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Sample records for based safe motherhood

  1. Strategies for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A

    1995-02-01

    The Safe Motherhood Initiative was launched in 1988 as a global effort to halve maternal mortality and morbidity by the year 2000. The program uses a combination of health and nonhealth strategies to emphasize the need for maternal health services, extend family planning services, and improve the status of women. The maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) is 390 for the world, 20-30 for developed countries, 450 for developing countries, and 420 for Asia. This translates into 308,000 maternal deaths in Asia, of which 100,000 occur in India. The direct causes of maternal mortality include sepsis, hemorrhage, eclampsia, and ruptured uterus. Indirect causes occur when associated medical conditions, such as anemia and jaundice, are exacerbated by pregnancy. Underlying causes are ineffective health services, inadequate obstetric care, unregulated fertility, infections, illiteracy, early marriage, poverty, malnutrition, and ignorance. India's Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program seeks to achieve immediate improvements by improving health care. Longterm improvements will occur as nutrition, income, education, and the status of women improve. Improvements in health care will occur in through the provision of 1) essential obstetric care for all women (which will be essentially designed for low-risk women), 2) early detection of complications during pregnancy and labor, and 3) emergency services. Services will be provided to pregnant women at their door by field staff, at a first referral hospital, perhaps at maternity villages where high risk cases can be housed in the latter part of their pregnancies, and through the continual accessibility of government vehicles. In addition, family planning services will be improved so that fertility regulation can have its expected beneficial effect on the maternal mortality rate. The professional health organizations in India will also play a vital role in the success of this effort to reduce maternal mortality. PMID

  2. Mother Rights Aspects of Safe Motherhood

    OpenAIRE

    Emre Yanikkerem; Aynur Saruhan; Ahsen Sirin

    2008-01-01

    The safe motherhood is aimed to reduce deaths and illnesses among women and infants, maternal deaths in developing countries are often the ultimate tragic outcome of the cumulative denial of women’s human rights. Women and infants are dying because of preventable disease. Safe motherhood is now on the world agenda as one of eight millennium Development Goals. The global community of health professionals has a major responsibility to help make motherhood safer for all women. This article ...

  3. Effectiveness of community based safe motherhood promoters in improving the utilization of obstetric care. The case of Mtwara Rural District in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn Albrecht

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, maternal mortality ratio remains unacceptably high at 578/100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage of antenatal care (96%, only 44% of deliveries take place within the formal health services. Still, "Ensure skilled attendant at birth" is acknowledged as one of the most effective interventions to reduce maternal deaths. Exploring the potential of community-based interventions in increasing the utilization of obstetric care, the study aimed at developing, testing and assessing a community-based safe motherhood intervention in Mtwara rural District of Tanzania. Method This community-based intervention was designed as a pre-post comparison study, covering 4 villages with a total population of 8300. Intervention activities were implemented by 50 trained safe motherhood promoters (SMPs. Their tasks focused on promoting early and complete antenatal care visits and delivery with a skilled attendant. Data on all 512 deliveries taking place from October 2004 to November 2006 were collected by the SMPs and cross-checked with health service records. In addition 242 respondents were interviewed with respect to knowledge on safe motherhood issues and their perception of the SMP's performance. Skilled delivery attendance was our primary outcome; secondary outcomes included antenatal care attendance and knowledge on Safe Motherhood issues. Results Deliveries with skilled attendant significantly increased from 34.1% to 51.4% (ρ Conclusion The study has demonstrated the effectiveness of community-based safe motherhood intervention in promoting the utilization of obstetric care and a skilled attendant at delivery. This improvement is attributed to the SMPs' home visits and the close collaboration with existing community structures as well as health services.

  4. Safe motherhood--a long way to achieve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, A K; Mondal, A; Mukherjee, G G

    2001-03-01

    Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is the most important index for monitoring the progress of safe motherhood programmes. A retrospective analysis of all maternal deaths at RG Kar Medical College and Hospital, Calcutta from 1st January, 1995 to 31st December, 1997 was carried out. There were 29,563 live births and 203 maternal deaths giving cumulative MMR of 686.67 per 100,000 live births. Among the victims 25.6% were rural (59.6%) or urban slum (20.2%) and from low socio-economic status (59.6%). Most (60.10%) were multiparous and 50.74% patients died within 24 hours of hospital admission. Direct causes were responsible for 83.25%, indirect causes for 14.78% and unrelated causes for 1.97% of maternal deaths. Toxaemia was the leading cause (53.20%) of maternal mortality. Other important causes were haemorrhage (16.75%), sepsis (12.31%), severe anaemia (6.4%), infective hepatitis (1.47%) and heart disease (3.44%). In comparison to previous years no significant changes in MMR had been found though there were temporary decline in some years. The contribution of toxaemia in maternal deaths is significantly high and is on the rise. The other national and global pictures were reviewed. India is among the countries of high MMR and far away from achieving safe motherhood. Majority of deaths are preventable. The medical causes of maternal deaths are in fact, the end point of a longer chain of many underlying factors like low socio-economic status, poverty, illiteracy, high parity and inadequate or no health care. An active community-based health care system accessible to every mother with strong referral system is the most effective approach to achieve safe motherhood. PMID:11478755

  5. Pregnancy is special -- let's make it safe. Special feature -- safe motherhood facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes the 10 action messages (and the rationale behind them) that emerged from a technical consultation held in Sri Lanka in 1997 to mark the 10th anniversary of the Safe Motherhood Initiative. The 10 safe motherhood messages emphasize 1) establishing safe motherhood as a human right, 2) promoting safe motherhood as a vital economic and social investment, 3) empowering women and ensuring choices, 4) delaying marriage and first birth, 5) understanding that every pregnancy involves risks, 6) ensuring skilled attendance at deliveries, 7) improving access to quality maternal health services, 8) addressing unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion, 9) measuring progress, and 10) using the power of partnerships. The document describes the extent of maternal mortality and morbidity in the world and notes that provision of quality maternal health care is the single most important intervention. The socioeconomic importance of safe motherhood is considered in the next section, followed by an explanation of the social justice and human rights aspects of safe motherhood. After a look at the importance of delaying childbearing and the fact that every pregnancy involves risks, the document highlights the need to ensure skilled attendance at delivery, to improve access to and quality of maternal health services, to prevent unwanted pregnancy, and to address unsafe abortion. The document ends by reviewing the difficulties involved in measuring maternal mortality and emphasizing the importance of analyzing each maternal death in detail and sharing the important information gleaned with the community. PMID:12293576

  6. Evaluation of a Safe Motherhood project in Ntcheu district, Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Mseu D; Nyasulu BM; Muheriwa SR

    2014-01-01

    Dennis Mseu,1 Betty Mkwinda Nyasulu,2 Sadandaula Rose Muheriwa3 1Nurses and Midwives Council of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi; 2Basic Studies Department, Kamuzu College of Nursing, University of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi; 3Department of Maternal and Child Health, Kamuzu College of Nursing, University of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi Purpose: This study evaluated knowledge and practices of childbearing women on key childcare practices within the Safe Motherhood project, administered by the Ntcheu Distri...

  7. Generating political will for safe motherhood in Indonesia.

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    Shiffman, Jeremy

    2003-03-01

    In 1987 an international conference brought global attention to an issue that previously had been ignored: the world's alarmingly high number of maternal deaths in childbirth. The conference ended with a declaration calling for a reduction in maternal mortality by at least half by the year 2000. As the deadline approached, safe motherhood activists lamented the fact that the world was nowhere near to achieving this objective. They attributed this failure to a variety of causes, but were in agreement that the medical technology was available to prevent maternal deaths in childbirth, and the key was generating the political will to make such technology widely available to women in developing countries.What 'political will' means, however, has been left as an unopened black box. What causes governments to give priority to the issue of safe motherhood, given that national political systems are burdened with thousands of issues to sort through each year? In marked contrast to our extensive knowledge about the medical interventions necessary to prevent maternal death, we know little about the political interventions necessary to increase the likelihood that national leaders pay meaningful attention to the issue. Drawing from a scholarly literature on agenda setting, this paper identifies four factors that heighten the likelihood that an issue will rise to national-level attention: the existence of clear indicators showing that a problem exists; the presence of effective political entrepreneurs to push the cause; the organization of attention-generating focusing events that promote widespread concern for the issue; and the availability of politically palatable policy alternatives that enable national leaders to understand that the problem is surmountable. The paper presents a case study of the emergence, waning and re-generation of political priority for safe motherhood in Indonesia over the decade 1987-1997, to highlight how these four factors interacted to raise safe

  8. How safe motherhood in India is.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K B

    1995-02-01

    According to a 3-year collaborative study estimating maternal mortality rates from 41 hospitals affiliated with teaching centers in India, maternal mortality was 721 per 100,000 live births. Community studies in rural areas of Sirur, Pachod, and Ambula reported maternal mortality as 210-253 per 100,000. Cohort studies conducted by the Indian Council of Medical Research reported maternal mortality as 530 per 100,000 based on data from rural areas of Varanasi, 460 per 100,000 in urban Delhi, and 450 per 100,000 in urban Madras. The Ministry of Health gave the rate as 460 per 100,000 in 1984, while UNICEF gave a figure of 400 per 100,000 for 1980-91. India has 1 out of 4 of the world's maternal deaths, or 1 every 6 minutes. The risk of maternal death has been calculated to be one in 64. Risk is unevenly distributed geographically. Risk is low in Kerala compared to Uttar Pradesh or Madya Pradesh. In 1992 maternal mortality was calculated to be 1320 per 100,000 births based on 5 district hospitals. The cause of maternal deaths was anemia in 25% of cases. 75% of cases were accounted for by eclampsia, sepsis, hemorrhage, and abortion. Anemia (pre-existing the pregnancy) is acerbated by the demands of pregnancy and causes congestive heart failure and death. Blood losses of greater than 150 ml (due to hemorrhages of pregnancy and labor) can be fatal. During 1982-89 anemia was responsible for 17-24% of all maternal deaths in rural areas. Morbidity from pregnancy-related causes included obstetric fistulae, pelvic inflammatory disease, anemia, genital prolapse, and urinary incontinence. Quality of maternal care is an important factor in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. Societal factors such as illiteracy and malnutrition, early marriage, poorly supervised pregnancies, and lack of transportation during emergencies are other determinants of mortality and morbidity. About 10% of maternal deaths are attributed to unsafe abortion. The government aim for the year 2000 of

  9. Lessons from Semmelweis:A Social Epidemiologic Update On Safe Motherhood

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    Julie Cwikel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this historical review, Ignaz Semmelweis's study of handwashing to prevent puerperal fever is described and used as a benchmark from which to identify salient issues that are informative to today's women’s health activists working for Safe Motherhood. The epidemiology of contemporary excess maternal mortality is reviewed. Using the conceptual framework of social epidemiology, the paper addresses four issues that were problematic in Semmelweis’ era. New tools in public health are presented that can help to solve critical, still challenging problems to reduce excess maternal mortality, nosocomial infections, and puerperal fever at childbirth: 1 progress in behavioral methods to promote health behavior change, 2 the introduction of participatory action research, 3 the diffusion of evidence-based public health practice and 4 understanding how politics and health interact and present challenges when trying to meet public health goals. Social exclusion and marginality are still key issues in determining who has access to safe motherhood and who risks her life in maternity. Applied social epidemiology allows practitioners to make effective use of the already accumulated evidence and translate it into effective public health practice to promote safe motherhood around the world.

  10. Maternal morbidity: Neglected dimension of safe motherhood in the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Hardee, Karen; Gay, Jill; Blanc, Ann K.

    2012-01-01

    In safe motherhood programming in the developing world, insufficient attention has been given to maternal morbidity, which can extend well beyond childbirth. For every woman who dies of pregnancy-related causes, an estimated 20 women experience acute or chronic morbidity. Maternal morbidity adversely affects families, communities and societies. Maternal morbidity has multiple causes, with duration ranging from acute to chronic, severity ranging from transient to permanent and with a range of ...

  11. Endangering safe motherhood in Mozambique: prenatal care as pregnancy risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Rachel R

    2003-07-01

    Despite high infant and maternal mortality rates, many Mozambican women with access to prenatal services delay prenatal clinic consultations, limiting opportunity for prevention and treatment of preventable pregnancy complications. Ethnographic research, interviews with health providers and longitudinal pregnancy case studies with 83 women were conducted in Central Mozambique to examine pregnant women's underutilization of clinic-based prenatal services. The study found that pregnancy beliefs and prenatal practices reflect women's attempts to influence reproduction under conditions of vulnerability at multiple levels. Women reported high maternal reproductive morbidity, frequent pregnancy wastage, and immense pressure to bear children throughout their reproductive years. Reproductive vulnerability is intensified by poverty and an intense burden placed on poor, peri-urban women farmers for family subsistence and continuous fertility in a period of economic austerity, land shortages, and increasing social conflict and inequality. In this environment of economic insecurity exacerbated by congested living conditions, women report competing for scarce resources, including male support and income. This vulnerability heightens women's perceptions that they and their unborn infants will be targets of witchcraft or sorcery by jealous neighbors and kin. They respond by hiding pregnancy and delaying prenatal care. Within the context of women's perceived reproductive risks, delayed prenatal care can be seen as a strategy to protect pregnancy from purposeful human and spirit harm. Women mobilized limited resources to acquire prenatal care outside the formal clinic setting. It is concluded that provision of clinical prenatal services is insufficient to reduce reproductive risks for the most socially and economically marginal since it is their vulnerability that prevents women from using available services. Confidential maternity services and social safety nets for greater

  12. Accelerating the reduction in cervical cancer: what can we learn from the Safe Motherhood movement?

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    Tsu, Vivien D; Jeronimo, Jose

    2013-10-01

    As we move toward the post-2015 development agenda, we should reflect on the accomplishments of the Safe Motherhood movement and derive potential lessons to strengthen programs to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. Five key areas have been the focus of attention over the years: definition of the magnitude and distribution of maternal mortality; identification of effective and feasible clinical solutions; advocacy to increase attention, resources, and commitment; leadership through international coalitions; and development of a framework for accountability, with targets and indicators. While efforts have been made in each of these areas for cervical cancer prevention, progress has been constrained by inadequate resources. Data are of variable quality, with few cancer registries in the countries where cervical cancer is most prevalent. There has been substantial progress in identifying feasible and effective clinical and programmatic interventions, and a growing consensus around meaningful indicators. Advocacy on behalf of cervical cancer prevention has been gaining momentum but leadership is still fragmented. With so many of the basic elements for cervical cancer prevention in place, we must use the lessons learned from the Safe Motherhood movement to accelerate the pace of scaling-up cervical cancer prevention activities, saving millions of women's lives in the next decade. PMID:23910179

  13. The evaluation of "Safe Motherhood" program on maternal care utilization in rural western China: a difference in difference approach

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    Liu Xiaoning

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal care is an important strategy for protection and promotion of maternal and children's health by reducing maternal mortality and improving the quality of birth. However, the status of maternal care is quite weak in the less developed rural areas in western China. It is found that the maternal mortality rates in some western areas of China were 5.8 times higher than those of their eastern costal counterparts. In order to reduce the maternal mortality rates and to improve maternal care in western rural areas of China, the Chinese Ministry of Health (MOH and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF sponsored a program named "Safe Motherhood" in ten western provinces of China from 2001 through 2005. This study mainly aims to evaluate the effects of "Safe Motherhood" program on maternal care utilization. Methods 32 counties were included in both surveys conducted in 2001 and 2005, respectively. Ten counties of which implemented comprehensive community-based intervention were used as intervention groups, while 22 counties were used as control groups. Stratified 3-stage probability-proportion-to-size sampling method was used to select participating women. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted with questionnaires about the prenatal care utilization in 2001 and 2005, respectively. Difference in difference estimation was used to assess the effect of intervention on the maternal care utilization while controlling for socio-economic characteristics of women. Results After the intervention, the proportion of pregnant women who had their first prenatal visit in the first trimester was increased from 38.9% to 76.1%. The proportion of prenatal visits increased from 82.6% to 98.3%. The proportion of women mobilized to deliver in hospitals increased from 62.7% to 94.5%. Hospital delivery was improved greatly from 31.1% to 87.3%. The maternal mortality rate was lowered by 34.9% from 91.76 to 59.74 per 100,000 live births. The

  14. PERIPARTUM HY STERECTOMY: A LIMITING FACTOR FOR PROCREATIVE POTENTIAL & SAFE - MOTHERHOOD: A 5 YEARS RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Agnes Vijaya

    2015-09-01

    levels of health care delivery system in developing countries like India to maintain safe - motherhood.

  15. Scope of health systems research in Child Survival and Safe Motherhood programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, P K

    1993-01-01

    Editorial commentary focused on several Health System Research (HSR) approaches which exemplified some of the key issues for application of HSR for further improvement in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services in India. The goals of HSR are to delineate health policy which improves the operations of the health care delivery system for sustainability at the district level. HSR is part of a global effort of Health For All by 2000 AD and India's Child Survival and Safe Motherhood (CSSM) program, sponsored by IDA/UNICEF. CSSM aims also to end polio by 2000 AD, eliminate neonatal tetanus by 1995, and prevent deaths and morbidity from measles, diarrheal diseases, and acute respiratory infection. MCH services will be expanded at the village, subcenter, primary health center, and community health center levels in order to reduce maternal mortality to below 2/1000 from the 1990 5/1000 and to reduce mortality of children aged 1-4 years to less than 10/1000 live births from 80/1000 by 2000 AD. States with particularly high levels of child and maternal mortality are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh, which have about 40% of India's population. These states have low marriage ages, low female literacy, and few women in nonagricultural employment. There are about 90 districts in these states with particularly low demographic indicators. India policy directs all CSSM work to be carried out by existing staff; the program emphasis will be training, supervision, and logistics. IEC will need to be directed to attitudinal change in rural areas and urban slums. Research has found that coverage is uneven and quality of MCH services, poor. One study will evaluate the performance over 5 years in Gwalior district in a nutrition and school health program. Another research effort will perform quality assessment of MCH care at the primary health care level and promote community awareness and increased utilization. An ongoing study is evaluating nationally the family welfare

  16. Assessment of the level of male involvement in safe motherhood in southern Nigeria.

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    Nwakwuo, Geoffrey Chima; Oshonwoh, Ferdinand Ebiarede

    2013-04-01

    Pregnancy and the events surrounding it are generally viewed as feminine issues exclusively for women. In sub-Saharan Africa, believing that pregnancy and the events that follow are guided by nature, a lot of superstition is attributed in the event of complications, which result in poor maternal outcomes. Maternal mortality remains a public health challenge worldwide, and Nigeria has one of the highest levels of maternal mortality in the world (545 per 100,000 live births). The involvement of men in ensuring and enhancing maternal health was a great idea hatched at the Cairo conference in 1994, but since then, not much has been done in practical terms in most of the developing world. This study is aimed at assessing the level of male involvement in their spouses' reproductive health events before pregnancy, during pregnancy, delivery and peuperium. A descriptive cross-sectional study design in which questionnaires were incorporated with an in-depth interview was used and a multistage sampling technique was used to select respondents. After house numbering, a total of 400 houses were selected from a cluster of four quarters in Patani Town. Participants were systematically sampled from each household using random number table. Results from data collected on the study indicated that (61.1 %) of men were aware of maternal health issues and the level of education was shown to have significant relationship (χ² = 5.139, df = 3, p = 0.162) with the knowledge of maternal health issues. Though the level of male involvement in safe motherhood was shown to be of good proportion, strategies to create awareness on male support for their parous spouses should be given a broader frontier, both in clinics, household and community levels. Men should be more involved than before, as they have a priceless role to play towards a significant improvement in maternal health. The Government, development partners and NGOs at all levels should be committed with a strong political

  17. Surrogate Motherhood: A Trust-Based Approach.

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    Beier, Katharina

    2015-12-01

    Because it is often argued that surrogacy should not be treated as contractual, the question arises in which terms this practice might then be couched. In this article, I argue that a phenomenology of surrogacy centering on the notion of trust provides a description that is illuminating from the moral point of view. My thesis is that surrogacy establishes a complex and extended reproductive unit--the "surrogacy triad" consisting of the surrogate mother, the child, and the intending parents--whose constituents are bound together by mutual trustful commitments. Even though a trust-based approach does not provide an ultimate answer to whether surrogacy should be sanctioned or prohibited, it allows for at least some practical suggestions. In particular, I will argue that, under certain conditions, surrogacy is tenable within familial or other significant relationships, and I will stress the necessity of acknowledging the new relationships and moral commitments that result from this practice. PMID:26449234

  18. From safe motherhood, newborn, and child survival partnerships to the continuum of care and accountability: moving fast forward to 2015.

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    Bustreo, Flavia; Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Merialdi, Mario; Presern, Carole; Songane, Francisco

    2012-10-01

    The present paper provides an overview of the Safe Motherhood Initiative, Healthy Newborn Partnership, and Child Survival Partnership and their eventual merge into the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (PMNCH) in 2005. The promise and past successes of the PMNCH are highlighted, with a particular focus on the PMNCH's partner-centric approach showing the importance of collaboration for progress. The aims of the strategic framework for 2012-2015 are presented within the context of the Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health, launched in 2010, and growing political momentum to achieve Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 (reduce child mortality and improve maternal health, respectively). The next 4 years leading to 2015 are critical, and the global community must continue to work together to ensure all women and children are reached with key interventions proven to reduce mortality. PMID:22883915

  19. Deconstructing the discourse of motherhood based on the religious-magic practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lidija Radulović

    2016-01-01

    To deconstruct discourses on motherhood means to answer the questions, how certain gender relationships in the given society are constructed based on the dominant discourse, in which way do they become natural relationships and become binding for the members of the community creating the ideal type of woman-wife-mother. If we accept that the dominant motherhood discourse was conceived as the social relation of power, we can also inquire as to its problematizing and transformation. In this pap...

  20. The safe motherhood referral system to reduce cesarean sections and perinatal mortality - a cross-sectional study [1995-2006

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    Rudge Marilza VC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs set targets for reducing child mortality and improving maternal health by 2015. Objective To evaluate the results of a new education and referral system for antenatal/intrapartum care as a strategy to reduce the rates of Cesarean sections (C-sections and maternal/perinatal mortality. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Botucatu Medical School, Sao Paulo State University/UNESP, Brazil. Population: 27,387 delivering women and 27,827 offspring. Data collection: maternal and perinatal data between 1995 and 2006 at the major level III and level II hospitals in Botucatu, Brazil following initiation of a safe motherhood education and referral system. Main outcome measures: Yearly rates of C-sections, maternal (/100,000 LB and perinatal (/1000 births mortality rates at both hospitals. Data analysis: Simple linear regression models were adjusted to estimate the referral system's annual effects on the total number of deliveries, C-section and perinatal mortality ratios in the two hospitals. The linear regression were assessed by residual analysis (Shapiro-Wilk test and the influence of possible conflicting observations was evaluated by a diagnostic test (Leverage, with p Results Over the time period evaluated, the overall C-section rate was 37.3%, there were 30 maternal deaths (maternal mortality ratio = 109.5/100,000 LB and 660 perinatal deaths (perinatal mortality rate = 23.7/1000 births. The C-section rate decreased from 46.5% to 23.4% at the level II hospital while remaining unchanged at the level III hospital. The perinatal mortality rate decreased from 9.71 to 1.66/1000 births and from 60.8 to 39.6/1000 births at the level II and level III hospital, respectively. Maternal mortality ratios were 16.3/100,000 LB and 185.1/100,000 LB at the level II and level III hospitals. There was a shift from direct to indirect causes of

  1. Deconstructing the discourse of motherhood based on the religious-magic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Radulović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To deconstruct discourses on motherhood means to answer the questions, how certain gender relationships in the given society are constructed based on the dominant discourse, in which way do they become natural relationships and become binding for the members of the community creating the ideal type of woman-wife-mother. If we accept that the dominant motherhood discourse was conceived as the social relation of power, we can also inquire as to its problematizing and transformation. In this paper, on the one hand, religious-magical - practice are analyzed, supporting the discourse of ideal motherhood, and on the other, there is the analysis of the strategies of the magic rites, which form the alternative discourses of - control in the comprehension of woman’s reproductive role in the traditional Serbian culture of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. Cultural concepts of motherhood are directed at the fact that woman is not left with much choice, namely, the alternative discourses of motherhood tell us that women ruled over illegitimate knowledge and magic, performed abortions and in that way enabled women to strike a balance between childbearing and their own wishes and interests. However, this kind of discourse is in contrast with the interests of the church and society, that is, their tendency to use women’s reproductive potential accordi- ng to the needs of the society and not the needs of women themselves. By deconstructing taboos and magic rites which are involved in creating the discourse of the good and bad mother it is indirectly pointed at the gender construction and the power relations.

  2. Scheduling Motherhood.

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    Wilson, Robin

    1995-01-01

    A generation after women regularly began combining motherhood with careers, female academics find that balancing the demands of the tenure system and the timing of motherhood is difficult. Some are delaying childbearing, some are asking for delay of tenure decisions, and others are job-sharing to accommodate family and career. (MSE)

  3. Surrogate motherhood.

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    Chang, Curtis Li-ming

    2004-03-01

    A "surrogate mother" is a woman who, for financial or other reasons, agrees to bear a child for another woman who is incapable to conceive herself. In other words, she is a "substitute mother" that conceives, gestates and delivers a baby on behalf of another woman who is subsequently to be seen as the "real" (social and legal) mother of the child. Though the practice of surrogacy has already become a big market in western countries, it has also generated countless challenges for the law because it adds a third dimension to the meaning of motherhood. Like adoption, surrogacy separates the role of rearing mother from what the law has called the natural mother, but gestational surrogacy breaks the latter down into the roles of genetic mother and birth mother, leaving two women with biological connections to the child. Because surrogacy tends to commodify and dehumanize people, and because of all its legal, social, and psychological complications, it is obviously not wise to accept surrogacy as an alternative way of procreation. PMID:15460596

  4. Surrogate motherhood

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    Arteta-Acosta Cindy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Surrogate motherhood, also known as surrogacy, has recently become achance to exercise the right of paternity by some people. Surrogacy itself did notinvolve a disadvantaged idea, but when this is coupled with scientific experimentsand economic and personal interests, requires intervention of the State tolegislate about consequences arising from the unlimited execution of this practice. Since 70’s,developed countries have been creating laws, decrees and regulations to regulateassisted reproduction, while developing countries have no specific legislation in thisregard, and in particular case of Colombia, law projects are proposed but soon withdrawndue to lack of knowledge and dedication.RESUMEN:La maternidad subrogada, conocida en el lenguaje popular como el alquiler de vientres seha convertido en los últimos años en una posibilidad para ejercer el derecho de paternidadpor parte de algunas personas. En sí misma no encierra una idea desventajosa, perocuando a esto se suman intereses económicos, experimentos científicos e interesespersonales, es necesaria la intervención del Estado para legislar con respecto a lasconsecuencias que se derivan de la acción sin límites de esta potestad. Desde ladécada de los 70’s, países desarrollados han divulgado leyes, decretos y normas pararegular la reproducción asistida; mientras que países en vía de desarrollo no tienenlegislaciones específicas al respecto, y en el caso particular de Colombia los proyectosde ley propuestos poco tiempo después son retirados debido a la falta de conocimientoy esmero.

  5. O papel das obstetrizes e enfermeiras obstetras na promoção da maternidade segura no Brasil The role of midwives and nurse-midwives in promoting safe motherhood in Brazil

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    Roselane Gonçalves

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil necessita melhorar a assistência à saúde materna e perinatal, haja vista os índices elevados de morbimortalidade e de cesáreas, o processo de medicalização do corpo feminino e a violação dos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos das mulheres durante o ciclo gravídico-puerperal. A partir da contribuição de pesquisadores e organismos internacionais dedicados ao estudo destas questões, este texto tem como finalidade oferecer subsídios teóricos que sustentem a proposta de que a promoção da maternidade segura requer a efetiva participação de obstetrizes e enfermeiras obstetras, profissionais que, a partir da perspectiva da promoção da saúde, podem colaborar na constituição de uma rede efetiva de cuidados, cuja premissa básica seja a atenção humanizada e baseada em evidências científicas a fim de melhorar a experiência da mulher e da família no processo de gestação, parto e pós-parto.Brazil needs to improve maternal and perinatal health care, given the high rates of morbidity, mortality and cesarean sections, the medicalization process of the female body and the violation of the sexual and reproductive rights of women during pregnancy and childbirth. Based on the contribution of international researchers and agencies to address these issues, the scope of this text is to provide theoretical input to support the proposal of the promotion of safe motherhood that requires the active participation of midwives and nurse-midwives. These are professionals who, from the perspective of health promotion, can collaborate in the establishment of an effective network of care, whose basic premise is the humanization of care based on scientific evidence in order to improve the experience of women and the family in the process of pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum.

  6. Safe and Secure Services Based on NGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, Tomoo; Nisase, Takemi; Kawashima, Masahisa; Hariu, Takeo; Oshima, Yoshihito

    Next Generation Network (NGN), which has been undergoing standardization as it has developed, is expected to create new services that converge the fixed and mobile networks. This paper introduces the basic requirements for NGN in terms of security and explains the standardization activities, in particular, the requirements for the security function described in Y.2701 discussed in ITU-T SG-13. In addition to the basic NGN security function, requirements for NGN authentication are also described from three aspects: security, deployability, and service. As examples of authentication implementation, three profiles-namely, fixed, nomadic, and mobile-are defined in this paper. That is, the “fixed profile” is typically for fixed-line subscribers, the “nomadic profile” basically utilizes WiFi access points, and the “mobile profile” provides ideal NGN mobility for mobile subscribers. All three of these profiles satisfy the requirements from security aspects. The three profiles are compared from the viewpoint of requirements for deployability and service. After showing that none of the three profiles can fulfill all of the requirements, we propose that multiple profiles should be used by NGN providers. As service and application examples, two promising NGN applications are proposed. The first is a strong authentication mechanism that makes Web applications more safe and secure even against password theft. It is based on NGN ID federation function. The second provides an easy peer-to-peer broadband virtual private network service aimed at safe and secure communication for personal/SOHO (small office, home office) users, based on NGN SIP (session initiation protocol) session control.

  7. Managing Motherhood and Tenure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    Tenure or baby? Motherhood or Dr. Mom? Many women in higher education still view family and career as an either/or proposition, while the institutions they work in profess to be making strides that would lessen their burden. The nation's colleges and universities are addressing the situation with programs that allow women, and sometimes men who…

  8. Motherhood as a choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, P

    1994-06-01

    The choice of motherhood for women and women's rights have been forbidden in law by men, in religious doctrines by men, and within the medical system by men. Women in poverty have little say in determining whether to have children or not. When choice is exercised for abortion, poor women have unsafe and illegal abortions, which can be life-threatening. Rich women have safer options. Women historically have allowed their rights to be eroded by gender inequality and patriarchal manipulation. The religious right and the Roman Catholic church have been allowed to speak and decide for women. Abortion rights are not about western influences, but about maternal mortality. The right to make choices about one's life is the fundamental premise of the universal rights of all human beings. African governments have signed the UN Convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, but the practice of human rights has not been implemented at the local and family level. Motherhood needs to be demystified. Motherhood is linked with the absence of personhood and bodily integrity. The rhetoric of moral obligations and the rights of the unborn child take precedence over the rights of women. The right of an African woman not to have children is not recognized in most Africa societies. The issue of AIDS creates an even more difficult milieu for women. The interests of the family and the interests of men overwhelm the interests of women to protect themselves. Motherhood is essential to validating one's heterosexuality and gaining stature, and females without a child are marginalized and unrecognized. Women whose babies do not survive are marginalized further than barren women. Men derive power from women's birthing. The terminology of male power is replete with expressions such as "pregnant with promise" and "miscarriage of justice's", no one says "uterus envy." Male psychologists only recognize "penis envy." Men need children for purposes of property, lineage, and

  9. Maternidade segura no Brasil: o longo percurso para a efetivação de um direito Safe motherhood in Brazil: the long road to the realization of a right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenice Gnocchi da Costa Reis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A mortalidade materna é uma questão complexa e permanece sendo um grave problema de saúde pública. Este artigo se propõe a olhar esse fenômeno sob a ótica do direito à saúde, destacando que a opção por trazer a discussão para o campo dos direitos humanos proporcionou a ampliação de sua explicação e uma apresentação mais clara à sociedade. É apresentada breve trajetória da inserção desse tema na agenda política global, explorando algumas iniciativas internacionais e nacionais. O quadro atual da mortalidade materna no Brasil é apenas a face mais visível da precariedade da atenção à saúde das mulheres. A situação se agrava quando são considerados os casos de morbidade materna grave, que afeta um expressivo número de mulheres. Apesar das iniciativas para a efetivação do direito à maternidade segura, ainda são poucos os avanços, e a sociedade deve exigir que o Estado reverta o quadro de injustiça contra as mulheres.Maternal mortality is a complex issue and remains a serious public health problem. This paper aims to look at this phenomenon from the perspective of the right to health, noting that the option for bringing the discussion to the field of human rights provided an extension of its explanation and a clearer presentation to society. It presents brief history of the insertion of this theme in the global policy agenda, exploring national and international initiatives. The current situation of maternal mortality in Brazil is just the most visible face of the precariousness of the health care of women. The situation worsens when cases of severe maternal morbidity are considered, which affects a significant number of women. Despite the initiatives for the realization of the right to safe motherhood, there are few advances, and society must require the State to reverse the injustice against women.

  10. Motherhood experience for prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lannuzya Verissimo e Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to understand the motherhood experience for prisoners. This is an exploratory-descriptive qualitative study conducted with 17 prisoner women in the Penitentiary System of Paraíba State, during the period of July to December of 2012. A sociodemographic questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Data were organized and categorized following content analysis, generating three categories: separation suffering; comfort during anguish; family fragmentation. Results pointed out that motherhood experience in the prison is permeated by suffering and limitations. However, the presence of their child creates comfort during anguish and minimize difficulties in prison, although temporarily.  It is necessary to create inter sectoral actions to favor the mother-child relationship in the prison context.

  11. Motherhood experience for prisoners

    OpenAIRE

    Lannuzya Verissimo e Oliveira; Francisco Arnoldo Nunes de Miranda; Gabriela Maria Cavalcanti Costa

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to understand the motherhood experience for prisoners. This is an exploratory-descriptive qualitative study conducted with 17 prisoner women in the Penitentiary System of Paraíba State, during the period of July to December of 2012. A sociodemographic questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Data were organized and categorized following content analysis, generating three categories: separation suffering; comfort during anguish; family fragmen...

  12. Public health communications for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, E

    1994-03-30

    Public health communication aims to influence health practices of large populations, including maternal health care providers (traditional birth attendants, (TBAs), nurse-midwives, other indigenous practitioners, and physicians). A quality assurance process is needed to give public sector health providers feedback. Computerized record keeping is needing for quality assurance of maternal health programs. The Indian Rural Medical Association has trained more than 20,000 rural indigenous practitioners in West Bengal. Training of TBAs is expensive and rarely successful. However, trained health professional leading group discussions of TBAs is successful at teaching them about correct maternity care. Health education messages integrated into popular songs and drama is a way to reach large illiterate audiences. Even though a few donor agencies and governments provide time and technical assistance to take advantage of the mass media as a means to communicate health messages, the private sector has most of the potential. Commercial advertisements pay for Video on Wheels, which, with 100 medium-sized trucks each fitted with a 100-inch screen, plays movies for rural citizens of India. They are exposed to public and family planning messages. Jain Satellite Television (JST) broadcasts 24 hours a day and plans to broadcast programs on development, health and family planning, women's issues, and continuing education for all health care providers (physicians, nurses, TBAs, community workers, and indigenous practitioners). JST and the International Federation for Family Health plan to telecast courses as part of an Open University of Health Sciences. PMID:12179179

  13. Severe systolic hypertension and the search for safer motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James N

    2016-03-01

    Timely and appropriate response to severe hypertension during gestation is an important component of quality, safe care for pregnant or puerperal mothers regardless of causation. The reduction of severe maternal morbidity and maternal mortality in the hypertensive mother is clearly enhanced by the addition of standard protocols for provider response to severe hypertension, particularly severe systolic hypertension. The program developed in New York State via the Safe Motherhood Initiative promotes the implementation of unit-specific safety bundles, especially one that is focused upon a standardized approach to handling the obstetric emergency of severe hypertension usually associated with preeclampsia/eclampsia. The comprehensive preeclampsia/eclampsia safety bundle as summarized by Drs. Moroz and colleagues is reviewed especially from the perspective of its focus on the timely and specific responses for health care providers to make when severe hypertension is detected in the pregnant patient. Evidence-based guidance to practice considerations and clinical care of patients with preeclampsia/eclampsia is embedded within the program outlined for New York State by Moroz and her District II ACOG colleagues. There is a central focus on timely and appropriate antepartum/postpartum management of severe hypertension, a core concept to lessen maternal risk for cerebral hemorrhage. Ten considerations for further integration into the New York program are suggested. Beyond blood pressure control, there is a need for systematic review of interventions and outcomes over time, attention to possible future variations of the protocol for racial/ethnic patient groups at highest risk for maternal morbidity and mortality, and the identification of biomarker(s) that further specify and quantify risk to the maternal brain and other organ systems when severe hypertension develops. Safer motherhood will happen when evidence for best practice is integrated into systems of care for all

  14. LEGAL DISCUSSIONS ON SURROGATE MOTHERHOOD

    OpenAIRE

    FİDAN, Yılmaz

    2015-01-01

     The surrogate motherhood and IVF (test-tube baby) practice has currently reached an advanced level and people who are not allowed to pregnancy for medical reasons, look at positively the surrogate motherhood. The surrogacy is permitted worlwide in many countries like  USA except in New Jersey, Michigan and Arizona states). Georgia, Thailand, India, Belgium, England,  Brazil, some countries of Africa. It is banned in Germany, Sweden, Italy and Norway. In Turkey, The Presidency of Religious Af...

  15. Motherhood Surrogacy: Progress or Exploitation?

    OpenAIRE

    Hemion Braho

    2015-01-01

    Motherhood surrogacy is almost considered as a new way to born next to natural born, adoption and IVF treatments. If the other practices are accepted by the social and scientific community, the motherhood surrogacy brings some problems, especially on a social point of view. This happens because of the big sufferance of the women involved in this practice and because of the social distortion of this practice transforming the traditional family structures and bringing social, legal and healthy ...

  16. Motherhood Surrogacy: Progress or Exploitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemion Braho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Motherhood surrogacy is almost considered as a new way to born next to natural born, adoption and IVF treatments. If the other practices are accepted by the social and scientific community, the motherhood surrogacy brings some problems, especially on a social point of view. This happens because of the big sufferance of the women involved in this practice and because of the social distortion of this practice transforming the traditional family structures and bringing social, legal and healthy problems for the persons involved. The aim of this work is to study this phenomenon also on the interest point of view in which feminism and religious position are united.

  17. Motherhood and the Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Nikolchina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In her conceptualization of the human as defined by the capacity for revolt Kristeva unavoidably touches upon issues of robotization, technology, and the virtual. The concepts of animal and machine, however, although they do appear occasionally and in important ways, are never at the focus of her inquiries and are absent in her “New Forms of Revolt.” Yet these two concepts to a large extent define the field of contemporary philosophical debates of the human giving rise to three major theoretical orientations. On the one hand, there is the trend which tries to come to terms with technological novelties and the merging of human and machine that they imply. This trend unfolds under the rubric of “transhuman” or “posthuman” and of the “enhancement” of man. The second trend predominates in animal studies. Mostly in an ethical perspective but also ontologically, this trend, to which Derrida’s later writing made a significant contribution, questions the idea of the “human exception” and the rigorous distinction between man and animal on which this exception rests. While apparently antagonistic, both trends align the human with the animal and oppose it to technology. The third trend collapses the distinctions on which the previous two rely through the lens of biopolitics: drawing on Heidegger, Kojève, and Foucault, it regards contemporary technological transformations as amounting to the animalization of man.  The human disappears in the animal, in the machine, or in the indistinguishability of the two, confirming what Agamben has described as the inoperativeness of the anthropological machine. The present text turns to Kristeva’s conceptions of motherhood and revolt as introducing a powerful inflection in this tripartite field. Remarkably, it is precisely new sagas of rebellious machines like Battlestar “Galactica” that foreground the relevance of Kristeva’s approach.

  18. The Perils of Early Motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that preventing early childbearing among those who are still young and unmarried is likely to yield significant social benefits, including the restoration of marriage, discussing whether marriage is the solution to the problem of early motherhood. Explains the need for strong efforts to prevent early childbearing, examining teen pregnancy…

  19. [Experiences in relation to motherhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A sample of middle-aged Latin American women of low socioeconomic status interviewed about their reproductive histories and attitudes reported almost unanimously that their first pregnancies occurred without much thought. During the pregnancy or at the birth of the first child, most began to experience motherhood as extremely satisfying. The idea of consciously deciding to become mothers was new. For these women of very limited resources, motherhood was a joy but also required effort, work, and responsibility that often was unshared. Too many children and too little money hampered their ability to enjoy motherhood. All the groups of mothers expressed ambivalent feelings of happiness and responsibility. Whether or not other family members were available to help care for the children was a key element in the lives of the women. Adolescent motherhood typically greatly curtails the mother's education and employment prospects and frequently condemns her children to lives of poverty. A few women were able to seek employment or resume their education when their children became older. Younger women appeared to have greater access to family planning information and improved prospects of planning their childbearing. PMID:12348501

  20. Fail-safe computer-based plant protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fail-safe mode of operation for computers used in nuclear reactor protection systems was first evolved in the UK for application to a sodium cooled fast reactor. The fail-safe properties of both the hardware and the software were achieved by permanently connecting test signals to some of the multiplexed inputs. This results in an unambiguous data pattern, each time the inputs are sequentially scanned by the multiplexer. The ''test inputs'' simulate transient excursions beyond defined safe limits. The alternating response of the trip algorithms to the ''out-of-limits'' test signals and the normal plant measurements is recognised by hardwired pattern recognition logic external to the computer system. For more general application to plant protection systems, a ''Test Signal Generator'' (TSG) is used to compute and generate test signals derived from prevailing operational conditions. The TSG, from its knowledge of the sensitivity of the trip algorithm to each of the input variables, generates a ''test disturbance'' which is superimposed upon each variable in turn, to simulate a transient excursion beyond the safe limits. The ''tripped'' status yielded by the trip algorithm when using data from a ''disturbed'' input forms part of a pattern determined by the order in which the disturbances are applied to the multiplexer inputs. The data pattern formed by the interleaved test disturbances is again recognised by logic external to the protection system's computers. This fail-safe mode of operation of computer-based protection systems provides a powerful defence against common-mode failure. It also reduces the importance of software verification in the licensing procedure. (author)

  1. Drugs, guns and early motherhood in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Millán-Quijano, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of violent crime on the prevalence of early motherhood in Colombia. To instrument for the predominance of violent crime I use geographical and temporal variation in drug trafficking networks. My results suggest that one standard deviation increase in the homicide rate induces a 2.55 percentage points increase in the probability of early motherhood

  2. Early marriage, adolescent motherhood, and reproductive rights for young Sasak mothers in Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rae Bennett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Indonesian adolescents who are wives and mothers, demonstrating how early marriage and adolescent motherhood are normative among women from poor Sasak communities in Western Lombok. It is based on ethnographic research with 28 young mothers that included focus group discussions, in depth interviews, and observations. Demographic and ethnographic data on the aetiology of early marriage and adolescent motherhood are discussed, and confirm that low educational attainment for girls, lack of employment prospects, poverty, and low levels of economic development are all associated with a higher probability of adolescent marriage and motherhood in Indonesia. The article also reveals how conservative sexual morality and local marriage customs can propel girls into early marriage. It provides a human rights analysis that demonstrates how early marriage and adolescent motherhood intersect with the neglect of girls’ rights to education, employment, equality in marriage, health information, family planning, and maternal health.

  3. Evolving issues in surrogate motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlen, J A; Holzman, I R

    1990-01-01

    Surrogate mothering is an arrangement whereby a woman who gives birth to an infant intends--through a contractual agreement--to give that baby to another couple. The recent Baby M case in the United States has raised numerous legal concerns causing many legislative bodies to consider possible statutes to regulate or prohibit surrogacy. The competing interests among and between the individuals involved in this relationship (i.e., the surrogate mother, the couple, the baby, and society) suggest various ethical issues related to benefits, risks, and autonomy. Legal and ethical concerns surrounding the technologically possible procedure of surrogate motherhood are discussed. PMID:2391288

  4. Early sex -- early motherhood: facing the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews the causes and consequences of adolescent sex behavior and adolescent pregnancy and motherhood. The article opens by noting that adolescents give birth to 15 million babies annually despite their increased risk resulting from biological and social vulnerability. Risky sex behavior is seen to result from gender power imbalances and from "clustering" of high-risk behaviors. Lack of contraceptives, particularly condoms, increases risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease or HIV infection as well as the risk of pregnancy. Adolescent sexual activity also doubles the lifetime risk of acquiring cervical cancer. Pregnant adolescents are more likely than mature women to have eclampsia or obstructed labor with its attendant complication of obstetric fistula. Adolescents are also less likely to seek prenatal care and face a higher risk of death during delivery. Adolescents also account for a large proportion of abortion complications because they undergo illegal or late procedures. Babies born to adolescents risk low birth weight, prematurity, and a higher rate of perinatal mortality. Adolescent mother also face social ostracism and reduced ability to acquire a job or education. Research into adolescent sexuality is best undertaken with the input of adolescents themselves (an example is the World Health Organization's narrative research method). Adolescent health can be promoted by creation of a safe and supportive environment and by provision of 1) information, 2) opportunities for adolescents to develop skills to negotiate sexual encounters, 3) counseling, and 4) youth-friendly adolescent health services. PMID:12292434

  5. Bodies of risk: constructing motherhood in a Mexican public hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Oka, Vania

    2012-12-01

    This article addresses the connection between risk and motherhood at an urban obstetrics hospital in Mexico. It primarily aims to explore the ways that clinicians define risk as well as how they conflate risk with bad motherhood. It discusses how clinicians' perceptions of their patients' social lives shape their interactions and decisions about the women's health. The study was based on interviews and participant observation in June 2008 and June-July 2011 with 71 obstetrical patients, 30 physicians, 9 nurses, and 12 midwives in the city of Puebla. Results show that birth itself was defined as a risky event, clinicians conflated social factors with biological factors in their management of risk, and the patients were a priori classified as bad mothers. This article proposes a reproductive habitus to explain the connection between health institutions, class, responsibility, blame, and clinical decision-making to analyze how risk is managed and blame enacted upon women's bodies. PMID:22981837

  6. Points-based Safe Path Planning of Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shahzad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuum robots exhibit great potential in a number of challenging applications where traditional rigid link robots pose certain limitations, e.g.,working in unstructured environments. In order to enable the usage of continuum robots in safety-critical applications, such as surgery and nuclear decontamination, it is extremely important to ensure a safe path for the robot’s movement. Existing algorithms for continuum robot path planning have certain limitations that need to be addressed. These include the fact that none of the algorithms provide safety assurance parameters and control for path planning. They are computationally expensive, applicable to a specific type of continuum robots, and mostly they do not incorporate design and kinematics constraints. In this paper, we propose a points-based path planning (PoPP algorithm for continuum robots that computes the path by imposing safety constraints and improves upon the limitations of existing approaches. In the algorithm, we exploit the constant curvature-bending property of continuum robots in their path planning process. The algorithm is computationally efficient and provides a good tradeoff between accuracy and efficiency that can be implemented to enable the safety-critical application of continuum robots. This algorithm also provides information regarding path volume and flexibility in movement. Simulation results confirm that the algorithm possesses promising potential for all types of continuum robots (following the constant curvature-bending property. We believe that this effectively balances the desired safety and efficiency requirements.

  7. Surrogate Motherhood II: Reflections after "Baby M."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lita Linzer

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the "Baby M" surrogate motherhood case which has produced heated debate in popular media, legal publications, and other professional journals. Summarizes arguments offered and reasoning behind actions of judiciary. (Author/ABL)

  8. Motherhood transition through an existential lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina Lange

    2015-01-01

    Motherhood transition is a significant life event. Research from various disciplines outlines pregnancy, birth and the initial period of motherhood as a period of life in which a woman might experience disruption and gain new perspectives in a bodily, psychological, social and existential way. This...... research about the significance of motherhood transition through the lens of existential psychology. For the second and third study, a nationwide questionnaire survey among Danish first-time FT and PT mothers was conducted. In the second study attitudes about making meaning of life existentially was...... may be even more relevant for women giving birth preterm, since research suggests that mothers of premature babies undergo an experience of loss, crisis and unpredictability. This PhD project aimed to identify whether motherhood transition actualises considerations on how to make meaning of life...

  9. An anthropological approach to voluntarily single motherhood in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Jordana-Pröpper

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the research I did for my doctoral thesis about voluntarily single motherhood in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain. It is an anthropological approach to the appearance and the development of voluntarily single motherhood, which is when a woman becomes a mother through adoption or conception previously planned without partner. Within a framework of study carried out from October 2001 to October 2007 in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area, my research is based on in-depth interviews with twelve women from April 2002 to April 2006. The aim of the paper is to understand why women in Barcelona choose to be voluntarily single mothers. The purpose is to point out that the voluntarily single motherhood is a new way of understanding between women and men, resulting from the progressive changes in their respective gender roles. This anthropological research is grounded in a full vital process: from the personal decision of the women to become single mothers to the daily interaction with their children.

  10. Ideologies of motherhood and single mothers

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hagan, Clare

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the situation of lone parents in contemporay Ireland, in particular the workings of ideologies of motherhood and the family through different sites, contexts and institutions in order to determine the impact of these ideologies on single mothers' lives. Specifically, the number of single mothers, ideologies of motherhood and the family, the influence of Church, State and New Right and Irish social policy are examined, and their combined impact on Irish single mothers is ...

  11. The causal effect of teen motherhood on worklessness

    OpenAIRE

    WALKER, Ian; Zhu, Yu

    2009-01-01

    Teen motherhood continues to be high in the US and the UK relative to most other western European countries. While recent research has clarified how effective policies to reduce teen motherhood might be (Kearney (2009)), there remains little evidence that quantifies the causal effects of teen motherhood on such mothers and their first born children. This paper provides estimates of the causal effect of teen motherhood on worklessness and does so by exploiting the availability of two sources o...

  12. Motherhood, Choice and the British Media: A Time to Reflect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, L.; Rudoe, N.; Sanderson-Mann, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask: How is motherhood being represented in the British media, especially in relation to choice, age and fertility? Do media discourses reflect a redefinition or transformation of "motherhood" in the twenty-first century, and what implications do they have for feminist research into maternal identity and motherhood? As three Ph.D.…

  13. Supporting safe motherhood : a review of financial trends : summary

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 500,000 women, 99 percent of them from the developing world, die each year from pregnancy-related causes. About three quarters of these deaths are the direct result of obstetrical complications -- hemorrhage, infection, toxemia, obstructed labor, and abortion (under primitive and illegal conditions). An estimated equivalent number of infants do not survive their mother's death. For surviving mothers, the consequences of pregnancy have a severe impact on health and family economic...

  14. Obstetric emergencies: preparedness among nurses for safe motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Verma

    2016-04-01

    Results: Total study participants were 36 (100% response rate. Majority (83% were aware about the two leading causes of maternal mortality (PE, PPH. Twenty four (67% knew the warning signs of eclampsia and 61% knew the signs of eclampsia but only 17% were aware of MgSO4 toxicity. Only 56% could correctly prepare the loading dose of MgSO4. All were aware about PPH; however only17% knew methergine as the drug for active management. Grossly wrong attitude noted only in 27% for PPH and 27% for severe PE. Overall preparedness for emergency was satisfactory in LR and PNC. Conclusions: Though the overall awareness for identifying emergencies (PE, PPH was satisfactory, lacunae in awareness were noted about components of eclampsia, magnesium toxicity and drugs required for initial management of PE and PPH. Preparedness of nurses in labour room and postnatal ward was fairly good. Regular assessment of awareness and preparedness for obstetric emergencies would be desirable to optimize the overall delivery outcomes especially at peripheral rural centres where nurses are primarily involved in the care of labouring women. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 998-1001

  15. Modeling of Car-Following Required Safe Distance Based on Molecular Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Dayi Qu; Xiufeng Chen; Wansan Yang; Xiaohua Bian

    2014-01-01

    In car-following procedure, some distances are reserved between the vehicles, through which drivers can avoid collisions with vehicles before and after them in the same lane and keep a reasonable clearance with lateral vehicles. This paper investigates characters of vehicle operating safety in car following state based on required safe distance. To tackle this problem, we probe into required safe distance and car-following model using molecular dynamics, covering longitudinal and lateral safe...

  16. A fail-safe computer-based reactor protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is possible to bestow fail-safe properties upon any data handling system by specifying that the output shall be dynamic (i.e. shall cyclically alternate between two or more static states) and that all internal states shall also be dynamic. The choice of cyclic sequence of static states must ensure that every part of the system (each bit) is regularly exercised at a rate determined by the maximum MTTR (mean time to repair) of the system which in turn must be short compared with the MTBF (mean time between failures). Although the examples given are of very simple computer tasks which basically replace conventional trip unit and safety circuit logic hardware, the principles could be extrapolated to more complex data processing tasks. (orig.)

  17. Iterations of the SafeCare Model: An Evidence-Based Child Maltreatment Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Anna; Lutzker, John R.

    2008-01-01

    SafeCare is an evidenced-based parenting program for at-risk and maltreating parents that addresses the social and family ecology in which child maltreatment occurs. SafeCare home visitors focus on behavioral skills that are trained to predetermined performance criteria. Recent research has stressed the importance of successful dissemination and…

  18. An environmentally safe water-based alternative to oil muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a mechanism describing the onset of bit balling is given. On the basis of this mechanism, a new copolymer/polypropylene glycol (COP/PPG) water-based drilling fluid was developed. The properties of this fluid are described, and field test comparisons are made with water- and oil-based fluids

  19. Disgust and Shame Based Safe Water and Handwashing Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-11

    Develop a New Group Version of the Becker-DeGroot-Marsckek (BDM) Auction to Measure Willingness to Pay of Compound Members for Shared Hardware.; Develop a New Survey Instrument to Measure Behavioural Determinants of Hand Washing and Water Treatment Like Disgust and Shame or Social Pressure.; Identify New Methods for Measuring Hand Washing and Water Treatment Behaviour.; Compare the Effectiveness of the Disgust and Shame Based Interventions With Standard Public Health Interventions.

  20. Provably Safe and Robust Learning-Based Model Predictive Control

    CERN Document Server

    Aswani, Anil; Sastry, S Shankar; Tomlin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Controller design for systems typically faces a trade-off between robustness and performance, and the reliability of linear controllers has caused many control practitioners to focus on the former. However, there is a renewed interest in improving system performance to deal with growing energy and pollution constraints. This paper describes a learning-based model predictive control (MPC) scheme. The MPC provides deterministic guarantees on robustness and safety, and the learning is used to identify richer models of the system to improve controller performance. Our scheme uses a linear model with bounds on its uncertainty to construct invariant sets which help to provide the guarantees, and it can be generalized to other classes of models and to pseudo-spectral methods. This framework allows us to handle state and input constraints and optimize system performance with respect to a cost function. The learning occurs through the use of an oracle which returns the value and gradient of unmodeled dynamics at discr...

  1. Beyond altruistic and commercial contract motherhood: the professional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zyl, Liezl; Walker, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    It has become common to distinguish between altruistic and commercial contract motherhood (or 'surrogacy'). Altruistic arrangements are based on the 'gift relationship': a woman is motivated by altruism to have a baby for an infertile couple, who are free to reciprocate as they see fit. By contrast, in commercial arrangements both parties are motivated by personal gain to enter a legally enforceable agreement, which stipulates that the contract mother or 'surrogate' is to bear a child for the intending parents in exchange for a fee. She is required to undergo medical examinations and to refrain from behaviour that could harm the foetus. The intending parents are the child's legal parents from the outset. The parties to the contract can, but are not expected to, maintain contact after the transaction is completed. We argue that contract motherhood should not be organized according to the norms of the gift relationship, and that contract mothers should be compensated for their labour. However, we accept that there are good reasons for rejecting the commercial model as a suitable framework for contract pregnancy, and argue, instead, in favour of viewing it as a profession. PMID:22500585

  2. A GIS-based methodology for safe site selection of a building in a hilly region

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Kumar; Bansal, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    Worker safety during construction is widely accepted, but the selection of safe sites for a building is generally not considered. Safe site selection (SSS) largely depends upon compiling, analyzing, and refining the information of an area where a building is likely to be located. The locational and topographical aspects of an area located in hilly regions play a major role in SSS, but are generally neglected in traditional and CAD-based systems used for site selection. Architects and engineer...

  3. Making existential meaning in transition to motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina Lange; Mogensen, Ole; Hvidt, Niels Christian;

    2013-01-01

    to motherhood were selected. Eleven papers were included in the synthesis, all using qualitative interviews. The following data were extracted from each study: (a) author(s), year of publication, study location, (b) aims of the study, (c) participants, (d) research design, (e) data collection method......Abstract: Objective to provide a thematic overview of the existing literature on existential meaning-making related to transition to motherhood among mothers of full term born babies in Western oriented countries and to discuss the themes from a existential psychology perspective. Design: The......, (f) outcome measures, and (g) results. Measurements: The studies were synthesised in a thematisation on the basis of the existential psychotherapist and philosopher Emmy van Deurzen's concepts of four interwoven life dimensions, through which we experience, interpret, and act in the world: Umwelt...

  4. Legal regulation of surrogate motherhood in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, D A

    2001-01-01

    The Israeli Law on surrogate motherhood demands a preconception agreement to include payments to be made to the surrogate mother. Surrogacy arrangements with family members are forbidden. Commercial surrogacy is allowed and encouraged. The Law causes many problems. Validity of consent given by surrogate mothers is doubtful. Possible future psychological harm are ignored. There is a danger of "commodification" of children. Abusing women of low socio-economic status as breeding machines may be another outcome. No clear responsibility is imposed on the "intended parents" for an impaired child. The law ignores possibility of divorce or death of the "intended parents" before the child's birth. Splitting motherhood is another social problem that has to be dealt with. So far the sperm of the husband from the "intended parents" has to be used, but further steps may follow. It is not certain that a policy of "positive eugenics" will not develop. PMID:11817392

  5. How Motherhood Triumphs Over Trauma Among Mothers With Children From Genocidal Rape in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odeth Kantengwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rape is a common occurrence during genocide and the presence of children born as a result of rape poses a challenge to post-genocide recovery processes. This paper treats mothers of children born as a result of genocidal rape during the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi as a separate category of survivors and explores the contribution of a positive embrace of motherhood in their recovery. It is based upon a study that included fourteen women from Kigali city, Karongi District in the Western Province and Huye District in the Southern Province. Qualitative analysis of individual interviews and focus groups provided a means to explore in-depth the perceptions of mothers and the value of motherhood. It was found that mothers of children of rape experienced challenges raising their children, especially in the early stages of parenting. Social stigma related to rape and children born of rape created challenges, as did the lack of psychosocial resources for the women, particularly when faced with disclosing paternity to the children. However, despite these and other difficulties, motherhood played a positive role for many women, often providing a reason to live again after the genocide. These findings show that positive experiences of motherhood can be key to the recovery of survivors of genocidal rape in Rwanda and points to future directions for research and health promotion among populations affected by conflict-related sexual violence.

  6. Marriage, Motherhood and Wages: Recent Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Bradler; Chun Yee Wong

    1996-01-01

    Using data from the 1982 National Longitudinal Survey for Young Women (NLSYW) we replicate Korenman and Neumark's (K&N) (1992) study "Marriage, Motherhood and Wages" and obtain similar OLS estimates. Applying IV estimation to account for the endogeneity of experience and tenure, K&N find evidence in favor of the endogeneity of and obtain more negative coefficients for the children coefficients. In the IV estimation we obtain experience and tenure coefficients which are not significantly diffe...

  7. Is breast best?: breastfeeding, motherhood and identity

    OpenAIRE

    Earle, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Is Breast Best?: breastfeeding, motherhood and identity is concerned with how breastfeeding is both a personal and a political issue. Earle begins with a cross-cultural analysis of the prevalence of breastfeeding, considering differences between and within countries and cultures and highlighting the presumed physical and psychological advantages for mothers and their babies. The remainder of the chapter is devoted to data derived from a qualitative study concerned with the body in pregnancy, ...

  8. Response characteristics of base-isolated structure with hardening-stopper type fail-safe devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a fail-safe mechanism for backing up the reliability of an isolator device is being developed predicated on the application of a base isolation system to nuclear fuel facilities. 'Fail-safe' is often understood to mean that when a device loses its function, a separate mechanism will work in order that there will be no trouble with regard to safety. However, since it may be considered extremely difficult to support loads without any trouble when the base isolation device itself loses its function, the term will be used here to mean that the base isolation device is supported so that it will not lose its function. The two points below will be made the objectives of design as workings of the fail-safe system in this study. 1) Response Displacement Control: Suppresses excessive deformation of the base isolation device even in case of input of an earthquake greater than the design seismic force to prevent destruction of the base isolation device, superstructure, and connected piping. 2) Response Acceleration Control: Reduces acceleration transmitted to the superstructure insofar as possible by action of the fail-safe mechanism. Characteristics tests and analyses, and earthquake observations using reduced-scale model have now been carried out to grasp the response characteristics of a base isolation combining high-damping rubber bearings and hardening-stopper type fail-safe mechanisms, and the results will be reported below. (author)

  9. Moments Marked: an exploration into the ways in which women are choosing to mark aspects of their rite of passage into motherhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Jill M

    2016-01-01

    This thesis frames the transition into motherhood as a rite of passage; proposes a new model for the rite of passage into motherhood based on the four seasons; and highlights the importance of contextual and specific ritual actions or sequences to navigate the transition. Qualitative data from semi-structured interviews with ten western women, from a middle class, Christian background, who had all become mothers through childbirth, are examined under three main headings. Firstly, the women...

  10. Motherhood and Genetic Screening: A Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    According to the medical profession the direction and scope of reproductive services such as IVF and pre-natal screening are based on solid evidence; the evidence indicates these are effective and safe services. Moreover, women want them. As a consequence these services are usually presented to the wider community in a positive light with images…

  11. Clarification of Safe Delivery by Iranian Experts Based on Clinical Governance: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forozun Olfati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To clarify the principles of a safe delivery based on Clinical Governance Criteria, as recommended by the pertinent experts.Materials and methods:The current study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method in 2013 and purposive sampling, performing 24 in-depth interviews based on semi-structured questions and analyzed using thematic content analysis. The participants in this research included midwives, obstetricians, managers, and hospital doctors. The data were under continuous consideration and comparative analysis in order to achieve data saturation.Results:The main concepts derived from interpretations of the pertinent experts include: Patient & Public involvement; Risk Management; Education; Clinical efficiency; Clinical audit; Personnel & Management.Conclusion:In a safe delivery, there is a vicious cycle of causes the elimination of which is only possible through benchmarking patterns that attend to most aspects of a safe delivery.Changes to services require utilization of appropriate change management strategies.

  12. Benevolent Sexism, Attitudes Toward Motherhood, and Reproductive Rights: A Multi-Study Longitudinal Examination of Abortion Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanshu; Davies, Paul G; Sibley, Chris G; Osborne, Danny

    2016-07-01

    Although Benevolent Sexism (BS)-an ideology that highly reveres women who conform to traditional gender roles-is cloaked in a superficially positive tone, being placed upon a pedestal is inherently restrictive. Accordingly, because the paternalistic beliefs associated with BS are based on the idealization of traditional gender roles (which include motherhood), BS should predict people's attitudes toward women's reproductive rights. Using data from a nationwide longitudinal panel study (N = 12,299), Study 1 showed that BS (but not Hostile Sexism) had cross-lagged effects on opposition to both elective and traumatic abortion. Study 2 (N = 309) extended these findings by showing that the relationship between BS and support for abortion was fully mediated by attitudes toward motherhood. These results highlight the pernicious nature of BS by demonstrating that the idealization of women-and motherhood, in particular-comes at a substantial cost (namely, the restriction of women's reproductive rights). PMID:27226340

  13. 4Kids.org: Topical, Searchable, and Safe Internet-Based Resource for Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Melanie; Blood, Leslie; Ault, Marilyn; Adams, Doug

    2008-01-01

    4Kids.org is an online resource with an accompanying syndicated print publication created to promote safe access to websites and technology literacy. 4Kids.org, created by ALTEC at the University of Kansas in 1995, provides a variety of Internet-based activities as well as access to a database of websites reviewed for educational content,…

  14. A dynamic fail-safe approach to the design of computer-based safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over 30 years AEA Technology has carried out research and development in the field of nuclear instrumentation and protection systems. Throughout the course of this extensive period of research and development the dominant theme has been the achievement of fully fail-safe designs. These are defined as designs in which the failure of any single component will result in the unit output reverting to a demand for trip action status. At an early stage it was recognized that the use of dynamic rather than static logic could ease the difficulties inherent in achieving a fail-safe design. The first dynamic logic systems coupled logic elements magnetically. The paper outlines the evolution from these early concepts of a dynamic fail-safe approach to the design of computer-based safety systems. Details are given of collaboration between AEA Technology and Duke Power Co. to mount an ISATTM demonstration at Duke's Oconee Nuclear Power Station

  15. Making motherhood safer in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, C L

    1994-02-01

    hospital delivery by allowing family presence during delivery. Family planning has increased in parts of Inquisivi to 60%, and harmful traditional practices were curbed or revised through educational efforts. Birthing chairs are being considered for replacing prone hospital delivery. Another rural education project had traveling doctors give talks about safe delivery practices, fetal development, prenatal care, risk assessment, and emergency care. PMID:12287504

  16. "Women's Obligation to Motherhood" : A discourse analysis of the anti-abortion debate in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Köhlmark, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The objective with this study is to locate discourses within the anti-abortion debate in Chile and analyze these. The discourses will be contextualized with a historical perspective and the pro- abortion arguments. Based upon what was encountered during research, two themes selected were The Right to Motherhood and The Right to Life. The two themes were analyzed from a power, gender, class, body and normative lifeline perspective. The conclusion was that the anti- abortion debate in Chile is ...

  17. Does lone motherhood decrease women’s happiness? : Evidence from qualitative and quantitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna; Matysiak, Anna; Mynarska, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the discussion on the effects of single motherhood on happiness. We use a mixed-method approach. First, based on in-depth interviews with mothers who gave birth while single, we explore mechanisms through which children may influence mothers’ happiness. In a second step, we analyze panel survey data to quantify this influence. Our results leave no doubt that, while raising a child outside of marriage poses many challenges, parenthood has some positive influence on a ...

  18. Merit Making, Money and Motherhood : Women's Experiences of Commercial Surrogacy in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Elina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores transnational commercial surrogacy in the context of Thailand, with the specific purpose to examine Thai women’s motives and experiences of being a surrogate mother. The study is based on two months of fieldwork in Bangkok between June and August 2014 during which interviews were conducted with eleven former, current or future surrogate mothers. The analysis take a postcolonial feminist approach, and draw upon theory of motherhood, intimate labor and stratified reproducti...

  19. Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

  20. Trajectory Generation Model-Based IMM Tracking for Safe Driving in Intersection Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Tingting Zhou; Ming Li; Xiaoming Mai; Qi Wang; Fang Liu; Qingquan Li

    2011-01-01

    Tracking the actions of vehicles at crossroads and planning safe trajectories will be an effective method to reduce the rate of traffic accident at intersections. It is to resolve the problem of the abrupt change because of the existence of drivers' voluntary choices. In this paper, we make approach of an improved IMM tracking method based on trajectory generation, abstracted by trajectory generation algorithm, to improve this situation. Because of the similarity between human-driving traject...

  1. A GIS-based methodology for safe site selection of a building in a hilly region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Worker safety during construction is widely accepted, but the selection of safe sites for a building is generally not considered. Safe site selection (SSS largely depends upon compiling, analyzing, and refining the information of an area where a building is likely to be located. The locational and topographical aspects of an area located in hilly regions play a major role in SSS, but are generally neglected in traditional and CAD-based systems used for site selection. Architects and engineers select a site based on their judgment, knowledge, and experience, but issues related to site safety are generally ignored. This study reviewed the existing literature on site selection techniques, building codes, and approaches of existing standards to identify various aspects crucial for SSS in hilly regions. A questionnaire survey was conducted to identify various aspects that construction professionals consider critical for SSS. This study explored the application of geographic information systems (GIS in modeling the locational and topographical aspects to identify areas of suitability. A GIS-based methodology for locating a safe site that satisfies various spatial safety aspects was developed.

  2. Legal and ethical considerations of assisted reproductive technology and surrogate motherhood in AOFOG countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K C; Ng, H T

    2001-04-01

    With increasing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and its related issues, the Ethics Committee of the Asia-Oceania Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (AOFOG), after discussion at its council meeting, took up the mission to understand the current legal and ethical aspects of this special subject in Asia-Oceania area before making proper recommendations. This Committee drafted a questionnaire to all 22 country member societies in 1995, and again conducted the same survey in 2000 to track changes in each country/region's laws and regulations. The results show that the current attitude and status of country member societies vary in a wide range and do not have formal legal codes in majority regulating the ethical aspects of ART. The use of ART and surrogacy is obviously affected by local traditions, popularity in the use of such techniques and cultural/religious concerns. The changes in 5 years are not major. Three countries do not as yet practice such techniques. However, liberalization of surrogate motherhood has become a trend. Five countries, compared with two only in 1995, are now available for surrogate motherhood, though regulated by strict criteria. Based on the data collected and issues discussed, a detailed guideline may not be generally applicable as each region has its own rules, reflecting differences in the management of ART, especially in the surrogate motherhood. This Committee therefore recommends that ART must be performed by a board certified gynecologist in a certification laboratory and surrogate motherhood must be used only for medical reasons and not be commercialized. The patients of this special group must be treated individually, based on this recommendation and the regulations of their own country/region. PMID:11396645

  3. Safe guard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation has been endorsed by many national and international bodies as a safe and effective method for reducing post-harvest losses in food which also enhances food hygiene. Food irradiation technology, therefore, has enormous potential to increase international trade and to stabilize the price structure thus improving rural based agro-economy. 1 tab., 6 ills

  4. A Proactive Strategy for Safe Human-Robot Collaboration based on a Simplified Risk Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Audun Sanderud; Trygve Thomessen; Hisashi Osumi; Mihoko Niitsuma

    2015-01-01

    In an increasing demand for human-robot collaboration systems, the need for safe robots is crucial. This paper presents a proactive strategy to enable an awareness of the current risk for the robot. The awareness is based upon a map of historically occupied space by the operator. The map is built based on a risk evaluation of each pose presented by the operator. The risk evaluation results in a risk field that can be used to evaluate the risk of a collaborative task. Based on this risk field,...

  5. Childhood Poverty, Early Motherhood and Adult Social Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the political agenda. The key new issue addressed in this research is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? If there are powerful associations of both childhood poverty and early parenthood with later adult outcomes, there are a num...

  6. Technology-Based Innovations in Child Maltreatment Prevention Programs: Examples from SafeCare®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Cowart-Osborne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Each year, hundreds of thousands of children in the U.S. are victims of child maltreatment. Experts recommend behavioral, skill-based parent training programs as a strategy for the prevention of child abuse and neglect. These programs can be enhanced using innovative technology strategies. This paper presents a brief history of the use of technology in SafeCare®, a home visiting program shown to prevent child neglect and physical abuse, and highlights current work that takes a technology-based hybrid approach to SafeCare delivery. With this unique approach, the provider brings a tablet computer to each session, and the parent interacts with the software to receive psychoeducation and modeling of target skills. The provider and parent then work together to practice the targeted skills until mastery is achieved. Initial findings from ongoing research of both of these strategies indicate that they show potential for improving engagement and use of positive parenting skills for parents and ease of implementation for providers. Future directions for technology enhancements in SafeCare are also presented.

  7. Attitudes toward surrogate motherhood in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, V

    1994-01-01

    The issue of surrogate motherhood captured worldwide attention with the Baby M case in the United States. Some medical practitioners now claim that the surrogate arrangement may be the answer for certain women who are unable to conceive children naturally. Feminist activists are highly critical about the issue. In her landmark book The Mother Machine, Corea (1985) called surrogates "breeders," women whose bodies are being used by men. Lawyers and ethicists debate whether surrogacy is baby selling or not, and religious fundamentalists have condemned any form of procreation outside the "normal" or "natural" form of sexual relations within a marriage. But what do Canadian women think about commercial surrogacy? Findings pertaining to this issue from the latest national fertility survey of 5,315 women in the reproductive ages of 18-49 are reported. PMID:8056650

  8. Technology-Based Innovations in Child Maltreatment Prevention Programs: Examples from SafeCare®

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Cowart-Osborne; Matthew Jackson; Elizabeth Chege; Evander Baker; Daniel Whitaker; Shannon Self-Brown

    2014-01-01

    Each year, hundreds of thousands of children in the U.S. are victims of child maltreatment. Experts recommend behavioral, skill-based parent training programs as a strategy for the prevention of child abuse and neglect. These programs can be enhanced using innovative technology strategies. This paper presents a brief history of the use of technology in SafeCare®, a home visiting program shown to prevent child neglect and physical abuse, and highlights current work that takes a technology-base...

  9. Automatic discrimination between safe and unsafe swallowing using a reputation-based classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikjoo Mohammad S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swallowing accelerometry has been suggested as a potential non-invasive tool for bedside dysphagia screening. Various vibratory signal features and complementary measurement modalities have been put forth in the literature for the potential discrimination between safe and unsafe swallowing. To date, automatic classification of swallowing accelerometry has exclusively involved a single-axis of vibration although a second axis is known to contain additional information about the nature of the swallow. Furthermore, the only published attempt at automatic classification in adult patients has been based on a small sample of swallowing vibrations. Methods In this paper, a large corpus of dual-axis accelerometric signals were collected from 30 older adults (aged 65.47 ± 13.4 years, 15 male referred to videofluoroscopic examination on the suspicion of dysphagia. We invoked a reputation-based classifier combination to automatically categorize the dual-axis accelerometric signals into safe and unsafe swallows, as labeled via videofluoroscopic review. From these participants, a total of 224 swallowing samples were obtained, 164 of which were labeled as unsafe swallows (swallows where the bolus entered the airway and 60 as safe swallows. Three separate support vector machine (SVM classifiers and eight different features were selected for classification. Results With selected time, frequency and information theoretic features, the reputation-based algorithm distinguished between safe and unsafe swallowing with promising accuracy (80.48 ± 5.0%, high sensitivity (97.1 ± 2% and modest specificity (64 ± 8.8%. Interpretation of the most discriminatory features revealed that in general, unsafe swallows had lower mean vibration amplitude and faster autocorrelation decay, suggestive of decreased hyoid excursion and compromised coordination, respectively. Further, owing to its performance-based weighting of component classifiers, the static

  10. Technology-Based Innovations in Child Maltreatment Prevention Programs: Examples from SafeCare®

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Cowart-Osborne; Matthew Jackson; Elizabeth Chege; Evander Baker; Daniel Whitaker; Shannon Self-Brown

    2014-01-01

    Each year, hundreds of thousands of children in the U.S. are victims of child maltreatment. Experts recommend behavioral, skill-based parent training programs as a strategy for the prevention of child abuse and neglect. These programs can be enhanced using innovative technology strategies. This paper presents a brief history of the use of technology in SafeCare®, a home visiting program shown to prevent child neglect and physical abuse, and highlights current work that takes a technology-bas...

  11. A Proactive Strategy for Safe Human-Robot Collaboration based on a Simplified Risk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audun Sanderud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In an increasing demand for human-robot collaboration systems, the need for safe robots is crucial. This paper presents a proactive strategy to enable an awareness of the current risk for the robot. The awareness is based upon a map of historically occupied space by the operator. The map is built based on a risk evaluation of each pose presented by the operator. The risk evaluation results in a risk field that can be used to evaluate the risk of a collaborative task. Based on this risk field, a control algorithm that constantly reduces the current risk within its task constraints was developed. Kinematic redundancy was exploited for simultaneous task performance within task constraints, and risk minimization. Sphere-based geometric models were used both for the human and robot. The strategy was tested in simulation, and implemented and experimentally tested on a NACHI MR20 7-axes industrial robot.

  12. Quality performance-based training enhances safe and effective transport operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the hazardous materials transportation industry is to reduce human error, reduce accidents, and improve its public image, there must be assurance that transportation personnel are properly trained and qualified to perform their jobs in a safe and efficient manner. This training must make them intimately aware of the hazards and risks associated with transport activities, ensure understanding of responsibilities and liabilities unique to their job, and ensure that they can competently perform functional duties vital to safety. To ensure that trained and qualified personnel are on the job, it is essential that the training be performance-based and require trainees to demonstrate functional proficiency. Performance-based training has proven to be a highly effective means of ensuring personnel are qualified to conduct their assignments safely and efficiently. This training is designed around the basic premise that training must be provided that supplies the information necessary for each worker to perform their assigned duties at a predetermined and acceptable level of expertise and skill. (J.P.N.)

  13. Amorphous Silica Based Nanomedicine with Safe Carrier Excretion and Enhanced Drug Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Silu

    With recent development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, a great amount of efforts have been devoted to nanomedicine development. Among various nanomaterials, silica nanoparticle (NP) is generally accepted as non-toxic, and can provide a versatile platform for drug loading. In addition, the surface of the silica NP is hydrophilic, being favorable for cellular uptake. Therefore, it is considered as one of the most promising candidates to serve as carriers for drugs. The present thesis mainly focuses on the design of silica based nanocarrier-drug systems, aiming at achieving safe nanocarrier excretion from the biological system and enhanced drug efficacy, which two are considered as most important issues in nanomedicine development. To address the safe carrier excretion issue, we have developed a special type of selfdecomposable SiO2-drug composite NPs. By creating a radial concentration gradient of drug in the NP, the drug release occurred simultaneously with the silica carrier decomposition. Such unique characteristic was different from the conventional dense SiO2-drug NP, in which drug was uniformly distributed and can hardly escape the carrier. We found that the controllable release of the drug was primarily determined by diffusion, which was caused by the radial drug concentration gradient in the NP. Escape of the drug molecules then triggered the silica carrier decomposition, which started from the center of the NP and eventually led to its complete fragmentation. The small size of the final carrier fragments enabled their easy excretion via renal systems. Apart from the feature of safe carrier excretion, we also found the controlled release of drugs contribute significantly to the drug efficacy enhancement. By loading an anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) to the decomposable SiO 2-methylene blue (MB) NPs, we achieved a self-decomposable SiO 2(MB)-Dox nanomedicine. The gradual escape of drug molecules from NPs and their enabled cytosolic release by optical

  14. Missing Motherhood: Jordanian Women's Experiences with Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Mahmoud Obeidat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim, Background, and Introduction. Bearing and rearing children are an important part of life in nearly all cultures and are a central role for Jordanian Muslim women. Infertility can create anxiety, stress, and depression for couples who are infertile. Women frequently bear the emotional stigma of a couple’s infertility. There is a paucity of literature focusing on Jordanian Muslim women experiencing infertility and failed assistive reproductive technology. Therefore, this study explored these women’s lived experience. Methods. Qualitative data were collected through interviews with 30 Jordanian Muslim women who experienced failed assistive reproductive technology for infertility. Perceptions of experiences with failed treatment of infertility were documented and analyzed. Results. Major themes were identified: missing out on motherhood and living with infertility, experiencing marital stressors, feeling social pressure, experiencing depression and disappointment, having treatment associated difficulties, appreciating support from family and friends, using coping strategies, and fear of an unknown future. Discussion, Conclusion, and Implications for Clinical Practice. Being infertile significantly influences the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual health of Jordanian Muslim women as well as their quality of life. Perceived social support and personal coping strategies were used by study participants to mediate failed attempts to conceive. Designing and implementing culturally appropriate interventions for Muslim women globally who are experiencing infertility are essential.

  15. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making. PMID:25688455

  16. Motherhood: a potential source of bias in employment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Madeline E; Okimoto, Tyler G

    2008-01-01

    Results of 2 experimental studies in which job incumbents were said to be applying for promotions to traditionally male positions demonstrated bias against mothers in competence expectations and in screening recommendations. This bias occurred regardless of whether the research participants were students (Study 1) or working people (Study 2). Although anticipated job commitment, achievement striving, and dependability were rated as generally lower for parents than for nonparents, anticipated competence was uniquely low for mothers. Mediational analyses indicated that, as predicted, negativity in competence expectations, not anticipated job commitment or achievement striving, promoted the motherhood bias in screening recommendations; expected deficits in agentic behaviors, not in dependability, were found to fuel these competence expectations. These findings suggest that motherhood can indeed hinder the career advancement of women and that it is the heightened association with gender stereotypes that occurs when women are mothers that is the source of motherhood's potentially adverse consequences. PMID:18211144

  17. Mothering from the inside: narratives of motherhood and imprisonment

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Two thirds of the 4,000 women who are in prison in England and Wales are mothers of dependent children. Imprisonment can severely alter, disrupt or even terminate mothering. However, there is a relative absence of empirical research within this area. Therefore, we know little of the meaning of mothering and motherhood for women in prison. The main aim of this research was to explore the way in which women in prison make sense of motherhood and construct their mothering identity. To achiev...

  18. Controversial issue: is it safe to employ mesenchymal stem cells in cell-based therapies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepperdinger, Günter; Brunauer, Regina; Jamnig, Angelika;

    2008-01-01

    The prospective clinical use of multipotent mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSC) holds enormous promise for the treatment of a large number of degenerative and age-related diseases. However, the challenges and risks for cell-based therapies are multifaceted. The risks for patients receiving stem...... restricts their proliferation and differentiation efficiency. It however also limits the yield of sufficient numbers of cells needed for therapy. Another issue is to eliminate contamination of expanding cells with serum-bound pathogenic agents in order to reduce the risks for infection. A recent technical...... cells, which have been expanded in vitro in the presence of xenogenic compounds, can hardly be anticipated and methods for the culture and manipulation of "safe" MSC ex vivo are being investigated. During in vitro expansion, stem cells experience a long replicative history and are thus subject to damage...

  19. How Motherhood Triumphs Over Trauma Among Mothers With Children From Genocidal Rape in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Odeth Kantengwa

    2014-01-01

    Rape is a common occurrence during genocide and the presence of children born as a result of rape poses a challenge to post-genocide recovery processes. This paper treats mothers of children born as a result of genocidal rape during the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi as a separate category of survivors and explores the contribution of a positive embrace of motherhood in their recovery. It is based upon a study that included fourteen women from Kigali city, Karongi District in the Western Pro...

  20. How Motherhood Triumphs over Traumahood among mothers with children from Genocidal Rape in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Odeth Kantengwa

    2014-01-01

    Rape is considered to be a common occurrence during genocide and the children born as a result of rape pose a challenge to post-genocide recovery processes. This paper places mothers of children born as a result of genocidal rape during the Rwandan Genocide against the Tutsi to be a separate category of victims and explores the contribution of a positive embrace of motherhood to their recovery. It is based upon a study that included fourteen (14) women from Kigali city, Karongi District in th...

  1. The Network of Excellence 'Knowledge-based Multicomponent Materials for Durable and Safe Performance'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Network of Excellence 'Knowledge-based Multicomponent Materials for Durable and Safe Performance' (KMM-NoE) consists of 36 institutional partners from 10 countries representing leading European research institutes and university departments (25), small and medium enterprises, SMEs (5) and large industry (7) in the field of knowledge-based multicomponent materials (KMM), more specifically in intermetallics, metal-ceramic composites, functionally graded materials and thin layers. The main goal of the KMM-NoE (currently funded by the European Commission) is to mobilise and concentrate the fragmented scientific potential in the KMM field to create a durable and efficient organism capable of developing leading-edge research while spreading the accumulated knowledge outside the Network and enhancing the technological skills of the related industries. The long-term strategic goal of the KMM-NoE is to establish a self-supporting pan-European institution in the field of knowledge-based multicomponent materials--KMM Virtual Institute (KMM-VIN). It will combine industry oriented research with educational and training activities. The KMM Virtual Institute will be founded on three main pillars: KMM European Competence Centre, KMM Integrated Post-Graduate School, KMM Mobility Programme. The KMM-NoE is coordinated by the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research (IPPT) of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland

  2. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available. PMID:26936478

  3. Stepping Up to Motherhood among Inner-City Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanok, Arielle F.; Miller, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    This mixed-methods, context-oriented study explored transitions to motherhood among pregnant and newly parenting inner-city teenagers (n = 80) attending an alternative public school. Additionally, a novel research approach was assessed. Using data from a 2-year psychotherapy trial, inductive content analyses of therapy sessions and post hoc…

  4. The Flap Sandwich Technique for a Safe and Aesthetic Skull Base Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Tomoyuki; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Tanaka, Kentarou; Iida, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    For safe and reliable skull base reconstruction combined with repair of cranial bone defects, we introduce the flap sandwich technique in this study. A titanium mesh is often used to repair structural cranial bone defects because it has less donor site morbidity and is easy to handle. However, titanium mesh has disadvantages of exposure and infection postoperatively. To improve surgical outcomes, we applied the flap sandwich technique to 3 cases of skull base reconstruction combined with cranial bone defect repair. Two anterior skull base defects and 1 middle skull base defect were included in this study. The subjects were all women, aged 30, 58, and 62 years. One patient had former multiple craniotomies and another patient had preoperative radiotherapy. The flap sandwich technique involves structural cranial bone reconstruction with a titanium mesh and soft tissue reconstruction with a chimeric anterolateral thigh free flap. First, the dead space between the repaired dura and the titanium mesh is filled with vastus lateralis muscle, and then structural reconstruction is performed with a titanium mesh. Finally, the titanium mesh is totally covered with the adiposal flap of the anterolateral thigh free flap. The muscle flap protects the dead space from infection, and the adiposal flap covers the titanium mesh to reduce mechanical stress on the covered skin and thus prevent the exposure of the titanium mesh through the scalp. By applying this technique, there was no intracranial infection or titanium mesh exposure in these 3 cases postoperatively, even though 2 patients had postoperative radiotherapy. Additionally, the adiposal flap could provide a soft and natural contour to the scalp and forehead region, and this gives patients a better facial appearance even though they have had skull base surgery. PMID:25954846

  5. Does Lone Motherhood Decrease Women’s Subjective Well-Being? Evidence from Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Baranowska-Rataj; Anna Matysiak; Monika Mynarska

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the discussion on the effects of single motherhood on happiness. We use a mixed-method approach. First, based on in-depth interviews with mothers who gave birth while single, we explore mechanisms through which children may influence mothers’ subjective well-being. In a second step, we analyze panel survey data to quantify this influence. Our results leave no doubt that, while raising a child outside of marriage poses many challenges, parenthood has some positive inf...

  6. Mechanisms of behavioural maintenance: Long-term effects of theory-based interventions to promote safe water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, Jennifer; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Theory-based interventions can enhance people's safe water consumption, but the sustainability of these interventions and the mechanisms of maintenance remain unclear. We investigated these questions based on an extended theory of planned behaviour. Seven hundred and ten (445 analysed) randomly selected households participated in two cluster-randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh. Study 1 promoted switching to neighbours' arsenic-safe wells, and Study 2 promoted switching to arsenic-safe deep wells. Both studies included two intervention phases. Structured interviews were conducted at baseline (T1), and at 1-month (T2), 2-month (T3) and 9-month (T4) follow-ups. In intervention phase 1 (between T1 and T2), commitment-based behaviour change techniques--reminders, implementation intentions and public commitment--were combined with information and compared to an information-only control group. In phase 2 (between T2 and T3), half of each phase 1 intervention group was randomly assigned to receive either commitment-based techniques once more or coping planning with reminders and information. Initial well-switching rates of up to 60% significantly declined by T4: 38.3% of T2 safe water users stopped consuming arsenic-safe water. The decline depended on the intervention. Perceived behavioural control, intentions, commitment strength and coping planning were associated with maintenance. In line with previous studies, the results indicate that commitment and reminders engender long-term behavioural change. PMID:26304476

  7. Myths of motherhood. The role of culture in the development of postpartum depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ambrosini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This paper intends to offer a theoretical insight into the myths of motherhood and how these myths can bear on the pathogenesis of postpartum depression. METHODS: From a man's view motherhood is conceptualized as a necessary stage in the progress towards the attainment of femininity. This view is impersonal and external to the experience of motherhood. From a female perspective, motherhood presents itself as a conflicting situation. We will then focus on the necessity to construct a discourse on motherhood by using a code which belongs to women rather than men. The analysis of a blog and a comedy show will provide evidence concerning the evolution of the female discourse on motherhood thus contributing to the debunking of the myths of motherhood. The final section discusses ways in which myths of motherhood can bear on the pathogenesis of postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: Among "melancholic type" women, who tend to abide by social norms, play established social roles and hide their inner conflicts, myths of motherhood contribute to suppress the contradiction which is intrinsic to motherhood itself making this contradiction uncontrollable and potentially devastating.

  8. An Approach To Safe Path Planning For Mobile Robot In The Dynamic Environment Based On Compact Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LanFeng Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For path planning of the mobile robot in dynamic environment, this paper proposed an approach to safe path planning based on compact maps. This algorithm utilizes an efficient stream decimation algorithm of massive mesh to build compact maps of the environment models. And it uses a knowledge based genetic algorithm to find the global optimal safe path. The fitness of the algorithm is linear with gap, and has less computation demand. The proposed knowledge based genetic algorithm incorporates the domain knowledge into its initial population and adjusts adaptively the parameter, which increases greatly the efficiency of the algorithm, in order to plan safe path of the mobile robot in the dynamic environment. Various simulation results show the effectiveness and efficiency of the presented method.

  9. "Out of All of this Mess, I Got a Blessing": Perceptions and Experiences of Reproduction and Motherhood in African American Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Faith; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Kerr, Jelani; Buchberg, Meredith; Richter, Donna L; Sowell, Richard

    2016-01-01

    HIV disproportionately impacts African American women of childbearing age residing in the southern United States. Antiretroviral therapy has increased the quantity and quality of life for people living with HIV and produced viable and safe reproduction possibilities for women living with HIV. However, little is known about reproductive decision-making processes for African American women living with HIV. The overall goal of our study was to qualitatively explore perspectives related to reproduction and motherhood in HIV-infected African American women of childbearing capacity. HIV-infected African American women of childbearing capacity in South Carolina (N = 42) participated in in-depth interviews. Our respondents held positive views about pregnancy and motherhood, despite nonsupportive pregnancy messages from interpersonal influences, including health care providers. Study findings uncovered the need for programs and interventions to support women's reproductive autonomy and focus on reducing conception- and pregnancy-related transmission risks to infants and uninfected sexual partners. PMID:26781931

  10. SAFE-KBS, Substantiating the safety of systems containing knowledge-based components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of the Safe-KBS project is to develop generic development and certification methodologies that allow the introduction of knowledge-based components in safety-related applications. The expert system technology presents a set of features, such as the capability to provide the rationale for its conclusions, that may significantly contribute to the new operation support systems. Nevertheless, the use of this technology in safety-related applications is limited by the lack of recognised methodologies and standards that allow a formal demonstration of the quality and reliability of these systems, as required for obtaining the approval for their use at nuclear power plants. The development methodology is structured in three hierarchical levels: life cycle model, i.e., processes and activities constituting the life cycle, life cycle plans, i.e., tasks, and support packages, i.e., set of techniques and methods to perform certain activities or tasks. The certification methodology consists of a set of certification requirements and a certification scheme for demonstrating the compliance with these requirements. This project was developed within the European framework ESPRIT, with the collaboration of Sextant, Cise, Qualience, Ilog, Computes, DNV and Uninfo. (Author)

  11. Implementation Evaluation of "Steering Teens Safe": Engaging Parents to Deliver a New Parent-Based Teen Driving Intervention to Their Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Young, Tracy; Roth, Lisa; Garinger, Anne; Snetselaar, Linda; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Parents play a fundamental role in teaching their children safe driving skills to reduce risk of motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause of death for teens. "Steering Teens Safe" is a new parent-based intervention that equips parents with communication skills to talk about, demonstrate, and practice safe driving behaviors and skills…

  12. The Motherhood Pay Gap: A Review of the Issues, Theory and International Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Grimshaw, D. and Rubery, J.

    2015-01-01

    Executive summaryWhat is the motherhood pay gap?The motherhood pay gap measures the pay gap between mothers and non-mothers,the latter defined in most econometric studies as women without dependent children. Italso measures the pay gap between mothers and fathers. This is different from the genderpay gap, which measures the pay gap between all women and all men in the workforce.While there is a considerable international literature on the motherhood gap, differencesboth in methodologies and i...

  13. Between Office and Motherhood: Municipal Authorities in Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Vázquez García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In México, women's participation in municipal politics faces, among other difficulties, that of reconciling domestic and public responsibilities. Drawing on research conducted with eighteen female mayors of Oaxaca, this paper analyzes the ways in which women perceive the relationship between motherhood, double burden (child raising and domestic work and their presidential position. All the women who have ruled a Custom and Practice municipality in Oaxaca since 1996 were interviewed. Two main conclusions are drawn from the analysis. First, the relationship between motherhood and presidential position varies according to women's marital status; the age of their children; and their chances of hiring domestic help. Second, even if women assume a public position of prestige and responsibility, they continue to perform domestic duties; household chores do not get redistributed among its members.

  14. EXPLAINING THE MOTHERHOOD WAGE PENALTY DURING THE EARLY OCCUPATIONAL CAREER

    OpenAIRE

    Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research shows that mothers earn lower hourly wages than women without children, and that this maternal wage penalty cannot be fully explained by differences between mothers and other women in work experience and job characteristics. This research examines whether the residual motherhood wage penalty results from differences between mothers and other women in the accumulation of work interruptions and breaks in schooling. Using longitudinal data for 486 women followed from ages 19 to 31...

  15. Transforming identities: accounting professionals and the transition to motherhood

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the experience of motherhood and employment within the UK accounting profession by examining the oral history narratives of a small group of accountants who have recently become mothers and returned to work, thereby undertaking a process of redefinition and transformation of the self. Drawing from contemporary theories on identity, it considers how individuals make sense of the different social identities, which they take on over their life course, and to what extent s...

  16. Commercial agencies and surrogate motherhood: a transaction cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Mhairi; McLachlan, Hugh V; Swales, J Kim

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the legal arrangements involved in UK surrogate motherhood from a transaction-cost perspective. We outline the specific forms the transaction costs take and critically comment on the way in which the UK institutional and organisational arrangements at present adversely influence transaction costs. We then focus specifically on the potential role of surrogacy agencies and look at UK and US evidence on commercial and voluntary agencies. Policy implications follow. PMID:15889679

  17. Social status of motherhood with special reference to Serbia today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić Nada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of the theoretical exploration of maternity and motherhood as a feminist political idea and includes the overview of the social practices and methods aimed at strengthening maternity and parenting in modern states, emphasizing the issue of the political support and social status of motherhood in Serbia today. The general trend in current changes is the separation of the population policy from the social policy of family planning, and deterioration of the social status of parenthood and motherhood, while the formal legal framework and ideas for improving the gender equality has been nominally improved, which contributes to their impracticability. Recent changes and adoption of new laws dealing with family and parenthood are fully adapted to the neoliberal transformation of Serbia, within which the social position of women is getting worse. In response, nationalist and patriarchal family policy are reinforced in the broader society. The article highlights the importance of examining women’s experiences and needs of women related to their reproduction and maternity, as a necessary starting point for developing appropriate policies in the wider society. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179035: Izazovi nove društvene integracije u Srbiji - koncepti i akteri

  18. Rapid and efficient filtration-based procedure for separation and safe analysis of CBRN mixed samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Bentahir

    Full Text Available Separating CBRN mixed samples that contain both chemical and biological warfare agents (CB mixed sample in liquid and solid matrices remains a very challenging issue. Parameters were set up to assess the performance of a simple filtration-based method first optimized on separate C- and B-agents, and then assessed on a model of CB mixed sample. In this model, MS2 bacteriophage, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis baculovirus (AcNPV, Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores were used as biological agent simulants whereas ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA and pinacolyl methylphophonic acid (PMPA were used as VX and soman (GD nerve agent surrogates, respectively. Nanoseparation centrifugal devices with various pore size cut-off (30 kD up to 0.45 µm and three RNA extraction methods (Invisorb, EZ1 and Nuclisens were compared. RNA (MS2 and DNA (AcNPV quantification was carried out by means of specific and sensitive quantitative real-time PCRs (qPCR. Liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS methods was used for quantifying EMPA and PMPA. Culture methods and qPCR demonstrated that membranes with a 30 kD cut-off retain more than 99.99% of biological agents (MS2, AcNPV, Bacillus Atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores tested separately. A rapid and reliable separation of CB mixed sample models (MS2/PEG-400 and MS2/EMPA/PMPA contained in simple liquid or complex matrices such as sand and soil was also successfully achieved on a 30 kD filter with more than 99.99% retention of MS2 on the filter membrane, and up to 99% of PEG-400, EMPA and PMPA recovery in the filtrate. The whole separation process turnaround-time (TAT was less than 10 minutes. The filtration method appears to be rapid, versatile and extremely efficient. The separation method developed in this work constitutes therefore a useful model for further evaluating and comparing additional separation alternative procedures for a safe handling and

  19. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe sex means taking steps before and during sex that can prevent you from getting an infection, or from ... the skin around the genital area. Before having sex: Get to know your partner and discuss your ...

  20. WHEY PROTEIN-BASED WATER RESISTANT AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE ADHESIVES FOR PLYWOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Zongyan Zhao; Wenbo Wang; Zhenhua Gao; Mingruo Guo

    2011-01-01

    Whey protein is a renewable and environmentally safe biomaterial, a by-product of cheese production. It can be utilized for non-food applications for value-added products. The substances glyoxal (GO), glutaraldehyde (GA), polymeric methylene biphenyl diisocyanate (p-MDI), urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin, and phenol-formaldehyde oligomer (PFO) that contain reactive groups were applied together with whey protein as modifier in order to increase crosslinking density and molecular weight for improvi...

  1. Improving Driving Safety Based on Safe Distance Design in Vehicular Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Qingqi Pei; Xiaobo Du; Lei Liu; Chen Chen; Xiangmo Zhao

    2012-01-01

    We proposed a Critical Safe Distance (CSD) model in V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle) communication systems. By elaborately analyzing the vehicular movement features for car following, we proposed a CSD definition which well balances the requirement between driving safety and traffic throughput efficiency. Different from the time-headway and traditional braking models, our model fully takes the relative movement status of the front and back cars into consideration and derives a CSD which is more pract...

  2. Modular state-based behavior control for safe human-robot interaction: A lightweight control architecture for a lightweight robot

    OpenAIRE

    Parusel, Sven; Haddadin, Sami; Albu-Schaeffer, Alin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel control architecture for realizing human-friendly behaviors and intuitive state based programming. The design implements strategies that take advantage of sophisticated soft-robotics features for providing reactive, robust, and safe robot actions in dynamic environments. Quick access to the various functionalities of the robot enables the user to develop flexible hybrid state automata for programming robot behaviors. The real-time robot co...

  3. How safe is safe enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, were historically established with the objective to reduce the probability that persons be exposed to unacceptable doses due to normal operation or accident situations during transport of radioactive material. Based on the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (BSS), the definition, which was adopted for an unacceptable dose for an accident situation, is the excess of the maximum dose limits permissible in a single year for the occupational exposure of a worker in the BSS. Concerning the severity of accident situations, it has always be clearly stated that the objective of the tests for demonstrating ability to withstand accident conditions of transport was not to cover every accident condition, but solely most of them. The last available evaluations regarding the rate of accidents which are covered by the standardised accident conditions of transport defined in the IAEA Regulations give a range of about 80%, plus or minus 15% which depends on transport mode and studies. Consequently, slight variations in the capabilities of the packages to meet the specified performance would probably not have significant consequences on the protection level in case of accident. In the assessment of the compliance with the regulations, the tendency of experts, taking advantage of the enhanced performances of computer calculation codes, is to ask more and more calculations, with more and more accuracy, leading to more and more restrictions. Consequently, cost and delay are considerably increased without any evidence of an equivalent effect on the level of protection. This paper will initiate a reflection on the general objectives and principles when implementing the Regulations, in such a way that demonstrations remain cost effective, taking into account evolution of the techniques and a high level of safety

  4. Simone De Beauvoir: Transgressing Immanence, Motherhood And Social Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZELINKA ELISABETA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thesis of the present paper is to investigate the reasons why it may become difficult for the 20th century Western woman to avoid feeling trapped within her status of motherhood and to transcend her immanence as a woman. Simone de Beauvoir argues in The Second Sex, Part V, chapter XVII (“The Mother” that the modern Western woman proves unable to transgress her own immanence. What are the three factors that stand in the way of the woman's existential telos? What is the natural consequence of her Snow White-type of imprisonment? Will she impose the same pattern of panoptic surveillance upon her own offspring?

  5. Maternal and professional identity change during the transition to motherhood

    OpenAIRE

    Kutzer, Roxanne

    2013-01-01

    Becoming a mother derails many women’s chances for career progression. One reason for this is that women leave organisations when they become mothers, or reduce their working hours. Another reason is that people within the organisation start to view them as less career-orientated as a result of being mothers. At the core of this issue is that who a woman is – her identity – is being redefined in the transition to motherhood, by herself and by those around her. But, little is known about how h...

  6. Unequally Safe

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Lacoe

    2013-01-01

    School safety is a critical issue for school staff and administrators, policymakers, and parents across the nation. Media coverage of school shootings, gang violence, and bullying at school and online highlight the increasing need to understand how safe students feel at school, and how school safety affects student outcomes. Policy efforts to promote safety often focus on reducing school violence and disorder, such as zero-tolerance disciplinary policies, the installation of metal detectors, ...

  7. Studies on GIS Based Tracing and Traceability of Safe Crop Product in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Xiao-hui; ZHUANG Da-fang; QIU Dong-sheng

    2007-01-01

    The safety of safe crop products (SCP) is critical to maintain people's health and living standard. With the global efforts on the improvement of the traceability of food products, it is inevitable to establish corresponding traceability systems to monitor the safety of crop products in China. In this article, the supply chain pattern of SCP in China has been analyzed and its spatial characters have been described in detail. The study deals with on how to relate traceability technology with GIS, and on how to trace and retrace the safety of SCP using the function of excellent spatial representation, spatial locating, and spatial analysis provided in GIS, which has been discussed from several aspects, such as coding technique of traceability information, transferring technique of traceability information, spatialization of traceability information, and application integration of traceability system. A pilot study was carried out to present the basic functions of the system, which provided an efficient and credible way to trace and retrace the safety of SCP in a real supply chain. An innovative idea has been brought forward for how to establish an efficient, credible, applied traceability system of SCP.

  8. Regulating Lesbian Motherhood: Gender, Sexuality and Medically Assisted Reproduction in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Cristina Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses juridical discourses about Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR in Portugal, focusing specifically on the access of lesbians to this type of intervention. Empirical data refer to an exploratory research that combined the analysis of legislation with non-directive interviews to five judges from Family and Juvenile Courts of Law of the Northern Region of Portugal. One argues that the representation of motherhood present in the law reinforces and reproduces normative sexuality and femininity while simultaneously justifies the exclusion of lesbians from MAR. As such, although Portuguese legislation emerges as a mechanism of partial deregulation of the gender regime since it appears to weaken the practical and causal association between sexuality and procreation, in fact, it ends up reinforcing dominant ideas of femininity and family. As for the judges who were interviewed, their representations of motherhood are broad enough to encompass medically assisted motherhood and/or motherhood accomplished within a lesbian couple. This is achieved through a process of normalisation of the lesbian and/or of lesbian motherhood, which may resort to five different assumptions: (i parenthood as a desire inherent to every human being; (ii motherhood as a defining element of femininity; (iii motherhood as a project framed by a stable conjugal relationship; (iv lesbian motherhood as something that can be accomplished through “natural” means; (v parenthood as a mechanism of social reproduction of the gender regime. These assumptions are differently combined and support different positions regarding lesbian motherhood: although some judges seem to concur with the preservation of heteronormativity, most favour legal changes to encompass other models of sexuality and family.

  9. Making School Safe for Girls: Combating Gender-Based Violence in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wible, Brent

    2004-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a global problem that causes more poor health and death than a host of other physical and psychological maladies combined, but it is only slowly being addressed by national public health policies and actions. Even more difficult to bring to the forefront is the issue of gender-based violence and sexual harassment in the…

  10. Single Motherhood and Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Life Course Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Clark, S.; Hamplová, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2013), s. 1521-1549. ISSN 0070-3370 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Child mortality * single motherhood * Africa Subject RIV: AO - Sociology , Demography Impact factor: 2.631, year: 2013

  11. Review of Marilyn Francus, Monstrous Motherhood: Eighteenth-Century Culture and the Ideology of Domesticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Ann Thompson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of Marilyn Francus. Monstrous Motherhood: Eighteenth-Century Culture and the Ideology of Domesticity. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP, 2012. Xi + 297pp. Index. ISBN 978-1-4214-0737-1.

  12. Is Legalising Surrogacy - An Outsourcing Motherhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, Mula. Sneha; Sunkara, Abhiram

    2012-09-01

    The roots of surrogacy can be traced long back in Indian history. The world's second and India's first IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) is a baby - Kanupriya alias Durga in 1978. Since then the field of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) has developed rapidly. But legally the laws related to surrogacy are still in the nascent stage. At present the agreement between the parties based on the ART Guidelines are the guiding force of such treatment and the codified law is yet to be adopted and implemented. With the recent growth in the Intended parents opting for surrogacy, India has become the much sought after surrogacy destination. In my opinion, the acceptance of same sex marriages/union and the recognition of the basic human right to have family and children had given rise to surrogacy manifold. However, at the same time nations all across the globe are condemning commercial surrogacy as it results in commercialization of human reproductive system and co modification of children. For it has various socio-ethical reasons, surrogacy has also became a topic of deep interest amongst the government of different nations, medico-legal luminaries as well as public at large.

  13. Co-resident and absent mothers: Motherhood and labour force participation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dorrit, Posel; Gabrielle, van der Stoep

    2008-01-01

    The effects of motherhood on women's labour force participation are estimated usually for mothers who are co-resident with their children. This paper, however, shows that a co-residency requirement upwardly biases the negative effects of motherhood in a country where labour force participation includes (temporary) migration to places of employment. In contrast to co-resident mothers in South Africa, not co-resident mothers are significantly more likely to be labour force participants. The...

  14. Single Motherhood and (Un)Equal Educational Opportunities : Evidence for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, Philippe; Winkelmann, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    We examine the effect of single motherhood on children's secondary school track choice using a sample of 14 years old children drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel. In line with previous studies for the U.S., the U.K. and Sweden, we find a negative correlation between disrupted family structure and children's educational outcome. Looking for alternative explanations for this correlation, we use ordered probit regression models to control for factors related to single motherhood such as ...

  15. Safe and Secure Wireless Power Transfer Networks: Challenges and Opportunities in RF-Based Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qingzhi; Yıldırım, Kasım Sinan; Pawełczak, Przemysław; Warnier, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    RF-based wireless power transfer networks (WPTNs) are deployed to transfer power to embedded devices over the air via RF waves. Up until now, a considerable amount of effort has been devoted by researchers to design WPTNs that maximize several objectives such as harvested power, energy outage and charging delay. However, inherent security and safety issues are generally overlooked and these need to be solved if WPTNs are to be become widespread. This article focuses on safety and security pro...

  16. Good motherhood and the need for a transnational perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Suurmond

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Good motherhood and the need for a transnational perspective In this article, the author examines how a youth care worker in a specific case attributes meaning to the concept of “good motherhood”. The author analyzes a case-study with the help of two concepts, transnationalism and intercultural competence. She concludes that a combination of a problemfocused method and a lack of attention to cultural differences can have severe consequences. Goed moederschap en de noodzaak voor een transnationaal perspectief In dit artikel onderzoekt de auteur hoe een jeugdbeschermer in een concrete casus het concept van een “goede moeder” construeert en wat de gevolgen daarvan kunnen zijn. De casus, besproken aan de hand van de concepten transnationalisme en interculturele competentie, illustreert hoe een probleemgerichte aanpak zonder aandacht voor culturele aspecten de plank mis slaat en kan leiden tot eenzijdige conclusies.

  17. When genes determine motherhood: problems in gestational surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, E

    1992-08-01

    Gestational surrogacy in which a commissioning couple's egg and spermatozoon are united in vitro and the resulting embryo is implanted in a woman's uterus is, of all the new methods for overcoming infertility, the most genetically appealing. This is because the genes are often perceived as determining all aspects of human health, disease and even behaviour. Having a child with the genes of both parents has become far more attractive to most infertile couples than having one who is only genetically related to the father. However, gestational surrogacy has created a situation where one child has two mothers, each one claiming to be the 'true' mother having exclusive parental rights. Surrogacy arrangements also raise the question of the meaning of motherhood. PMID:1430122

  18. SafeCare: Historical Perspective and Dynamic Development of an Evidence-Based Scaled-Up Model for the Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Katelyn M. Guastaferro; Lutzker, John R.; Graham, Megan L.; Jenelle R. Shanley; Whitaker, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    SafeCare is an evidence-based parent-training program that reduces child maltreatment, particularly neglect. The risk of child maltreatment, a public health issue affecting millions of U.S. children each year, can be markedly reduced by interventions such as SafeCare that deliver in-home services. Drawing from applied behavioral analysis roots, SafeCare focuses on providing parents with concrete skills in three areas: health, home safety, and parent-child/-infant interaction. This paper will ...

  19. A community-based cluster randomised trial of safe storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming; Gunnell, David;

    2011-01-01

    . One approach to reducing access to pesticides is for households to store pesticides in lockable "safe-storage" containers. However, before this approach can be promoted, evidence is required on its effectiveness and safety. Methods/Design A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial has been...... at the 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes will include the incidence of all pesticide poisoning and total self-harm. Discussion This paper describes a large effectiveness study of a community intervention to reduce the burden of intentional poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. The study builds on a strong...... partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence. Trial Registritation The trial is registered...

  20. Mometasone-based triple combination therapy in melasma: Is it really safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Imran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kligman′s triple combination formula has been one of the most popular treatment options in melasma over the last three decades. The original Kligman′s formula has been modified in many ways over the years and the most recent modification that has been introduced is a triple combination of 2% hydroquinone, 0.025% tretinoin, and 1% mometasone. The use of this triple combination in patients with melasma has seen a sharp rise over the last few years and with this rampant use the side-effect profile of this triple combination has also come to the fore. Aim : The aim of the present study was to assess the overall safety of the mometasone-based triple combination treatment in the management of melasma. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed on 60 patients of melasma who had used a mometasone-based triple combination treatment for at least 3 weeks anytime in the previous 1 year. The patients were given a preformed questionnaire wherein they assessed the overall effect of the triple combination treatment on their melasma during its use as well as after its withdrawal. The patients were specifically asked about the status of their disease as well as the sun sensitivity of their skin before and after the use of triple combination treatment. In addition, the patients were assessed by a single trained dermatologist for the presence of any adverse effects arising out of the triple combination treatment in the form of telangiectasia, hypertrichosis, acne, skin atrophy, etc. Results: Majority of patients (51.7% had used the combination treatment well beyond the recommended duration. About one-third (36.7% of the patients rated their melasma as worse at the time of filling the questionnaire as compared with their disease before the use of triple combination treatment. On clinical examination, the evidence of steroid side effects was seen in 26 patients (43.3%. Steroid-induced telangiectasia was the commonest finding, seen

  1. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  2. Safe Fast Reactor Based on the Self-Sustained Regime of Nuclear Burning Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of further development of challenging conception of nuclear fission reactor with the so-called inner safety based on the phenomenon of self-sustained regime of nuclear burning wave proposed by L.P. Feoktistov in 1988 are presented. The initiation and propagation of the nuclear burning wave (NBW) in a fast reactor (FR) are described using the original deterministic multi-group approach based on the solution of the non-stationary two-dimensional diffusion equation for neutron transport, the burn-up equations for fuel components and the equations of nuclear kinetics for precursor nuclei of delayed neutrons. The critical fast reactor of cylindrical form with metal fuel of the UPu cycle that consists of two homogeneous zones along the axial direction is considered. In the first zone (ignition zone) the fuel consists of uranium enriched with plutonium to 10 %. The second zone (breeding zone) is filled with U- 238. Both zones also include the constructional material Fe and the Na or Pb-Bi eutectic coolant. The possibility of creating a self-sustained regime of a running NBW in the critical FR under consideration is demonstrated. Despite forming a large amount of fission products FR is automatically sustained in this regime for a long time in a state close to the critical one due to an intrinsic reactivity feedback governed by the non-linearity of the NBW regime. This negative feedback prevents the reactor from the runaway regime and ensures the stable evolution of the self-organizing NBW regime. The calculation results show a notable stability of the NBW regime towards distortions of the neutron flux. The velocity of NBW propagation strongly depends on the transverse size of FR. For the reactor of 117 cm radius the velocity is about 26 cm/year at steady state of NBW propagation, and in the case of FR of 10 m length the reactor campaign lasts about 30 years without any refueling or fuel shuffling using the natural or depleted uranium as its fuel. It means that

  3. Heat pipe based passive emergency core cooling system for safe shutdown of nuclear power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 11th, 2011, a natural disaster created by earthquakes and Tsunami caused a serious potential of nuclear reactor meltdown in Fukushima due to the failure of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) powered by diesel generators. In this paper, heat pipe based ECCS has been proposed for nuclear power plants. The designed loop type heat pipe ECCS is composed of cylindrical evaporator with 62 vertical tubes, each 150 mm diameter and 6 m length, mounted around the circumference of nuclear fuel assembly and 21 m × 10 m × 5 m naturally cooled finned condenser installed outside the primary containment. Heat pipe with overall thermal resistance of 1.44 × 10−5 °C/W will be able to reduce reactor temperature from initial working temperature of 282 °C to below 250 °C within 7 h. The overall ECCS also includes feed water flooding of the core using elevated water tank for initial 10 min which will accelerate cooling of the core, replenish core coolant during loss of coolant accident and avoids heat transfer crisis phenomena during heat pipe start-up process. The proposed heat pipe system will operate in fully passive mode with high runtime reliability and therefore provide safer environment to nuclear power plants. - Highlights: • Completely passive emergency core cooling system (ECCS) for nuclear power plants. • ECCS consists of loop type heat pipe and initial feed water flooding system. • Overall thermal resistance of loop type heat pipe is 1.44 × 10−5 °C/W. • Heat pipe system can reduce reactor temperature from 282 °C to 250 °C in 7 h. • Proposed system will provide reliable and safer cooling for nuclear reactor

  4. SafeCare: Historical Perspective and Dynamic Development of an Evidence-Based Scaled-Up Model for the Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn M. Guastaferro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available SafeCare is an evidence-based parent-training program that reduces child maltreatment, particularly neglect. The risk of child maltreatment, a public health issue affecting millions of U.S. children each year, can be markedly reduced by interventions such as SafeCare that deliver in-home services. Drawing from applied behavioral analysis roots, SafeCare focuses on providing parents with concrete skills in three areas: health, home safety, and parent-child/-infant interaction. This paper will include an overview of the SafeCare model, an historical perspective of its history and dynamic development, description of the theoretical underpinnings of the model, a description of the program targets and content by describing its modules and delivery, an overview of program outcomes, and data discussion of dissemination and implementation.

  5. Motherhood as a Gendered Entitlement: Intentionality, "Othering," and Homosociality in the Online Infertility Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Krista

    2016-02-01

    La maternité est un des plus grands rites de passage vers la féminité adulte chez les femmes. Cependant, toutes les femmes n'ont pas accès à cette maternité. Dans cet article, j'explore la communauté des personnes infertiles en ligne, dans lesquelles les femmes traient de leur exclusion et expriment leur incrédulité face à la perspective d'avoir un enfant biologique. Les femmes considèrent leur infertilité comme une injustice, ce qui les mène à revendiquer cette maternité. Je soutiens que la façon dont les femmes revendiquent la maternité change notre compréhension de la maternité comme norme du genre féminin. La maternité est plus que la poursuite d'une identité du genre féminin; c'est également un droit de la femme. Cette recherche pousse en avant les conceptualisations analytiques de la maternité, tout en enrichissant de façon empirique nos connaissances face à l'homosocialité des femmes. Motherhood is one of the most enduring rites of passage to adult femininity for women. However, not all women have access to motherhood. In this paper, I explore the online infertility community wherein women blog to process their exclusion, expressing incredulity about the prospect of never having a biological child of their own. Women understand their infertility as an injustice, leading them to lay claim to motherhood. I argue that how women lay claim to motherhood changes our understanding of motherhood as a gendered norm. Motherhood is more than a pursuit of a gender identity; it is also a gendered entitlement. This research pushes analytic conceptualizations of motherhood forward, while also empirically enriching our knowledge about women's homosociality. PMID:26890448

  6. An aqueous, polymer-based redox-flow battery using non-corrosive, safe, and low-cost materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoschka, Tobias; Martin, Norbert; Martin, Udo; Friebe, Christian; Morgenstern, Sabine; Hiller, Hannes; Hager, Martin D.; Schubert, Ulrich S.

    2015-11-01

    For renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric to be effectively used in the grid of the future, flexible and scalable energy-storage solutions are necessary to mitigate output fluctuations. Redox-flow batteries (RFBs) were first built in the 1940s and are considered a promising large-scale energy-storage technology. A limited number of redox-active materials--mainly metal salts, corrosive halogens, and low-molar-mass organic compounds--have been investigated as active materials, and only a few membrane materials, such as Nafion, have been considered for RFBs. However, for systems that are intended for both domestic and large-scale use, safety and cost must be taken into account as well as energy density and capacity, particularly regarding long-term access to metal resources, which places limits on the lithium-ion-based and vanadium-based RFB development. Here we describe an affordable, safe, and scalable battery system, which uses organic polymers as the charge-storage material in combination with inexpensive dialysis membranes, which separate the anode and the cathode by the retention of the non-metallic, active (macro-molecular) species, and an aqueous sodium chloride solution as the electrolyte. This water- and polymer-based RFB has an energy density of 10 watt hours per litre, current densities of up to 100 milliamperes per square centimetre, and stable long-term cycling capability. The polymer-based RFB we present uses an environmentally benign sodium chloride solution and cheap, commercially available filter membranes instead of highly corrosive acid electrolytes and expensive membrane materials.

  7. An aqueous, polymer-based redox-flow battery using non-corrosive, safe, and low-cost materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoschka, Tobias; Martin, Norbert; Martin, Udo; Friebe, Christian; Morgenstern, Sabine; Hiller, Hannes; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2015-11-01

    For renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric to be effectively used in the grid of the future, flexible and scalable energy-storage solutions are necessary to mitigate output fluctuations. Redox-flow batteries (RFBs) were first built in the 1940s and are considered a promising large-scale energy-storage technology. A limited number of redox-active materials--mainly metal salts, corrosive halogens, and low-molar-mass organic compounds--have been investigated as active materials, and only a few membrane materials, such as Nafion, have been considered for RFBs. However, for systems that are intended for both domestic and large-scale use, safety and cost must be taken into account as well as energy density and capacity, particularly regarding long-term access to metal resources, which places limits on the lithium-ion-based and vanadium-based RFB development. Here we describe an affordable, safe, and scalable battery system, which uses organic polymers as the charge-storage material in combination with inexpensive dialysis membranes, which separate the anode and the cathode by the retention of the non-metallic, active (macro-molecular) species, and an aqueous sodium chloride solution as the electrolyte. This water- and polymer-based RFB has an energy density of 10 watt hours per litre, current densities of up to 100 milliamperes per square centimetre, and stable long-term cycling capability. The polymer-based RFB we present uses an environmentally benign sodium chloride solution and cheap, commercially available filter membranes instead of highly corrosive acid electrolytes and expensive membrane materials. PMID:26503039

  8. Moral implications of obstetric technologies for pregnancy and motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    Drawing on sociological and anthropological studies, the aim of this article is to reconstruct how obstetric technologies contribute to a moral conception of pregnancy and motherhood, and to evaluate that conception from a normative point of view. Obstetrics and midwifery, so the assumption, are value-laden, value-producing and value-reproducing practices, values that shape the social perception of what it means to be a "good" pregnant woman and to be a "good" (future) mother. Activities in the medical field of reproduction contribute to "kinning", that is the making of particular social relationships marked by closeness and special moral obligations. Three technologies, which belong to standard procedures in prenatal care in postmodern societies, are presently investigated: (1) informed consent in prenatal care, (2) obstetric sonogram, and (3) birth plan. Their widespread application is supposed to serve the moral (and legal) goal of effecting patient autonomy (and patient right). A reconstruction of the actual moral implications of these technologies, however, reveals that this goal is missed in multiple ways. Informed consent situations are marked by involuntariness and blindness to social dimensions of decision-making; obstetric sonograms construct moral subjectivity and agency in a way that attribute inconsistent and unreasonable moral responsibilities to the pregnant woman; and birth plans obscure the need for a healthcare environment that reflects a shared-decision-making model, rather than a rational-choice-framework. PMID:25837233

  9. Representation of Motherhood and Age Characteristics of Infants in Girls in their Late Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krys’ko A.A.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe and analyze data on changes in the representations of motherhood and age characteristics of infants under the influence of pregnancy and motherhood experiences with girls in their late teens (we studied three groups: having no children, pregnant women and young mothers. We used questionnaire “Representations of characteristics of children in each period of their development” (designed by M.E. Lantsburg, A.A. Krys’ko, pictorial projective test, “Me and my child”, projective technique “Mothers TAT”, with 5 reproductions of paintings “Motherhood” by S. Krasauskas representing parenting, motherhood and childbirth, selected as stimulus material. The results of analysis were used to identify the main trends for each of the three groups of subjects.

  10. Becoming a mother--an analysis of women's experience of early motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, L; Everitt, L; Rogan, F; Schmied, V; Wyllie, A

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a qualitative study conducted by midwife researchers into women's experience of new motherhood. Data were collected using focus groups involving 55 first-time mothers and analysed using grounded theory method. The analysis produced six categories: 'realizing', 'unready', 'drained', 'aloneness', 'loss' and 'working it out'. The core category, 'becoming a mother', integrates all other categories and encapsulates the process of change experienced by women. Also explained are factors mediating the often distressing experience of becoming a mother. The analysis provides a conceptualization of early motherhood enabling the development of strategies for midwives, nurses and other helping women negotiate this challenge. PMID:9104667

  11. Experiences of pregnancy and motherhood among teenage mothers in a suburb of Accra, Ghana: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyesaw NYK

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nana Yaa Konadu Gyesaw,1 Augustine Ankomah2 1Regional Health Directorate, Ghana Health Service, Koforidua, Eastern Region, 2Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana Background: The proportion of teenage girls who are mothers or who are currently pregnant in sub-Saharan African countries is staggering. There are many studies regarding teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortions, and family planning among teenagers, but very little is known about what happens after pregnancy, ie, the experience of teenage motherhood. Several studies in Ghana have identified the determinants of early sexual activity, contraception, and unsafe abortion, with teenage motherhood only mentioned in passing. Few studies have explored the experiences of adolescent mothers in detail with regard to their pregnancy and childbirth. This qualitative study explores the experiences of adolescent mothers during pregnancy, childbirth, and care of their newborns. Methods: This qualitative study was based on data from focus group discussions and indepth interviews with teenage mothers in a suburb in Accra. Participants were recruited from health facilities as well as by snowball sampling. Results: Some of the participants became pregnant as a result of transactional sex in order to meet their basic needs, while others became pregnant as a result of sexual violence and exploitation. A few others wanted to become pregnant to command respect from people in society. In nearly all cases, parents and guardians of the adolescent mothers were upset in the initial stages when they heard the news of the pregnancy. One key finding, quite different from in other societies, was how often teenage pregnancies are eventually accepted, by both the young women and their families. Also observed was a rarity of willingness to resort to induced abortion. Conclusion: Special programs should be initiated by the government and the various

  12. Safe Use of Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Use of Medicines Heath and Aging Safe Use of Medicines Introduction Read this booklet for practical ... Alice talk about medicine safety Related Publications Medicines: Use Them Safely Dietary Supplements Alzheimer's Disease Medications Fact ...

  13. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  14. Choosing Safe Baby Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confusing, especially with all the new gadgets and features available (not to mention the many product recalls). ... Gates Choosing Safe Baby Products: Infant Seats & Child Safety Seats (Car Seats) Choosing Safe Baby Products: Playpens Choosing Safe ...

  15. Mother's educational level and single motherhood: Comparing Spain and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Garriga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the second half of the 20th century there was a positive relationship between single parenthood and the mother's educational level in Spain and Italy. Objective: However, several important transformations contemplated by Goode (1993 and McLanahan (2004 suggest that this relationship may have been inverted in Spain but perhaps not in Italy. The purpose of our study is to test this hypothesis. Methods: We use EU_SILC data from waves 2005 and 2011 and logistic regressions. Results: We found the relationship between the mother's educational level and being a single mother is negative in Spain, while it is not significant in Italy. However, we found that for Italian mothers aged 40 and younger and mothers from northwest Italy, this relationship is also negative. By contrast, for older mothers and mothers from the islands or southern Italy, this association is positive. Meanwhile, for mothers from the central and northeast regions, the relationship between educational level and single motherhood is not significant. Conclusions: These results show how Spain and some parts of Italian society are moving towards family models similar to those in the Northern European countries. As Sara McLanahan (2004 noted for the United States, this social transformation in Southern Europe cannot be considered without recognizing the potential negative consequence for future generations. The single-mother households dealing with the economic crisis that started in 2008 have lower socioeconomic backgrounds than the single mothers who suffered through previous crises, and therefore the consequences of this crisis for children in single-parent families might be even more negative, especially in Spain.

  16. Nurse leaders' Attitudes, Self-Efficacy and training Needs for Implementing Evidence-Based Practice: Is It Time for a Change toward Safe Care?

    OpenAIRE

    Farokhzadian, Jamileh; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Borhani, Fariba; Zare, Mohmmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based practice (EBP) has been recognized as the gold standard for safe and high quality care. Nurse leaders have a strategic position in terms of initiating changes in clinical settings for successfully implementing EBP. Therefore, the factors that influence implementing EBP must be measured. Aims To examine nurse leaders' attitudes, self-efficacy, and training needs for implementing evidence-based practice. Place and Duration of Study Four teaching hospitals affiliated ...

  17. Safe use of nanomaterials

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials  is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN.   A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures.   We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment   You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have.   The HSE Unit

  18. Figuras da maternidade em Clarice Lispector ou a maternidade para além do falo The figures of motherhood in Clarice Lispector or motherhood beyond the phallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marcos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A maternidade é freqüentemente situada na lógica fálica. Nossa proposta é nos interrogarmos sobre o que, da maternidade e da gestação, não se reduz ao falo. As figuras da maternidade em Clarice Lispector exibem o que há aí de incomensurável, de impossível a simbolizar e aparecem ligadas ao mundo orgânico, ou, ainda, a um gozo animal e excessivo, lembrando o que Lacan nomeia como gozo outro. A criança é, para a mulher, um modo de relação com o falo, e não dizemos o contrário, entretanto Clarice nos dá a ver que a criança torna também presente um real incomensurável.Motherhood is often situated in a phallic logic. But something in motherhood is not reduced to the phallus. The figures of motherhood in Clarice Lispector shows what is incommensurable in it, what cannot be symbolized and is still linked to the organic world, to an animal and excessive jouissance. The child is, for the woman, a kind of relation with the phallus, but also the incommensurable real.

  19. The Within-Job Motherhood Wage Penalty in Norway, 1979-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Trond; Penner, Andrew M.; Hogsnes, Geir

    2010-01-01

    The motherhood wage penalty is a substantial obstacle to progress in gender equality at work. Using matched employer-employee data from Norway (1979-1996, N = 236,857 individuals, N = 1,027,462 individual-years), a country with public policies that promote combining family and career, we investigate (a) whether the penalty arises from differential…

  20. Early Motherhood in an Intergenerational Perspective: The Experiences of a British Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Uses nationally representative, longitudinal data from Great Britain to examine the fertility patterns of daughters (N=2,183) of teen mothers. Explores how early motherhood is reproduced across generations, including an earlier inherited age of menarche, poor family and educational environments, and an early ideal age of childbearing. (RJM)

  1. Impact of Teenage Motherhood on the Academic Performance in Public Primary Schools in Bungoma County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmao-Kiptanui, Catherine; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga; Lelan, Joseph K.

    2015-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy and motherhood is a concern in both developed and developing countries and is a complex reality of contemporary society however the re-entry of teenage mothers into the school system continues to demand attention as society's negative attitude towards pregnant girls and teenage mothers persists. Those who do return to school…

  2. Shared Secrets: Motherhood and Male Homosexuality in Doppelgänger Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sencindiver, Susan Yi

    2011-01-01

    narratives. Enlisting Joseph Conrad’s short story, “The Secret Sharer,” among others, as both a paradigmatic yet self-conscious example, I examine the intersecting hotbed of these two strange bedfellows, motherhood and homosexuality, as well as the significance of gender in the male doppelgänger imaginary....

  3. Seeking Safety and Empathy: Adolescent Health Seeking Behavior during Pregnancy and Early Motherhood in Central Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K.; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. Methods: This was a qualitative study…

  4. Disciplining Youth, Disciplining Women: Motherhood, Delinquency, and Race in Postwar American Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This article brings together, and builds upon, previous scholarship on juvenile delinquency, motherhood, and education in 1950s America, and explores how the widespread contention that inadequate mothering was responsible for a rise in juvenile crime and social deviance helped shape the organization of schooling in the postwar era. In the first…

  5. From motherhood penalties to husband premia: the new challenge for gender equality and family policy, lessons from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Trond; Penner, Andrew M; Høgsnes, Geir

    2014-03-01

    Given the key role that processes occurring in the family play in creating gender inequality, the family is a central focus of policies aimed at creating greater gender equality. We examine how family status affects the gender wage gap using longitudinal matched employer-employee data from Norway, 1979-96, a period with extensive expansion of family policies. The motherhood penalty dropped dramatically from 1979 to 1996. Among men the premia for marriage and fatherhood remained constant. In 1979, the gender wage gap was primarily due to the motherhood penalty, but by 1996 husband premia were more important than motherhood penalties. PMID:25097932

  6. Safely Combining Abdominoplasty with Aggressive Abdominal Liposuction Based on Perforator Vessels: Technique and a Review of 300 Consecutive Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Lane F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There continues to be controversy about performing abdominoplasty concurrently with abdominal liposuction. The concern is that liposuction on the already vascularly compromised abdominal flap will lead to increased complications and flap necrosis. The central abdomen is supplied by the epigastric system. If perforator vessels from this system are spared, the blood supply to the abdomen can be spared and liposuction should be able to be safely performed on the elevated abdominal fl...

  7. Design of seismic base-isolation for the super-safe, small and simple (4S) reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the seismic base isolation (SBI) design of the 4S reactor building. Currently, there are no codes and regulations specifically for the application of seismic base isolation to nuclear power plants in the U.S. Therefore, the present 4S seismic base isolation design is based on a Japanese guideline for the application of seismic base isolation to nuclear power plants. The current 4S design uses Lead-rubber bearings (LRBs), but the other types could also be used in the 4S design. An LRB device is composed of natural rubber and a lead plug damper. As a whole, an LRB device has very nonlinear dynamic properties. Among the properties, stiffness of the isolators after yielding of the dampers is a key performance indicator of the isolator. Also the yielding force level of the lead dampers is another key. The design earthquake for the 4S standard design is an Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) as defined in U.S. Regulatory Guide 1.60, scaled with maximum ground acceleration of 0.3g. The Japanese JEAG 4601-2000 guideline states, however, that it is also necessary to pay full attention to the amplitude of the design spectra in the lower-frequency region. Thus, the 4S design earthquake spectra were determined by modifying the Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectra so that they also cover, in the lower-frequency region, another design earthquake spectrum proposed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan (CRIEPI) for application of base isolation to nuclear power plants. Result of the dynamic analyses in horizontal direction shows that the maximum acceleration of the isolated building is 231 to 235 cm/sec2, which is less than the seismic input 0.3g (294 cm/sec2). The maximum displacement is 212mm, which will be the design displacement for the isolators. The base shear ratio, the ratio of total shear force at isolation level to total weight of isolated building, is 0.236. The maximum acceleration of the isolated base mat in vertical direction

  8. The GIS-based SafeAirView software for the concentration assessment of radioactive pollutants after an accidental release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy) has long been running nuclear installations for research purposes. The Nuclear Decommissioning and Facilities Management Unit (NDFM) is responsible for the surveillance of radioactivity levels in nuclear emergency conditions. The NDFM Unit has commissioned the implementation of a specifically developed decision support system, which can be used for quick emergency evaluation in the case of hypothetical accident and for emergency exercises. The requisites were to be a user-friendly software, able to quickly calculate and display values of air and ground radioactive contamination in the complex area around JRC, following an accidental release of radioactive substances from a JRC nuclear research installation. The developed software, named 'SafeAirView', is an advanced implementation of GIS technology applied to an existing MS-DOS mode dispersion model, SAFEAIR (Simulation of Air pollution From EmissionsAbove Inhomogeneous Regions). SAFEAIR is a numerical model which simulates transport, diffusion, and deposition of airborne pollutants emitted in the low atmosphere above complex orography at both local and regional scale, under non-stationary and inhomogeneous emission and meteorological conditions. SafeAirView makes use of user-friendly MS-Windows type interface which drives the dispersion model by a sequential and continuous input-output process, allowing a real time simulation. The GIS environment allows a direct interaction with the territory elements in which the simulation takes place, using data for the JRC Ispra region represented in geo-referenced cartography. Furthermore it offers the possibility to relate concentrations with population distribution and other geo-referenced maps, in a geographic view. Output concentration and deposition patterns can be plotted and/or exported. In spite of the selected specific databases, the SafeAirView software architecture is a general structure

  9. Sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes towards motherhood among single women compared with cohabiting women treated with donor semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomon, Maria; Sylvest, Randi; Hansson, Helena;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine sociodemographic characteristics, family backgrounds, reproductive histories, and attitudes towards motherhood in single vs. cohabiting women seeking treatment with donor semen. DESIGN: Baseline data collection in a multicenter cohort study. SETTING: All nine public fertilit...

  10. Negotiating the transition from adolescence to motherhood: Coping with prenatal and parenting stress in teenage mothers in Mulago hospital, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye Dan K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescence is a transitional stage from childhood to adulthood that is characterized by physical, physiological, psychosocial and behavioral changes that are influenced to a large extent by the age, culture and socialization of the individual. To explore what adolescent mothers perceive as their struggles during the period of transition from childhood to parenthood (through motherhood) and to describe strategies employed in coping with stress of pregnancy, motherhood and ...

  11. Implications of the legalization of non-commercial surrogacy for local kinship and motherhood in Vietnamese society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Yuri

    2015-02-01

    Until recently, surrogacy was banned in Vietnam for all cases. The government, however, has altered its position on reproductive technology and will soon legalize non-commercial surrogacy among relatives. Motherhood is highly venerated in Vietnamese society and, under this local kinship conception, gestational process is of paramount importance in establishing a connection between the fetus and the woman. The implications of this new government decision for local kinship, motherhood and the individuals concerned will be discussed. PMID:25496836

  12. Escola segura Safe school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ferreira Liberal

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão das estratégias para tornar o ambiente escolar seguro. Inicialmente os autores contextualizam a violência e os acidentes no ambiente escolar e fazem recomendações, baseadas em dados da literatura, para a implantação de escolas seguras. FONTE DE DADOS: Artigos publicados entre 1993 e 2005 na base de dados MEDLINE. Dados nacionais epidemiológicos e da literatura também foram pesquisados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há evidência crescente de que a intervenção tem múltiplos componentes. O foco político é a prática em educação em saúde com o envolvimento de toda a comunidade. O norte dessas intervenções é ajudar estudantes e toda a comunidade a adotar um comportamento seguro e saudável. As escolas estão assumindo um envolvimento crescente na promoção da saúde, prevenção de doenças e prevenção de trauma. Nesse contexto de prevenção de causas externas de morbimortalidade, é importante reconhecer o risco ambiental, locais e comportamentos de risco como favoráveis ao trauma e à violência, além de um novo conceito de acidentes como algo que possa ser evitado. CONCLUSÃO: A implementação da escola segura representa uma nova direção promissora para o trabalho preventivo baseado na escola. É importante notar que uma escola segura deve intervir não meramente na sua estrutura física, mas também torná-la tão segura quanto possível, trabalhando com a comunidade escolar por meio de educação em saúde, discutindo principalmente o comportamento saudável.OBJECTIVE: To review the strategies to make school a safe environment. The paper first addresses the social context of accidents and violence in the school environment, and makes recommendations, based on the literature data, for the implementation of safe schools. SOURCE OF DATA: Articles published between 1993 and 2005 in the MEDLINE database. Brazilian epidemiological and literature data have also been searched. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is

  13. Choosing Safe Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Choosing Safe Toys KidsHealth > For Parents > Choosing Safe Toys Print A ... can contribute to hearing damage. continue The Right Toys at the Right Ages Always read labels to ...

  14. Use Medicines Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription ... all the medicines, vitamins, minerals, and herbs you use. Share this information with your doctor. Store your ...

  15. A safe and sensitive enterovirus A71 infection model based on human SCARB2 knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuya; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Xing; Chen, Pan; Wu, Xi; Guo, Yanan; Liu, Susu; Liang, Zhenglun; Fan, Changfa; Wang, Youchun

    2016-05-23

    Enterovirus A71 infection has become a severe threat for global public health. Vaccines for controlling and preventing Enterovirus A71 epidemics are highly demanded, however, vaccine evaluation has been hindered by the lack of suitable Enterovirus A71 infection animal models. Here we established an hSCARB2 knockin mouse model for real-time monitoring of enterovirus A71 infection in vivo. This model was sensitive to the infection of both replication-competent virus rEV71(FY)-EGFP and single round pseudotype virus pEV71(FY)-Luc. The intensity of bioluminescence correlated well with viral loads in infected tissues (R=0.86, Pbioluminescence. Therefore, this work provides a safe, sensitive and visualizing model for exploring mechanisms of enterovirus A71 infection and examining human enterovirus A71 vaccines and antiviral therapies. PMID:27102822

  16. Public health and health services development in postconflict communities: a case study of a safe motherhood project in East Timor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Penny; Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal

    2009-10-01

    Armed conflict causes suffering in many countries; it contributes to poor health and hinders health services development. The effects of conflict are evidenced by weakened community structures and can make reconstruction efforts challenging. East Timor has a history of prolonged conflict and saw a resurgence of internal violence in 2006. This participant observation study discusses considerations for implementing public health and health systems development projects in postconflict settings using a case study of a maternal and child health project. It illustrates the importance of appreciating the historical context and community dynamics when implementing development projects. The sequelae of conflict are often characterized by reduced human resource development capacity, distrust of hierarchy, and limited capacity for resource mobilization. Working in such postconflict communities requires flexibility in program design, stronger efforts for community capacity building, and rebuilding trust between various stakeholders. PMID:19783562

  17. MAAP comparisons to SAFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Electric provided results for several boiling water reactor/4 (BWR/4) accident sequences using the SAFE computer code. MAAP-BWR 3.0B Revision 6, was exercised for the same sequences to compare against the SAFE results. Overall, the SAFE and MAAP results for the sequences analyzed show excellent agreement. There are some uncertainties as to the assumptions in the SAFE calculations and the initial conditions. However, given those uncertainties, MAAP and SAFE appear to agree quite well on the response of the reactor vessel for various accident sequences

  18. Balancing motherhood and drug addiction: the transition to parenthood of addicted mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sofia A; Pires, António P; Guerreiro, Cristina; Cardoso, Antónia

    2013-03-01

    This is a study about balancing motherhood and drug addiction, during the transition to parenthood. Few studies have dealt with the parental experience of drug-addicted mothers. The participants included 24 drug-addicted mothers, on methadone, with ages 25-42 and with children 1-32 months of age. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed according to Grounded Theory. The mothers' main concern was the ambivalence they felt towards pregnancy/motherhood and drug addiction, which was associated with strong feelings of guilt. Confronted with this ambivalence their maternal role becomes merely functional. They focus on providing the basic care to the child, but show little willingness to talk or play. Social support, especially from the partner seems to have a positive role. PMID:22544158

  19. Replication-deficient rabies virus-based vaccines are safe and immunogenic in mice and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenna, Jonathan; Hunter, Meredith; Tan, Gene S; Papaneri, Amy B; Ribka, Erin P; Schnell, Matthias J; Marx, Preston A; McGettigan, James P

    2009-10-15

    Although current postexposure prophylaxis rabies virus (RV) vaccines are effective, approximately 40,000-70,000 rabies-related deaths are reported annually worldwide. The development of effective formulations requiring only 1-2 applications would significantly reduce mortality. We assessed in mice and nonhuman primates the efficacy of replication-deficient RV vaccine vectors that lack either the matrix (M) or phosphoprotein (P) gene. A single dose of M gene-deficient RV induced a more rapid and efficient anti-RV response than did P gene-deficient RV immunization. Furthermore, the M gene-deleted RV vaccine induced 4-fold higher virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) levels in rhesus macaques than did a commercial vaccine within 10 days after inoculation, and at 180 days after immunization rhesus macaques remained healthy and had higher-avidity antibodies, higher VNA titers, and a more potent antibody response typical of a type 1 T helper response than did animals immunized with a commercial vaccine. The data presented in this article suggest that the M gene-deleted RV vaccine is safe and effective and holds the potential of replacing current pre- and postexposure RV vaccines. PMID:19764884

  20. Replication-Deficient Rabies Virus–Based Vaccines Are Safe and Immunogenic in Mice and Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenna, Jonathan; Hunter, Meredith; Tan, Gene S.; Papaneri, Amy B.; Ribka, Erin P.; Schnell, Matthias J.; Marx, Preston A.; McGettigan, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Although current postexposure prophylaxis rabies virus (RV) vaccines are effective, ~40,000–70,000 rabies-related deaths are reported annually worldwide. The development of effective formulations requiring only 1–2 applications would significantly reduce mortality. We assessed in mice and nonhuman primates the efficacy of replication-deficient RV vaccine vectors that lack either the matrix (M) or phosphoprotein (P) gene. A single dose of M gene–deficient RV induced a more rapid and efficient anti-RV response than did P gene–deficient RV immunization. Furthermore, the M gene–deleted RV vaccine induced 4-fold higher virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) levels in rhesus macaques than did a commercial vaccine within 10 days after inoculation, and at 180 days after immunization rhesus macaques remained healthy and had higher-avidity antibodies, higher VNA titers, and a more potent antibody response typical of a type 1 T helper response than did animals immunized with a commercial vaccine. The data presented in this article suggest that the M gene–deleted RV vaccine is safe and effective and holds the potential of replacing current pre- and postexposure RV vaccines. PMID:19764884

  1. Motherhood, Empowerment, and Resilience within the Context of Intimate Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Bach; Julianne M. Weinzimmer; Shreya S. Bhandari

    2013-01-01

    We conducted twenty in-depth interviews with residents of a domestic violence shelter in a southeastern metropolitan area to understand how low-income women experience mothering within the context of intimate partner violence (IPV). Interview questions explored the women’s feelings about motherhood, their relationships with their children, and the effects of IPV on their children. Despite the difficulties of raising children with an abusive partner, the women did not regret becoming a mothe...

  2. Girls just want to have fun? Sexuality, pregnancy, and motherhood among Bolivian teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso, Mariana

    2007-01-01

    This study attempts to quantify female teenage sexual activity, pregnancy, and motherhood in Bolivia using the most recent Demographic and Health Survey. Descriptive results suggest that teenage sexual activity, pregnancy, and childbearing are more prevalent among those adolescents who are more likely to be socially vulnerable and excluded. In addition, the high incidence of undesired pregnancies among Bolivian teen girls suggests that government action to prevent teenage pregnancy is needed....

  3. The implications of teenage pregnancy and motherhood for primary health care: unresolved issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, H; Bradley, T; Cupples, M; Boohan, M

    1997-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy and motherhood have implications for several different aspects of primary health care. First, the provision of health education and contraceptive services is obviously relevant to the prevention of unplanned teenage pregnancy. Secondly, appropriate obstetric care should be provided for teenagers, who are at high risk of developing complications in pregnancy and childbirth. Thirdly, and perhaps even more significantly, there is the implication of care required to deal with lo...

  4. Entitled to a sustainable career? Motherhood in science, engineering and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Clem; Lewis, Suzan

    2012-01-01

    Sustaining careers and motherhood is particularly challenging in highly masculinised science, engineering and technology (SET) sectors. We explore this issue using a social comparison theory perspective, drawing on interviews with professional engineers and scientists from four companies, located in Italy, France and the Netherlands. We examine how decisions to reduce working hours are influenced by perceived ideological, normative and policy contexts. Despite contextual differences in opport...

  5. Biomedically assisted reproduction and child birth: Surrogate motherhood in comparative European law and Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Surrogate motherhood is an arrangement in which a woman agrees to carry and deliver a child for another couple who ordered the pregnancy. This procedure is applied today in Great Britain, Holland (although without legal regulations), Israel, Greece, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia, the USA and Australia, and it is forbidden in France, Austria, Spain, Germany, Switzerland and Slovenia. There are two types of surrogacy, one when the woman gives birth to a child who is genetically her own ("part...

  6. Lesbian Shared Biological Motherhood : The Ethics of IVF with Reception of Oocytes from Partner

    OpenAIRE

    Zeiler, Kristin; Malmquist, Anna

    2014-01-01

    IVF with ROPA (Reception of Oocytes from Partners) allows lesbian mothers to share biological motherhood. The gestational mother receives an egg from her partner who becomes the genetic mother. This article examines the ethics of IVF with ROPA with a focus on the welfare of the woman and the resulting child, on whether ROPA qualifies as a "legitimate" medical therapy that falls within the goals of medicine, and on the meaning and value attributed to a biologically shared bond between parents ...

  7. Postpartum Depression and the Meaning of Motherhood: Exploring the Role of Contrast and Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum depression affects between 10 - 15% of all mothers within the first year after giving birth (Dietz, 2007; Epperson, 1999).  Studies that have focused on women\\'s experiences of postpartum depression have found similar in experience of contrast between women\\'s expectations of motherhood, and their actual experiences (Beck, 2002; Knudson-Martin & Silverstein, 2009; Mauthner, 1999).  Using a phenomenological approach, this study sought to explore women\\'s experiences of contrast, und...

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF FORMATION OF DEVIATIONS IN THE PERIOD OF PREPARATION FOR MOTHERHOOD

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Moreva; A. V. Silaeva; A. N. Kornetov; Ye. N. Borodina; A. Ye. Yankovskaya; N. I. Pryadukhina; N. E. Golovakha; V. B. Obukhovskaya

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a social-psychological indicators of stress, coping mechanisms, rigidity and psychological component gestational dominant as risk factors predisposing to deviations in the context of preparedness for motherhood, marked psychological characteristics of pregnant women main group.Material and methods. The study was conducted on the basis of obstetric clinics SSMU, prenatal maternity hospital number 4 and the Centre for Medical Prevention (Cabinet crisis pregnancy). Total was...

  9. The Discursive Suppression of Women: Female Evils as the Villains of the Motherhood Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Önal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the discursive construction and control of female sexuality and sexual activity, which simultaneously lead to the definition of women as inherently evil and to their suppression. This process is reinforced through a “motherhood narrative” inaugurated by a number of discourses, wherein female evils play the role of the villains, either as evil women or as anthropomorphised female beings that harm the mother or the unborn/newborn baby. The role of the “female evil”, a universally occurring archetypal motif, is to steal, kill or harm the child or the mother during pregnancy, labour, or puerperium. This motif is taken into account particularly in the framework of discourses that can be termed as medico-religious. Case studies of female evils are given as examples in the article, with a focus on the motherhood narrative and medico-religious discourses. This focus provides an insight to the way in which female evils pertain to the suppression of women within a more general framework. Female evils appear as necessary constructs of the aforementioned discourses to be able to control female sexual activity and the motherhood related fears of women, especially through the internalisation of control and through shaping the relationship of women with other women.

  10. Safe medication use based on knowledge of information about contraindications concerning cross allergy and comprehensive clinical intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li W

    2013-02-01

    , prescribing information, risk management, safe medication use

  11. Safe havens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11 countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven to wealth, and that theoretically...... equilibriums are likely to exist where a certain regulation is substantially lower in a small country than in its big neighbor. This generates a large capital inflow to the safe havens. The pool of funds that may reach the safe havens is shown to be huge. It is far in excess of the absorptive capacity of the...... safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds....

  12. Cultural Collision and Women Victimization in Buchi Emecheta’s The Joys of Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fathi Helaly

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Buchi Emecheta is one of the most important female writers to emerge from Nigeria. She is distinguished for her vivid description of female subordination and conflicting cultural values in modern Africa. In Emecheta’s The Joys of Motherhood Nnu Ego, the protagonist, has to suffer as a wife both in the tribal environment in which she was born and the urban community in which she is compelled to live the rest of her life.  Nnu Ego has to suffer because these two environments have different cultures. She falls a victim of the tension of the collision of these two conflicting cultures. This collision occurs between the institutions of the traditional Ibo society and the institution of Western Europe.  The hardships that Nnu Ego experiences are the result of the clash between the Ibo traditions and the colonized Lagos. It is a clash of traditions, values and priorities. Nnu Ego is victimzed because of what the village (Ibuza community demands her to do, on the one hand, and what the rules of a European political  regime requires her to be. She finds herself in a predicament as she has to assume different roles in accordance with the values of the surrounding communities in which she has to live. She escapes from Ibuza because she is not accepted as a wife who cannot produce children. She flees to the distant city of Lagos to start a new life with another husband with the hope of fulfilling her dream of carrying children. This dream is rooted in the cultural values of the Ibo society where motherhood is the primary source of female self- esteem and public status. In Lagos Nnu Ego fulfills her dream of motherhood and begets a lot of children but the pleasures associated with motherhood are negated by the difficult economic conditions of her new urban community and its norms and values. She has to work day in and day out as a street-side peddler to sustain her children because her husband is away working for the colonizers most of the time. Nnu

  13. 基于控制流的Mobile Safe Ambients演算的静态分析策略%Static Analysis Scheme for Mobile Safe Ambients Based on Control Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 刘磊

    2008-01-01

    在Mobile Safe Ambients演算进程的拓扑结构抽象表示基础上, 通过识别可被激活的移动原语和通讯原语, 计算系统运行的所有动态进程拓扑结构, 并在文法规则中显示地标识约束名字和变量, 使分析结果在α变换下保持不变. 该策略可被应用于静态分析和验证基于Mobile Safe Ambients演算描述的并行与分布式系统的动态行为及属性.

  14. Motherhood as Constructed by Us: Muslim Women’s Negotiations from a Space That Is Their Own

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sariya Mary Cheruvallil-Contractor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to foundational Islamic texts, motherhood is a key aspect of women’s diverse social roles; however some Muslim religious commentaries position motherhood as the only aspect of women’s contributions to society. The everyday mothering experiences of Muslim women remain absent from these discussions. This anthropological article will examine Muslim women’s narratives of motherhood and mothering in contemporary Britain. In my research, Muslim women in Britain chose motherhood, firstly, as one of the many fronts on which to challenge patriarchy that is evident in some Muslim texts and to thus ‘reclaim their faith’ as articulated in foundational Islamic texts. Secondly, in their mothering experiences, Muslim women found a space of commonality that they shared with other women – motherhood was something these Muslim women believed they shared with their ‘sisters’ who were from backgrounds different to their own. Within their diverse and multifaceted struggles, Muslim women thus identified a space which they share with other women.

  15. OPINION: Safe exponential manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric

    2004-08-01

    In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.

  16. "I Would Want to Give My Child, Like, Everything in the World": How Issues of Motherhood Influence Women Who Have Abortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K.; Frohwirth, Lori F.; Moore, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of U.S. women who have abortions (61%) have children. This exploratory study analyzes qualitative information from 38 women obtaining abortions to examine how issues of motherhood influenced their decisions to terminate their pregnancies. Women in the sample had abortions because of the material responsibilities of motherhood, such as…

  17. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  18. Inherently safe light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's large nuclear power reactors of world-wise use have been designed based on the philosophy. It seems that recent less electricity demand rates, higher capital cost and the TMI accident let us acknowledge relative small and simplified nuclear plants with safer features, and that Chernobyl accident in 1983 underlines the needs of intrinsic and passive safety characteristics. In such background, several inherently safe reactor concepts have been presented abroad and domestically. First describing 'Can inherently safe reactors be designed,' then I introduce representative reactor concepts of inherently safe LWRs advocated abroad so far. All of these innovative reactors employ intrinsic and passive features in their design, as follows: (1) PIUS, an acronym for Process Inherent Ultimate Safety, or an integral PWR with passive heat sink and passive shutdown mechanism, advocated by ASEA-ATOM of Sweden. (2) MAP(Minimum Attention Plant), or a self-pressurized, natural circulation integral PWR, promoted by CE Inc. of the U.S. (3) TPS(TRIGA Power System), or a compact PWR with passive heat sink and inherent fuel characteristics of large prompt temperature coefficient, prompted by GA Technologies Inc. of the U.S. (4) PIUS-BWR, or an inherently safe BWR employing passively actuated fluid valves, in competition with PIUS, prompted by ORNL of the U.S. Then, I will describe the domestic trends in Japan and the innovative inherently safe LWRs presented domestically so far. (author)

  19. Safe Finger Tourniquet-Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lin-Gwei; Chen, Chieh-Feng; Hwang, Chun-Yuan; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Chiu, Wen-Kuan; Li, Chun-Chang; Wang, Hsian-Jenn

    2016-03-01

    Tourniquets are often needed for optimized phalangeal surgeries. However, few surgeons forget to remove them and caused ischemic injuries. We have a modified method to create a safe finger tourniquet for short duration finger surgeries, which can avoid such tragedy. It is done by donning a glove, cutting the tip of the glove over the finger of interest, and rolling the glove finger to the base. From 2010 to 2013, approximately 54 patients underwent digital surgical procedures with our safe finger tourniquet. Because the glove cannot be forgotten to be removed, the tourniquet must be released and removed. This is a simple and efficient way to apply a safe finger tourniquet by using hand rubber glove for a short-term bloodless finger surgery and can achieve an excellent surgical result. PMID:26855166

  20. A Mobile Information System Based on Crowd-Sensed and Official Crime Data for Finding Safe Routes: A Case Study of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Mata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile information systems agendas are increasingly becoming an essential part of human life and they play an important role in several daily activities. These have been developed for different contexts such as public facilities in smart cities, health care, traffic congestions, e-commerce, financial security, user-generated content, and crowdsourcing. In GIScience, problems related to routing systems have been deeply explored by using several techniques, but they are not focused on security or crime rates. In this paper, an approach to provide estimations defined by crime rates for generating safe routes in mobile devices is proposed. It consists of integrating crowd-sensed and official crime data with a mobile application. Thus, data are semantically processed by an ontology and classified by the Bayes algorithm. A geospatial repository was used to store tweets related to crime events of Mexico City and official reports that were geocoded for obtaining safe routes. A forecast related to crime events that can occur in a certain place with the collected information was performed. The novelty is a hybrid approach based on semantic processing to retrieve relevant data from unstructured data sources and a classifier algorithm to collect relevant crime data from official government reports with a mobile application.

  1. Complex diagnostic investigations of energetic boiler elements as a base for modernization and safe exploitation time belonging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different methods for energetic boiler testing have been described for assessing safety of their exploitation. The results for typical boiler steels have been presented. The recommendations concerning exploitation time and conditions, modernization proposals or emergency repairs needs can be done on the base of results analysis of complex diagnostic testing. 14 refs, 7 figs

  2. Keeping Kids Safe from a Design Perspective: Ethical and Legal Guidelines for Designing a Video-Based App for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Hooper, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Educators can use video to gain invaluable information about their students. A concern is that collecting videos online can create an increased security risk for children. The purpose of this article is to provide ethical and legal guidelines for designing video-based apps for mobile devices and the web. By reviewing the literature, law, and code…

  3. [Motherhood behind bars: the struggle for citizens' rights and health for women inmates and their children in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Miriam; Simas, Luciana; Larouzé, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the links between health, rights, legislation, and public policies based on document research on legal safeguards for women and their children residing in prison. The research was conducted at the Federal level and in four States of Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso, Paraná, and São Paulo. The study aims to back measures by public agencies to guarantee such rights and to raise awareness of the problem, given the extreme vulnerability of women inmates and their children and the issue's legal and administrative invisibility. The authors identified 33 different legal provisions as points of tension, such as the possibility of house arrest and disparities in the terms and conditions for children to remain inside the prison system. Various provisions cite the Constitutional guarantee of women inmates' right to breastfeed in prison. Meanwhile, the study found gaps in other issues pertaining to motherhood in prison, expressed as dual incarceration (imprisonment arbitrarily extended to their children). It is necessary to expand and enforce the existing legislation to prevent such violations of rights. PMID:25859727

  4. Drink lots of clean, safe water:  a food–based dietary guideline for South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bourne, L.; Phooko, D.; Van Graan, A.E.; Wright, H. H.; Bopape, M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarise the literature that supports the importance of the food-based dietary guideline on water consumption. General recommendations for total daily water intake are between 2 and 3.7 l for women and men, 0.7 l for infants aged 0-6 months, 0.8 l for infants aged 7-12 months, 1.3 l for children aged 1-3 years, and 1.7 l for children aged 4-8 years. Water recommendations for the elderly and people who are involved in exercise or hard physical labo...

  5. The postponement of motherhood and its child health consequences: birth weight and weight gain during the first year of life

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The postponement of motherhood is one of the most important trends in fertility behaviour in the last few decades. The consequences of late motherhood for child health are not well understood, however. One reason is that in the study of child health, the focus is either on birth (e.g., risk factors for low birth weight), or on child health after birth (e.g., child health consequences of low birth weight). The comprehensive view to child health underlying this paper is that both sides are clos...

  6. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... take medicine safely, people can vastly lower the quality of their lives and in some extreme cases, ... the other one standing on my head, you know, it really gets to be difficult. Announcer: Some ...

  7. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... teeth or eating breakfast. By communicating with our health care providers and by accepting a greater responsibility in our own health care, we can learn to take our medicines safely.

  8. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... methods of hair removal. back to top Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  9. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  10. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or eating breakfast. By communicating with our health care providers and by accepting a greater responsibility in our own health care, we can learn to take our medicines safely.

  11. Safe Kids Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kids safe around water Get the facts Text Camping Checklist 7 things to consider before the adventure ... Age Safety by Risk Safety Issues Get Your Car Seat Checked Safety Tips Safety Laws Tools For ...

  12. Positioning the experience of motherhood within the social network of family relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarić Isidora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of motherhood is, in a symbolic sense, one of the most important women’s experiences closely associated with constructs emphasized femininity (Connell, 1987. It is a social experience that incorporates internal ambivalence. On the one hand it is one of the most intimate experiences through which women discover new frontiers of the relations with themselves and their own bodies. On the other hand it is a social construct through which different power relations that exist within the society and culture they belong to refract, and reshape their relations with others. This paper attempts to reconstruct how women of different ages, education and social background in their narratives conceptualize their own social experiences related to motherhood, strategies of adjustments and changes that these experiences produce related to their position within the social network of family relationships. On the basis of the collected empirical data within project Politics of Parenthood of Institute for Sociological Research (Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade the paper reconstructs two basic types of adjustment strategies which women use in order to find a balance between their own construct of motherhood, and its own related identity positions, on the one hand, and frustrated and disempowered (wider and narrower referent social contexts. These strategies are: (a strategy of conforming or mimicry, which is being implemented in two possible ways through: full acceptance of the ideological and normative positions that dominate within the referent family network, and the practice of self-sacrificing micro-matriarchy (Blagojević, 1997; and (b strategy of active confrontation, which is also being implemented in two different ways through: indirect confrontation (distancing strategies, and / or direct confrontation.

  13. Esperando o futuro: a maternidade na adolescência Awaiting the future: teenage motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alexim Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de um projeto que pretende avaliar o lugar da maternidade na constituição da subjetividade de um grupo de adolescentes. Parte da hipótese de que a gravidez na adolescência só se tornou um problema político e social dentro de uma biopolítica voltada para a produção e reprodução do corpo social que pressupõe a maternidade como um projeto racional. Nesse contexto, a gravidez na adolescência torna-se um problema de saúde pública, e os discursos sobre o tema adotam um tom homogeneizante e estigmatizante, acentuando seus aspectos negativos. A pesquisa, realizada com adolescentes de camadas populares entre 16 e 18 anos de idade, permite questionar esses discursos. Apontou a maternidade como um acontecimento fundamental para a constituição da subjetividade dessas jovens, possibilitando a construção de ideais e a articulação de um projeto de futuro.This paper is part of a research that aims to evaluate the place of motherhood in the constitution of subjectivity in a group of teenagers. It begins with the hypotheses that teenage pregnancy has become a political and social problem, inside a bio-politic targeting the production and reproduction of the social body. In this context, teenage pregnancy becomes a public health problem and the speeches about the subject tend to assume a homogenizing and stigmatizing tone, punctuating its negatives aspects. A research developed with teenagers from poor communities, between 16 and 18 years old, allows us to question these speeches. The research pointed out motherhood as a fundamental event in the constitution of these young women subjectivities. In fact, motherhood makes possible for them to built new ideals, and articulates a plan for the future.

  14. Irrational non-reproduction? The 'dying nation' and the postsocialist logics of declining motherhood in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishtal, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Polish birthrates during the state socialist period, 1948-1989, stayed above replacement level but since 1989 fell dramatically to one of the lowest in Europe, at 1.29 in 2010. The Polish Catholic Church and the newly-elected nationalist government of Lech Wałęsa reacted by escalating pronatalist rhetoric calling on women to increase childbearing in the name of economic and nationalist causes. Reflecting the renewed dominance of the Church, Wałęsa implemented restrictions on family planning, including abortion, contraception, and sex education, justifying them in moral and demographic terms. Plummeting fertility has been portrayed by the Church, media, and state as dangerous and unreasonable - a sign of Polish women's rejection of motherhood and the embrace of selfish priorities. Simultaneously however, the state cut back motherhood-friendly policies established by the socialist regime, including subsidized childcare, maternity leave, and healthcare. This paper draws on 19 months of fieldwork between 2000 and 2007, using interviews with 55 women in four healthcare clinics in Gdańsk area, and participant-observation at the social services offices in Krakow. This paper shows that far from irrational rejection of motherhood, Polish middle-class women are guided by pragmatic reasons when delaying parenthood in order to navigate the new political landscape marked by job insecurity and gendered discrimination in employment. Yet, rather than implementing work-family reconciliation policies that have stimulated fertility elsewhere in Europe, the Church and state insist on blaming women for 'irrational' non-reproduction, thus betraying a lack of political commitment to gender equity in employment, reproductive health, and in the family. PMID:22889425

  15. Analysis on the International Trends in Safe Management of Very Low Level Waste Based upon Graded Approach and Their Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, International Atomic Energy Agency and major leading countries in radioactive waste management tend to subdivide the categories of radioactive waste based upon risk-graded approach. In this context, the category of very low level waste has been newly introduced, or optimized management options for this kind of waste have been pursued in many countries. The application of engineered surface landfill type facilities dedicated to dispose of very low level waste has been gradually expanded, and it was analyzed that their design concept of isolation has been much advanced than those of the old fashioned surface trench-type disposal facilities for low and intermediate level waste, which were usually constructed in 1960's. In addition, the management options for very low level waste in major leading countries are varied depending upon and interfaced with the affecting factors such as: national framework for clearance, legal and practical availability of low and intermediate level waste repository and/or non-nuclear waste landfill, public acceptance toward alternative waste management options, and so forth. In this regard, it was concluded that optimized long-term management options for very low level waste in Korea should be also established in a timely manner through comprehensive review and discussions, in preparation of decommissioning of large nuclear facilities in the future, and be implemented in a systematic manner under the framework of national policy and management plan for radioactive waste management

  16. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations based on the user`s perspective of the system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations related to reactor operations. They do not take into account the differences in user information processing behavior and how these behaviors may affect individual and team performance when accessing visual displays or utilizing system models in process and control room areas. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the information process level, the result can be sub-optimization and inherently error- and failure-prone systems. Therefore, to minimize or eliminate failures in human-interactive systems, it is essential that the designers understand how each user`s processing characteristics affects how the user gathers information, and how the user communicates the information to the designer and other users. A different type of approach in achieving this understanding is Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays, NLP, and the user`s perspective model of a reactor system. The studies involve the methodology known as NLP, and its use in expanding design choices from the user`s ``model of the world,`` in the areas of virtual reality, workstation design, team structure, decision and learning style patterns, safety operations, pattern recognition, and much, much more.

  17. An Australian hospital-based student training ward delivering safe, client-centred care while developing students' interprofessional practice capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Margo L; Stewart-Wynne, Edward G

    2013-11-01

    Royal Perth Hospital, in partnership with Curtin University, established the first interprofessional student training ward in Australia, based on best practice from Europe. Evaluation of the student and client experience was undertaken. Feedback from all stakeholders was obtained regularly as a key element of the quality improvement process. An interprofessional practice program was established with six beds within a general medical ward. This provided the setting for 2- to 3-week clinical placements for students from medicine, nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, social work, pharmacy, dietetics and medical imaging. Following an initial trial, the training ward began with 79 students completing a placement. An interprofessional capability framework focused on the delivery of high quality client care and effective teamwork underpins this learning experience. Quantitative outcome data showed not only an improvement in students' attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration but also acquisition of a high level of interprofessional practice capabilities. Qualitative outcome data from students and clients was overwhelmingly positive. Suggestions for improvement were identified. This innovative learning environment facilitated the development of the students' knowledge, skills and attitudes required for interprofessional, client centred collaborative practice. Staff reported a high level of compliance with clinical safety and quality. PMID:24299579

  18. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations based on the user's perspective of the system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations related to reactor operations. They do not take into account the differences in user information processing behavior and how these behaviors may affect individual and team performance when accessing visual displays or utilizing system models in process and control room areas. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the information process level, the result can be sub-optimization and inherently error- and failure-prone systems. Therefore, to minimize or eliminate failures in human-interactive systems, it is essential that the designers understand how each user's processing characteristics affects how the user gathers information, and how the user communicates the information to the designer and other users. A different type of approach in achieving this understanding is Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays, NLP, and the user's perspective model of a reactor system. The studies involve the methodology known as NLP, and its use in expanding design choices from the user's ''model of the world,'' in the areas of virtual reality, workstation design, team structure, decision and learning style patterns, safety operations, pattern recognition, and much, much more

  19. Stay Safe Programme

    OpenAIRE

    MacIntyre, Deirdre; Carr, Alan.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. This child abuse prevention study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Stay Safe Programme in training unscreened 7 and 10 year old children in personal safety skills. Subsidiary aims were to evaluate the programme's impact on children's self-esteem and parents' and teachers' knowledge and attitudes of relevance to child abuse and protection. Method. Changes in safety knowledge and skills and self-esteem of 339 children who participated in the Stay Safe Program...

  20. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Sannino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter interactions according to which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the interaction strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies towards a finite constant value of the coupling. The net effect is to partially offset direct detection constraints without affecting thermal freeze-out at higher energies. High-energy collider and indirect annihilation searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter.

  1. [A father's motherhood... or a mother's fatherhood? Transgender, assisted reproduction and bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Díaz, Jorge Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a transsexual pregnant male in the mass media has made people reassess if transsexuals should have access to assisted reproduction. The bioethical discussion should focus on the future child best interests. This article describes the story of this transsexual man, legally married to a woman in the state of Oregon in the United States. A brief overview of transsexuality and the specific characteristics of this case, with special considerations towards fertility in transsexual people is included. We suggest reflections on what constitutes motherhood and fatherhood and bioethical considerations brought forth by this groundbreaking event. PMID:19518023

  2. Floating NPPs based on ship propulsion reactor technologies - Reliable and safe energy source for autonomous energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Small-sized floating NPPs of 3 to 10 MW in electric capacity seem to be rather attractive for energy supply in Republic Sakha (Jakutiya) and some other regions of Russia's north and north-east. High level of reliability, radiological and ecological safety, acceptable economic characteristics, long-term operation without refueling (about 10 years) make them advantageous for application in these remote areas. Commercial advantages are based on the following features of the floating NPPs: Floating variant of small NPP is relatively not expensive, does not require development of special supporting infrastructure (warehouses, transportation, maintenance and repair facilities etc.). Floating NPP tows to a site as a shop assembled ready for operation unit. In 10-12 years of operation it is to be replaced by 'fresh' one. At the end of life (∼40 years) the floating NPP will be simply towed to the factory for decommissioning thus leaving a 'green lawn' at site. - Shallow draught (not more than 2.5 m) provides wide choice of location sites along rivers and in sea shore. - It is possible to arrange single or twin-reactor design of a floating NPP and operate it as dedicated electricity only or dual-purpose (electricity and heat) source. - Relatively low construction cost which is about 20 M$ for 3 MWe. - Low number of operating staff (∼ 20 persons) reduces operation cost essentially. - Availability of operating prototypes of all main equipment of nuclear power unit and long-term experience in construction and operation of nuclear vessels is a guarantee of high quality of design, excludes costly R and D, demonstration tests and unpredictable design modifications. - Not any expenditures are required for development new facilities for construction of floating NPPs, reactor refueling equipment, radwaste management and NPP decommissioning. h) Implementation of floating NPPs eliminates critical problems and annual 'headache' with delivery of vast amount of fossil fuel

  3. SAFE/SNAP application to shipboard security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An application of the combined Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation/Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SAFE/SNAP) modeling technique to a physical protection system (PPS) aboard a generic ship is described. This application was performed as an example of how the SAFE and SNAP techniques could be used. Estimates of probability of interruption and neutralization for the example shipboard PPS are provided by SAFE as well as an adversary scenario, which serves as input to SNAP. This adversary scenario is analyzed by SNAP through four cases which incorporate increasingly detailed security force tactics. Comparisons between the results of the SAFE and SNAP analyses are made and conclusions drawn on the validity of each technique. Feedback from SNAP to SAFE is described, and recommendations for upgrading the ship based on the results of the SAFE/SNAP application are also discussed

  4. A community-based cluster randomised trial of safe storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Melissa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The WHO recognises pesticide poisoning to be the single most important means of suicide globally. Pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health and clinical problem in rural Asia, where it has led to case fatality ratios 20-30 times higher than self-poisoning in the developed world. One approach to reducing access to pesticides is for households to store pesticides in lockable "safe-storage" containers. However, before this approach can be promoted, evidence is required on its effectiveness and safety. Methods/Design A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial has been set up in 44,000 households in the North Central Province, Sri Lanka. A census is being performed, collecting baseline demographic data, socio-economic status, pesticide usage, self-harm and alcohol. Participating villages are then randomised and eligible households in the intervention arm given a lockable safe storage container for agrochemicals. The primary outcome will be incidence of pesticide self-poisoning over three years amongst individuals aged 14 years and over. 217,944 person years of follow-up are required in each arm to detect a 33% reduction in pesticide self-poisoning with 80% power at the 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes will include the incidence of all pesticide poisoning and total self-harm. Discussion This paper describes a large effectiveness study of a community intervention to reduce the burden of intentional poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. The study builds on a strong partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence. Trial Registritation The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov ref: NCT1146496 (http://clinicaltrialsfeeds.org/clinical-trials/show/NCT01146496.

  5. Preliminary study on safe thresholds for temporary internal carotid artery occlusion in aneurysm surgery based on motor-evoked potential monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tanabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study aims were to clarify safe duration for temporary vessel occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA during aneurysm surgery as exactly as possible. We examined safe time duration (STD, where brain tissue exposed to ischemia will never fall into even the ischemic penumbra using intraoperative motor-evoked potential (MEP. Methods: In 45 patients, temporary occlusion of the ICA was performed with MEP. We measured STD as the duration of temporary vessel occlusion during which MEP changes did not occur. To estimate average STD, we calculated the 95% confidence interval for the population mean from sample data for STD in patients with MEP changes and in patients without changes. Results: In the proximal-control group, 4 of 38 patients (10.5% developed intraoperative MEP changes. In 4 patients, the time to MEP change (i.e. STD was 6.0 ± 2.5 min. STD was 3.8 ± 1.6 min in the 34 patients without changes. The average STD was 4.0 ± 0.6 min. In the trap group (proximal and distal flow control, five of seven patients (60.0% experienced intraoperative MEP changes (STD, 2.3 ± 1.0 min. All patients in the trap group who developed MEP changes showed involvement of the anterior choroidal artery (AchA in the trapped segment. Average STD was 2.3 ± 1.1 min when trapping involving the AchA. Conclusions: Although the study is preliminary based on the limited number of the patients, the 95% upper confidence limit for average STD was 4.6 min when the ICA was occluded proximal to the aneurysm, 3.4 min when the ICA was trapped involving the AchA.

  6. Iran's experience with surrogate motherhood: an Islamic view and ethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, K

    2009-05-01

    Gestational surrogacy as a treatment for infertility is being practised in some well-known medical institutions in Tehran and some other cities in Iran. While the majority of Muslims in the world are Sunni, the majority of Iranians are Shiite. Most Sunni scholars do not permit surrogate motherhood, since it involves introducing the sperm of a man into the uterus of a woman to whom he is not married. Most Shiite scholars, however, have issued jurisprudential decrees (fatwas) that allow surrogate motherhood as a treatment for infertility, albeit only for legal couples. They regard this practice as transferring an embryo or fetus from one womb to another, which is not forbidden in Shiite jurisprudence. Nevertheless, there are some controversies concerning some issues such as kinship and inheritance. The main ethical concern of Iran's experience with gestational surrogacy is the monetary relation between the intended couple and the surrogate mother. While monetary remuneration is practised in Iran and allowed by religious authorities, it seems to suffer from ethical problems. This article proposes that this kind of monetary relation should be modified and limited to reimbursement of normal costs. Such modification requires new legislation and religious decrees. PMID:19407039

  7. "But You Would Be the Best Mother": Unwomen, Counterstories, and the Motherhood Mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib, Anna

    2016-06-01

    This paper addresses and challenges the pronatalist marginalization and oppression of voluntarily childless women in the Global North. These conditions call for philosophical analyses and for sociopolitical responses that would make possible the necessary moral spaces for resistance. Focusing on the relatively privileged subgroups of women who are the targets of pronatalist campaigns, the paper explores the reasons behind their choices, the nature and methods of Western pronatalism, and distinguishes three specific sources of some of the more lasting, and stigmatizing attacks: popular culture, law and policy, and medicine itself. I then argue that because they are construed by motherhood-essentializing, and increasingly popular, pronatalist narratives as, among other things, "failed" or "selfish," voluntarily childless women are subsequently burdened with damaged identities that can leave them personally othered and uniquely liminal in ways that are destructive to moral agency. Finally, I conclude with a challenge to the pronatalist master narratives by suggesting the possibility of counter narratives to the voluntarily childless woman's liminality that might serve as the ground of moral and political solidarity among differently situated women, regardless of their motherhood status. PMID:26797511

  8. The Safe Lambda Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, William

    2009-01-01

    Safety is a syntactic condition of higher-order grammars that constrains occurrences of variables in the production rules according to their type-theoretic order. In this paper, we introduce the safe lambda calculus, which is obtained by transposing (and generalizing) the safety condition to the setting of the simply-typed lambda calculus. In contrast to the original definition of safety, our calculus does not constrain types (to be homogeneous). We show that in the safe lambda calculus, there is no need to rename bound variables when performing substitution, as variable capture is guaranteed not to happen. We also propose an adequate notion of beta-reduction that preserves safety. In the same vein as Schwichtenberg's 1976 characterization of the simply-typed lambda calculus, we show that the numeric functions representable in the safe lambda calculus are exactly the multivariate polynomials; thus conditional is not definable. We also give a characterization of representable word functions. We then study the ...

  9. Educational Expansion and Changes in Women's Entry into Marriage and Motherhood in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; Jaenichen, Ursula

    1992-01-01

    Examined whether women's growing economic independence, resulting from better education, is major factor in rise in delayed marriage and motherhood. New panel data from (former) Federal Republic of Germany showed that women's increasing educational attainment could explain part of changes in process of family formation. Better educated women…

  10. PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF FORMATION OF DEVIATIONS IN THE PERIOD OF PREPARATION FOR MOTHERHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Moreva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a social-psychological indicators of stress, coping mechanisms, rigidity and psychological component gestational dominant as risk factors predisposing to deviations in the context of preparedness for motherhood, marked psychological characteristics of pregnant women main group.Material and methods. The study was conducted on the basis of obstetric clinics SSMU, prenatal maternity hospital number 4 and the Centre for Medical Prevention (Cabinet crisis pregnancy. Total was attended by 52 women aged 18 to 44 years, at different stages of pregnancy – from 5 to 39 weeks. Methodological apparatus consisted of a structured interview questionnaire “Medical and social data of the pregnant woman” methodology for determining the stress and social adaptation of Holmes and Rage (1967, a questionnaire of coping R. Lazarus and S. Folkman (WCQ, 1988, Tomsk questionnaire rigidity G.V. Zalewski (TORZ, 1987, test on pregnant I.V. Dobryakova (1996. Data processing was carried out using statistical methods Spearman rank correlation coefficient, nonparametric Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis H and φ * – Fisher's angular transformation.Results. Significant psychological factors that may influence the formation of readiness for motherhood among women of the main group can be considered an unplanned pregnancy (65%, and also its not gelendost (35%.Studies of stress resistance was detected in pregnant women from the main group low stress levels (88%, and only 12% have a high degree. Most of the women from the сomparison group reverse the situation 64% have a high degree of stress, this suggests that the presence of previously state miscarriage is for this group of stress.On the formation of readiness for motherhood affects not only the presence of stressful situations, butalso how the woman in their lives. Using U-test Mann–Whitney, were statistically significant differences were observed among the main group and сomparison group in

  11. "Tava morta e revivi": significado de maternidade para adolescentes com experiência de vida nas ruas "I was dead, but came back to life": the meaning of motherhood for adolescent girls with a history of living in the streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela T. Gontijo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta da sexualidade entre as adolescentes que fazem das ruas seu espaço de sobrevivência geralmente é permeada pelo desconhecimento do próprio corpo, o que resulta, muitas vezes, em comportamentos de risco para a contaminação por doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e para a gravidez. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar os significados atribuídos à maternidade por adolescentes com experiência de vida nas ruas que optaram por assumir o cuidado dos filhos fora das ruas. Com base na abordagem de pesquisa qualitativa, os dados foram coletados junto a adolescentes-mães abrigadas em uma instituição não-governamental, e analisados segundo a modalidade temática da análise de conteúdo. Os resultados foram discutidos por meio da categoria "a nova vida: mãe & filho", mostrando que a experiência da maternidade é significada de forma positiva pelas adolescentes, sendo o filho entendido como o "salvador" de uma morte certa nas ruas, depositando nele as expectativas de um futuro melhor. A título de considerações finais, observamos no exercício da maternidade uma oportunidade de estabelecimento de novas formas de estar e se relacionar no mundo, sendo o processo de construção dessa maternidade terreno fértil para a intervenção de profissionais da saúde.The discovery of sexuality by adolescent girls living in the streets generally involves lack of knowledge about their own bodies, often resulting in risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy. This study aimed to identify the meanings ascribed to motherhood by teenage girls with a history of living in the streets and who chose to assume the care for their children, off the streets. Based on a qualitative methodology, data were collected from the adolescent mothers at a nongovernmental shelter and analyzed according to the content analysis modality. The results were discussed using the category "new life: mother & child", showing that the adolescents

  12. Future-safe Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Formosa, Saviour; Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The above cutout could become a reality if a Category 3 storm lashes Malta with 178 to 208 km per hour winds. The chances are minimal but too probable to ignore, since 1995 a similar storm formed close to the Maltese Islands followed by others in 1996, 2006, 2011. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/future-safe-malta/

  13. Medications: Using Them Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the medicine should be taken with or without food how the medicine should be stored how long the medicine can be stored safely before it needs to be discarded common side effects or reactions interactions with other medications your child may be taking what happens if ...

  14. Keeping Food Safe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-27

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids and parents can do to help prevent illness by keeping food safe.  Created: 5/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  15. Safely Giving Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the editor of the Journal of Perinatal Education discusses the growing challenge of assuring a safe birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote, support, and protect normal birth.

  16. Conditions Of Safe Ship Operations And Sea Waterway Parameters Based On The Reconstruction Of Świnoujście-Szczecin Fairway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucma Stanisław

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the state vector of safe ship operation on sea waterways. The author determines relationships between the state vector of safe ship operation and parameters of sea waterway system elements. These include three subsystems: area, navigation and traffic control. These relationships have been exemplified with the 68-kilometre Świnoujście-Szczecin fairway, presently under reconstruction. A systematic approach to sea waterway design is globally unique.

  17. Biomedically assisted reproduction and child birth: Surrogate motherhood in comparative European law and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogate motherhood is an arrangement in which a woman agrees to carry and deliver a child for another couple who ordered the pregnancy. This procedure is applied today in Great Britain, Holland (although without legal regulations, Israel, Greece, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia, the USA and Australia, and it is forbidden in France, Austria, Spain, Germany, Switzerland and Slovenia. There are two types of surrogacy, one when the woman gives birth to a child who is genetically her own ("partial", genetic surrogacy, and the other where the surrogate mother only carries and gives birth to a child, whereby the child is genetically from the couple that wanted the child, or the fertilized egg is from a third woman (donor, or the embryo was donated ("full", "total", gestational surrogacy. In these cases two women take part in conception and birth of the child while in the last case there is a third woman who will raise the child. Biologically observed, the woman whose egg has been fertilized may be called the genetic mother, while the woman who carried the pregnancy and gave birth to the child - the gestational carrier. Taking into consideration that the Preliminary Draft of the Serbian Civil Law anticipates the introduction of surrogate motherhood into domestic law, we believe restrictive solutions should first be taken into consideration. This would mean that only full surrogating should be allowed, namely the egg should be from the woman who wants the child and not the surrogate mother. In domestic conditions, genetic surrogation should not be allowed as it leads to confusion in family relations, and kinships still have an important social and legal significance in our country. The surrogate mother should be a woman who has already given birth, because in that way any possible shocks which might arise after birth when the woman who has to handover the child to the intended couple would be avoided. The next condition would be that persons involved in this

  18. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM)

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  19. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    OpenAIRE

    PhilippeVillers

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are gi...

  20. Aflatoxins and safe storage

    OpenAIRE

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are giv...

  1. The Mother, Who Is Not One: Reflections Of Motherhood In Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet, The Tempest, And The Taming Of The Shrew

    OpenAIRE

    KARAMAN HATICE

    2014-01-01

    The lack of proper motherhood in Shakespeare's plays has been a point of attraction for many feminist critics actively engaged in emphasizing the patriarchal aspect of Shakespeare's plays. This paper aims to analyze motherhood and the lack of mother/mother-figure in The Tempest, Romeo and Juliet and The Taming of the Shrew through Luce Irigaray's theory of gender and the work of other feminist critics. The issues of gender, father-daughter relations and the reflections of the absent mothers w...

  2. Capsulorhexis: Its safe limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavada Abhay

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We undertook this study to determine the safe limits of capsulorhexis during nucleus expression in 40 eyes of patients undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE with a posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL implantation and in 30 cadaver eyes. In group I (patient eyes, capsulorhexis of 4.5 to 7.5 mm was performed and the nucleus was expressed by hydrodissection. The nuclei measured 4.5 to 9.0 mm. One relaxing incision at 12 o′clock position had to be placed in 9 patients. In group II (cadaver eyes, continuous curvilinear capsulotomies of 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 and 6.5 mm were made in 5 eyes each. No relaxing incisions were placed. In both the groups, nuclei of all sizes could be safely delivered through intact capsulotomies measuring 5.5 mm or more. In two patient eyes, posterior capsule rupture occurred with rhexis measuring 4.5 and 5.0 mm, respectively. In the cadaver eyes, intracapsular extraction occurred in 4 eyes with rhexis measuring 5.0 mm or less. We conclude that a rhexis less than 5.5 mm is not safe for nucleus delivery during ECCE.

  3. Maternalism, race, class and citizenship: aspects of illegitimate motherhood in Nazi Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vandana

    2011-01-01

    This article juxtaposes three types of illegitimate motherhood that came in the wake of the Second World War in Nazi Germany. The first found institutional support in the Lebensborn project, an elite effort to raise the flagging birth-rates, which at the same time turned a new page in the history of sexuality. The second came before the lower courts in the form of paternity and guardianship suits that had a long precedent, and the third was a social practice that the regime considered a ‘mass crime' among its female citizenry: namely, forbidden unions between German women and prisoners of war. Through these cases the article addresses issues such as morality, sexuality, paternity, citizenship and welfarism. The flesh-and-blood stories have been culled from the Lebensborn Dossiers and Special Court files, as well as cases from the lower courts. PMID:22180924

  4. Female juvenile delinquency, motherhood, and the intergenerational transmission of aggression and antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumakis, Stacy; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored the intergenerational transmission of aggression and antisocial behavior by examining mothers' juvenile delinquency, their pregnancies, and its impact on their children's aggressive behavior. The sample consisted of the first 181 biological mothers recruited as part of the Vancouver Longitudinal Study on the Psychosocial Development of Children (British Columbia, Canada). Results indicated that mothers who were juvenile delinquents were more likely to experience social adversity, to use substances during pregnancy and to offend in adulthood. Furthermore, mothers who reported juvenile delinquency had children who were more physically aggressive and had an earlier onset of physical aggression. This pattern of association held when controlling for sociodemographics, social adversities, prenatal substance exposure, and criminal involvement in adulthood. The study findings highlighted the importance of understanding the role and impact of female delinquency and motherhood on the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior. PMID:22392721

  5. Motherhood, Empowerment, and Resilience within the Context of Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bach

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We conducted twenty in-depth interviews with residents of a domestic violence shelter in a southeastern metropolitan area to understand how low-income women experience mothering within the context of intimate partner violence (IPV. Interview questions explored the women’s feelings about motherhood, their relationships with their children, and the effects of IPV on their children. Despite the difficulties of raising children with an abusive partner, the women did not regret becoming a mother. In fact, respondents identified their children as one of few positives in their lives and mothering as central to their identity. Relationships with their children enabled the women to feel empowered in ways that their intimate partnerships did not and motivated them to escape the violence and persevere.

  6. One mum too few: maternal status in host surrogate motherhood arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oultram, Stuart

    2015-06-01

    In a host surrogate motherhood arrangement, the surrogate agrees to be implanted with, and carry to term, an embryo created from the commissioning couple's gametes. When the surrogate child is born, it is the surrogate mother who, according to UK law, holds the legal status of mother. By contrast, the commissioning mother possesses no maternal status and she can only attain it once the surrogate agrees to the completion of the arrangement. One consequence of this is that, in the event that a host arrangement fails, the commissioning mother is left without maternal status. In this paper, I argue that this denial of maternal status misrepresents the commissioning mother's role in the host arrangement and her relationship with the surrogate child. Consequently, I suggest that commissioning mothers participating in host surrogacy arrangements ought to be granted the status of mother in the event that the arrangement fails. PMID:25139932

  7. Making existential meaning in transition to motherhood-A scoping review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Mogensen, Ole;

    2014-01-01

    were selected. Eleven papers were included in the synthesis, all using qualitative interviews. The following data were extracted from each study: (a) author(s), year of publication, study location, (b) aims of the study, (c) participants, (d) research design, (e) data collection method, (f) outcome......OBJECTIVE: to provide a thematic overview of the existing literature on existential meaning-making related to transition to motherhood among mothers of full term born babies in Western oriented countries and to discuss the themes from a existential psychology perspective. DESIGN: the review follows...... measures, and (g) results. MEASUREMENTS: the studies were synthesised in a thematisation on the basis of the existential psychotherapist and philosopher Emmy van Deurzen's concepts of four interwoven life dimensions, through which we experience, interpret, and act in the world: Umwelt, Mitwelt, Eigenwelt...

  8. "Becoming a mother'--developing a new theory of early motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, F; Shmied, V; Barclay, L; Everitt, L; Wyllie, A

    1997-05-01

    This paper explains the methods used in a grounded theory analysis of the experience of 55 first-time mothers in Australia, presented in the first of this series of two papers. The categories identified in the research are realising, readiness, drained, aloneness, loss and working it out, encompassed in the core category becoming a mother. Specifically, this paper extends the analysis and explains the application of a 'paradigm model' and the identification of a Basic Social Process (BSP). The paper links the analysis to the literature on early motherhood from nursing, midwifery, feminist, and sociological research. A substantive theory is proposed to explain women's experience in becoming mothers that demonstrates how, when responsive to the needs of those researched, a grounded theory analysis can provide a framework for nursing and midwifery care. PMID:9147193

  9. The timing of entry into motherhood in Asia: A comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindfuss, R; Parnell, A; Hirschman, C

    1983-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines the determinants of age at first birth from an explicitly comparative perspective in the following Asian societies: Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan and Thailand. The key structural variables have the same (or similar) effects in each of the groups examined. Education through primary school and beyond has a strong delaying effect on age at first birth in all eight populations. Difference of rural-urban origin does not affect the timing of motherhood in any of these societies. We also find a remarkably strong effect of shared cultural heritage. All the Confucian groups tend to behave similarly, as do the Muslim and Hindu groups. PMID:22085144

  10. Educational expansion and changes in entry into marriage and motherhood. The experience of Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossfeld, H; De Rose, A

    1992-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper has been to assess empirically the question of whether women's growing economic independence, resulting from better education, is one of the major factors in determining the timing of marriage and motherhood in Italy.... We have analysed the life histories of a sample of Italian women from different cohorts, collected on the occasion of the National Survey on Family Structures and Behaviours carried on by the National Institute of Statistics.... The effect of level of education is negative. That is, it increases the age of entry into marriage. However, the size of the effect is small and seems limited to the passage from youth to adulthood, because the longer time the woman spends in the educational system increases the age at which she feels herself ready to marry. As far as the timing of the first child, it is almost independent of educational attainment, once marital status is taken into account." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA) PMID:12286608

  11. A randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of an individual, education-based safe transport program for drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keay Lisa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are concerns over safety of older drivers due to increased crash involvement and vulnerability to injury. However, loss of driving privileges can dramatically reduce independence and quality of life for older members of the community. The aim of this trial is to examine the effectiveness of a safe transport program for drivers aged 75 years and older at reducing driving exposure but maintaining mobility. Methods and design A randomised trial will be conducted, involving 380 drivers aged 75 years and older, resident in urban and semi-rural areas of North-West Sydney. The intervention is an education program based on the Knowledge Enhances Your Safety (KEYS program, adapted for the Australian context. Driving experience will be measured objectively using an in-vehicle monitoring device which includes a global positioning system (GPS to assess driving exposure and an accelerometer to detect rapid deceleration events. Participation will be assessed using the Keele Assessment of Participation (KAP. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis; the primary outcomes include driving exposure, rapid deceleration events and scores for KAP. Secondary outcomes include self-reported measures of driving, socialisation, uptake of alternative forms of transport, depressive symptoms and mood. A detailed process evaluation will be conducted, including examination of the delivery of the program and uptake of alternative forms of transport. A subgroup analysis is planned for drivers with reduced function as characterized by established cut-off scores on the Drivesafe assessment tool. Discussion This randomised trial is powered to provide an objective assessment of the efficacy of an individually tailored education and alternative transportation program to promote safety of older drivers but maintain mobility. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000543886.

  12. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle;

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...... are described. The areas of safety that are presented are collisions, groundings, cargo shifting and ship fire. The areas of lack of knowledge are identified and the tasks within each subproject suggested. The proposal for the main project is presented in the summary. Background material of the state...

  13. Maternidade desnaturada: uma análise da barriga de aluguel e da doação de óvulos "Denatured" motherhood: an analysis of surrogate gestational motherhood and egg donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naara Luna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute representações sociais de duas práticas decorrentes das novas tecnologias reprodutivas ou reprodução assistida. Na fertilização in vitro, o procedimento de transferência do óvulo fertilizado de uma mulher para outra separa a maternidade genética da gestacional. Isto se traduz em duas práticas sociais: a doação de óvulos, em que a gestante é designada à mãe, e a maternidade gestacional substituta ("barriga de aluguel", em que a mãe é a fornecedora do óvulo ou idealizadora da gravidez. O foco é a análise dessas representações no discurso jurídico e em matérias da grande imprensa brasileira, além do exame de etnografias sobre doação de óvulo e maternidade substituta. A oposição entre Natureza e Cultura é uma chave para compreender a recepção distinta dessas práticas.This article discusses social representations of two practices related to the new reproductive technologies or assisted reproduction techniques. During in vitro fertilization, the transfer procedure of a woman's fertilized egg to another woman separates genetic motherhood from gestational motherhood. Two practices relate to that: in egg donation the pregnant woman is considered the mother, while in surrogate gestational motherhood the mother is the egg donor or the woman who planned the gestation. The focus is in the analysis of the representations of egg donation and surrogate motherhood in juridical discourse and in texts from the Brazilian press, considering also ethnographic articles. The opposition between Nature and Culture is a key for understanding the different reception of these practices.

  14. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Safe in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geologic history of the 'Germanic Basin', in which saline sediments were piled up in different strata over a period of nearly 100 million years, and the formation of 'salt deposits' as a consequence of tectonic movements (strata bends, dislocations of strata) in the north-west german region are described. As compact rock being 'harnessed' in the ground, mineral salt is completely impermeable to gases and liquids. Its plasticity prevents any formation of pores or crevasses resp. eliminates existing ones. This impermeable quality has been used technically for a long time in order to use solution-mined caverns for the storage of petroleum or gas without containers. Furthermore, for storing radioactive substances it is of particular importance that mineral salt has the highest thermal conductivity of all sedimentary rocks, so that a local heat up will be distributed quickly. All considerations on a safe storage stem from the fact that all actions take place within rock-mechanically homogeneous mineral salt. Bands of different rocks lead to discontinuities and may render a mechanical calculation impossible in some cases. A careful exploration of the internal structure of salt deposits is therefore one of the most important prerequisites for a safe storage of substances to be separated from the biosphere. (RB)

  16. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  17. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and ... from other foods. Cook —Cook to the right temperature. Chill —Refrigerate food promptly. Cook all food to ...

  18. How to Safely Give Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All About Food Allergies How to Safely Give Acetaminophen KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Safely Give Acetaminophen ... without getting a doctor's OK first. What Is Acetaminophen Also Called? Acetaminophen is the generic name of ...

  19. From Motherhood Penalties to Husband Premia: The New Challenge for Gender Equality and Family Policy, Lessons from Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Trond; Penner, Andrew; Høgnes, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Given the key role that processes occurring in the family play in cre- ating gender inequality, the family is a central focus of policies aimed at creating greater gender equality. We examine how family status affects the gender wage gap using longitudinal matched employer- employee data from Norway, 1979 – 96, a period with extensive expan- sion of family policies. The motherhood penalty dropped dramatically from 1979 to 1996. Among men the premia for marriage and father- hood remained con...

  20. Welfare Queens, Thrifty Housewives, and Do-It-All Mums: Celebrity motherhood and the cultural politics of austerity

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, K; Mendick, H; Harvey, L.; Ahmad, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider how the cultural politics of austerity within Britain plays out on the celebrity maternal body. We locate austerity as a discursive and disciplinary field and contribute to emerging feminist scholarship exploring how broader political and socio-economic shifts interact with cultural constructions of femininity and motherhood. To analyse the symbolic function of mediated celebrity maternity within austerity, the paper draws on a textual analysis of three celebrity mo...

  1. Negotiating the transition from adolescence to motherhood: Coping with prenatal and parenting stress in teenage mothers in Mulago hospital, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaye Dan K

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a transitional stage from childhood to adulthood that is characterized by physical, physiological, psychosocial and behavioral changes that are influenced to a large extent by the age, culture and socialization of the individual. To explore what adolescent mothers perceive as their struggles during the period of transition from childhood to parenthood (through motherhood and to describe strategies employed in coping with stress of pregnancy, motherhood and parenthood. Methods Longitudinal qualitative study involving twenty two in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions among pregnant adolescents who were followed from pregnant to delivery, from January 2004 to August 2005. Participant were selected by theoretical sampling and data was analyzed using grounded theory. Results Overall, young adolescents reported more anxiety, loss of self esteem (when they conceived, difficulty in accessing financial, moral and material support from parents or partners and stigmatization by health workers when they sought care from health facilities. Three strategies by which adolescent mothers cope with parenting and pregnancy stress that were described as utilizing opportunities (thriving, accommodating the challenges (bargaining and surviving, or failure (despairing, and varied in the extent to which they enabled adolescents to cope with the stress. Conclusion Adolescents on the transition to motherhood have variable needs and aspirations and utilize different strategies to cope with the stress of pregnancy and parenthood.

  2. Proposal for a new normalization reference in LCA based on “safe operating space”: presentation of framework and global factors at midpoint level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Planetary boundaries have been suggested for a range of environmental impacts,such as climate change, eutrophying nutrients and land use. The boundaries demarcate the safe operating space of humanity: Staying within the space ensures environmental sustainability, while exceeding it risks pushing...... ecosystems into alternative regimes, leading to adverse effects for humanity. Planetary boundaries can be applied as policy targets. To promote a societal development in the direction of these targets, an indicator system is needed that measures the fraction of the safe operating space that a given activity...... occupies. We propose that such an indicator system can be applied in life cycle assessment (LCA) by integrating planetary boundaries via the normalization step. We present the framework of integration, a literature review of quantified boundaries and resulting normatively consistent global average...

  3. Study Design, Outcome Measurement, and Parameter Estimation for the Evaluation of an Ultraviolet Based Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Joshua Sean

    2013-01-01

    Globally, diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Populations living in developing countries disproportionally experience the burden of diarrhea; in these areas contaminated drinking water remains one of the primary environmental pathways for the transmission of diarrheagenic pathogens. Centrally treated "piped" water is largely recognized as the best method to provide human populations with consistent access to safe drinking water. Piped water requires little addit...

  4. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhilippeVillers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  5. Aflatoxins and safe storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described. PMID:24782846

  6. Making Our Food Safe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As civilization has progressed societies have strived to make food safer; from using fire to cook our food, and boiling our water to make it safe to drink, advances in technology have helped kill microorganisms that can make food unsafe. The FAO/IAEA Joint Division helps provide technical assistance to Member States that want to implement irradiation technology in making their food safer. Food and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases are estimated to kill roughly 2.2 million people annually, of which 1.9 million are children. Irradiating some of the foods we eat can save many of these lives by reducing the risk of food poisoning and killing the organisms that cause disease. Irradiation works by treating food with a small dose of ionizing radiation, this radiation disrupts the bacteria’s DNA and cell membranes structure stopping the organism from reproducing or functioning, but does not make the food radioactive. It can be applied to a variety of foods from spices and seasonings, to fruits and vegetables and is similar to pasteurization, but without the need for high temperatures that might impair food quality. (author)

  7. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  8. Catheter-based intervention for symptomatic patient with severe mitral regurgitation and very poor left ventricular systolic function - Safe but no room for complacency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poay Huan; Bourantas, Christos V; Chan, Pak Hei; Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Gustafsson, Finn; Clark, Andrew; Price, Susanna; Mario, Carlo Di; Moat, Neil; Alamgir, Farqad; Estevez-Loureiro, Rodrigo; Søndergaard, Lars; Franzen, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    associated with improved symptoms, quality of life and exercise tolerance. However, a few patients with very poor left ventricular systolic function may experience significant haemodynamic disturbance in the peri-procedural period. We present three such patients, highlighting some of the potential problems......Many patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction have concomitant mitral regurgitation (MR). Their symptoms and prognosis worsen with increasing severity of MR. Percutaneous MitraClip(®) can be used safely to reduce the severity of MR even in patients with advanced heart failure and is...... encountered and discuss their possible pathophysiological mechanisms and safety measures....

  9. Removing a Ring Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Symptom Picker Hand and Arm Conditions Carpal Tunnel Ganglion Cysts Trigger Finger Arthritis Base of the Thumb See ... Symptom Picker Hand and Arm Conditions Carpal Tunnel Ganglion Cysts Trigger Finger Arthritis Base of the Thumb See ...

  10. Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor (ISER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor (ISER) is designed based on the principle of a process inherent ultimate safe reactor, PIUS, a so-called inherently safe reactor (ISR). ISER has been developed joingly by the members of the Kanagawa Institute of Technology, the University of Tokyo, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and several industrial firms in Japan. This paper describes the requirements for the next generation of power reactor, the safety design philosphy of ISR and ISER, the controllability of ISER and the results of analyses of some of the design-based accidents (DBA) of ISER, namely station blackout, accidents in which the pressurizer relief valve becomes jammed and stuck in open position and tube breaks in the steam generator. It is concluded that the ISER can ensure a wide range of contraollabitily and fuel integrity for all the analysed DBAs. (orig.)

  11. Legal access to surrogate motherhood in illness that does not cause infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Donrich W

    2016-07-01

    The threshold requirement for surrogate motherhood entails that a commissioning parent or parents must be permanently unable to give birth to a child. The question of whether a commissioning mother who suffers from a permanent illness that does not cause infertility as such, but that renders pregnancy a significant health risk to such mother and/or to her prospective child in utero, has arisen in practice. In this article, I propose that the inability to give birth to a child as per the threshold requirement should not be interpreted narrowly as referring only to a commissioning parent's inherent inability to give birth to a child, but should rather be interpreted broadly as referring only to a commissioning parent's effective inability to give birth to a child - allowing consideration of the medical sequelae of pregnancy for the commissioning mother and her prospective child. I argue that such a broad interpretation of the threshold requirement is compatible with legislative intent and case law, and is demanded by our country's constitutional commitment to human rights. PMID:27384360

  12. But the kids are okay: motherhood, consumption and sex work in neo-liberal Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers-Moore, Megan

    2010-12-01

    Although sex work remains highly stigmatized around the world, its relatively high value (when compared to other kinds of work available for low-income women) allows sex workers to attain some level of economic, if not social, mobility. This article challenges the idea that sex work in 'third world' settings is always about mere subsistence. Instead, it suggests that sex workers in Costa Rica's tourism sector work to survive, but they also demonstrate significant personal ambition and aim not only to increase their own consumption levels, but crucially to get ahead. Women are clear about what sex work enables for their families and themselves: not the maintenance of the status quo, but rather a level of consumption otherwise unavailable to them as low-income and poor women. Sex work offers an opportunity to consume and to get ahead that these women have been unable to attain in other kinds of employment, primarily domestic and factory work. Furthermore, sex work allows women to think of themselves as particularly good mothers, able to provide for and spend important quality time with their kids. The article argues that survival, consumption, and motherhood are discursively deployed, in often contradictory and conflicting ways, in order to counteract the effects that stigma has on sex workers. It also suggests that sex workers may very well be the quintessential subjects of neo-liberalism in Latin America, in their embrace of entrepreneurial work and consumption. PMID:21138429

  13. Gender Legacies of Jung and Freud as Epistemology in Emergent Feminist Research on Late Motherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone-Chapman, Maryann

    2014-01-01

    While conducting doctoral research in social science on late motherhood, two analytical engagements with the feminine came to my attention as evidence of a patriarchal bias toward the realm of womanhood. Jung’s mythopoetic tension between symbolism and enactments with the feminine and Freud’s supposition that a denial of the feminine was necessary for psychological and emotional development appeared to be perpetuating a social problem continuing in current times. Across affective behavior and narrative within stories of late procreative desire, dream journals and Word Association Tests of eight participants was the memory of a male sibling who had enjoyed primacy of place in the parental home over the daughter. The female body with a voice was missing in the one-sided perspectives of Analytical Psychology and Psychoanalysis on the subject of the feminine, until a whole view of psyche’s discontents in Feminist inspired Psychoanalytic theories from both schools on the female body were included. Freud and Jung’s views became evidence of patriarchy as background while extension of Feminist inspired psychoanalytical thinking, Queer theories and Creation Myth allowed new meanings of the embodied feminine to emerge through a recapitulation of a union of opposites as a union of epistemology and ethos. The essence of Jung’s mid-life theories, altered by modernity and eclipsed by female advancement, remains replicatable and paradigmatic outside of essentialist gender performance. PMID:25379265

  14. Gender legacies of jung and freud as epistemology in emergent feminist research on late motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone-Chapman, Maryann

    2014-03-01

    While conducting doctoral research in social science on late motherhood, two analytical engagements with the feminine came to my attention as evidence of a patriarchal bias toward the realm of womanhood. Jung's mythopoetic tension between symbolism and enactments with the feminine and Freud's supposition that a denial of the feminine was necessary for psychological and emotional development appeared to be perpetuating a social problem continuing in current times. Across affective behavior and narrative within stories of late procreative desire, dream journals and Word Association Tests of eight participants was the memory of a male sibling who had enjoyed primacy of place in the parental home over the daughter. The female body with a voice was missing in the one-sided perspectives of Analytical Psychology and Psychoanalysis on the subject of the feminine, until a whole view of psyche's discontents in Feminist inspired Psychoanalytic theories from both schools on the female body were included. Freud and Jung's views became evidence of patriarchy as background while extension of Feminist inspired psychoanalytical thinking, Queer theories and Creation Myth allowed new meanings of the embodied feminine to emerge through a recapitulation of a union of opposites as a union of epistemology and ethos. The essence of Jung's mid-life theories, altered by modernity and eclipsed by female advancement, remains replicatable and paradigmatic outside of essentialist gender performance. PMID:25379265

  15. Gender Legacies of Jung and Freud as Epistemology in Emergent Feminist Research on Late Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Barone-Chapman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While conducting doctoral research in social science on late motherhood, two analytical engagements with the feminine came to my attention as evidence of a patriarchal bias toward the realm of womanhood. Jung’s mythopoetic tension between symbolism and enactments with the feminine and Freud’s supposition that a denial of the feminine was necessary for psychological and emotional development appeared to be perpetuating a social problem continuing in current times. Across affective behavior and narrative within stories of late procreative desire, dream journals and Word Association Tests of eight participants was the memory of a male sibling who had enjoyed primacy of place in the parental home over the daughter. The female body with a voice was missing in the one-sided perspectives of Analytical Psychology and Psychoanalysis on the subject of the feminine, until a whole view of psyche’s discontents in Feminist inspired Psychoanalytic theories from both schools on the female body were included. Freud and Jung’s views became evidence of patriarchy as background while extension of Feminist inspired psychoanalytical thinking, Queer theories and Creation Myth allowed new meanings of the embodied feminine to emerge through a recapitulation of a union of opposites as a union of epistemology and ethos. The essence of Jung’s mid-life theories, altered by modernity and eclipsed by female advancement, remains replicatable and paradigmatic outside of essentialist gender performance.

  16. Realistic Testing of the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE-100) Thermal Simulator Using Fiber Bragg Gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The motivation for the reported research was to support NASA space nuclear power initiatives through the development of advanced fiber optic sensors for space-based nuclear power applications. Distributed high temperature measurements were made with 20 FBG temperature sensors installed in the SAFE-100 thermal simulator at the NASA Marshal Space Flight Center. Experiments were performed at temperatures approaching 800 deg. C and 1150 deg. C for characterization studies of the SAFE-100 core. Temperature profiles were successfully generated for the core during temperature increases and decreases. Related tests in the SAFE-100 successfully provided strain measurement data

  17. Assessing Patient Exposure to a Video-Based Intervention in STD Clinic Waiting Rooms: Findings From the Safe in the City Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besera, Ghenet T; Cox, Shanna; Malotte, C Kevin; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A; Klausner, Jeffrey D; O'Donnell, Lydia; Margolis, Andrew D; Warner, Lee

    2016-09-01

    Safe in the City, a video intervention for clinic waiting rooms, was previously shown to reduce sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence. However, little is known about patients' recall of exposure to the intervention. Using data from a nested study of patients attending clinics during the trial, we assessed whether participants recalled Safe in the City, and, if so, how the intervention affected subsequent attitudes and behaviors. Analyses were restricted to responses to a 3-month follow-up questionnaire among participants who were exposed to the video (n = 708). Impact was measured as participants' reports of the video's effect on behaviors and attitudes. Associations were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Of participants who were exposed, 685 (97%) recalled viewing the video, and 68% recalled all three vignettes. After watching the video, participants felt more positive about condoms (69%) and comfortable acquiring condoms (56%), were reminded of important information about STDs and condoms (90%), and tried to apply what they learned to their lives (59%). Compared with those who recalled viewing one or two vignettes, participants who recalled viewing all three vignettes reported more positive attitudes toward condoms and peer/provider communication. These findings demonstrate that a low-resource video intervention for waiting rooms can provide sufficient exposure to positively influence STD-related attitudes/behaviors. PMID:27091608

  18. Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Markus; Vutskits, Laszlo; Hansen, Tom G;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term 'safe use of anesthesia in children is ill-defined and requires definition of and focus on the 'safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia'. RECENT FINDINGS: The Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot initiative (www.safetots.org) has been set up during the last year to focus on the...... improvement of teaching, training, education and supervision of the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia are the main goals of the safetots.org initiative. SUMMARY: This initiative addresses the well known perioperative risks in young children, perioperative causes for cerebral morbidity as well as gaps in...

  19. Fertile bodies, immature brains?: A genealogical critique of neuroscientific claims regarding the adolescent brain and of the global fight against adolescent motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffman, Ofra

    2015-10-01

    This article presents a critique of neuroscientific claims regarding the adolescent brain and the suggestion that adolescent motherhood disrupts the healthy development of the mother and her child. It does so by presenting a genealogical investigation of the conceptualisation of 'adolescence' in Western psychology and the emergence of the problematization of 'adolescent motherhood'. This examination reveals that antecedents to neuroscientific claims regarding adolescent immaturity, impulsivity and instability were articulated by psychologists throughout the first half of the 20th century. However, up until the 1960s there was no problematization of 'adolescent motherhood' per se and adolescent mothers were only discussed as part of the concern with 'unwed mothers'. Exploring the continuities and shifts in assertions regarding adolescence, this article highlights the complex history of some of the notions currently found in neuroscience. In doing so it aims to contribute to a growing body of critical literature questioning the universality of neuroscientific findings. PMID:25464875

  20. Impact of community-based interventions on maternal and neonatal health indicators: Results from a community randomized trial in rural Balochistan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Stan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pakistan has high maternal mortality, particularly in the rural areas. The delay in decision making to seek medical care during obstetric emergencies remains a significant factor in maternal mortality. Methods We present results from an experimental study in rural Pakistan. Village clusters were randomly assigned to intervention and control arms (16 clusters each. In the intervention clusters, women were provided information on safe motherhood through pictorial booklets and audiocassettes; traditional birth attendants were trained in clean delivery and recognition of obstetric and newborn complications; and emergency transportation systems were set up. In eight of the 16 intervention clusters, husbands also received specially designed education materials on safe motherhood and family planning. Pre- and post-intervention surveys on selected maternal and neonatal health indicators were conducted in all 32 clusters. A district-wide survey was conducted two years after project completion to measure any residual impact of the interventions. Results Pregnant women in intervention clusters received prenatal care and prophylactic iron therapy more frequently than pregnant women in control clusters. Providing safe motherhood education to husbands resulted in further improvement of some indicators. There was a small but significant increase in percent of hospital deliveries but no impact on the use of skilled birth attendants. Perinatal mortality reduced significantly in clusters where only wives received information and education in safe motherhood. The survey to assess residual impact showed similar results. Conclusions We conclude that providing safe motherhood education increased the probability of pregnant women having prenatal care and utilization of health services for obstetric complications.

  1. The Mother, Who Is Not One: Reflections Of Motherhood In Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet, The Tempest, And The Taming Of The Shrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARAMAN HATICE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of proper motherhood in Shakespeare's plays has been a point of attraction for many feminist critics actively engaged in emphasizing the patriarchal aspect of Shakespeare's plays. This paper aims to analyze motherhood and the lack of mother/mother-figure in The Tempest, Romeo and Juliet and The Taming of the Shrew through Luce Irigaray's theory of gender and the work of other feminist critics. The issues of gender, father-daughter relations and the reflections of the absent mothers will be discussed. Male/Female Subjectivity will also be questioned, in view of Irigaray's conceptualization of gender by relating it to Subject.

  2. Listening to mothers: qualitative studies on motherhood and depression from Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Merlyn; Patel, Vikram; Jaswal, Surinder; de Souza, Nandita

    2003-11-01

    There is little qualitative research on depression in motherhood from non-Western societies. The objective of the study described in this paper was to use qualitative methods to investigate the cultural validity of the construct of post-natal depression (PND) and its social and cultural contexts. The study was nested in a cohort of mothers recruited to study the risk factors and outcome of PND in Goa, India. In-depth interviews were carried out with 39 mothers (19 of whom were found to be suffering from PND as defined by a cut-off score on the Edinburgh PND scale) and their husbands purposively recruited from the cohort. An illness narrative was conducted with mothers who were categorized as suffering from PND and their husbands to elicit their explanatory models. The two groups (PND and non-PND) of mothers were comparable in terms of socio-demographic characteristics. PND mothers had lower levels of practical help and emotional support. The symptoms reported by PND mothers were similar to those recorded in studies with women in other cultures suggesting a universal clinical presentation of PND. Causal attributions for the experience of depression focused on economic difficulties and poor marital relationship. All mothers expressed the need for more practical help and support during the period after childbirth; husbands in both groups were often disengaged from baby care or supporting the mother. The study provides validity for the construct of PND in an Indian setting, but also shows that the emotional distress is interpreted from the context of social adversity, poor marital relationships and cultural attitudes towards gender rather than a biomedical psychiatric category. Contrary to the assumption that socio-cultural contexts associated with childbirth in non-Western societies protect mothers from depression, factors unique to the culture such as gender preference and the low involvement of husbands in child-care are major causes of stress to mothers. PMID

  3. The effect of single motherhood on smoking by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hee-Jin; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2007-08-01

    We examined the association between parenting young children and smoking among US single women compared with married women, and whether this effect is moderated by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Our main finding is that having children reduces smoking except among single white women, and women with low income. We used the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey, a nationally representative dataset (1995-96, n=70,019). Log-binomial regression analysis was used to estimate the association between parenting responsibility (i.e., presence of children aged 0-4 and 5-17) and daily smoking status, after taking into consideration marital status, income, and race/ethnicity. Single women faced a higher risk of smoking than married women. Parenting was protective against smoking among married women but not among single women. Additionally, among single women, the associations between parenting and smoking varied by income and race/ethnicity. Parenting increased the risk of smoking among single women in the lowest income quartile. Single black and Hispanic women with children had a risk of smoking similar to that of their childless counterparts. However, single white women with children were more likely to smoke than their childless counterparts. Smoking cessation interventions and programs to reduce environmental tobacco smoke should recognize that the co-occurrence of single motherhood, parenting responsibility and low-income may increase the risk of smoking. This is particularly significant given the rapid growth of the single women population, and their concentration in poverty in the USA. The finding that parenting is protective against smoking among single minority women, who presumably experience significant stressors, calls for a more thorough investigation of smoking behavior among minority women, and suggests the importance of stress buffers such as social support. PMID:17493724

  4. Working Towards Safe Motherhood: Delays and Barriers to Prenatal Care for Women in Rural and Peri-Urban Areas of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erika; Hennink, Monique; Rochat, Roger; Julian, Zoë; Pinto, Meredith; Zertuche, Adrienne D; Spelke, Bridget; Dott, Andrew; Cota, Pat

    2016-07-01

    Objectives Georgia has the highest rate of maternal mortality in the United States, and ranks 40th for infant mortality. The Georgia Maternal and Infant Health Research Group was formed to investigate and address the shortage of obstetric care providers outside the Atlanta area. Because access to prenatal care (PNC) can improve maternal and infant health outcomes, we used qualitative methods to identify the access barriers experienced by women who live in rural and peri-urban areas of the state. Methods We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 24 mothers who gave birth between July and August 2013, and who live in either shortage or non-shortage obstetric care service areas. We also conducted key informant interviews with four perinatal case managers, and analyzed all data using applied thematic analysis. We then utilized Thaddeus and Maine's "Three Delays to Care" theoretical framework structure to describe the recognized barriers to care. Results We identified delays in a woman's decision to seek PNC (such as awareness of pregnancy and stigma); delays in accessing an appropriate healthcare facility (such as choosing a doctor and receiving insurance coverage); and delays in receiving adequate and appropriate care (such as continuity of care and communication). Moreover, many participants perceived low self-worth and believed this influenced their PNC exchanges. Conclusion As a means of supporting Georgia's pregnant women who face barriers and delays to PNC, these data provide a rationale for developing contextually relevant solutions to both mothers and their providers. PMID:27053128

  5. Training safely, Training safety

    OpenAIRE

    Jianjun Wu; An, M.; Jin, Y.; H. Geng

    2014-01-01

    It is the basic requirement of maritime safety education to guarantee the safety of teaching operation while training the crew's occupation safety capability. Marine Training Center of Shanghai Maritime University has undertaken the practical teaching of "marine survival" for many years and come up with the whole safety procedures of training. Based on the requirements of SOLAS convention and regulations of STCW over crew training, this paper introduces the safety allocation, utilization and ...

  6. Safe Operation of Slovak NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation author deals with safe operation of Slovak NPPs. Electricity production in Slovakia as well as in Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (SE) is presented. Safety characteristics of SE exploitation are included.

  7. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products ...

  8. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  9. How safe are Indian laboratories?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.

    ow safe are the laboratories provided by the schools, colleges, Universities and research organizations (government and private) in India? One should not be surprised if the laboratories are located in dilapidated buildings, with paints peeling off...

  10. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  11. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 5/19/2008.

  12. Expectations of a group of Portuguese pregnant women in the districts of Viseu and Aveiro regarding motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Emília de Carvalho; Rocha, Ana Maria Anjos; Silva, Alcione Leite da

    2016-08-01

    Motherhood is a complex phenomenon, supplementedwith expectations about the new reality, the hopes of all going well, taking into account the expected care. In order to meet the needs of the Portuguese expectant mother, it is necessary to know what she deems essential for herself and her family, so that strategies may be developed to facilitate the transition process. This study was intended to gain insight into fulfilled and unfulfilled expectations of health care in motherhood with a group pregnant females in Portugal. This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study, with 22 Portuguese women belonging to the Clusters of Health Care Centers of the districts of Viseu and Aveiro. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analysed using content analysis proposed by Bardin, supported by QSR NVivo 10. It was observed that fulfilled expectations surpassed those unmet, especially in terms of high quality health care and competent health care professionals. Regarding unfulfilled expectations, they mainly refer to maternity incentives, with an emphasis on the wish of greater financial familly supportfrom the government. PMID:27557007

  13. The Polish Mother on the defensive? The transformation of the myth and its impact on the motherhood of Polish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Imbierowicz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this presentation is the attempt to define and to present the origins, socio-cultural content and the evolution of The Polish Mother myth, present in the polish national consciousness. The author tries to show how this myth was born, what functions it fulfilled and what forms it took in the changing historical and social reality, from the moment of loss of independence, through a period of real socialism, until the present day. The impact of this myth in the lives of real women and their motherhood is taken into consideration. Then, the author comparing the results of the latest polish sociological researches on the family and its transformation, and transformation of value systems together with theories about the specifics of life in the period of postmodernity, wonders whether it’s time to deconstruct the myth of The Polish Mother, because it does not fit the conditions of today’s world, which is characterized, above all, by the apotheosis of individuality, self-realization and freedom, or perhaps in polish society there is still strong traditionalism in thinking about motherhood, and the myth of The Polish Mother is still alive?

  14. SPAСE-TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF SELF-AWARENESS OF WOMEN WITH DIFFERENT EXPERIENCES MOTHERHOOD SYNERGETIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostareva Elena Nikolaevna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In article the question of interrelation of features of consciousness and life experience of the person is considered. Results of empirical research, which purpose - the comparative analysis existential psychosemantics structures of consciousness of women with different experience of motherhood are submitted. In structure self-consiousness of the women having children, the personal value of family well-being integrating senses of child-parental and matrimonial relations, a material prosperity and dialogue is revealed. In self-consciousness women who are not having children, the potential personal values of motherhood not connected among themselves and the leisure, focused on the future and specifying alternative variants of development and self-determination of women are found out. On the basis of methodology of synergetrics parameters of the system - structural analysis of consciousness are proved. The consciousness of the women having children is established, that, made structurally out and differs relative orderliness and stability. The consciousness of the women who are not having children, is made structurally out, but characterized by instability and rather smaller orderliness.

  15. Predicting safe sandwich production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Duan, Zhi; Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida;

    2014-01-01

    Time and temperature control is crucial to avoid growth of pathogens during production and serving of cold ready-to-eat meals. The Danish guidelines state that chilled foods, such as sandwiches, should not be outside the cold chain for more than 3 hours including the time for preparation and serv......Time and temperature control is crucial to avoid growth of pathogens during production and serving of cold ready-to-eat meals. The Danish guidelines state that chilled foods, such as sandwiches, should not be outside the cold chain for more than 3 hours including the time for preparation...... and serving. However, Danish sandwich producing companies find it challenging to comply with this and have expressed a need for more flexibility. The Danish guidelines do allow for a prolongation of the acceptable time outside the cold chain, if the safety of the specific production can be documented....... There is, therefore, room for developing targeted tools for evaluating the time-temperature scenarios in sandwich production. This study describes a decision support tool developed to offer the producers more flexibility. Based on time/temperature measurements obtained during preparation combined...

  16. Training safely, Training safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Wu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is the basic requirement of maritime safety education to guarantee the safety of teaching operation while training the crew's occupation safety capability. Marine Training Center of Shanghai Maritime University has undertaken the practical teaching of "marine survival" for many years and come up with the whole safety procedures of training. Based on the requirements of SOLAS convention and regulations of STCW over crew training, this paper introduces the safety allocation, utilization and maintenance of teaching equipments. Through the investigation of the safety situation of students' practical operation, the safety teaching method named "four in one" has been put forward, which includes the pre-teaching safety precaution, the whole monitor during the teaching process, the post-teaching summary evaluation, and the reset and standby of teaching facilities. Finally, during the learning and training of "marine survival", crews and students are called on to place priority on personal safety rather than acquisition of knowledge and skills. Only in this way can they be capable of self-protection and protection of others in the career of seafaring.

  17. Does It Make Any Difference if She Is a Mother? An Interactional Perspective on Intimate Partner Violence with a Focus on Motherhood and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatnar, Solveig Karin Bo; Bjorkly, Stal

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the impact of motherhood and pregnancy on interactional aspects of intimate partner violence (IPV) among help-seeking women. Is having children a protective or a risk factor for IPV severity, injury, duration, frequency, and mortal danger, controlling for sociodemographics? Regarding interactional aspects of IPV, do survivors…

  18. Mother-Blaming in the Shadow of Incest: Commentary on "Motherhood in the Shadow of Incest" by Rachel Lev-Wiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2007-01-01

    This commentary on "Motherhood in the Shadow of Incest" by Rachel Lev-Wiesel, is divided into three sections. In the first section, this author addresses the issue of the role of mothers in incest. Faller contends that, with regard to research findings on the role of mothers' own sexual victimization in her child's experience, previous research…

  19. Safe operating envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a slide-based oral presentation given to the COG/IAEA: Fifth technical committee meeting on 'Exchange of operating experience of pressurized heavy water reactors' held in Mangalia, Romania on 7-10 September 1998. The plant states and operating conditions are defined as resulting from the consequences of a Licensing Basis Event occurrence. Three categories of important plant parameters are considered: A - directly associated with either the mechanical or instrumentation and control aspects of the Special Safety Systems; B - process conditions related to trip parameters; C - other parameters that effect outcome of an accident. In A category the following aspects were addressed: Instrument loop uncertainties and time lags and delays; Tank levels, pressures and chemistry; Valve operating times and characteristics; Pump performance; The number of redundant pieces of equipment. Relating to category B the process conditions implied in trip initiation parameters as they effect margin to trip are discussed and illustrated by the cases of pressurizer level, RB pressure, etc. Finally, in the last category, the parameters effecting accident outcome are considered, i.e. either process variables, or equipment associated with safety related or safety support systems. The following cases are analysed PHTS Isotopic/temperatures/flows, moderator outlet temperature, RCW/RSW temperature, number of available aux. boiler feedpumps. In connection with the plant states the following matters are analyzed: fueling; boiler tube leak; defect fuel; non-equilibrium core; shutdown and reduced power operation; two pump operation. Concerning the Safety Operating Envelope (SOE) the following issues are presented: OP and P (high level overview), supported by OM tests and surveillance, by taking into account the use Tech Specs for the future, the role of safety analysis, historical perspective at PLGS. Finally, the DOA (Design/Operation/Analysis) Program at PLGS is described and the following

  20. Are we safe here?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the role of Probabilistic Risk Analysis in the Dutch nuclear-power policy is investigated. The question if the risks of nuclear power can be assessed with PRA and which are the risks, is put to special literature and to a number of persons/authorities who are engaged with the governments policy in this area: the foundation Nature and Environment, W.A. Smit, the department of Public Health, Town and Country Planning and Enviromental Hygienics (VROM), the department of Economic Affairs (EZ), and ECN. It is concluded that different views on 'risk' and 'risk acceptability' play a role. In summary, it amounts to the significance which has to be ascribed to very small chances: are these negligible or not. The different assumptions also lead to different requests to PRA studies. Thediscussion practically comes to a head upon the question how reliable the outcome of PRA studies are. The expectations of the outcome of PRA studies run too high at both departments. Decisions about expanding or not expanding of nuclear power in the Netherlands should not be made on the basis of a PRA study. However the technics don't need to be thrown away. PRA can be used very well in safety policies at a later stage, to make nuclear power plants safer by the possibility of tracing weak points in the design and in, for example, training of the personnel. A discussion about the acceptability of nuclear power should not be made around a PRA study, but should rather be based upon a more extended evaluation of the risks as well as the benefits of nuclear power in the Netherlands. (author). 67 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. The Violence Continuum: Creating a Safe School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvell, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    We expect schools to be a safe haven, but after more than a decade of targeted school violence prevention laws and safety plans, students are still marginalized and bullied to the point of despondence, retaliation, and even suicide. This thoughtful exploration of what makes a school a safe place is based on the understanding that violence is a…

  2. Development and application of the Safe Performance Index as a risk-based methodology for identifying major hazard-related safety issues in underground coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinilakodi, Harisha

    The underground coal mining industry has been under constant watch due to the high risk involved in its activities, and scrutiny increased because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-07. In the aftermath of the incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address the various issues related to a safe working environment in the mines. Risk analysis in any form should be done on a regular basis to tackle the possibility of unwanted major hazard-related events such as explosions, outbursts, airbursts, inundations, spontaneous combustion, and roof fall instabilities. One of the responses by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2007 involved a new pattern of violations (POV) process to target mines with a poor safety performance, specifically to improve their safety. However, the 2010 disaster (worst in 40 years) gave an impression that the collective effort of the industry, federal/state agencies, and researchers to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries has gone awry. The Safe Performance Index (SPI) methodology developed in this research is a straight-forward, effective, transparent, and reproducible approach that can help in identifying and addressing some of the existing issues while targeting (poor safety performance) mines which need help. It combines three injury and three citation measures that are scaled to have an equal mean (5.0) in a balanced way with proportionate weighting factors (0.05, 0.15, 0.30) and overall normalizing factor (15) into a mine safety performance evaluation tool. It can be used to assess the relative safety-related risk of mines, including by mine-size category. Using 2008 and 2009 data, comparisons were made of SPI-associated, normalized safety performance measures across mine-size categories, with emphasis on small-mine safety performance as compared to large- and

  3. Safe sex and first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, S E; Miller, R

    2001-01-01

    The need for educating patients about the dangers of unprotected sexual activity is well documented in the literature. Using clinical examples, the authors describe safe-sex strategies for patients experiencing their first episode of schizophrenia. Interventions are based on a 2-year experience of working in a hospital-based treatment and research project with 68 patients. Strategies that begin in the healing phase of schizophrenia take place in both individual and group sessions. First-episode patients are encouraged to speak explicitly about their sex-related behaviors, and HIV testing is suggested when needed. The goal of this approach is to emphasize safe-sex/HIV prevention strategies within a framework of good clinical practice. PMID:11407142

  4. A low cost, safe, disposable, rapid and self-sustainable paper-based platform for diagnostic testing: lab-on-paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a strong interest in the use of biopolymers in the electronic and biomedical industries, mainly towards low-cost applications. The possibility of developing entirely new kinds of products based on cellulose is of current interest, in order to enhance and to add new functionalities to conventional paper-based products. We present our results towards the development of paper-based microfluidics for molecular diagnostic testing. Paper properties were evaluated and compared to nitrocellulose, the most commonly used material in lateral flow and other rapid tests. Focusing on the use of paper as a substrate for microfluidic applications, through an eco-friendly wax-printing technology, we present three main and distinct colorimetric approaches: (i) enzymatic reactions (glucose detection); (ii) immunoassays (antibodies anti-Leishmania detection); (iii) nucleic acid sequence identification (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex detection). Colorimetric glucose quantification was achieved through enzymatic reactions performed within specific zones of the paper-based device. The colouration achieved increased with growing glucose concentration and was highly homogeneous, covering all the surface of the paper reaction zones in a 3D sensor format. These devices showed a major advantage when compared to the 2D lateral flow glucose sensors, where some carryover of the coloured products usually occurs. The detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in canine sera was conceptually achieved using a paper-based 96-well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format. However, optimization is still needed for this test, regarding the efficiency of the immobilization of antigens on the cellulose fibres. The detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis nucleic acids integrated with a non-cross-linking gold nanoprobe detection scheme was also achieved in a wax-printed 384-well paper-based microplate, by the hybridization with a species-specific probe. The obtained results with the above

  5. A low cost, safe, disposable, rapid and self-sustainable paper-based platform for diagnostic testing: lab-on-paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. N.; Veigas, B.; Jacob, J. M.; Santos, D. S.; Gomes, J.; Baptista, P. V.; Martins, R.; Inácio, J.; Fortunato, E.

    2014-03-01

    There is a strong interest in the use of biopolymers in the electronic and biomedical industries, mainly towards low-cost applications. The possibility of developing entirely new kinds of products based on cellulose is of current interest, in order to enhance and to add new functionalities to conventional paper-based products. We present our results towards the development of paper-based microfluidics for molecular diagnostic testing. Paper properties were evaluated and compared to nitrocellulose, the most commonly used material in lateral flow and other rapid tests. Focusing on the use of paper as a substrate for microfluidic applications, through an eco-friendly wax-printing technology, we present three main and distinct colorimetric approaches: (i) enzymatic reactions (glucose detection); (ii) immunoassays (antibodies anti-Leishmania detection); (iii) nucleic acid sequence identification (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex detection). Colorimetric glucose quantification was achieved through enzymatic reactions performed within specific zones of the paper-based device. The colouration achieved increased with growing glucose concentration and was highly homogeneous, covering all the surface of the paper reaction zones in a 3D sensor format. These devices showed a major advantage when compared to the 2D lateral flow glucose sensors, where some carryover of the coloured products usually occurs. The detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in canine sera was conceptually achieved using a paper-based 96-well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format. However, optimization is still needed for this test, regarding the efficiency of the immobilization of antigens on the cellulose fibres. The detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis nucleic acids integrated with a non-cross-linking gold nanoprobe detection scheme was also achieved in a wax-printed 384-well paper-based microplate, by the hybridization with a species-specific probe. The obtained results with the above

  6. Shock Safe Nepal: team one

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterhof, A.J.; Düzgün, B.C.; Spelt, C.J.; De Stoppelaar, A.O.; Van Wijnbergen, E.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    As a response to the 2015 Nepal earthquakes Shock Safe Nepal was founded to function as platform intended to contribute to the development of knowledge on earthquake safe housing. The project started on initiative of the Consul General of Nepal to The Netherlands Cas de Stoppelaar and the faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences (CiTG) of Delft University of Technology. Five students went to Nepal; our purpose was twofold what resulted in two reports. The goal of report one is to serve as...

  7. Comment on Asymptotically Safe Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Tye, S -H Henry

    2010-01-01

    We comment on Weinberg's interesting analysis of asymptotically safe inflation (arXiv:0911.3165). We find that even if the gravity theory exhibits an ultraviolet fixed point, the energy scale during inflation is way too low to drive the theory close to the fixed point value. We choose the specific renormalization groupflow away from the fixed point towards the infrared region that reproduces the Newton's constant and today's cosmological constant. We follow this RG flow path to scales below the Planck scale to study the stability of the inflationary scenario. Again, we find that some fine tuning is necessary to get enough efolds of infflation in the asymptotically safe inflationary scenario.

  8. Adolescent and adult first time mothers' health seeking practices during pregnancy and early motherhood in Wakiso district, central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Johansson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal health services have a potentially critical role in the improvement of reproductive health. In order to get a better understanding of adolescent mothers'needs we compared health seeking practices of first time adolescent and adult mothers during pregnancy and early motherhood in Wakiso district, Uganda. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted between May and August, 2007 in Wakiso district. A total of 762 women (442 adolescents and 320 adult were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. We calculated odds ratios with their 95% CI for antenatal and postnatal health care seeking, stigmatisation and violence experienced from parents comparing adolescents to adult first time mothers. STATA V.8 was used for data analysis. Results Adolescent mothers were significantly more disadvantaged in terms of health care seeking for reproductive health services and faced more challenges during pregnancy and early motherhood compared to adult mothers. Adolescent mothers were more likely to have dropped out of school due to pregnancy (OR = 3.61, 95% CI: 2.40–5.44, less likely to earn a salary (OR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.24–0.76, and more likely to attend antenatal care visits less than four times compared to adult mothers (OR = 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12–2.07. Adolescents were also more likely to experience violence from parents (OR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.39–3.08 and to be stigmatized by the community (CI = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.09–2.59. In early motherhood, adolescent mothers were less likely to seek for second and third vaccine doses for their infants [Polio2 (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55–0.98, Polio3 (OR = 0.70: 95% CI: 0.51–0.95, DPT2 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53–0.96, DPT3 (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50–0.92] compared to adult mothers. These results are compelling and call for urgent adolescent focused interventions. Conclusion Adolescents showed poorer health care seeking behaviour for themselves and their children, and experienced

  9. An Analysis of Motherhood in Munro’s Novels%门罗小说中的母亲形象研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴端明

    2015-01-01

    门罗小说中展现了多面的母亲群像,这些丰富的母亲形象不同于传统的慈悲、隐忍、伟大的圣母形象。门罗通过书写不同的母亲形象与母性侧面,描画了多元化的母性,改写了单一化理想化的扁平母亲形象。她怀着深深的同情与关怀述说了母亲的遭遇与亲子相处的境况,并以对传统话语中母亲社会价值和传统角色的领会为基础,从女性作家视角出发,为女性与母亲发声。%Munro’s works elaborate on images of different mothers. They are different from the tradition-ally benevolent,tolerant Holy Mother. Munro manages to depict multi-faceted mothers through introdu-cing different mother images and motherhood,thus changes the over-simplified and idealized mother im-ages. She tells the experience of mothers and mother-child relationship with a deep sympathy. Her ideas on mothers are based on a deep understanding on mother’s social value and roles in traditional discourse. She writes from a woman writer’s perspective and manages to speak for women and mothers.

  10. Sound Security,Safe Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With the approach of the long a waited event,Chinese authorities have geared up to intensify security preparations.In line with the"people-oriented"and"athletes-centered"ideas,Beijing will spare no efforts to provide quality services and to build a safe and cornfort able environment that will satisfy all the Games' participants.

  11. Keeping Food Safe During Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Chezem, Jo Carol; Burgess, Wilella D; Mason, April C.

    1994-01-01

    Disasters can come in many forms, including tornadoes, fires, floods, and snowstorms. In any of these emergency situations, two problems commonly arise. The first is a lack of incoming supplies. The second is damage to gas and electrical power systems. This publication discusses how to handle foods before, during, and after an emergency to keep them safe and to avoid food poisoning.

  12. 99 Tips for Safe Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, Steve

    This pamphlet highlights 99 tips for maintaining safe schools. Areas of interest include: alarm systems and control of access, vandalism, parent education, transportation, school design, personnel training, and graffiti. The majority of the pointers deal with maintaining and implementing various forms of electronic surveillance and strategies for…

  13. How Safe Are Our Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younghusband, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a study she conducted in Newfoundland to determine the level of abuse and/or violence experienced by teachers, the nature of that abuse/violence, its personal impact, and whether Newfoundland teachers feel safe in their workplaces. The experiences presented are those of a focus group of eight teachers,…

  14. Staying Safe on the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-06-05

    In this podcast for all audiences, Dr. Julie Gilchrist from CDC's Injury Center outlines tips for safe boating.  Created: 6/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 6/8/2008.

  15. Thermodynamics of asymptotically safe theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischke, Dirk H.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a novel class of gauge-Yukawa theories that have recently been shown to be completely asymptotically safe, because their short-distance behaviour is determined by the presence of an interacting fixed point. Not only do all the coupling constants freeze...

  16. An innovative method based on quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction coupled to desorption electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry for screening the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins in clams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarozzi, Monica; Bianchi, Federica; Milioli, Marco; Cavazza, Antonella; Careri, Maria

    2016-01-15

    The capabilities of desorption electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry (DESI-HRMS) were tested for screening the presence of some paralytic shellfish toxins in clams. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) approach is proposed for sample clean-up. QuEChERS extraction was optimized by using a full factorial design followed by the multicriteria method of the desirability functions. Quantitation limits in the microgram per kilogram range proved reliability of the method for the detection of the investigated toxins in accordance to the rules laid down by European legislation. The optimized QuEChERS-DESI-HRMS based-method allowed for a rapid reliable screening of the investigated compounds at levels of interest, thus being useful for high-throughput analyses. PMID:26592627

  17. Development of a Prototype Web GIS-Based Disaster Management System for Safe Operation of the Next Generation Bimodal Tram, South Korea—Focused Flooding and Snowfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Seok Jang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Korea Railroad Research Institute (KRRI has developed a bimodal tram and advanced bus rapid transit (BRT system which is an optimized public transit system created by mixing the railway’s punctual operation and the bus’ easy and convenient access. The bimodal tram system provides mass-transportation service with an eco-friendly and human-centered approach. Natural disasters have been increasing worldwide in recent years, including floods, snow, and typhoons disasters. Flooding is the most frequent natural disaster in many countries and is increasingly a concern with climate change; it seriously affects people’s lives and productivity, causing considerable economic loss and significant damage. Enhanced conventional disaster management systems are needed to support comprehensive actions to secure safety and convenience. The objective of this study is to develop a prototype version of a Web GIS-based bimodal tram disaster management system (BTDMS using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM 5.0 to enhance on-time operation and safety of the bimodal tram system. The BTDMS was tested at the bimodal tram test railroad by simulating probable maximum flood (PMF and snow melting for forecasting flooding and snow covered roads. This result could provide the basis for plans to protect against flooding disasters and snow covered roads in operating the bimodal tram system. The BTDMS will be used to assess and predict weather impacts on roadway conditions and operations and thus has the potential to influence economic growth. The methodology presented in this paper makes it possible to manage impacts of flooding and snowfall on urban transportation and enhance operation of the bimodal tram system. Such a methodology based on modeling could be created for most metropolitan areas in Korea and in many other countries.

  18. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel Petri net based approach for safe and flexible control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as...

  19. Oral Lapacho-Based Medication: An Easy, Safe, and Feasible Support to Prevent and/or Reduce Oral Mucositis During Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Irene; Scartoni, Daniele; Fiammetta, Meacci; Baki, Muhammed; Zei, Giacomo; Muntoni, Cristina; Cappelli, Sabrina; Greto, Daniela; Scoccianti, Silvia; Livi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our Phase II study is to demonstrate the benefits, safety, and tolerance of Orasol Plus, an easy and feasible Lapacho-based medication. Orasol Plus is a nutritional, swallowable solution, useful to support the defenses of the oropharyngeal mucosa. Between January and June 2014, 40 consecutive adult patients affected by head and neck cancer were enrolled. Orasol Plus was administered 3 times a day from the first day till the end of radiotherapy. Primary endpoint was to evaluate tolerance and safety of Orasol Plus; secondary endpoint was to evaluate the effect of Orasol Plus on the incidence of treatment discontinuation. Nearly all patients used Orasol Plus easily till the end of radiotherapy without interruptions. Only 11 (27.5%) patients developed oral mucositis (OM) Grade 2 and only 4 (10%) patients OM Grade 3, no patient developed OM Grade 4. No patient discontinued radiotherapy because of OM. Orasol Plus was well tolerated and the compliance of patients was optimal, mainly due to the fact that it can be swallowed. Data from our study are encouraging and they need to be confirmed by a Phase III study. PMID:26451712

  20. Long-Term Use of Probiotic-Containing Yogurts Is a Safe Way to Prevent Helicobacter pylori: Based on a Mongolian Gerbil's Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hung Kuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The suppression of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori decreases H. pylori-related diseases. The probiotics have an inhibitory effect on H. pylori. Aim. We investigated the effects of long-term use of yogurt on H. pylori based on Mongolian gerbils’ model. Materials and Methods. Yogurt (containing a supplement of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, etc. was used. Forty-six gerbils were divided into five groups. All groups were inoculated with H. pylori for 5 to 8 weeks. The yogurt was given as follows: Group (Gr. A: from 1st to 4th week; Gr. B from 5th to 8th week; Gr. C: from 17th week to sacrifice; Gr. D: from 5th week to sacrifice. Gerbils were sacrificed on the 52nd week. Histology was evaluated according to the Sydney system. Results. The positive rates of H. pylori were 60% (Gr. A, 75% (Gr. B, 67% (Gr. C, 44% (Gr. D, and 100% (Gr. E. Gr. D showed lower inflammatory score. Only Gr. E (60% had intestinal metaplasia. Gr. D showed higher IL-10 and lower TNF-α expression than Gr. E. Conclusion. Long-term intake of yogurt could decrease H. pylori infection. The long-term use of yogurt would be an alternative strategy to manage H. pylori infection.

  1. SafeJS: Hermetic Sandboxing for JavaScript

    OpenAIRE

    Cassou, Damien; Ducasse, Stéphane; Petton, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Isolating programs is an important mechanism to support more secure applications. Isolating program in dynamic languages such as JavaScript is even more challenging since reflective operations can circumvent simple mechanisms that could protect program parts. In this article we present SafeJS, an approach and implementation that offers isolation based on separate sandboxes and control of information exchanged between them. In SafeJS, sandboxes based on web workers do not share any data. Data ...

  2. Safe Haven roadway is tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A mobile launcher platform atop a crawler-transporter, moves into the Vehicle Assembly Building high bay 2. As part of the Safe Haven project, a once-buried portion of the crawlerway was restored to enable rollout of a Shuttle from this third stacking area. The primary goal of the Safe Haven construction project was to strengthen readiness for hurricane season by expanding the VAB's storage capacity. The new area, in high bay 2, will allow NASA to preassemble stacks and still have room in the VAB to pull a Shuttle back from the pad if severe weather threatens. Potential rollouts of the Space Shuttle to the launch pad from high bay 2 will involve making a turn around the north side of the VAB in contrast to the straight rollouts from high bays 1 and 3, on the east side of the VAB facing the launch pads.

  3. Safe Haven roadway is tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A mobile launcher platform atop a crawler-transporter, heads to the open door of the Vehicle Assembly Building high bay 2. As part of the Safe Haven project, a once-buried portion of the crawlerway was restored to enable rollout of a Shuttle from this third stacking area. The primary goal of the Safe Haven construction project was to strengthen readiness for hurricane season by expanding the VAB's storage capacity. The new area, in high bay 2, will allow NASA to preassemble stacks and still have room in the VAB to pull a Shuttle back from the pad if severe weather threatens. Potential rollouts of the Space Shuttle to the launch pad from high bay 2 will involve making a turn around the north side of the VAB in contrast to the straight rollouts from high bays 1 and 3, on the east side of the VAB facing the launch pads.

  4. 基于脑电波分析技术的安全驾驶实验研究%Experimental Study on Safe Driving Based on Electroencephalography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧居尚

    2011-01-01

    为了研究饮酒对驾驶过程中脑电波的影响,在由急弯、紧急停车港、障碍区和直线路段组成的虚拟场景中,利用脑电仪实时采集汽车驾驶员的脑电信号,建立脑电波分析指标体系,进行快速傅立叶变换后,计算δ波、θ波、α波、中间快波、β波以及γ波的平均功率,进而计算各频段波功率占总频段波功率的比例,比较组合指标(α+θ)/β在饮酒前后的差异,并运用成对t检验分析各项指标.结果表明,饮酒对θ、α和γ脑电波有显著影响,t检验结果小于0.01;对其余脑电波没有显著影响,t检验结果大于0.05.在3个显著变化的指标中,仅γ脑电波饮酒前、后的差值随着酒精浓度的下降逐渐减小,酒精浓度小于40.5 mg/100 ml后,差值为1.12%.%In order to study the effects of alcohol drinking on electroencephalography (EEG) during driving, a system of indicators for EEG analysis were set up based on the real-time EEG data of drivers collected by a neuroscan EEG system under virtual scenes made of sharp curves, emergency stop belts, obstacle zones and straight line segments. After fast Fourier transform, the mean powers of delta wave (5) , theta wave (0), alpha wave (a) , middle fast wave, beta wave (β) , and gama wave (y) were calculated, and the proportion of the power in each frequency range to the whole frequency range was obtained. Then, the differences of the combined indicator (a + 0)/β were compared between drunk driving and non-drunk driving, and all the indicators were analyzed by the paired sample t-test. The results show that alcohol drinking affects significantly the theta wave, alpha wave, and gama wave, with t-test values being less than 0.01; but does not affect significantly the rest of EEGs, with t-test values being more than 0. 05. Among the three parameters affected significantly, only the difference of gama wave before and after drinking reduces gradually with the blood alcohol concentration (BAC

  5. Safe-haven locking device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J.V.

    1984-04-26

    Disclosed is a locking device for eliminating external control of a secured space formed by fixed and movable barriers. The locking device uses externally and internally controlled locksets and a movable strike, operable from the secured side of the movable barrier, to selectively engage either lockset. A disengagement device, for preventing forces from being applied to the lock bolts is also disclosed. In this manner, a secured space can be controlled from the secured side as a safe-haven. 4 figures.

  6. Doseringsutrustningen SafeBond Electronic

    OpenAIRE

    Bodegren, Patrik

    2003-01-01

    This thesis for the Master of Science degree was performed at Oppunda Electronics AB. The assignment was to further develop an existing prototype of a dispensing equipment. The dispensing equipment doses a kind of glue, bonding which dentist use to mend teeth. The dispensing equipment is adjusted to dose 12 micro litres of bonding. With the dispensing equipment SafeBond Electronic the user can reduce the bonding consumption with approximately 50 percent. Furthermore will the handling of the b...

  7. Inflation from Asymptotically Safe Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund; Sannino, Francesco; Svendsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    We investigate models in which inflation is driven by an ultraviolet safe and interacting scalar sector stemming from a new class of nonsupersymmetric gauge field theories. These new theories, differently from generic scalar models, are well defined to arbitrary short distances because of the...... reproduce the observed amplitude of density perturbations constrain the geometric data of the theory such as the number of colors and flavors for generic values of the non-minimal coupling....

  8. Low cost technology for the rapid and safe in-house (hospital-based) preparation of dual - radiotherapeutic (Rx) and radiodiagnostic (Dx) - dosage forms of high specific activity 131I-mIBG for clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodinated mIBG is finding increasing utility in nuclear medicine. However, its widespread use in developing countries is precluded by logistic constraints owing to the relative instability of the labelled molecule with respect to time and temp., and high costs. This prompted us to develop a low cost in-house batch process technology that could be used for the small-scale preparation of 131I-mIBG even in a less equipped hospital-based radiopharmacy. The production of large amounts of 131I-mIBG for clinical use requires sophisticated infrastructure (a scarce resource) to contain / safeguard against internal and external radiation exposures. We have indigenously designed a semi-automated, self-shielded, remote-controlled and safe microplant + process assemblies using easily accessible and cheap inputs, and developed the complete technology for the rapid and safe production of dual dosage forms of 131I-mIBG, a radiotherapeutic (Rx) single dosage form of high activity along with 1-3 low activity radiodiagnostics (Dx) as multidosage forms. The radioiodide exchange reaction was effected in the solid / melt phase at 190 deg. C in 1.0 h. The radiolabelling yield was ∼80.0-86.0%, and the radiochemical purity > 99.5% and specific activity of Rx/Dx=900-1300/60-800 MBq (x dosage forms at 3 weeks. The dosage forms (especially Rx) were only made against firm patient appointment(s). Thus far we have prepared 14 Rx (49.0 GBq) and 70 + 14 batches (43.43 GBq) of (∼150 nos.) Dx forms, and used them in 14 and > 1100 patients respectively. (author)

  9. Feminist Mothering: Challenging Gender Inequality by Resisting the Institution of Motherhood and Raising Children to be Critical Agents of Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Joy Green

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the significant contributions of feminists to feminist theorizing and research on motherhood and mothering, only a few scholars are paying attention to the analysis of the potential of feminist mothering as a site of women’s strength and resistance to patriarchy and as a location of revolutionary activism. This article explores how the work of conscious feminist mothers can empower women to break free from the rules of patriarchal motherhood to create their own models of mothering and, in turn, practice the invaluable work of rearing children to be active conscientious citizens for social justice. Excerpts from several interviews with sixteen self-identified feminist mothers, conducted for a larger research project on feminist mothering, provide concrete examples of how having a feminist consciousness transform the work of mothering into both a “rewarding, disciplined expression of conscience” proposed by Ruddick, and a location of active social change theorized by Chodorow (1978 and Rich (1986

  10. Mãe é tudo igual? Enunciados produzindo maternidade(s contemporânea(s Are mothers all alike? Statements producing contemporary motherhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Espíndula Moreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os enunciados relativos à maternidade que configuram o que chamamos de "norma" da maternidade. Seguimos as reflexões de Foucault, principalmente no que se refere à genealogia como forma de pensar o presente. Utilizamos o relato das trajetórias de mulheres que são mães e trabalhadoras para a produção dos materiais de análise. Os materiais possibilitaram a problematização de alguns enunciados que constituem a maternidade na contemporaneidade. Descrevemos a intensificação do investimento em um padrão de mulher mãe que tem como produto uma norma da maternidade. Essa norma da maternidade, apesar de ser produzida socialmente, passa a ser naturalizada. Ela funciona associando algumas características a um modo de ser mãe considerado mais adequado, tais como tempo e idade certos para ser mãe, número de filhos, condições financeiras. A partir dela, outros modos de ser mãe são avaliados e hierarquizados.This article analyses the statements related to motherhood that configure what we call motherhood "norm". We follow Foucault's theory, mainly in reference to genealogy as a way to think about the present. The analysis was conducted mainly on working mothers' life trajectories description. This research material allowed us to question some statements that constitute contemporary motherhood. We described the intensification of the investment in a woman pattern as the result of motherhood norm. This norm, although socially produced is naturalized nowadays. It works determining some characteristics that configure the good way to be mother, as such: correct time to be a mother (age, number of children, and financial conditions. As an effect of the norm we have an evaluation and hierarchization of different ways of being a mother.

  11. Choice of Study Discipline and the Postponement of Motherhood in Europe: The Impact of Expected Earnings, Gender Composition, and Family Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Bavel, Jan van

    2010-01-01

    Theory suggests that the field of study may be at least as consequential for fertility behavior as the duration and level of education. Yet, this qualitative dimension of educational achievement has been largely neglected in demographic studies. This article analyzes the mechanisms relating the field of study with the postponement of motherhood by European college-graduate women aged 20–40. The second round of the European Social Survey is used to assess the impact of four features of study d...

  12. Explaining career motivation among female doctors in the Netherlands: the effects of children, views on motherhood and work-home cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Pas, B.R.; Peters, P.; Eisinga, R.N.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A L M

    2011-01-01

    The gender imbalance in senior medical positions is often attributed to an alleged lack of motivation on the part of female doctors, especially those with young children. Some researchers argue that an unsupportive work-home culture in the medical workplace also plays a role. This study investigates whether having children (and the age of the youngest child) affects female doctors’ career motivation and whether this relationship is mediated by views on motherhood and the supportiveness of the...

  13. Safe spaces for youth "At Risk"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Kromann; Wistoft, Karen

    The paper will discuss how farm based empowerment programs directed at youth "at risk" through the construction of "safe spaces" around farming, cooking and different workshops, and with a critical approach to the food system can provide a framework for transformative learning. Data in the research...... learning, democratic participation and citizenship education through farming and gardening. Keywords: Food Systems, Transformative Learning, Youth Empowerment Stream: Food Policies, Politics and Cultures Presentation Type: Paper Presentation in a Themed Session in English Paper: A paper has not yet been...... submitted...

  14. Is ondansetron safe for use during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Question While I usually prescribe doxylamine-pyridoxine for morning sickness, some of my patients with severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) receive ondansetron in hospital. I have read some new precautions recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Is ondansetron safe to use during pregnancy? Answer During the past decade ondansetron has been increasingly used in the United States for NVP, owing to the lack of an FDA-approved drug for this condition. While fetal safety data for doxylamine-pyridoxine are based on more than a quarter of a million pregnancies, the fetal safety data for ondansetron are based on fewer than 200 births. Moreover, a recent case-control study suggested there was an increased risk of cleft palate associated with ondansetron. Recently, the FDA issued a warning about potentially serious QT prolongation and torsade de pointes associated with ondansetron use; the warning included a list of precautions and tests that must be followed. The drug is not labeled for use in NVP in either the United States or Canada. Based on the data available today, ondansetron use cannot be assumed to be safe during pregnancy. PMID:23064917

  15. Type-safe pattern combinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan...... languages. This is particularly challenging when introducing features that span across multiple types and that bind variables. We address this challenge by developing, in a step by step manner, mechanisms for encoding patterns and pattern matching in Haskell in a type-safe way....

  16. Safe domain and elementary geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, J M

    2004-01-01

    A classical problem of mechanics involves a projectile fired from a given point with a given velocity whose direction is varied. This results in a family of trajectories whose envelope defines the border of a 'safe' domain. In the simple cases of a constant force, harmonic potential and Kepler or Coulomb motion, the trajectories are conic curves whose envelope in a plane is another conic section which can be derived either by simple calculus or by geometrical considerations. The case of harmonic forces reveals a subtle property of the maximal sum of distances within an ellipse.

  17. Small intrinsically safe reactor implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewing the history of nuclear power, it is found that peaceful uses of nuclear power are children of the war-like atom. Importance of special growth in a shielded environment is emphasized to exploit fully the advantages of nuclear power. Nuclear power reactors must be safe for their assimilation into society from the points of view of both technology and social psychology. ISR/ISER is identified as a missing link in the development of nuclear power reactors from this perspective and advocated for international development and utilization, being unleashed from the concerns of politicization, safety, and proliferation

  18. Vouchers for health: A demand side output-based aid approach to reproductive health services in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisch, C P; Albrecht, M; Wolfschuetz, A; Kundu, F; Klein, S

    2010-01-01

    Reaching the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals has been a focus for many countries and development partners. In Kenya, as in many other countries with low levels of development, access to and equity of basic quality health services is limited, especially for the very poor. Among poor populations, maternal mortality is high as access to medical care and financial means are lacking. In 2005, the Governments of Kenya and Germany in cooperation with KfW Banking Group made funds available for the Reproductive Health OBA Voucher Programme offering vouchers for Safe Motherhood, Family Planning and Gender Violence Recovery Services. This programme, herein referred to as Vouchers for Health, was launched in June of 2006 in five Kenyan districts with the aim of providing health services for safe deliveries, long-term family planning methods and victims of gender violence. The way that the programme is being implemented in Kenya demonstrates that the voucher-based approach comprises a variety of key structural elements of a national health insurance scheme: accreditation; quality assurance; reimbursement system; claims processing; integrating the private sector; client choice; provider competition; and access to and equity of services provided. PMID:20099183

  19. Safe use of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials have become essential tools in much of the research conducted in the biological and medical sciences. Procedures documented in this manual are only examples of the numerous applications of radioactive materials in the field of parasitology. Like many chemical reagents and much of the equipment found in laboratories, radionuclides can be hazardous if used carelessly. Exposure to large doses of ionizing radiation has been shown to increase the risk of cancer in humans and animals, and has been shown to increase the risk of genetic abnormalities in animal studies. Everyone handling radionuclides in a research program has a responsibility to follow safe laboratory practices for use of these materials. Most research institutions will have a radiation safety organization which may include a Radiation Safety Officer and a Radiation Safety Committee. Procedures developed by the radiation safety organization must be followed in order to protect personnel working with radioactive material, and the public, from unnecessary exposure to radiation. Investigators must also know and follow regulations established by government agencies for the use and disposal of radioactive materials. In this chapter some basic information on procedures for the safe use of radioactive materials in the laboratory is provided. Greater detail for specific operations and radiation safety concerns may be obtained from documents referred to in the text

  20. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the Agency redefined its policy for education and training in radiation safety. The emphasis is now on long-term strategic planning of general education and training programmes. In line with this general policy the Agency's Standing Advisory Group for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) in its 7th meeting (April 1989) agreed that increased training activity should be deployed in the area of transport. SAGSTRAM specifically recommended the development of a standard training programme on this subject area, including audio-visual aids, in order to assist Member States in the implementation of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. This training programme should be substantiated by a biennial training course which is thought to be held either as an Interregional or a Regional Course depending on demand. This training manual, issued as a first publication in the Training Course Series, represents the basic text material for future training courses in transport safety. The topic areas covered by this training manual and most of the texts have been developed from the course material used for the 1987 Bristol Interregional Course on Transport Safety. The training manual is intended to give guidance to the lecturers of a course and will be provided to the participants for retention. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Keeping you safe by making machine tools safe

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN’s third safety objective for 2012 concerns the safety of equipment - and machine tools in particular.   There are three prerequisites for ensuring that a machine tool can be used safely: ·      the machine tool must comply with Directive 2009/104/EC, ·      the layout of the workshop must be compliant, and ·      everyone who uses the machine tool must be trained. Provided these conditions are met, the workshop head can grant authorisation to use the machine tool. To fulfil this objective, an inventory of the machine tools must be drawn up and the people responsible for them identified. The HSE Unit's Safety Inspection Service produces compliance reports for the machine tools. In order to meet the third objective set by the Director-General, the section has doubled its capacity to carry out inspections: ...

  2. Dementia - keeping safe in the home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000031.htm Dementia - keeping safe in the home To use the ... make sure the homes of people who have dementia are safe for them. Safety Tips for the ...

  3. Genetically Modified Crops Are Safe: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158877.html Genetically Modified Crops Are Safe: Review Extensive study concludes they're as safe to eat as food from traditional plant-breeding methods To use the ...

  4. Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... FDA pediatrician on teaching older kids about using medicine safely. To view our entire collection of videos, ...

  5. Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_158983.html Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women It also offers short-term protection to ... News) -- The whooping cough vaccine is safe for pregnant women, a new study indicates. The researchers also ...

  6. Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely Share Tweet Linkedin ... video for tips from an FDA pediatrician on teaching older kids about using medicine safely. To view ...

  7. Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... tips from an FDA pediatrician on teaching older kids about using medicine safely. To view our entire ...

  8. Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158983.html Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women It also offers ... MONDAY, May 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The whooping cough vaccine is safe for pregnant women, a new ...

  9. The Destruction of a Safe Haven Asset?

    OpenAIRE

    Baur, Dirk G.; Kristoffer Glover

    2012-01-01

    Gold has been a store of value for centuries and a safe haven for investors in the past decades. However, the increased investment in gold for speculative or hedging purposes has changed the safe haven property. We demonstrate theoretically and empirically that investor behaviour has the potential to destroy the safe haven property of gold. The results suggest that an asset cannot be both an investment asset and an effective safe haven asset. This finding has important implications for financ...

  10. Safe Assets, Liquidity and Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Benigno, Pierpaolo; Nisticò, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies monetary policy in models where multiple assets have different liquidity properties: safe and "pseudo-safe" assets coexist. A shock worsening the liquidity properties of the pseudo-safe assets raises interest-rate spreads and can cause a deep recession cum deflation. Expanding the central bank's balance sheet fills the shortage of safe assets and counteracts the recession. Lowering the interest rate on reserves insulates market interest rates from the liquidity shock and im...

  11. Trabalho e maternidade na Europa, condições de trabalho e políticas públicas Work and motherhood in Europe, working conditions and public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danièle Meulders

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nosso objetivo é estudar qual será a atitude das mulheres em face da maternidade e do emprego conforme os efeitos que a presença de um filho venha a exercer sobre suas condições e perspectivas de trabalho; e medir os efeitos positivos ou negativos de políticas públicas sobre suas decisões. Apresentaremos alguns resultados referentes ao custo dos filhos em termos de emprego e de eficácia das políticas públicas. A primeira parte é dedicada às estimativas dos efeitos específicos da maternidade sobre a participação no mercado de trabalho e sua duração. A segunda parte refere-se às políticas públicas implementadas em 15 países europeus em apoio ao modelo da família onde ambos os cônjuges trabalham. Essa comparação baseia-se na construção de indicadores compatibilizados que sintetizam as informações de um conjunto exaustivo de dados quantitativos e qualitativos sobre três formas de intervenção pública: os serviços de educação e cuidado infantil, as licenças ligadas ao nascimento e as ajudas diretas às famílias.Our aim is to investigate what women’s attitude toward motherhood and employment will be as they become aware of how a child will affect their working conditions and job perspectives; and to measure the positive or negative effects that public policies will have over their decisions. We will present some results related to the cost of children in terms of jobs and the effectiveness of public policies. The first part is dedicated to the estimates of specific effects of motherhood over the participation in the labor market and how long they last. The second part refers to public policies implemented in 15 European countries to support the family model in which both spouses work. Such comparison is based on the construction of compatible indicators that summarize the information from an exhaustive set of quantitative and qualitative data on three types of public intervention: educational and child care

  12. Thermodynamics of asymptotically safe theories

    CERN Document Server

    Rischke, Dirk H

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a novel class of gauge-Yukawa theories that have recently been shown to be completely asymptotically safe, because their short-distance behaviour is determined by the presence of an interacting fixed point. Not only do all the coupling constants freeze at a constant and calculable value in the ultraviolet, their values can even be made arbitrarily small for an appropriate choice of the ratio $N_c/N_f$ of fermion colours and flavours in the Veneziano limit. Thus, a perturbative treatment can be justified. We compute the pressure, entropy density, and thermal degrees of freedom of these theories to next-to-next-to-leading order in the coupling constants.

  13. How safe is Seattle's water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    According to Seattle Public Utilities, the cysts that can cause cryptosporidiosis (crypto) have been found in the city water supply periodically. Crypto can cause symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and a low-grade fever, and can be fatal in people with CD4 counts below 200. It is very difficult to rid water of these cysts. To make sure drinking water is safe, people should boil the water for 1 to 3 minutes, depending on what altitude they are at. Also, the Centers for Disease Control suggests three methods for filtering water: microstraining with filters that remove particles smaller than one micron; reverse osmosis; and filtration with equipment that meets National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) Standard 53 for "cyst reduction". Washing hands before eating, avoiding raw or undercooked food, and wearing gloves when gardening are also ways to avoid contact with cysts. Contact information is provided. PMID:11366754

  14. Workshop on developing safe software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Workshop on Developing Safe Software was held July 22--23 at the Hotel del Coronado, San Diego, California. The purpose of the workshop was to have four world experts discuss among themselves software safety issues which are of interest to the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). These issues concern the development of software systems for use in nuclear power plant protection systems. The workshop comprised four sessions. Wednesday morning, July 22, consisted of presentations from each of the four panel members. On Wednesday afternoon, the panel members went through a list of possible software development techniques and commented on them. The Thursday morning, July 23, session consisted of an extended discussion among the panel members and the observers from the NRC. A final session on Thursday afternoon consisted of a discussion among the NRC observers as to what was teamed from the workshop

  15. Is herniography useful and safe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hureibi, K.A., E-mail: alhureibi@gmail.com [Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton TA1 5DA (United Kingdom); McLatchie, Gregor R., E-mail: Gregor.McLatchie@nth.nhs.uk [University Hospital of Hartlepool, Holdforth Road, Hartlepool TS24 9AH (United Kingdom); Kidambi, Ananta V., E-mail: Ananta.Kidambi@nth.nhs.uk [University Hospital of Hartlepool, Holdforth Road, Hartlepool TS24 9AH (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    117 consecutive herniograms were reviewed for patients who had symptoms suggestive of hernia but with no evidence or inconclusive findings on physical examination. The traditional approach has been to explore patients with suspected occult hernias. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of herniography in minimizing needless groin exploration and to evaluate its safety. Thirty-three herniograms were positive and showed unilateral and bilateral inguinal hernias. There were no false positive examinations and two false negative examinations. No complications were present. Patients with positive herniograms were explored, and operative findings correlated well with herniographic findings. Twenty-four patients were referred to other specialities. Follow-up in clinic and telephone interviews showed symptomatic improvement in the majority of patients. Herniography is useful in evaluating obscure groin pain and occult hernias. It is a safe procedure and more cost effective than a negative exploration or diagnostic laparoscopy.

  16. Is herniography useful and safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, Gregor R; Kidambi, Ananta V

    2011-11-01

    117 consecutive herniograms were reviewed for patients who had symptoms suggestive of hernia but with no evidence or inconclusive findings on physical examination. The traditional approach has been to explore patients with suspected occult hernias. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of herniography in minimizing needless groin exploration and to evaluate its safety. Thirty-three herniograms were positive and showed unilateral and bilateral inguinal hernias. There were no false positive examinations and two false negative examinations. No complications were present. Patients with positive herniograms were explored, and operative findings correlated well with herniographic findings. Twenty-four patients were referred to other specialities. Follow-up in clinic and telephone interviews showed symptomatic improvement in the majority of patients. Herniography is useful in evaluating obscure groin pain and occult hernias. It is a safe procedure and more cost effective than a negative exploration or diagnostic laparoscopy. PMID:20833494

  17. Impact of community-based interventions on maternal and neonatal health indicators: Results from a community randomized trial in rural Balochistan, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Becker Stan; Midhet Farid

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pakistan has high maternal mortality, particularly in the rural areas. The delay in decision making to seek medical care during obstetric emergencies remains a significant factor in maternal mortality. Methods We present results from an experimental study in rural Pakistan. Village clusters were randomly assigned to intervention and control arms (16 clusters each). In the intervention clusters, women were provided information on safe motherhood through pictorial booklets a...

  18. Features of Parent-Child Relationship of Mothers with Teenage Children in the Conditions of Late Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharova E.I.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The author's attention is attracted by one of the features of modern Russian family: the tendency to increase the frequency of childbirth by women of older reproductive age. The article presents the results of a comparative analysis of the mothers’ parent position, who had children at different periods of adulthood (middle, late. The aim of the study was to investigate the features of the parent-child relationship of mothers with teenage children in the conditions of late motherhood. Mothers of adolescents who participated in the study were divided into two groups: "young" mothers who gave birth to the first child before the age of 30 years, and "late" mothers who gave birth to their first child after being 30 years old. It turned out that the strategies of education and interaction between the "young" and "late" mothers, reflecting the value orientation of personality, are significantly different. Focusing on the emotional closeness with the child and creativity, education strategy of "late" mothers has a high emotional involvement, soft and inconsistent parenting. The features of maternal parenting strategies are adequately reflected by the teenagers who follow their mothers in priority of the values of family and work, or material well-being and the pursuit of hedonistic values.

  19. Attachment representations among substance-abusing women in transition to motherhood: implications for prenatal emotions and mother-infant interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosävi, Sanna; Flykt, Marjo; Belt, Ritva; Posa, Tiina; Kuittinen, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2016-08-01

    We studied how attachment representations contribute to central components of transition to motherhood, prenatal emotion processing (EP) and emotional availability (EA) of mother-infant interaction, and whether there are group specific differences. Participants were 51 treatment-enrolled substance-abusing (SA) mothers and their infants and 50 non-using comparison dyads with obstetric risk. Mother's attachment representations (AAI) and EP were assessed prenatally and EA when infants were four months. Results showed that autonomous attachment only had a buffering effect on prenatal EP among comparisons. All SA mothers showed more dysfunctional EP than comparisons and, contrary to comparisons, autonomous SA mothers reported more negative cognitive appraisals and less meta-evaluation of emotions than dismissing SA mothers. Preoccupied SA mothers showed high negative cognitive appraisals, suggesting under-regulation of emotions. Attachment representations were not associated with EA in either group; rather, SA status contributed to global risk in the relationship. Surprisingly, autonomous SA mothers showed a tendency towards intrusiveness. We propose that obstetric risk among comparisons and adverse relational experiences among almost all SA mothers might override the protective role of mother's autonomous representations for dyadic interaction. We conclude that prenatal emotional turbulence and high interaction risk of all SA mothers calls for holistic treatment for the dyad. PMID:26978721

  20. Surrogate motherhood: Where Italy is now and where Europe is going. Can the genetic mother be considered the legal mother?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Paola; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Pacchiarotti, Arianna; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-02-01

    This paper explores a recent case, which has reawakened the debate in Italy over the opportunities offered by technological progress in the field of Assisted Reproduction. On 17 January 2013, the Juvenile Court of Brescia ordered the removal and adoption of a newborn baby whose parents had turned to surrogate motherhood and heterologous insemination in Ukraine, thus expressly violating the Italian and Ukrainian laws. The authors provide a critical analysis of the legal reasoning given by the Court in order to balance the best interests of the unborn child and the needs of certain parents suffering from sterility/infertility problems. In establishing the legal status of parent, the guiding principle must be the child's right not to be objectified or exploited by the adult. Therefore, it is necessary to provide appropriate tools to balance, on the one hand, the defence of the desire to become parents, if legitimate, and on the other the preservation of the legal and harmonious development of the child. Thus, the professionals have the burden of adapting the legal rules to a variety of individual cases, always taking into account the need to comply with the principles of both Constitutional and European Union law. PMID:25623186

  1. Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility where possible, and structure where necessary. Consider the needs of national security, safe airspace operations, economic opportunities, and emerging technologies. Risk-based approach based on population density, assets on the ground, density of operations, etc. Digital, virtual, dynamic, and as needed UTM services to manage operations.

  2. Development of Safe Food Handling Guidelines for Korean Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Min-Woo; Hwang, In-Kyeong; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for Korean consumers with regard to safe food handling practices at home by identifying current food handling issues. Korean consumers' behaviors regarding their safe food handling were identified via survey questionnaires that included items on individual hygiene practices, prepreparation steps when cooking, the cooking process, and the storage of leftover foods. The subjects were 417 Korean parents with elementary school children living in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in the central area of Korea. The survey results revealed gaps between the knowledge or practices of Korean consumers and scientific evidence pertaining to safe food handling practices. Based on these findings, a leaflet on safe food handling guidelines was developed in accordance with Korean food culture. These guidelines suggest personal hygiene practices as well as fundamental principles and procedures for safe food handling from the stage of food purchase to that of keeping leftover dishes. A pilot application study with 50 consumers revealed that the guidelines effectively improved Korean consumers' safe food handling practices, suggesting that they can serve as practical educational material suitable for Korean consumers. PMID:26219368

  3. Working safely with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In common with exposure to many other laboratory chemicals, exposure to ionising radiations and to radioactive materials carries a small risk of causing harm. Because of this, there are legal limits to the amount of exposure to ionising radiations at work and special rules for working with radioactive materials. Although radiation protection is a complex subject it is possible to simplify to 10 basic things you should do -the Golden Rules. They are: 1) understand the nature of the hazard and get practical training; 2) plan ahead to minimise time spent handling radioactivity; 3) distance yourself appropriately from sources of radiation; 4) use appropriate shielding for the radiation; 5) contain radioactive materials in defined work areas; 6) wear appropriate protective clothing and dosimeters; 7) monitor the work area frequently for contamination control; 8) follow the local rules and safe ways of working; 9) minimise accumulation of waste and dispose of it by appropriate routes, and 10) after completion of work, monitor, wash, and monitor yourself again. These rules are expanded in this article. (author)

  4. Safe and green nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy development plays an important role in the national economic growth. Presently the per capita consumption of energy in our country is about 750 kWh including captive power generation which is low in comparison to that in the developed countries like USA where it is about 12,000 kWh. As of now the total installed capacity of electricity generation is about 152,148 MW(e) which is drawn from Thermal (65%), Hydel (24%), Nuclear (3%) power plants and Renewables (8%). It is expected that by the end of year 2020, the required installed capacity would be more than 3,00,000 MW(e), if we assume per capita consumption of about 800-1000 kWh for Indian population of well over one billion. To meet the projected power requirement in India, suitable options need to be identified and explored for generation of electricity. For choosing better alternatives various factors such as availability of resources, potential to generate commercial power, economic viability, etc. need to be considered. Besides these factors, an important factor which must be taken into consideration is protection of environment around the operating power stations. This paper attempts to demonstrate that the nuclear power generation is an environmentally benign option for meeting the future requirement of electricity in India. It also discusses the need for creating the public awareness about the safe operations of the nuclear power plants and ionising radiation. (author)

  5. Algorithm of Mobile Network Base Station Safe Bearing Load Channel Distribution and Reconstruction%移动网络基站安全承载信道分配重构算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷燕南

    2015-01-01

    The channel assignment in mobile network base station is dynamic, consider the safety bearing problem of base station nodes needed in the channel switch. Distribution reconfiguration algorithm of channel is of great significance to im⁃prove the reliability of mobile communication network of mobile network base station safety bearing. Multi hop base station access mode design of traditional algorithm, it is difficult to meet the needs of users. Put forward a kind of dynamic channel allocation algorithm based on channel handoff queue, safety bearing model design of mobile network base station, are ob⁃tained as follows the mapping relationship between the base station node, mobile network services and business component and service. The safety bearing reconstruction of channel assignment is realized. Define the safe load intensity reconstruc⁃tion of mobile communication network, determine the different security level need to base station deployment vector of node position, real-time distribution of all channel, implement the improved channel allocation and reconstruction algorithm of mobile network base station safety bearing. The simulation results show that the algorithm can effectively improve the load rate of communication network, and channel reconstruction in increasing network node average load rate under the condi⁃tion of network nodes can reduce the maximum load rate so as to make the network load balance, improve the communica⁃tion security and stability.%移动网络基站的信道分配具有动态性,在信道切换中需要考虑基站节点的安全承载问题。研究移动网络基站安全承载信道分配重构算法对提高移动通信组网的可靠性具有重要意义。传统算法设计多跳基站接入模式,难以满足用户需求。提出一种基于信道切换队列的动态信道分配算法,设计移动网络基站的安全承载模型,得到移动网络基站节点服务与构件之间、业务与服务之间存

  6. The Supply and Demand for Safe Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Gary B. Gorton; Guillermo Ordoñez

    2013-01-01

    There is a demand for safe assets, either government bonds or private substitutes, for use as collateral. Government bonds are safe assets, given the government's power to tax, but their supply is driven by fiscal considerations, and does not necessarily meet the private demand for safe assets. Unlike the government, the private sector cannot produce riskless collateral. When the private sector reaches its limit (the quality of private collateral), government bonds are net wealth, up to the g...

  7. The comparative effectiveness of public policies to fight motherhood-induced employment penalties and decreasing fertility in the former EU-15

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme De Henau; Danièle Meulders; Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we aim to study and compare the countries of the former EU-15 in terms of the difference in labour market conditions between mothers and non-mothers and we look at how public policies can be designed in order to minimise the employment penalties associated with the presence of young children and thus promote parenthood by working women. As women choose to take part in paid employment, fertility rates will depend on their possibilities to combine employment and motherhood. As a r...

  8. SU-E-J-73: Extension of a Clinical OIS/EMR/R&V System to Deliver Safe and Efficient Adaptive Plan-Of-The-Day Treatments Using a Fully Customizable Plan-Library-Based Workflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To extend a clinical Record and Verify (R&V) system to enable a safe and fast workflow for Plan-of-the-Day (PotD) adaptive treatments based on patient-specific plan libraries. Methods: Plan libraries for PotD adaptive treatments contain for each patient several pre-treatment generated treatment plans. They may be generated for various patient anatomies or CTV-PTV margins. For each fraction, a Cone Beam CT scan is acquired to support the selection of the plan that best fits the patient’s anatomy-of-the-day. To date, there are no commercial R&V systems that support PotD delivery strategies. Consequently, the clinical workflow requires many manual interventions. Moreover, multiple scheduled plans have a high risk of excessive dose delivery. In this work we extended a commercial R&V system (MOSAIQ) to support PotD workflows using IQ-scripting. The PotD workflow was designed after extensive risk analysis of the manual procedure, and all identified risks were incorporated as logical checks. Results: All manual PotD activities were automated. The workflow first identifies if the patient is scheduled for PotD, then performs safety checks, and continues to treatment plan selection only if no issues were found. The user selects the plan to deliver from a list of candidate plans. After plan selection, the workflow makes the treatment fields of the selected plan available for delivery by adding them to the treatment calendar. Finally, control is returned to the R&V system to commence treatment. Additional logic was added to incorporate off-line changes such as updating the plan library. After extensive testing including treatment fraction interrupts and plan-library updates during the treatment course, the workflow is running successfully in a clinical pilot, in which 35 patients have been treated since October 2014. Conclusion: We have extended a commercial R&V system for improved safety and efficiency in library-based adaptive strategies enabling a wide

  9. SU-E-J-73: Extension of a Clinical OIS/EMR/R&V System to Deliver Safe and Efficient Adaptive Plan-Of-The-Day Treatments Using a Fully Customizable Plan-Library-Based Workflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhiat, A. [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Elekta, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Kanis, A.P.; Penninkhof, J.J.; Sodjo, S.; O’Neill, T.; Quint, S.; Doorn, X. van; Schillemans, W.; Heijmen, B.; Hoogeman, M. [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Linton, N.; Coleman, A. [Elekta, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To extend a clinical Record and Verify (R&V) system to enable a safe and fast workflow for Plan-of-the-Day (PotD) adaptive treatments based on patient-specific plan libraries. Methods: Plan libraries for PotD adaptive treatments contain for each patient several pre-treatment generated treatment plans. They may be generated for various patient anatomies or CTV-PTV margins. For each fraction, a Cone Beam CT scan is acquired to support the selection of the plan that best fits the patient’s anatomy-of-the-day. To date, there are no commercial R&V systems that support PotD delivery strategies. Consequently, the clinical workflow requires many manual interventions. Moreover, multiple scheduled plans have a high risk of excessive dose delivery. In this work we extended a commercial R&V system (MOSAIQ) to support PotD workflows using IQ-scripting. The PotD workflow was designed after extensive risk analysis of the manual procedure, and all identified risks were incorporated as logical checks. Results: All manual PotD activities were automated. The workflow first identifies if the patient is scheduled for PotD, then performs safety checks, and continues to treatment plan selection only if no issues were found. The user selects the plan to deliver from a list of candidate plans. After plan selection, the workflow makes the treatment fields of the selected plan available for delivery by adding them to the treatment calendar. Finally, control is returned to the R&V system to commence treatment. Additional logic was added to incorporate off-line changes such as updating the plan library. After extensive testing including treatment fraction interrupts and plan-library updates during the treatment course, the workflow is running successfully in a clinical pilot, in which 35 patients have been treated since October 2014. Conclusion: We have extended a commercial R&V system for improved safety and efficiency in library-based adaptive strategies enabling a wide

  10. Design of intrinsically safe power supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui-jin; JIN Lin

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to make a high power direct current supply safely used in coal mine production,this paper made a deep research on characteristics of intrinsically safe power supply,using the mathematical model established according to coal mine intrinsic safety standards.It provides theory support for the application of high power intrinsically safe power supply.The released energy of output short circuit of switch power supply,and the close related factors that influence the biggest output short-circuit spark discharge energy are the theoretical basis of the power supply.It is shown how to make a high power intrinsically safe power supply using the calculated values in the mathematical model,and take values from intrinsically safe requirements parameters scope,then this theoretical calculation value can be developed as the ultimate basis for research of the power supply.It gets the identification method of intrinsically safe from mathematics model of intrinsically safe power supply characteristics study,which solves the problem of theory and application of designing different power intrinsically safe power supply,and designs a kind of high power intrinsically safe power supply through this method.

  11. Exploring the potentialities of an improved ultrasound-assisted quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe-based extraction technique combined with ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection for determination of Zearalenone in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Figueira, Priscilla; Camacho, Irene; Câmara, José S

    2015-08-21

    Zearalenone (ZEA), a secondary metabolite from Fusarium graminearum fungi that invade crops and grow during blooming in moist cool field conditions, is a nonsteroidal oestrogen, biologically very potent, although hardly toxic. Different analytical methods, among which a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) strategy, combined with or liquid chromatography, have been proposed for ZEA determination in foods. However, this extraction procedure has the disadvantage of using large amount of organic solvents, partitioning salts and sample volume, which limits the technique application on the fields where the sample amount is critical. Therefore in this work an improved sample preparation step based on the original QuEChERS (O-QuEChERS) approach, the μ-QuEChERS, combined with ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) and ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis with fluorescence detection (FLR) is proposed for the sensitive and high-throughput quantification of ZEA in cereals. The proposed analytical strategy, μ-QuEChERSUSAE, uses up to 32 times lower amounts of partitioning salts, lower sample amount and lower extraction solvents, in comparison with O-QuEChERS technique. The performance of the analytical approach was assessed by studying the selectivity, specificity, limits of detection and quantification, linear dynamic range, matrix effect and precision. Good linearity (r(2)>0.99) was achieved for ZEA, and limits of detection (LOD=3.4μgkg(-1)) and limits of quantification (LOQ=4.7μgkg(-1)) were found below the tolerance levels set by European Commission. Good recoveries were obtained with different spiked concentrations, ranged from 80.2% to 109.7%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 5.0%. The comparison of the analytical performance of the proposed μ-QuEChERSUSAE with O-QuEChERS showed the powerful ability of the proposed strategy since it gives comparable results but using lower amounts of sample, partitioning

  12. Food Safety Posters for Safe Handling of Leafy Greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Lakshman; Arendt, Susan W.; Shaw, Angela M.; Strohbehn, Catherine H.; Sauer, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes food safety educational tools depicting safe handling of leafy greens that are available as downloadable posters to Extension educators and practitioners (www.extension.iastate.edu). Nine visual-based minimal-text colored posters in English, Chinese, and Spanish were developed for use when formally or informally educating…

  13. Safe Haven Laws and School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopels, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    "Safe haven" laws are designed to protect infants from being killed or otherwise harmed. This article examines the safe haven laws from the states that comprise the Midwest School Social Work Council and the variations between these laws regarding the age of the infant, where the infant can be left, who is allowed to leave the infant, whether…

  14. Creating Safe Spaces for Music Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Karin S.; Smith, Tawnya D.; Stanuch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a practical model for fostering emotionally safe learning environments that instill in music students a positive sense of self-belief, freedom, and purpose. The authors examine the implications for music educators of creating effective learning environments and present recommendations for creating a safe space for learning,…

  15. Implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Møller, Mette;

    ; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...

  16. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Glenda A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  17. Safe Haven Laws as "Crime Control Theater"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K.; Griffin, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of "crime control theater", a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially…

  18. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  19. Review of "Successful, Safe, and Healthy Students"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Gene V.; Barnett, Steven; Welner, Kevin G.

    2010-01-01

    The research summary "Successful, Safe, and Healthy Students" presents the research background for the Obama administration's proposals for comprehensive, community-wide services in high-poverty neighborhoods, extended learning time, family engagement and safe schools. While these policies have broad and common-sense appeal, the research…

  20. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, the International Atomic Energy Agency published Training Course Series No. 1 (TCS-1), a training manual that provides in 20 chapters a detailed discussion of the background, philosophy, technical bases and requirements and implementation aspects of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. The Transport Regulations are widely implemented by the IAEA's Member States and are also used as the bases for radioactive material transport requirements of modal organisations such as the International Maritime Organization and the International Civil Aviation Organization. This document is a supplement of TCS-1 to provide additional material in the form of learning aids and new exercises, that have been developed with the use of TCS-1 at succeeding IAEA training courses. The learning aids in the first part of the supplement are hitherto unpublished material that provide detailed guidance useful in solving the exercises presented in the second part. Solutions to the exercises are on field at the IAEA Secretariat and are available by arrangement to lectures presenting IAEA training courses. 4 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  1. Development of a safe car seat

    OpenAIRE

    Malnarič, Vili; Zupanc, Mirko; Drenovec, Mitja

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a list and order of actions to be taken for the successful development and industrialization of a safe car seat. During the seat's development, its safety role in the car has to be considered. With respect to this, the procedures defining the safety characteristics of the products have to be taken into account. The development stages for a safe car seat are merged within three phases, as follows: the preparation of the starting pointsfor the development of a safe car seat, the...

  2. Safe production model for small mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Calizaya F.; Suryanto S.

    2008-01-01

    Presented a "safe production model" that can be adopted by small mine opera-tors to achieve their production targets safely and efficiently. The model consists of eightelements ranging from management commitment and leadership to safety account-abilityand communication. The model is developed considering the mine operators' resourcelimitations and the workers' training needs. The study concludes with a summary of asample survey that is conducted to validate the model and estimate a parameter for eachmine and determine its position in the safe production scale.

  3. Preserving User Location Privacy with Safe Zone for Spatial Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthi Priya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Now a days the use of Location Based Services (LBS gainedimportance among the users. In most of the cases, users do notwant to reveal their personal information to their serviceproviders. Sometimes mobile devices are out of the specifiedrange which cannot be processes by servers. Henceconfidentiality, privacy and up to date and optimal answerswill be important aspects in location based services. In thispaper we extend two features called safe zone and anonymizerto overcome the problems faced by LBS now.

  4. Transumbilical Breast Augmentation Is Safe and Effective

    OpenAIRE

    Dowden, Richard V.

    2008-01-01

    Transumbilical breast augmentation (TUBA) has proved to be safe and effective. This article highlights the advantages, disadvantages, gives an overview of the technique, discusses complications, and provides factual information to counter false negative information about the procedure.

  5. Anesthesia Safe for Infants, Toddlers, Study Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159247.html Anesthesia Safe for Infants, Toddlers, Study Says No lingering ... 2016 TUESDAY, June 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- General anesthesia doesn't seem to harm young children's mental ...

  6. Patient Safety: Guide to Safe Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Consumer Information > Patient Safety Guide to Safe Plastic Surgery Patient Safety More Resources Choose a surgeon ... Important facts about the safety and risks of plastic surgery Questions to ask my plastic surgeon Choose ...

  7. Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... and does not last long. back to top Tattoo Ink Research In a laboratory within FDA's Arkansas- ...

  8. Essentials for Keeping Kids Safe This Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159318.html Essentials for Keeping Kids Safe This Summer Expert shares tips for injury-free outdoor play To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news item will ...

  9. Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ...

  10. Stem Cells Deemed Safe for ALS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159627.html Stem Cells Deemed Safe for ALS Patients But further research needed to see if injections into spine would provide any benefit, researchers say To use the sharing features on ...

  11. Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SAFE procedure is an efficient method of evaluating the physical protection system of a nuclear facility. Since the algorithms used in SAFE for path generation and evaluation are analytical, many paths can be evaluated with a modest investment in computer time. SAFE is easy to use because the information required is well-defined and the interactive nature of this procedure lends itself to straightforward operation. The modular approach that has been taken allows other functionally equivalent modules to be substituted as they become available. The SAFE procedure has broad applications in the nuclear facility safeguards field as well as in the security field in general. Any fixed facility containing valuable materials or components to be protected from theft or sabotage could be analyzed using this same automated evaluation technique

  12. Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ...

  13. Child Care Provider's Guide to Safe Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician ... Children > Family Life > Work & Play > A Child Care Provider's Guide to Safe Sleep Family Life ...

  14. Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content ...

  15. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Medical Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains information necessary to medical officers concerned with the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the medical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  16. Female Fertility: Is it Safe to "Freeze?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the safety and risk of cryopreservation in female fertility preservation. Data sources: The data analyzed in this review were the English articles from 1980 to 2013 from journal databases, primarily PubMed and Google scholar. The criteria used in the literature search show as following: (1 human; embryo; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification, (2 human; oocyte/immature oocyte; cryopreservation/ freezing/vitrification, (3 human; ovarian tissue transplantation; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification, (4 human; aneuploidy/DNA damage/epigenetic; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification, and (5 human; fertility preservation; maternal age. Study selection: The risk ratios based on survival rate, maturation rate, fertilization rate, cleavage rate, implantation rate, pregnancy rate, and clinical risk rate were acquired from relevant meta-analysis studies. These studies included randomized controlled trials or studies with one of the primary outcome measures covering cryopreservation of human mature oocytes, embryos, and ovarian tissues within the last 7 years (from 2006 to 2013, since the pregnancy rates of oocyte vitrification were significantly increased due to the improved techniques. The data involving immature oocyte cryopreservation obtained from individual studies was also reviewed by the authors. Results: Vitrifications of mature oocytes and embryos obtained better clinical outcomes and did not increase the risks of DNA damage, spindle configuration, embryonic aneuploidy, and genomic imprinting as compared with fresh and slow-freezing procedures, respectively. Conclusions: Both embryo and oocyte vitrifications are safe applications in female fertility preservation.

  17. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Health Physics Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains technical information necessary for the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the technical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  18. Motherhood in childhood: addressing reproductive health hazards among adolescent married women in India

    OpenAIRE

    Patra, Shraboni

    2016-01-01

    Background In India, due to the high prevalence of child marriage, most adolescent pregnancies occur within marriage. Pregnancy and childbirth complications are among the leading causes of death in girls aged 15 to 19 years. Hence, adolescent pregnancy is a serious health threat to young women in India. Methods The study focuses on the level and trends of adolescent pregnancy rate (per thousand currently married adolescent women) in India in the last two decades, based on cross-sectional data...

  19. U.S. Multidimensional Poverty by Race and Motherhood: Evidence from Pennsylvania Census Data

    OpenAIRE

    Feridoon Koohi-Kamali; Ran Liu

    2015-01-01

    The combined influence of gender and race has been a principal defining feature of poverty in the USA, especially for single mothers. While the recent applications of capability-based multidimensional poverty (MP) measurement to the USA have examined race and gender, they have done so without taking into account the effects of the intersection of the two. This paper addresses directly that gap in the US literature on multidimensional poverty employing the US census data for 2006-2010 for Penn...

  20. How safely do we live

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume deals in detail with the multidisciplinary subject of the perception and assessment of hazards both according to objective and subjective points of view, and relates to recent studies performed particularly in the USA. The author shows up possible methods and means to arrive at a handling of hazards in keeping with socio-political requirements, and intends to draw the general public's attention to this topic. The individual chapters are dedicated to the term of risk, the acceptable risk, the perception of hazards, the special case of nuclear energy, the psychological backgrounds, the qualification of hazards, hazard assessment and risk management. Abstracts of these chapters were entered separately into the data base. The author thinks the dialogue with the citizen to be the only way to arrive at a better understanding of ''risk'' in the general public. (HSCH)

  1. Influencing behaviour for safe working environments

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Safety at work The objective of the project Safety at Work is to increase safety at the workplace by applying and combining state of the art artefacts from personal protective equipment and ambient intelligence technology. In this state of the art document we focus on the developments with respect to how (persuasive) technology can help to influence behaviour in a natural, automatic way in order to make industrial environments safer. We focus on personal safety, safe environments and safe beh...

  2. Managing Cassini Safe Mode Attitude at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. It has performed detailed observations and remote sensing of Saturn, its rings, and its satellites since that time. In the event safe mode interrupts normal orbital operations, Cassini has flight software fault protection algorithms to detect, isolate, and recover to a thermally safe and commandable attitude and then wait for further instructions from the ground. But the Saturn environment is complex, and safety hazards change depending on where Cassini is in its orbital trajectory around Saturn. Selecting an appropriate safe mode attitude that insures safe operation in the Saturn environment, including keeping the star tracker field of view clear of bright bodies, while maintaining a quiescent, commandable attitude, is a significant challenge. This paper discusses the Cassini safe table management strategy and the key criteria that must be considered, especially during low altitude flybys of Titan, in deciding what spacecraft attitude should be used in the event of safe mode.

  3. Abortion in Colombia : women's roles and discourses of motherhood: between freedom and responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is based on six months of fieldwork in Bogotá, Colombia in 2007. It explores the terms of discussions of the abortion debate in 2006/2007 that made possible a change in the law from a total ban on abortion to a restrictive one. There are two well-established movements, one against, and the other in favour of the decriminalisation of abortion. I describe the arguments of the activists of both positions and how they chose to go forward in their cause for or against abortion in Colom...

  4. THE TRIUMPH OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT: CONTESTING CORPORATE MOTHERHOOD AND THE CORPORATE WELFARE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Mandell

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Turn-of-the-century advocates of corporate welfare work promoted a familial model of labor relations which opened the doors of labor management to women. Scientific management experts argued instead for personnel management based on a consumer marketplace model. Scientific managers gained the upper hand during World War I. Their success depended, in part, on defining women as unfit for executive positions in labor relations, thereby closing the doors of labor management to women. This regendering masked an equally significant abandonment of the welfare system’s contention that companies bore an inherent responsibility for the general welfare of their workers.

  5. Reconciling Motherhood and Work: Evidence from Time Use Data in Three Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Ichino; Anna Sanz de Galdeano

    2004-01-01

    In this study we compare evidence based on time use data for three countries: Italy, Germany and Sweden. While in all these countries working mothers appear to dedicate less time to child care than non-working mothers, in Sweden the difference is smallest in absolute terms as well as statistically insignificant. In Italy maternal work is associated with the largest loss of maternal child care. To shed light on the possible reasons for this finding we consider the role of part-time job opportu...

  6. Regulatory control for safe usage of radiation sources in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespread applications of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment in the field of industry, medicine agriculture and research in India necessitated the establishment of an efficient regulatory framework and consequently the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was constituted to exercise regulatory control over the safe usage of the radioactive materials and the radiation generating equipment. The Atomic Energy Act, 1962 and the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971 promulgated under the Act forms the basis of radiation safety in India and Chairman, AERB is the Competent Authority to enforce the regulatory provisions of the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971, for safe use of radiation source in the country. AERB has published a number of documents such as Radiation Surveillance Procedures, Standards, Codes, Guides and Manuals for safe use and handling of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment. Apart from nuclear fuel cycle documents, these publications pertain to industrial radiography, medical application of radiation, transport of radioactive material, industrial gamma irradiators, X-ray units etc. AERB safety related publications are based on international standards e.g. BSS, IAEA, ICRP, ISO etc. This paper outlines the methodology of regulatory control exercised by AERB for safe use of the radioactive materials and the radiation generating equipment in the country. (author)

  7. Online Learning of Safe Patient Transfers in Occupational Therapy Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia L. Hayden D. H. Ed., OTR/L, CHT

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Online higher education is steadily increasing. For programs in allied health to be offered effectively in an elearning format, clinical psychomotor skills need to be addressed. The aim of this research was to design, implement, and evaluate an online safe patient transfers module for occupational therapy assistant (OTAstudents. The efficacy of teaching safe patient transfers in an e-learning environment was appraised using both quantitative and qualitative analysis. The applied research project was completed at a Tennessee community college. A convenience sample of eighteen students participated in the pilot study. Twenty-five studentsparticipated in the subsequent study. The instructional design of the course was based on Mager’s CriterionReferenced Instruction model. Streaming video was used as the delivery method for course material. A pretest/posttest evaluated the students’ cognitive knowledge of safe patient transfers. A behavioral transferscompetency checklist was used to rate videotapes of students’ performance of assisted stand pivot and dependent sliding board transfers. Research findings indicated students were able to learn this psychomotor clinical skill online with beginning proficiency. A paired t-test showed marked improvement of cognitive knowledge. A student learning survey revealed the majority of students preferred at least one hands-on classroom session where instructor feedback and interaction with classmates confirmed safe and effectiveclinical technique.

  8. A narrative analysis of educators' lived experiences of motherhood and teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska Knowles

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we argue that mothers often construct images of what they per­ceive as society's expectations of them. These images become the parameters in the eyes of society to which they aspire. This is reminiscent of the adage: "I am not who you think I am. I am not who I think I am. I am who I think you think I am". This study is based on analysis of the life-stories of four profes­sional female educators. These mother-educators shared their assumptions, cultural values and beliefs and showed how these shaped the subjective construction and harmonisation of the multiple roles of mother and educator. It was found that they often find themselves faced with the conflicting and complementary dimensions of the multiple roles of mother and professional. We contend that these mothers set high standards and expectations for themselves as mother-educator and they worry about failing, not only themselves, but also 'others'. They see the world of work, including parents, educators and school principal, as being against them - which is possibly a manifestation of a fal­tering self-image and linked to feelings of inadequacy. It is argued that mother educators need to negotiate new meaning in terms of their own perceived multi­ple role expectations so as to enable them to experience success as both home­makers and professionals. The challenge for the mother then is to engage in a constant search for her own identity.

  9. Interactive eLearning - a safe place to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Elisabeth; Moen, Anne; Kolberg, Ragnhild; Flingtorp, Gry; Linnerud, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Interactive web-based learning environment offers refreshing opportunities to create innovative solutions to explore and exploit informatics support on-the-job training. We report from a study where a hospital is created a interactive eLearning resource. The modules are creating a safe place to practice - to be used for introduction to the work and preparation for certification or re-certification of competencies. PMID:19593010

  10. Female Fertility: Is it Safe to "Freeze?"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhang; Li-Ying Yan; Xu Zhi; Jie Yan; Jie Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the safety and risk of cryopreservation in female fertility preservation.Data sources:The data analyzed in this review were the English articles from 1980 to 2013 from journal databases,primarily PubMed and Google scholar.The criteria used in the literature search show as following:(1) human; embryo; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification,(2) human; oocyte/immature oocyte; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification,(3) human; ovarian tissue transplantation; cryopreservation/ freezing/vitrification,(4) human; aneuploidy/DNA damage/epigenetic; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification,and (5) human; fertility preservation; maternal age.Study selection:The risk ratios based on survival rate,maturation rate,fertilization rate,cleavage rate,implantation rate,pregnancy rate,and clinical risk rate were acquired from relevant meta-analysis studies.These studies included randomized controlled trials or studies with one of the primary outcome measures covering cryopreservation of human mature oocytes,embryos,and ovarian tissues within the last 7 years (from 2006 to 2013,since the pregnancy rates of oocyte vitrification were significantly increased due to the improved techniques).The data involving immature oocyte cryopreservation obtained from individual studies was also reviewed by the authors.Results:Vitrifications of mature oocytes and embryos obtained better clinical outcomes and did not increase the risks of DNA damage,spindle configuration,embryonic aneuploidy,and genomic imprinting as compared with fresh and slow-freezing procedures,respectively.Conclusions:Both embryo and oocyte vitrifications are safe applications in female fertility preservation.

  11. "I will not let my HIV status stand in the way." Decisions on motherhood among women on ART in a slum in Kenya- a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indalo Dorcas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The African Medical Research Foundation antiretroviral therapy program at the community health centre in Kibera counsels women to wait with pregnancy until they reach the acceptable level of 350 cells/ml CD4 count and to discuss their pregnancy intentions with their health care providers. A 2007 internal assessment showed that women were becoming pregnant before attaining the 350 cells/ml CD4 count and without consulting health care providers. This qualitative study explored experiences of intentionally becoming pregnant among women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Methods Nine pregnant women, six newly delivered mothers and five women wanting to get pregnant were purposefully selected for in-depth interviews. Content analysis was used to organize and interpret the women's experiences of becoming pregnant. Results Women's choices for pregnancy could be categorized into one overarching theme 'strive for motherhood' consisting of three sub-themes. A child is thought of as a prerequisite for a fulfilled and happy life. The women accepted that good health was required to bear a pregnancy and thought that feeling well, taking their antiretroviral treatment and eating nutritious food was enough. Consulting health care providers was perceived as interfering with the women's decisions to get pregnant. Becoming pregnant as an HIV-infected woman was, however, complicated by the dilemmas related to disclosing HIV infection and discussing pregnancy intentions with their partners. Conclusions Motherhood is important to women on antiretroviral treatment. But they seemed to lack understanding of the relationship between a high CD4 cell count and a low chance of transmission of HIV to offspring. Better education about the relationship of perceived good physical health, low CD4 cell count and the risk of mother to child transmission is required. Women want to control the domain of childbearing but need enough information

  12. Safe Operation of Research Reactors in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, experience was gained in the field of safe operation of research reactors during the last five decades. In this time, in total 46 research reactors were built and operated safely. Concerning the design, there is, or has been, a very broad range of different types of research reactors. The variety of facilities includes large pool or tank reactors with a thermal power of several tens of megawatt as well as small educational reactors with a negligible thermal power and critical assemblies. At present, 8 research reactors are still in operation. The other facilities are permanently shutdown, in decommissioning or have already been dismantled completely and released from regulatory control. In this paper, four selected facilities still being operated are presented as examples for safe operation of research reactors in Germany, including especially a description of the safety reviews and safety upgrades for the older facilities. (author)

  13. Inherently safe technologies-chemical and nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic risk assessments show an inverse relationship between the likelihood and the consequences of nuclear and chemical plant accidents, but the Bhopal accident has change public complacency about the safety of chemical plants to such an extent that public confidence is now at the same low level as with nuclear plants. The nuclear industry's response was to strengthen its institutions and improve its technologies, but the public may not be convinced. One solution is to develop reactors which do not depend upon the active intervention of humans of electromechanical devices to deal with emergencies, but which have physical properties that limit the possible temperature and power of a reactor. The Process Inherent Ultimately Safe and the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled reactors are two possibilities. the chemical industry needs to develop its own inherently safe design precepts that incorporate smallness, safe processes, and hardening against sabotage. 5 references

  14. Implications of inherent safe nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of present day nuclear power reactors and research reactors depends on a combination of design features of passive and active systems, and the alert judgement of their operators. A few inherently safe designs of nuclear reactors for power plants are currently under development. In these designs, the passive systems are emphasized, and the active systems are minimized. Also efforts are made to eliminate the potential for human failures that initiate the series of accidents. If a major system fails in these designs, the core is flooded automatically with coolants that flow by gravity, not by mechanical pumps or electromagnetic actuators. Depending on the choice of the coolants--water, liquid metal and helium gas--there are three principal types of inherently safe reactors. In this paper, these inherently safe reactor designs are reviewed and their implications are discussed. Further, future perspectives of their acceptance by nuclear industries are discussed. (author)

  15. From Safe Systems to Patient Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarts, J.; Nøhr, C.

    2010-01-01

    safety. The editors want to thank Marianne Sørensen, Aalborg University for keeping track of all the contributions and ensuring they found their way to the final proceedings. We also want to thank all the reviewers for their excellent work in providing constructive feedback to the authors. This valuable...... third conference with the theme: The ability to design, implement and evaluate safe, useable and effective systems within complex health care organizations. The theme for this conference was "Designing and Implementing Health IT: from safe systems to patient safety". The contributions have reflected on...... and implementation of safe systems and thus contribute to the agenda of patient safety? The contributions demonstrate how the health informatics community has contributed to the performance of significant research and to translating research findings to develop health care delivery and improve patient...

  16. What Does a Safe Sleep Environment Look Like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social media links What Does a Safe Sleep Environment Look Like? Page Content You can reduce your ... following ways. Printable versions of this safe sleep environment information are available below: What does a safe ...

  17. Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Taking Medicines Safely Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely ... medicine. The pharmacist has filled the prescription. Now it's up to you to take the medicine safely. ...

  18. Predicting soil acidification trends at Plynlimon using the SAFE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Reynolds

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The SAFE model has been applied to an acid grassland site, located on base-poor stagnopodzol soils derived from Lower Palaeozoic greywackes. The model predicts that acidification of the soil has occurred in response to increased acid deposition following the industrial revolution. Limited recovery is predicted following the decline in sulphur deposition during the mid to late 1970s. Reducing excess sulphur and NOx deposition in 1998 to 40% and 70% of 1980 levels results in further recovery but soil chemical conditions (base saturation, soil water pH and ANC do not return to values predicted in pre-industrial times. The SAFE model predicts that critical loads (expressed in terms of the (Ca+Mg+K:Alcrit ratio for six vegetation species found in acid grassland communities are not exceeded despite the increase in deposited acidity following the industrial revolution. The relative growth response of selected vegetation species characteristic of acid grassland swards has been predicted using a damage function linking growth to soil solution base cation to aluminium ratio. The results show that very small growth reductions can be expected for 'acid tolerant' plants growing in acid upland soils. For more sensitive species such as Holcus lanatus, SAFE predicts that growth would have been reduced by about 20% between 1951 and 1983, when acid inputs were greatest. Recovery to c. 90% of normal growth (under laboratory conditions is predicted as acidic inputs decline.

  19. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R

    1966-01-01

    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  20. Spina Bifida and Motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakes, Olive

    1984-01-01

    Two women with spina bifida, a disability in which the spinal cord and nerves are damaged, gave birth to healthy babies. The article points out the need to provide young girls having this condition with information and counseling regarding sexual relationships, parenthood, and child rearing. (CL)

  1. Motherhood and the Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Miglena Nikolchina

    2014-01-01

    In her conceptualization of the human as defined by the capacity for revolt Kristeva unavoidably touches upon issues of robotization, technology, and the virtual. The concepts of animal and machine, however, although they do appear occasionally and in important ways, are never at the focus of her inquiries and are absent in her “New Forms of Revolt.” Yet these two concepts to a large extent define the field of contemporary philosophical debates of the human giving rise to three major theoreti...

  2. Motherhood among Incest Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Tamar

    1995-01-01

    Mothers (n=26) who were incest survivors were compared with 28 mothers with no such history for 7 areas of parenting skills: role-image, objectivity, expectations, rapport, communication, limit-setting, and role-support. Significant differences were found on all seven scales, characterized by a tendency for the incest survivors to be less skillful…

  3. Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for tips from an FDA pediatrician on teaching older kids about using medicine safely. To view our entire collection of videos, visit FDA's videos for consumers on YouTube Enseñando a los Niños Sobre el ...

  4. Submarine 'safe to escape' studies in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurd, K M; Seddon, F M; Thacker, J C; Blogg, S L; Stansfield, M R D; White, M G; Loveman, G A M

    2014-01-01

    The Royal Navy requires reliable advice on the safe limits of escape from a distressed submarine (DISSUB). Flooding in a DISSUB may cause a rise in ambient pressure, increasing the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) and decreasing the maximum depth from which it is safe to escape. The aim of this study was to investigate the pressure/depth limits to escape following saturation at raised ambient pressure. Exposure to saturation pressures up to 1.6 bar (a) (160 kPa) (n = 38); escapes from depths down to 120 meters of sea water (msw) (n = 254) and a combination of saturation followed by escape (n = 90) was carried out in the QinetiQ Submarine Escape Simulator, Alverstoke, United Kingdom. Doppler ultrasound monitoring was used to judge the severity of decompression stress. The trials confirmed the previously untested advice, in the Guardbook, that if a DISSUB was lying at a depth of 90 msw, then it was safe to escape when the pressure in the DISSUB was 1.5 bar (a), but also indicated that this advice may be overly conservative. This study demonstrated that the upper DISSUB saturation pressure limit to safe escape from 90 msw was 1.6 bar (a), resulting in two cases of DCS. PMID:25109084

  5. Safe Schools: What the Southeast Is Doing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SERVE Policy Brief, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Virtually no school is safe from violence. FBI statistics, which show that juvenile crimes actually peaked during the mid-1970s, are at odds with the public perception that crime rates among young people are at an all-time high. The FBI acknowledges, however, that the crimes committed by young people tend to be more serious than in the past, and…

  6. Keeping Food Safe during an Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flood, fire, national disaster, or the loss of power from high winds, snow, or ice could jeopardize the safety of ... Rather than putting the food outside, consider taking advantage of the cold ... started to thaw or had thawed when the power came back on. Is the food safe? How ...

  7. Hitting the Road: Safe Student Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labriola, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of school administrators' taking an active role in selecting motor coach carriers for their school trips. School administrators must be able to prove due diligence in selecting safe motor carriers. If not, they risk significant liability exposure for neglecting this critical responsibility. The article…

  8. Safe transport of radioactive material [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delivering radioactive material to where it is needed is a vital service to industry and medicine. Millions of packages are shipped all over the world by all modes of transport. The shipments pass through public places and must meet stringent safety requirements. This video explains how radioactive material is safely transported and describes the rules that carriers and handlers must follow. (author)

  9. Safe laparoscopic colorectal surgery performed by trainees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, Peter Koch; Schultz, Martin; Harvald, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is safe, but there have been hesitations to implement the technique in all departments. One of the reasons for this may be suboptimal learning possibilities since supervised trainees have not been allowed to do the operations to an adequate extent for the...

  10. Thick Film Fail-Safe Resistors

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcicka, D. L.; St. Nowak

    1983-01-01

    The investigations of low resistance thick film fail-safe resistors are presented. Particularly the shape of a resistive path; the temperature of the central part of the resistor while increasing the power up to 4 Watts; the kind of composition material for the resistive path vs. extensometer effect, and the stability of the resistor are discussed.

  11. Witnessing a Natural, Safe, and Healthy Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses her experience witnessing a natural, safe, and healthy home birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  12. Is ondansetron safe for use during pregnancy?

    OpenAIRE

    Koren, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Question While I usually prescribe doxylamine-pyridoxine for morning sickness, some of my patients with severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) receive ondansetron in hospital. I have read some new precautions recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Is ondansetron safe to use during pregnancy?

  13. Have a Safe and Healthy Fall

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-14

    Fall is a great time to try new and healthy activities with your parents! Have a food tasting or a leaf raking contest! Whatever your plans, make sure to have fun and be safe!  Created: 10/14/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 10/14/2010.

  14. Safe Schools for the Roller Coaster Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inlay, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The dramatic ups and downs so often witnessed in adolescents are the result of changes in their brain activity. It is vital that the emotional and psychological needs that arise from such intense brain development are acknowledged and addressed so that middle school becomes a safe environment for the budding adults.

  15. Staying Safe during Exercise and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/Go4Life Staying Safe during Exercise and Physical Activity There’s a way for almost every older adult ... have specific health conditions, discuss your exercise and physical activity plan with your health care provider. Endurance. Listen ...

  16. Safe practice in syringe pump management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoreka, Juliette; Sisay, Isatta

    Syringe pumps offer an alternative route for delivering medicine when the oral route cannot be used. This is particularly important for patients receiving palliative care, for whom a continuous infusion of medication can improve symptom control. This article explains how to administer drugs safely using these devices. PMID:26182586

  17. Safe and Healthy Travel to China

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-09

    In this podcast, Dr. Phyllis Kozarsky, CDC Travel Medicine expert, discusses what travelers should do to ensure a safe and healthy trip to China.  Created: 10/9/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ).   Date Released: 10/9/2008.

  18. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  19. The SafeBoosC Phase II Randomised Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer, Adelina; Greisen, Gorm; Benders, Manon;

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy-derived regional tissue oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (rStO2) reflects venous oxygen saturation. If cerebral metabolism is stable, rStO2 can be used as an estimate of cerebral oxygen delivery. The SafeBoosC phase II randomised clinical trial hypothesises....... The treatment guideline is presented to assist neonatologists in making decisions in relation to cerebral oximetry readings in preterm infants within the SafeBoosC phase II randomised clinical trial. The evidence grades were relatively low and the guideline cannot be recommended outside a research setting...... of the literature and assessment of the quality of evidence and the grade of recommendation for each of the interventions. Results and Conclusions: A clinical intervention algorithm based on the main determinants of cerebral perfusion-oxygenation changes during the first hours after birth was generated...

  20. Software functions for safe operation - learning from Sizewell-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future nuclear plants will use computer-based systems extensively. Regulatory acceptance must be planned and not underestimated. Commercial software packages will simplify it, but costly analysis and demonstration may be needed. Multiplexed control needs preparation of extensive configuration data and careful checking. On-screen soft control will need consideration of the integrity of the control path. Display design should follow human factors analysis of the operators' needs, and display layout needs great care for clarity. Computer-based system with planned quality will then bring great benefits in safe operation. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs

  1. What promotes sustainability in Safe Community programmes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindqvist Kent

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The theory and practice of safety promotion has traditionally focused on the safety of individuals. This study also includes systems, environments, and organizations. Safety promotion programmes are designed to support community health initiatives taking a bottom-up approach. This is a long-term and complex process. The aim of this study was to try to empirically identify factors that promote sustainability in the structures of programmes that are managed and coordinated by the local government. Methods Four focus group sessions with local government politicians and administrators in designated Safe Communities were conducted and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Collaboration was found to be the basis for sustainability. Networks, enabling municipalities to exchange ideas, were reported to positively influence the programmes. Personal contacts rather than organizations themselves, determine whether collaboration is sustained. Participants reported an increase in cross-disciplinary collaboration among staff categories. Administrators and politicians were reported to collaborate well, which was perceived to speed up decision-making and thus to facilitate the programme work. Support from the politicians and the county council was seen as a prerequisite. Participants reported an increased willingness to share information between units, which, in their view, supports sustainability. A structure in which all local authorities' offices were located in close proximity to one another was considered to support collaboration. Appointing a public health coordinator responsible for the programme was seen as a way to strengthen the relational resources of the programme. Conclusion With a public health coordinator, the 'external' negotiating power was concentrated in one person. Also, the 'internal' programme strength increased when the coordination was based on a bureaucratic function rather than on one individual

  2. Political Impetus: Towards a Successful Agenda-Setting for Inclusive Health Policies in Low- and Middle-Income Countries; Comment on “Shaping the Health Policy Agenda: The Case of Safe Motherhood Policy in Vietnam”

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoguang Yang; Xu Qian

    2016-01-01

    Agenda-setting is a crucial step for inclusive health policies in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Enlightened by Ha et al manuscript, this commentary paper argues that ‘political impetus’ is the key to the successful agenda-setting of health policies in LMICs, though other determinants may also play the role during the process. This Vietnamese case study presents a good example for policy-makers of other LMICs; it offers insights for contexts where there are limited health resou...

  3. Maternidade segura no Brasil: o longo percurso para a efetivação de um direito Safe motherhood in Brazil: the long road to the realization of a right

    OpenAIRE

    Lenice Gnocchi da Costa Reis; Vera Lucia Edais Pepe; Rosângela Caetano

    2011-01-01

    A mortalidade materna é uma questão complexa e permanece sendo um grave problema de saúde pública. Este artigo se propõe a olhar esse fenômeno sob a ótica do direito à saúde, destacando que a opção por trazer a discussão para o campo dos direitos humanos proporcionou a ampliação de sua explicação e uma apresentação mais clara à sociedade. É apresentada breve trajetória da inserção desse tema na agenda política global, explorando algumas iniciativas internacionais e nacionais. O quadro atual d...

  4. Mirror coatings for eye-safe laser generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eye-safety is of paramount importance in the use of laser-based instruments. Eye safe output at 1.54 micron is very important for various applications such as robot vision, range finding and laser radars in civil and military use. Nonlinear crystals have been used in state-of-the-art rangefinders for providing eye-safe output in the 1550 ± 50 nm band. We present our results on designing a back and a front mirror for eye-safe laser generation at a wavelength of 1538 nm. The back mirror is designed for high transmission at 1067 nm and high reflection at 1351 and 1538 nm. The front mirror is designed for high transmission at 1067 nm, high reflection at 1351 nm and partial reflection at 1538 nm. The optimized design is achieved using titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide layers. In the experiment, the coatings are fabricated by electron beam evaporation on BK7 glass substrates. The characteristics of the coated samples are compared with the results of the calculations, showing good correspondence. The laser mirrors so prepared passed the laser damage and durability tests.

  5. Patient Involvement in Safe Delivery: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfati, Forozun; Asefzadeh, Saeid; Changizi, Nasrin; Keramat, Afsaneh; Yunesian, Masud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patient involvement in safe delivery planning is considered important yet not widely practiced. The present study aimed at identifythe factors that affect patient involvementin safe delivery, as recommended by parturient women. Methods: This study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method and purposive sampling in 2013. The data were collected through 63 semi-structured interviews in4 hospitalsand analyzed using thematic content analysis. The participants in this research were women before discharge and after delivery. Findings were analyzed using Colaizzi’s method. Results: Four categories of factors that could affect patient involvement in safe delivery emerged from our analysis: patient-related (true and false beliefs, literacy, privacy, respect for patient), illness-related (pain, type of delivery, patient safety incidents), health care professional-relatedand task-related factors (behavior, monitoring &training), health care setting-related (financial aspects, facilities). Conclusion More research is needed to explore the factors affecting the participation of mothers. It is therefore, recommended to: 1) take notice of mother education, their husbands, midwives and specialists; 2) provide pregnant women with insurance coverage from the outset of pregnancy, especially during prenatal period; 3) form a labor pain committee consisting of midwives, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists in order to identify the preferred painless labor methods based on the existing facilities and conditions, 4) carry out research on observing patients’ privacy and dignity; 5) pay more attention on the factors affecting cesarean. PMID:26755469

  6. Safe drinking water act: Amendments, regulations and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book approaches the topic of safe drinking water by communicating how the EPA has responded to the mandates of Congress. Chapter 1 summarizes what is and will be involved in achieving safe drinking water. Chapter 2 describes the historical development of drinking water regulations. Chapter 3 summarizes the directives of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986. Chapters 4 through 9 discuss each phase of the regulatory program in turn. Specific problems associated with volatile organic chemicals, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, and microbiological contaminants are assessed in Chapter 4 and 5. The unique characteristics of radionuclides and their regulation are treated in Chapter 6. The disinfection process and its resultant disinfection by-products are presented in Chapter 7. The contaminant selection process and the additional contaminants to be regulated by 1989 and 1991 and in future years are discussed in Chapters 8 and 9. EPA's Office of Drinking Water's Health Advisory Program is explained in Chapter 10. The record of public water system compliance with the primary drinking water regulations is detailed in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 offers a nongovernmental perspective on the general quality of drinking water and how this is affected by a wide range of drinking water treatment technologies. Separate abstracts are processed for 5 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  7. Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated approach to facility safeguards effectiveness evaluation has been developed. This automated process, called Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE), consists of a collection of a continuous stream of operational modules for facility characterization, the selection of critical paths, and the evaluation of safeguards effectiveness along these paths. The technique has been implemented on an interactive computer time-sharing system and makes use of computer graphics for the processing and presentation of information. Using this technique, a comprehensive evaluation of a safeguards system can be provided by systematically varying the parameters that characterize the physical protection components of a facility to reflect the perceived adversary attributes and strategy, environmental conditions, and site operational conditions. The SAFE procedure has broad applications in the nuclear facility safeguards field as well as in the security field in general. Any fixed facility containing valuable materials or components to be protected from theft or sabotage could be analyzed using this same automated evaluation technique

  8. Black holes and asymptotically safe gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Falls, Kevin; Raghuraman, Aarti

    2010-01-01

    Quantum gravitational corrections to black holes are studied in four and higher dimensions using a renormalisation group improvement of the metric. The quantum effects are worked out in detail for asymptotically safe gravity, where the short distance physics is characterized by a non-trivial fixed point of the gravitational coupling. We find that a weakening of gravity implies a decrease of the event horizon, and the existence of a Planck-size black hole remnant with vanishing temperature and vanishing heat capacity. The absence of curvature singularities is generic and discussed together with the conformal structure and the Penrose diagram of asymptotically safe black holes. The production cross section of mini-black holes in energetic particle collisions, such as those at the Large Hadron Collider, is analysed within low-scale quantum gravity models. Quantum gravity corrections imply that cross sections display a threshold, are suppressed in the Planckian, and reproduce the semi-classical result in the deep...

  9. Estimated Maximal Safe Dosages of Tumescent Lidocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Jeffrey A.; Jeske, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumescent lidocaine anesthesia consists of subcutaneous injection of relatively large volumes (up to 4 L or more) of dilute lidocaine (≤1 g/L) and epinephrine (≤1 mg/L). Although tumescent lidocaine anesthesia is used for an increasing variety of surgical procedures, the maximum safe dosage is unknown. Our primary aim in this study was to measure serum lidocaine concentrations after subcutaneous administration of tumescent lidocaine with and without liposuction. Our hypotheses wer...

  10. Safe Assets’ Scarcity, Liquidity and Spreads

    OpenAIRE

    Chiesa, G

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a simple general equilibrium model to analyse the interactions between the financial and the real sector in an environment where liquidity holdings is an input of the credit/investment process. The supply of liquidity is constrained in that income pledgeability limits inside liquidity, and not all sovereign debt is safe/liquid. We pin down the determinants of liquidity/collateral premia and bond spreads, and with reference to the eurozone: (i) the implications of the ECB...

  11. Managing radioactive waste safely. Engaging Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between January and May 2002 the Scottish Council Foundation undertook a research project to assess 1 the level of public awareness about and interest in engaging the public in decision-making on managing radioactive waste safely in Scotland. This paper presents the main findings from the research that involved 70 people from across Scotland, aged between 14 and over 65 years old, and a literature review of Scottish, UK and international experience in engaging the public

  12. SIR - small is safe [in reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint USA-UK venture has been initiated to design a small nuclear reactor which offers low capital cost, greater flexibility and a potentially lower environmental impact. Called Safe Integral Reactor (SIR), the lead unit could be built in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority's (UKAEA's) Winfrith site if the design is accepted by the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII). This article describes the 320 MWe reactor unit that is the basis of the design being developed. (author)

  13. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive material embraces the carriage of radioisotopes for industrial, medical and research uses, and the movement of waste, in addition to consignments of nuclear fuel cycle material. It has been estimated that between eighteen and thirty-eight million package shipments take place each year. On the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), which enjoys wide representations from the Agency's Member States and international organizations, the Secretariat is preparing a training kit comprising this training manual and complementary visual aids. The kit is intended to be the basis for an extensive course on the subject and can be used in whole or in part for inter-regional, regional and even national training purposes. Member States can thus benefit from the material either through training courses sponsored by the Agency, or, alternatively, organized by themselves. As a step towards achieving that goal, the current training manual was compiled using material from the first Inter-Regional Training Course on the Safe Transport of Radioactive material that was held in co-operation with the Nuclear Power Training Centre of the then Central Electricity Generating Board at Bristol, United Kingdom. This Manual was initially published in 1990. On the recommendation of the Agency's Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), the Manual has since been expanded and updated in time for the second Inter-Regional Training Course, that will in 1991 similarly be held in Bristol. Refs, figs, tabs

  14. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  15. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  16. Representações acerca da maternidade no contexto da depressão pós-parto Representations concerning motherhood in postpartum depression context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Delias de Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou as representações acerca da maternidade no contexto da depressão pós-parto. Participaram do estudo duas mães encaminhadas para a realização de uma psicoterapia breve pais-bebê devido à presença de depressão no primeiro ano de vida de suas filhas. Entrevistas de avaliação realizadas antes da psicoterapia foram analisadas a partir dos quatro eixos interpretativos que constituem a constelação da maternidade, proposta por Stern (1997: vida-crescimento; relacionar-se primário; matriz de apoio; e reorganização da identidade. Nos relatos de ambas as mães apareceram representações acerca do sentimento de não ser capaz de cuidar do bebê logo após o nascimento, de ser pouco apoiada pelo companheiro, bem como uma reavaliação do relacionamento com suas próprias mães e com seus cônjuges. Verificou-se também que as representações de cada mãe apontaram para uma estreita associação entre seus conflitos pregressos e a interação atual com o marido e com o bebê.The present study investigated the representations concerning motherhood in the context of postpartum depression. The study sample was composed by two mothers referred to a brief parent-infant psychotherapy due to depression during the first year of their daughters' life. Interviews of evaluation carried out before psycotherapy were analyzed according to four interpretative axes of the motherhood constellation proposed by Stern (1997: life-growth; primary relatedness; supporting matrix; and identity reorganization. In the stories of both mothers there were representations concerning the feeling of not being capable to take care of their baby after birth, of being little supported by their husbands, as well as a reevaluation of the relationship with their own mothers and spouses. It was verified that the representations revealed a close association between their past conflicts and the current interaction with the husband and with the baby.

  17. Initial Implementation Indicators From a Statewide Rollout of SafeCare Within a Child Welfare System

    OpenAIRE

    Whitaker, Daniel J; Ryan, Kerry A.; Wild, Robert C.; Self-Brown, Shannon; John R. Lutzker; Shanley, Jenelle R.; Edwards, Anna M.; McFry, Erin A.; Moseley, Colby N.; Hodges, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong movement toward implementation of evidence-based practices (EBP) in child welfare systems. The SafeCare parenting model is one of few parent-training models that addresses child neglect, the most common form of maltreatment. Here, the authors describe initial findings from a statewide effort to implement the EBP, SafeCare®, into a state child welfare system. A total of 50 agencies participated in training, with 295 individuals entering training to implement SafeCare. Analyse...

  18. Safe Recursion on Notation into a Light Logic by Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Roversi; Luca Vercelli

    2010-01-01

    We embed Safe Recursion on Notation (SRN) into Light Affine Logic by Levels (LALL), derived from the logic L4. LALL is an intuitionistic deductive system, with a polynomial time cut elimination strategy. The embedding allows to represent every term t of SRN as a family of proof nets |t|^l in LALL. Every proof net |t|^l in the family simulates t on arguments whose bit length is bounded by the integer l. The embedding is based on two crucial features. One is the recursive type in LALL that enco...

  19. Safe transport of radioactive material - A training experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training is a key component in the packaging and storage of radioactive materials. This paper offers a method by which suitable training may be provided. It is based on experiences of organizing and managing and international course in England for the International Atomic Energy Agency on Safe Transport of Radioactive Material and in spite of its title, packaging was also included. The training course, of three weeks duration, was hosted by the Central Electricity Generating Board at its Nuclear Power Training Center on behalf of the British Government under the IAEAInterregional Training Program

  20. The SafeBoosC II randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plomgaard, Anne M; van Oeveren, Wim; Petersen, Tue Hvass;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The SafeBoosC phase II multicentre randomized clinical trial investigated the benefits and harms of monitoring cerebral oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with an evidence-based treatment guideline vs. no NIRS data and treatment as usual in the control group......)) and blood biomarkers of brain injury (S100β, brain fatty acid-binding protein, and neuroketal). METHODS: One hundred and sixty-six extremely preterm infants were randomized to either experimental or control group. EEG was recorded at 64 h of age and blood samples were collected at 6 and 64 h of age. RESULTS...

  1. SU-E-I-97: Smart Auto-Planning Framework in An EMR Environment (SAFEE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Our Radiation Oncology Department uses clinical practice guidelines for patient treatment, including normal tissue sparing and other dosimetric constraints. These practice guidelines were adapted from national guidelines, clinical trials, literature reviews, and practitioner's own experience. Modern treatment planning systems (TPS) have the capability of incorporating these practice guidelines to automatically create radiation therapy treatment plans with little human intervention. We are developing a software infrastructure to integrate clinical practice guidelines and radiation oncology electronic medical record (EMR) system into radiation therapy treatment planning system (TPS) for auto planning. Methods: Our Smart Auto-Planning Framework in an EMR environment (SAFEE) uses a software pipeline framework to integrate practice guidelines,EMR, and TPS together. The SAFEE system starts with retrieving diagnosis information and physician's prescription from the EMR system. After approval of contouring, SAFEE will automatically create plans according to our guidelines. Based on clinical objectives, SAFEE will automatically select treatment delivery techniques (such as, 3DRT/IMRT/VMAT) and optimize plans. When necessary, SAFEE will create multiple treatment plans with different combinations of parameters. SAFEE's pipeline structure makes it very flexible to integrate various techniques, such as, Model-Base Segmentation (MBS) and plan optimization algorithms, e.g., Multi-Criteria Optimization (MCO). In addition, SAFEE uses machine learning, data mining techniques, and an integrated database to create clinical knowledgebase and then answer clinical questions, such as, how to score plan quality or how volume overlap affects physicians' decision in beam and treatment technique selection. Results: In our institution, we use Varian Aria EMR system and RayStation TPS from RaySearch, whose ScriptService API allows control by external programs. These applications are

  2. Aerial view of Safe Haven roadway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This aerial photo captures many of the facilities involved in Space Shuttle processing. At center is the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The curved road is the newly restored crawlerway leading into the VAB high bay 2. The road restoration and high bay 2 are part of KSC's Safe Haven project, enabling the storage of orbiters during severe weather. The road circles around the Orbiter Processing Facility 3 (OPF-3) at left. OPF1 and OPF-2 are on the right below the curving road. East of the VAB, the crawlerway also extends from high bays 1 and 3 to the two Shuttle launch pads.

  3. Tarvekartoitus kondomiautomaateille : Case: Safe Play Finland Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Päivinen, Matti; Mäkelä, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Tarvekartoitus kondomiautomaateille Case: Safe Play Finland Oy Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää, onko kondomiautomaateilla kysyntää Laurea –ammattikorkeakoulujen- ja Länsiterminaalista lähtevien laivojen wc –tiloissa. Tutkimuksessa selvitetään, onko häpeä asia, joka vaikuttaa ihmisten ostokäyttäytymiseen niin, että kondomeja ostettaisiin mieluummin kondomiautomaatista kuin kaupasta myyjältä. Lisäksi tutkitaan laivamatkustajien tarpeita rajatummassa ympäristössä, jossa kondomeja ei ole...

  4. The safe disposal of landfill gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradable wastes deposited in landfill sites are decomposed by microbial activity to produce water and a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. This gas can migrate from the landfill site presenting hazards and an odor problem. If the gas cannot be commercially utilized it must be disposed of in a safe and economic manner by flaring. This paper briefly outlines the generation of the gas and its potential hazards. The need for gas control is discussed along with methods for the disposal of the extracted gas

  5. Inherently safe passive gas monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Bellamy, John Stephen; Shuler, James M.; Shull, Davis J.; Leduc, Daniel R.

    2016-09-06

    Generally, the present disclosure is directed to gas monitoring systems that use inductive power transfer to safely power an electrically passive device included within a nuclear material storage container. In particular, the electrically passive device can include an inductive power receiver for receiving inductive power transfer through a wall of the nuclear material storage container. The power received by the inductive power receiver can be used to power one or more sensors included in the device. Thus, the device is not required to include active power generation components such as, for example, a battery, that increase the risk of a spark igniting flammable gases within the container.

  6. A Safe Protocol for Amalgam Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana G. Colson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's environment has different impacts on our body than previous generations. Heavy metals are a growing concern in medicine. Doctors and individuals request the removal of their amalgam (silver mercury restorations due to the high mercury content. A safe protocol to replace the silver mercury filling will ensure that there is minimal if any absorption of materials while being removed. Strong alternative white composite and lab-processed materials are available today to create a healthy and functioning mouth. Preparation of the patient prior to the procedure and after treatment is vital to establish the excretion of the mercury from the body.

  7. Safe and Optimal Adaptive Cruise Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikučionis, Marius; Taankvist, Jakob Haahr

    2015-01-01

    In a series of contributions Olderog et al. have formulated and verified safety controllers for a number of lane-maneuvers on multilane roads. Their work is characterized by great clarity and elegance partly due to the introduction of a special-purpose Multi-Lane Spatial Logic. In this paper, we...... want to illustrate the potential of current modelchecking technology for automatic synthesis of optimal yet safe (collision-free) controllers. We demonstrate this potential on an Adaptive Cruise Control problem, being a small part of the overall safety problem considered by Olderog....

  8. Safe Harbors for Quantity Discounts and Bundling

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis W. Carlton; Michael Waldman

    2008-01-01

    The courts and analysts continue to struggle to articulate safe harbors for a wide variety of common business pricing practices in which either a single product is sold at a discount if purchased in bulk or in which multiple products are bundled together at prices different from the ones that would emerge if the products were purchased separately. The phenomenon of tying in which the sale of one product is conditioned on the purchase of another is closely related to bundling. Its analysis rel...

  9. Safe 15 Terawatt of Temelin NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work author presents a project Safe 15 Terawatt realised on the Temelin NPP. This project is one of the eight key projects of the CEZ group, associated in the 'Programme of efficiency'. The project started in June 2007 with long-term goals for horizon of year 2012. The safety indicators will be reached of the first quarter level of world's nuclear power plant - by the end of the first decade. By the end of year 2012 we will have achieved annual production of 15 billion kWh - in the Czech Republic: 15 Terawatt.

  10. Safe is beautiful{exclamation_point}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codee, H.D.K. [COVRA N.V., Vlissingen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: hccovra@zeelandnet.nl

    2006-07-01

    In the Netherlands long-term (100y) storage of all waste types in above ground, engineered structures, is a basic element of the waste management system. This is not a 'wait-and-see' solution, because at the same time provisions are taken for the final disposal. Facilities for treatment and storage of low, medium and high-level waste are in operation. The facility for high-level waste was commissioned in 2003. This facility is not only a technical building but also a work of art. We show that we are proud on our work. SAFE = BEAUTIFUL{exclamation_point} (author)

  11. A safe road transport system : Factors influencing injury outcome for car occupants

    OpenAIRE

    Stigson, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Given that over a million people are fatally injured in road accidents each year, the need for a systematic proactive approach is undeniable. The Swedish Road Administration (SRA) has developed a model for a safe road transport system based on the Vision Zero philosophy, to identify and prevent deviations from a safe system approach with regard to crashes. The overall objective of this thesis was: to study road crashes using this system approach, to identify whether the SRA ...

  12. AP的安全制备%Safe Preparations of Fine Ammonium Perchlorate Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Makoto Kohga

    2006-01-01

    Fine AP particles are required to manufacture the AP-based composite propellants with a wide burning rate range for various applications,especially high burning rate propellants. However,it is difficult to prepare a fine AP safely. Some safe methods for preparing the fine AP particles are reported such as the spray-dry method and freeze-dry method. It is shown that the crystal habit modified AP particle is an effective oxidizer to enhance the burning rate.

  13. Adjusting to motherhood. The importance of BMI in predicting maternal well-being, eating behaviour and feeding practice within a cross cultural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shloim, Netalie; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard; Hetherington, Marion

    2014-10-01

    Maternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with negative body image and restrained eating which are experienced differently across cultures. The present study aimed to: 1) examine if self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction changed from early pregnancy to 2-6 months after giving birth; 2) explore changes according to country (Israel vs. UK) and BMI; and 3) determine any relationship between these measurements and infant feeding. Participants completed questionnaires assessing self-esteem, body image and eating/feeding behaviours. Multilevel linear modelling was used to account for change and to assess the independent impact of BMI on outcomes. Seventy-three women and infants participated in the study in early pregnancy and again 16 (9) weeks following birth. Women gained 1.5 kg (range -12 + 23) and UK mothers reported significantly greater body dissatisfaction, but self-esteem and eating behaviours remained stable. BMI was the main predictor of self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction. Mothers' perceptions of infant's eating did not vary according to BMI or country; however, heavier mothers reported feeding their infants according to a schedule. The first months after giving birth are a key time to assess adjustment to motherhood but later assessments are necessary in order to track changes beyond the early period post-pregnancy. PMID:24933685

  14. The fluidity of disclosure: a longitudinal exploration of women's experience and understanding of HIV disclosure in the context of pregnancy and early motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Susan; Tomlinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    HIV disclosure is emphasised as an important component of efforts to prevent HIV transmission, including those to prevent transmission from mother to child. Studies which approach disclosure as a dichotomous variable that is either present or absent have generated a significant body of research describing disclosure patterns, antecedents, barriers and consequences. This study joins a growing body of research which explores disclosure as a complex, selective and gradual process occurring within the context of relationships. Using a qualitative, longitudinal ethnographic approach, the study explores HIV-positive women's subjective experience of disclosure and how they make meaning and understand disclosure processes during pregnancy and early motherhood. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of field notes from participant observation and in-depth interview transcripts suggests that women may experience disclosure as a more fluid construct than previously assumed. In contrast to the traditional dichotomous and linear approach to understanding disclosure, the meaning ascribed to disclosure "events" and behaviours was changeable and even reversible over time. These shifts occurred alongside changes in women's internal, interpersonal and material worlds and served important psychological and social functions. The findings have important implications for HIV counsellors working to encourage disclosure in the context of prevention interventions. PMID:23110311

  15. [Enrico Modigliani and the Institution of maternal assistance: a study of the social factors of illegitimate motherhood during early Twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fano, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Enrico Modigliani (1877-1931) was an Italian paediatrician of the early Twentieth century whose work anticipated modern concepts of maternal and child health. Convinced of the importance of creating a network of health and social care for children born out-of-wedlock, he began by providing care to single mothers and their babies at his home on Sundays. In 1918, in Rome, he established the Institution for Maternal Assistance, which aim was to provide single mothers with basic health information as well as tools to face their socioeconomic situation. The Opera encouraged breastfeeding and maternal acknowledgement of the child and promoted the establishment of lactation rooms and nurseries within factories. Moreover, women were supported to find a job which was compatible with their situation. In the first five years of activity, over 1,000 unmarried women were assisted; 95% of them acknowledged their children and 52% found a job. The infant mortality rate fell to 11%, which was much lower than the 35% observed at the time among the social classes which Modigliani called the most miserable. This article reviews Modigliani's paper, in which the paediatrician reported the first five years of activity of the Institution of Maternal Assistance and where he largely focused on the social factors surrounding illegitimate motherhood. The paper was structured like a modern scientific report, with photographic documentation and statistical data, and proposed a point of view regarding social inequality which is surprisingly up-to-date. PMID:27436257

  16. THE ROLE OF GOVEMMENT AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS IN SOLVING THE PROBLEMS OF MOTHERHOOD ON THE DON AND THE NORTH CAUCASUS IN THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna PANARINA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the reasons which intensified problems of motherhood because of significant worsening of the demographic situation in the country and in the North Caucasus in the Great Patriotic War. The article highlights the measures undertaken by the government bodies and social organizations to provide assistance to pregnant women, nursing mothers and single mothers. Special attention is given to the issues related to payment of benefits to women in need, improvement of working conditions, health care and creation of conditions for raising children. The author stresses the role of trade union organizations directly involved in helping women to deal with such problems as placing children in kindergartens and nurseries, finding additional sources of food supply, repairing apartments and many others. It is proved that at the final stage of the war the assistance measures were strengthened, that was manifested in the improvement of their financial situation and increased social status of women with many children in Soviet society. The article shows the main results of this work, which alleviated the demographic problems on the territory of the Don and the North Caucasus. 

  17. Project SAFE. Complexing agents in SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste, produced at Swedish nuclear power plants, will be deposited in an underground repository, SFR. Different substances in the waste or in degradation products emanating from the waste, and chemicals added during the building of cementitious barriers in the repository, may exhibit complexing properties. The complexation of radionuclides with such ligands may increase the mobility of the deposited radionuclides as sorption on the cement phases is decreased and solubility increased. This could lead to an increased leaching of the radionuclides from the repository to the geosphere and biosphere. To be able to evaluate the implications for the function and long-term safety of the repository a study has been performed on complexants in SFR. The study is a part of project SAFE (Safety Assessment of Final Repository for operational Radioactive Waste) at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. Concentrations of complexants were calculated in different waste types in the repository and compared to critical levels above which radionuclide sorption may be affected. The analysis is based on recent research presented in international and national literature sources. The waste in SFR that may act or give rise to substances with complexing properties mainly consists of cellulose materials, including cement additives used in waste conditioning and backfill grout. The radioactive waste also contains chemicals mainly used in decontamination processes at the nuclear power plants, e.g. EDTA, NTA, gluconate, citric acid and oxalic acid. The calculations performed in this report show that the presence of complexants in SFR may lead to a sorption reduction for some radionuclides in certain waste types. This may have to be considered when performing calculations of the radionuclide transport. Concentration calculations of isosaccharinic acid (ISA), using a degradation yield of 0.1 mole/kg cellulose (2%), showed that the limit above

  18. The Ultimate Safe (U.S.) Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ultimate Safe (U.S.) Reactor is a reactor that eliminates the traditional safety concerns of nuclear fission reactors. The U.S. reactor has an insignificant source term and no reasonable criticality accident. Furthermore, the negligible residual after-heat in the reactor renders its shutdown capability comparable or superior to conventional power sources in that no actions or precautions are required following a shutdown of power. The U.S. Reactor utilizes two principles to achieve ultimate safety. Fission products are continuously removed at the rate they are produced, thus retaining the inherent source term at an insignificant level. The reactor is operated with no excess criticality, hence no criticality accident is reasonably possible. The reactor is controlled safely by its negative temperature coefficient. The reactor maintains criticality by an internal breeding ratio that is trimmed to be exactly one. To facilitate the continuous fission product removal, the U.S. Reactor requires a fluid fuel and on-line, continuous fuel processing. Molten salt fuel was selected for its well-known beneficial properties: low vapor pressure at high temperature; adequate solubility of uranium and thorium as fluorides; good compatibility with structural materials; absence of irradiation damage; high negative temperature coefficient and ample developed technology and experience

  19. The ultimate safe (U.S.) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ultimate Safe (U.S.) Reactor is a reactor that eliminates the customary safety concerns of nuclear fission reactors. The U.S. Reactor has an insignificant source term and no reasonable criticality accident. Furthermore, the negligible residual after-heat in the reactor renders its shutdown capability comparable or superior to conventional power sources in that no actions or precautions are required following a shutdown of power. The U.S. Reactor utilizes two principles to achieve ultimate safety. Fission products are continuously removed at the rate they are produced, thus retaining the inherent source term at an insignificant level. The reactor is operated with no excess criticality, hence no criticality accident is reasonably possible. The reactor is controlled safely by its negative temperature coefficient. The reactor maintains criticality by an internal breeding ratio that is trimmed to be exactly one. To facilitate the continuous fission product removal, the U.S. Reactor requires a fluid fuel and on-line, continuous fuel processing. Molten salt fuel was selected for its well-known beneficial properties: low vapor pressure at high temperature; adequate solubility of uranium and thorium as fluorides; good compatibility with structural materials; absence of irradiation damage; high negative temperature coefficient; and amply developed technology and experience. The passive inherent safety features of the U.S. Reactor make it a potentially economical competitor with high reliability, thereby making it an attractive option for future energy generation

  20. Organizing Safe Transitions from Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Häggström

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Organizing and performing patient transfers in the continuum of care is part of the work of nurses and other staff of a multiprofessional healthcare team. An understanding of discharge practices is needed in order to ultimate patients’ transfers from high technological intensive care units (ICU to general wards. Aim. To describe, as experienced by intensive care and general ward staff, what strategies could be used when organizing patient’s care before, during, and after transfer from intensive care. Method. Interviews of 15 participants were conducted, audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results. The results showed that the categories secure, encourage, and collaborate are strategies used in the three phases of the ICU transitional care process. The main category; a safe, interactive rehabilitation process, illustrated how all strategies were characterized by an intention to create and maintain safety during the process. A three-way interaction was described: between staff and patient/families, between team members and involved units, and between patient/family and environment. Discussion/Conclusions. The findings highlight that ICU transitional care implies critical care rehabilitation. Discharge procedures need to be safe and structured and involve collaboration, encouraging support, optimal timing, early mobilization, and a multidiscipline approach.

  1. Is irradiation of food stuffs safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many advanced and several developing countries have abundant supplies of fresh, safe and nutritious food stuffs. Yet, despite the many precautions and processes in place to ensure safe food supply, microbial contamination is still a concern. There are a number of food processing tools available that provide additional protection for the food we consume. One very promising tool is food irradiation, which is a process of imparting ionizing energy to food to kill microorganisms. Food irradiation is the process of exposing food to a controlled source of ionising radiation for the purposes of reduction of microbial Ioad, destruction of pathogens, extension of product shelf life, and/or disinfection of produce. The term irradiation often evokes fears of nuclear radioactivity and cancer among consumers. The process seems frightening because it is powerful and invisible. Consequently questions and concerns exist particularly about the safety or wholesomeness of irradiated food. The paper highlights food irradiation as a food safety measure and the issues of concerns for consumers. (author)

  2. Safe sedation in modern cardiological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Stephen S; Sneyd, J Robert

    2015-10-01

    Safe sedation is fundamental to many modern cardiological procedures, and following the publication of the report on safe sedation by the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, this report discusses sedation specifically in cardiological practice. The major areas within cardiology that use sedation are cardioversion, catheter ablation particularly of atrial fibrillation, transoesophageal echocardiography, implantable device (cardiovascular implantable electronic device) procedures and other procedures such as transcatheter aortic valve replacement. There is increasing demand for cardiological sedation but there is wide geographical variation in its use and there are also growing data to support non-anaesthetists giving sedation. The use of benzodiazepines, particularly for short procedures, is common, but even here good record-keeping and audit together with an understanding of the continuum of sedation and having appropriately trained staff and the necessary facilities are vital. Nurse administration of propofol may be appropriate for some procedures in cardiology that require at least moderate sedation. Appropriate training is essential and the use of capnography and target controlled infusion pumps for propofol administration is recommended. PMID:26085525

  3. Safe transport of radioactive material. 3. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training as a means of helping Member States to implement the Transport Regulations. The training manual is an anchor of this standardized approach to training: it contains all the topics presented in the sequential order recommended by the IAEA for the student to gain a thorough understanding of the body of knowledge that is needed to ensure that radioactive material ranked as Class 7 in the United Nations' nomenclature for dangerous goods - is transported safely. The explanations in the text refer, where needed, to the appropriate requirements in the IAEA's Transport Regulations; additional useful information is also provided. Thus, the training manual in addition to the Transport Regulations and their supporting documents is used by the IAEA as the basis for delivering all of its training courses on the safe transport of radioactive material. Enclosed with the training manual is a CD-ROM that contains the text of the manual as well as the visual aids that are used at the IAEA's training courses. The following topics are covered: review of radioactivity and radiation; review of radiation protection principles; regulatory terminology; basic safety concepts: materials and packages; activity limits and material restrictions; selection of optimal package type; test procedures: material and packages; requirements for transport; control of material in transport; fissile material: regulatory requirements and operational aspects; quality assurance; national competent authority; additional regulatory constraints for transport; international liability and insurance; emergency planning and preparedness; training; services provided by the IAEA

  4. The safe use of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a means of promoting safety in the use of radiation sources, as well as encouraging consistency in regulatory control, the IAEA has from time to time organized training courses with the co-operation of Member State governments and organizations, to inform individuals from developing countries with appropriate responsibilities on the provisions for the safe use and regulation of radiation sources. Three such courses on the safe use of radiation sources have been held in both the USA, with the co-operation of the United States Government, and in Dublin, Ireland, with the co-operation of the Irish Government. The Training Course on the Safe Use and Regulation of Radiation Sources has been successfully given to over 77 participants from over 30 countries during the last years. The course is aimed at providing a basis of radiation protection knowledge in all aspects of the uses of radiation and of radiation sources that are used today. It is the intention of this course to provide a systematic enhancement of radioisotope safety in countries with developing radiological programmes through a core group of national authorities. The IAEA's training programmes provide an excellent opportunity for direct contact with lecturers that have extensive experience in resolving issues faced by developing countries and in providing guidance documents useful in addressing their problems. This document uses this collective experience and provides valuable technical information regarding the safety aspects of the uses not only of sealed and unsealed sources of radiation, but also for those machines that produce ionizing radiation. The first of these training courses, 'Safety and Regulation of Unsealed Sources' was held in Dublin, Ireland, June through July 1989 with the co-operation of the Nuclear Energy Board and Trinity College. This was an interregional training course, the participants came from all over the world. The second and third interregional courses, 'Safety and Regulation

  5. Results of 30 kWt Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE-30) primary heat transport testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of resistance heaters to simulate heat from fission allows extensive development of fission systems to be performed in non-nuclear test facilities, saving time and money. Resistance heated tests on the Safe Affordable Fission Engine--30 kilowatt (SAFE30) test article are being performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This paper discusses the results of these experiments to date, and describes the additional testing that will be performed. Recommendations related to the design of testable space fission power and propulsion systems are made

  6. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulations and rules for the safe transport of radioactive materials by all kinds of conveyance are offered. Different types of packages and the conditions associated with the methods of safe packaging are given

  7. Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Anybody ... right steps as Maria does everything wrong. Be Food Safe: Learn the Risks and Rules Anyone can ...

  8. Safe Recursion on Notation into a Light Logic by Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Roversi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We embed Safe Recursion on Notation (SRN into Light Affine Logic by Levels (LALL, derived from the logic L4. LALL is an intuitionistic deductive system, with a polynomial time cut elimination strategy. The embedding allows to represent every term t of SRN as a family of proof nets |t|^l in LALL. Every proof net |t|^l in the family simulates t on arguments whose bit length is bounded by the integer l. The embedding is based on two crucial features. One is the recursive type in LALL that encodes Scott binary numerals, i.e. Scott words, as proof nets. Scott words represent the arguments of t in place of the more standard Church binary numerals. Also, the embedding exploits the "fuzzy" borders of paragraph boxes that LALL inherits from L4 to "freely" duplicate the arguments, especially the safe ones, of t. Finally, the type of |t|^l depends on the number of composition and recursion schemes used to define t, namely the structural complexity of t. Moreover, the size of |t|^l is a polynomial in l, whose degree depends on the structural complexity of t. So, this work makes closer both the predicative recursive theoretic principles SRN relies on, and the proof theoretic one, called /stratification/, at the base of Light Linear Logic.

  9. Artificial sweeteners as a sugar substitute: Are they really safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun; Amarnath, S; Thulasimani, M; Ramaswamy, S

    2016-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) have become an important part of everyday life and are increasingly used nowadays in a variety of dietary and medicinal products. They provide fewer calories and far more intense sweetness than sugar-containing products and are used by a plethora of population subsets for varying objectives. Six of these agents (aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame-K, and stevia) have previously received a generally recognized as safe status from the United States Food and Drug Administration, and two more (Swingle fruit extract and advantame) have been added in the recent years to this ever growing list. They are claimed to promote weight loss and deemed safe for consumption by diabetics; however, there is inconclusive evidence to support most of their uses and some recent studies even hint that these earlier established benefits regarding NNS use might not be true. There is a lack of properly designed randomized controlled studies to assess their efficacy in different populations, whereas observational studies often remain confounded due to reverse causality and often yield opposite findings. Pregnant and lactating women, children, diabetics, migraine, and epilepsy patients represent the susceptible population to the adverse effects of NNS-containing products and should use these products with utmost caution. The overall use of NNS remains controversial, and consumers should be amply informed about the potential risks of using them, based on current evidence-based dietary guidelines. PMID:27298490

  10. Artificial sweeteners as a sugar substitute: Are they really safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS have become an important part of everyday life and are increasingly used nowadays in a variety of dietary and medicinal products. They provide fewer calories and far more intense sweetness than sugar-containing products and are used by a plethora of population subsets for varying objectives. Six of these agents (aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame-K, and stevia have previously received a generally recognized as safe status from the United States Food and Drug Administration, and two more (Swingle fruit extract and advantame have been added in the recent years to this ever growing list. They are claimed to promote weight loss and deemed safe for consumption by diabetics; however, there is inconclusive evidence to support most of their uses and some recent studies even hint that these earlier established benefits regarding NNS use might not be true. There is a lack of properly designed randomized controlled studies to assess their efficacy in different populations, whereas observational studies often remain confounded due to reverse causality and often yield opposite findings. Pregnant and lactating women, children, diabetics, migraine, and epilepsy patients represent the susceptible population to the adverse effects of NNS-containing products and should use these products with utmost caution. The overall use of NNS remains controversial, and consumers should be amply informed about the potential risks of using them, based on current evidence-based dietary guidelines.

  11. 'BeSAFE', effect-evaluation of internet-based, tailored safety information combined with personal counselling on parents' child safety behaviours: study design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beeck Eduard F

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries in or around the home are the most important cause of death among children aged 0-4 years old. It is also a major source of morbidity and loss of quality of life. In order to reduce the number of injuries, the Consumer Safety Institute introduced the use of Safety Information Leaflets in the Netherlands to provide safety education to parents of children aged 0-4 years. Despite current safety education, necessary safety behaviours are still not taken by a large number of parents, causing unnecessary risk of injury among young children. In an earlier study an E-health module with internet-based, tailored safety information was developed and applied. It concerns an advice for parents on safety behaviours in their homes regarding their child. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of this safety information combined with personal counselling on parents' child safety behaviours. Methods/Design Parents who are eligible for the regular well-child visit with their child at child age 5-8 months are invited to participate in this study. Participating parents are randomized into one of two groups: 1 internet-based, tailored safety information combined with personal counselling (intervention group, or 2 personal counselling using the Safety Information Leaflets of the Consumer Safety Institute in the Netherlands for children aged 12 to 24 months (control group. All parents receive safety information on safety topics regarding the prevention of falling, poisoning, drowning and burning. Parents of the intervention group will access the internet-based, tailored safety information module when their child is approximately 10 months old. After completion of the assessment questions, the program compiles a tailored safety advice. The parents are asked to devise and inscribe a personal implementation intention. During the next well-child visit, the Child Health Clinic professional will discuss this tailored safety information

  12. The design of the SAFE or SORRY? study: a cluster randomised trial on the development and testing of an evidence based inpatient safety program for the prevention of adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopmans Raymond TCM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients in hospitals and nursing homes are at risk of the development of, often preventable, adverse events (AEs, which threaten patient safety. Guidelines for prevention of many types of AEs are available, however, compliance with these guidelines appears to be lacking. Besides general barriers that inhibit implementation, this non-compliance is associated with the large number of guidelines competing for attention. As implementation of a guideline is time-consuming, it is difficult for organisations to implement all available guidelines. Another problem is lack of feedback about performance using quality indicators of guideline based care and lack of a recognisable, unambiguous system for implementation. A program that allows organisations to implement multiple guidelines simultaneously may facilitate guideline use and thus improve patient safety. The aim of this study is to develop and test such an integral patient safety program that addresses several AEs simultaneously in hospitals and nursing homes. This paper reports the design of this study. Methods and design The patient safety program addresses three AEs: pressure ulcers, falls and urinary tract infections. It consists of bundles and outcome and process indicators based on the existing evidence based guidelines. In addition it includes a multifaceted tailored implementation strategy: education, patient involvement, and a computerized registration and feedback system. The patient safety program was tested in a cluster randomised trial on ten hospital wards and ten nursing home wards. The baseline period was three months followed by the implementation of the patient safety program for fourteen months. Subsequently the follow-up period was nine months. Primary outcome measure was the incidence of AEs on every ward. Secondary outcome measures were the utilization of preventive interventions and the knowledge of nurses regarding the three topics. Randomisation took

  13. 29 CFR 1910.420 - Safe practices manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe practices manual. 1910.420 Section 1910.420 Labor... Safe practices manual. (a) General. The employer shall develop and maintain a safe practices manual... practices manual shall contain a copy of this standard and the employer's policies for implementing...

  14. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims...

  15. SafeZone: A Hierarchical Inter-Domain Authenticated Source Address Validation Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jie; Xu, Ke

    2011-01-01

    Next generation Internet is highly concerned about the issue of reliability. Principally, the foundation of reliability is authentication of the source IP address. With the signature-and-verification based defense mechanisms available today, unfortunately, there is a lack of hierarchical architecture, which makes the structure of the trust alliance excessively flat and single. Moreover, with the increasing scale of the trust alliance, costs of validation grow so quickly that they do not adapt to incremental deployment. Via comparison with traditional solutions, this article proposes a hierarchical, inter-domain authenticated source address validation solution named SafeZone. SafeZone employs two intelligent designs, lightweight tag replacement and a hierarchical partitioning scheme, each of which helps to ensure that SafeZone can construct trustworthy and hierarchical trust alliances without the negative influences and complex operations on de facto networks. Extensive experiments also indicate that SafeZone ...

  16. Piping reliability analysis for recirculation safe ends of a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a piping reliability analysis for the eight recirculation inlet-nozzle safe ends of a boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant. The analysis is based on principles of probabilistic fracture mechanics. On the basis of observed cracks in the pipe safe ends, the crack is modeled with a semi-elliptical shape initiating at the pipe inner wall. Crack samples are generated using a Monte Carlo simulation technique and an importance sampling scheme. Leak probabilities are estimated through the first ten years of plant lifetime. For the estimated plant operating time of 3 1/2 years, a 20% to 30% probability of safe end leaking is predicted. This prediction correlated well with actual findings at the plant in which one safe end out of eight was leaking after 3 1/2 years. (orig.)

  17. The current strategy for safe management and disposal of transuranic radioactive waste in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current laws in the United States of America direct the Department of Energy (DOE) to safely manage transuranic radioactive waste resulting from past, current and future defense-related nuclear activities. They also direct the DOE to develop and operate a deep geological repository for safe disposal of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP will be a world-class first of a kind facility for safe disposal of long-lived transuranic waste. It will be the first permanent repository licensed under a rigorous, ultra-conservative regulatory program requiring a risk-based performance assessment to demonstrate compliance with the environmental standards for 10,000 years. Its continued safe operation in compliance with several hazardous waste regulations and one of the strictest environmental radiation protection standards in the world will enhance public confidence in the safety of deep geological repositories both in the USA and abroad

  18. Post Fire Safe Shutdown Analysis Using a Fault Tree Logic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every nuclear power plant should have its own fire hazard analysis including the fire safe shutdown analysis. A safe shutdown (SSD) analysis is performed to demonstrate the capability of the plant to safely shut down for a fire in any given area. The basic assumption is that there will be fire damage to all cables and equipment located within a common fire area. When evaluating the SSD capabilities of the plant, based on a review of the systems, equipment and cables within each fire area, it should be determined which shutdown paths are either unaffected or least impacted by a postulated fire within the fire area. Instead of seeking a success path for safe shutdown given all cables and equipment damaged by a fire, there can be an alternative approach to determine the SSD capability: fault tree analysis. This paper introduces the methodology for fire SSD analysis using a fault tree logic model

  19. Bacteriocins: safe, natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, J; Montville, T J; Nes, I F; Chikindas, M L

    2001-12-01

    Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Though these bacteriocins are produced by LAB found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods, nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Many bacteriocins have been characterized biochemically and genetically, and though there is a basic understanding of their structure-function, biosynthesis, and mode of action, many aspects of these compounds are still unknown. This article gives an overview of bacteriocin applications, and differentiates bacteriocins from antibiotics. A comparison of the synthesis. mode of action, resistance and safety of the two types of molecules is covered. Toxicity data exist for only a few bacteriocins, but research and their long-time intentional use strongly suggest that bacteriocins can be safely used. PMID:11764886

  20. Safe Laser Beam Propagation for Interplanetary Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Keith E.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-to-space laser uplinks to Earth–orbiting satellites and deep space probes serve both as a beacon and an uplink command channel for deep space probes and Earth-orbiting satellites. An acquisition and tracking point design to support a high bandwidth downlink from a 20-cm optical terminal on an orbiting Mars spacecraft typically calls for 2.5 kW of 1030-nm uplink optical power in 40 micro-radians divergent beams.2 The NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance) of the 1030nm uplink is in excess of 2E5 km, approximately half the distance to the moon. Recognizing the possible threat of high power laser uplinks to the flying public and to sensitive Earth-orbiting satellites, JPL developed a three-tiered system at its Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to ensure safe laser beam propagation through navigational and near-Earth space.