the degree of kin orientation on the number of relatives a woman includes when identifying her three closest non-household friends. We conduct a discrete-time event history analysis to measure the risk of first birth, controlling for household composition and socio-economic background. RESULTS We find that when a woman has more kin in her close social network, her risk of having a first birth increases at all ages. This suggests that relatives may influence fertility behaviour in this contemporary resource-rich population. Both of our proposed proximate mechanisms may be important in driving this effect.

  13. Maternalism, race, class and citizenship: aspects of illegitimate motherhood in Nazi Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vandana

    2011-01-01

    This article juxtaposes three types of illegitimate motherhood that came in the wake of the Second World War in Nazi Germany. The first found institutional support in the Lebensborn project, an elite effort to raise the flagging birth-rates, which at the same time turned a new page in the history of sexuality. The second came before the lower courts in the form of paternity and guardianship suits that had a long precedent, and the third was a social practice that the regime considered a ‘mass crime' among its female citizenry: namely, forbidden unions between German women and prisoners of war. Through these cases the article addresses issues such as morality, sexuality, paternity, citizenship and welfarism. The flesh-and-blood stories have been culled from the Lebensborn Dossiers and Special Court files, as well as cases from the lower courts.

  14. Attitudes towards motherhood and fertility awareness among 20-40-year-old female healthcare professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Luise Lermark; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2012-01-01

    to public child day care, and the possibility of travelling. As many as 50% of women underrated the impact of a woman's age on fertility, and overestimated the success rates of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. Conclusions Many female healthcare professionals contemplated giving birth after...... in Denmark. Information about participants' intentions and attitudes towards family formation and fertility knowledge was gathered by means of a questionnaire. Results Only 2% of the respondents did not want children. Most women believed that motherhood is important, and hoped to have two to three children....... About half of the respondents intended to have their last child after the age of 35 years. The most important prerequisites for family formation included: living in a stable relationship, having completed one's studies, a sound financial situation, a job that can be kept when having children, access...

  15. Motherhood, Empowerment, and Resilience within the Context of Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bach

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We conducted twenty in-depth interviews with residents of a domestic violence shelter in a southeastern metropolitan area to understand how low-income women experience mothering within the context of intimate partner violence (IPV. Interview questions explored the women’s feelings about motherhood, their relationships with their children, and the effects of IPV on their children. Despite the difficulties of raising children with an abusive partner, the women did not regret becoming a mother. In fact, respondents identified their children as one of few positives in their lives and mothering as central to their identity. Relationships with their children enabled the women to feel empowered in ways that their intimate partnerships did not and motivated them to escape the violence and persevere.

  16. Safe Manual Jettison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jay

    2008-01-01

    In space, the controlled release of certain cargoes is no less useful than the maritime jettisons from which they take their name but is also much more dangerous. Experience has shown that jettisons can be performed safely, but the process is complicated with the path to performing a jettison taking months or even years. In the background, time is also required to write procedures, train the crew, configure the vehicle, and many other activities. This paper outlines the current process used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for manual jettisons, detailing the methods used to assure that the jettisons and the jettisoned objects are as safe as achievable and that the crew is adequately trained to be able to affect the safe jettison. The goal of this paper is not only to capture what it takes to perform safe jettisons in the near Earth environment but to extrapolate this knowledge to future space exploration scenarios that will likely have Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and International Partner (IP) interfaces.

  17. Keeping Food Safe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-27

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids and parents can do to help prevent illness by keeping food safe.  Created: 5/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  18. Functions and responsibilities of organizations dealing with surrogate motherhood in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Den Akker, Olga B. A.

    1998-01-01

    The separation of maternity from social motherhood and progress in reproductive technology raise many social, psychological, medical and legal issues (van den Akker, 1994). The most recent British Medical Association report (BMA, 1996) acknowledged the practice of surrogacy and issued new guidelines for good practice and support for those involved. Surrogate motherhood services have increased around the country over the last decade, even before the formal British Medical Association acknowledgement of their necessity and existence (BMA, 1996). The present survey investigated the incidence, accessibility, and functions of such organizations, specifically, the legal, medical and psychological problems encountered and how they were dealt with, to discover what advice and support is given. Ten centres were interviewed. The incidence of surrogacy conducted through these organizations is widespread, but the processes involved and therefore the implications of the types of surrogacy dealt with are very different. The two major surrogacy agencies deal primarily with partial surrogacy, whereas the clinics are concerned almost exclusively with full (IVF) surrogacy. Information about the procedures involved appears to rely on experience; screening is generally carried out 'in house', and psychological factors are dealt with by counsellors on request by the couples. In general, although the roles of the organizations are disparate and clearly defined, no holistic or long-term care is provided by any of the organizations involved with surrogacy in the UK. The reasons for this are clear cut and stem from the nature of the organizations, and the behaviour of the clients. The data indicate that the current procedures used by the organizations are adequate but could be improved and standardized.

  19. Maternidade desnaturada: uma análise da barriga de aluguel e da doação de óvulos "Denatured" motherhood: an analysis of surrogate gestational motherhood and egg donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naara Luna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute representações sociais de duas práticas decorrentes das novas tecnologias reprodutivas ou reprodução assistida. Na fertilização in vitro, o procedimento de transferência do óvulo fertilizado de uma mulher para outra separa a maternidade genética da gestacional. Isto se traduz em duas práticas sociais: a doação de óvulos, em que a gestante é designada à mãe, e a maternidade gestacional substituta ("barriga de aluguel", em que a mãe é a fornecedora do óvulo ou idealizadora da gravidez. O foco é a análise dessas representações no discurso jurídico e em matérias da grande imprensa brasileira, além do exame de etnografias sobre doação de óvulo e maternidade substituta. A oposição entre Natureza e Cultura é uma chave para compreender a recepção distinta dessas práticas.This article discusses social representations of two practices related to the new reproductive technologies or assisted reproduction techniques. During in vitro fertilization, the transfer procedure of a woman's fertilized egg to another woman separates genetic motherhood from gestational motherhood. Two practices relate to that: in egg donation the pregnant woman is considered the mother, while in surrogate gestational motherhood the mother is the egg donor or the woman who planned the gestation. The focus is in the analysis of the representations of egg donation and surrogate motherhood in juridical discourse and in texts from the Brazilian press, considering also ethnographic articles. The opposition between Nature and Culture is a key for understanding the different reception of these practices.

  20. One foot wet and one foot dry: transition into motherhood among married adolescent women in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie; Binh, Nguyen; Johansson, Annika; Berggren, Vanja

    2008-10-01

    This study explores married Vietnamese adolescents' perceptions and experiences related to transition into motherhood and their encounter with health care service. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 women younger than 20 who were either pregnant or had newly delivered. It emerged from the narratives that young women experienced ambivalence in the transition to motherhood in that they felt too young but also happy to be able to please their husband and the extended family. Patterns were shown indicating that the participants experienced lacking power with regard to decisions in relation to pregnancy, delivery, and contraceptive usage. Feelings of being patronized and ignored in the encounter with health care providers were seen in the narratives. Findings might be used for reproductive health care providers, social workers, and educators in their contact with young mothers to empower them to make their own decisions with regard to marriage, childbearing, and contraception.

  1. Sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes towards motherhood among single women compared with cohabiting women treated with donor semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomon, Maria; Sylvest, Randi; Hansson, Helena

    2015-01-01

    -term relationships, previous pregnancies, or attitudes towards motherhood between single women and cohabiting women. The vast majority of single women wanted to achieve parenthood with a partner, 85.8% wished to have a partner in the future, and approximately half of them preferred for a partner to take parental......OBJECTIVE: To examine sociodemographic characteristics, family backgrounds, reproductive histories, and attitudes towards motherhood in single vs. cohabiting women seeking treatment with donor semen. DESIGN: Baseline data collection in a multicenter cohort study. SETTING: All nine public fertility...... clinics in Denmark. SAMPLE: In total n = 311 childless women initiating assisted reproduction using donor semen. METHODS: Self-reported questionnaire responses from n = 184 single women seeking treatment by using donor semen were compared with responses from n = 127 cohabiting women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES...

  2. Negotiating the transition from adolescence to motherhood: Coping with prenatal and parenting stress in teenage mothers in Mulago hospital, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaye Dan K

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a transitional stage from childhood to adulthood that is characterized by physical, physiological, psychosocial and behavioral changes that are influenced to a large extent by the age, culture and socialization of the individual. To explore what adolescent mothers perceive as their struggles during the period of transition from childhood to parenthood (through motherhood and to describe strategies employed in coping with stress of pregnancy, motherhood and parenthood. Methods Longitudinal qualitative study involving twenty two in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions among pregnant adolescents who were followed from pregnant to delivery, from January 2004 to August 2005. Participant were selected by theoretical sampling and data was analyzed using grounded theory. Results Overall, young adolescents reported more anxiety, loss of self esteem (when they conceived, difficulty in accessing financial, moral and material support from parents or partners and stigmatization by health workers when they sought care from health facilities. Three strategies by which adolescent mothers cope with parenting and pregnancy stress that were described as utilizing opportunities (thriving, accommodating the challenges (bargaining and surviving, or failure (despairing, and varied in the extent to which they enabled adolescents to cope with the stress. Conclusion Adolescents on the transition to motherhood have variable needs and aspirations and utilize different strategies to cope with the stress of pregnancy and parenthood.

  3. Education and Entry into Motherhood: The Czech Republic during State Socialism and the Transition Period (1970-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic presently shows one of the lowest total fertility rates (TFR in Europe. A decline in period fertility followed the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy that started in 1990. In this study, we investigate women's transition to first births, focusing on the impact of female education. We make a distinction between the effects of education attainment and time elapsed since completion of education. There are two aspects to the role of education that influenced the delay of entry into motherhood in the 1990s. First, during early adulthood women spent more time in education than their contemporaries did in the era of state socialism. Second, women entered motherhood much later after completion of education than before, which contrasts with the previous pattern of a strong immediate effect the completion of studies had on first-birth risks. The decline in first-birth risks in the 1990s applies more so to women with a higher level of education than to those with a lower level. We argue that greater education differentiation of labor market opportunities and constraints brought about greater education differentiation in the timing of entry into motherhood.

  4. Keeping food safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Crystal

    2011-11-01

    Legislation passed during this year's legislative session will help the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) identify the source of food-borne illness outbreaks. Senate Bill 81 increases the number of food wholesalers and warehouse operators that must obtain licenses from DSHS. DSHS enforcement activities include follow-up inspections at establishments that have problems, sending warning letters, holding management meetings with the firms, and providing technical assistance. When a food-borne illness outbreak involves a Texas manufacturer, wholesaler, or warehouse, DSHS can recall contaminated products, close establishments temporarily until they can ensure their food is safe or close them permanently, and levy fines.

  5. Ergonomics: safe patient handling and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care.

  6. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  7. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy

    2015-04-01

    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  8. Design on Intrinsically Safe Digital Switching Power Supply Based on DSP%基于DSP的本质安全型数字开关电源的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安琪; 曹会启

    2014-01-01

    本文对本质安全开关电源的放电特性进行了分析,以此为理论依据针对矿井易燃易爆的特殊环境设计了一种基于DSP的本质安全型数字开关电源。%The paper analyzed the discharge characteristics of intrinsically safe switching power supply. As a theoretical foundation, it helped me design digital intrinsically safe power supply based on DSP which works in mine-on explosive environment.

  9. A randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of an individual, education-based safe transport program for drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keay Lisa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are concerns over safety of older drivers due to increased crash involvement and vulnerability to injury. However, loss of driving privileges can dramatically reduce independence and quality of life for older members of the community. The aim of this trial is to examine the effectiveness of a safe transport program for drivers aged 75 years and older at reducing driving exposure but maintaining mobility. Methods and design A randomised trial will be conducted, involving 380 drivers aged 75 years and older, resident in urban and semi-rural areas of North-West Sydney. The intervention is an education program based on the Knowledge Enhances Your Safety (KEYS program, adapted for the Australian context. Driving experience will be measured objectively using an in-vehicle monitoring device which includes a global positioning system (GPS to assess driving exposure and an accelerometer to detect rapid deceleration events. Participation will be assessed using the Keele Assessment of Participation (KAP. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis; the primary outcomes include driving exposure, rapid deceleration events and scores for KAP. Secondary outcomes include self-reported measures of driving, socialisation, uptake of alternative forms of transport, depressive symptoms and mood. A detailed process evaluation will be conducted, including examination of the delivery of the program and uptake of alternative forms of transport. A subgroup analysis is planned for drivers with reduced function as characterized by established cut-off scores on the Drivesafe assessment tool. Discussion This randomised trial is powered to provide an objective assessment of the efficacy of an individually tailored education and alternative transportation program to promote safety of older drivers but maintain mobility. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000543886.

  10. Simultaneous determination of florfenicol with its metabolite based on modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample pretreatment and evaluation of their degradation behavior in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingfei; Qian, Mingrong; Zhang, Hu; Ma, Junwei; Wang, Jianmei; Wu, Huizhen

    2015-01-01

    A simple and simultaneous method for the determination of florfenicol and its metabolite florfenicol amine in agricultural soils using modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample pretreatment and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry is presented. Florfenicol and its metabolite florfenicol amine residues in agricultural soils were extracted with alkalized acetonitrile and an aliquot was cleaned up with Si(CH2)3NH(CH2)2NH2 and C18 sorbent, which were powder materials. High-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was applied to simultaneously determine the level of florfenicol and florfenicol amine in agricultural soils. Excellent linearity was achieved for florfenicol and florfenicol amine over a range of concentrations from 0.1-500 μg/L with coefficients more than 0.99. Average recoveries at four different levels (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 mg/kg) for florfenicol and florfenicol amine ranged from 73.6-94.9% with relative standard deviations of 2.9-12.5%. The limits of detection for florfenicol and florfenicol amine in agricultural soils were 2.0 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 6.0 μg/kg. Based on this method, the degradation behavior of florfenicol and its metabolite florfenicol amine in three soils (Nanchang, Hangzhou, and Changchun) under sterilized and native conditions was investigated and the transformation rate of florfenicol amine from florfenicol was evaluated.

  11. A safe and efficient hepatocyte-selective carrier system based on myristoylated preS1/21-47 domain of hepatitis B virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Xuanmiao; Chen, Tijia; Wang, Xinyi; Fu, Yao; Jin, Yun; Sun, Xun; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong

    2015-05-01

    A safe and efficient liver targeted PEGylated liposome (PEG-Lip) based on N-terminal myristoylated preS1/21-47 (preS1/21-47myr) of hepatitis B virus was successfully developed. The study aimed to elucidate the cellular uptake mechanism of preS1/21-47myr modified PEG-Lip (preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip) in hepatogenic cells and the distribution behavior of preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip in Vr:CD1 (ICR) mice. The cellular uptake results showed that preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip was effectively taken up by hepatogenic cells (including primary hepatocytes and liver tumor cells) through a receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway compared with non-hepatogenic cells. After systemic administration to H22 hepatoma-bearing mice, preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip showed significant liver-specific delivery and an increase in the distribution of preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip in hepatic tumor. Furthermore, the antitumor effect of preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) was remarkably stronger than that of PTX injection and PTX loaded liposomes (including common liposomes and PEG-Lip). In safety evaluation, no acute systemic toxicity and immunotoxicity were observed after intravenous injection of preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip. No liver toxicity was observed despite the dramatic increase of preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip in liver. Taken together, preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip represents a promising carrier system for targeted liver disease therapy and imaging.

  12. 基于IGBT的变换器系统安全工作区%Systematic safe operating area of IGBT-based converters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪松; 赵争鸣; 袁立强

    2011-01-01

    为了提高电力电子变换器的运行可靠性,提出了基于绝缘栅双极型晶体管(IGBT)变换器的系统安全工作区的分析方法,分析了变换器中功率器件、机械结构、散热冷却和控制等系统元素之间相互影响,推导了变换器系统安全工作区的数学公式描述。采用系统安全工作的图解形式分析了变换器中功率器件特性、机械回路杂散参数、控制信号延迟和运行温度的影响。应用该方法设计并实现了一台55 kW/380 V变换器样机,扩大了变换器的可靠运行范围。基于该样机的过流和过载实验结果验证了系统安全工作区分析方法的有效性。%The systematic safe operating area(SSOA) of an insulated gate bipolar transistor(IGBT)-based converter is identified to improve the operation reliability of electronic power converters.Various components influence the electronic power converter,including the power devices,the mechanical structure,the cooling system and the control system.The mathematical formula of the SSOA is presented.The SSOA definition is used to analyze the impact of the power device characteristics,the mechanical circuit stray inductance,the control signal delay and the operating temperature.A 55 kW/380 V converter prototype was designed using the SSOA-based method with an expanded reliable operating range.Test results with over-current and over-load experiments verify the effectiveness of the SSOA-based method.

  13. Create a Safe Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝小琴

    2013-01-01

    随着教育的不断发展与进步,教师的作用与学生的角色已日益成为教育者与研究人员关注的焦点。但是,同时我们也应该高度重视教学课堂的重要性,努力创造一个让学生无论从心理上还是情感上都感到“安全”的教室。创造一个愉悦,友好,轻松,同时又具有很好教学效果的教学环境并不只是一种理想,笔者认为是切实可行的。本文主要探讨了如何去创造这样“安全”的教室。本文第一部分讨论了教师的形象问题,第二部分围绕师生关系展开,第三部分探讨了如何营造一种愉悦气氛,第四部分阐述了培养学生自信的重要性。%With the advancement of education ,the role of teacher and the role of learner have respectively draw increasing attention from the educators and researchers. But equal emphasis should be given to the classroom, the very place where learning takes place. And great efforts should be made to create a psychologically or emotionally safe classroom. A pleasant, friendly, relaxed but effective classroom is not something ideal as some teachers once thought, but rather practicable.This paper just discusses the ways of creating a safe classroom and gives some of my personal reflections, with Part One touching upon the image of the teacher; Part Two embracing the importance of teacher-students relationship; Part Three focusing on the pleasant climate in a safe classroom; Part Four featuring the student’s high-self-esteem.

  14. A Safe and Welcoming Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingher, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the theme of safe and comforting places for children, and how libraries can help provide safe havens for children. Presents a survey of safe places in selected works of children's literature. Includes a sampler of creative activities focusing on the theme, and a list of resources (books and videotapes). (AEF)

  15. But the kids are okay: motherhood, consumption and sex work in neo-liberal Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers-Moore, Megan

    2010-12-01

    Although sex work remains highly stigmatized around the world, its relatively high value (when compared to other kinds of work available for low-income women) allows sex workers to attain some level of economic, if not social, mobility. This article challenges the idea that sex work in 'third world' settings is always about mere subsistence. Instead, it suggests that sex workers in Costa Rica's tourism sector work to survive, but they also demonstrate significant personal ambition and aim not only to increase their own consumption levels, but crucially to get ahead. Women are clear about what sex work enables for their families and themselves: not the maintenance of the status quo, but rather a level of consumption otherwise unavailable to them as low-income and poor women. Sex work offers an opportunity to consume and to get ahead that these women have been unable to attain in other kinds of employment, primarily domestic and factory work. Furthermore, sex work allows women to think of themselves as particularly good mothers, able to provide for and spend important quality time with their kids. The article argues that survival, consumption, and motherhood are discursively deployed, in often contradictory and conflicting ways, in order to counteract the effects that stigma has on sex workers. It also suggests that sex workers may very well be the quintessential subjects of neo-liberalism in Latin America, in their embrace of entrepreneurial work and consumption.

  16. Gender Legacies of Jung and Freud as Epistemology in Emergent Feminist Research on Late Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Barone-Chapman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While conducting doctoral research in social science on late motherhood, two analytical engagements with the feminine came to my attention as evidence of a patriarchal bias toward the realm of womanhood. Jung’s mythopoetic tension between symbolism and enactments with the feminine and Freud’s supposition that a denial of the feminine was necessary for psychological and emotional development appeared to be perpetuating a social problem continuing in current times. Across affective behavior and narrative within stories of late procreative desire, dream journals and Word Association Tests of eight participants was the memory of a male sibling who had enjoyed primacy of place in the parental home over the daughter. The female body with a voice was missing in the one-sided perspectives of Analytical Psychology and Psychoanalysis on the subject of the feminine, until a whole view of psyche’s discontents in Feminist inspired Psychoanalytic theories from both schools on the female body were included. Freud and Jung’s views became evidence of patriarchy as background while extension of Feminist inspired psychoanalytical thinking, Queer theories and Creation Myth allowed new meanings of the embodied feminine to emerge through a recapitulation of a union of opposites as a union of epistemology and ethos. The essence of Jung’s mid-life theories, altered by modernity and eclipsed by female advancement, remains replicatable and paradigmatic outside of essentialist gender performance.

  17. A multidisciplinary program of preparation for childbirth and motherhood: maternal anxiety and perinatal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prevedel Tânia TS

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study maternal anxiety and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women submitted to a Multidisciplinary Program for Childbirth and Motherhood Preparation (MPCM. Methods This is a not randomized controlled trial on 67 nulliparous pregnant women divided into two groups according to participation (MPCM Group; n = 38 or not (Control Group; n = 29 in MPCM. The program consisted of 10 meetings (between the 18th and the 38th gestational week during which educational, physiotherapeutic and interaction activities were developed. Anxiety was quantified at the beginning and at the end of the gestational period by the Trace-State Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results Initial maternal anxiety was equivalent between the groups. At the end of the gestational period, it was observed that anxiety levels increased in the Control Group and were maintained in the MPCM Group. A higher occurrence of vaginal deliveries (83.8% and hospital discharge of three-day-older newborns (81.6% as a result of MPCM was also significant. Levels of state-anxiety at the end of pregnancy showed a negative correlation with vaginal delivery, gestational age, birth weight and Apgar index at the first minute and positive correlation with the hospital period remaining of the newborns. Conclusion In the study conditions, MPCM was associated with lower levels of maternal anxiety, a larger number of vaginal deliveries and shorter hospitalization time of newborns. It was not related to adverse perinatal outcomes.

  18. Gender legacies of jung and freud as epistemology in emergent feminist research on late motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone-Chapman, Maryann

    2014-03-01

    While conducting doctoral research in social science on late motherhood, two analytical engagements with the feminine came to my attention as evidence of a patriarchal bias toward the realm of womanhood. Jung's mythopoetic tension between symbolism and enactments with the feminine and Freud's supposition that a denial of the feminine was necessary for psychological and emotional development appeared to be perpetuating a social problem continuing in current times. Across affective behavior and narrative within stories of late procreative desire, dream journals and Word Association Tests of eight participants was the memory of a male sibling who had enjoyed primacy of place in the parental home over the daughter. The female body with a voice was missing in the one-sided perspectives of Analytical Psychology and Psychoanalysis on the subject of the feminine, until a whole view of psyche's discontents in Feminist inspired Psychoanalytic theories from both schools on the female body were included. Freud and Jung's views became evidence of patriarchy as background while extension of Feminist inspired psychoanalytical thinking, Queer theories and Creation Myth allowed new meanings of the embodied feminine to emerge through a recapitulation of a union of opposites as a union of epistemology and ethos. The essence of Jung's mid-life theories, altered by modernity and eclipsed by female advancement, remains replicatable and paradigmatic outside of essentialist gender performance.

  19. Quality of life and emotional distress among HIV-positive women during transition to motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marco; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) and emotional distress during pregnancy and early postpartum, and to examine the ability of psychopathological symptoms to predict QOL at early postpartum. A sample of 75 pregnant women (31 HIV-positive and 44 HIV-negative) was assessed during the second trimester of pregnancy and two to four days postpartum. QOL was assessed with the WHOQOL-Bref. The emotional distress was assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory, and with the Emotional Assessment Scale. Seropositive women reported increased negative emotional reactivity and lower scores in social relationships and overall QOL during pregnancy than HIV-negative women. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women reported better QOL after the birth of their child, when compared with the pregnancy period. Among HIV-positive women, lower anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were, respectively, significant predictors of better psychological QOL and overall QOL at early postpartum. Less intense somatic symptoms predicted better physical QOL. Longitudinal assessment of QOL and emotional status may provide potentially useful information for tailoring psychological interventions in the maternity care of HIV-infected women, during their transition to motherhood.

  20. Multiaxial Fatigue Analysis of Wing Structure Based on ABAQUS/FE-SAFE%基于ABAQUS/FE-SAFE的机翼结构多轴疲劳分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淼; 许瑛; 李隆

    2016-01-01

    以CAE技术为基础对机翼结构进行多轴疲劳分析。为了能够准确预测机翼结构的疲劳寿命,采用流体力学分析与有限元分析相结合的方法,使用流体力学分析软件 FLUENT 对机翼飞行外载荷特性进行了分析,在有限元分析软件ABAQUS中进行了机翼结构静力学分析,并基于Brown-Miller多轴疲劳理论,利用FE-SAFE软件进行机翼结构多轴疲劳分析,得到了机翼结构的疲劳寿命情况以及疲劳薄弱位置。分析结果与实际情况对比表明,该方法可有效预测机翼结构疲劳寿命,为机翼结构疲劳分析提供新途径,为机翼设计时估算机翼使用寿命提供参考。%The multiaxial fatigue analysis of the wing structure is investigated based on CAE technology in this paper. In order to forecast the fatigue life of the wing structure accurately, the analysis of flying wing external load characteristic is carried out by FLUENT with the method of the combination of fluid mechanics and finite element analysis. The static of the wing structure is analyzed with the finite element software ABAQUS, the multiaxial fatigue of the wing structure based on the theory of Brown-Miller multiaxial fatigue is also analyzed by FE-SAFE. The fatigue life and weak position of the wing is obtained. In contrast with actual situation, the results indicate that this method can predict the fatigue life of the wing structure effectively, which provides a new way for the analysis of the wing structure, and reference for estimating the fatigue life of the wing when designing the airfoil.

  1. Development and Validation of Non-Integrative, Self-Limited, and Replicating Minicircles for Safe Reporter Gene Imaging of Cell-Based Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, John A.; Cusso, Lorena; Chuang, Hui-Yen; Yan, Xinrui; Dragulescu-Andrasi, Anca; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2013-01-01

    Reporter gene (RG) imaging of cell-based therapies provides a direct readout of therapeutic efficacy by assessing the fate of implanted cells. To permit long-term cellular imaging, RGs are traditionally required to be integrated into the cellular genome. This poses a potential safety risk and regulatory bottleneck for clinical translation as integration can lead to cellular transformation. To address this issue, we have developed non-integrative, replicating minicircles (MCs) as an alternative platform for safer monitoring of cells in living subjects. We developed both plasmids and minicircles containing the scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MAR) of the human interferon-beta gene, driven by the CMV promoter, and expressing the bioluminescence RG firefly luciferase. Constructs were transfected into breast cancer cells, and expanded S/MAR minicircle clones showed luciferase signal for greater than 3 months in culture and minicircles remained as episomes. Importantly, luciferase activity in clonal populations was slowly lost over time and this corresponded to a loss of episome, providing a way to reversibly label cells. To monitor cell proliferation in vivo, 1.5×106 cells carrying the S/MAR minicircle were implanted subcutaneously into mice (n = 5) and as tumors developed significantly more bioluminescence signal was noted at day 35 and 43 compared to day 7 post-implant (p<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first work examining the use of episomal, self-limited, replicating minicircles to track the proliferation of cells using non-invasive imaging in living subjects. Continued development of S/MAR minicircles will provide a broadly applicable vector platform amenable with any of the numerous RG technologies available to allow therapeutic cell fate to be assessed in individual patients, and to achieve this without the need to manipulate the cell's genome so that safety concerns are minimized. This will lead to safe tools to assess treatment response at

  2. Study on characteristics of base isolation system with fail-safe device. Part 2. ; Characteristic tests of practical-size fail-safe device. Menshin sochi no fail safe kiko ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. ; Jikkiyo soft landing sochi no seino shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T.; Teramura, A.; Tsunoda, T.; Okada, H.; Yasui, Y. (Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-02-10

    This paper reports a performance test of a full-size soft-landing fail-safe (SL) device developed as a back-up device of a laminated rubber vibration absorbing equipment. It is supposed that an SL device with a symmetrical shape relative to the center axis and a vibration absorbing equipment are installed in such a manner that the former is surrounded adjacently by the latter, and an excessive horizontal force is applied to an upper building supported on the laminated rubber plates. Since the laminated rubber plates displace in the horizontal direction and subside at the same time, the upper building slides in contact with the sliding face on top of the SL device. The upper building is, therefore, supported stably by the SL device even if the load supporting capability of the rubber plates has decreased. Standard and high-decay laminated rubber plates have been used for the vibration absorbing equipment, and super-high molecular polyethylene as the material for the SL sliding face. A dynamic characteristic test on assembly of laminated rubber with the SL device, and a large-deformation horizontal force application test have confirmed that the SL device functions effectively as a back-up device for the vibration absorbing equipment. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  3. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eVillers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  4. Safe Distribution of Declarative Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

    2011-01-01

    process model generalizing labelled prime event structures to a systems model able to finitely represent ω-regular languages. An operational semantics given as a transition semantics between markings of the graph allows DCR Graphs to be conveniently used as both specification and execution model....... The technique for distribution is based on a new general notion of projection of DCR Graphs relative to a subset of labels and events identifying the set of external events that must be communicated from the other processes in the network in order for the distribution to be safe.We prove that for any vector...... of projections that covers a DCR Graph that the network of synchronously communicating DCR Graphs given by the projections is bisimilar to the original global process graph. We exemplify the distribution technique on a process identified in a case study of an cross-organizational case management system carried...

  5. The Mother, Who Is Not One: Reflections Of Motherhood In Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet, The Tempest, And The Taming Of The Shrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARAMAN HATICE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of proper motherhood in Shakespeare's plays has been a point of attraction for many feminist critics actively engaged in emphasizing the patriarchal aspect of Shakespeare's plays. This paper aims to analyze motherhood and the lack of mother/mother-figure in The Tempest, Romeo and Juliet and The Taming of the Shrew through Luce Irigaray's theory of gender and the work of other feminist critics. The issues of gender, father-daughter relations and the reflections of the absent mothers will be discussed. Male/Female Subjectivity will also be questioned, in view of Irigaray's conceptualization of gender by relating it to Subject.

  6. From 'Virgin Births' to 'Octomom': Representations of Single Motherhood via Sperm Donation in the UK News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, S; Foster, J

    2016-01-01

    The use of sperm donation by single women has provoked public, professional and political debate. Newspapers serve as a critical means of both broadcasting this debate and effecting a representation of this user group within the public sphere. This study uses the theory of social representations to examine how single motherhood by sperm donation has been represented in the UK news over time. The study sampled news coverage on this topic in eight British newspapers during three 4-year periods between the years 1988 and 2012. The dataset of news reports (n = 406) was analysed using a qualitative approach. Findings indicated that UK media reports of single women using donor sperm are underpinned by conventional categories of the 'personal', the 'traditional' and the 'natural' that when paired with their corollaries produce a representation of this user group as the social 'other'. The amount of coverage on this topic over time was found to vary according to the political orientation of different media sources. Using key concepts from social representations theory, this article discusses the relationship between themata and anchoring in the maintenance of representations of the social 'other' in mass mediated communication. Findings are explained in relation to theoretical conceptions of the mass media and its position within the public sphere. It is argued that the use of personal narratives in news reports of single mothers by sperm donation may have significant implications for public understandings of this social group. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Safe Zones: Creating LGBT Safe Space Ally Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynter, Kerry John; Tubbs, Nancy Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses model LGBT Safe Space Ally programs. These programs, often called "Safe Zones," include self selected students, faculty, and employees who publicly show support by displaying stickers, signs, and other identifiable items. Issues covered in the article include history, development, training, membership, assessment, and…

  8. Working Towards Safe Motherhood: Delays and Barriers to Prenatal Care for Women in Rural and Peri-Urban Areas of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erika; Hennink, Monique; Rochat, Roger; Julian, Zoë; Pinto, Meredith; Zertuche, Adrienne D; Spelke, Bridget; Dott, Andrew; Cota, Pat

    2016-07-01

    Objectives Georgia has the highest rate of maternal mortality in the United States, and ranks 40th for infant mortality. The Georgia Maternal and Infant Health Research Group was formed to investigate and address the shortage of obstetric care providers outside the Atlanta area. Because access to prenatal care (PNC) can improve maternal and infant health outcomes, we used qualitative methods to identify the access barriers experienced by women who live in rural and peri-urban areas of the state. Methods We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 24 mothers who gave birth between July and August 2013, and who live in either shortage or non-shortage obstetric care service areas. We also conducted key informant interviews with four perinatal case managers, and analyzed all data using applied thematic analysis. We then utilized Thaddeus and Maine's "Three Delays to Care" theoretical framework structure to describe the recognized barriers to care. Results We identified delays in a woman's decision to seek PNC (such as awareness of pregnancy and stigma); delays in accessing an appropriate healthcare facility (such as choosing a doctor and receiving insurance coverage); and delays in receiving adequate and appropriate care (such as continuity of care and communication). Moreover, many participants perceived low self-worth and believed this influenced their PNC exchanges. Conclusion As a means of supporting Georgia's pregnant women who face barriers and delays to PNC, these data provide a rationale for developing contextually relevant solutions to both mothers and their providers.

  9. Basics for Handling Food Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 888-MPHotline (1-888-674-6854) Basics for Safe Food Handling dishes in bowls of ice or use ... 9 months Do not freeze 2 Basics for Safe Food Handling Product Refrigerator Freezer (40 °F) (0 °F) ...

  10. More than a Safe Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, much of the conversation about LGBTQ students in schools has centered on safety--anti-bullying policies, the "safe space" of gay-straight alliances, and "safe zones" marked by rainbow-colored stickers on classroom doors. In this article, Michael Sadowski argues that it's time to move beyond safety…

  11. Shock Safe Nepal: team one

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, A.J.; Düzgün, B.C.; Spelt, C.J.; De Stoppelaar, A.O.; Van Wijnbergen, E.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    As a response to the 2015 Nepal earthquakes Shock Safe Nepal was founded to function as platform intended to contribute to the development of knowledge on earthquake safe housing. The project started on initiative of the Consul General of Nepal to The Netherlands Cas de Stoppelaar and the faculty of

  12. Impact of community-based interventions on maternal and neonatal health indicators: Results from a community randomized trial in rural Balochistan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Stan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pakistan has high maternal mortality, particularly in the rural areas. The delay in decision making to seek medical care during obstetric emergencies remains a significant factor in maternal mortality. Methods We present results from an experimental study in rural Pakistan. Village clusters were randomly assigned to intervention and control arms (16 clusters each. In the intervention clusters, women were provided information on safe motherhood through pictorial booklets and audiocassettes; traditional birth attendants were trained in clean delivery and recognition of obstetric and newborn complications; and emergency transportation systems were set up. In eight of the 16 intervention clusters, husbands also received specially designed education materials on safe motherhood and family planning. Pre- and post-intervention surveys on selected maternal and neonatal health indicators were conducted in all 32 clusters. A district-wide survey was conducted two years after project completion to measure any residual impact of the interventions. Results Pregnant women in intervention clusters received prenatal care and prophylactic iron therapy more frequently than pregnant women in control clusters. Providing safe motherhood education to husbands resulted in further improvement of some indicators. There was a small but significant increase in percent of hospital deliveries but no impact on the use of skilled birth attendants. Perinatal mortality reduced significantly in clusters where only wives received information and education in safe motherhood. The survey to assess residual impact showed similar results. Conclusions We conclude that providing safe motherhood education increased the probability of pregnant women having prenatal care and utilization of health services for obstetric complications.

  13. Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Markus; Vutskits, Laszlo; Hansen, Tom G

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term 'safe use of anesthesia in children is ill-defined and requires definition of and focus on the 'safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia'. RECENT FINDINGS: The Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot initiative (www.safetots.org) has been set up during the last year to focus...... on the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia. This initiative aims to provide guidance on markers of quality anesthesia care. The introduction and implementation of national regulations of 'who, where, when and how' are required and will result in an improved perioperative outcome in vulnerable children....... The improvement of teaching, training, education and supervision of the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia are the main goals of the safetots.org initiative. SUMMARY: This initiative addresses the well known perioperative risks in young children, perioperative causes for cerebral morbidity as well as gaps...

  14. Keeping Food Safe during an Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topping Discard Canned hams labeled "Keep Refrigerated" Discard Canned meats and fish, opened Discard CHEESE Soft Cheeses: blue/bleu, Roquefort, ... Fresh fruits, cut Discard Fruit juices, opened Safe Canned fruits, ... Fish sauces (oyster sauce) Discard Opened vinegar-based dressings ...

  15. Safe chemotherapy in the home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavis-Parker, Paula

    2015-05-01

    The Oncology Nursing Society and the American Society of Clinical Oncology have established guidelines for the safe and effective use of chemotherapeutic medications in the acute and outpatient care settings. A review of literature was performed to determine the safe and effective administration of chemotherapy in the home environment. The administration of oral and intravenous chemotherapy in the home has become a common intervention for patients being treated for cancer based on patient preference, cost-effectiveness of healthcare delivery, and increasing demand for oncology services. Home healthcare nurses can greatly impact the management of adverse effects of chemotherapy in the home, increasing the quality of life and improving patient outcomes.

  16. Women on the Edge of Time: Representations of revolutionary motherhood in the NEP-era Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Proctor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the October revolution of 1917 the fledgling Soviet government legalized divorce and abortion, secularized marriage, and decriminalized homosexuality. Utopians dreamed of the withering away of the family and the transformation of women's roles in the home and the workplace. But at least for the time being, only some bodies were capable of bearing children. Women's bodies became contested territory, a site of paradox. On the one hand the image of woman was re-imagined as a de-libidinalized fellow comrade, but this was combined with a continued emphasis on women's biological role as the privileged carriers of the future generation. Rather than circumventing this seeming contradiction, Soviet artworks of the 1920s confronted it, depicting motherhood as an emancipatory and revolutionary act. And this crucially does not only relate to bodies but to emotions. Revolutionary maternal love has a positive, affective dimension that provides an alternative to sexual love. The figure of the revolutionary mother prefigures the still hazily defined qualitative richness of the communist future. This article examines the figure of the revolutionary mother through a discussion of key artworks from the NEP era (1921-1928 concluding by considering how the representation of motherhood shifted in the Stalin era. The article asks what these historical ideas might still teach us today.

  17. Does It Make Any Difference if She Is a Mother? An Interactional Perspective on Intimate Partner Violence with a Focus on Motherhood and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatnar, Solveig Karin Bo; Bjorkly, Stal

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the impact of motherhood and pregnancy on interactional aspects of intimate partner violence (IPV) among help-seeking women. Is having children a protective or a risk factor for IPV severity, injury, duration, frequency, and mortal danger, controlling for sociodemographics? Regarding interactional aspects of IPV, do survivors…

  18. Can't a mother sing the blues? Postpartum depression and the construction of motherhood in late 20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Lisa; Rutherford, Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Popular depictions of 20th-century American motherhood have typically emphasized the joy and fulfillment that a new mother can expect to experience on her child's arrival. But starting in the 1950s, discussions of the "baby blues" began to appear in the popular press. How did articles about the baby blues, and then postpartum depression, challenge these rosy depictions? In this article, we examine portrayals of postpartum distress in popular magazines and advice books during the second half of the 20th century to examine how the unsettling pairing of distress and motherhood was culturally negotiated in these decades. We show that these portrayals revealed a persistent reluctance to situate motherhood itself as the cause of serious emotional distress and a consistent focus on changing mothers to adapt to their role rather than changing the parameters of the role itself. Regardless of whether these messages actually helped or hindered new mothers themselves, we suggest that they reflected the rarely challenged assumption that motherhood and distress should not mix.

  19. Mother-Blaming in the Shadow of Incest: Commentary on "Motherhood in the Shadow of Incest" by Rachel Lev-Wiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2007-01-01

    This commentary on "Motherhood in the Shadow of Incest" by Rachel Lev-Wiesel, is divided into three sections. In the first section, this author addresses the issue of the role of mothers in incest. Faller contends that, with regard to research findings on the role of mothers' own sexual victimization in her child's experience, previous research…

  20. Pre-conception to parenting: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature on motherhood for women with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Clare; Jones, Ian; Howard, Louise M

    2013-06-01

    The majority of women with a severe mental illness (SMI) become pregnant and have children. The aim of this systematic review and meta-synthesis was to examine the qualitative research on the experiences of motherhood in women with SMI from preconception decision making to being a mother. The experiences of the health professionals treating women with SMI were also reviewed. Eleven databases were searched for papers published up to April 25, 2012, using keywords and mesh headings. A total of 23 studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria on the views of women with SMI, eight reported the views of health professionals including one which reported both. The meta-synthesis of the 23 studies on women's views produced two overarching themes Experiences of Motherhood and Experiences of Services. Sub-themes included the following: Guilt, Coping with Dual Identities, Stigma, and Centrality of Motherhood. Four themes emerged from the synthesis of the eight papers reporting the views of health professionals: Discomfort, Stigma, Need for education, and Integration of services. An understanding of the experiences of pregnancy and motherhood for women with SMI can inform service development and provision to ensure the needs of women and their families are met.

  1. Building Safe Concurrency Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent object-oriented programming in Beta is based on semaphores and coroutines and the ability to define high-level concurrency abstractions like monitors, and rendezvous-based communication, and their associated schedulers. The coroutine mechanism of SIMULA has been generalized...... into the notions of concurrent and alternating objects. Alternating objects may be used to start a cooperative thread for each possible blocking communication and is thus an alternative to asynchronous messages and guarded commands. Beta like SIMULA, the first OO language, was designed as a language for modeling...... as well as programming, and we describe how this has had an impact on the design of the language. Although Beta supports the definition of high-level concurrency abstractions, the use of these rely on the discipline of the programmer as is the case for Java and other mainstream OO languages. We introduce...

  2. An Automated Safe-to-Mate (ASTM) Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc; Scott, Michelle; Leung, Alan; Lin, Michael; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Safe-to-mate testing is a common hardware safety practice where impedance measurements are made on unpowered hardware to verify isolation, continuity, or impedance between pins of an interface connector. A computer-based instrumentation solution has been developed to resolve issues. The ASTM is connected to the circuit under test, and can then quickly, safely, and reliably safe-to-mate the entire connector, or even multiple connectors, at the same time.

  3. How Safe Is Your Job?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Joseph; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Five articles address the realities of coping with downsizing: "Living with Layoffs" (Nocera); "How Safe Is Your Job?" (Lieber); "Career Makeover" (Robinson); "Ma Bell's Orphans" (O'Reilly); and "Where Are They Now?" (Martin). (SK)

  4. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  5. Antibiotics and Pregnancy: What's Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take antibiotics during pregnancy? Answers from Roger W. Harms, M. ... 2014 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/antibiotics-and-pregnancy/ ...

  6. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 5/19/2008.

  7. Predicting safe sandwich production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Duan, Zhi; Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Time and temperature control is crucial to avoid growth of pathogens during production and serving of cold ready-to-eat meals. The Danish guidelines state that chilled foods, such as sandwiches, should not be outside the cold chain for more than 3 hours including the time for preparation and serv......Time and temperature control is crucial to avoid growth of pathogens during production and serving of cold ready-to-eat meals. The Danish guidelines state that chilled foods, such as sandwiches, should not be outside the cold chain for more than 3 hours including the time for preparation...... and serving. However, Danish sandwich producing companies find it challenging to comply with this and have expressed a need for more flexibility. The Danish guidelines do allow for a prolongation of the acceptable time outside the cold chain, if the safety of the specific production can be documented....... There is, therefore, room for developing targeted tools for evaluating the time-temperature scenarios in sandwich production. This study describes a decision support tool developed to offer the producers more flexibility. Based on time/temperature measurements obtained during preparation combined...

  8. Training safely, Training safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Wu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is the basic requirement of maritime safety education to guarantee the safety of teaching operation while training the crew's occupation safety capability. Marine Training Center of Shanghai Maritime University has undertaken the practical teaching of "marine survival" for many years and come up with the whole safety procedures of training. Based on the requirements of SOLAS convention and regulations of STCW over crew training, this paper introduces the safety allocation, utilization and maintenance of teaching equipments. Through the investigation of the safety situation of students' practical operation, the safety teaching method named "four in one" has been put forward, which includes the pre-teaching safety precaution, the whole monitor during the teaching process, the post-teaching summary evaluation, and the reset and standby of teaching facilities. Finally, during the learning and training of "marine survival", crews and students are called on to place priority on personal safety rather than acquisition of knowledge and skills. Only in this way can they be capable of self-protection and protection of others in the career of seafaring.

  9. An Analysis of Motherhood in Munro’s Novels%门罗小说中的母亲形象研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴端明

    2015-01-01

    Munro’s works elaborate on images of different mothers. They are different from the tradition-ally benevolent,tolerant Holy Mother. Munro manages to depict multi-faceted mothers through introdu-cing different mother images and motherhood,thus changes the over-simplified and idealized mother im-ages. She tells the experience of mothers and mother-child relationship with a deep sympathy. Her ideas on mothers are based on a deep understanding on mother’s social value and roles in traditional discourse. She writes from a woman writer’s perspective and manages to speak for women and mothers.%门罗小说中展现了多面的母亲群像,这些丰富的母亲形象不同于传统的慈悲、隐忍、伟大的圣母形象。门罗通过书写不同的母亲形象与母性侧面,描画了多元化的母性,改写了单一化理想化的扁平母亲形象。她怀着深深的同情与关怀述说了母亲的遭遇与亲子相处的境况,并以对传统话语中母亲社会价值和传统角色的领会为基础,从女性作家视角出发,为女性与母亲发声。

  10. 基于51单片机的智能保险柜设计%51 MCU-based intelligent safe design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦力霄

    2012-01-01

      贵重物品的安全,是人身财产安全的重要一环。随着科技水平的提高,各种盗取财物的手段不断升级。因此,人们对安全稳定性好、操作便捷的智能保险柜的需求也在不断提高。介绍了以51单片机为核心,以指纹识别、温度测控、位移测控模块协同工作的系统组成,以及软、硬件的设计。该系统具有指纹识别、防火、防高温、防酸蚀、防撬、现场及同步拨号远程报警、记录报警时间等功能,实现了多功能一体化,为用户提供了基本操作提示。%  The security of valuables,important personal and property safety. With the improvement of the level of science and technology,a variety of means to steal property is escalating.Therefore the safety and stability, convenient operation of intelligent safes demand is also rising.51 MCU as the core to the fingerprint identification,temperature measurement and control, displacement measurement and control module system components work together,as well as software and hardware design. The system of fingerprint identification,fire prevention,anti-high temperature, anti-etch-ing, tamper,live and synchronous dial-up remote alarm, record the alarm time, multi-functional integration,to provide users with the basic opera-tion prompted.

  11. A mother's heart is weighed down with stones: a phenomenological approach to the experience of transnational motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah

    2009-03-01

    Although recent scholarship on transnational mothers has rigorously examined the effect of migration on gender constructs and ideologies, it neglects analysis of the lived experience of separated mothers and children. In privileging the exploration of transnational separations through the single analytical lens of gender, such research reduces the embodied distress of mothers and children to mere "gender false consciousness." This paper calls upon anthropologists to redress this oversight by undertaking a phenomenological analysis of the lived experience of transnational motherhood. Eschewing an analysis of mothers and children as isolated social roles, I show that the suffering of mothers and children is profoundly relational. Through analysis of the narratives of undocumented Salvadoran mothers residing in the U.S., I show how the strain of such mothers' undocumented status is lived and shouldered within the intersubjective space of the family.

  12. Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor.

  13. 基于CBTC的车载ATP安全制动曲线计算模型研究%Computational Model of Safe Braking Curve of Onboard ATP Based on CBTC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林颖; 王长林

    2011-01-01

    车载ATP系统是保证列车运行安全的系统,其中的关键技术之一是安全制动曲线计算模型.根据IEEE 1474.1TM标准的规定[1],车载ATP安全制动曲线由GEBR制动曲线和ATP紧急制动触发曲线组成.GEBR制动曲线是根据GEBR计算得出的,而ATP紧急制动触发曲线则是根据GEBR制动曲线计算出来的.针对该问题,本文分析了各种影响列车制动距离的因素和GEBR制动曲线与ATP紧急制动触发曲线的关系,建立了CBTC率载ATP安全制动曲线的计算模测.仿真证明,本文提出的计算模型满足IEEE 1474.1TM基于CBTC的车载ATP安全制动模型的要求.%The onboard ATP system is the system which protects train running safety. One of its key technologies is the computational model of the safe braking curve. According to IEEE 1474.1?, the on-board ATP safe braking curve is made up of the GEBR braking curve and the ATP emergency brake triggering curve. The GEBR braking curve is calculated by GEBR and the ATP emergency brake triggering curve is calculated by the GEBR braking curve. This paper analyzes various factors influencing the train braking distance and the relationship between the GEBR braking curve and the ATP emergency brake triggering curve, and establishes the computational model of safe braking curve of onboard ATP based on CBTC . Simulation proves that the model of this paper satisfies the IEEE 1474.1? Requirements for the safe braking model of onboard ATP based on CBTC.

  14. How safe are Indian laboratories?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.

    CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 79, NO. 8, 25 OCTOBER 2000 1041 How safe are I n dian laboratories? Many students opt for science after their 10th standard examination and many of them study chemistry later. In case they fail to get into a professional... safety goggles, gloves and laboratory coats would no r- mally be absent. In case these are pr e- sent the experimenter, students and even the demonstrators themselves do not use them. Auto pipettes and other safe devices for handling the chemicals...

  15. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    This paper shows that strict match pass-through funding of covered bonds provides safe and liquid mortgage bonds. Despite a 30% drop in house prices during the 2008 global crisis Danish mortgage bonds remained as liquid as most European government bonds. The Danish pass-through system effectively...... eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system...

  16. Development and application of the Safe Performance Index as a risk-based methodology for identifying major hazard-related safety issues in underground coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinilakodi, Harisha

    The underground coal mining industry has been under constant watch due to the high risk involved in its activities, and scrutiny increased because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-07. In the aftermath of the incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address the various issues related to a safe working environment in the mines. Risk analysis in any form should be done on a regular basis to tackle the possibility of unwanted major hazard-related events such as explosions, outbursts, airbursts, inundations, spontaneous combustion, and roof fall instabilities. One of the responses by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2007 involved a new pattern of violations (POV) process to target mines with a poor safety performance, specifically to improve their safety. However, the 2010 disaster (worst in 40 years) gave an impression that the collective effort of the industry, federal/state agencies, and researchers to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries has gone awry. The Safe Performance Index (SPI) methodology developed in this research is a straight-forward, effective, transparent, and reproducible approach that can help in identifying and addressing some of the existing issues while targeting (poor safety performance) mines which need help. It combines three injury and three citation measures that are scaled to have an equal mean (5.0) in a balanced way with proportionate weighting factors (0.05, 0.15, 0.30) and overall normalizing factor (15) into a mine safety performance evaluation tool. It can be used to assess the relative safety-related risk of mines, including by mine-size category. Using 2008 and 2009 data, comparisons were made of SPI-associated, normalized safety performance measures across mine-size categories, with emphasis on small-mine safety performance as compared to large- and

  17. 基于ANSYS/FE-SAFE的单搭自冲铆接头的疲劳分析%Fatigue Analysis of Single Lap Self-piercing Riveted Joints based on ANSYS/FE-SAFE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉涛; 何晓聪; 严柯科; 冯模盛

    2011-01-01

    Using the finite element analysis software ANSYS, the single lap self-piercing riveted joints model was established, the model will be used in static analysis. Based on static analysis, used ANSYS/FE-SAFE to analyze the fatigue life and safety factor under conditions of the sine excitation load, from the analysis of that, drew a conclusion that fatigue damage and fatigue destroy were both founded on the faying surface of upper sheet and rivet. From the safety factor and cloud maps, we can conclude that operating safety factor is bigger than permitted safety factor, which meet the need. It can provide reference for further research through fatigue analysis using ANSYS/FE-SAFE.%采用有限元分析软件ANSYS建立单搭自冲铆接头模型,对接头进行静力分析,在此基础上结合ANSYS/FE SAFE,基于正弦激励载荷,对单搭自冲铆接头的疲劳寿命和安全系数进行了分析,得出自冲铆接头的最大应力位置与疲劳破坏位置一致,均为上板与铆钉头接触的部位.从安全系数云图中可得到工作安全系数大于许用安全系数,满足条件要求.用ANSYS/FE-SAFE软件来进行疲劳分析可以为下一步研究提供一定的参考.

  18. Staying Safe on the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-06-05

    In this podcast for all audiences, Dr. Julie Gilchrist from CDC's Injury Center outlines tips for safe boating.  Created: 6/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 6/8/2008.

  19. Fire-safe hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, G.E.; Weatherford, W.D. Jr.; Wright, B.R.

    1979-11-06

    A stabilized, fire-safe, aqueous hydrocarbon fuel emulsion prepared by mixing: a diesel fuel; an emulsifier (consisting of oleyl diethanolamide, diethanolamine, and diethanolamine soap of oleic acid) which has been treated with about 0 to 7 1/2 of oleic acid. A modified version of this fuel also contains 0 to 0.5% of an antimisting agent, and water.

  20. Thermodynamics of asymptotically safe theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischke, Dirk H.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a novel class of gauge-Yukawa theories that have recently been shown to be completely asymptotically safe, because their short-distance behaviour is determined by the presence of an interacting fixed point. Not only do all the coupling constants freeze...

  1. Sound Security,Safe Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With the approach of the long a waited event,Chinese authorities have geared up to intensify security preparations.In line with the"people-oriented"and"athletes-centered"ideas,Beijing will spare no efforts to provide quality services and to build a safe and cornfort able environment that will satisfy all the Games' participants.

  2. Safe-haven CDS Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingler, Sven; Lando, David

    We argue that Credit Default Swap (CDS) premia for safe-haven sovereigns, like Germany and the United States, are driven to a large extent by regulatory requirements under which derivatives dealing banks have an incentive to buy CDS to hedge counterparty credit risk of their counterparties. We...

  3. A Study of Estimating the Safe Storage Life, Self-accelerating Decomposition Temperature and Critical Temperature of Thermal Explosion of Double-base Propellant Using Isothermal and Non-isothermal Decomposition Behaviours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Qi ZHAO; Hong Xu GAO; Rong Zu HU; Gui E LU; Jin Yong JIANG

    2006-01-01

    A method of estimating the safe storage life (τ), self-accelerating decomposition temperature (TSADT) and critical temperature of thermal explosion (Tb) of double-base propellant using isothermal and non-isothermal decomposition behaviours is presented. For double-base propellant composed of 56±1wt% of nitrocellulose (NC), 27±0.5wt% of nitroglycerine (NG),8.15±0.15wt% of dinitrotoluene (DNT), 2.5±0.1wt% of methyl centralite, 5.0±0.15wt% of catalyst and 1.0±0.1wt% of other, the values of τ of 49.4 years at 40℃, of TSADT of 151.35℃ and of Tb of 163.01℃ were obtained.

  4. A low cost, safe, disposable, rapid and self-sustainable paper-based platform for diagnostic testing: lab-on-paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. N.; Veigas, B.; Jacob, J. M.; Santos, D. S.; Gomes, J.; Baptista, P. V.; Martins, R.; Inácio, J.; Fortunato, E.

    2014-03-01

    There is a strong interest in the use of biopolymers in the electronic and biomedical industries, mainly towards low-cost applications. The possibility of developing entirely new kinds of products based on cellulose is of current interest, in order to enhance and to add new functionalities to conventional paper-based products. We present our results towards the development of paper-based microfluidics for molecular diagnostic testing. Paper properties were evaluated and compared to nitrocellulose, the most commonly used material in lateral flow and other rapid tests. Focusing on the use of paper as a substrate for microfluidic applications, through an eco-friendly wax-printing technology, we present three main and distinct colorimetric approaches: (i) enzymatic reactions (glucose detection); (ii) immunoassays (antibodies anti-Leishmania detection); (iii) nucleic acid sequence identification (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex detection). Colorimetric glucose quantification was achieved through enzymatic reactions performed within specific zones of the paper-based device. The colouration achieved increased with growing glucose concentration and was highly homogeneous, covering all the surface of the paper reaction zones in a 3D sensor format. These devices showed a major advantage when compared to the 2D lateral flow glucose sensors, where some carryover of the coloured products usually occurs. The detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in canine sera was conceptually achieved using a paper-based 96-well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format. However, optimization is still needed for this test, regarding the efficiency of the immobilization of antigens on the cellulose fibres. The detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis nucleic acids integrated with a non-cross-linking gold nanoprobe detection scheme was also achieved in a wax-printed 384-well paper-based microplate, by the hybridization with a species-specific probe. The obtained results with the above

  5. [Gadolinium as an alternative radiocontrast agent in patients with allergy to iodine-based contrast provide for useful diagnostic imagings and safely treatment of biliary tract diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Makoto; Sano, Hitoshi; Fukusada, Shigeki; Kachi, Kenta; Inoue, Tadahisa; Anbe, Kaiki; Nishie, Hirotada; Nishi, Yuji; Yoshimura, Norihiro; Mizushima, Takashi; Okumura, Fumihiro; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Naitoh, Itaru; Hayashi, Kazuki; Nakazawa, Takahiro

    2013-05-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of biliary tract disease requires an intraductal radiocontrast agent. Although iodine-based contrast medium is commonly used, some patients show severe allergy to iodinated contrast agent. We have retrospectively reviewed the usefulness and safety of gadolinium as an alternative radiocontrast agent in 3 patients with allergy to iodine-based contrast medium in the diagnosis and treatment of biliary tract diseases. In case 1, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and cholangiography were performed successfully and it was possible to visualize an intrahepatic bile duct stone. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotomy was performed and the intrahepatic bile duct stone was removed. In case 2, endoscopic biliary lithotripsy was performed. In case 3, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and cholangioscopy provided a diagnosis of moderately differentiated carcinoma. He underwent pancreatoduodenectomy. Postoperative cholangiograms were also obtained successfully. Gadolinium contrast agent is an alternative to iodine-based cholangiography for the patients with allergy to iodine.

  6. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel Petri net based approach for safe and flexible control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration...

  7. Teen motherhood and pregnancy prototypes: the role of social context in changing young African American mothers' risk images and contraceptive expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ashley B; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg

    2013-12-01

    Despite the declining rate of teen pregnancies in the United States, academic and public health experts have expressed concern over the still relatively high rate of rapid repeat pregnancies among adolescents, particularly among minority youth. Using a sample of over 300 African American female adolescents, the current study used insights from the prototype/willingness model of adolescent risk behavior to explore this risk. More specifically, it assessed the relationship between entry into unwed motherhood during mid-to-late adolescence and changes in prototypes of unmarried pregnant teens. Further, it explored the extent to which these changing prototypes accounted for young mothers' later contraceptive expectations. We tested the possibility that social images were affected not only by personal experience (the birth of a child) but also by the family and community context in which this experience took place. The findings show that the early entrance into teen motherhood was associated with a shift toward more favorable prototypes of unwed pregnant teens, but that this was only the case for young mothers in disadvantaged contexts. Given this, prototype changes helped to explain the link between teen motherhood and contraceptive expectations only for those in disadvantaged contexts. We discuss these findings in terms of their practical and theoretical implications.

  8. 基于WPKI技术的安全移动支付系统研究%Research on Mobile Safe Payment System Based on WPKI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩景灵; 张秀英

    2014-01-01

    To solve the information security problem of mobile payment effectively,based on analysis of WAP,WPKI technology and risk of mobile net,a security scheme of mobile payment based on WAP and WPKI technology is presented. A structure of mobile payment is constructed based on WAP and WPKI through analyzing system structure and optimization performance of WAP and WPKI. Moreover, the design is focused on function block of the security platform. The analysis showes that the security scheme provides security needs of mobile payment such as confidentiality,authentication and improve security of payment on wireless net.%为了有效解决移动支付信息安全问题,在分析和研究无线应用协议( WAP)、公开密钥基础设施( WPKI)和移动网络安全威胁的基础上,提出了一种基于WAP和WPKI技术的移动支付安全解决方案。该方案通过对WAP和WPKI体系结构和优化性的分析,确定了基于WAP和WPKI的移动支付体系结构模型,并对安全支付系统功能模块进行了详细的设计。通过分析表明,该解决方案可为移动支付提供加密、认证等安全服务,为移动网络中的安全支付提供了较好的安全保障。

  9. Safe abortion: a woman's right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangala, Vanessa

    2005-07-01

    Complications of induced abortion sadly remain significant causes of maternal mortality and morbidity around the world, but only in countries that do not provide access to safe abortion services. This article presents a brief account of how high maternal mortality from induced abortion became history in the UK and the dire consequences to women's health that unsafe abortion still has in many countries of the world. It gives a brief overview of the methods available to evacuate the uterus, with particular reference to manual vacuum aspiration. The status of the law in different countries is discussed, together with the need for health professionals to interpret repressive laws in ways that enables them to care for women who seek their help. Safe abortion services are cost effective, essential services for women. Men are part and parcel of the reason women resort to terminating a pregnancy, and, together with the countless children whose lives are dependent on a healthy caring mother, are also beneficiaries of safe abortion services. There can be no excuse for continuing to deny these services to so many women around the world.

  10. Curb challenges of the "Trojan Horse" approach: smart strategies in achieving effective yet safe cell-penetrating peptide-based drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongzhuo; Jiang, Yifan; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Jianxin; Shin, Meong Cheol; Byun, Youngro; He, Huining; Liang, Yanqin; Yang, Victor C

    2013-10-01

    Cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-mediated intracellular drug delivery system, often specifically termed as "the Trojan horse approach", has become the "holy grail" in achieving effective delivery of macromolecular compounds such as proteins, DNA, siRNAs, and drug carriers. It is characterized by the unique cell- (or receptor-), temperature-, and payload-independent mechanisms, therefore offering potent means to improve poor cellular uptake of a variety of macromolecular drugs. Nevertheless, this "Trojan horse" approach also acts like a double-edged sword, causing serious safety and toxicity concerns to normal tissues or organs for in vivo application, due to lack of target selectivity of the powerful cell penetrating activity. To overcome this problem of potent yet non-selective penetration vs. targeting delivery, a number of "smart" strategies have been developed in recent years, including controllable CPP-based drug delivery systems based on various stimuli-responsive mechanisms. This review article provides a fundamental understanding of these smart systems, as well as a discussion of their real-time in vivo applicability.

  11. 基于C++的关系代数产生的安全SQL查询%Safe SQL Queries Generated by Relational Algebra Based on C++ Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾坤鹏; 宋顺林

    2011-01-01

    在使用C++开发数据库相关的应用程序时,SQL语句的产生在程序编译期间并不会进行必要的检查.本文研究在编译期间使用C++编译器对关系代数运算作检查,由关系代数生成正确的SQL查询,将运行期SQL查询的部分检查工作提前到程序的编译期间处理.%When developing applications based on a database with C++ , the SQL queries are not necessarily checked for correctness at compile-time but only at runtime. The paper studies on using C++ compiler to check the relational algebra, which generates correct SQL queries, that brings forward some part of runtime work to be done at compile-time.

  12. Development of a Prototype Web GIS-Based Disaster Management System for Safe Operation of the Next Generation Bimodal Tram, South Korea—Focused Flooding and Snowfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Seok Jang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Korea Railroad Research Institute (KRRI has developed a bimodal tram and advanced bus rapid transit (BRT system which is an optimized public transit system created by mixing the railway’s punctual operation and the bus’ easy and convenient access. The bimodal tram system provides mass-transportation service with an eco-friendly and human-centered approach. Natural disasters have been increasing worldwide in recent years, including floods, snow, and typhoons disasters. Flooding is the most frequent natural disaster in many countries and is increasingly a concern with climate change; it seriously affects people’s lives and productivity, causing considerable economic loss and significant damage. Enhanced conventional disaster management systems are needed to support comprehensive actions to secure safety and convenience. The objective of this study is to develop a prototype version of a Web GIS-based bimodal tram disaster management system (BTDMS using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM 5.0 to enhance on-time operation and safety of the bimodal tram system. The BTDMS was tested at the bimodal tram test railroad by simulating probable maximum flood (PMF and snow melting for forecasting flooding and snow covered roads. This result could provide the basis for plans to protect against flooding disasters and snow covered roads in operating the bimodal tram system. The BTDMS will be used to assess and predict weather impacts on roadway conditions and operations and thus has the potential to influence economic growth. The methodology presented in this paper makes it possible to manage impacts of flooding and snowfall on urban transportation and enhance operation of the bimodal tram system. Such a methodology based on modeling could be created for most metropolitan areas in Korea and in many other countries.

  13. Long-Term Use of Probiotic-Containing Yogurts Is a Safe Way to Prevent Helicobacter pylori: Based on a Mongolian Gerbil's Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hung Kuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The suppression of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori decreases H. pylori-related diseases. The probiotics have an inhibitory effect on H. pylori. Aim. We investigated the effects of long-term use of yogurt on H. pylori based on Mongolian gerbils’ model. Materials and Methods. Yogurt (containing a supplement of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, etc. was used. Forty-six gerbils were divided into five groups. All groups were inoculated with H. pylori for 5 to 8 weeks. The yogurt was given as follows: Group (Gr. A: from 1st to 4th week; Gr. B from 5th to 8th week; Gr. C: from 17th week to sacrifice; Gr. D: from 5th week to sacrifice. Gerbils were sacrificed on the 52nd week. Histology was evaluated according to the Sydney system. Results. The positive rates of H. pylori were 60% (Gr. A, 75% (Gr. B, 67% (Gr. C, 44% (Gr. D, and 100% (Gr. E. Gr. D showed lower inflammatory score. Only Gr. E (60% had intestinal metaplasia. Gr. D showed higher IL-10 and lower TNF-α expression than Gr. E. Conclusion. Long-term intake of yogurt could decrease H. pylori infection. The long-term use of yogurt would be an alternative strategy to manage H. pylori infection.

  14. Implementing and Evaluating Comprehensive Evidence-Based Approaches to Prevent Youth Violence: Partnering to Create Communities Where Youth Are Safe From Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L; Massetti, Greta M; Bacon, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Violence, including its occurrence among youth, results in considerable physical, emotional, social, and economic consequences in the U.S. Youth violence prevention work at the Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) emphasizes preventing youth violence-related behaviors, injuries, and deaths by collaborating with academic and community partners and stakeholders. Since 2000, DVP has funded three rounds of CDC's National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPCs) in 5-year cycles, with the goal of supporting university-community partnerships so that the best science can be utilized in order to prevent youth violence. The current YVPCs focus on: (a) partnering with communities to identify community needs; (b) selecting and implementing the best comprehensive evidence-based programs to meet those needs; and (c) rigorously evaluating whether those efforts have a community-level impact on youth violence rates. The introduction to this special issue on the current YVPCs provides a brief historical overview on the YVPC Program; outlines the YVPCs' accomplishments to date; and describes the current YVPCs, their community partners, and their activities. The introduction concludes with an overview of the special issue.

  15. Essential oil of Aegle marmelos as a safe plant-based antimicrobial against postharvest microbial infestations and aflatoxin contamination of food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, Nawal K; Gupta, Rajesh

    2009-08-01

    The essential oil of Aegle marmelos L. Correa (Rutaceae) showed strong fungitoxicity against some storage fungi-causing contamination of foodstuffs. The oil also showed efficacy as aflatoxin suppressor at 500 microL/L as it completely arrested the aflatoxin B(1) production by the toxigenic strains (Navjot 4NSt and Saktiman 3NSt) of Aspergillus flavus Link. Keeping in view the side effects of synthetic fungicides, A. marmelos oil may be recommended as an antimicrobial of plant origin to enhance the shelf life of stored food commodities by controlling the fungal growth as well as aflatoxin secretion. This is the 1st report on aflatoxin B(1) inhibitory nature of this oil. A. marmelos oil may be recommended as a novel plant-based antimicrobial in food protection over synthetic preservatives, most of which are reported to incite environmental problems because of their nonbiodegradable nature and side effects on mammals. The LD(50) of Aegle oil was found to be 23659.93 mg/kg body weight in mice (Mus musculus L.) when administered for acute oral toxicity showing nonmammalian toxicity of the oil. GC-MS analysis of the oil found DL-Limonene to be major component.

  16. Implementing AORN recommended practices for a safe environment of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Antonia B

    2013-08-01

    Providing a safe environment for every patient undergoing a surgical or other invasive procedure is imperative. AORN's "Recommended practices for a safe environment of care" provides guidance on a wide range of topics related to the safety of perioperative patients and health care personnel. The recommendations are intended to provide guidance for establishing best practices and implementing safety measures in all perioperative practice settings. Perioperative nurses should be aware of risks related to musculoskeletal injuries, fire, equipment, latex, and chemicals, among others, and understand strategies for reducing the risks. Evidence-based recommendations can give practitioners the tools to guide safe practice.

  17. Total Body Irradiation-Based Myeloablative Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation Is a Safe and Effective Alternative to Unrelated Donor Transplantation in Patients Without Matched Sibling Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Scott R; Sizemore, Connie A; Sanacore, Melissa; Zhang, Xu; Brown, Stacey; Holland, H Kent; Morris, Lawrence E; Bashey, Asad

    2015-07-01

    We enrolled 30 patients on a prospective phase II trial utilizing a total body irradiation (TBI)-based myeloablative preparative regimen (fludarabine 30 mg/m2/day × 3 days and TBI 150 cGy twice per day on day -4 to -1 [total dose 1200 cGy]) followed by infusion of unmanipulated peripheral blood stem cells from a haploidentical family donor (haplo). Postgrafting immunosuppression consisted of cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg/day on days 3 and 4, mycophenolate mofetil through day 35, and tacrolimus through day 180. Median patient age was 46.5 years (range, 24 to 60). Transplantation diagnosis included acute myelogenous leukemia (n = 16), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 6), chronic myelogenous leukemia (n = 5), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 1), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 2). Using the Dana Farber/Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research/Disease Risk Index (DRI), patients were classified as low (n = 4), intermediate (n = 12), high (n = 11), and very high (n = 3) risk. All patients engrafted with a median time to neutrophil and platelet recovery of 16 and 25 days, respectively. All evaluable patients achieved sustained complete donor T cell and myeloid chimerism by day +30. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades II to IV and III and IV was seen in 43% and 23%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 56% (severe in 10%). After a median follow-up of 24 months, the estimated 2-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), nonrelapse mortality, and relapse rate were 78%, 73%, 3%, and 24%, respectively. Two-year DFS and relapse rate in patients with low/intermediate risk disease was 100% and 0%, respectively, compared with 39% and 53% for patients with high/very high risk disease. When compared with a contemporaneously treated cohort of patients at our institution receiving myeloablative HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation (acute myelogenous leukemia [n = 17], acute lymphoblastic leukemia [n = 15

  18. 基于脑电波分析技术的安全驾驶实验研究%Experimental Study on Safe Driving Based on Electroencephalography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧居尚

    2011-01-01

    为了研究饮酒对驾驶过程中脑电波的影响,在由急弯、紧急停车港、障碍区和直线路段组成的虚拟场景中,利用脑电仪实时采集汽车驾驶员的脑电信号,建立脑电波分析指标体系,进行快速傅立叶变换后,计算δ波、θ波、α波、中间快波、β波以及γ波的平均功率,进而计算各频段波功率占总频段波功率的比例,比较组合指标(α+θ)/β在饮酒前后的差异,并运用成对t检验分析各项指标.结果表明,饮酒对θ、α和γ脑电波有显著影响,t检验结果小于0.01;对其余脑电波没有显著影响,t检验结果大于0.05.在3个显著变化的指标中,仅γ脑电波饮酒前、后的差值随着酒精浓度的下降逐渐减小,酒精浓度小于40.5 mg/100 ml后,差值为1.12%.%In order to study the effects of alcohol drinking on electroencephalography (EEG) during driving, a system of indicators for EEG analysis were set up based on the real-time EEG data of drivers collected by a neuroscan EEG system under virtual scenes made of sharp curves, emergency stop belts, obstacle zones and straight line segments. After fast Fourier transform, the mean powers of delta wave (5) , theta wave (0), alpha wave (a) , middle fast wave, beta wave (β) , and gama wave (y) were calculated, and the proportion of the power in each frequency range to the whole frequency range was obtained. Then, the differences of the combined indicator (a + 0)/β were compared between drunk driving and non-drunk driving, and all the indicators were analyzed by the paired sample t-test. The results show that alcohol drinking affects significantly the theta wave, alpha wave, and gama wave, with t-test values being less than 0.01; but does not affect significantly the rest of EEGs, with t-test values being more than 0. 05. Among the three parameters affected significantly, only the difference of gama wave before and after drinking reduces gradually with the blood alcohol concentration (BAC

  19. Trabalho e maternidade na Europa, condições de trabalho e políticas públicas Work and motherhood in Europe, working conditions and public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danièle Meulders

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nosso objetivo é estudar qual será a atitude das mulheres em face da maternidade e do emprego conforme os efeitos que a presença de um filho venha a exercer sobre suas condições e perspectivas de trabalho; e medir os efeitos positivos ou negativos de políticas públicas sobre suas decisões. Apresentaremos alguns resultados referentes ao custo dos filhos em termos de emprego e de eficácia das políticas públicas. A primeira parte é dedicada às estimativas dos efeitos específicos da maternidade sobre a participação no mercado de trabalho e sua duração. A segunda parte refere-se às políticas públicas implementadas em 15 países europeus em apoio ao modelo da família onde ambos os cônjuges trabalham. Essa comparação baseia-se na construção de indicadores compatibilizados que sintetizam as informações de um conjunto exaustivo de dados quantitativos e qualitativos sobre três formas de intervenção pública: os serviços de educação e cuidado infantil, as licenças ligadas ao nascimento e as ajudas diretas às famílias.Our aim is to investigate what women’s attitude toward motherhood and employment will be as they become aware of how a child will affect their working conditions and job perspectives; and to measure the positive or negative effects that public policies will have over their decisions. We will present some results related to the cost of children in terms of jobs and the effectiveness of public policies. The first part is dedicated to the estimates of specific effects of motherhood over the participation in the labor market and how long they last. The second part refers to public policies implemented in 15 European countries to support the family model in which both spouses work. Such comparison is based on the construction of compatible indicators that summarize the information from an exhaustive set of quantitative and qualitative data on three types of public intervention: educational and child care

  20. Type-safe pattern combinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan...... of these languages. This is particularly challenging when introducing features that span across multiple types and that bind variables. We address this challenge by developing, in a step by step manner, mechanisms for encoding patterns and pattern matching in Haskell in a type-safe way....

  1. Towards Safe Robotic Surgical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    A proof of safety is paramount for an autonomous robotic surgical system to ensure that it does not cause trauma to patients. However, a proof of safety is rarely constructed, as surgical systems are too complex to be dealt with by most formal verification methods. In this paper, we design...... a controller for motion compensation in beating-heart surgery, and prove that it is safe, i.e., the surgical tool is kept within an allowable distance and orientation of the heart. We solve the problem by simultaneously finding a control law and a barrier function. The motion compensation system is simulated...

  2. Safe domain and elementary geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, J M

    2004-01-01

    A classical problem of mechanics involves a projectile fired from a given point with a given velocity whose direction is varied. This results in a family of trajectories whose envelope defines the border of a 'safe' domain. In the simple cases of a constant force, harmonic potential and Kepler or Coulomb motion, the trajectories are conic curves whose envelope in a plane is another conic section which can be derived either by simple calculus or by geometrical considerations. The case of harmonic forces reveals a subtle property of the maximal sum of distances within an ellipse.

  3. Features of Parent-Child Relationship of Mothers with Teenage Children in the Conditions of Late Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharova E.I.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The author's attention is attracted by one of the features of modern Russian family: the tendency to increase the frequency of childbirth by women of older reproductive age. The article presents the results of a comparative analysis of the mothers’ parent position, who had children at different periods of adulthood (middle, late. The aim of the study was to investigate the features of the parent-child relationship of mothers with teenage children in the conditions of late motherhood. Mothers of adolescents who participated in the study were divided into two groups: "young" mothers who gave birth to the first child before the age of 30 years, and "late" mothers who gave birth to their first child after being 30 years old. It turned out that the strategies of education and interaction between the "young" and "late" mothers, reflecting the value orientation of personality, are significantly different. Focusing on the emotional closeness with the child and creativity, education strategy of "late" mothers has a high emotional involvement, soft and inconsistent parenting. The features of maternal parenting strategies are adequately reflected by the teenagers who follow their mothers in priority of the values of family and work, or material well-being and the pursuit of hedonistic values.

  4. Keeping you safe by making machine tools safe

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN’s third safety objective for 2012 concerns the safety of equipment - and machine tools in particular.   There are three prerequisites for ensuring that a machine tool can be used safely: ·      the machine tool must comply with Directive 2009/104/EC, ·      the layout of the workshop must be compliant, and ·      everyone who uses the machine tool must be trained. Provided these conditions are met, the workshop head can grant authorisation to use the machine tool. To fulfil this objective, an inventory of the machine tools must be drawn up and the people responsible for them identified. The HSE Unit's Safety Inspection Service produces compliance reports for the machine tools. In order to meet the third objective set by the Director-General, the section has doubled its capacity to carry out inspections: ...

  5. Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely Share Tweet Linkedin ... video for tips from an FDA pediatrician on teaching older kids about using medicine safely. To view ...

  6. Dementia - keeping safe in the home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000031.htm Dementia - keeping safe in the home To use the ... make sure the homes of people who have dementia are safe for them. Safety Tips for the ...

  7. 30 CFR 57.11001 - Safe access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe access. 57.11001 Section 57.11001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11001 Safe access. Safe means of access shall be provided...

  8. 30 CFR 56.11001 - Safe access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe access. 56.11001 Section 56.11001 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways § 56.11001 Safe access. Safe means of access shall be provided and maintained to all working places....

  9. Is herniography useful and safe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hureibi, K.A., E-mail: alhureibi@gmail.com [Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton TA1 5DA (United Kingdom); McLatchie, Gregor R., E-mail: Gregor.McLatchie@nth.nhs.uk [University Hospital of Hartlepool, Holdforth Road, Hartlepool TS24 9AH (United Kingdom); Kidambi, Ananta V., E-mail: Ananta.Kidambi@nth.nhs.uk [University Hospital of Hartlepool, Holdforth Road, Hartlepool TS24 9AH (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    117 consecutive herniograms were reviewed for patients who had symptoms suggestive of hernia but with no evidence or inconclusive findings on physical examination. The traditional approach has been to explore patients with suspected occult hernias. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of herniography in minimizing needless groin exploration and to evaluate its safety. Thirty-three herniograms were positive and showed unilateral and bilateral inguinal hernias. There were no false positive examinations and two false negative examinations. No complications were present. Patients with positive herniograms were explored, and operative findings correlated well with herniographic findings. Twenty-four patients were referred to other specialities. Follow-up in clinic and telephone interviews showed symptomatic improvement in the majority of patients. Herniography is useful in evaluating obscure groin pain and occult hernias. It is a safe procedure and more cost effective than a negative exploration or diagnostic laparoscopy.

  10. How safe is Bubble Soccer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halani, Sameer H; Riley, Jonathan P; Pradilla, Gustavo; Ahmad, Faiz U

    2016-12-01

    Traumatic neurologic injury in contact sports is a rare but serious consequence for its players. These injuries are most commonly associated with high-impact collisions, for example in football, but are found in a wide variety of sports. In an attempt to minimize these injuries, sports are trying to increase safety by adding protection for participants. Most recently is the seemingly 'safe' sport of Bubble Soccer, which attempts to protect its players with inflatable plastic bubbles. We report a case of a 16-year-old male sustaining a cervical spine burst fracture with incomplete spinal cord injury while playing Bubble Soccer. To our knowledge, this is the first serious neurological injury reported in the sport.

  11. Working safely with electronics racks

    CERN Multimedia

    Simon Baird, HSE Unit Head

    2016-01-01

    Think of CERN and you’ll probably think of particle accelerators and detectors. These are the tools of the trade in particle physics, but behind them are the racks of electronics that include power supplies, control systems and data acquisition networks.   Inside an electronics rack: danger could be lurking if the rack is not powered off. In routine operation, these are no more harmful than the home entertainment system in your living room. But unscrew the cover and it’s a different matter. Even after following appropriate training, and with formal authorisation from your group leader or equivalent to carry out electrical work or any work in the vicinity of electrical hazards, and even with extensive experience of carrying out such operations, it’s important to incorporate safe working practices into your routine. At CERN, before the racks of electronics reach their operational configurations for the accelerators and detectors, they play a vital role in test set-ups ...

  12. The Difference Safe Spaces Make

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendric Coleman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT students have become very visible at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs, but this visibility is not reflected in some colleges’ student programs and activities. Only a few notable HBCUs, such as Howard University and Spelman College, have made a concerted effort. Acknowledging that the LGBT community is significant and exists, and fostering such support, comes up against a steep wall of religious tradition and doctrines, and conservative administrations. It is imperative that HBCUs address LGBT issues and create and support a safe space for students to articulate their identity. Meanwhile, many LGBT students on these campuses find voice and understanding in Black scholars and writers such as Audre Lorde’s Zami: A New Spelling of My Name and Charles Michael Smith’s Fighting Words: Personal Essays by Black Gay Men.

  13. Inflation from Asymptotically Safe Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund; Sannino, Francesco; Svendsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    of the existence of a controllable ultraviolet interacting fixed point. The scalar couplings at the ultraviolet fixed point and their overall running are predicted by the geometric structure of the underlying theory. We analyse the minimal and non-minimal coupling to gravity of these theories and the consequences......We investigate models in which inflation is driven by an ultraviolet safe and interacting scalar sector stemming from a new class of nonsupersymmetric gauge field theories. These new theories, differently from generic scalar models, are well defined to arbitrary short distances because...... for inflation. In the minimal coupling case the theory requires large non-perturbative quantum corrections to the quantum potential for the theory to agree with data, while in the non- minimal coupling case the perturbative regime in the couplings of the theory is preferred. Requiring the theory to reproduce...

  14. Emergency Response Virtual Environment for Safe Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, Ayman; Walker, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    An intelligent emergency response virtual environment (ERVE) that provides emergency first responders, response planners, and managers with situational awareness as well as training and support for safe schools is presented. ERVE incorporates an intelligent agent facility for guiding and assisting the user in the context of the emergency response operations. Response information folders capture key information about the school. The system enables interactive 3D visualization of schools and academic campuses, including the terrain and the buildings' exteriors and interiors in an easy to use Web..based interface. ERVE incorporates live camera and sensors feeds and can be integrated with other simulations such as chemical plume simulation. The system is integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) to enable situational awareness of emergency events and assessment of their effect on schools in a geographic area. ERVE can also be integrated with emergency text messaging notification systems. Using ERVE, it is now possible to address safe schools' emergency management needs with a scaleable, seamlessly integrated and fully interactive intelligent and visually compelling solution.

  15. 基于改进的3-D Secure协议的移动支付安全解决方案%ON SAFE SOLUTION OF MOBILE PAYMENT BASED ON IMPROVED 3-D SECURE PROTOCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫红春; 马丁

    2011-01-01

    A new safe solution of mobile payment based on improved 3-D Secure protocol is presented by learning from existing mobile transaction payment patterns abroad and in conjunction with the features of security requirements of domestic financial system, The solution adopts AES algorithm to encrypt communication message and uses a set of security authentication systems supporting the multi-channel secure message transmission control to ensure the safety of the customers', the merchants' and the funds information in mobile payment transaction.The feasibility and security of the solution in payment transaction are analysed, tested and validated as well.%借鉴国外已有的移动交易支付模式,结合我国金融系统的特点及安全要求,提出了一种基于改进的3-D Secure协议的移动支付安全方案,该方案采用AES(Advanced Encryption Standard)算法对通信报文加密,通过一套支持多信道报文安全传输控制的安全认证体系,来保证在移动支付业务中的客户、商户和资金信息的安全.分析并测试验证了该方案在支付业务中的可行性和安全性.

  16. From ‘Virgin Births’ to ‘Octomom’: Representations of Single Motherhood via Sperm Donation in the UK News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of sperm donation by single women has provoked public, professional and political debate. Newspapers serve as a critical means of both broadcasting this debate and effecting a representation of this user group within the public sphere. This study uses the theory of social representations to examine how single motherhood by sperm donation has been represented in the UK news over time. The study sampled news coverage on this topic in eight British newspapers during three 4‐year periods between the years 1988 and 2012. The dataset of news reports (n = 406) was analysed using a qualitative approach. Findings indicated that UK media reports of single women using donor sperm are underpinned by conventional categories of the ‘personal’, the ‘traditional’ and the ‘natural’ that when paired with their corollaries produce a representation of this user group as the social ‘other’. The amount of coverage on this topic over time was found to vary according to the political orientation of different media sources. Using key concepts from social representations theory, this article discusses the relationship between themata and anchoring in the maintenance of representations of the social ‘other’ in mass mediated communication. Findings are explained in relation to theoretical conceptions of the mass media and its position within the public sphere. It is argued that the use of personal narratives in news reports of single mothers by sperm donation may have significant implications for public understandings of this social group. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27867283

  17. Development of Safe Food Handling Guidelines for Korean Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Min-Woo; Hwang, In-Kyeong; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for Korean consumers with regard to safe food handling practices at home by identifying current food handling issues. Korean consumers' behaviors regarding their safe food handling were identified via survey questionnaires that included items on individual hygiene practices, prepreparation steps when cooking, the cooking process, and the storage of leftover foods. The subjects were 417 Korean parents with elementary school children living in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in the central area of Korea. The survey results revealed gaps between the knowledge or practices of Korean consumers and scientific evidence pertaining to safe food handling practices. Based on these findings, a leaflet on safe food handling guidelines was developed in accordance with Korean food culture. These guidelines suggest personal hygiene practices as well as fundamental principles and procedures for safe food handling from the stage of food purchase to that of keeping leftover dishes. A pilot application study with 50 consumers revealed that the guidelines effectively improved Korean consumers' safe food handling practices, suggesting that they can serve as practical educational material suitable for Korean consumers.

  18. What is a safe lift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Kathy

    2013-09-01

    In a perfect world, a "safe" lift would be 51 pounds if the object is within 7 inches from the front of the body, if it is at waist height, if it is directly in front of the person, if there is a handle on the object, and if the load inside the box/bucket doesn't shift once lifted. If the load to be lifted does not meet all of these criteria, then it is an unsafe lift, and modifications must be made. Modifications would include lightening the load, getting help, or using a mechanical lifting device. There is always a way to turn an unsafe lift into a safer lift. An excellent resource for anyone interested in eliminating some of the hazards associated with lifting is the "Easy Ergonomics" publication from Cal/OSHA. This booklet offers practical advice on how to improve the workplace using engineering and administrative controls, problem-solving strategies and solutions, and a vast amount of ergonomics information and resources. "Easy Ergonomics" can be obtained by calling Cal/OSHA's education and training unit in Sacramento at 800-963-9424. A free copy can be obtained via www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/puborder.asp.

  19. Research on Safe Flight of the Outboard Wing Rupturing Aircraft based on CFD Simulation%基于CFD仿真的外翼断裂飞机安全飞行研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚武文; 蔡开龙

    2016-01-01

    The flight of the aircraft with outboard wing rupturing is a special problem about pneumatics and flight con-trol.The analysis model about the special pneumatics problem is set up by the CFD emulation method,and the control method about outboard wing rupturing aircraft aviating safely is brought forward.By the simulation computing,the conclu-sion is gained that the opposite damage most limit of the outboard wing based on the aileron balance method is 14.2%,and the opposite damage most limit of the outboard wing based on the side flight balance method is 24.5%.It provides the refer-ence and evaluation method for the aircraft with outboard wing rupturing flying.%针对外翼断裂飞机安全飞行问题,采用CFD 仿真方法,建立了针对该特殊气动问题的分析模型,提出了外翼断裂飞机安全飞行控制方法,并通过仿真计算得到,基于副翼平衡法的外翼相对损伤极限为14.2%,基于侧飞平衡法的外翼相对损伤极限为24.5%,为战时外翼断裂飞机带伤飞行提供了参考和评估方法。

  20. Fitting Community Based Newborn Care Package into the health systems of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Y V; Upreti, S R; Kc, N P; Thapa, K; Shrestha, P R; Shedain, P R; Dhakwa, J R; Aryal, D R; Aryal, S; Paudel, D C; Paudel, D; Khanal, S; Bhandari, A; Kc, A

    2011-10-01

    Community-based strategies for delivering effective newborn interventions are an essential step to avert newborn death, in settings where the health facilities are unable to effectively deliver the interventions and reach their population. Effective implementation of community-based interventions as a large scale program and within the existing health system depends on the appropriate design and planning, monitoring and support systems. This article provides an overview of implementation design of Community-Based Newborn Care Package (CB-NCP) program, its setup within the health system, and early results of the implementation from one of the pilot districts. The evaluation of CB-NCP in one of the pilot districts shows significant improvement in antenatal, intrapartum and post natal care. The implementation design of the CB-NCP has six different health system management functions: i) district planning and orientation, ii) training/human resource development, iii) monitoring and evaluation, iv) logistics and supply chain management, v) communication strategy, and vi) pay for performance. The CB-NCP program embraced the existing system of monitoring with some additional components for the pilot phase to test implementation feasibility, and aligns with existing safe motherhood and child health programs. Though CB-NCP interventions are proven independently in different local and global contexts, they are piloted in 10 districts as a "package" within the national health system settings of Nepal.

  1. Design of intrinsically safe power supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui-jin; JIN Lin

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to make a high power direct current supply safely used in coal mine production,this paper made a deep research on characteristics of intrinsically safe power supply,using the mathematical model established according to coal mine intrinsic safety standards.It provides theory support for the application of high power intrinsically safe power supply.The released energy of output short circuit of switch power supply,and the close related factors that influence the biggest output short-circuit spark discharge energy are the theoretical basis of the power supply.It is shown how to make a high power intrinsically safe power supply using the calculated values in the mathematical model,and take values from intrinsically safe requirements parameters scope,then this theoretical calculation value can be developed as the ultimate basis for research of the power supply.It gets the identification method of intrinsically safe from mathematics model of intrinsically safe power supply characteristics study,which solves the problem of theory and application of designing different power intrinsically safe power supply,and designs a kind of high power intrinsically safe power supply through this method.

  2. The Sorrows of Motherhood A Reading of The joys of Motherhood by Buchi Emecheta%母性的悲哀——读埃梅切塔的小说《母性的喜悦》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓蕊

    2007-01-01

    Buchi Emecheta's The Joys of Motherhood is a Nigerian woman's story:set in the British colony of Nigeria in the 1930s and 1940s.Buchi Emecheta narrates the protagonist-Nnu Ego's both physical life and psychological reflections first as a woman in traditional tribal Ibo and later as a mother in colonial Lagos.From being a barren woman,to wanting to be a complete woman--being a mother of many children in her first marriage;from succeeding in being nine children's mother,to resulting in being a lonely woman in her second marriage,Nnu Ego,as her name suggests,finds her "new ego"--new self.after experiencing such a hard life-long mother and complete woman pursuing process.Though it is too late for herself,it is not later for other women who have similar situation like she does.%埃梅切塔在她的小说中塑造了一个动人的奈及利亚妇女形象Nnu Ego,小说主题寓意深刻.奈及利亚社会对妇女的基本标准之一是生养多个孩子,以支持其农业经济.女主人公Nnu Ego第一次婚姻因其不能生育而破裂.为了成为奈及利亚社会承认的完整女人,Nan Ego选择了第二次婚姻,虽然成为八个孩子的母亲,抚养他们成人,Nnu Ego最后还是一个人孤单的死去.是什么导致了Nnu Ego悲惨的命运呢?在临终时,Nan Ego终于找到了新的自我,虽然对她自己而言为时已晚,但是她一生坎坷的生活经历却给了和她有相似处境的女性宝贵的启示.小说题目极具讽刺意味,士主人公Nnu Ego的为母生涯充满了不是喜悦而是悲哀.

  3. 基于Zigbee的电子屏幕安全观看距离智能监控系统%Safe Distance Monitoring System for Watching Electronic Display Based on Zigbee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博维; 徐强; 高旭旭; 郝丽波

    2016-01-01

    长时间近距离观看电子设备成为目前青少年近视率迅速增加的主要原因。逐渐靠近电子屏幕经常是无意识的,针对这一问题,本文设计了一种基于Zigbee和单片机的智能监测系统,可以有效监测观看者观看电视等大屏幕的距离是否安全。通过结合声音提醒、继电器切断视频信号两级控制,即实现了智能监控的功能,也具有很好的用户体验。测试表明,系统工作稳定可靠,很好的满足了功能需求。%Watching electronic equipment for long in short distance is the main reason for the rapid increase in myopia for young pepole. To solve this problem, this paper designs an intelligent monitoring system based on Zigbee and microcontroller which can effectively monitor the distance between viewer and the electronic display, such as TV set and show the viewer it is safe or not. Through a combination of sound alerts and cutting the video signal, the two level control can meet the both requirements of intelligent monitoring and good user experience. Tests show that the system is reliable, good to meet the functional requirements.

  4. 多因素斜交模型的煤矿员工安全行为作用路径分析%Analysis on Action Path of Coal Mine Employees' Safe Behavior Based on Multifactor Oblique Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱艳娜; 何刚; 朱先飞; 乔国通; 张贵生

    2015-01-01

    In order to effectively reduce the occurrence rate of coal mine accidents, to develop a safe and efficient path analysis model of the coal mine employees' safety behaviors is an urgent problem to be faced and solved by our coal enterprises. In this paper, the analysis algorithm of the employees' safety behavior path was proposed by taking the safety behaviors as the management theory and SPSS and AMOS methods as the research base, the regression equation was set up and comparative analysis was made on the employees' safety behavior action path. The results showed that the structure of the multifactor oblique model was adapted to the actual data and the coal mine employees' safety behaviors were affected by the working environment and personal factors. So, improving the employees ' working environment is a feasible path to enhance the level of their safety behaviors.%为有效降低煤矿事故发生率,开发安全高效的煤矿员工安全行为路径分析模型,是解决我国煤炭行业面临的迫在眉睫的难题. 以安全行为管理理论、SPSS和AMOS方法为研究基础,提出员工安全行为路径分析算法,并建立回归方程,对比分析员工安全行为作用路径. 结果表明,多因素斜交结构模型与实际数据适配,煤矿员工安全行为受作业环境和个人因素影响,改善员工作业环境是提升员工安全行为水平的可行路径.

  5. What Influences the Rate of Entry into Motherhood of Women Enrolled in Full-Time Education? A Difference-in-Differences Analysis of the Effect of the German Unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolin J. Blossfeld

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the entry into motherhood of women in full-time education in East and West Germany before and after German unification. Using longitudinal data from the ‘National Educational Panel Study’ (NEPS, we have conducted a difference-in-differences analysis and apply multivariate methods. Our longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the conflict between the sequencing norm and the age norm is dependent on women’s age, social origin, and pro-natalist state support for women in full-time education. Women who are enrolled in education enter motherhood more often as age increases, since the pressure coming from the normative timing of motherhood is increasing, although with a declining slope. To avoid the jeopardizing consequences of motherhood on educational success, families from higher social origins have a stronger desire that women should first finish education before they have their first baby. The results of our analysis also demonstrate that the fertility behaviour of young East German women who are enrolled in full-time education has changed with German unification.

  6. Dilemas sobre la Maternidad Subrogada en México (Dilemmas about Surrogate Motherhood from México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Victoria Ruiz Balcázar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 33 current civil codes in Mexico, only the State of Tabasco code regulates gestational surrogacy, codes of Coahuila de Zaragoza and Querétaro states prevent it, and the rest avoid the issue rather than discuss it. The Coahuila code considers non-existent any surrogacy arrangement in the name of another person because the authorized ones as recipients of TRHA are those who are marriaged or attached by cohabitation and even if a fertilized egg was implanted a woman who is not from the genetic material the code orders this attribute of motherhood to her. The Queretaro code prohibits embryo adoptive couples to contract the womb of a third woman. The Sinaloa Family Code also authorizes surrogacy arrangemen for free or onerous. This scenario creates legal uncertainty and constant violation of human rights of both interested in procreation and the woman that agrees to become or attempts to become pregnant and bear a child for another person or persons. En México se cuenta con 33 códigos civiles vigentes de los cuales únicamente el que rige al Estado de Tabasco regula la gestación sustituta, dos la impiden y el resto evita el tema en lugar de discutirlo. La impiden Coahuila de Zaragoza y Querétaro. La primera entidad considera inexistente todo pacto o convención que verse sobre la gestación realizada en nombre de otra persona en virtud que sólo autoriza como destinatarios de las TRHA a quienes se encuentren unidos en matrimonio o concubinato y aun en el caso que un óvulo fecundado fuese implantado en una mujer de quien no provenga el material genético ordena atribuirle a ésta la maternidad. La segunda prohíbe a las parejas adoptantes de embriones contratar el vientre de una tercera mujer. De igual forma el Código Familiar de Sinaloa también autoriza la gestación por encargo en forma gratuita u onerosa. Este panorama genera incertidumbre jurídica y una constante violación a los derechos humanos tanto de los interesados en

  7. How people with low vision cycle safely

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelijs, Bart; Melis-Dankers, Bart; de Waard, Dick; Heutink, Jochem

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the ability to cycle safely and responsibly is important for independent mobility across the lifespan. In addition, cycling can be important in maintaining physical health. But when can a visually challenged person use a bicycle safely? Opinions vary, but there are no reliable -

  8. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Glenda A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  9. Safe Haven Laws as "Crime Control Theater"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K.; Griffin, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of "crime control theater", a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially…

  10. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark [NB Power Nuclear, P.O. Box 600, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Reeves, David [Atlantic Nuclear Services Ltd., PO Box 1268 Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  11. Safe Haven Laws and School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopels, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    "Safe haven" laws are designed to protect infants from being killed or otherwise harmed. This article examines the safe haven laws from the states that comprise the Midwest School Social Work Council and the variations between these laws regarding the age of the infant, where the infant can be left, who is allowed to leave the infant, whether…

  12. 一种基于系统安全工作区的变换器保护策略%Protection scheme for converter based on the systematic safe operating area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪松; 赵争鸣; 袁立强

    2012-01-01

    为了解决电力电子装置的可持续运行能力和可靠性之间的矛盾,提出了一种基于系统安全工作区的变换器保护策略,通过对半导体器件特性、主电路结构参数、控制信号延迟和系统温度的量化分析推导了系统安全工作区的数学模型。该策略在量化考虑变换器中的各系统元素之间关系的基础上,不仅能够保障变换器不受损伤或损坏,还能够准确计算系统的保护阚值,提高半导体器件的利用率和变换器的可持续运行能力,成为能够保障变换器可靠性的重要工具。该方法同样适用于其他类型变换器的保护设计。给出了应用该方法设计变换器保护策略的实例,采用实验的方法验证了该方法的有效性。%This paper presents a protection scheme for converters based on the systematic safe operating area (SSOA) to resolve the conflict between the ability of continuous operation and the reliability of power electronics converters. The mathematical model of SSOA was derived and presented through the quantitative analysis of the semiconductor device characteristics, parameters of main circuit, delay of signals and system temperatures. Based on the quantitative analysis of the relationship between the system elements of the converter, this method can not only protect the power devices from being damaged, but also can accurately calculate the protection thresholds and improve the utilization of power devices and the continuous operation ability of converters. Thus, this method becomes an important tool for ensuring the reliability of the converters which can also be applied to the protection design for other types of converters. An example of the application using this method was given with the experimental results showing the validity of this method.

  13. Food Safety Posters for Safe Handling of Leafy Greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Lakshman; Arendt, Susan W.; Shaw, Angela M.; Strohbehn, Catherine H.; Sauer, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes food safety educational tools depicting safe handling of leafy greens that are available as downloadable posters to Extension educators and practitioners (www.extension.iastate.edu). Nine visual-based minimal-text colored posters in English, Chinese, and Spanish were developed for use when formally or informally educating…

  14. The SafeBoosC II randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plomgaard, Anne M; van Oeveren, Wim; Petersen, Tue Hvass

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The SafeBoosC phase II multicentre randomized clinical trial investigated the benefits and harms of monitoring cerebral oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with an evidence-based treatment guideline vs. no NIRS data and treatment as usual in the control group...

  15. Declarative Modelling and Safe Distribution of Healthcare Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

    2012-01-01

    a set of local process graphs communicating by shared events, such that the distributed execution of the local processes is equivalent to executing the original process. The technique is based on our recent similar work on safe distribution of Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) Graphs applied to cross......We present a formal technique for safe distribution of workflow processes described declaratively as Nested Condition Response (NCR) Graphs and apply the technique to a distributed healthcare workflow. Concretely, we provide a method to synthesize from a NCR Graph and any distribution of its events...

  16. THE TRIUMPH OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT: CONTESTING CORPORATE MOTHERHOOD AND THE CORPORATE WELFARE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Mandell

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Turn-of-the-century advocates of corporate welfare work promoted a familial model of labor relations which opened the doors of labor management to women. Scientific management experts argued instead for personnel management based on a consumer marketplace model. Scientific managers gained the upper hand during World War I. Their success depended, in part, on defining women as unfit for executive positions in labor relations, thereby closing the doors of labor management to women. This regendering masked an equally significant abandonment of the welfare system’s contention that companies bore an inherent responsibility for the general welfare of their workers.

  17. [Pro Matre: an archive and sources on the history of motherhood in Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Maria Renilda Nery

    2011-12-01

    Inaugurated in February 1919 to provide assistance to mothers and children from underprivileged social groups, the nearly century-old Maternidade Pro Matre maternity hospital was an initiative of physician and philanthropist Fernando Magalhães and of feminist Stella de Carvalho Guerra Duval, with the support of society women from Rio de Janeiro. Its creation was part of a mother-child assistance movement that historiography now calls the 'maternalist project,' which was based on the notion of the cultural inseparability of mother and child. The sources available at Pro Matre's institutional archive open up research possibilities in the field of mother-child assistance in Rio de Janeiro and, by extension, Brazil.

  18. The SafeCOP ECSEL Project: Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems Using Wireless Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Scholle, Detlef; Hansson, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled "Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication" (SafeCOP), which runs during the period 2016 -- 2019. SafeCOP targets safety-related Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) characterised by use of wireless...

  19. Distributed Programming via Safe Closure Passing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Haller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Programming systems incorporating aspects of functional programming, e.g., higher-order functions, are becoming increasingly popular for large-scale distributed programming. New frameworks such as Apache Spark leverage functional techniques to provide high-level, declarative APIs for in-memory data analytics, often outperforming traditional "big data" frameworks like Hadoop MapReduce. However, widely-used programming models remain rather ad-hoc; aspects such as implementation trade-offs, static typing, and semantics are not yet well-understood. We present a new asynchronous programming model that has at its core several principles facilitating functional processing of distributed data. The emphasis of our model is on simplicity, performance, and expressiveness. The primary means of communication is by passing functions (closures to distributed, immutable data. To ensure safe and efficient distribution of closures, our model leverages both syntactic and type-based restrictions. We report on a prototype implementation in Scala. Finally, we present preliminary experimental results evaluating the performance impact of a static, type-based optimization of serialization.

  20. On Sylvia Plath’s Motherhood Poems%论西尔维娅·普拉斯的母性诗歌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡梅红

    2014-01-01

    美国当代女性诗人西尔维娅·普拉斯的“母性诗歌系列”通过歌颂母性,开创了20世纪中后期美国女性诗人的重要流派,即“母亲诗人”。普拉斯的“母性诗歌系列”主要由两部分组成:第一部分,以她自己的儿女为创作对象和创作灵感来源的诗歌;第二部分,注重思考和探索母性体验与创作力之间关系的诗歌。从女性主义视角解读“母性诗歌”,旨在揭示诗人创作“母性诗歌”的重要意义,即诗人通过书写母性来确定自己的诗人身份、实现自我的转变,试图从自身的“三重困境”中走出。%Sylvia Plath, the contemporary American woman poet whose“motherhood poem sequence”virtually initi⁃ates through celebrating maternity what has become a significant genre for the mid- and late-century American women poets,“mother poets”. As a mother poet,Plath’s“motherhood poems”consist of two parts. Firstly, Plath wrote poems in which she used her children as her objects and inspiration. Secondly, she wrote poems to explore the correlation between maternity and creativity. This paper aims to reveal the significant implications of“mother⁃hood poems”through a feminist reading and concludes that the poet, through writing motherhood poems, attempts to establish her own identity as a poet, to realize the transformation of the self and to step out of the so-called“tri⁃ple-bind situation”.

  1. 一种安全加固的NFC无线通信连接认证加速系统%A Safe Authorization-Accelerating System based on NFC Wireless Communication and Connection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文; 夏戈明; 周翱隆; 万山川

    2013-01-01

    Based on the properties of NFC data exchange like short transmitting distance, high safety and high speed of authorization, we have designed and implemented two authorization-accelerating mechanisms. One is using NFC to accelerate Wi-Fi and another is using NFC to accelerate Bluetooth. We have combined NFC, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth and formed two subsystems:one for NFC and Wi-Fi and one for NFC and Bluetooth. The processes in traditional Wi-Fi connection like searching for hotspots manually and iflling in AP passwords and the processes in traditional Bluetooth connection like calling each other between devices, selecting devices manually and iflling in corresponding PIN code are avoided and we have built a safe channel for transmitting ifles through Bluetooth. We solved the problems of complex process, low safety and high consumption in Wi-Fi connection and Bluetooth connection. The results of testing show that the systems are stable and fully functional which are better than traditional Wi-Fi and Bluetooth transmission. The results show that the systems can be used in NFC data transmission with high usability and scalability.%基于NFC技术数据交换传输距离近、安全性高、认证速度快等特点,文章设计并实现了用NFC加速Wi-Fi和蓝牙认证的连接机制。把NFC与Wi-Fi和蓝牙结合起来,形成了NFC+Wi-Fi子系统和NFC+蓝牙子系统,免除了传统Wi-Fi连接中的手动搜索热点、填入AP口令等过程,以及传统蓝牙连接中设备之间相互呼叫、手动选择连接设备和填入配对PIN密码的过程,并实现了蓝牙连接下文件传输安全信道的构建。解决了Wi-Fi和蓝牙传输连接过程复杂、安全性低、设备功耗大等问题。测试结果显示该系统功能完善,稳定性好,总体性能优于传统的Wi-Fi和蓝牙传输方式。

  2. Exploring the potentialities of an improved ultrasound-assisted quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe-based extraction technique combined with ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection for determination of Zearalenone in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Figueira, Priscilla; Camacho, Irene; Câmara, José S

    2015-08-21

    Zearalenone (ZEA), a secondary metabolite from Fusarium graminearum fungi that invade crops and grow during blooming in moist cool field conditions, is a nonsteroidal oestrogen, biologically very potent, although hardly toxic. Different analytical methods, among which a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) strategy, combined with or liquid chromatography, have been proposed for ZEA determination in foods. However, this extraction procedure has the disadvantage of using large amount of organic solvents, partitioning salts and sample volume, which limits the technique application on the fields where the sample amount is critical. Therefore in this work an improved sample preparation step based on the original QuEChERS (O-QuEChERS) approach, the μ-QuEChERS, combined with ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) and ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis with fluorescence detection (FLR) is proposed for the sensitive and high-throughput quantification of ZEA in cereals. The proposed analytical strategy, μ-QuEChERSUSAE, uses up to 32 times lower amounts of partitioning salts, lower sample amount and lower extraction solvents, in comparison with O-QuEChERS technique. The performance of the analytical approach was assessed by studying the selectivity, specificity, limits of detection and quantification, linear dynamic range, matrix effect and precision. Good linearity (r(2)>0.99) was achieved for ZEA, and limits of detection (LOD=3.4μgkg(-1)) and limits of quantification (LOQ=4.7μgkg(-1)) were found below the tolerance levels set by European Commission. Good recoveries were obtained with different spiked concentrations, ranged from 80.2% to 109.7%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 5.0%. The comparison of the analytical performance of the proposed μ-QuEChERSUSAE with O-QuEChERS showed the powerful ability of the proposed strategy since it gives comparable results but using lower amounts of sample, partitioning

  3. How Safe Is Safe for Marine Toxins Monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Botana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Current regulation for marine toxins requires a monitoring method based on mass spectrometric analysis. This method is pre-targeted, hence after searching for pre-assigned masses, it identifies those compounds that were pre-defined with available calibrants. Therefore, the scope for detecting novel toxins which are not included in the monitoring protocol are very limited. In addition to this, there is a poor comprehension of the toxicity of some marine toxin groups. Also, the validity of the current approach is questioned by the lack of sufficient calibrants, and by the insufficient coverage by current legislation of the toxins reported to be present in shellfish. As an example, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin analogs, or cyclic imines are mentioned as indicators of gaps in the system that require a solid comprehension to assure consumers are protected.

  4. Safe production model for small mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Calizaya F.; Suryanto S.

    2008-01-01

    Presented a "safe production model" that can be adopted by small mine opera-tors to achieve their production targets safely and efficiently. The model consists of eightelements ranging from management commitment and leadership to safety account-abilityand communication. The model is developed considering the mine operators' resourcelimitations and the workers' training needs. The study concludes with a summary of asample survey that is conducted to validate the model and estimate a parameter for eachmine and determine its position in the safe production scale.

  5. Drones a Safe Way to Transport Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162471.html Drones a Safe Way to Transport Blood: Study Finding ... t seem to suffer damage when transported by drones, researchers report. The findings lend support to advocates ...

  6. High-Protein Diets: Are They Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Are high-protein diets safe for weight loss? Answers from Katherine ... L.D. For most healthy people, a high-protein diet generally isn't harmful, particularly when followed ...

  7. Implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Møller, Mette;

    ; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...... with the GNAT; (2) implicit attitudes towards safe driving versus towards risky driving may be separable constructs. We propose that research on driving behavior may benefit from routinely including measures of implicit cognition. A practical advantage is a lesser susceptibility to social desirability biases......, compared to self-report methods. Pending replication in future research, the apparent dissociation between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of the causes of unsafe and risky driving behavior....

  8. AFSC/REFM: Groundfish SAFE Economic Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Groundfish SAFE Economic Report, published annually as a supplement to the Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Reports for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  9. General Advice on Safe Medication Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us General Advice on Safe Medication Use Visit our new website for consumers The ... answers--it's your life and your health! Unfortunately, medication errors happen. They happen in hospitals, in pharmacies, ...

  10. Aspirin during Pregnancy: Is It Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take aspirin during pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M. ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/aspirin-during-pregnancy/ ...

  11. Pregnancy and Fish: What's Safe to Eat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week If you're unsure about whether it's safe to eat seafood during your pregnancy, ... 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/pregnancy-and-fish/ ...

  12. Pregnancy Constipation: Are Stool Softeners Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take stool softeners to treat pregnancy constipation? Answers from Roger ... 2014 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/pregnancy-constipation/faq- ...

  13. MOTHERHOOD IN THE AMERICAN WOMAN POET’S PERSPECTIVE: A SHORT GLANCE AT ALLEN’S “ROCK ME TO SLEEP”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandy Intan Kurnia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes one of the works of an American woman poet named Elizabeth Akers Allen. The poem under studies entitled “Rock Me to Sleep”. This poem reaches its popularity when it is set to music and widely reprinted under the poet’s real name. However, the popularity of this poem raises controversy since it has to face an authorship problem. The poem itself is a portrayal of motherhood. The speaker of this poem is a woman who is longing for the love of her mother. She is seeking for a place to ease her pain since she feels that she has lost her own battle of womanhood. In this poem, the figure of the mother is really important. Although the mother remains absent, however, the readers of the poem can sense the powerful love of the speaker of the poem toward her mother.

  14. Female Fertility: Is it Safe to "Freeze?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the safety and risk of cryopreservation in female fertility preservation. Data sources: The data analyzed in this review were the English articles from 1980 to 2013 from journal databases, primarily PubMed and Google scholar. The criteria used in the literature search show as following: (1 human; embryo; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification, (2 human; oocyte/immature oocyte; cryopreservation/ freezing/vitrification, (3 human; ovarian tissue transplantation; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification, (4 human; aneuploidy/DNA damage/epigenetic; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification, and (5 human; fertility preservation; maternal age. Study selection: The risk ratios based on survival rate, maturation rate, fertilization rate, cleavage rate, implantation rate, pregnancy rate, and clinical risk rate were acquired from relevant meta-analysis studies. These studies included randomized controlled trials or studies with one of the primary outcome measures covering cryopreservation of human mature oocytes, embryos, and ovarian tissues within the last 7 years (from 2006 to 2013, since the pregnancy rates of oocyte vitrification were significantly increased due to the improved techniques. The data involving immature oocyte cryopreservation obtained from individual studies was also reviewed by the authors. Results: Vitrifications of mature oocytes and embryos obtained better clinical outcomes and did not increase the risks of DNA damage, spindle configuration, embryonic aneuploidy, and genomic imprinting as compared with fresh and slow-freezing procedures, respectively. Conclusions: Both embryo and oocyte vitrifications are safe applications in female fertility preservation.

  15. Outpatient coronary angioplasty: feasible and safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagboom, Ton; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand; Laarman, Gert Jan; van der Wieken, Ron

    2005-04-01

    This study tested the safety and feasibility of coronary angioplasty on an outpatient basis. The purpose of this approach includes cost-effectiveness and patient comfort. Six hundred forty-four patients were randomized to either transradial or transfemoral PTCA using 6 Fr equipment. Patients were triaged to outpatient management based on a predefined set of predictors of an adverse outcome in the first 24 hr after initially successful coronary angioplasty. Three hundred seventy-five patients (58%) were discharged 4-6 hr after PTCA; 42% stayed in hospital overnight. In the outpatient group, one adverse event occurred (subacute stent thrombosis 7 hr postdischarge, nonfatal myocardial infarction). There were no major vascular complications. In the hospital group, 19 patients (7%) sustained an adverse cardiac even in the first 24 hr; 1 patient died. Patients treated via the femoral route had more (minor) bleeding complications (19 patients; 6%); in 17 of these, this was the sole reason that discharge was delayed. PTCA on an outpatient basis, performed via the radial or the femoral artery with low-profile equipment, is safe and feasible in a considerable part of a routine PTCA population. A larger proportion of transradial patients can be discharged due to a reduction in (minor) bleeding complications.

  16. Influencing behaviour for safe working environments

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Safety at work The objective of the project Safety at Work is to increase safety at the workplace by applying and combining state of the art artefacts from personal protective equipment and ambient intelligence technology. In this state of the art document we focus on the developments with respect to how (persuasive) technology can help to influence behaviour in a natural, automatic way in order to make industrial environments safer. We focus on personal safety, safe environments and safe beh...

  17. The trouble with asymptotically safe inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Chao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the perturbation theory of the asymptotically safe inflation and we find that all modes of gravitational waves perturbation become ghosts in order to achieve a large enough number of e-folds. Formally we can calculate the power spectrum of gravitational waves perturbation, but we find that it is negative. It indicates that there is serious trouble with the asymptotically safe inflation.

  18. Analysis of safe and precise lunar landing based on lunar elevation data modeling%基于月面高程数据建模的巡视探测器着陆安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹健; 毕树生

    2012-01-01

    探月工程二期,巡视探测器将在月面着陆,实现真正的月面停留.月面不同区域的着陆安全性研究必不可少.分析了月面高精度数字地形特征和规律,着陆器姿态模型、着陆面包络模型和着陆安全性分析算法.采用蒙特卡罗方法,依据实际月面地形特征、月球坑和石块的统计分布规律,大量仿真生成地形数据,得到各种着陆条件参数下和不同着陆器倾斜角要求下对应的着陆安全概率.仿真实验中不考虑着陆器着陆过程中发动机控制、着陆姿态控制和动力学性能,同组实验中着陆器结构尺寸相同.所建立的算法可实现实时仿真生成着陆区域、设置着陆器结构尺寸和安全参数,可用于地面系统的仿真实验,也可在月面软着陆过程中实时分析选定区域的着陆安全概率.据此得到月球车最佳着陆点以及着陆器最佳着陆面和最佳着陆姿态的选取建议.%In the second phase of China' s lunar exploration program, an actual landing on the lunar surface will be included, and so greater flexibility with regard to landing locations is one of the many improvements planned. An optimized algorithm based on the Monte Carlo method was proposed to calculate the probability of safe landing under various specified conditions on a large number of different terrains generated in simulation experiments. Topography simulation was based on the actual characteristics of the lunar surface topography and statistical distribution of lunar craters and rocks. The algorithm depended on the lander attitude information and landing plane envelope model. Engine control, attitude control and dynamic property were not considered in simulation experiments. Only under same lander profiles in one group tests, the experimental results were reasonable. The landing territory , lander profile and safety parameters were simulated on computer by this method. It could be applied to bothground simulation experiments

  19. The New Method of Determining Tank Reasonable Safe Distance Based on Pool Fire Thermal Radiation Model%基于池火热辐射模型确定储罐合理安全距离新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建强; 刘迅; 刘翀; 吕黎军; 马伟平

    2016-01-01

    It was very important to determine tank reasonable distance for raising the tank safe design level. The paper expounded the tank safe distance difference of domestic and for-eign standards. In allusion to the mainly floating tank fire accident forms, the limitation of domestic standard for tank safe distance was assessed, that is the current standard can not meet the safe requirement in the case of tank full exposure fire.By referring the tank pool fire ther-mal radiation model,the oil floating tank safe distance was obtained under critical thermal ra-diation strength. Finally, the paper put forward the principle of determining tank reasonable distance, with the comprehensive utilization of domestic standard and tank pool fire thermal radiation model and tank technological parameter. For less than 10 x 104 m3 tank as far as pos-sible to increase storage tank fire separation;for more than 10 x 104 m3 tank,the fire preven-tion span basic can meet the safety requirements of the current domestic standards.%研究确定储罐合理的防火间距,对于提高储罐安全设计水平具有重要意义。基于浮顶罐主要火灾事故类型,评价了国内标准关于储罐安全距离的局限性,即现有标准不能满足储罐全面积敞口火灾情况下的安全要求。基于储罐池火热辐射数学模型,计算出原油外浮顶罐在临界热辐射强度对应的储罐安全距离。新建储罐工程在满足国内标准基础上,建议结合储罐池火热辐射数学模型计算结果,综合考虑储罐防火堤面积、油品性质以及罐区消防设施能力。对于10×104 m3以下储罐应尽可能增加储罐防火间距,对于10×104 m3以上储罐,其防火间距基本可满足现行国内标准规定的安全要求。

  20. Juggling work and motherhood: the impact of employment and maternity leave on breastfeeding duration: a survival analysis on Growing Up in Scotland data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafida, Valeria

    2012-02-01

    In 2005, Scotland became the first nation to make breastfeeding in public a legal right, but current breastfeeding targets and maternity leave allowance do not acknowledge the conflicting demands women face when juggling employment and motherhood. This paper explores how employment and maternity leave relate to breastfeeding duration among mothers in Scotland. The Growing Up in Scotland national longitudinal cohort study of 5,217 babies born in 2004-2005 was used. Multivariate proportional hazards regression models were specified using one cross-sectional wave of data to predict breastfeeding duration. Mothers working as employees, full-time (Hazard Ratio 1.6) or part-time (HR1.3), had a higher risk of earlier breastfeeding cessation than non-working mothers. However, self-employed mothers did not differ significantly from non-working mothers in their breastfeeding patterns. Mothers who took longer maternity leave breastfed for longer. The relationships between employment, maternity leave and breastfeeding duration were significant when controlling for known predictors of breastfeeding. Younger mothers, those with less formal education, single mothers, those of white ethnic background, and first-time mothers were more likely to stop breastfeeding sooner, as has been noted in previous research. Employment and early return to work are both factors associated with a shorter duration of breastfeeding. More flexible working conditions and more generous employment leave could help to prolong breastfeeding among working mothers. Current health and employment policy in Scotland and the UK could be better coordinated so that working mothers have the adequate support to meet the conflicting demands of employment and motherhood.

  1. Managing Cassini Safe Mode Attitude at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. It has performed detailed observations and remote sensing of Saturn, its rings, and its satellites since that time. In the event safe mode interrupts normal orbital operations, Cassini has flight software fault protection algorithms to detect, isolate, and recover to a thermally safe and commandable attitude and then wait for further instructions from the ground. But the Saturn environment is complex, and safety hazards change depending on where Cassini is in its orbital trajectory around Saturn. Selecting an appropriate safe mode attitude that insures safe operation in the Saturn environment, including keeping the star tracker field of view clear of bright bodies, while maintaining a quiescent, commandable attitude, is a significant challenge. This paper discusses the Cassini safe table management strategy and the key criteria that must be considered, especially during low altitude flybys of Titan, in deciding what spacecraft attitude should be used in the event of safe mode.

  2. Curiosity's Autonomous Surface Safing Behavior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Tracy A.; Manning, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The safing routines on all robotic deep-space vehicles are designed to put the vehicle in a power and thermally safe configuration, enabling communication with the mission operators on Earth. Achieving this goal is made a little more difficult on Curiosity because the power requirements for the core avionics and the telecommunication equipment exceed the capability of the single power source, the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator. This drove the system design to create an operational mode, called "sleep mode", where the vehicle turns off most of the loads in order to charge the two Li-ion batteries. The system must keep the vehicle safe from over-heat and under-heat conditions, battery cell failures, under-voltage conditions, and clock failures, both while the computer is running and while the system is sleeping. The other goal of a safing routine is to communicate. On most spacecraft, this simply involves turning on the receiver and transmitter continuously. For Curiosity, Earth is above the horizon only a part of the day for direct communication to the Earth, and the orbiter overpass opportunities only occur a few times a day. The design must robustly place the Rover in a communicable condition at the correct time. This paper discusses Curiosity's autonomous safing behavior and describes how the vehicle remains power and thermally safe while sleeping, as well as a description of how the Rover communicates with the orbiters and Earth at specific times.

  3. Motherhood among Incest Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Tamar

    1995-01-01

    Mothers (n=26) who were incest survivors were compared with 28 mothers with no such history for 7 areas of parenting skills: role-image, objectivity, expectations, rapport, communication, limit-setting, and role-support. Significant differences were found on all seven scales, characterized by a tendency for the incest survivors to be less skillful…

  4. SafePatch for Windows Version 1.0 User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, D; Meier, T

    2003-05-01

    SafePatch for Windows provides automated analysis of network-based Microsoft Windows{trademark} computer systems to determine the status of security patches. SafePatch determines what patches need to be installed on a system or group of systems. SafePatch collects and packages the necessary patches and the script to install those patches for the selected remote systems. SafePatch for Windows also supports browsing the Microsoft{trademark} patch database and the viewing of the bulletins associated with the patches.

  5. Safe Detection System for Hydrogen Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, Robert A. [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Beshay, Manal [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States)

    2012-02-29

    Hydrogen is an "environmentally friendly" fuel for future transportation and other applications, since it produces only pure ("distilled") water when it is consumed. Thus, hydrogen-powered vehicles are beginning to proliferate, with the total number of such vehicles expected to rise to nearly 100,000 within the next few years. However, hydrogen is also an odorless, colorless, highly flammable gas. Because of this, there is an important need for hydrogen safety monitors that can warn of hazardous conditions in vehicles, storage facilities, and hydrogen production plants. To address this need, IOS has developed a unique intrinsically safe optical hydrogen sensing technology, and has embodied it in detector systems specifically developed for safety applications. The challenge of using light to detect a colorless substance was met by creating chemically-sensitized optical materials whose color changes in the presence of hydrogen. This reversible reaction provides a sensitive, reliable, way of detecting hydrogen and measuring its concentration using light from low-cost LEDs. Hydrogen sensors based on this material were developed in three completely different optical formats: point sensors ("optrodes"), integrated optic sensors ("optical chips"), and optical fibers ("distributed sensors") whose entire length responds to hydrogen. After comparing performance, cost, time-to-market, and relative market need for these sensor types, the project focused on designing a compact optrode-based single-point hydrogen safety monitor. The project ended with the fabrication of fifteen prototype units, and the selection of two specific markets: fuel cell enclosure monitoring, and refueling/storage safety. Final testing and development of control software for these markets await future support.

  6. Nasogastric tube feeding: a safe option for patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trish

    2016-01-01

    This article will show that fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding can be facilitated for patients when long term percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) options are not suitable. How the safe replacement of these tubes is facilitated, and what instructions the patient and the nursing home are given to support patient care and safety are also discussed. The decision to support this type of feeding must be completely individualised, considering home and external support agencies available to each patient. The risk assessment completed to facilitate this has been based on the patients' individual circumstances, and a nasogastric tube home passport developed to help in the assessment and decision-making process. For fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding to be safe, it does have to be supported once the patient is discharged from the hospital. A good knowledge of the home support and carer support agencies, and what is available, should be discussed. Multidisciplinary team support is essential in ensuring a safe discharge can be planned and managed. Good patient risk assessment and nursing considerations are discussed to show how the challenges that may prevent a patient discharge with this type of feed are managed. This article will show how two very different patients discharges were facilitated by safe fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding in the community. Patient assessment and nursing considerations are discussed, as well as the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to show how this was successfully achieved in a local district hospital.

  7. Online Learning of Safe Patient Transfers in Occupational Therapy Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia L. Hayden D. H. Ed., OTR/L, CHT

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Online higher education is steadily increasing. For programs in allied health to be offered effectively in an elearning format, clinical psychomotor skills need to be addressed. The aim of this research was to design, implement, and evaluate an online safe patient transfers module for occupational therapy assistant (OTAstudents. The efficacy of teaching safe patient transfers in an e-learning environment was appraised using both quantitative and qualitative analysis. The applied research project was completed at a Tennessee community college. A convenience sample of eighteen students participated in the pilot study. Twenty-five studentsparticipated in the subsequent study. The instructional design of the course was based on Mager’s CriterionReferenced Instruction model. Streaming video was used as the delivery method for course material. A pretest/posttest evaluated the students’ cognitive knowledge of safe patient transfers. A behavioral transferscompetency checklist was used to rate videotapes of students’ performance of assisted stand pivot and dependent sliding board transfers. Research findings indicated students were able to learn this psychomotor clinical skill online with beginning proficiency. A paired t-test showed marked improvement of cognitive knowledge. A student learning survey revealed the majority of students preferred at least one hands-on classroom session where instructor feedback and interaction with classmates confirmed safe and effectiveclinical technique.

  8. Vehicle's Safe Operation Region Research Based on Person-Vehicle-Road-Environment%基于人-车-路-环境的车辆安全运行区域研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅君; 曲仕茹

    2012-01-01

    车辆安全运行区域的确定对于提高行车安全具有重要的意义。以高速公路为背景,作者通过综合考虑车辆的行驶状态、驾驶员疲劳程度以及天气状况等因素对车辆的安全运行区域的影响进行了研究。目的是根据车辆当前状态,结合运行参数对危险行驶区域做出警示,减少驾驶员的负担和判断错误。算法部分分别针对跟车模式和超车模式搭建模型,对安全运行距离和区域进行了求取,最后设计了虚拟现实仿真场景对车辆的行驶过程进行了模拟。多次实验表明,本文安全运行区域模型具有很好的稳定性和准确率。%Vehicle's safe operation region detenmination has a great significance to improve the traffic safety. Taking highway as a background, this article conducted a research for the vehicle's safe operation region through the evaluation factors of automobile's transport condition, driver's fatigue degree, weather conditions and so on. According to the vehicle's current condition and conbined with the operational factor, we aimed to caution the dangerous travel region, to reduce driver's burden and error in judgment. The algorithm part aimed at building the models separately by the following operation mode for seeking the safe operation distance and region. At last, tcavel process was simulated. Lots of experiments showed that Hiodel has good stability and accuracy. mode and passing operation a virtual scene of vehicles' this safe operation region

  9. 75 FR 12569 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7, notice is... Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U.S.C. 300G-3(b), based upon Evenhouse's alleged violations of the SDWA and regulations thereunder at two separate community water systems serving the...

  10. Teaching safe sex practices to psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladyk, K

    1990-03-01

    An occupational therapist presented her 45-minute program called AIDS Education and Safe Sex 5 times to female mental patients in the locked ward of Cedarcrest Regional Hospital in Newington, Connecticut, to inform them about safe-sex practices and AIDS. She first administered a pretest then spoke briefly about AIDS and safe-sex practices. The lecture emphasized various important points such as no cure for AIDS exist, casual contact (e.g., kiss on the cheek, handshake) cannot transmit HIV, and effectiveness of using latex condoms. The occupational therapist spent much of her time addressing myths about AIDS and what safe-sex practices are. The patients discussed sexual abuse and dishonest partners. She administered a posttest which was the same as the pretest. Some sessions attracted more people than did other sessions. Test scores increased for every patient and for every session. They ranged from a 5% (68-73%) increase for the 3rd session to a 24% (67-91%) increase for the last session. She was not able to determine, however, whether the increased knowledge would translate into positive behavioral changes. Patients' psychiatric symptoms may have interfered with learning resulting in less than ideal improvements in knowledge. These symptoms were hypomanic behavior, restlessness, and distractibility. Perhaps other sessions with experiential techniques (e.g., putting condoms on dummies) would increase their understanding. This program helps fill the information gap not provided by the mass media which avoid mentioning safe-sex practices.

  11. Female Fertility: Is it Safe to "Freeze?"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhang; Li-Ying Yan; Xu Zhi; Jie Yan; Jie Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the safety and risk of cryopreservation in female fertility preservation.Data sources:The data analyzed in this review were the English articles from 1980 to 2013 from journal databases,primarily PubMed and Google scholar.The criteria used in the literature search show as following:(1) human; embryo; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification,(2) human; oocyte/immature oocyte; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification,(3) human; ovarian tissue transplantation; cryopreservation/ freezing/vitrification,(4) human; aneuploidy/DNA damage/epigenetic; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification,and (5) human; fertility preservation; maternal age.Study selection:The risk ratios based on survival rate,maturation rate,fertilization rate,cleavage rate,implantation rate,pregnancy rate,and clinical risk rate were acquired from relevant meta-analysis studies.These studies included randomized controlled trials or studies with one of the primary outcome measures covering cryopreservation of human mature oocytes,embryos,and ovarian tissues within the last 7 years (from 2006 to 2013,since the pregnancy rates of oocyte vitrification were significantly increased due to the improved techniques).The data involving immature oocyte cryopreservation obtained from individual studies was also reviewed by the authors.Results:Vitrifications of mature oocytes and embryos obtained better clinical outcomes and did not increase the risks of DNA damage,spindle configuration,embryonic aneuploidy,and genomic imprinting as compared with fresh and slow-freezing procedures,respectively.Conclusions:Both embryo and oocyte vitrifications are safe applications in female fertility preservation.

  12. Interactive eLearning - a safe place to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Elisabeth; Moen, Anne; Kolberg, Ragnhild; Flingtorp, Gry; Linnerud, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Interactive web-based learning environment offers refreshing opportunities to create innovative solutions to explore and exploit informatics support on-the-job training. We report from a study where a hospital is created a interactive eLearning resource. The modules are creating a safe place to practice - to be used for introduction to the work and preparation for certification or re-certification of competencies.

  13. Eye-safe laser glass development at SCHOTT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Davis, Mark J.; Urruti, Eric H.

    2010-04-01

    SCHOTT has developed eye-safe laser glasses for laser range finder and medical/ biophotonics applications. The development described herein covers various combinations of key ions, Er, Yb, and Cr, with and without Ce, at controlled ratios and their perspective reduction - oxidation (REDOX) states to improve glass lasing, thermal lensing, and thermo-mechanical stability for field-based applications under high repetition rate operation. This report covers glass property characterizations and selective modeling results using statistically designed compositions.

  14. From Safe Systems to Patient Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarts, J.; Nøhr, C.

    2010-01-01

    for the third conference with the theme: The ability to design, implement and evaluate safe, useable and effective systems within complex health care organizations. The theme for this conference was "Designing and Implementing Health IT: from safe systems to patient safety". The contributions have reflected...... on a number of important issues. How are the mutual adaptations of technology and work practice during implementation reflected in design and redesign? How are the successful implementations carried out as a process of organizational change? How does a socio-technical understanding improve the design...... and implementation of safe systems and thus contribute to the agenda of patient safety? The contributions demonstrate how the health informatics community has contributed to the performance of significant research and to translating research findings to develop health care delivery and improve patient safety...

  15. Safe Exploration in Markov Decision Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Moldovan, Teodor Mihai

    2012-01-01

    In environments with uncertain dynamics exploration is necessary to learn how to perform well. Existing reinforcement learning algorithms provide strong exploration guarantees, but they tend to rely on an ergodicity assumption. The essence of ergodicity is that any state is eventually reachable from any other state by following a suitable policy. This assumption allows for exploration algorithms that operate by simply favoring states that have rarely been visited before. For most physical systems this assumption is impractical as the systems would break before any reasonable exploration has taken place, i.e., most physical systems don't satisfy the ergodicity assumption. In this paper we address the need for safe exploration methods in Markov decision processes. We first propose a general formulation of safety through ergodicity. We show that imposing safety by restricting attention to the resulting set of guaranteed safe policies is NP-hard. We then present an efficient algorithm for guaranteed safe, but pot...

  16. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  17. What Does a Safe Sleep Environment Look Like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social media links What Does a Safe Sleep Environment Look Like? Page Content You can reduce your ... following ways. Printable versions of this safe sleep environment information are available below: What does a safe ...

  18. Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Taking Medicines Safely Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely ... medicine. The pharmacist has filled the prescription. Now it's up to you to take the medicine safely. ...

  19. Predicting soil acidification trends at Plynlimon using the SAFE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Reynolds

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The SAFE model has been applied to an acid grassland site, located on base-poor stagnopodzol soils derived from Lower Palaeozoic greywackes. The model predicts that acidification of the soil has occurred in response to increased acid deposition following the industrial revolution. Limited recovery is predicted following the decline in sulphur deposition during the mid to late 1970s. Reducing excess sulphur and NOx deposition in 1998 to 40% and 70% of 1980 levels results in further recovery but soil chemical conditions (base saturation, soil water pH and ANC do not return to values predicted in pre-industrial times. The SAFE model predicts that critical loads (expressed in terms of the (Ca+Mg+K:Alcrit ratio for six vegetation species found in acid grassland communities are not exceeded despite the increase in deposited acidity following the industrial revolution. The relative growth response of selected vegetation species characteristic of acid grassland swards has been predicted using a damage function linking growth to soil solution base cation to aluminium ratio. The results show that very small growth reductions can be expected for 'acid tolerant' plants growing in acid upland soils. For more sensitive species such as Holcus lanatus, SAFE predicts that growth would have been reduced by about 20% between 1951 and 1983, when acid inputs were greatest. Recovery to c. 90% of normal growth (under laboratory conditions is predicted as acidic inputs decline.

  20. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R

    1966-01-01

    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  1. Landscape planning for a safe city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ishikawa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available To create a safe city free from natural disasters has been one of the important criteria in city planning. Since large cities have suffered from large fires caused by earthquakes, the planning of open spaces to prevent the spread of fires is part of the basic structure of city planning in Japan. Even in the feudal city of Edo, the former name of Tokyo, there had been open spaces to prevent fire disasters along canals and rivers. This paper discusses the historical evolution of open space planning, that we call landscape planning, through the experiences in Tokyo, and clarifies the characteristics and problems for achieving a safe city.

  2. Political Impetus: Towards a Successful Agenda-Setting for Inclusive Health Policies in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Comment on "Shaping the Health Policy Agenda: The Case of Safe Motherhood Policy in Vietnam".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Qian, Xu

    2016-02-04

    Agenda-setting is a crucial step for inclusive health policies in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Enlightened by Ha et al manuscript, this commentary paper argues that 'political impetus' is the key to the successful agenda-setting of health policies in LMICs, though other determinants may also play the role during the process. This Vietnamese case study presents a good example for policy-makers of other LMICs; it offers insights for contexts where there are limited health resources and poor health performance. Further research which compares various stages of the health policy process across countries, is much needed.

  3. The Health Policy Process in Vietnam: Going Beyond Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Theory Comment on “Shaping the Health Policy Agenda: The Case of Safe Motherhood Policy in Vietnam”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kane

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This commentary reflects upon the article along three broad lines. It reflects on the theoretical choices and omissions, particularly highlighting why it is important to adapt the multiple streams framework (MSF when applying it in a socio-political context like Vietnam’s. The commentary also reflects upon the analytical threads tackled by Ha et al; for instance, it highlights the opportunities offered by, and raises questions about the centrality of the Policy Entrepreneur in getting the policy onto the political agenda and in pushing it through. The commentary also dwells on the implications of the article for development aid policies and practices. Throughout, the commentary signposts possible themes for Ha et al to consider for further analysis, and more generally, for future research using Kingdon’s multiple streams theory.

  4. Tracking progress towards safe motherhood: meeting the benchmark yet missing the goal? An appeal for better use of health-system output indicators with evidence from Zambia and Sri Lanka.

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrysch, S; Zanger, P.; Seneviratne, HR; Mbewe, R; Campbell, OM

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Indicators of health-system outputs, such as Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) density, have been proposed for monitoring progress towards reducing maternal mortality, but are currently underused. We seek to promote them by demonstrating their use at subnational level, evaluating whether they differentiate between a high-maternal-mortality country (Zambia) and a low-maternal-mortality country (Sri Lanka) and assessing whether benchmarks are set at the right level. METHODS: We compar...

  5. 'Safe handling of nanotechnology' ten years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Andrew D.; Aitken, Robert J.

    2016-12-01

    In 2006, a group of scientists proposed five grand challenges to support the safe handling of nanotechnology. Ten years on, Andrew Maynard and Robert Aitken -- two of the original authors -- look at where we have come, and where we still need to go.

  6. What is Type-Safe Code Reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1991-01-01

    Subclassing is reuse of class definitions. It is usually tied to the use of class names, thus relying on the order in which the particular classes in a program are created. This is a burden, however, both when programming and in theoretical studies. This paper presents a structural notion of subc...... type-safe code reuse....

  7. Safe Space Oddity: Revisiting Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by an incident in a social work graduate classroom in which she was a teaching assistant, the author reflects on her commitment to constructivist teaching methods, critical theory, and critical pedagogy. Exploring the educational utility of notions such as public space and safe space, the author employs this personal experience to examine…

  8. The Food-Safe Schools Action Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "The Food-Safe School Needs Assessment and Planning Guide" is a tool that can help schools assess their food safety policies, procedures, and programs and develop plans for improvement. This tool includes a simple, straightforward questionnaire, score card, and planning guide that give administrators, school staff, families, and students a chance…

  9. Safe Schools for the Roller Coaster Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inlay, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The dramatic ups and downs so often witnessed in adolescents are the result of changes in their brain activity. It is vital that the emotional and psychological needs that arise from such intense brain development are acknowledged and addressed so that middle school becomes a safe environment for the budding adults.

  10. 16 CFR 312.10 - Safe harbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safe harbors. 312.10 Section 312.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE... provide the same or greater protections for children as those contained in §§ 312.2 through 312.9; (2)...

  11. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  12. Sensor data fusion for lateral safe applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A; Floudas, N.; Polychronopoulos, A.; Bank, D.; Broek, B. van den; Oechsle, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the algorithms that are being developed for the perception layer of the PReVENT subproject LATERAL SAFE. These algorithms aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, present at the lateral and rear field of the ego-vehicle. The work presented

  13. Have a Safe and Healthy Fall

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-14

    Fall is a great time to try new and healthy activities with your parents! Have a food tasting or a leaf raking contest! Whatever your plans, make sure to have fun and be safe!  Created: 10/14/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 10/14/2010.

  14. Staying Healthy and Safe at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the night to go to the bathroom. Eat healthy foods , especially foods that are rich in iron and protein. Relax and avoid stressful situations when possible. How can you keep a safe work environment? It's important that the environment around you is ...

  15. Safe and Healthy Travel to China

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-09

    In this podcast, Dr. Phyllis Kozarsky, CDC Travel Medicine expert, discusses what travelers should do to ensure a safe and healthy trip to China.  Created: 10/9/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ).   Date Released: 10/9/2008.

  16. Safe Sex in Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Despite the fact that gay and bisexual male college students know about safe sex practices, they are often not using them, according to a recent survey. The study of about 20,500 blood samples on 35 college and university campuses shows a high rate of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, with men 22 times as likely as women to test…

  17. Representações acerca da maternidade no contexto da depressão pós-parto Representations concerning motherhood in postpartum depression context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Delias de Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou as representações acerca da maternidade no contexto da depressão pós-parto. Participaram do estudo duas mães encaminhadas para a realização de uma psicoterapia breve pais-bebê devido à presença de depressão no primeiro ano de vida de suas filhas. Entrevistas de avaliação realizadas antes da psicoterapia foram analisadas a partir dos quatro eixos interpretativos que constituem a constelação da maternidade, proposta por Stern (1997: vida-crescimento; relacionar-se primário; matriz de apoio; e reorganização da identidade. Nos relatos de ambas as mães apareceram representações acerca do sentimento de não ser capaz de cuidar do bebê logo após o nascimento, de ser pouco apoiada pelo companheiro, bem como uma reavaliação do relacionamento com suas próprias mães e com seus cônjuges. Verificou-se também que as representações de cada mãe apontaram para uma estreita associação entre seus conflitos pregressos e a interação atual com o marido e com o bebê.The present study investigated the representations concerning motherhood in the context of postpartum depression. The study sample was composed by two mothers referred to a brief parent-infant psychotherapy due to depression during the first year of their daughters' life. Interviews of evaluation carried out before psycotherapy were analyzed according to four interpretative axes of the motherhood constellation proposed by Stern (1997: life-growth; primary relatedness; supporting matrix; and identity reorganization. In the stories of both mothers there were representations concerning the feeling of not being capable to take care of their baby after birth, of being little supported by their husbands, as well as a reevaluation of the relationship with their own mothers and spouses. It was verified that the representations revealed a close association between their past conflicts and the current interaction with the husband and with the baby.

  18. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  19. 基于安全城市理念的特大城市防灾规划技术框架%Safe City Concept Based Mega-city Disaster Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金忠民

    2011-01-01

    Disasters in mega-cities are usually comprehensive, hidden, and amplifying. A comprehensive urban disaster prevention technical framework is proposed for mega-cities. It includes disaster prevention principles, general requirements, planning phases, major issues etc, offering a new idea in disaster prevention planning. It is a safeguard for mega-city sustainable development and safe operation.%特大城市灾害具有放大效应、综合性、隐蔽性等特征.为应对灾害的综合特性,特大城市应采用安全城市概念,探索安全城市的规划理念,并基于此提出城市综合防灾规划技术框架,包括城市综合防灾规划的基本准则、总体要求、规划阶段、主要专题框架等,以求突破传统防灾规划的模式,为防灾规划的转型提供一种思路,也为特大城市的可持续发展和安全运行提供城市规划保障.

  20. Operationalizing safe operating space for regional social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sarwar; Dearing, John A; Eigenbrod, Felix; Johnson, Fiifi Amoako

    2017-04-15

    This study makes a first attempt to operationalize the safe operating space concept at a regional scale by considering the complex dynamics (e.g. non-linearity, feedbacks, and interactions) within a systems dynamic model (SD). We employ the model to explore eight 'what if' scenarios based on well-known challenges (e.g. climate change) and current policy debates (e.g. subsidy withdrawal). The findings show that the social-ecological system in the Bangladesh delta may move beyond a safe operating space when a withdrawal of a 50% subsidy for agriculture is combined with the effects of a 2°C temperature increase and sea level rise. Further reductions in upstream river discharge in the Ganges would push the system towards a dangerous zone once a 3.5°C temperature increase was reached. The social-ecological system in Bangladesh delta may be operated within a safe space by: 1) managing feedback (e.g. by reducing production costs) and the slow biophysical variables (e.g. temperature, rainfall) to increase the long-term resilience, 2) negotiating for transboundary water resources, and 3) revising global policies (e.g. withdrawal of subsidy) that negatively impact at regional scales. This study demonstrates how the concepts of tipping points, limits to adaptations, and boundaries for sustainable development may be defined in real world social-ecological systems.

  1. Safe Public Debt: Towards an Operational Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Debrun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an operational definition of safe public debt levels and discusses various concrete approaches to calculate them. A public debt level is considered safe if it is associated with a low probability of reaching levels likely to generate significant economic costs within a given time frame. Like debt sustainability assessments, implementing such a broad definition requires medium-term projections of the debt-to-GDP ratio. This implies that different sets of plausible assumptions can yield fairly different “safe” debt levels for the same country. However, the proposed framework has the merit to force policymakers and analysts to be explicit about the assumptions underlying their calculations.

  2. Perioperative Care of Prisoners: Providing Safe Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Francis Duval

    2016-03-01

    Correctional nurses are trained to care for prisoners in a controlled security environment; however, when a convict is transferred to a noncorrectional health care facility, the nurses there are often unfamiliar with custody requirements or how to safely care for these patients. The care of prisoners outside of prison has not been adequately investigated, and a gap exists between research and nursing education and practice. Nurses rarely have to consider how providing care for a prisoner in custody affects their practice, the potential dissonance between routine nursing care and the requirements to maintain security, or that care of prisoners in unsecured clinical areas places the nurse and other personnel at risk for physical assault or prisoner escape. Educating perioperative nurses in the care of prisoners in a public hospital environment is important for the provision of safe care and prevention of physical and emotional repercussions to personnel.

  3. Safe cooperative robot dynamics on graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Ghrist, Robert; Koditschek, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    This paper initiates the use of vector fields to design, optimize, and implement reactive schedules for safe cooperative robot patterns on planar graphs. We consider Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV's) operating upon a predefined network of pathways. In contrast to the case of locally Euclidean configuration spaces, regularization of collisions is no longer a local procedure, and issues concerning the global topology of configuration spaces must be addressed. The focus of the present inquiry is...

  4. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  5. Construction and practice of a safe emergency and out-patient clinic nursing care system based on JCI standard%基于JCI标准的门急诊护理安全文化的构建与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姒怡冰; 赵悦; 刘华晔

    2011-01-01

    目的 运用JCI标准,构建更安全的门急诊护理安全体系.方法 树立护理安全文化理念,健全组织管理架构,完善安全管理制度与流程,落实护理安全措施,制订及实施各类应急预案等,形成护理安全文化的氛围,构建以预防为主的护理安全文化体系.结果 通过JCI评审,护理不安全事件隐患上报率提高了205%,发生率下降了81.5%,护理质量分提高了5.5%,患者满意度提高了22%,护士满意度达到了99%.结论 JCI评审,有助于提升护理管理水平,使其达到科学化、标准化、国际化.%Objective To establish a safe emergency and out-patient clinic nursing care system based on JCI standard.Methods We used a safe nursing care conception, improved our administration structure, perfected our safe administration regulations and processes, performed safe nursing care steps, prepared and carried out various emergency plans. We established a safe nursing care system which emphasizes the prevention priority.Results After implantation of JCI standard, the reporting rate of near miss increased 205%, which is not reported before. The rate of unsafe affair decreased 81.5%. Nursing care quality score increased 5.5%. The satisfaction rate of patient increased 22% and the satisfaction rate of the nursing staff increased to 99%.Conclusions JCI standard is helpful to promote the quality and level of nursing care which can reach the scientific, standardized and advanced level.

  6. THE ROLE OF GOVEMMENT AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS IN SOLVING THE PROBLEMS OF MOTHERHOOD ON THE DON AND THE NORTH CAUCASUS IN THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna PANARINA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the reasons which intensified problems of motherhood because of significant worsening of the demographic situation in the country and in the North Caucasus in the Great Patriotic War. The article highlights the measures undertaken by the government bodies and social organizations to provide assistance to pregnant women, nursing mothers and single mothers. Special attention is given to the issues related to payment of benefits to women in need, improvement of working conditions, health care and creation of conditions for raising children. The author stresses the role of trade union organizations directly involved in helping women to deal with such problems as placing children in kindergartens and nurseries, finding additional sources of food supply, repairing apartments and many others. It is proved that at the final stage of the war the assistance measures were strengthened, that was manifested in the improvement of their financial situation and increased social status of women with many children in Soviet society. The article shows the main results of this work, which alleviated the demographic problems on the territory of the Don and the North Caucasus. 

  7. [Enrico Modigliani and the Institution of maternal assistance: a study of the social factors of illegitimate motherhood during early Twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fano, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Enrico Modigliani (1877-1931) was an Italian paediatrician of the early Twentieth century whose work anticipated modern concepts of maternal and child health. Convinced of the importance of creating a network of health and social care for children born out-of-wedlock, he began by providing care to single mothers and their babies at his home on Sundays. In 1918, in Rome, he established the Institution for Maternal Assistance, which aim was to provide single mothers with basic health information as well as tools to face their socioeconomic situation. The Opera encouraged breastfeeding and maternal acknowledgement of the child and promoted the establishment of lactation rooms and nurseries within factories. Moreover, women were supported to find a job which was compatible with their situation. In the first five years of activity, over 1,000 unmarried women were assisted; 95% of them acknowledged their children and 52% found a job. The infant mortality rate fell to 11%, which was much lower than the 35% observed at the time among the social classes which Modigliani called the most miserable. This article reviews Modigliani's paper, in which the paediatrician reported the first five years of activity of the Institution of Maternal Assistance and where he largely focused on the social factors surrounding illegitimate motherhood. The paper was structured like a modern scientific report, with photographic documentation and statistical data, and proposed a point of view regarding social inequality which is surprisingly up-to-date.

  8. 基于数值模拟的阶梯水流中行人安全撤离研究%Assessment of the safe evacuation of people walking through flooding staircases based on numerical simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-yun SHAO; Li-jie JIANG; Lei FANG; David Z ZHU; Zhi-lin SUN

    2015-01-01

    A numerical model was developed to evaluate the possibility of people walking in a flooding flow on a staircase with rest platforms. Commercial software was used and validated by experimental data for flows on staircases and stepped spillways. The effects of the rest platform, the staircase slope, and the staircase pattern on the flooding flow characteristics are discussed. A comparison of staircases with or without rest platforms shows that the flow velocity increases significantly downstream of the rest platform on a straight-run type, which would have negative effects on the safe evacuation of people walking through a flooding staircase. The slope of the staircase, ranging from 26.6° to 30°, has less effect on safe evacuation. A comparison of flows on straight-run (with or without rest platforms), 90°-turn and 180°-turn staircases (with rest platforms) shows that the rest platforms on the latter two staircases could induce a redistribution of the flow field on the rest platform and downstream. The distribution of evacuation indicators along the longitudinal planes of those staircases indicates that a 90°-turn staircase or a straight staircase without rest platform would be the first choice for trapped people evacuating from underground spaces.%目的:研究不同形式阶梯水流中被困人员的安全撤离,为地下空间水侵灾害脆弱性评价及防灾避灾提供参考。方法:根据试验结果和数值模型的相关理论构建数值模型,验证数值模拟阶梯水流流场的可靠性和合理性,并基于数值模型的灵活性和可变性,模拟休息平台、阶梯坡度和阶梯形态对水流流场的影响,据此对有无休息平台、不同阶梯坡度和不同阶梯形态下阶梯水流流态、流速分布以及对被困人员的安全撤离的影响进行深入分析。结论:中间休息平台的存在增加了被困人员撤离的风险;阶梯坡度对阶梯上水流的水力特性影响很小;L型阶梯

  9. Is your hospital safe? Disruptive behavior and workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William F

    2008-01-01

    The author defines disruptive behavior; distinguishes among disruptive, impaired, and incompetent behavior; describes the prevalence of disruptive behavior; and identifies some recommendations to prevent and resolve disruptive behavior in hospitals. The proactive prevention and management of workplace bullying have implications on managing costs, quality, and satisfaction in hospitals among patients, families, staff, and physicians. The author describes an evidence-based framework and recommends that hospital administrators use it to design an organizational approach to promoting a work environment that is psychologically and physiologically safe and that enables staff to focus on delivering high-quality, cost-effective, and satisfying care.

  10. Safe Control for Spiral Recovery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jian Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs widely used in both military and civilian fields, many events affecting their safe flying have emerged. That UAV’s entering into the spiral is such a typical safety issue. To solve this safety problem, a novel recovery control approach is proposed. First, the factors of spiral are analyzed. Then, based on control scheduling of state variables and nonlinear dynamic inversion control laws, the spiral recovery controller is designed to accomplish guidance and control of spiral recovery. Finally, the simulation results have illustrated that the proposed control method can ensure the UAV autonomous recovery from spiral effectively.

  11. SaRDIn - A Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, A.; Gnesi, S.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth;

    2016-01-01

    Current computer-based interlocking systems most often have a centralized design, with all logic residing in a single computer. Centralized interlockings are complex to design. Following the general trend in Cyber-Physical Systems, the SaRDIn (Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlockings) concept...... promises a radically simpler solution. The novelty of the SaRDIn concept is a fine-grained distribution of the logic over all processors deployed at the sensors and actuators along the track layout, i.e. within the track circuits, point machines, signals, etc. The advantages and drawbacks...

  12. Why don’t humanitarian organizations provide safe abortion services?

    OpenAIRE

    McGinn, Therese; Casey, Sara E

    2016-01-01

    Background Although sexual and reproductive health services have become more available in humanitarian settings over the last decade, safe abortion services are still rarely provided. The authors’ observations suggest that four reasons are typically given for this gap: ‘There’s no need’; ‘Abortion is too complicated to provide in crises’; ‘Donors don’t fund abortion services’; and ‘Abortion is illegal’. Discussion However, each of these reasons is based on false premises. Unsafe abortion is a...

  13. Ontology-based Expert System for Safe and Reasonable Application of Pesticides in Vegetable Production%基于本体的蔬菜农药安全使用专家系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春雨; 谢丙炎; 郑建秋; 李健强

    2011-01-01

    为实现蔬菜生产过程中有害生物的有效防治与农药的合理使用,设计了B/S结构的远程农药安全合理使用专家系统.该系统具有有害生物查询、识别诊断、防治方法决策、农药安全合理使用决策、知识库管理、专家交流等功能模块,采用了本体技术对专家知识进行建模,能够实现高效智能推理和知识的共享与重用;建立了多因素的农药评价模型,综合考虑农药使用的各种因素,为蔬菜有害生物防治推荐科学的农药品种和安全合理的使用技术;应用表明该系统具有成本低廉、扩展性强、实用性好、用户友好等优点.%A safe and reasonable application of pesticides expert system was designed with B/S structure which had six sub-systems such as pests querying, pest identifying, decision-making of control methods, pesticide recommendation, knowledge management and expert consulting. Ontology technology was applied to model expert knowledge in order to achieve high intelligent reasoning and the sharing, and the knowledge reusing. Furthermore, a multi-factor model of pesticide evaluation was designed for comprehensively considering various factors that affect the reasonable selection of pesticides. The implemented prototype system verified that the solution was low-cost, high scalable, user-friendly and efficient. It is widely prospective in various vegetable productions and will supply a guideline for other crops production.

  14. Colombian Safe Guide S.A.S

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Colombian Safe Guide S.A.S. es una compañía de servicios de asesoramiento y acompañamiento a los visitantes extranjeros que vienen a la ciudad de Bogotá. Funciona a través de una página web, que facilitan a sus clientes la obtención de todos los servicios necesarios durante su estadía, en un solo lugar. El principal objetivo es proporcionar nuevas alternativas de servicios de asesoramiento, capitalizando la compañía bajo el cumplimiento del objetivo y cuota del mercado propuesta por la compañ...

  15. Is infliximab safe to use while breastfeeding?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joel Z Stengel; Hays L Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often affects women around the age of conception and pregnancy. Most drugs used to treat IBD are safe in pregnancy, but physicians must consider the clinical implications of certain treatment regimens in young, fertile females. We report an informative case of a pregnant patient with IBD who underwent treatment with infliximab during her pregnancy and while nursing her infant. Serum and breast milk infliximab levels were monitored throughout this time period. This case report suggests that targeted monoclonal antibodies and other biologic agents can be used with caution in pregnant and breastfeeding patients.

  16. Inherently safe passive gas monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Bellamy, John Stephen; Shuler, James M.; Shull, Davis J.; Leduc, Daniel R.

    2016-09-06

    Generally, the present disclosure is directed to gas monitoring systems that use inductive power transfer to safely power an electrically passive device included within a nuclear material storage container. In particular, the electrically passive device can include an inductive power receiver for receiving inductive power transfer through a wall of the nuclear material storage container. The power received by the inductive power receiver can be used to power one or more sensors included in the device. Thus, the device is not required to include active power generation components such as, for example, a battery, that increase the risk of a spark igniting flammable gases within the container.

  17. SAFE gas turbine cycle primary heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert S.; Kapernick, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center are jointly developing two modular heat pipe heat exchangers, collectively named FIGMENT (Fission Inert Gas Metal Exchanger for Non-nuclear Testing). The FIGMENT heat exchangers are designed to transfer power from the SAFE nuclear reactor cores to gas turbine energy converters. A stainless steel prototype heat exchanger will be built during 2002 in preparation for the construction of a larger refractory metal version. Two promising FIGMENT stainless steel heat exchanger concepts are reviewed here. .

  18. A Safe Protocol for Amalgam Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana G. Colson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's environment has different impacts on our body than previous generations. Heavy metals are a growing concern in medicine. Doctors and individuals request the removal of their amalgam (silver mercury restorations due to the high mercury content. A safe protocol to replace the silver mercury filling will ensure that there is minimal if any absorption of materials while being removed. Strong alternative white composite and lab-processed materials are available today to create a healthy and functioning mouth. Preparation of the patient prior to the procedure and after treatment is vital to establish the excretion of the mercury from the body.

  19. AP的安全制备%Safe Preparations of Fine Ammonium Perchlorate Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Makoto Kohga

    2006-01-01

    Fine AP particles are required to manufacture the AP-based composite propellants with a wide burning rate range for various applications,especially high burning rate propellants. However,it is difficult to prepare a fine AP safely. Some safe methods for preparing the fine AP particles are reported such as the spray-dry method and freeze-dry method. It is shown that the crystal habit modified AP particle is an effective oxidizer to enhance the burning rate.

  20. Project SAFE. Complexing agents in SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanger, G.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste, produced at Swedish nuclear power plants, will be deposited in an underground repository, SFR. Different substances in the waste or in degradation products emanating from the waste, and chemicals added during the building of cementitious barriers in the repository, may exhibit complexing properties. The complexation of radionuclides with such ligands may increase the mobility of the deposited radionuclides as sorption on the cement phases is decreased and solubility increased. This could lead to an increased leaching of the radionuclides from the repository to the geosphere and biosphere. To be able to evaluate the implications for the function and long-term safety of the repository a study has been performed on complexants in SFR. The study is a part of project SAFE (Safety Assessment of Final Repository for operational Radioactive Waste) at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. Concentrations of complexants were calculated in different waste types in the repository and compared to critical levels above which radionuclide sorption may be affected. The analysis is based on recent research presented in international and national literature sources. The waste in SFR that may act or give rise to substances with complexing properties mainly consists of cellulose materials, including cement additives used in waste conditioning and backfill grout. The radioactive waste also contains chemicals mainly used in decontamination processes at the nuclear power plants, e.g. EDTA, NTA, gluconate, citric acid and oxalic acid. The calculations performed in this report show that the presence of complexants in SFR may lead to a sorption reduction for some radionuclides in certain waste types. This may have to be considered when performing calculations of the radionuclide transport. Concentration calculations of isosaccharinic acid (ISA), using a degradation yield of 0.1 mole/kg cellulose (2%), showed that the limit above

  1. Organizing Safe Transitions from Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Häggström

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Organizing and performing patient transfers in the continuum of care is part of the work of nurses and other staff of a multiprofessional healthcare team. An understanding of discharge practices is needed in order to ultimate patients’ transfers from high technological intensive care units (ICU to general wards. Aim. To describe, as experienced by intensive care and general ward staff, what strategies could be used when organizing patient’s care before, during, and after transfer from intensive care. Method. Interviews of 15 participants were conducted, audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results. The results showed that the categories secure, encourage, and collaborate are strategies used in the three phases of the ICU transitional care process. The main category; a safe, interactive rehabilitation process, illustrated how all strategies were characterized by an intention to create and maintain safety during the process. A three-way interaction was described: between staff and patient/families, between team members and involved units, and between patient/family and environment. Discussion/Conclusions. The findings highlight that ICU transitional care implies critical care rehabilitation. Discharge procedures need to be safe and structured and involve collaboration, encouraging support, optimal timing, early mobilization, and a multidiscipline approach.

  2. Building a safe care-providing robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotoohi, Leila; Gräser, Axel

    2011-01-01

    A service robot especially a care-providing robot, works in the vicinity of a human body and is sometimes even in direct contact with it. Conventional safety methods and precautions in industrial robotics are not applicable to such robots. This paper presents a safety approach for designing the safe care-providing robot FRIEND. The approach is applied in each step of design iteratively to identify and assess the potential hazards during design. The steps are explained briefly in this work. The main contribution of this paper is verification of safety requirements using the Ramadge-Wonham (RW) framework. The greater complexity of the tasks the robot will perform, the more complex is the identification of safety requirements. Use of this framework led us to analyze the requirements and verify them formally, systematically and on a modular basis. In our approach human-robot interaction (HRI) is also modeled by a set of uncontrolled events that may happen any time during operation. Subsequently the safety requirements are modified to consider these interactions. As a result the safety module behaves like a controller, running in parallel with the system, which maintains the system safe and works according to the safety requirements by enabling the admissible sequences of events.

  3. Beyond Metal Detectors: Creating Safe School Environments. The Editor Reflects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a model for the interactions between the elements of a safe school environment. Elements are curriculum, climate, and instruction leading to a safe setting, resulting in positive student outcomes. (JPB)

  4. Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Anybody ... illness that lasts more than 3 days Be Food Safe: Learn the Risks and Rules Anyone can ...

  5. Project SAFE. Complexing agents in SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanger, G.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste, produced at Swedish nuclear power plants, will be deposited in an underground repository, SFR. Different substances in the waste or in degradation products emanating from the waste, and chemicals added during the building of cementitious barriers in the repository, may exhibit complexing properties. The complexation of radionuclides with such ligands may increase the mobility of the deposited radionuclides as sorption on the cement phases is decreased and solubility increased. This could lead to an increased leaching of the radionuclides from the repository to the geosphere and biosphere. To be able to evaluate the implications for the function and long-term safety of the repository a study has been performed on complexants in SFR. The study is a part of project SAFE (Safety Assessment of Final Repository for operational Radioactive Waste) at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. Concentrations of complexants were calculated in different waste types in the repository and compared to critical levels above which radionuclide sorption may be affected. The analysis is based on recent research presented in international and national literature sources. The waste in SFR that may act or give rise to substances with complexing properties mainly consists of cellulose materials, including cement additives used in waste conditioning and backfill grout. The radioactive waste also contains chemicals mainly used in decontamination processes at the nuclear power plants, e.g. EDTA, NTA, gluconate, citric acid and oxalic acid. The calculations performed in this report show that the presence of complexants in SFR may lead to a sorption reduction for some radionuclides in certain waste types. This may have to be considered when performing calculations of the radionuclide transport. Concentration calculations of isosaccharinic acid (ISA), using a degradation yield of 0.1 mole/kg cellulose (2%), showed that the limit above

  6. Artificial sweeteners as a sugar substitute: Are they really safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun; Amarnath, S.; Thulasimani, M.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2016-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) have become an important part of everyday life and are increasingly used nowadays in a variety of dietary and medicinal products. They provide fewer calories and far more intense sweetness than sugar-containing products and are used by a plethora of population subsets for varying objectives. Six of these agents (aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame-K, and stevia) have previously received a generally recognized as safe status from the United States Food and Drug Administration, and two more (Swingle fruit extract and advantame) have been added in the recent years to this ever growing list. They are claimed to promote weight loss and deemed safe for consumption by diabetics; however, there is inconclusive evidence to support most of their uses and some recent studies even hint that these earlier established benefits regarding NNS use might not be true. There is a lack of properly designed randomized controlled studies to assess their efficacy in different populations, whereas observational studies often remain confounded due to reverse causality and often yield opposite findings. Pregnant and lactating women, children, diabetics, migraine, and epilepsy patients represent the susceptible population to the adverse effects of NNS-containing products and should use these products with utmost caution. The overall use of NNS remains controversial, and consumers should be amply informed about the potential risks of using them, based on current evidence-based dietary guidelines. PMID:27298490

  7. Artificial sweeteners as a sugar substitute: Are they really safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS have become an important part of everyday life and are increasingly used nowadays in a variety of dietary and medicinal products. They provide fewer calories and far more intense sweetness than sugar-containing products and are used by a plethora of population subsets for varying objectives. Six of these agents (aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame-K, and stevia have previously received a generally recognized as safe status from the United States Food and Drug Administration, and two more (Swingle fruit extract and advantame have been added in the recent years to this ever growing list. They are claimed to promote weight loss and deemed safe for consumption by diabetics; however, there is inconclusive evidence to support most of their uses and some recent studies even hint that these earlier established benefits regarding NNS use might not be true. There is a lack of properly designed randomized controlled studies to assess their efficacy in different populations, whereas observational studies often remain confounded due to reverse causality and often yield opposite findings. Pregnant and lactating women, children, diabetics, migraine, and epilepsy patients represent the susceptible population to the adverse effects of NNS-containing products and should use these products with utmost caution. The overall use of NNS remains controversial, and consumers should be amply informed about the potential risks of using them, based on current evidence-based dietary guidelines.

  8. 76 FR 17615 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Parts 177 and 392 RIN 2137-AE69 & 2126-AB04 Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance AGENCY: Pipeline... that PHMSA and FMCSA extend the comment period for the Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance... Crossing; Safe Clearance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which was published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR...

  9. Creating Food-Safe Schools: A How-to Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A food-safe school takes the steps to minimize the risk of foodborne illness throughout the school's environment and has procedures in place to identify and manage outbreaks if they occur. This booklet introduces the Food-Safe Schools Action Guide, which helps schools identify gaps in food safety and develop an action plan for becoming food-safe.…

  10. 33 CFR 62.27 - Safe water marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe water marks. 62.27 Section... UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.27 Safe water marks. Safe water marks indicate that there is navigable water all around the mark. They are often used to...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.420 - Safe practices manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe practices manual. 1910.420 Section 1910.420 Labor... Safe practices manual. (a) General. The employer shall develop and maintain a safe practices manual... practices manual shall contain a copy of this standard and the employer's policies for implementing...

  12. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  13. Safe Schools for LGBTQI Students: How Do Teachers View Their Role in Promoting Safe Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Stephanie; Crawford, Heather Glynn; Van Pelt, J-Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This literature review presents insights from existing research on how teachers view their role in creating safe schools for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex (LGBTQI) students. Analysis of the literature shows that there are concerns for LGBTQI students' safety in schools, that educational settings operate from…

  14. Safe operation of a batch reactor: safe storage of organic peroxides in supply vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensma, Metske; Westerterp, K. Roel

    1991-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the limits of safe operation for a cooled reactor, operated batchwise. As an example of a single-phase reaction, we studied the decomposition of t-butyl peroxypivalate, a well-known organic peroxide, undergoing self-heating at relatively low temperatures. If sufficient

  15. Dimensionally reduced gravity theories are asymptotically safe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermaier, Max E-mail: max@phys.univ-tours.fr

    2003-11-24

    4D Einstein gravity coupled to scalars and abelian gauge fields in its 2-Killing vector reduction is shown to be quasi-renormalizable to all loop orders at the expense of introducing infinitely many essential couplings. The latter can be combined into one or two functions of the 'area radius' associated with the two Killing vectors. The renormalization flow of these couplings is governed by beta functionals expressible in closed form in terms of the (one coupling) beta function of a symmetric space sigma-model. Generically the matter coupled systems are asymptotically safe, that is the flow possesses a non-trivial UV stable fixed point at which the trace anomaly vanishes. The main exception is a minimal coupling of 4D Einstein gravity to massless free scalars, in which case the scalars decouple from gravity at the fixed point.

  16. Bacteriocins: safe, natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, J; Montville, T J; Nes, I F; Chikindas, M L

    2001-12-01

    Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Though these bacteriocins are produced by LAB found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods, nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Many bacteriocins have been characterized biochemically and genetically, and though there is a basic understanding of their structure-function, biosynthesis, and mode of action, many aspects of these compounds are still unknown. This article gives an overview of bacteriocin applications, and differentiates bacteriocins from antibiotics. A comparison of the synthesis. mode of action, resistance and safety of the two types of molecules is covered. Toxicity data exist for only a few bacteriocins, but research and their long-time intentional use strongly suggest that bacteriocins can be safely used.

  17. Safe Laser Beam Propagation for Interplanetary Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Keith E.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-to-space laser uplinks to Earth–orbiting satellites and deep space probes serve both as a beacon and an uplink command channel for deep space probes and Earth-orbiting satellites. An acquisition and tracking point design to support a high bandwidth downlink from a 20-cm optical terminal on an orbiting Mars spacecraft typically calls for 2.5 kW of 1030-nm uplink optical power in 40 micro-radians divergent beams.2 The NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance) of the 1030nm uplink is in excess of 2E5 km, approximately half the distance to the moon. Recognizing the possible threat of high power laser uplinks to the flying public and to sensitive Earth-orbiting satellites, JPL developed a three-tiered system at its Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to ensure safe laser beam propagation through navigational and near-Earth space.

  18. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  19. Polypropylene suture--is it safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, T R; Kitten, C M

    1986-07-01

    Polypropylene suture has steadily gained popularity for use in vascular and cardiac surgical procedures because of its long-term tensile strength and minimal tissue trauma. However, recently some questions have arisen concerning its safety. We recently had two cases of polypropylene fracture, one occurring early and the other late after operation. Comparison and collation of these two cases with other reports leads to the conclusion that polypropylene suture is safe in most situations, but care must be taken to avoid instrumentation trauma and kinking stresses at knots, which probably explain most of the reported cases of polypropylene failure. In addition, polypropylene probably should not be used in graft-to-graft anastomoses in which the continual sawing stresses of two rigid structures appears to lead to an excessive incidence of late suture fracture with resultant false aneurysm formation.

  20. SafeZone: A Hierarchical Inter-Domain Authenticated Source Address Validation Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jie; Xu, Ke

    2011-01-01

    Next generation Internet is highly concerned about the issue of reliability. Principally, the foundation of reliability is authentication of the source IP address. With the signature-and-verification based defense mechanisms available today, unfortunately, there is a lack of hierarchical architecture, which makes the structure of the trust alliance excessively flat and single. Moreover, with the increasing scale of the trust alliance, costs of validation grow so quickly that they do not adapt to incremental deployment. Via comparison with traditional solutions, this article proposes a hierarchical, inter-domain authenticated source address validation solution named SafeZone. SafeZone employs two intelligent designs, lightweight tag replacement and a hierarchical partitioning scheme, each of which helps to ensure that SafeZone can construct trustworthy and hierarchical trust alliances without the negative influences and complex operations on de facto networks. Extensive experiments also indicate that SafeZone ...

  1. Subscale Validation of the Subsurface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) Approach to the NTP Ground Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Bulman, Mel; Joyner, Russell; Martin, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has been recognized as an enabling technology for missions to Mars and beyond. However, one of the key challenges of developing a nuclear thermal rocket is conducting verification and development tests on the ground. A number of ground test options are presented, with the Sub-surface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) method identified as a preferred path forward for the NTP program. The SAFE concept utilizes the natural soil characteristics present at the Nevada National Security Site to provide a natural filter for nuclear rocket exhaust during ground testing. A validation method of the SAFE concept is presented, utilizing a non-nuclear sub-scale hydrogen/oxygen rocket seeded with detectible radioisotopes. Additionally, some alternative ground test concepts, based upon the SAFE concept, are presented. Finally, an overview of the ongoing discussions of developing a ground test campaign are presented.

  2. REITERATION AS A BASE OF MEANING IN THE POEM „ZIDANJE SKADRA”

    OpenAIRE

    Љиљана Ж. Пешикан-Љуштановић

    2010-01-01

    The essay is concerned with reiterations in the poem Zidanje Skadra sang by Old Rasko, specifically with those regarding building, building sacrifice, family relations, motherhood, as a base of the poem’s meaning. It has been shown that the poem is composed on the principle of reiteration: from a line, through specific segments to the work as a whole. The author starts from the hypothesis that such analysis could help presenting the poem to students and help their understanding of traditional...

  3. Safe abortion information hotlines: An effective strategy for increasing women's access to safe abortions in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovetta, Raquel Irene

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the implementation of five Safe Abortion Information Hotlines (SAIH), a strategy developed by feminist collectives in a growing number of countries where abortion is legally restricted and unsafe. These hotlines have a range of goals and take different forms, but they all offer information by telephone to women about how to terminate a pregnancy using misoprostol. The paper is based on a qualitative study carried out in 2012-2014 of the structure, goals and experiences of hotlines in five Latin American countries: Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. The methodology included participatory observation of activities of the SAIH, and in-depth interviews with feminist activists who offer these services and with 14 women who used information provided by these hotlines to induce their own abortions. The findings are also based on a review of materials obtained from the five hotline collectives involved: documents and reports, social media posts, and details of public demonstrations and statements. These hotlines have had a positive impact on access to safe abortions for women whom they help. Providing these services requires knowledge and information skills, but little infrastructure. They have the potential to reduce the risk to women's health and lives of unsafe abortion, and should be promoted as part of public health policy, not only in Latin America but also other countries. Additionally, they promote women's autonomy and right to decide whether to continue or terminate a pregnancy.

  4. Effective and safe radiofrequency ablation setup based on contact force sensing technology:an in vivo ;and pathological study%接触力感知技术指导下心房内消融的在体研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恩照; 刘彤; Michael Shehata; 王勋章; 许纲; 李广平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effective and safe contact force ( CF) at different power settings during radiofrequency(RF)ablation in porcine in vivo right atria(RA).Methods RF ablations were performed in the RA of 6 pigs using a CF sensing catheter with duration setting as 40 s and 17 mL/min flow rate.Bipolar voltage ,catheter-tissue interface impedance ,and lesion characteristics at necropsy were assessed .Results For-ty RF applications were divided into 4 groups:(I)20 W/CF 10(7-12)g,n=11;(II)20 W/CF 20(15-22) g,n=7;(III)30 W/CF 9(7-11)g,n=11;(IV)30 W/CF 19(16-33)g,n=11.High temperature cutoffs oc-curred in 1 site of group III and 4 sites of group IV .At necropsy ,2 RF applications in group I and 3 applications in group III produced no identifiable lesions .The remaining 30 identifiable lesions were analysed and all of which were transmural ( Median atrial wall thickness:group I:2 ?.5 mm;group II:2 t.0 mm;group III:3 T.0 mm;group IV:2 5.5 mm ) .The local bipolar voltage was correlated to atrial wall thickness linearly ( r=0 J.40 , P0 º.05).There was no differ-ence in impedance drop or the maximal epicardial diameter of lesions between group I (12 |.4±11 j.0) Ω;(4 ı.2± 0 ?.9) mm and group II(17 f.6±15 V.7)Ω;(4 ¬.1±0 Ö.9)mm.The impedance drop and maximal epicardial diameter produced in group III(20 1.7±13 !.3)Ω;(4 ç.4±0 P.8)mm showed no difference to group IV(32 œ.7±12 ø.4)Ω;(5 +.3 ±0 ı.8) mm.Both the reduction of impedance and the maximal epicardial diameter in group IV were significantly larger than that in group I and II ( P15 g)produces the most effective lesions ,while the incidence of high temperature cutoff was high .Low CF(≈10 g)is an important predictor of ineffective ablation .RF abla-tion setting as 20 W/20 g with 40 s duration may a reasonable parameter for predicting effective lesions .%目的本研究利用猪( Cedars-Sinai心脏研究所动物中心)在体右心房射频消融实验,确定心房内消融时不同能量设置

  5. 'BeSAFE', effect-evaluation of internet-based, tailored safety information combined with personal counselling on parents' child safety behaviours: study design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beeck Eduard F

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries in or around the home are the most important cause of death among children aged 0-4 years old. It is also a major source of morbidity and loss of quality of life. In order to reduce the number of injuries, the Consumer Safety Institute introduced the use of Safety Information Leaflets in the Netherlands to provide safety education to parents of children aged 0-4 years. Despite current safety education, necessary safety behaviours are still not taken by a large number of parents, causing unnecessary risk of injury among young children. In an earlier study an E-health module with internet-based, tailored safety information was developed and applied. It concerns an advice for parents on safety behaviours in their homes regarding their child. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of this safety information combined with personal counselling on parents' child safety behaviours. Methods/Design Parents who are eligible for the regular well-child visit with their child at child age 5-8 months are invited to participate in this study. Participating parents are randomized into one of two groups: 1 internet-based, tailored safety information combined with personal counselling (intervention group, or 2 personal counselling using the Safety Information Leaflets of the Consumer Safety Institute in the Netherlands for children aged 12 to 24 months (control group. All parents receive safety information on safety topics regarding the prevention of falling, poisoning, drowning and burning. Parents of the intervention group will access the internet-based, tailored safety information module when their child is approximately 10 months old. After completion of the assessment questions, the program compiles a tailored safety advice. The parents are asked to devise and inscribe a personal implementation intention. During the next well-child visit, the Child Health Clinic professional will discuss this tailored safety information

  6. A Very Simple Safe-Bayesian Random Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrianto, Novi; Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-06-01

    Random forests works by averaging several predictions of de-correlated trees. We show a conceptually radical approach to generate a random forest: random sampling of many trees from a prior distribution, and subsequently performing a weighted ensemble of predictive probabilities. Our approach uses priors that allow sampling of decision trees even before looking at the data, and a power likelihood that explores the space spanned by combination of decision trees. While each tree performs Bayesian inference to compute its predictions, our aggregation procedure uses the power likelihood rather than the likelihood and is therefore strictly speaking not Bayesian. Nonetheless, we refer to it as a Bayesian random forest but with a built-in safety. The safeness comes as it has good predictive performance even if the underlying probabilistic model is wrong. We demonstrate empirically that our Safe-Bayesian random forest outperforms MCMC or SMC based Bayesian decision trees in term of speed and accuracy, and achieves competitive performance to entropy or Gini optimised random forest, yet is very simple to construct.

  7. The design of the SAFE or SORRY? study: a cluster randomised trial on the development and testing of an evidence based inpatient safety program for the prevention of adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopmans Raymond TCM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients in hospitals and nursing homes are at risk of the development of, often preventable, adverse events (AEs, which threaten patient safety. Guidelines for prevention of many types of AEs are available, however, compliance with these guidelines appears to be lacking. Besides general barriers that inhibit implementation, this non-compliance is associated with the large number of guidelines competing for attention. As implementation of a guideline is time-consuming, it is difficult for organisations to implement all available guidelines. Another problem is lack of feedback about performance using quality indicators of guideline based care and lack of a recognisable, unambiguous system for implementation. A program that allows organisations to implement multiple guidelines simultaneously may facilitate guideline use and thus improve patient safety. The aim of this study is to develop and test such an integral patient safety program that addresses several AEs simultaneously in hospitals and nursing homes. This paper reports the design of this study. Methods and design The patient safety program addresses three AEs: pressure ulcers, falls and urinary tract infections. It consists of bundles and outcome and process indicators based on the existing evidence based guidelines. In addition it includes a multifaceted tailored implementation strategy: education, patient involvement, and a computerized registration and feedback system. The patient safety program was tested in a cluster randomised trial on ten hospital wards and ten nursing home wards. The baseline period was three months followed by the implementation of the patient safety program for fourteen months. Subsequently the follow-up period was nine months. Primary outcome measure was the incidence of AEs on every ward. Secondary outcome measures were the utilization of preventive interventions and the knowledge of nurses regarding the three topics. Randomisation took

  8. 基于角色的访问控制技术在大型系统中的应用%Application of role based safe access control in large system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世明; 杨寅春

    2006-01-01

    在大型信息管理系统中,后台数据库的安全访问至关重要.通过分析基于角色的访问控制(role-based access control,RBAC)模型结构,提出并设计了大型管理系统中数据库安全访问控制的方法.使用角色定义有效地确定了不同用户在系统中的访同权限,有利于实现系统中各成员的职能分工和系统安全运行.

  9. Unmanned Aerial Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.; Cavolowsky, John

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility where possible, and structure where necessary. Consider the needs of national security, safe airspace operations, economic opportunities, and emerging technologies. Risk-based approach based on population density, assets on the ground, density of operations, etc. Digital, virtual, dynamic, and as needed UTM services to manage operations.

  10. "Same Room, Safe Place": The Need for Professional Safe Sleep Unity Grows at the Expense of Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene Woods, Nikki

    2016-09-22

    There are many different professional stances on safe sleep and then there is the reality of caring for a newborn. There is a debate among professionals regarding safe sleep recommendations. The continum of recommendations vary from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Safe Sleep Guidelines to the bed-sharing recommendations from the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Laboratory. The lack of consistent and uniform safe sleep recommendations from health professionals has been confusing for families but has more recently raised a real professional ethical dilemma. Despite years of focused safe sleep community education and interventions, sleep-related infant deaths are on the rise in many communities. This commentary calls for a united safe sleep message from all health professionals to improve health for mothers and infants most at-risk, "Same Room, Safe Place."

  11. Acceptance and use of eight arsenic-safe drinking water options in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, Jennifer; Hossain, Mohammad Mojahidul; Johnston, Richard B; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a serious public health threat. In Bangladesh, eight major safe water options provide an alternative to contaminated shallow tubewells: piped water supply, deep tubewells, pond sand filters, community arsenic-removal, household arsenic removal, dug wells, well-sharing, and rainwater harvesting. However, it is uncertain how well these options are accepted and used by the at-risk population. Based on the RANAS model (risk, attitudes, norms, ability, and self-regulation) this study aimed to identify the acceptance and use of available safe water options. Cross-sectional face-to-face interviews were used to survey 1,268 households in Bangladesh in November 2009 (n = 872), and December 2010 (n = 396). The questionnaire assessed water consumption, acceptance factors from the RANAS model, and socioeconomic factors. Although all respondents had access to at least one arsenic-safe drinking water option, only 62.1% of participants were currently using these alternatives. The most regularly used options were household arsenic removal filters (92.9%) and piped water supply (85.6%). However, the former result may be positively biased due to high refusal rates of household filter owners. The least used option was household rainwater harvesting (36.6%). Those who reported not using an arsenic-safe source differed in terms of numerous acceptance factors from those who reported using arsenic-safe sources: non-users were characterized by greater vulnerability; showed less preference for the taste and temperature of alternative sources; found collecting safe water quite time-consuming; had lower levels of social norms, self-efficacy, and coping planning; and demonstrated lower levels of commitment to collecting safe water. Acceptance was particularly high for piped water supplies and deep tubewells, whereas dug wells and well-sharing were the least accepted sources. Intervention strategies were derived from the results in order to

  12. SAFE(R): A Matlab/Octave Toolbox (and R Package) for Global Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, Francesca; Sarrazin, Fanny; Gollini, Isabella; Wagener, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is increasingly used in the development and assessment of hydrological models, as well as for dominant control analysis and for scenario discovery to support water resource management under deep uncertainty. Here we present a toolbox for the application of GSA, called SAFE (Sensitivity Analysis For Everybody) that implements several established GSA methods, including method of Morris, Regional Sensitivity Analysis, variance-based sensitivity Analysis (Sobol') and FAST. It also includes new approaches and visualization tools to complement these established methods. The Toolbox is released in two versions, one running under Matlab/Octave (called SAFE) and one running in R (called SAFER). Thanks to its modular structure, SAFE(R) can be easily integrated with other toolbox and packages, and with models running in a different computing environment. Another interesting feature of SAFE(R) is that all the implemented methods include specific functions for assessing the robustness and convergence of the sensitivity estimates. Furthermore, SAFE(R) includes numerous visualisation tools for the effective investigation and communication of GSA results. The toolbox is designed to make GSA accessible to non-specialist users, and to provide a fully commented code for more experienced users to complement their own tools. The documentation includes a set of workflow scripts with practical guidelines on how to apply GSA and how to use the toolbox. SAFE(R) is open source and freely available from the following website: http://bristol.ac.uk/cabot/resources/safe-toolbox/ Ultimately, SAFE(R) aims at improving the diffusion and quality of GSA practice in the hydrological modelling community.

  13. Safe primes construction algorithm based on Laime primes judgment theorem%基于莱梅素数判定定理的安全素数构造算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利荣; 胡天磊

    2016-01-01

    Judgment of large prime numbers plays a key action in the public-key encryption. This paper analyzes com-mon algorithm for large prime numbers judgment:Demytko algorithm, the algorithm put forward by LIU Minghua. It real-izes algorithm of constructing prime numbers on the basis of Laime theorem, and obtains large prime numbers after sever-al synthetic and judgment from small prime factors base. The paper gives description of the algorithm and an example to explain, and analyzes time complexity, advantages and disadvantages of algorithm. Data show that the efficiency of the algorithm is better than Demytko algorithm. It uses this algorithm and Demytko algorithm to generate large numbers of the RSA public-key cryptosystem p、q and n .%大素数的判定在公钥密码体制中起关键作用,分析了用于素数构造的相关定理及常的素数判定算法:Demytko算法、刘明华提出的素数构造算法.在莱梅定理的基础上实现素数构造算法,即由小素数组成的因数基经过多次合成和判断得到大素数;给出算法的描述,举例加以说明;对算法的时间复杂度及优缺点进行分析,实验数据表明算法的效率优于素数构造算法:Demytko.分别用该算法及Demytko算法生成的大素数构造RSA公钥密码体制中的p、q及n.

  14. 基于安全疏散的城市电影院流线研究%Research about the Filament Line of Cinema Based on the Safe Evacuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁素红; 刘岚迪

    2013-01-01

    当前城市电影院有多厅、小容量、多功能的特质,并与城市综合体高度结合.由此带来了新的设计问题.其中,电影院内部疏散流线,是建筑安全的基本保障.该文以重庆城市电影院为调研对象,以“建筑使用后评价”为主要研究方法,在城市电影院现实状况的基础上,结合观众行为调查,找出其在安全疏散方面存在的隐患.参照相关建筑设计原理,分析、讨论城市电影院在建筑使用安全层面的问题.力图从安全疏散的角度,找到多厅电影院合理、有效的疏散流线设计.%Integrated with urban building complex, urban cinemas turn to be multifunctional with several small auditoria which bring new problems in design, especially the aspect of internal evacuation circulations, which is fundamental for building safety. The research tries to find out the hidden dangers in the evacuations by studying the actual situations of the cinemas in Chongqing based on the analysis to the behavior of audiences and the post occupancy evaluation method. It also analyzes and discusses the evacuation problems of cinemas in reference to relevant architectural design principles so as to find out the methods for reasonable and effective evacuation circulation design.

  15. Influence of reservoir level on the safe functioning of tailings dam based on geo studio coupling analysis%基于Geo Studio耦合分析库水位对尾矿坝安全运行的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学辉; 吕力行; 杨龙; 金小川; 罗永为

    2013-01-01

    The water level of tailings dam is one of important factors which affect dam stability. To know the running situation of dam at different water levels, firstly SEEP/W module of Geo Studio is used to analyze dam seepage field. Secondly, analysis results of SEEP/W are input into SIGMA/W in order to analyze stress field of the dam. Lastly the SLOPE/W module is applied to obtain the position of latent slide interface and slope safety factor under varied water levels. By coupling analysis of the dam based on Geo Studio, the running situation of tailings dam under different water levels is understood and the results are more reliable.%尾矿库水位是影响坝体稳定性重要因素之一.为了得到不同水位下坝体安全运行状况,首先采用Geo Studio软件中的SEEP/W模块,对不同水位下坝体渗流场进行分析,然后将SEEP/W的分析结果导入SIGMA/W模块,对坝体的应力场进行分析,最后运用SLOPE/W模块,分析得到不同水位下潜在滑移面位置和边坡安全系数.运用Geo Studio软件对坝体进行流固耦合分析,可掌握不同水位下尾矿坝运行状况,得到的结果也更加符合实际情况.

  16. Topological characterization of safe coordinated vehicle motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MILGRAM.R. JAMES; KAUFMAN,STEPHEN G.

    2000-04-03

    This paper characterizes the homotopy properties and the global topology of the space of positions of vehicles which are constrained to travel without intersecting on a network of paths. The space is determined by the number of vehicles and the network. Paths in the space correspond to simultaneous non-intersecting motions of all vehicles. The authors therefore focus on computing the homotopy type of the space, and show how to do so in the general case. Understanding the homotopy type of the space is the central issue in controlling the vehicles, as it gives a complete description of the distinct ways that vehicles may move safely on the network. The authors exhibit graphs, products of graphs, and amalgamations of products of graphs that are homotopy equivalent to the full configuration space, and are far simpler than might be expected. The results indicate how a control system for such a network of vehicles (such as a fleet of automatically guided vehicles guided by wires buried in a factory floor) may be implemented.

  17. Bike to work safely (follow-up)

    CERN Multimedia

    Simon Baird, HSE Unit Head

    2016-01-01

    Following a recent article about safe cycling (see here), the Bulletin received a request for more details on the type of accidents that are reported.   An analysis of the 38 accidents involving bicycles reported this year up to the end of August reveals that the most common single cause of accidents is slippery surfaces: ice, snow, water and gravel, so the message here is to take extra care, particularly when cycling in bad weather. The second item on the list is obstacles of various kinds: collisions with kerbs, potholes and even the transition from roads to cycle paths. The lesson here is to pay close attention to the surface you’re cycling over, and if you do spot a pothole, even if it does not lead to an accident, report it so that it can be repaired. It’s also worth remembering that you’re more likely to avoid coming off your bike if you keep your hands on the handlebars. The third highest cause is collisions with other vehicles, and here there are lessons for ...

  18. Bifurcations and safe regions in open Hamiltonians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, R; Serrano, S [GME, Dpto Matematica Aplicada and IUMA, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Blesa, F [GME, Dpto Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)], E-mail: rbarrio@unizar.es, E-mail: fblesa@unizar.es, E-mail: sserrano@unizar.es

    2009-05-15

    By using different recent state-of-the-art numerical techniques, such as the OFLI2 chaos indicator and a systematic search of symmetric periodic orbits, we get an insight into the dynamics of open Hamiltonians. We have found that this kind of system has safe bounded regular regions inside the escape region that have significant size and that can be located with precision. Therefore, it is possible to find regions of nonzero measure with stable periodic or quasi-periodic orbits far from the last KAM tori and far from the escape energy. This finding has been possible after a careful combination of a precise 'skeleton' of periodic orbits and a 2D plate of the OFLI2 chaos indicator to locate saddle-node bifurcations and the regular regions near them. Besides, these two techniques permit one to classify the different kinds of orbits that appear in Hamiltonian systems with escapes and provide information about the bifurcations of the families of periodic orbits, obtaining special cases of bifurcations for the different symmetries of the systems. Moreover, the skeleton of periodic orbits also gives the organizing set of the escape basin's geometry. As a paradigmatic example, we study in detail the Henon-Heiles Hamiltonian, and more briefly the Barbanis potential and a galactic Hamiltonian.

  19. Bifurcations and safe regions in open Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, R.; Blesa, F.; Serrano, S.

    2009-05-01

    By using different recent state-of-the-art numerical techniques, such as the OFLI2 chaos indicator and a systematic search of symmetric periodic orbits, we get an insight into the dynamics of open Hamiltonians. We have found that this kind of system has safe bounded regular regions inside the escape region that have significant size and that can be located with precision. Therefore, it is possible to find regions of nonzero measure with stable periodic or quasi-periodic orbits far from the last KAM tori and far from the escape energy. This finding has been possible after a careful combination of a precise 'skeleton' of periodic orbits and a 2D plate of the OFLI2 chaos indicator to locate saddle-node bifurcations and the regular regions near them. Besides, these two techniques permit one to classify the different kinds of orbits that appear in Hamiltonian systems with escapes and provide information about the bifurcations of the families of periodic orbits, obtaining special cases of bifurcations for the different symmetries of the systems. Moreover, the skeleton of periodic orbits also gives the organizing set of the escape basin's geometry. As a paradigmatic example, we study in detail the Hénon-Heiles Hamiltonian, and more briefly the Barbanis potential and a galactic Hamiltonian.

  20. How to Observe the Sun Safely

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Lee

    2012-01-01

    How to Observe the Sun Safely, Second Edition gives all the basic information and advice the amateur astronomer needs to get started in observing our own ever-fascinating star. Unlike many other astronomical objects, you do not need a large telescope or expensive equipment to observe the Sun. And it is possible to take excellent pictures of the Sun with today's low-cost digital cameras! This book surveys what is visible on the Sun and then describes how to record solar features and measure solar activity levels. There is also an account of how to use H-alpha and Calcium-K filters to observe and record prominences and other features of the solar chromosphere, the Sun's inner atmosphere. Because we are just entering a period of high activity on the Sun, following a long, quiet period, this is a great time to get involved with solar observing. Still emphasizing safety first, this Second Edition reflects recent and exciting advances in solar observing equipment. Chapters 6 through 8 have been completely revised ...

  1. [Is undirected liver biopsy a safe procedure?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, L; Hirt, M

    1993-09-01

    In the authors' group of 976 umaimed liver biopsies (ULB) 10 complications were recorded. The authors described them and compared them with reports from the world literature. Two patients from the group died after ULB. One as a result of biopsy from haemoperitoneum, the other patient died with delirium tremens after surgery called for by persisting peritoneal syndrome. In eight patients mild complications were involved. In five patients complications receded spontaneously, in three after administration of an analgetic. From the submitted paper ensues that ULB is not quite safe, even when used by an experienced physician and when all contraindications are respected. A smooth course is not ensured by a risk-free diagnosis, previous uncomplicated biopsies normal prebioptic haemocoagulation tests. It is essential to realize this with regard to every patient where we indicate ULB. It is better to omit it unless we are unequivocally convinced of its asset. The question thus is: What will be the benefit of ULB for the patient?

  2. Conceptual design of inherently safe integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. I.; Chang, M. H.; Lee, D. J. and others

    1999-03-01

    The design concept of a 300 MWt inherently safe integral reactor(ISIR) for the propulsion of extra large and superhigh speed container ship was developed in this report. The scope and contents of this report are as follows : 1. The state of the art of the technology for ship-mounted reactor 2. Design requirements for ISIR 3. Fuel and core design 4. Conceptual design of fluid system 5. Conceptual design of reactor vessel assembly and primary components 6. Performance analyses and safety analyses. Installation of two ISIRs with total thermal power of 600MWt and efficiency of 21% is capable of generating shaft power of 126,000kW which is sufficient to power a container ship of 8,000TEU with 30knot cruise speed. Larger and speedier ship can be considered by installing 4 ISIRs. Even though the ISIR was developed for ship propulsion, it can be used also for a multi-purpose nuclear power plant for electricity generation, local heating, or seawater desalination by mounting on a movable floating barge. (author)

  3. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  4. Safety analysis and realization of safe information transmission optical LAN on high-speed railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ying; Wu, Chongqing; Li, Zuoyi

    2001-10-01

    structure, status and function of the safe information transmission optical LAN, we analyze the main factors which affect the network's safe transmission performance based on the principle of safe design. Then, on the foundation of the elementary principle of the concept, fail-safe, in railway signal field, we discuss the real network's safety and realization of the software and hardware. The final experiment indicates that the real network works robustly, performs reliably, and achieves the designed aim. When some kind of faults occur which produced by hardware, software or transmission media, the network can easily and reliably deal with them and transfer to safety mode that will ensure the train's operation. The analysis and design of this network is a meaningful step in constructing our country's railway special communication network and also the network can be used in other similar conditions that demand extreme safe.

  5. Safe and effective use of medicines for ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Pernille; El-Souri, Mira Mahmoud; Herborg, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: From studies, we know how ethnic minorities and people with reduced work ability often suffer from health problems, thus being socially disadvantaged. The municipal job centers are confronted with numerous problems related to medicine use and they lack relevant means of referral. Thus......, there was a need to adapt a previously developed and validated medicine-based intervention “safe and effective use of medicines” to this vulnerable group of unemployed ethnic minority patients. Methods: The objective of this before-after study was to improve medicines adherence, health status and work ability...... in self-reported adherence as well as improved concordance for approximately half of the patients. Improvements in adherence removes one barrier for returning to the work force that exists in the complex interaction between adherence, health status and work ability...

  6. Safe Maritime Autonomous Path Planning in a High Sea State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Quadrelli, Marco; Huntsberger, Terrance L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a path planning method for sea surface vehicles that prevents capsizing and bow-diving in a high sea-state. A key idea is to use response amplitude operators (RAOs) or, in control terminology, the transfer functions from a sea state to a vessel's motion, in order to find a set of speeds and headings that results in excessive pitch and roll oscillations. This information is translated to arithmetic constraints on the ship's velocity, which are passed to a model predictive control (MPC)-based path planner to find a safe and optimal path that achieves specified goals. An obstacle avoidance capability is also added to the path planner. The proposed method is demonstrated by simulations.

  7. Anticipating Terrorist Safe Havens from Instability Induced Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Robert; Marvin, Brett

    This chapter presents recent methods developed at the Center for Army Analysis to classify patterns of nation-state instability that lead to conflict. The ungoverned areas endemic to failed nation-states provide terrorist organizations with safe havens from which to plan and execute terrorist attacks. Identification of those states at risk for instability induced conflict should help to facilitate effective counter terrorism policy planning efforts. Nation-states that experience instability induced conflict are similar in that they share common instability factors that make them susceptible to experiencing conflict. We utilize standard pattern classification algorithms to identify these patterns. First, we identify features (political, military, economic and social) that capture the instability of a nation-state. Second, we forecast the future levels of these features for each nation-state. Third, we classify each future state’s conflict potential based upon the conflict level of those states in the past most similar to the future state.

  8. Towards sustainable and safe apparel cleaning methods: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troynikov, Olga; Watson, Christopher; Jadhav, Amit; Nawaz, Nazia; Kettlewell, Roy

    2016-11-01

    Perchloroethylene (PERC) is a compound commonly used as a solvent in dry cleaning, despite its severe health and environmental impacts. In recent times chemicals such as hydrocarbons, GreenEarth(®), acetal and liquid carbon dioxide have emerged as less damaging substitutes for PERC, and an even more sustainable water-based wet cleaning process has been developed. We employed a systematic review approach to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing research evidence in the area of sustainable and safe apparel cleaning methods and care. Our review describes traditional professional dry cleaning methods, as well as those that utilise solvents other than PERC, and their ecological attributes. In addition, the new professional wet cleaning process is discussed. Finally, we address the health hazards of the various solvents used in dry cleaning and state-of-the-art solvent residue trace analysis techniques.

  9. ASPEN Safe Practices for Enteral Nutrition Therapy [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullata, Joseph I; Carrera, Amy Long; Harvey, Lillian; Escuro, Arlene A; Hudson, Lauren; Mays, Andrew; McGinnis, Carol; Wessel, Jacqueline J; Bajpai, Sarita; Beebe, Mara Lee; Kinn, Tamara J; Klang, Mark G; Lord, Linda; Martin, Karen; Pompeii-Wolfe, Cecelia; Sullivan, Jackie; Wood, Abby; Malone, Ainsley; Guenter, Peggi

    2017-01-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) is a valuable clinical intervention for patients of all ages in a variety of care settings. Along with its many outcome benefits come the potential for adverse effects. These safety issues are the result of clinical complications and of process-related errors. The latter can occur at any step from patient assessment, prescribing, and order review, to product selection, labeling, and administration. To maximize the benefits of EN while minimizing adverse events requires that a systematic approach of care be in place. This includes open communication, standardization, and incorporation of best practices into the EN process. This document provides recommendations based on the available evidence and expert consensus for safe practices, across each step of the process, for all those involved in caring for patients receiving EN.

  10. Expressed breast milk as 'connection' and its influence on the construction of 'motherhood' for mothers of preterm infants: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweet Linda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for all newborn infants. While there is high initiation of lactation among mothers of preterm infants in Australia, there is a rapid decline of continued lactation. Furthermore, there is an inverse relationship between infant gestation and duration of lactation. To better understand the breastfeeding experience of parents of very low birth weight (VLBW preterm infants an interpretive phenomenological study was conducted. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted using an interpretive phenomenological approach. Data were collected from 17 parents through 45 individual interviews with both mothers and fathers, from birth to 12 months of age. This data was then transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Results The analysis identified six primary themes: the intention to breastfeed naturally; breast milk as connection; the maternal role of breast milk producer; breast milk as the object of attention; breastfeeding and parenting the hospitalised baby and the demise of breastfeeding. This paper reports on the theme of 'breast milk as connection'. Providing expressed breast milk offered one way the mothers could be physiologically and emotionally connected to their preterm infant while they were in the constant care of hospital staff. Indeed, breast milk was considered the only way the new mother could connect her body (or part there of to her preterm baby in hospital. This sense of connection however, comes at a cost. On the one hand, the breast milk offers a feeling of connection to the baby, but, on the other, this connection comes only after disconnection of the mother and baby and – through breast expression – mother and her milk. This ability of breast milk to connect mother and baby makes the expressed breast milk highly valued, and places unexpected pressure on the mother to produce milk as integral to her sense of motherhood. Conclusion The findings of

  11. Risk-based method to assess the safe life of hazardous waste landfill%基于环境风险的危险废物填埋场安全寿命周期评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚; 能昌信; 刘玉强; 杨金忠; 刘景财; 董路

    2016-01-01

    通过系统分析危险填埋场的设计功能,结合安全寿命周期的定义,对危险废物填埋场的安全寿命周期进行了定义.在此基础上,通过文献查阅和理论推导确定了描述危险废物填埋场主要单元性能衰减的老化模型,并结合课题组开发的渗漏环境风险分析模型,建立了危险废物填埋场的安全寿命评估模型,并选择中部某危险废物填埋场进行了案例研究.结果表明:随着防渗材料老化以及导排层淤堵,渗滤液渗漏量将逐渐增加,其安全贮存功能将逐渐丧失,并逐渐达到其安全寿命周期.仅就本案例而言,该填埋场的安全寿命周期为385a;对安全寿命周期相关参数的敏感性分析表明,浸出浓度与填埋场安全寿命周期呈负相关,包气带厚度和含水层厚度与安全寿命周期呈正相关,相关系数分别为-0.79、0.99和0.72,这说明包气带厚度对安全寿命周期影响更大,其次为浸出浓度,最后为含水层厚度;应加强填埋场相关单元老化模型研究,开展其他因素对填埋场安全寿命周期的影响,进一步完善危险废物填埋场安全寿命周期评价理论和方法.%Through systematic analysis on hazardous waste landfill’s (HWL) design function, the definition of Safety Life Cycle (SLC) of HWL was given with reference on the traditional definition of SLC. Base on this, the models describing the degradation process of HWL’s main functional units were determined by literature reviewing and theoretical analyzing. This models were then coupled with the ERAMLL (Environmental risk assessment model for the leachate leakage) to assess the SLC for HWL. A HWL in central area in China was selected as a case study, and the result reveals that: with the aging of geomembrane and clogging of drainage system, the leakage rate of leachate in HWL will increase with time. Its environment risk will increase, and the HWL will reach to its SLC. As far as this case is

  12. B-Safe : a positive approach to safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, D.; Coulter, M. [British Columbia Hydro, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1998-12-01

    BC Hydro has implemented a behavioural safety program called B-Safe. The program provides a proactive, accurate method of measuring actual safety performances as an alternative to the traditional re-active method of using the number of past accidents as a measure of safety performance. The approach used in B-Safe is to motivate a work team to raise its level of safety performance through the use of positive reinforcement. Implementing B-Safe is accomplished with a coordinator trained in the overall concept of the B-Safe philosophy. Each safe behaviour is given a value in points to the members of a working team. B-Safe is voluntary and has the advantage that participants perform their own measurements and set their own goals. It is claimed to be easy to implement, requires only a few minutes of attention each week, helps to reduce accidents and enhances existing safety programs.

  13. How to Remove a Stuck Ring Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  14. Inherently safe reactors and a second nuclear era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, A M; Spiewak, I

    1984-06-29

    The Swedish PIUS reactor and the German-American small modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor are inherently safe-that is, their safety relies not upon intervention of humans or of electromechanical devices but on immutable principles of physics and chemistry. A second nuclear era may require commercialization and deployment of such inherently safe reactors, even though existing light-water reactors appear to be as safe as other well-accepted sources of central electricity, particularly hydroelectric dams.

  15. Safe Re-use Practices in Wastewater-Irrigated Urban Vegetable Farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Abaidoo, R.C; Beernaerts, I.;

    2012-01-01

    of stakeholders at different levels along the food chain. This paper presents an overview of safe re-use practices including farm-based water treatment methods, water application techniques, post-harvest handling practices, and washing methods. The overview is based on a comprehensive analysis of the literature......Irrigation using untreated wastewater poses health risks to farmers and consumers of crop products, especially vegetables. With hardly any wastewater treatment in Ghana, a multiple-barrier approach was adopted and safe re-use practices were developed through action research involving a number...... and our own specific studies, which used data from a broad range of research methods and approaches. Identifying, testing, and assessment of safe practices were done with the active participation of key actors using observations, extensive microbiological laboratory assessments, and field...

  16. Ceausescu’s population policy: a moral or an economic choice between compulsory and voluntary incentivised motherhood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Stanica Soare

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explain why, in 1966, the Romanian leadership adopted a wholly restrictive pronatalist policy, based on the strict limitation of abortion, instead of one based on socioeconomic incentives to families, as suggested by technocrats. Previous literature shows disagreement on whether the choice was motivated by moralistic or economic considerations. In order to find an answer to this question, hundreds of pages of archival material unpublished so far have been analysed, including the minutes of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, statistics, documents identified in the Ministry of Health Archive, and the technical reports that were on the table at the time of the decision. The conclusion of this study, drawn on the basis of these documents, indicates that at the time of 1966, regardless of the suggestions of the technocrats, a decision had already been taken by Ceausescu himself. This decision was influenced directly by economic considerations, namely the wish to obtain the maximum pronatalist effect at a minimum budgetary cost.

  17. A Compact Safe Cold-Start (CS2) System for Scramjets using Dilute Triethylaluminum Fuel Mixtures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the cold-start requirements of scramjet engines by developing a safe, energy-dense, and low volume hydrocarbon fuel conditioning system based...

  18. Fire-safe polymers and polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiqing

    The intrinsic relationships between polymer structure, composition and fire behavior have been explored to develop new fire-safe polymeric materials. Different experimental techniques, especially three milligram-scale methods---pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and pyrolysis GC/MS---have been combined to fully characterize the thermal decomposition and flammability of polymers and polymer composites. Thermal stability, mass loss rate, char yield and properties of decomposition volatiles were found to be the most important parameters in determining polymer flammability. Most polymers decompose by either an unzipping or a random chain scission mechanism with an endothermic decomposition of 100--900 J/g. Aromatic or heteroaromatic rings, conjugated double or triple bonds and heteroatoms such as halogens, N, O, S, P and Si are the basic structural units for fire-resistant polymers. The flammability of polymers can also be successfully estimated by combining pyrolysis GC/MS results or chemical structures with TGA results. The thermal decomposition and flammability of two groups of inherently fire-resistant polymers---poly(hydroxyamide) (PHA) and its derivatives, and bisphenol C (BPC II) polyarylates---have been systematically studied. PHA and most of its derivatives have extremely low heat release rates and very high char yields upon combustion. PHA and its halogen derivatives can completely cyclize into quasi-polybenzoxazole (PBO) structures at low temperatures. However, the methoxy and phosphate derivatives show a very different behavior during decomposition and combustion. Molecular modeling shows that the formation of an enol intermediate is the rate-determining step in the thermal cyclization of PHA. BPC II-polyarylate is another extremely flame-resistant polymer. It can be used as an efficient flame-retardant agent in copolymers and blends. From PCFC results, the total heat of combustion of these copolymers or blends

  19. Las comunidades seguras: una sinopsis Safe communities: a synopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Fandiño-Losada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La comunidad segura es un modelo de intervención de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS para el control y la prevención de las lesiones y la violencia basada en la comunidad. El programa está dirigido a la prevención de todos los tipos de lesiones y todos los grupos de edad, ambientes y situaciones. En este modelo, la comunidad identifica sus necesidades organizativas, define las áreas de interés con la participación de todos, diseña e instituye las intervenciones por medio de un trabajo intersectorial y ofrece soluciones locales de bajo costo; asimismo, garantiza la sostenibilidad de los programas mediante el compromiso gubernamental y las alianzas entre diferentes organizaciones. Este modelo ha demostrado su efectividad en diferentes contextos, incluidos los países en desarrollo. En Latinoamérica se ha certificado una "comunidad segura" en Chile, un ejemplo a seguir para enfrentar el problema de las lesiones y la violencia en la región.The "Safe Community" is a community-based intervention model by the World Health Organization (WHO for control and prevention of injuries and violence. The program is directed towards the prevention of all types of injuries and to all age groups, environments and situations. In this model, the community identifies its organizational needs, defines interest areas with participation by everybody, designs and implements interventions by means of inter-sector work using local, low cost solutions, and guarantees the sustainability of the programs by means of governmental commitment and alliances among different organizations. This model has demonstrated its effectiveness in different contexts, including developing countries. In Latin America, a "Safe Community" has been certified in Chile, an example to be followed for facing the problem of injuries and violence in the region.

  20. The Real Cost of Childcare: Motherhood and Flexible Creative Labour in the UK Film Industry - Review Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Wreyford

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is one clear factor that leads to women's inequality in the labour market: "becoming mothers" (The Commission for Equalities and Human Rights, 2007. It is difficult to talk about women and work without talking about childcare. The same would not be true about a discussion of men and work and this is still one of the most obvious difficulties to be managed by working women, even those who choose not to have children. It is the potential of all women to have children and the associated disruption to their career that can lead to women being perceived as less worthy of investment – of time, of career advice, of promotion and even of pay (Fitt and Newton, 1981, Groysberg, 2008, McGuire, 2002, Wajcman, 1998. In the UK film industry, only 14% of women have children compared to 40% of men (Skillset and UK Film Council, 2008. Work in the UK film industry shares many traits of other creative professions such as flexible working hours, project-based employment, uncertainty, precariousness and irregular and often unreliable payment. Skillset's report on the status of women in the creative industries in the UK found that representation is highest in sectors comprising larger employers in which more stable, permanent employment models are common, such as terrestrial television (48%, broadcast radio (47%, cinema exhibition (43%, and book publishing (61% (Skillset, 2010. This paper considers the hidden inequalities in the apparent freedom of a creative professions such as the UK film industry, paying particular attention to the role of the screenwriter in order to illustrate how continued gendered assumptions about a women's role as a mother and the primary carer for children can impact on their career opportunities in a creative industry.

  1. Safe access to safe water in low income countries: water fetching in current times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B; Morssink, Christiaan; Campos, Paola Abril

    2011-05-01

    A substantial portion of the world's population does not have ready access to safe water. Moreover, obtaining water may involve great expense of time and energy for those who have no water sources in or near home. From an historical perspective, with the invention of piped water, fetching water has only recently become largely irrelevant in many locales. In addition, in most instances, wells and clean surface water were so close by that fetching was not considered a problem. However, population growth, weather fluctuations and social upheavals have made the daily chore of carrying water highly problematic and a public health problem of great magnitude for many, especially women, in the poor regions and classes of the world. In this paper, we consider gender differences in water carrying and summarize data about water access and carrying from 44 countries that participated in the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) program. Women and children are the most common water carriers, and they spend considerable time (many trips take more than an hour) supplying water to their households. Time is but one measure of the cost of fetching water; caloric expenditures, particularly during droughts, and other measures that affect health and quality of life must be considered. The full costs of fetching water must be considered when measuring progress toward two Millennium Development Goals--increasing access to safe drinking water and seeking an end to poverty.

  2. Towards eye-safe standoff Raman imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimtoft, Martin; Bââth, Petra; Saari, Heikki; Mäkynen, Jussi; Näsilä, Antti; Östmark, Henric

    2014-05-01

    Standoff Raman imaging systems have shown the ability to detect single explosives particles. However, in many cases, the laser intensities needed restrict the applications where they can be safely used. A new generation imaging Raman system has been developed based on a 355 nm UV laser that, in addition to eye safety, allows discrete and invisible measurements. Non-dangerous exposure levels for the eye are several orders of magnitude higher in UVA than in the visible range that previously has been used. The UV Raman system has been built based on an UV Fabry-Perot Interferometer (UV-FPI) developed by VTT. The design allows for precise selection of Raman shifts in combination with high out-of-band blocking. The stable operation of the UV-FPI module under varying environmental conditions is arranged by controlling the temperature of the module and using a closed loop control of the FPI air gap based on capacitive measurement. The system presented consists of a 3rd harmonics Nd:YAG laser with 1.5 W average output at 1000 Hz, a 200 mm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, UV-FPI filter and an ICCD camera for signal gating and detection. The design principal leads to a Raman spectrum in each image pixel. The system is designed for field use and easy manoeuvring. Preliminary results show that in measurements of <60 s on 10 m distance, single AN particles of <300 μm diameter can be identified.

  3. Safe Producing and Quality Traceability for Food Additive BHT Based on J2 EE%基于J2EE的食品添加剂二丁基羟基甲苯安全生产质量溯源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单萍; 万长林; 裘锋; 王蕾; 戴欢

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the main application of Butylated Hydroxytoluene ( BHT) as a food additive;for making sure of the reliability and effectiveness of food safety traceability data source in our country , this paper analyses the safe producing and quality traceability requirement elements and defines the key producing points based on the purchase , producing and sales proces-ses of BHT manufactories .Therefore, the BHT safe producing and quality traceability system that confirms to related standards was designed and implemented based on a free and open-source J2EE framework.With the integration of Spring , Hibernate and RFID technologies , this system managed the material purchasing , producing , inventorying , and product selling information , could realize the monitoring and quality tracing of BHT producing and sales .%介绍二丁基羟基甲苯(BHT)作为添加剂在食品方面的主要应用;为确保我国食品安全溯源数据来源的可靠性和有效性,本文根据BHT生产企业的物料采购、产品生产和销售流程,分析BHT生产企业安全生产和质量溯源的需求,定义过程中的关键控制点。参考相关国家标准,以目前较为成熟的企业级应用开发标准J2EE为基础,研究和设计一个BHT安全生产质量溯源管理系统,应用Spring、Hibernate、RFID等技术,对原料采购、生产、仓储和销售过程进行信息化管理,实现了BHT生产、加工和销售环节的全链条追溯。

  4. "Safe Zone" Classrooms: The Individual Student versus the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Amber

    2013-01-01

    Independence Day School is a small college preparatory school serving grades 9-12, in rural Illinois. As part of its commitment to creating a safe school for all students, it adopted a "safe zone" classrooms policy. The policy states that classrooms where conversation about homosexuality is permitted are marked with inverted pink…

  5. Swimming Safely (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-22

    In the summertime, families will be flocking to pools for relaxation and relief from the heat. A few simple precautions can help ensure a safe day in the water. In this podcast, Michele Hlavsa discusses ways to stay safe at the pool.  Created: 5/22/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/22/2014.

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1080 - Safe practices manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe practices manual. 1926.1080 Section 1926.1080 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Safe practices manual. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section...

  7. Peacekeeper ICBM PBPS (Stage IV) Safing and Demilitarization Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Topics covered include: Overview of White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) and Capabilities. History of the Peacekeeper Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) Program. Introduction to Safing & Demilitarization Project. Requirements for Safing Project. Approach Constellation Program. Need for Qualified Flight Hardware to Support Constellation. Ability to Use Peacekeeper Hardware to Support Constellation. Additional Uses for the Peacekeeper Post-Boost Propulsion System (PBPS) Hardware.

  8. Well Connected, a platform for safe online communication and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postel, M.G.; Regteren, van B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Well Connected, a platform for safe online communication and therapy Introduction Well Connected is a flexible, safe and user friendly e-health platform with a wide range of applications. Over the last 7 years 5000 patients were treated or a variety of addiction related problems. Besides creating a

  9. Examination of a University-Affiliated Safe Ride Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieck, D. Joseph; Slagle, David M.

    2010-01-01

    A university-affiliated safe ride program was evaluated to determine whether these programs can reduce drunk-driving related costs. Data was collected from 187 safe ride passengers during three nights of operation. Among the passengers, 93% were enrolled at a local University, 31% were younger than 21, and 40% reported a prior alcohol-related…

  10. Consensus shaping and safe space public participation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karita Research AB, Taeaby (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    map public participation - consultation, consensus shaping processes and safe space. In contrast to consensus shaping processes, in the safe space approach there is no intention to develop solutions together between the implementer and other stakeholders. In comparison with the ladder, the basic approaches offer advantages for the mapping of public participation processes: If you strive for consensus or ''only'' clarity and awareness is a crucial question to be answered before a process is launched as it determines which stakeholders can join and which goals are feasible to reach. It is easier to use in assigning properties to a process, as it more straight-forward to understand if a process is consensus shaping or a safe space than where it is on the ladder. It clarifies better the links between the participation processes and the actual political and/or legal decision-making process. A consensus shaping process should produce real advice (or even decisions) but a safe space is limited to improving the decision making base with enhanced clarity.

  11. Knowledge, Attitude and Determinants of Safe Abortion among first year students in Mekelle University, Tigray, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selam Desalegn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: students are becoming aware of the availability and seeking of safe abortion services in their communities. However, unsafe abortion still remains globally major health problem especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. It is becoming one of the leading direct obstetric causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. In many low income countries lack of knowledge about the consequences of unsafe abortion and having negative attitude towards abortion service resulted in unsafe abortion practices. This study is important to identify area for improvement and encourage better communication with student clients who need safe abortion services. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess knowledge, attitude and factors associated with safe abortion among first year students in Mekelle University, Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods: Institution based-cross-sectional study design involving both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. The sample size was 772 and the sampling technique used was multistage cluster sampling technique. To proportionally allocate the sample size to each department, population proportion to size allocation was used. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Bivariate analysis was made to see the relations of independent variables with knowledge and attitude towards safe abortion. At bivariate logistic regression analysis, independent variables with cut off P-value<0.25 was included. In the multivariable binary logistic regression, P- value< 0.05 was used to declare the significance of the variables. Thematic analysis was used for the Qualitative method. Finally both qualitative and quantitative data was triangulated. The analyzed data was presented using figures, tables, graphs and texts. Result: Out of 752 students who heard about safe abortion, more than half 300 (55.9% have inadequate knowledge. Sex, (AOR= 1.7, 95% CI: 1.160-2.725, department (AOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.169-0.809, family education level (AOR

  12. Tools to make C programs safe: a deeper study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-min; PING Ling-di; PAN Xue-zeng; SHEN Hai-bin; YAN Xiao-lang

    2005-01-01

    The C programming language is expressive and flexible, but not safe; as its expressive power and flexibility are obtained through unsafe language features, and improper use of these features can lead to program bugs whose causes are hard to identify. Since C is widely used, and it is impractical to rewrite all existing C programs in safe languages, so ways must be found to make C programs safe. This paper deals with the unsafe features of C and presents a survey on existing solutions to make C programs safe. We have studied binary-level instrumentation tools, source checkers, source-level instrumentation tools and safe dialects of C, and present a comparison of different solutions, summarized the strengths and weaknesses of different classes of solutions, and show measures that could possibly improve the accuracy or alleviate the overhead of existing solutions.

  13. Design Packing to Safely Mail Raw Spaghetti. Grades 3-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    This activity is designed to build creative skills based on an everyday problem. The scenario that sometimes packages are dropped and letters get bent is used. How can a special delivery be protected from such unfortunate mishaps? Students use their creative skills to determine a way to mail raw spaghetti. A way to safely package the raw spaghetti…

  14. Focusing on Mental Health, Not Metal Detectors: Three Building Blocks of Safe and Effective Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard; Kline, Sue Ann; Barnhill, Gena; Griswold, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Many measures schools are implementing in response to recent violence will protect students but do little to address the complex social interactions that support violence. This article describes an approach that includes five research-based steps for creating safe and effective schools. This approach contains ways to help the learning environment,…

  15. The Politics of Feeling Safe in Global, National and Local Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2005-01-01

    what it means to be safe, global governance is not seamless in its extension.  The apparent universalism of the ontology and politics of global security therefore breaks down into a more complex pattern upon closer inspection.  Based on material from Indonesia, the paper suggests that the ‘onto...

  16. Nothing Virtual About it: An Emerging Safe Haven for an Adaptive Enemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    39 Fundraising ...coordination, fundraising , and recruiting.3 This monograph seeks to assess if the Internet, as a safe haven, is more important to Al Qa‘ida and its...operational base may include one, some, or all of the following capabilities: Fundraising , a communications network for efficient command and

  17. Intrinsically Safe Robot Arm: Adjustable Static Balancing and Low Power Actuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.; Wisse, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a design for a manipulator that is intrinsically mechanically safe, i.e. it can not cause pain (let alone damage) to a human being even if the control system has a failure. Based on the pressure pain thresholds for human skin, we derive a pinching safety constraint that limits the actuato

  18. Lidar Data Analysis for Time to Headway Determination in the DriveSafe Project Field Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker Altay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The DriveSafe project was carried out by a consortium of university research centers and automotive OEMs in Turkey to reduce accidents caused by driver behavior. A huge amount of driving data was collected from 108 drivers who drove the instrumented DriveSafe vehicle in the same route of 25 km of urban and highway traffic in Istanbul. One of the sensors used in the DriveSafe vehicle was a forward-looking LIDAR. The data from the LIDAR is used here to determine and record the headway time characteristics of different drivers. This paper concentrates on the analysis of LIDAR data from the DriveSafe vehicle. A simple algorithm that only looks at the forward direction along a straight line is used first. Headway times based on this simple approach are presented for an example driver. A more accurate detection and tracking algorithm taken from the literature are presented later in the paper. Grid-based and point distance-based methods are presented first. Then, a detection and tracking algorithm based on the Kalman filter is presented. The results are demonstrated using experimental data.

  19. Promoting safe IV management in practice using H.A.N.D.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, Angela; Caguioa, Jennifer; Octavo, Genevi

    The aim of this article is to promote best practice for the insertion and care of intravascular (IV) devices. The H.A.N.D.S. acronym was created to serve as an aide memoire to general and specialist nurses regarding the 5 key interventions to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). In order to promote safe and evidence-based practice in IV therapy a practical guide with clinical information about common IV procedures has been developed. This article provides back-to-basics guidance on how to deliver IV therapy safely and effectively.

  20. Safe practice of population-focused nursing care: Development of a public health nursing concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issel, L Michele; Bekemeier, Betty

    2010-01-01

    Patient safety, a cornerstone of quality nursing care in most healthcare organizations, has not received attention in the specialty of public health nursing, owing to the conceptual challenges of applying this individual level concept to populations. Public health nurses (PHNs), by definition, provide population-focused care. Safe practice of population-focused nursing care involves preventing errors that would affect the health of entire populations and communities. The purpose of this article is to conceptually develop the public health nursing concept of safe practice of population-focused care and calls for related research. Key literature on patient safety is reviewed. Concepts applying to population-focused care are organized based on Donabedian's Framework. Structural, operational and system failures and process errors of omission and commission can occur at the population level of practice and potentially influence outcomes for population-patients. Practice, research and policy implications are discussed. Safe PHN population-focused practice deserves attention.

  1. Gestação e a constituição da maternidade Gestación y la constitución de la maternidad Pregnancy and motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Piccinini

    2008-03-01

    proceso de la constitución de la maternidad está en intenso desarrollo, bien como el propio ejercicio activo del rol materno.Biological, somatic, psychological and social changes take place in pregnancy which influence the pregnant woman's psychic dynamics and social relationships. The manner a woman experiences these changes impacts intensely on the constitution of motherhood and mother-infant relationships. Current study investigates pregnant women's feelings concerning motherhood, with special emphasis on the relationship between the pregnancy period and the constitution of motherhood. Thirty-nine primipari pregnant women, aged 19 to 37, in the third trimester of pregnancy, took part in the study. Qualitative content analysis on the interviews showed that pregnant women reported considerable body, personal and interpersonal transformations during pregnancy and experienced intense feelings related to the fact of becoming mothers. Results suggest that in pregnancy the process of constitution of motherhood is in sharp development coupled to the active exercise of the maternal role itself.

  2. Transformaciones Histórico Culturales del Concepto de Maternidad y sus Repercusiones en la Identidad de la Mujer Historical and Cultural Changes in the Conceptualization of Motherhood and Their Impact on Women's Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Molina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La noción de maternidad muestra una evolución histórica, particularmente en relación con la imagen de mujer y las nociones de crianza. El artículo revisa esa evolución y analiza los límites y posibilidades en la construcción de esta noción en la actualidad. Las transformaciones que ha experimentado este concepto, lo sitúan como un constructo social que ha tenido impacto en la definición de la identidad de la mujer y su posición en la sociedad. Los cambios que caracterizan la época postmoderna plantean nuevas demandas a la organización social. Esto ofrece nuevas direcciones a la concepción de maternidad que se construye en el diálogo colectivo y a la definición de la mujer tanto frente a sí misma como frente a la cultura.The conceptualization of motherhood has a historical development, particularly related with woman's image and childrearing ideas. This article attempts to review specific issues in this process and discusses constrains and possibilities for further construction of this notion at the present. The transformations of this concept through human history express the impact of this social construction on woman's identity and on her social position. The changes that take place at the postmodern era pose new demands on social organization. These dynamics offer new directions for the construction of motherhood that takes place in the collective dialogue and for women's definition both of their self-image and their rol in society.

  3. Women with mental disorders and motherhood Las mujeres portadoras de trastornos mentales y la maternidad Mulheres portadoras de transtornos mentais e a maternidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisley Vilas Bôas Soares

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mothers' ability to deliver care and tend to the needs of their children is considered to generate an adequate preventive environment for infant psychological development. This study describes the phenomenon of motherhood from the perspective of users of a mental health outpatient clinic in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, through Symbolic Interactionism theoretical framework. Ten women under treatment for at least one year and with at least one child between 7 and 12 years old were interviewed. Grounded Theory was used for data analysis, which enabled the development of a theory to explain the phenomenon: "of perceiving oneself in such a way as to keep fighting". The conclusion is that these women need to deal with, recognize and perceive themselves in their maternal role so as to keep on fighting limitations imposed by the disease. That these women come and see beyond their condition of mental disorder patients is another step towards the delivery of more adequate mental health services to meet this demand.Se considera que la capacidad materna para ofrecer buenas condiciones de cuidado y reconocimiento de las necesidades del hijo, genera un ambiente adecuado preventivo para el desarrollo psicológico del niño. Este estudio buscó describir el fenómeno de la maternidad para usuarias de un ambulatorio de salud mental de la ciudad de Ribeirao Preto, SP, utilizando como marco teórico el Interaccionismo Simbólico. Fueron entrevistadas diez mujeres, con, al menos, un año de tratamiento y con por lo menos un niño de 7 a 12 años. La Teoría Fundamentada en Datos posibilitó analizar los datos, alcanzando una teoría que explica el fenómeno: "tratando de reconocerse para permanecer luchando". Se concluye que esas mujeres necesitan lidiar, reconocer y reconocerse en su función materna para permanecer luchando con las limitaciones impuestas por el trastorno. Se trata de un paso más para adecuar los servicios de la salud mental frente a esa demanda

  4. Nanoparticle-detained toxins for safe and effective vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Che-Ming J.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-12-01

    Toxoid vaccines--vaccines based on inactivated bacterial toxins--are routinely used to promote antitoxin immunity for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. Following chemical or heat denaturation, inactivated toxins can be administered to mount toxin-specific immune responses. However, retaining faithful antigenic presentation while removing toxin virulence remains a major challenge and presents a trade-off between efficacy and safety in toxoid development. Here, we show a nanoparticle-based toxin-detainment strategy that safely delivers non-disrupted pore-forming toxins for immune processing. Using erythrocyte membrane-coated nanoparticles and staphylococcal α-haemolysin, we demonstrate effective virulence neutralization via spontaneous particle entrapment. Compared with vaccination with heat-denatured toxin, mice vaccinated with the nanoparticle-detained toxin showed superior protective immunity against toxin-mediated adverse effects. We find that the non-disruptive detoxification approach benefited the immunogenicity and efficacy of toxoid vaccines. We anticipate that this study will open new possibilities in the preparation of antitoxin vaccines against the many virulence factors that threaten public health.

  5. Women, motherhood and early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage...... in efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...... multiple barriers to their agency in particular due to multiple forms of discrimination and living in poverty on the margins of society. In such contexts of disempowerment, programme responses are likely to meet with limited success if they seek to teach mothers about child care and rearing, without...

  6. Women, motherhood and early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage...... in efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...... an assessment of the mothers’ capacity to internalize and act upon advice. It is argued that supporting Roma women’s access to human rights is likely to have positive outcomes for the women and their families, especially the young children...

  7. Strategies for Countering Terrorist Safe Havens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-20

    of Independence UN United Nations UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees USSOCOM United States Special Operations Command USSOF United...Commission for Refugees ( UNHCR ) labeled the Nyadzonya base as a refugee camp in May 1976, three months prior to Operation Eland.233 LTC Daly asserts that...ZANLA later facilitated an investigation by the UNHCR , which concluded that the attack on Nyadzonya was an atrocity committed against refugees who

  8. Predictors of adherence to safe handling practices for antineoplastic drugs: A survey of hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Sharon R; Steege, Andrea L; Boiano, James M

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing awareness of the hazards of exposure to antineoplastic drugs (ADs), surveys continue to find incomplete adherence to recommended safe handling guidelines. A 2011 survey of healthcare workers presents an opportunity to examine factors associated with adherence among 1094 hospital nurses who administered ADs. Data for these hypothesis-generating analyses were taken from an anonymous, web-based survey of healthcare workers. Regression modeling was used to examine associations between a number of predictors (engineering controls, work practices, nurse perceptions, and nurse and hospital characteristics) and three outcomes reported by nurses: use of personal protective equipment (PPE); activities performed with gloves previously worn to administer ADs; and spills of ADs. Adherence to safe handling guidelines was not universal, and AD spills were reported by 9.5% of nurses during the week prior to the survey. Familiarity with safe handling guidelines and training in safe handling were associated with more reported PPE use. Nurse-perceived availability of PPE was associated with more reported PPE use and lower odds of reported spills. Use of closed system drug-transfer devices and luer-lock fittings also decreased the odds of self-reported AD spills, while more frequent AD administration increased the risk. AD administration frequency was also associated with performing more activities with gloves previously worn to administer ADs, and nurse perception of having adequate time for taking safety precautions with fewer such activities. The results suggest that training and familiarity with guidelines for safe handling of ADs, adequate time to adhere to guidelines, and availability of PPE and certain engineering controls are key to ensuring adherence to safe handling practices. Further assessment of training components and engineering controls would be useful for tailoring interventions targeting these areas.

  9. Nondestructive characterization of RBSOA of high-power bipolar transistors. [Reverse-bias safe operating area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, M. M.; Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Reverse-bias safe operating area (RBSOA) of high-power Darlington transistors is characterized using a 120 A/1000 V nondestructive reverse-bias second breakdown tester designed and fabricated at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Elaborate RBSOA characteristics are generated with different forward/reverse base drives and collector current levels. The effects of elevated case temperature and second-base drive on RBSOA of four-terminal Darlington devices are also discussed.

  10. Concept of an inherently-safe high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Masuro [Nuclear Hydrogen and Heat Application Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken, 311-1394 (Japan)

    2012-06-06

    As the challenge to ensure no harmful release of radioactive materials at the accidents by deterministic approach instead to satisfy acceptance criteria or safety goal for risk by probabilistic approach, new concept of advanced reactor, an inherently-safe high temperature gas-cooled reactor, is proposed based on the experience of the operation of the actual High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in Japan, High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), and the design of the commercial plant (GTHTR300), utilizing the inherent safety features of the HTGR (i.e., safety features based on physical phenomena). The safety design philosophy of the inherently-safe HTGR for the safety analysis of the radiological consequences is determined as the confinement of radioactive materials is assured by only inherent safety features without engineered safety features, AC power or prompt actions by plant personnel if the design extension conditions occur. Inherent safety features to prevent the loss or degradation of the confinement function are identified. It is proposed not to apply the probabilistic approach for the evaluation of the radiological consequences of the accidents in the safety analysis because no inherent safety features fail for the mitigation of the consequences of the accidents. Consequently, there are no event sequences to harmful release of radioactive materials if the design extension conditions occur in the inherently-safe HTGR concept. The concept and future R and D items for the inherently-safe HTGR are described in this paper.

  11. Zambia Communications Support for Health Safe Love Campaign Outcome Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Safe Love campaign was a three-year comprehensive HIV prevention behavior change and communication (BCC) initiative implemented between June 2011 and June 2014....

  12. 78 FR 30723 - National Safe Boating Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... season. Safe boating starts onshore. Americans planning to spend a day on the water should prepare by... many lives every year, individuals should never operate a boat under the influence of drugs or...

  13. High Blood Pressure and Cold Remedies: Which Are Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter cold remedies safe for people who have high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M. ... remedies aren't off-limits if you have high blood pressure, but it's important to make careful ...

  14. Safe Foods in Europa : werken aan voedselveiligheid op meerdere fronten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnudde, F.

    2007-01-01

    In het Safe Foods-project slaat een internationaal team van meer dan 100 wetenschappers bruggen tussen verschillende disciplines om te werken aan voedselveiligheid. Doel is het ontwerpen van een nieuwe risicoanalyseaanpak die praktisch toepasbaar is.

  15. Review Suggests Safe, Effective Ways to Relieve Pain Without Meds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160744.html Review Suggests Safe, Effective Ways to Relieve Pain Without ... appear to be effective, according to a new review. Millions of Americans seek pain relief through such ...

  16. Is it Safe to Take Hormones to Treat Menopause Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Is it Safe to Take Hormones to Treat Menopause Symptoms? First, it is good to understand what ... her go through several changes that lead to menopause. For example:  Her period begins to change a ...

  17. Uncovering the meaning of 'being safe' in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Elizabeth

    2003-04-01

    This paper moves away from the prevalent discourse of competence to consider the meaning of the experience of 'being safe' within the context of childbirth. It offers findings from a doctoral study, informed by the philosophies of Heidegger and Gadamer. Following ethical approval, the data was collected in New Zealand by tape-recorded interviews of 5 midwives, 4 obstetricians, 1 general practitioner and 10 women. The method was informed by van Manen. The findings reveal that in seeking the meaning of being safe one needs to be aware that the unsafety may already be present in the situation. Practitioners may be able to do little to rectify the unsafeness. There is, however, a spirit of safe practice, explicated in this paper, that is likely to make practice as safe as it can possibly be. Wise practitioners are ever mindful that a situation may be or become unsafe, and are always aware of their own limitations.

  18. Reducing Fever in Children: Safe Use of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Reducing Fever in Children: Safe Use of Acetaminophen Share Tweet ... re in the drug store, looking for a fever-reducing medicine for your children. They range in ...

  19. Keep Your Dogs and Cats Safe From Holiday Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Keep Your Dogs and Cats Safe From Holiday Hazards Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... leave your leftover tinsel, string, and ribbons. “Your cat may find these decorations irresistible because they look ...

  20. Myths and Facts about SIDS and Safe Infant Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myths and Facts About SIDS and Safe Infant Sleep Page Content Myth: Babies can “catch” SIDS. Fact: ... sleep environment for your baby. Myth: Babies who sleep on their backs will choke if they spit ...