WorldWideScience

Sample records for based prosthetic devices

  1. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P. [Ascension Orthopedics (US); Cook, S.D. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (US). School of Medicine

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  2. Cortical control for prosthetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrew B.; Kipke, D. W.; Perepelkin, P. D.

    1996-05-01

    The work presented in this session is part of a project to develop an arm-control system based on neuronal activity recorded from the cerebral cortex. This will make it possible for amputees or paralyzed individuals to move a prosthetic arm or, using functional neural stimulation, their own limbs as effortlessly and with as much skill as intact individuals. We are developing and testing this system in monkeys and hope to have a prototype working in the next couple of years. This project has been made more feasible because we have been able, in the last 15 years to extract, from the brain, a signal that represents arm trajectory accurately. In this paper, we describe how this technique was developed and how we use this as the basis for our control signal. An alternative approach using a self-organizing feature map, an algorithm to deduce arm configuration given an endpoint trajectory and the development of a telemetry system to transmit the neuronal data is described in subsequent papers.

  3. An extremely lightweight fingernail worn prosthetic interface device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetkin, Oguz; Ahluwalia, Simranjit; Silva, Dinithi; Kasi-Okonye, Isioma; Volker, Rachael; Baptist, Joshua R.; Popa, Dan O.

    2016-05-01

    Upper limb prosthetics are currently operated using several electromyography sensors mounted on an amputee's residual limb. In order for any prosthetic driving interface to be widely adopted, it needs to be responsive, lightweight, and out of the way when not being used. In this paper we discuss the possibility of replacing such electrodes with fingernail optical sensor systems mounted on the sound limb. We present a prototype device that can detect pinch gestures and communicate with the prosthetic system. The device detects the relative position of fingers to each other by measuring light transmitted via tissue. Applications are not limited to prosthetic control, but can be extended to other human-machine interfaces.

  4. Toxicology of antimicrobial nanoparticlesfor prosthetic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuñez-Anita RE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rosa Elvira Nuñez-Anita,1 Laura Susana Acosta-Torres,2 Jorge Vilar-Pineda,2 Juan Carlos Martínez-Espinosa,3 Javier de la Fuente-Hernández, 2 Víctor Manuel Castaño4 1Facultad de Medicina Veterinariay Zootecnia, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Tarìmbaro Municipio de Morelia, Michoacán, México; 2Escuela Nacionalde Estudios Superiores, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Unidad León, Leòn Guanajuato, México; 3Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria Campus Guanajuato, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Leòn Guanajuato, México; 4Departamento de Materiales Moleculares, Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Querètaro, México Abstract: Advances in nanotechnology are producing an accelerated proliferation of new nanomaterial composites that are likely to become an important source of engineered health-related products. Nanoparticles with antifungal effects are of great interest in the formulation of microbicidal materials. Fungi are found as innocuous commensals and colonize various habitats in and on humans, especially the skin and mucosa. As growth on surfaces is a natural part of the Candida spp. lifestyle, one can expect that Candida organisms colonize prosthetic devices, such as dentures. Macromolecular systems, due to their properties, allow efficient use of these materials in various fields, including the creation of reinforced nanoparticle polymers with antimicrobial activity. This review briefly summarizes the results of studies conducted during the past decade and especially in the last few years focused on the toxicity of different antimicrobial polymers and factors influencing their activities, as well as the main applications of antimicrobial polymers in dentistry. The present study addresses aspects that are often overlooked in nanotoxicology studies, such as careful time-dependent characterization of agglomeration

  5. Toxicology of antimicrobial nanoparticles for prosthetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez-Anita, Rosa Elvira; Acosta-Torres, Laura Susana; Vilar-Pineda, Jorge; Martínez-Espinosa, Juan Carlos; de la Fuente-Hernández, Javier; Castaño, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology are producing an accelerated proliferation of new nanomaterial composites that are likely to become an important source of engineered health-related products. Nanoparticles with antifungal effects are of great interest in the formulation of microbicidal materials. Fungi are found as innocuous commensals and colonize various habitats in and on humans, especially the skin and mucosa. As growth on surfaces is a natural part of the Candida spp. lifestyle, one can expect that Candida organisms colonize prosthetic devices, such as dentures. Macromolecular systems, due to their properties, allow efficient use of these materials in various fields, including the creation of reinforced nanoparticle polymers with antimicrobial activity. This review briefly summarizes the results of studies conducted during the past decade and especially in the last few years focused on the toxicity of different antimicrobial polymers and factors influencing their activities, as well as the main applications of antimicrobial polymers in dentistry. The present study addresses aspects that are often overlooked in nanotoxicology studies, such as careful time-dependent characterization of agglomeration and ion release. PMID:25187703

  6. Which mesh or graft? Prosthetic devices for abdominal wall reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Shazia; El-Hayek, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews the ever-increasing number of prosthetic devices--both synthetic mesh and biologic grafts--now in use for abdominal wall reconstruction. It also introduces a novel hybrid synthetic/biologic graft (Zenapro) and suture passer device (Novapass).

  7. PATIENT SATISFACTION WITH ORTHOPEDIC AND PROSTHETIC MEDICAL DEVICES

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    Ivona Malovecká

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Collecting information about patient satisfaction with orthopedic and prosthetic medical devices in terms of utility, tolerance, and compliance is essential for verifying and improving the quality of these devices. In addition, such information is useful for improving the patients’ quality of life, and the quality management systems of health care providers. This study assessed patient satisfaction with these devices from a sample of patients with orthopedic, neurologic, and rheumatic diseases at the Specialized Hospital for Orthopedic Prosthetics and at the premises of the Dispenser of Orthopedic and Prosthetic Medical Devices, both in Bratislava in the Slovak Republic. The assessment involved a translated and validated questionnaire about patient satisfaction with orthopedic and prosthetic medical devices to evaluate key factors of weight, fit, appearance, comfort, pain free, free of abrasiveness, ease of application, and durability of each device. The study samples consisted of patients with lower limb problems (42.5%, spine problems (26.9%, and a combination of leg and spine issues (25.9%. Orthopedic disease occurred in 73.6% of these patients, a combination of orthopedic and neurologic disease in 13.5%, and neurologic disease in 7.3%. Orthopedic insoles (36.3%, hip belts (17.6%, and the corset on the spine (5.2% were the most used devices. Overall, the medical devices rated highly, with a high proportion of patients voting “strongly satisfied” in five of the eight key factors (range 51.8 to 63.2%, followed by a moderately lower proportion for durability (43.5%, comfort (37.3%, and appearance (31.1%. The comfort in wearing the device received the greatest patient dissatisfaction (22.8% of patients, followed by appearance (12.4%, and then fit (7.3%.

  8. Rehabilitation regimes based upon psychophysical studies of prosthetic vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. C.; Suaning, G. J.; Morley, J. W.; Lovell, N. H.

    2009-06-01

    Human trials of prototype visual prostheses have successfully elicited visual percepts (phosphenes) in the visual field of implant recipients blinded through retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Researchers are progressing rapidly towards a device that utilizes individual phosphenes as the elementary building blocks to compose a visual scene. This form of prosthetic vision is expected, in the near term, to have low resolution, large inter-phosphene gaps, distorted spatial distribution of phosphenes, restricted field of view, an eccentrically located phosphene field and limited number of expressible luminance levels. In order to fully realize the potential of these devices, there needs to be a training and rehabilitation program which aims to assist the prosthesis recipients to understand what they are seeing, and also to adapt their viewing habits to optimize the performance of the device. Based on the literature of psychophysical studies in simulated and real prosthetic vision, this paper proposes a comprehensive, theoretical training regime for a prosthesis recipient: visual search, visual acuity, reading, face/object recognition, hand-eye coordination and navigation. The aim of these tasks is to train the recipients to conduct visual scanning, eccentric viewing and reading, discerning low-contrast visual information, and coordinating bodily actions for visual-guided tasks under prosthetic vision. These skills have been identified as playing an important role in making prosthetic vision functional for the daily activities of their recipients.

  9. NIRS monitoring of muscle contraction to control a prosthetic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Thomas; Zambarbieri, Daniela; Beltrami, Giorgio; Verni, Gennaro

    1999-01-01

    The fitting of upper-extremity amputees requires special efforts, and its significance has been increased by the development of the myoelectrically controlled prosthetic arm. This solution is not free of problems due to the nature of the amputation, to the electromagnetic noise affecting the myelectrical signal and to the perspiration due to the contact between socket and the residual limb. Starting from the fact that NIRS and electromyographic signals are similar during a muscle contraction, we have first studied the NIRS signal during forearm muscle contractions in normal and amputee subjects. Then a new system to interface the NIRS unit and the myoelectrical prosthetic hand has been developed. The NIRS unit has been used as optical sensor and all the operations (I/O and signal processing) are performed via software. This system has been tested on normal and amputee subjects performing hand grasping using a visual biofeedback control scheme. All the subjects have been able to perform these operations demonstrating the NIRS technique. This could represent an alternative solution for controlling a prosthetic device.

  10. Modulation of grasping force in prosthetic hands using neural network-based predictive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasluosta, Cristian F; Chiu, Alan W L

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the implementation of a neural network-based predictive control system for driving a prosthetic hand. Nonlinearities associated with the electromechanical aspects of prosthetic devices present great challenges for precise control of this type of device. Model-based controllers may overcome this issue. Moreover, given the complexity of these kinds of electromechanical systems, neural network-based modeling arises as a good fit for modeling the fingers' dynamics. The results of simulations mimicking potential situations encountered during activities of daily living demonstrate the feasibility of this technique.

  11. Prosthetic advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Zach T; Potter, Benjamin K; Vandersea, James; Wolf, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Much of the current prosthetic technology is based on developments that have taken place during or directly following times of war. These developments have evolved and improved over the years, and now there are many more available options to provide a comfortable, cosmetic, and highly functional prosthesis. Even so, problems with fit and function persist. Recent developments have addressed some of the limitations faced by some military amputees. On-board microprocessor-controlled joints are making prosthetic arms and legs more responsive to environmental barriers and easier to control by the user. Advances in surgical techniques will allow more intuitive control and secure attachment to the prosthesis. As surgical techniques progress and permeate into standard practice, more sophisticated powered prosthetic devices will become commonplace, helping to restore neuromuscular loss of function. Prognoses following amputation will certainly rise, factoring into the surgeon's decision to attempt to save a limb versus perform an amputation.

  12. Efficiency of voluntary opening hand and hook prosthetic devices : 24 years of development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerwin; Bongers, Raoul M.; Van der Sluis, Corry K.; Plettenburg, Dick H.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative data on the mechanical performance of upper-limb prostheses are very important in prostheses development and selection. The primary goal of this study was to objectively evaluate the mechanical performance of adultsize voluntary opening (VU) prosthetic terminal devices and select the be

  13. Efficiency of voluntary opening hand and hook prosthetic devices, 24 years of development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.; Bongers, R.M.; Van der Sluis, C.K.; Plettenburg, D.H.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative data on the mechanical performance of upper-limb prostheses are very important in prostheses development and selection. The primary goal of this study was to objectively evaluate the mechanical performance of adult-size voluntary opening (VO) prosthetic terminal devices and select the b

  14. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF THE POLYMER PROSTHETIC BASE PRESSURE OVER THE PROSTHETIC FIELD

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    A.T. Cigu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Partially mobile polymeric prostheses constitute absolutely necessary therapeutical means in all forms of partial edentations. As known, polymeric partial prostheses constitute temporary solutions for the treatment of edentaton states. Nowadays, this treatment includes traditional acrylic prostheses, as well as elastic prostheses made of different material systems. Such a system is Valplast, which uses a polyamide for the realization of the prosthetic base. Both the rigid and the elastic materials are nowadays under debate, different – positive or negative – opinions being uttered in relation with their utilization. The scope of the present study is to support the intensive application of the elastic materials. Extremely important is the identification of the intrinsic qualities of the materials influencing the behaviour in the oral cavity, especially the effects of pressure upon the biological structures of the prosthetic field.

  15. Device to monitor sock use in people using prosthetic limbs: Technical report

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    Joan E. Sanders, PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A device using radio frequency identification (RFID technology was developed to continuously monitor sock use in people who use prosthetic limbs. RFID tags were placed on prosthetic socks worn by subjects with transtibial limb loss, and a high-frequency RFID reader and antenna were placed in a portable unit mounted to the outside of the prosthetic socket. Bench testing showed the device to have a maximum read range between 5.6 cm and 12.7 cm, depending on the RFID tag used. Testing in a laboratory setting on three participants with transtibial amputation showed that the device correctly monitored sock presence during sitting, standing, and walking activity when one or two socks were worn but was less reliable when more socks were used. Accurate detection was sensitive to orientation of the tag relative to the reader, presence of carbon fiber in the prosthetic socket, pistoning of the limb in the socket, and overlap among the tags. Use of ultra-high-­frequency RFID may overcome these limitations. With improvements, the technology may prove useful to practitioners prescribing volume accommodation strategies for patients by providing information about sock use between clinical visits, including timing and consistency of daily sock-ply changes.

  16. Effect of Modifying Prosthetic Socket Base Materials by Adding Nanodiamonds

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    Lifang Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The curing process of prosthetic socket base materials requires attention owing to a series of associated problems that are yet to be addressed and solved. However, to date, few relevant studies have been reported. In this paper, nanodiamonds modified with a silane coupling agent were dispersed into a prosthetic socket base material, and the performance of the modified base materials was investigated. Adding a predetermined amount of nanodiamonds to the prosthetic socket base material increased the glass transition temperature, improved the mechanical properties of the cured base material, and reduced the influence of the volatile gas formed during the curing process on the environment. With increasing nanodiamond contents, the glass transition temperature increased and the mechanical properties improved slightly. Owing to the high thermal conductivity of the nanodiamonds, the localized heat, as a result of the curing process, could be dissipated and released. Thus, adding nanodiamonds led to a more uniform temperature field forming in the curing system. This improved the curing process and reduced the formation of volatile monomers, thereby decreasing the adverse impact of the generated volatile gases on the environment. All of these provide a potential strategy for modifying prosthetic socket base materials.

  17. Surface EMG and intra-socket force measurement to control a prosthetic device

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    Sanford, Joe; Patterson, Rita; Popa, Dan

    2015-06-01

    Surface electromyography (SEMG) has been shown to be a robust and reliable interaction method allowing for basic control of powered prosthetic devices. Research has shown a marked decrease in EMG-classification efficiency throughout activities of daily life due to socket shift and movement and fatigue as well as changes in degree of fit of the socket throughout the subject's lifetime. Users with the most severe levels of amputation require the most complex devices with the greatest number of degrees of freedom. Controlling complex dexterous devices with limited available inputs requires the addition of sensing and interaction modalities. However, the larger the amputation severity, the fewer viable SEMG sites are available as control inputs. Previous work reported the use of intra-socket pressure, as measured during wrist flexion and extension, and has shown that it is possible to control a powered prosthetic device with pressure sensors. In this paper, we present data correlations of SEMG data with intra-socket pressure data. Surface EMG sensors and force sensors were housed within a simulated prosthetic cuff fit to a healthy-limbed subject. EMG and intra-socket force data was collected from inside the cuff as a subject performed pre-defined grip motions with their dominant hand. Data fusion algorithms were explored and allowed a subject to use both intra-socket pressure and SEMG data as control inputs for a powered prosthetic device. This additional input modality allows for an improvement in input classification as well as information regarding socket fit through out activities of daily life.

  18. Hybrid nanostructured coating for increased resistance of prosthetic devices to staphylococcal colonization

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    Anghel, Ion; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai

    2013-01-01

    Prosthetic medical device-associated infections are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality rates. Novel improved materials and surfaces exhibiting inappropriate conditions for microbial development are urgently required in the medical environment. This study reveals the benefit of using natural Mentha piperita essential oil, combined with a 5 nm core/shell nanosystem-improved surface exhibiting anti-adherence and antibiofilm properties. This strategy reveals a dual role of the nano-oil system; on one hand, inhibiting bacterial adherence and, on the other hand, exhibiting bactericidal effect, the core/shell nanosystem is acting as a controlled releasing machine for the essential oil. Our results demonstrate that this dual nanobiosystem is very efficient also for inhibiting biofilm formation, being a good candidate for the design of novel material surfaces used for prosthetic devices.

  19. Hybrid nanostructured coating for increased resistance of prosthetic devices to staphylococcal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Ion; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai

    2013-01-02

    Prosthetic medical device-associated infections are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality rates. Novel improved materials and surfaces exhibiting inappropriate conditions for microbial development are urgently required in the medical environment. This study reveals the benefit of using natural Mentha piperita essential oil, combined with a 5 nm core/shell nanosystem-improved surface exhibiting anti-adherence and antibiofilm properties. This strategy reveals a dual role of the nano-oil system; on one hand, inhibiting bacterial adherence and, on the other hand, exhibiting bactericidal effect, the core/shell nanosystem is acting as a controlled releasing machine for the essential oil. Our results demonstrate that this dual nanobiosystem is very efficient also for inhibiting biofilm formation, being a good candidate for the design of novel material surfaces used for prosthetic devices.

  20. Reconsidering evidence-based practice in prosthetic rehabilitation : a shared enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Twillert, S.; Geertzen, J.; Hemminga, T.; Postema, K.; Lettinga, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A divide is experienced between producers and users of evidence in prosthetic rehabilitation. Objective: To discuss the complexity inherent in establishing evidence-based practice in a prosthetic rehabilitation team illustrated by the case of prosthetic prescription for elderly dysvascul

  1. On the applicability of fluidic flexible matrix composite variable impedance materials for prosthetic and orthotic devices

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    Philen, M.

    2009-10-01

    The applicability of variable impedance fluidic flexible matrix composites (F2MC) is investigated for development of prosthetic and orthotic devices. The F2MC material is an innovative combination of high performance composite tubes containing high bulk modulus fluids. The new material system can potentially achieve a change in stiffness of several orders of magnitude through valve control. The F2MC material system is investigated in this research through analytical studies for active impedance control for load transfer reduction in transtibial prosthetic sockets and impedance joint control for ankle-foot orthoses (AFO). Preliminary analysis results indicate that the variable modulus system can reduce the load transfer between the limb and transtibial socket and can provide impedance tailoring for improving foot-slap in an AFO.

  2. A new in-built device for one-point stepless prosthetic alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, P; Lind, L; Lind, K; Rennerfeldt, G; Kreicbergs, A

    1988-08-01

    The authors have developed a new in-built device for alignment of below-knee prostheses. The device allows one-point, stepless adjustment of angle and slide, independently of each other and also after completed prosthetic manufacture. Principally, the device consists of a half-sphere for angle adjustment and a plate for both slide adjustment and socket application. If the socket has to be exchanged, the whole device can be re-used, apart from the plate, which forms part of the socket bottom. The device is light, compact, cosmetically easy to cover and cheap. The design incorporates a combination of the most important facilities for alignment as well as for exchange of socket, and by its simplicity seems to offer major advantages over other designs.

  3. Breaking the fixed-arrival-time restriction in reaching movements of neural prosthetic devices.

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    Srinivasan, Lakshminarayan; da Silva, Marco

    2011-06-01

    We routinely generate reaching arm movements to function independently. For paralyzed users of upper extremity neural prosthetic devices, flexible, high-performance reaching algorithms will be critical to restoring quality-of-life. Previously, algorithms called real-time reach state equations (RSE) were developed to integrate the user's plan and execution-related neural activity to drive reaching movements to arbitrary targets. Preliminary validation under restricted conditions suggested that RSE might yield dramatic performance improvements. Unfortunately, real-world applications of RSE have been impeded because the RSE assumes a fixed, known arrival time. Recent animal-based prototypes attempted to break the fixed-arrival-time assumption by proposing a standard model (SM) that instead restricted the user's movements to a fixed, known set of targets. Here, we leverage general purpose filter design (GPFD) to break both of these critical restrictions, freeing the paralyzed user to make reaching movements to arbitrary target sets with various arrival times and definitive stopping. In silico validation predicts that the new approach, GPFD-RSE, outperforms the SM while offering greater flexibility. We demonstrate the GPFD-RSE against SM in the simulated control of an overactuated 3-D virtual robotic arm with a real-time inverse kinematics engine.

  4. Optimising the prescription of prosthetic technologies (opptec): Outcome measures for evidence based prosthetic practice and use

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryall, Dr Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This study provided a forum for patients and service providers to voice their opinions in what they believe to be the important predictors and outcomes involved in successful rehabilitation following limb loss. To develop a consensus on the most important outcomes and factors to address for both the lower limb and upper limb prosthetic prescription process, the above data relating to lower limb and upper prosthetics were subsequently used in the next phase of the research involving two Delphi surveys of 23 and 53 experts within the lower limb and upper limb amputation and prosthetic field respectively, including users, service providers and researchers.\\r\

  5. Fiber-array based optogenetic prosthetic system for stimulation therapy

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    Gu, Ling; Cote, Chris; Tejeda, Hector; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2012-02-01

    Recent advent of optogenetics has enabled activation of genetically-targeted neuronal cells using low intensity blue light with high temporal precision. Since blue light is attenuated rapidly due to scattering and absorption in neural tissue, optogenetic treatment of neurological disorders may require stimulation of specific cell types in multiple regions of the brain. Further, restoration of certain neural functions (vision, and auditory etc) requires accurate spatio-temporal stimulation patterns rather than just precise temporal stimulation. In order to activate multiple regions of the central nervous system in 3D, here, we report development of an optogenetic prosthetic comprising of array of fibers coupled to independently-controllable LEDs. This design avoids direct contact of LEDs with the brain tissue and thus does not require electrical and heat isolation, which can non-specifically stimulate and damage the local brain regions. The intensity, frequency, and duty cycle of light pulses from each fiber in the array was controlled independently using an inhouse developed LabView based program interfaced with a microcontroller driving the individual LEDs. While the temporal profile of the light pulses was controlled by varying the current driving the LED, the beam profile emanating from each fiber tip could be sculpted by microfabrication of the fiber tip. The fiber array was used to stimulate neurons, expressing channelrhodopsin-2, in different locations within the brain or retina. Control of neural activity in the mice cortex, using the fiber-array based prosthetic, is evaluated from recordings made with multi-electrode array (MEA). We also report construction of a μLED array based prosthetic for spatio-temporal stimulation of cortex.

  6. Efficiency of voluntary opening hand and hook prosthetic devices: 24 years of development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Gerwin; Bongers, Raoul M; Van der Sluis, Corry K; Plettenburg, Dick H

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative data on the mechanical performance of upper-limb prostheses are very important in prostheses development and selection. The primary goal of this study was to objectively evaluate the mechanical performance of adult-size voluntary opening (VO) prosthetic terminal devices and select the best tested device. A second goal was to see whether VO devices have improved in the last two decades. Nine devices (four hooks and five hands) were quantitatively tested (Hosmer model 5XA hook, Hosmer Sierra 2 Load VO hook, RSL Steeper Carbon Gripper, Otto Bock model 10A60 hook, Becker Imperial hand, Hosmer Sierra VO hand, Hosmer Soft VO hand, RSL Steeper VO hand, Otto Bock VO hand). We measured the pinch forces, activation forces, cable displacements, mass, and opening span and calculated the work and hysteresis. We compared the results with data from 1987. Hooks required lower activation forces and delivered higher pinch forces than hands. The activation forces of several devices were very high. The pinch forces of all tested hands were too low. The Hosmer model 5XA hook with three bands was the best tested hook. The Hosmer Sierra VO hand was the best tested hand. We found no improvements in VO devices compared with the data from 1987.

  7. Piperidine-based glycodendrons as protein N-glycan prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Jason E; Belardi, Brian; Appel, Mason J; Solania, Angelo; Robinson, Peter V; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2016-10-15

    The generation of homogeneously glycosylated proteins is essential for defining glycoform-specific activity and improving protein-based therapeutics. We present a novel glycodendron prosthetic which can be site-selectively appended to recombinant proteins to create 'N-glycosylated' glycoprotein mimics. Using computational modeling, we designed the dendrimer scaffold and protein attachment point to resemble the native N-glycan architecture. Three piperidine-melamine glycodendrimers were synthesized via a chemoenzymatic route and attached to human growth hormone and the Fc region of human IgG. These products represent a new class of engineered biosimilars bearing novel glycodendrimer structures.

  8. Case Study on Human Walking during Wearing a Powered Prosthetic Device: Effectiveness of the System “Human-Robot”

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    Svetlana Grosu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that force exchanges between a robotic assistive device and the end-user have a direct impact on the quality and performance of a particular movement task. This knowledge finds a special reflective importance in prosthetic industry due to the close human-robot collaboration. Although lower-extremity prostheses are currently better able to provide assistance as their upper-extremity counterparts, specific locomotion problems still remain. In a framework of this contribution the authors introduce the multibody dynamic modelling approach of the transtibial prosthesis wearing on a human body model. The obtained results are based on multibody dynamic simulations against the real experimental data using AMP-Foot 2.0, an energy efficient powered transtibial prosthesis for actively assisted walking of amputees.

  9. Pilot Study for OCT Guided Design and Fit of a Prosthetic Device for Treatment of Corneal Disease

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    Hong-Gam T. Le

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess optical coherence tomography (OCT for guiding design and fit of a prosthetic device for corneal disease. Methods. A prototype time domain OCT scanner was used to image the anterior segment of patients fitted with large diameter (18.5–20 mm prosthetic devices for corneal disease. OCT images were processed and analyzed to characterize corneal diameter, corneal sagittal height, scleral sagittal height, scleral toricity, and alignment of device. Within-subject variance of OCT-measured parameters was evaluated. OCT-measured parameters were compared with device parameters for each eye fitted. OCT image correspondence with ocular alignment and clinical fit was assessed. Results. Six eyes in 5 patients were studied. OCT measurement of corneal diameter (coefficient of variation, %, cornea sagittal height (%, and scleral sagittal height (% is highly repeatable within each subject. OCT image-derived measurements reveal strong correlation between corneal sagittal height and device corneal height ( and modest correlation between scleral and on-eye device toricity (. Qualitative assessment of a fitted device on OCT montages reveals correspondence with slit lamp images and clinical assessment of fit. Conclusions. OCT imaging of the anterior segment is suitable for custom design and fit of large diameter (18.5–20 mm prosthetic devices used in the treatment of corneal disease.

  10. Simulated Prosthetic Vision: The Benefits of Computer-Based Object Recognition and Localization.

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    Macé, Marc J-M; Guivarch, Valérian; Denis, Grégoire; Jouffrais, Christophe

    2015-07-01

    Clinical trials with blind patients implanted with a visual neuroprosthesis showed that even the simplest tasks were difficult to perform with the limited vision restored with current implants. Simulated prosthetic vision (SPV) is a powerful tool to investigate the putative functions of the upcoming generations of visual neuroprostheses. Recent studies based on SPV showed that several generations of implants will be required before usable vision is restored. However, none of these studies relied on advanced image processing. High-level image processing could significantly reduce the amount of information required to perform visual tasks and help restore visuomotor behaviors, even with current low-resolution implants. In this study, we simulated a prosthetic vision device based on object localization in the scene. We evaluated the usability of this device for object recognition, localization, and reaching. We showed that a very low number of electrodes (e.g., nine) are sufficient to restore visually guided reaching movements with fair timing (10 s) and high accuracy. In addition, performance, both in terms of accuracy and speed, was comparable with 9 and 100 electrodes. Extraction of high level information (object recognition and localization) from video images could drastically enhance the usability of current visual neuroprosthesis. We suggest that this method-that is, localization of targets of interest in the scene-may restore various visuomotor behaviors. This method could prove functional on current low-resolution implants. The main limitation resides in the reliability of the vision algorithms, which are improving rapidly.

  11. Creative mechanism design for a prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Tung; Tseng, Ching-Huan; Wu, Long-Long

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an auxiliary methodology called the creative mechanism design is introduced into the innovation of gripping devices for prosthetic hands. This methodology is a systematic approach based on modification of existing devices for the generation of all possible topological structures of mechanisms and mechanical devices. An existing gripping device (Teh Lin ATG-5F prosthetic hand) constructed by a planar six-bar linkage with one degree of freedom is dealt with by using this methodology. Through the processes of generalization, number synthesis, specialization and particularization for the existing design, five new mechanisms are created in this study to apply to anthropomorphic prosthetic hands. The results show that the methodology for creative mechanism design is a powerful tool for creating new categories of mechanisms to avoid existing designs that have patent protection and can help designers in the conceptual phase. Also, this methodology is validated as a useful way to improve prosthetic hands for amputees.

  12. Development and testing of new upper-limb prosthetic devices: Research designs for usability testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Resnik, PT, PhD, OCS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this article are to describe usability testing and introduce designs and methods of usability testing research as it relates to upper-limb prosthetics. This article defines usability, describes usability research, discusses research approaches to and designs for usability testing, and highlights a variety of methodological considerations, including sampling, sample size requirements, and usability metrics. Usability testing is compared with other types of study designs used in prosthetic research.

  13. [Research on proportional control system of prosthetic hand based on FMG signals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; Li, Panpan; Zhao, Shengnan

    2013-02-01

    The control of prosthetic hand is always a focus in prosthesis research. For solving current problems of controlling signals of skin surface electrical signals, we applied force myography (FMG) signals in prosthetic control of this system. The control system based on FMG signals were designed, containing signal acquisition and pre-processing, prosthetic control, motor driving and so on. Two-freedom artificial hand with proportional control was proposed through acquiring two-channel FMG signals from the amputee stump. The proportional control of prosthetic hand was achieved according to the average of FMG amplitude. The results showed that the control system had a great potential to control artificial hand and to realize speed adjustment effectively. Besides, the Virtual instrument software LabVIEW is adopted to establish the FMG signal collection and calibration of experiment system.

  14. Terrain Identification for Prosthetic Knees Based on Electromyographic Signal Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The features of electromyographic (EMG) signals were investigated while people walking on different terrains, including up and down slopes, up and down stairs, and during level walking at different speeds. The features were used to develop a terrain identification method. The technology can be used to develop an intelligent transfemoral prosthetic limb with terrain identification capability. The EMG signals from 8 hip muscles of 13 healthy persons were recorded as they walked on the different terrains. The signals from the sound side of a transfemoral amputee were also recorded. The features of these signals were obtained using data processing techniques with an identification process developed for the identification of the terrain type. The procedure was simplified by using only the signals from three muscles. The identification process worked well in an intelligent prosthetic knee in a laboratory setting.

  15. Neuro-based Thumb-tip Force and Joint Angle Modelling for Development of Prosthetic Thumb Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Anija Jalaludin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Human fingers have a specific role that contributes to different hand functions. Among these fingers, the thumb plays the most special function as an anchor to many hand activities. As a result, the loss of the thumb due to traumatic accidents can be catastrophic as proper hand function will be severely limited. In order to solve this problem, a prosthetic thumb is developed to be worn in complementing the function of the rest of the fingers. The movement of the prosthetic device can be naturally controlled by using electromyogram (EMG signals. In this work, the EMG signals from the human muscles were measured in different thumb configurations and thumb-tip forces in flexion movement. The muscles involved are the Adductor Pollicis (AP, Flexor Pollicis Brevis (FPB, Abductor Pollicis Brevis (APB and First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI. The classification of the EMG signals based on different force and thumb configurations is performed using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN. From a series of experiments, the results show that the neural network efficiently classified the signals and a unique set of EMG signals was generated for each thumb movement and force. Therefore, EMG signals were used to control the prosthetic movement with aid from the developed neural network.

  16. A sensory feedback system for prosthetic hand based on evoked tactile sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X X; Chai, G H; Qu, H E; Lan, N

    2015-01-01

    The lack of reliable sensory feedback has been one of the barriers in prosthetic hand development. Restoring sensory function from prosthetic hand to amputee remains a great challenge to neural engineering. In this paper, we present the development of a sensory feedback system based on the phenomenon of evoked tactile sensation (ETS) at the stump skin of residual limb induced by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). The system could map a dynamic pattern of stimuli to an electrode placed on the corresponding projected finger areas on the stump skin. A pressure transducer placed at the tip of prosthetic fingers was used to sense contact pressure, and a high performance DSP processor sampled pressure signals, and calculated the amplitude of feedback stimulation in real-time. Biphasic and charge-balanced current pulses with amplitude modulation generated by a multi-channel laboratory stimulator were delivered to activate sensory nerves beneath the skin. We tested this sensory feedback system in amputee subjects. Preliminary results showed that the subjects could perceive different levels of pressure at the tip of prosthetic finger through evoked tactile sensation (ETS) with distinct grades and modalities. We demonstrated the feasibility to restore the perceptual sensation from prosthetic fingers to amputee based on the phenomenon of evoked tactile sensation (ETS) with TENS.

  17. Prosthetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview CoE for Limb Loss Prevention and Prosthetic Engineering Menu Menu VA Center of Excellence for Limb ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Prosthetic Engineering - Overview Our aim is to improve prosthetic prescription ...

  18. Development and testing of new upper-limb prosthetic devices: Research designs for usability testing

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Resnik, PT, PhD, OCS

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to describe usability testing and introduce designs and methods of usability testing research as it relates to upper-limb prosthetics. This article defines usability, describes usability research, discusses research approaches to and designs for usability testing, and highlights a variety of methodological considerations, including sampling, sample size requirements, and usability metrics. Usability testing is compared with other types of study designs used in...

  19. OCT-based profiler for automating ocular surface prosthetic fitting (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujat, Mircea; Patel, Ankit H.; Maguluri, Gopi N.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Patel, Chirag; Agranat, Josh; Tomashevskaya, Olga; Bonte, Eugene; Ferguson, R. Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The use of a Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Environment (PROSE) device is a revolutionary treatment for military patients that have lost their eyelids due to 3rd degree facial burns and for civilians who suffer from a host of corneal diseases. However, custom manual fitting is often a protracted painful, inexact process that requires multiple fitting sessions. Training for new practitioners is a long process. Automated methods to measure the complete corneal and scleral topology would provide a valuable tool for both clinicians and PROSE device manufacturers and would help streamline the fitting process. PSI has developed an ocular anterior-segment profiler based on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), which provides a 3D measure of the surface of the sclera and cornea. This device will provide topography data that will be used to expedite and improve the fabrication process for PROSE devices. OCT has been used to image portions of the cornea and sclera and to measure surface topology for smaller contact lenses [1-3]. However, current state-of-the-art anterior eye OCT systems can only scan about 16 mm of the eye's anterior surface, which is not sufficient for covering the sclera around the cornea. In addition, there is no systematic method for scanning and aligning/stitching the full scleral/corneal surface and commercial segmentation software is not optimized for the PROSE application. Although preliminary, our results demonstrate the capability of PSI's approach to generate accurate surface plots over relatively large areas of the eye, which is not currently possible with any other existing platform. Testing the technology on human volunteers is currently underway at Boston Foundation for Sight.

  20. Head mounted DMD based projection system for natural and prosthetic visual stimulation in freely moving rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens-Arad, Tamar; Farah, Nairouz; Ben-Yaish, Shai; Zlotnik, Alex; Zalevsky, Zeev; Mandel, Yossi

    2016-01-01

    Novel technologies are constantly under development for vision restoration in blind patients. Many of these emerging technologies are based on the projection of high intensity light patterns at specific wavelengths, raising the need for the development of specialized projection systems. Here we present and characterize a novel projection system that meets the requirements for artificial retinal stimulation in rats and enables the recording of cortical responses. The system is based on a customized miniature Digital Mirror Device (DMD) for pattern projection, in both visible (525 nm) and NIR (915 nm) wavelengths, and a lens periscope for relaying the pattern directly onto the animal’s retina. Thorough system characterization and the investigation of the effect of various parameters on obtained image quality were performed using ZEMAX. Simulation results revealed that images with an MTF higher than 0.8 were obtained with little effect of the vertex distance. Increased image quality was obtained at an optimal pupil diameter and smaller field of view. Visual cortex activity data was recorded simultaneously with pattern projection, further highlighting the importance of the system for prosthetic vision studies. This novel head mounted projection system may prove to be a vital tool in studying natural and artificial vision in behaving animals. PMID:27731346

  1. Head mounted DMD based projection system for natural and prosthetic visual stimulation in freely moving rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens-Arad, Tamar; Farah, Nairouz; Ben-Yaish, Shai; Zlotnik, Alex; Zalevsky, Zeev; Mandel, Yossi

    2016-10-01

    Novel technologies are constantly under development for vision restoration in blind patients. Many of these emerging technologies are based on the projection of high intensity light patterns at specific wavelengths, raising the need for the development of specialized projection systems. Here we present and characterize a novel projection system that meets the requirements for artificial retinal stimulation in rats and enables the recording of cortical responses. The system is based on a customized miniature Digital Mirror Device (DMD) for pattern projection, in both visible (525 nm) and NIR (915 nm) wavelengths, and a lens periscope for relaying the pattern directly onto the animal’s retina. Thorough system characterization and the investigation of the effect of various parameters on obtained image quality were performed using ZEMAX. Simulation results revealed that images with an MTF higher than 0.8 were obtained with little effect of the vertex distance. Increased image quality was obtained at an optimal pupil diameter and smaller field of view. Visual cortex activity data was recorded simultaneously with pattern projection, further highlighting the importance of the system for prosthetic vision studies. This novel head mounted projection system may prove to be a vital tool in studying natural and artificial vision in behaving animals.

  2. 76 FR 18472 - Medicare Program; Revisions to the Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... the Act. Prosthetic devices are defined in this section of the Act as ``devices (other than dental... lens.'' Other examples of prosthetic devices include cardiac pacemakers, cochlear implants,...

  3. Dutch evidence-based guidelines for amputation and prosthetics of the lower extremity : Rehabilitation process and prosthetics. Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, Jan; van der Linde, Harmen; Rosenbrand, Kitty; Conradi, Marcel; Deckers, Jos; Koning, Jan; Rietman, Hans S.; van der Schaaf, Dick; van der Ploeg, Rein; Schapendonk, Johannes; Schrier, Ernst; Duijzentkunst, Rob Smit; Spruit-van Eijk, Monica; Versteegen, Gerbrig; Voesten, Harrie

    2015-01-01

    Background: A structured, multidisciplinary approach in the rehabilitation process after amputation is needed that includes a greater focus on the involvement of both (para)medics and prosthetists. There is considerable variation in prosthetic prescription concerning the moment of initial prosthesis

  4. Prosthetic Frequently Asked Questions for the New Amputee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center > Prosthetic FAQs for the New Amputee Prosthetic FAQs for the New Amputee Web Development June ... HELPFUL TO SPEAK WITH OTHERS WHO USE A PROSTHETIC DEVICE? Don’t underestimate the value of talking ...

  5. Optimal tracking of a sEMG based force model for a prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potluri, Chandrasekhar; Anugolu, Madhavi; Yihun, Yimesker; Jensen, Alex; Chiu, Steve; Schoen, Marco P; Naidu, D Subbaram

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a surface electromyographic (sEMG)-based, optimal control strategy for a prosthetic hand. System Identification (SI) is used to obtain the dynamic relation between the sEMG and the corresponding skeletal muscle force. The input sEMG signal is preprocessed using a Half-Gaussian filter and fed to a fusion-based Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) skeletal muscle force model. This MISO system model provides the estimated finger forces to be produced as input to the prosthetic hand. Optimal tracking method has been applied to track the estimated force profile of the Fusion based sEMG-force model. The simulation results show good agreement between reference force profile and the actual force.

  6. Prosthetic avian vocal organ controlled by a freely behaving bird based on a low dimensional model of the biomechanical periphery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel M Arneodo

    Full Text Available Because of the parallels found with human language production and acquisition, birdsong is an ideal animal model to study general mechanisms underlying complex, learned motor behavior. The rich and diverse vocalizations of songbirds emerge as a result of the interaction between a pattern generator in the brain and a highly nontrivial nonlinear periphery. Much of the complexity of this vocal behavior has been understood by studying the physics of the avian vocal organ, particularly the syrinx. A mathematical model describing the complex periphery as a nonlinear dynamical system leads to the conclusion that nontrivial behavior emerges even when the organ is commanded by simple motor instructions: smooth paths in a low dimensional parameter space. An analysis of the model provides insight into which parameters are responsible for generating a rich variety of diverse vocalizations, and what the physiological meaning of these parameters is. By recording the physiological motor instructions elicited by a spontaneously singing muted bird and computing the model on a Digital Signal Processor in real-time, we produce realistic synthetic vocalizations that replace the bird's own auditory feedback. In this way, we build a bio-prosthetic avian vocal organ driven by a freely behaving bird via its physiologically coded motor commands. Since it is based on a low-dimensional nonlinear mathematical model of the peripheral effector, the emulation of the motor behavior requires light computation, in such a way that our bio-prosthetic device can be implemented on a portable platform.

  7. Post-operative orbital imaging: a focus on implants and prosthetic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Ashok [Royal London Hospital, Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Barts Health NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Mankad, Kshitij [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Diagnostic Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); Poitelea, Cornelia; Verity, David H. [Moorfields Eye Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Davagnanam, Indran [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Accurate interpretation of orbital imaging in the presence of either orbital implants requires a sound knowledge of both the surgical approach used and the imaging characteristics of the implanted devices themselves. In this article, the radiological appearance of the various devices used in ophthalmology, and their relationship to other orbital structures, is reviewed. In addition, the intended anatomical location, function of these devices, and clinical indications for their use are provided. (orig.)

  8. Prosthetic Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Prosthetic Feet Translated into plain language by Helen Osborne ... Dupes There are more than 50 models of prosthetic feet available today. Some are designed for special ...

  9. Lightweight custom composite prosthetic components using an additive manufacturing-based molding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, Michael T; Belter, Joseph T; Gemmell, Kevin D; Dollar, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques are becoming more prominent and cost-effective as 3D printing becomes higher quality and more inexpensive. The idea of 3D printed prosthetics components promises affordable, customizable devices, but these systems currently have major shortcomings in durability and function. In this paper, we propose a fabrication method for custom composite prostheses utilizing additive manufacturing, allowing for customizability, as well the durability of professional prosthetics. The manufacturing process is completed using 3D printed molds in a multi-stage molding system, which creates a custom finger or palm with a lightweight epoxy foam core, a durable composite outer shell, and soft urethane gripping surfaces. The composite material was compared to 3D printed and aluminum materials using a three-point bending test to compare stiffness, as well as gravimetric measurements to compare weight. The composite finger demonstrates the largest stiffness with the lowest weight compared to other tested fingers, as well as having customizability and lower cost, proving to potentially be a substantial benefit to the development of upper-limb prostheses.

  10. A novel prosthetic device and method for guided tissue preservation of immediate postextraction socket implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Stephen J; Hochman, Mark N; Tan-Chu, Jocelyn Hui-Ping; Mieleszko, Adam J; Tarnow, Dennis P

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of the surrounding hard and soft tissues associated with an immediate postextraction socket implant to replace a nonrestorable tooth in the esthetic zone is one of the greatest challenges facing the dental team. Several studies have documented the biologic and esthetic benefits of bone graft containment with either a custom healing abutment or provisional restoration. Use of a prefabricated shell that replicates the extracted tooth at the cervical region can help achieve guided tissue preservation and sustainable esthetic outcomes in an easy, simple, consistent, and less time consuming way. The following case report of a hopeless maxillary right central incisor in a female patient possessing adjacent teeth with a thin periodontal phenotype illustrates this new treatment device, method, and concept.

  11. Psychophysical testing of visual prosthetic devices: a call to establish a multi-national joint task force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Joseph F., III; Ayton, Lauren N.

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in the field of visual prostheses, as showcased in this special feature of Journal of Neural Engineering , have led to promising results from clinical trials of a number of devices. However, as noted by these groups there are many challenges involved in assessing vision of people with profound vision loss. As such, it is important that there is consistency in the methodology and reporting standards for clinical trials of visual prostheses and, indeed, the broader vision restoration research field. Two visual prosthesis research groups, the Boston Retinal Implant Project (BRIP) and Bionic Vision Australia (BVA), have agreed to work cooperatively to establish a multi-national Joint Task Force. The aim of this Task Force will be to develop a consensus statement to guide the methods used to conduct and report psychophysical and clinical results of humans who receive visual prosthetic devices. The overarching goal is to ensure maximum benefit to the implant recipients, not only in the outcomes of the visual prosthesis itself, but also in enabling them to obtain accurate information about this research with ease. The aspiration to develop a Joint Task Force was first promulgated at the inaugural 'The Eye and the Chip' meeting in September 2000. This meeting was established to promote the development of the visual prosthetic field by applying the principles of inclusiveness, openness, and collegiality among the growing body of researchers in this field. These same principles underlie the intent of this Joint Task Force to enhance the quality of psychophysical research within our community. Despite prior efforts, a critical mass of interested parties could not congeal. Renewed interest for developing joint guidelines has developed recently because of a growing awareness of the challenges of obtaining reliable measurements of visual function in patients who are severely visually impaired (in whom testing is inherently noisy), and of the importance of

  12. A Palladium-Based Alloy for Prosthetic Dentistry:Structure and Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEPANOVA Galina; PARUNOV Vitaly; VASEKIN Vasily; KAREVA Maria; SINAGEJKINA Julia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract.Using the results of physical and chemical researches and mechanical tests of the Pd-Au-Cu-Sn system alloys,a new palladium-based alloy has been chosen and studied in detail.It has a higher plasticity and a lower hardness than the Palladent alloy,widely used in prosthetic dentistry:its hardness is lower than 300 MPa,and its specific elongation is 10%~14 %.At the same time,such important practical characteristics of the alloys as the strength of adhesion to ceramics and thermal expansion coefficient are almost similar.

  13. Psycho-physiological assessment of a prosthetic hand sensory feedback system based on an auditory display: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Jose

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prosthetic hand users have to rely extensively on visual feedback, which seems to lead to a high conscious burden for the users, in order to manipulate their prosthetic devices. Indirect methods (electro-cutaneous, vibrotactile, auditory cues have been used to convey information from the artificial limb to the amputee, but the usability and advantages of these feedback methods were explored mainly by looking at the performance results, not taking into account measurements of the user’s mental effort, attention, and emotions. The main objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using psycho-physiological measurements to assess cognitive effort when manipulating a robot hand with and without the usage of a sensory substitution system based on auditory feedback, and how these psycho-physiological recordings relate to temporal and grasping performance in a static setting. Methods 10 male subjects (26+/-years old, participated in this study and were asked to come for 2 consecutive days. On the first day the experiment objective, tasks, and experiment setting was explained. Then, they completed a 30 minutes guided training. On the second day each subject was tested in 3 different modalities: Auditory Feedback only control (AF, Visual Feedback only control (VF, and Audiovisual Feedback control (AVF. For each modality they were asked to perform 10 trials. At the end of each test, the subject had to answer the NASA TLX questionnaire. Also, during the test the subject’s EEG, ECG, electro-dermal activity (EDA, and respiration rate were measured. Results The results show that a higher mental effort is needed when the subjects rely only on their vision, and that this effort seems to be reduced when auditory feedback is added to the human-machine interaction (multimodal feedback. Furthermore, better temporal performance and better grasping performance was obtained in the audiovisual modality. Conclusions The performance

  14. Photoemission-based microelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forati, Ebrahim; Dill, Tyler J.; Tao, Andrea R.; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2016-11-01

    The vast majority of modern microelectronic devices rely on carriers within semiconductors due to their integrability. Therefore, the performance of these devices is limited due to natural semiconductor properties such as band gap and electron velocity. Replacing the semiconductor channel in conventional microelectronic devices with a gas or vacuum channel may scale their speed, wavelength and power beyond what is available today. However, liberating electrons into gas/vacuum in a practical microelectronic device is quite challenging. It often requires heating, applying high voltages, or using lasers with short wavelengths or high powers. Here, we show that the interaction between an engineered resonant surface and a low-power infrared laser can cause enough photoemission via electron tunnelling to implement feasible microelectronic devices such as transistors, switches and modulators. The proposed photoemission-based devices benefit from the advantages of gas-plasma/vacuum electronic devices while preserving the integrability of semiconductor-based devices.

  15. Principal components analysis based control of a multi-dof underactuated prosthetic hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magenes Giovanni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functionality, controllability and cosmetics are the key issues to be addressed in order to accomplish a successful functional substitution of the human hand by means of a prosthesis. Not only the prosthesis should duplicate the human hand in shape, functionality, sensorization, perception and sense of body-belonging, but it should also be controlled as the natural one, in the most intuitive and undemanding way. At present, prosthetic hands are controlled by means of non-invasive interfaces based on electromyography (EMG. Driving a multi degrees of freedom (DoF hand for achieving hand dexterity implies to selectively modulate many different EMG signals in order to make each joint move independently, and this could require significant cognitive effort to the user. Methods A Principal Components Analysis (PCA based algorithm is used to drive a 16 DoFs underactuated prosthetic hand prototype (called CyberHand with a two dimensional control input, in order to perform the three prehensile forms mostly used in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs. Such Principal Components set has been derived directly from the artificial hand by collecting its sensory data while performing 50 different grasps, and subsequently used for control. Results Trials have shown that two independent input signals can be successfully used to control the posture of a real robotic hand and that correct grasps (in terms of involved fingers, stability and posture may be achieved. Conclusions This work demonstrates the effectiveness of a bio-inspired system successfully conjugating the advantages of an underactuated, anthropomorphic hand with a PCA-based control strategy, and opens up promising possibilities for the development of an intuitively controllable hand prosthesis.

  16. Graphene-based conformal devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Ju; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Hyunmin; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2014-08-26

    Despite recent progress in bendable and stretchable thin-film transistors using novel designs and materials, the development of conformal devices remains limited by the insufficient flexibility of devices. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of graphene-based conformal and stretchable devices such as transistor and tactile sensor on a substrate with a convoluted surface by scaling down the device thickness. The 70 nm thick graphene-based conformal devices displayed a much lower bending stiffness than reported previously. The demonstrated devices provided excellent conformal coverage over an uneven animal hide surface without the need for an adhesive. In addition, the ultrathin graphene devices formed on the three-dimensionally curved animal hide exhibited stable electrical characteristics, even under repetitive bending and twisting. The advanced performance and flexibility demonstrated here show promise for the development and adoption of wearable electronics in a wide range of future applications.

  17. Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Service » Prosthetic & Sensory Aids Service (PSAS) Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Services Menu Menu Rehabilitation and Prosthetics Rehabilitation and ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Prosthetic & Sensory Aids Service (PSAS) Our Mission The mission ...

  18. Cochlear Implant Using Neural Prosthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shweta; Singh, Shashi kumar; Dubey, Pratik Kumar

    2012-10-01

    This research is based on neural prosthetic device. The oldest and most widely used of these electrical, and often computerized, devices is the cochlear implant, which has provided hearing to thousands of congenitally deaf people in this country. Recently, the use of the cochlear implant is expanding to the elderly, who frequently suffer major hearing loss. More cutting edge are artificial retinas, which are helping dozens of blind people see, and ìsmartî artificial arms and legs that amputees can maneuver by thoughts alone, and that feel more like real limbs.Research, which curiosity led to explore frog legs dancing during thunderstorms, a snail shapedorgan in the inner ear, and how various eye cells react to light, have fostered an understanding of how to ìtalkî to the nervous system. That understanding combined with the miniaturization of electronics and enhanced computer processing has enabled prosthetic devices that often can bridge the gap in nerve signaling that is caused by disease or injury.

  19. Asphaltene based photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianelli, Russell R.; Castillo, Karina; Gupta, Vipin; Qudah, Ali M.; Torres, Brenda; Abujnah, Rajib E.

    2016-03-22

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making the same, are disclosed herein. The cell comprises a photovoltaic device that comprises a first electrically conductive layer comprising a photo-sensitized electrode; at least one photoelectrochemical layer comprising metal-oxide particles, an electrolyte solution comprising at least one asphaltene fraction, wherein the metal-oxide particles are optionally dispersed in a surfactant; and a second electrically conductive layer comprising a counter-electrode, wherein the second electrically conductive layer comprises one or more conductive elements comprising carbon, graphite, soot, carbon allotropes or any combinations thereof.

  20. Virtual Control of Prosthetic Hand Based on Grasping Patterns and Estimated Force from Semg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Gao-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoelectric prosthetic hands aim to serve upper limb amputees. The myoelectric control of the hand grasp action is a kind of real-time or online method. Thus it is of great necessity to carry on a study of online prosthetic hand electrical control. In this paper, the strategy of simultaneous EMG decoding of grasping patterns and grasping force was realized by controlling a virtual multi-degree-freedom prosthetic hand and a real one-degree-freedom prosthetic hand simultaneously. The former realized the grasping patterns from the recognition of the sEMG pattern. The other implemented the grasping force from sEMG force decoding. The results show that the control method is effective and feasible.

  1. Image Processing Strategies Based on a Visual Saliency Model for Object Recognition Under Simulated Prosthetic Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Heng; Fu, Weizhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Liming; Lyu, Qing; Han, Tingting; Chai, Xinyu

    2016-01-01

    Retinal prostheses have the potential to restore partial vision. Object recognition in scenes of daily life is one of the essential tasks for implant wearers. Still limited by the low-resolution visual percepts provided by retinal prostheses, it is important to investigate and apply image processing methods to convey more useful visual information to the wearers. We proposed two image processing strategies based on Itti's visual saliency map, region of interest (ROI) extraction, and image segmentation. Itti's saliency model generated a saliency map from the original image, in which salient regions were grouped into ROI by the fuzzy c-means clustering. Then Grabcut generated a proto-object from the ROI labeled image which was recombined with background and enhanced in two ways--8-4 separated pixelization (8-4 SP) and background edge extraction (BEE). Results showed that both 8-4 SP and BEE had significantly higher recognition accuracy in comparison with direct pixelization (DP). Each saliency-based image processing strategy was subject to the performance of image segmentation. Under good and perfect segmentation conditions, BEE and 8-4 SP obtained noticeably higher recognition accuracy than DP, and under bad segmentation condition, only BEE boosted the performance. The application of saliency-based image processing strategies was verified to be beneficial to object recognition in daily scenes under simulated prosthetic vision. They are hoped to help the development of the image processing module for future retinal prostheses, and thus provide more benefit for the patients.

  2. Is electroglottography-based videostroboscopic assessment of post-laryngectomy prosthetic speech useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Rehan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To use an electroglottography (EGG-based videostroboscopy tool to assess the anatomical and morphologic characteristics of the pharyngoesophageal (PE segment in tracheoesophageal (TO speakers. Study d0 esign: Cross-sectional cohort study. Subjects: Fifty-two post-laryngectomy patients with no recurrence and using prosthetic (Blom-Singer speech. Intervention: An electroglottography (EGG-based videostroboscopy tool EGG-based rigid videostroboscopy as well as perceptual evaluation. Outcome m0 easures: Stroboscopic protocol included nine subjective/visual parameters to evaluate the neoglottis and study correlation of the G (GRBAS scale and the overall voice quality (OVQ with the treatment variables. Results: Of the 52 laryngectomees, videostroboscopic recordings were possible in 46 patients (36 males and 10 females with a mean age of 63.4 ±10.5 (SD an electroglottography (EGG-based videostroboscopy tool years. All used the Blom-Singer valve and the median time since Total Laryngectomy was 2 years. The neoglottis was assessable in 26 patients. We were able to strobe only 9 patients. There was excellent correlation between G and OVQ (Spearman rho > 0.9. Statistically significant correlation was found between G1 and saliva (P = 0.03 and between good OVQ and saliva (P = 0.02; similarly, there was significant correlation between G1 and LVV (P = 0.05 and between good OVQ and LVV (P = 0.03. Conclusions: This study is the first to examine the use of an EGG-based stroboscopy instrument to evaluate TO speech. Our observations suggest that from the standpoint of functional voice, saliva and the LVV had statistically significant effect in determining voice quality.

  3. Circuit For Control Of Electromechanical Prosthetic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed circuit for control of electromechanical prosthetic hand derives electrical control signals from shoulder movements. Updated, electronic version of prosthesis, that includes two hooklike fingers actuated via cables from shoulder harness. Circuit built around favored shoulder harness, provides more dexterous movement, without incurring complexity of computer-controlled "bionic" or hydraulically actuated devices. Additional harness and potentiometer connected to similar control circuit mounted on other shoulder. Used to control stepping motor rotating hand about prosthetic wrist to one of number of angles consistent with number of digital outputs. Finger-control signals developed by circuit connected to first shoulder harness transmitted to prosthetic hand via sliprings at prosthetic wrist joint.

  4. Myoelectric control of prosthetic hands: state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethanjali P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purushothaman Geethanjali School of Electrical Engineering Department of Control and Automation VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: Myoelectric signals (MES have been used in various applications, in particular, for identification of user intention to potentially control assistive devices for amputees, orthotic devices, and exoskeleton in order to augment capability of the user. MES are also used to estimate force and, hence, torque to actuate the assistive device. The application of MES is not limited to assistive devices, and they also find potential applications in teleoperation of robots, haptic devices, virtual reality, and so on. The myoelectric control-based prosthetic hand aids to restore activities of daily living of amputees in order to improve the self-esteem of the user. All myoelectric control-based prosthetic hands may not have similar operations and exhibit variation in sensing input, deciphering the signals, and actuating prosthetic hand. Researchers are focusing on improving the functionality of prosthetic hand in order to suit the user requirement with the different operating features. The myoelectric control differs in operation to accommodate various external factors. This article reviews the state of the art of myoelectric prosthetic hand, giving description of each control strategy. Keywords: EMG, assistive device, amputee, myoelectric control, electric powered, body ­powered, bioelectric signal control

  5. DeviceNet-based device-level control in SSRF

    CERN Document Server

    Leng Yong Bin; Lu Cheng Meng; Miao Hai Feng; Liu Song Qiang; Shen Guo Bao

    2002-01-01

    The control system of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility is an EPICS-based distributed system. One of the key techniques to construct the system is the device-level control. The author describes the design and implementation of the DeviceNet-based device controller. A prototype of the device controller was tested in the experiments of magnet power supply and the result showed a precision of 3 x 10 sup - sup 5

  6. Graphene-based energy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Yusoff, A Rashid bin Mohd

    2015-01-01

    This first book dedicated to the topic provides an up-to-date account of the many opportunities graphene offers for robust, workable energy generation and storage devices. Following a brief overview of the fundamentals of graphene, including the main synthesis techniques, characterization methods and properties, the first part goes on to deal with graphene for energy storage applications, such as lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors and hydrogen storage. The second part is concerned with graphene-based energy-generation devices, in particular conventional as well as microbial and enzymatic f

  7. 77 FR 14989 - Medicare Program; Revisions to the Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Act. Prosthetic devices are defined as devices (other than dental) which replace all or part of an... devices include cardiac pacemakers, cochlear implants, electrical continence aids, electrical...

  8. Prosthetic devices shaped as tubular chambers for the treatment of large diaphyseal defects by guided bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli Aldini, N; Fini, M; Giavaresi, G; Guzzardella, G A; Giardino, R

    2005-01-01

    Guided tissue regeneration is based on the hypothesis that the different tissues have unequal abilities to penetrate a wounded area during the healing process. The use of a device acting as a chamber allows the growth of a particular tissue and prevents the ingrowth of other tissues which impair the healing process. At the same time the chamber protects and maintains in situ the intrinsic growth factors so that they may perform their specific activity. Guided tissue regeneration currently plays a well-recognized role mostly in dentistry and peripheral nerve surgery but interesting perspectives have also opened up in orthopedics. Considering the possibility of using guided bone regeneration in the repair of diaphyseal bone defects, this updated survey highlights some critical points and pathways related to the state-of-the-art of this promising procedure, focusing particularly on the properties of the material to make the tubular chamber, the use of osteopromotive factors and the most appropriate animal model to be used for the experimental evaluation.

  9. Myoelectric control of prosthetic hands: state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethanjali, Purushothaman

    2016-01-01

    Myoelectric signals (MES) have been used in various applications, in particular, for identification of user intention to potentially control assistive devices for amputees, orthotic devices, and exoskeleton in order to augment capability of the user. MES are also used to estimate force and, hence, torque to actuate the assistive device. The application of MES is not limited to assistive devices, and they also find potential applications in teleoperation of robots, haptic devices, virtual reality, and so on. The myoelectric control-based prosthetic hand aids to restore activities of daily living of amputees in order to improve the self-esteem of the user. All myoelectric control-based prosthetic hands may not have similar operations and exhibit variation in sensing input, deciphering the signals, and actuating prosthetic hand. Researchers are focusing on improving the functionality of prosthetic hand in order to suit the user requirement with the different operating features. The myoelectric control differs in operation to accommodate various external factors. This article reviews the state of the art of myoelectric prosthetic hand, giving description of each control strategy.

  10. A photogrammetry-based system for 3D surface reconstruction of prosthetics and orthotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-kun; Gao, Fan; Wang, Zhi-gang

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an innovative close range digital photogrammetry (CRDP) system using the commercial digital SLR cameras to measure and reconstruct the 3D surface of prosthetics and orthotics. This paper describes the instrumentation, techniques and preliminary results of the proposed system. The technique works by taking pictures of the object from multiple view angles. The series of pictures were post-processed via feature point extraction, point match and 3D surface reconstruction. In comparison with the traditional method such as laser scanning, the major advantages of our instrument include the lower cost, compact and easy-to-use hardware, satisfactory measurement accuracy, and significantly less measurement time. Besides its potential applications in prosthetics and orthotics surface measurement, the simple setup and its ease of use will make it suitable for various 3D surface reconstructions.

  11. Impact of advanced manufacturing technology on prosthetic and orthotic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D

    1988-04-01

    Radical changes in the technology applied to prosthetics and orthotics are being proposed. This paper attempts to define the scope and character of advanced manufacturing technology and examines the rehabilitation problems which are or could be tackled. Lower-limb prosthetics has been the major area under investigation so far, but orthopaedic footwear, spinal orthotics and custom seating for the disabled have also been investigated using similar technological approaches. The whole process of patient measurement, device design, and component manufacture is conceived as an integrated system relying upon shape or tissue property sensing, computer based device design and computer-numerically-controlled or robot manufacturing processes. The aim is to retain flexibility for custom design which is necessary to provide for individual patients, and yet improve the rapidity and precision of overall device manufacture and service delivery.

  12. New developments in prosthetic arm systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaklija I

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ivan Vujaklija,1 Dario Farina,1 Oskar C Aszmann2 1Institute of Neurorehabilitation Systems, Bernstein Focus Neurotechnology Göttingen, University Medical Center Göttingen, Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany; 2Christian Doppler Laboratory for Restoration of Extremity Function, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Abstract: Absence of an upper limb leads to severe impairments in everyday life, which can further influence the social and mental state. For these reasons, early developments in cosmetic and body-driven prostheses date some centuries ago, and they have been evolving ever since. Following the end of the Second World War, rapid developments in technology resulted in powered myoelectric hand prosthetics. In the years to come, these devices were common on the market, though they still suffered high user abandonment rates. The reasons for rejection were trifold – insufficient functionality of the hardware, fragile design, and cumbersome control. In the last decade, both academia and industry have reached major improvements concerning technical features of upper limb prosthetics and methods for their interfacing and control. Advanced robotic hands are offered by several vendors and research groups, with a variety of active and passive wrist options that can be articulated across several degrees of freedom. Nowadays, elbow joint designs include active solutions with different weight and power options. Control features are getting progressively more sophisticated, offering options for multiple sensor integration and multi-joint articulation. Latest developments in socket designs are capable of facilitating implantable and multiple surface electromyography sensors in both traditional and osseointegration-based systems. Novel surgical techniques in combination with modern, sophisticated hardware are enabling restoration of dexterous upper limb

  13. Application of self-report and performance-based outcome measures to determine functional differences between four categories of prosthetic feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Gailey, PhD, PT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the application of outcome measures to determine changes in function caused by standardized functional prosthetic gait training and the use of four different prosthetic feet in people with unilateral transtibial limb loss. Two self-report measures (Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire-Mobility Scale [PEQ-13] and Locomotor Capabilities Index [LCI], and three performance-based measures (Amputee Mobility Predictor with a prosthesis [AMPPRO], 6-minute walk test [6MWT] and step activity monitor [SAM] were used. Ten people with unilateral transtibial limb loss, five with peripheral vascular disease (PVD and five without PVD, completed testing. Subjects were tested at baseline and after receiving training with their existing prosthesis and with the study socket and four prosthetic feet, i.e., SACH (solid ankle cushion heel, SAFE (stationary attachment flexible endoskeletal, Talux, and Proprio feet, over 8 to 10 weeks. Training was administered between testing sessions. No differences were detected by the PEQ-13, LCI, 6MWT, or SAM following training and after fitting with test feet. The AMPPRO demonstrated differences following training with the existing prosthesis in the PVD group and between selected feet from baseline testing (p prosthetic feet.

  14. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  15. Microprocessor prosthetic knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Dale

    2006-02-01

    This article traces the development of microprocessor prosthetic knees from early research in the 1970s to the present. Read about how microprocessor knees work, functional options, patient selection, and the future of this prosthetic.

  16. Prosthetic Knee Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Prosthetic Knee Systems Translated into plain language by Helen ... Health Literacy Consulting Original article by Bill Dupes Prosthetic knee systems are among the most complex of ...

  17. MEMS-based bubble pressure sensor for prosthetic socket interface pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Jason W; Dabling, Jeffrey G; Chinn, Douglas; Turner, Timothy; Filatov, Anton; Anderson, Larry; Rohrer, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    The ability to chronically monitor pressure at the prosthetic socket/residual limb interface could provide important data to the research and clinical communities. With this application in mind, we describe a novel type of sensor which consists of a MEMS pressure sensor and custom electronics packaged in a fluid-filled bubble. The sensor is characterized and compared to two commercially-available technologies. The bubble sensor has excellent drift performance and good sensing resolution. It exhibits hysteresis which may be due to the silicone that the sensor is molded in. To reduce hysteresis, it may be advisable to place the sensor between the liner and the socket rather molding directly into the liner.

  18. Bio-inspired controller for a dexterous prosthetic hand based on Principal Components Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrone, G; Cipriani, C; Secco, E L; Carrozza, M C; Magenes, G

    2009-01-01

    Controlling a dexterous myoelectric prosthetic hand with many degrees of freedom (DoFs) could be a very demanding task, which requires the amputee for high concentration and ability in modulating many different muscular contraction signals. In this work a new approach to multi-DoF control is proposed, which makes use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to reduce the DoFs space dimensionality and allow to drive a 15 DoFs hand by means of a 2 DoFs signal. This approach has been tested and properly adapted to work onto the underactuated robotic hand named CyberHand, using mouse cursor coordinates as input signals and a principal components (PCs) matrix taken from the literature. First trials show the feasibility of performing grasps using this method. Further tests with real EMG signals are foreseen.

  19. Validation of a numerical 3-D fluid-structure interaction model for a prosthetic valve based on experimental PIV measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivier-Curien, Carine; Deplano, Valérie; Bertrand, Eric

    2009-10-01

    A numerical 3-D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of a prosthetic aortic valve was developed, based on a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software program using an Arbitrary Eulerian Lagrangian (ALE) formulation. To make sure of the validity of this numerical model, an equivalent experimental model accounting for both the geometrical features and the hydrodynamic conditions was also developed. The leaflet and the flow behaviours around the bileaflet valve were investigated numerically and experimentally by performing particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Through quantitative and qualitative comparisons, it was shown that the leaflet behaviour and the velocity fields were similar in both models. The present study allows the validation of a fully coupled 3-D FSI numerical model. The promising numerical tool could be therefore used to investigate clinical issues involving the aortic valve.

  20. Design of Shape Memory Alloy-Based and Tendon-Driven Actuated Fingers Towards a Hybrid Anthropomorphic Prosthetic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Kaplanoglu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of tendon‐driven actuated fingers using a shape memory alloy for a hybrid anthropomorphic prosthetic hand. The ring and little (pinky fingers are selected for shape memory activation due to their lower degree of movement during multiple grasping configurations. The fingersʹ tendon system is based on shape memory alloy (SMA wires that form artificial muscle pairs for the required flexion/extension of the finger joints. The finger has four degrees of freedom such that three of them are active. An experimental setup was developed to evaluate the performance of the ring and little fingers. An electromyography (EMG controlled Pulse Width Modulated (PWM technique is preferred for the actuation of joint motions using a high speed microcontroller.

  1. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  2. Analysis of clinically important factors on the performance of advanced hydraulic, microprocessor-controlled exo-prosthetic knee joints based on 899 trial fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andreas; Lang, Michael; Stuckart, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate whether clinically important factors may predict an individual's capability to utilize the functional benefits provided by an advanced hydraulic, microprocessor-controlled exo-prosthetic knee component.This retrospective cross-sectional cohort analysis investigated the data of above knee amputees captured during routine trial fittings. Prosthetists rated the performance indicators showing the functional benefits of the advanced maneuvering capabilities of the device. Subjects were asked to rate their perception. Simple and multiple linear and logistic regression was applied.Data from 899 subjects with demographics typical for the population were evaluated. Ability to vary gait speed, perform toileting, and ascend stairs were identified as the most sensitive performance predictors. Prior C-Leg users showed benefits during advanced maneuvering. Variables showed plausible and meaningful effects, however, could not claim predictive power. Mobility grade showed the largest effect but also failed to be predictive.Clinical parameters such as etiology, age, mobility grade, and others analyzed here do not suffice to predict individual potential. Daily walking distance may pose a threshold value and be part of a predictive instrument. Decisions based solely on single parameters such as mobility grade rating or walking distance seem to be questionable.

  3. Analysis of clinically important factors on the performance of advanced hydraulic, microprocessor-controlled exo-prosthetic knee joints based on 899 trial fittings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andreas; Lang, Michael; Stuckart, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this work is to evaluate whether clinically important factors may predict an individual's capability to utilize the functional benefits provided by an advanced hydraulic, microprocessor-controlled exo-prosthetic knee component. This retrospective cross-sectional cohort analysis investigated the data of above knee amputees captured during routine trial fittings. Prosthetists rated the performance indicators showing the functional benefits of the advanced maneuvering capabilities of the device. Subjects were asked to rate their perception. Simple and multiple linear and logistic regression was applied. Data from 899 subjects with demographics typical for the population were evaluated. Ability to vary gait speed, perform toileting, and ascend stairs were identified as the most sensitive performance predictors. Prior C-Leg users showed benefits during advanced maneuvering. Variables showed plausible and meaningful effects, however, could not claim predictive power. Mobility grade showed the largest effect but also failed to be predictive. Clinical parameters such as etiology, age, mobility grade, and others analyzed here do not suffice to predict individual potential. Daily walking distance may pose a threshold value and be part of a predictive instrument. Decisions based solely on single parameters such as mobility grade rating or walking distance seem to be questionable. PMID:27828871

  4. Thermoplastics for prosthetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R B; Davies, R M

    1981-10-01

    The rapid and accurate thermoforming of plastics for prosthetic applications has been the subject of considerable research and development by the Bioengineering Centre. This paper outlines the progress in the general concepts that have been effected to date. The original below knee (B/K) socket vacuum forming technique has been extended to above knee (A/K) and supracondylar cases, and there have been developments in rotational casting technology. The work is necessarily based on a sound understanding of the properties of the materials concerned and of the associated manufacturing processes. The contribution of the Bioengineering Centre is outlined together with summaries of collaborative work carried out with other organizations.

  5. Adaptation to Phosphene Parameters Based on Multi-Object Recognition Using Simulated Prosthetic Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Peng; Hu, Jie; Peng, Yinghong

    2015-12-01

    Retinal prostheses for the restoration of functional vision are under development and visual prostheses targeting proximal stages of the visual pathway are also being explored. To investigate the experience with visual prostheses, psychophysical experiments using simulated prosthetic vision in normally sighted individuals are necessary. In this study, a helmet display with real-time images from a camera attached to the helmet provided the simulated vision, and experiments of recognition and discriminating multiple objects were used to evaluate visual performance under different parameters (gray scale, distortion, and dropout). The process of fitting and training with visual prostheses was simulated and estimated by adaptation to the parameters with time. The results showed that the increase in the number of gray scale and the decrease in phosphene distortion and dropout rate improved recognition performance significantly, and the recognition accuracy was 61.8 ± 7.6% under the optimum condition (gray scale: 8, distortion: k = 0, dropout: 0%). The adaption experiments indicated that the recognition performance was improved with time and the effect of adaptation to distortion was greater than dropout, which implies the difference of adaptation mechanism to the two parameters.

  6. Coated with nanomaterials intraocular lenses, ophthalmic and human body implantable devices with high catalytic antioxidant activities: a new nanotechnology strategy of peroxidase cellular enzyme mimics increasing the biocompatibility and therapeutic deployment of the medical prosthetic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    attack. Coated IOLs according to the patented nanotechnology can address the vast majority of cataract surgery-induced complications, such as secondary cataract, intraocular inflammation (endophthalmitis) and foreign body reactions, cystoid macular oedema, corneal edema. The nanotechnology offers physicians and surgeons to develop and commercialize costeffective therapeutic medical implantable devices, products and support systems with metabolic activities for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases and of a wide range of pathological states and disorders which are treated by insertion of the implantable and prosthetic (polymeric) devices.

  7. Development of an underactuated prosthetic hand with the step motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Dawei; Jin Minghe; Jiang Li; Shi Shicai; Liu Hong

    2006-01-01

    We present the development of a novel prosthetic hand based on the underactuated mechanism. The aim is focused on increasing its dexterity while keeping the same dimension and weight of a traditional prosthetic device. The hybrid step motor is used as the actuator, which enables the finger to keep enough high contact torque on the grasped object with less energy consumption provided by the holding torque. The grasping force of the finger is estimated from the base joint torque, and the adoption of impedance control has provided compliance in the grasping. Also a parallel observer is used to switch over between the impedance control and the torque holding mode. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the design and control strategy.

  8. Gaitography applied to prosthetic walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerdink, Melvyn; Cutti, Andrea G; Summa, Aurora; Monari, Davide; Veronesi, Davide; van Ooijen, Mariëlle W; Beek, Peter J

    2014-11-01

    During walking on an instrumented treadmill with an embedded force platform or grid of pressure sensors, center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories exhibit a characteristic butterfly-like shape, reflecting the medio-lateral and anterior-posterior weight shifts associated with alternating steps. We define "gaitography" as the analysis of such COP trajectories during walking (the "gaitograms"). It is currently unknown, however, if gaitography can be employed to characterize pathological gait, such as lateralized gait impairments. We therefore registered gaitograms for a heterogeneous sample of persons with a trans-femoral and trans-tibial amputation during treadmill walking at a self-selected comfortable speed. We found that gaitograms directly visualize between-person differences in prosthetic gait in terms of step width and the relative duration of prosthetic and non-prosthetic single-support stance phases. We further demonstrated that one should not only focus on the gaitogram's shape but also on the time evolution along that shape, given that the COP evolves much slower in the single-support phase than in the double-support phase. Finally, commonly used temporal and spatial prosthetic gait characteristics were derived, revealing both individual and systematic differences in prosthetic and non-prosthetic step lengths, step times, swing times, and double-support durations. Because gaitograms can be rapidly collected in an unobtrusive and markerless manner over multiple gait cycles without constraining foot placement, clinical application of gaitography seems both expedient and appealing. Studies examining the repeatability of gaitograms and evaluating gaitography-based gait characteristics against a gold standard with known validity and reliability are required before gaitography can be clinically applied.

  9. Rotationally actuated prosthetic helping hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G., Jr. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor); West, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A prosthetic device has been developed for below-the-elbow amputees. The device consists of a cuff, a stem, a housing, two hook-like fingers, an elastic band for holding the fingers together, and a brace. The fingers are pivotally mounted on a housing that is secured to the amputee's upper arm with the brace. The stem, which also contains a cam, is rotationally mounted within the housing and is secured to the cuff, which fits over the amputee's stump. By rotating the cammed stem between the fingers with the lower arm, the amputee can open and close the fingers.

  10. Corti's organ physiology-based cochlear model: a microelectronic prosthetic implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Francisco; Fernandez-Ramos, Raquel; Romero-Sanchez, Jorge; Martin, Jose Francisco

    2003-04-01

    Corti"s Organ is an Electro-Mechanical transducer that allows the energy coupling between acoustical stimuli and auditory nerve. Although the structure and funtionality of this organ are complex, state of the art models have been currently developed and tested. Cochlea model presented in this paper is based on the theories of Bekesy and others and concerns on the behaviour of auditory system on frequency-place domain and mechanisms of lateral inhibition. At the same time, present state of technology will permit us developing a microsystem that reproduce this phenomena applied to hearing aid prosthesis. Corti"s Organ is composed of more than 20.000 cilia excited by mean of travelling waves. These waves produce relative pressures distributed along the cochlea, exciting an specific number of cilia in a local way. Nonlinear mechanisms of local adaptation to the intensity (external cilia cells) and lateral inhibition (internal cilia cells) allow the selection of very few elements excited. These transmit a very precise intensity and frequency information. These signals are the only ones coupled to the auditory nerve. Distribution of pressure waves matches a quasilogaritmic law due to Cochlea morphology. Microsystem presented in this paper takes Bark"s law as an approximation to this behaviour consisting on grouped arbitrary elements composed of a set of selective coupled exciters (bank of filters according to Patterson"s model).These sets apply the intensity adaptation principles and lateral inhibition. Elements excited during the process generate a bioelectric signal in the same way than cilia cell. A microelectronic solution is presented for the development of an implantable prosthesis device.

  11. Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin O.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

  12. Development of a Multi-DOF Electromyography Prosthetic System Using the Adaptive Joint Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernandez Arieta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an electrically powered prosthetic system controlled by electromyography (EMG signal detected from the skin surface of the human body. The research of electrically powered prosthetic systems is divided into two main subjects. One is the design of the joint mechanism. We propose the use of an adaptive joint mechanism based on the tendon-driven architecture. This mechanism includes mechanical torque–velocity converters and a mechanism to assist the proximal joint torque by distal actuators. The other subject is the recognition of the EMG signal. For the discrimination of many patterns and nonlinear properties of the EMG signal, we propose a controller based on a simple pattern recognition information process. The system also drives 12 servomotors to move the adaptive joint mechanism. In this paper, we show the proposed system and describe the mechanical design of the prosthetic hand. The experimental results show that the electrically powered devices can be controlled using the proposed method.

  13. 21 CFR 870.3935 - Prosthetic heart valve holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic heart valve holder. 870.3935 Section 870.3935 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... heart valve holder. (a) Identification. A prosthetic heart valve holder is a device used to hold...

  14. Principles of obstacle avoidance with a transfemoral prosthetic limb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keeken, Helco G.; Vrieling, Aline H.; Hof, At L.; Postema, Klaas; Otten, Bert

    2012-01-01

    In this study, conditions that enable a prosthetic knee flexion strategy in transfemoral amputee subjects during obstacle avoidance were investigated. This study explored the hip torque principle and the static ground principle as object avoidance strategies. A prosthetic limb simulator device was u

  15. A novel four-bar linkage prosthetic knee based on magnetorheological effect: principle, structure, simulation and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Dai-Hua; Fu, Qiang; Yuan, Gang; Hu, Lei-Zi

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the principle and structure of the four-bar linkage prosthetic knee based on the magnetorheological effect (FLPKME) are proposed and realized by individually integrating the upper and lower link rods of the four-bar linkage with the piston rod and the outer cylinder of the magnetorheological (MR) damper. The integrated MR damper, in which the MR fluid is operated in the shear mode, has a double-ended structure. The prototype of the FLPKME is designed and fabricated. Utilizing the developed FLPKME, the lower limb prosthesis is developed, modeled, and simulated. On these bases, the control algorithm for the FLPKME is developed. A test platform for the FLPKME is developed and the performance of the FLPKME with seven constant currents and controlled currents by the control algorithm developed in this paper are experimentally tested. The results show that the FLPKME with a constant current of 1.6 A possesses the basic stable gait, and the FLPKME with the controlled currents by the control algorithm developed in this paper is able to track the motions well and to imitate the natural motions of a healthy human knee joint.

  16. Carbon Nanotubes Based Quantum Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Ping

    1999-01-01

    This document represents the final report for the NASA cooperative agreement which studied the application of carbon nanotubes. The accomplishments are reviewed: (1) Wrote a review article on carbon nanotubes and its potentials for applications in nanoscale quantum devices. (2) Extensive studies on the effects of structure deformation on nanotube electronic structure and energy band gaps. (3) Calculated the vibrational spectrum of nanotube rope and the effect of pressure. and (4) Investigate the properties of Li intercalated nanotube ropes and explore their potential for energy storage materials and battery applications. These studies have lead to four publications and seven abstracts in international conferences.

  17. Ontology-Based Device Descriptions and Device Repository for Building Automation Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibowski Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Device descriptions play an important role in the design and commissioning of modern building automation systems and help reducing the design time and costs. However, all established device descriptions are specialized for certain purposes and suffer from several weaknesses. This hinders a further design automation, which is strongly needed for the more and more complex building automation systems. To overcome these problems, this paper presents novel Ontology-based Device Descriptions (ODDs along with a layered ontology architecture, a specific ontology view approach with virtual properties, a generic access interface, a triple store-based database backend, and a generic search mask GUI with underlying query generation algorithm. It enables a formal, unified, and extensible specification of building automation devices, ensures their comparability, and facilitates a computer-enabled retrieval, selection, and interoperability evaluation, which is essential for an automated design. The scalability of the approach to several ten thousand devices is demonstrated.

  18. Organic Nonvolatile Memory Devices Based on Ferroelectricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, Ronald C. G.; Asadi, Kamal; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; de Boer, Bert

    2010-01-01

    A memory functionality is a prerequisite for many applications of electronic devices. Organic nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity are a promising approach toward the development of a low-cost memory technology. In this Review Article we discuss the latest developments in this area w

  19. Organic nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, R.C.G.; Asadi, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de; Boer, B. de

    2010-01-01

    A memory functionality is a prerequisite for many applications of electronic devices. Organic nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity are a promising approach toward the development of a low-cost memory technology. In this Review Article we discuss the latest developments in this area w

  20. Adaptive Device Context Based Mobile Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Haitao; Lin, Jinjiao; Song, Yanwei; Liu, Fasheng

    2011-01-01

    Mobile learning is e-learning delivered through mobile computing devices, which represents the next stage of computer-aided, multi-media based learning. Therefore, mobile learning is transforming the way of traditional education. However, as most current e-learning systems and their contents are not suitable for mobile devices, an approach for…

  1. Antimonide based devices for thermophotovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, C.W.; Gutmann, R.J.; Borrego, J.M.; Bhat, I.B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Center for Integrated Electronics and Electronics Manufacturing; Charache, G.W. [Lockheed Martin, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices have been fabricated using epitaxial ternary and quaternary layers grown on GaSb substrates. GaInSb ternary devices were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) with buffer layers to accommodate the lattice mismatch, and GaInAsSb lattice-matched quaternaries were grown by MOVPE. Improved devices are obtained when optical absorption occurs in the p-layer due to the longer minority carrier diffusion length. Thick emitter p/n devices are limited by surface recombination, with highest quantum efficiency and lowest dark current being achieved with epitaxially grown surface passivation layers on lattice-matched MOVPE quaternaries. Thin emitter/thick base, n/p devices are very promising, but require improved shallow high-quality n-type ohmic contacts. Diffused junction devices using quasi-binary substrates offer the possibility of good performance and low manufacturing cost.

  2. Prosthetic cost projections for servicemembers with major limb loss from Vietnam and OIF/OEF

    OpenAIRE

    David K. Blough, PhD; Sharon Hubbard, MS; Lynne V. McFarland, PhD; Douglas G. Smith, MD; Jeffrey M. Gambel, MD, MPH, MSW; Gayle E. Reiber, PhD

    2010-01-01

    This study projects prosthetic- and assistive-device costs for veterans with limb loss from Vietnam and injured servicemembersreturning from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) to inform the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) for these veterans’ future care. The 2005 Medicare prosthetic device component prices were applied to current prosthetic and assistive-device use obtained from a national survey of 581 veterans and servicemembers with major traumatic amput...

  3. 基于FPGA的仿人假手控制系统设计%Design of prosthetic hand control system based on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 张庭; 姜力

    2015-01-01

    为了满足生机电一体化仿人假手的控制需求,提出了基于FPGA的仿人假手电气控制系统设计方案。采用模块化设计思想,由FPGA构成的主控芯片模块便于功能拓展与二次开发;由DSP构成的手指运动控制模块、肌电信号采集模块、电刺激模块、USG接口模块和电池管理模块均可独立工作,与主控芯片模块间通过通用接口连接。系统集成度高,可完全放置于假手内部。应用该控制系统在HIT V代手上进行多指抓取实验,实验结果证明其工作效果良好。%A design scheme of prosthetic hand electrical control system based on FPGA is proposed in order to meet control requirements of biomechatronics prosthetic hand. The modular design is used in the system,main control chip module which is composed of FPGA is used to make the system have the ability of functions expansion and redevelopment;finger movement control module made up of DSP,EMG signal collection module,electrophoto-luminescence module,USG interface module and battery management module can work independently and connect with main control chip module,through universal interface. The system is highly-integrated and can be fully placed inside prosthetic hand. The multi-finger grasping experiments on HIT prosthetic hand V are carried out using the control system,and the experimental results verify its working effect is good .

  4. Prosthetic helping hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees, having a C-shaped clamping mechanism for grasping cylindrical objects, is described. The clamping mechanism is pivotally mounted to a cuff that fits on the amputee's lower arm. The present invention is utilized by placing an arm that has been amputated below the elbow into the cuff. The clamping mechanism then serves as a hand whenever it becomes necessary for the amputee to grasp a cylindrical object such as a handle, a bar, a rod, etc. To grasp the cylindrical object, the object is jammed against the opening in the C-shaped spring, causing the spring to open, the object to pass to the center of the spring, and the spring to snap shut behind the object. Various sizes of clamping mechanisms can be provided and easily interchanged to accommodate a variety of diameters. With the extension that pivots and rotates, the clamping mechanism can be used in a variety of orientations. Thus, this invention provides the amputee with a clamping mechanism that can be used to perform a number of tasks.

  5. Genitourinary Prosthetics: A Primer for the Non-urologic Surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavien, Garjae; Zaid, Uwais; Peterson, Andrew C

    2016-06-01

    Genitourinary prosthetics are used for correction of functional deficits and to improve the quality of lives of affected patients. General surgeons must evaluate patients scheduled for nonurologic surgery with urologic devices that can impact their perioperative management. Lack of recognition of these prosthetics preoperatively can lead to unnecessary morbidity for the patient and have legal implications for the surgeon. Close consultation with a urologist may avoid common complications associated with these devices and allows for surgical assistance when operative misadventures do occur. This article reviews 3 common urologic prosthetics: testicular prosthesis, artificial urinary sphincter, and penile prosthesis.

  6. GIANT PROSTHETIC VALVE THROMBUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical prosthetic valves are predisposed to bleeding, thrombosis & thromboembolic complications. Overall incidence of thromboembolic complications is 1% per year who are on oral anticoagulants, whereas bleeding complications incidence is 0.5% to 6.6% per year. 1, 2 Minimization of Scylla of thromboembolic & Charybdis of bleeding complication needs a balancing act of optimal antithrombotic therapy. We are reporting a case of middle aged male patient with prosthetic mitral valve presenting in heart failure. Patient had discontinued anticoagulants, as he had subdural hematoma in the past. He presented to our institute with a giant prosthetic valve thrombus.

  7. Progress of Terahertz Devices Based on Graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai-Xia Fu; Yan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Graphene is a one-atom-thick planar sheet of sp2-hybridized orbital bonded honeycomb carbon crystal. Its gapless and linear energy spectra of electrons and holes lead to the unique carrier transport and optical properties, such as giant carrier mobility and broadband flat optical response. As a novel material, graphene has been regarded to be extremely suitable and competent for the development of terahertz (THz) optical devices. In this paper, the fundamental electronic and optic properties of graphene are described. Based on the energy band structure and light transmittance properties of graphene, many novel graphene based THz devices have been proposed, including modulator, generator, detector, and imaging device. This progress has been reviewed. Future research directions of the graphene devices for THz applications are also proposed.

  8. Paper-based CRP Monitoring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shang-Chi; Tseng, Chung-Yuh; Lai, Po-Liang; Hsu, Min-Yen; Chu, Shueh-Yao; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-12-01

    Here, we discuss the development of a paper-based diagnostic device that is inexpensive, portable, easy-to-use, robust, and capable of running simultaneous tests to monitor a relevant inflammatory protein for clinical diagnoses i.e. C-reactive protein (CRP). In this study, we first attempted to make a paper-based diagnostic device via the wax printing method, a process that was used in previous studies. This device has two distinct advantages: 1) reduced manufacturing and assay costs and operation duration via using wax printing method to define hydrophobic boundaries (for fluidic devices or general POC devices); and, 2) the hydrophilicity of filter paper, which is used to purify and chromatographically correct interference caused by whole blood components with a tiny amount of blood sample (only 5 μL). Diagnosis was based on serum stain length retained inside the paper channels of our device. This is a balanced function between surface tension and chromatographic force following immune reactions (CRP assays) with a paper-embedded biomarker.

  9. Progress of Si-based Optoelectronic Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Ying-cai; FU Guang-sheng; WANG Ying-long; SHANG Yong

    2004-01-01

    Si-based optoelectronics is becoming a very active research area due to its potential applications to optical communications. One of the major goals of this study is to realize ali-Si optoelectronic integrated circuit. This is due to the fact that Si- based optoelectronic technology can be compatible with Si microelectronic technology. If Si-based optoelectronic devices and integrated circuits can be achieved,it will lead to a new informational technological revolution. In the article, the current developments of this exciting field are mainly reviewed in the recent years. The involved contents are the realization of various Si-based optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes,optical waveguides devices, Si photonic bandgap crystals,and Si laser,etc. Finally, the developed tendency of all-Si optoelectronic integrated technology are predicted in the near future.

  10. Assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in prosthetic infective endocarditis and cardiac implantable electronic device infection: comparison of different interpretation criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Ballve, Ana; Jesus Perez-Castejon, Maria; Carreras-Delgado, Jose L. [Clinico San Carlos University Hospital, San Carlos Health Research Institute (IdISSC), Complutense University of Madrid, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Delgado-Bolton, Roberto C. [Clinico San Carlos University Hospital, San Carlos Health Research Institute (IdISSC), Complutense University of Madrid, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Madrid (Spain); San Pedro Hospital and Centre for Biomedical Research of La Rioja (CIBIR), University of La Rioja, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Radiology) and Nuclear Medicine, La Rioja (Spain); Sanchez-Enrique, Cristina; Vilacosta, Isidre; Vivas, David; Olmos, Carmen [Clinico San Carlos University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Madrid (Spain); Ferrer, Manuel E.F. [Clinico San Carlos University Hospital, Research Unit, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    The diagnosis of prosthetic valve (PV) infective endocarditis (IE) and infection of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) remains challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in these patients and analyse the interpretation criteria. We included 41 patients suspected of having IE by the Duke criteria who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. The criteria applied for classifying the findings as positive/negative for IE were: (a) visual analysis of only PET images with attenuation-correction (AC PET images); (b) visual analysis of both AC PET images and PET images without AC (NAC PET images); (c) qualitative analysis of NAC PET images; and (d) semiquantitative analysis of AC PET images. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was considered positive for IE independently of the intensity and distribution of FDG uptake. The gold standard was the Duke pathological criteria (if tissue was available) or the decision of an endocarditis expert team after a minimum 4 months follow-up. We studied 62 areas with suspicion of IE, 28 areas (45 %) showing definite IE and 34 (55 %) showing possible IE. Visual analysis of only AC PET images showed poor diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 20 %, specificity 57 %). Visual analysis of both AC PET and NAC PET images showed excellent sensitivity (100 %) and intermediate specificity (73 %), focal uptake being more frequently associated with IE. The accuracy of qualitative analysis of NAC PET images depended on the threshold: the maximum sensitivity, specificity and accuracy achieved were 88 %, 80 %, 84 %, respectively. In the semiquantitative analysis of AC PET images, SUVmax was higher in areas of confirmed IE than in those without IE (∇SUVmax 2.2, p < 0.001). When FDG uptake was twice that in the liver, IE was always confirmed, and SUVmax 5.5 was the optimal threshold for IE diagnosis using ROC curve analysis (area under the curve 0.71). The value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of suspected IE of PVs

  11. Torsion based universal MEMS logic device

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2015-10-28

    In this work we demonstrate torsion based complementary MEMS logic device, which is capable, of performing INVERTER, AND, NAND, NOR, and OR gates using one physical structure within an operating range of 0-10 volts. It can also perform XOR and XNOR with one access inverter using the same structure with different electrical interconnects. The paper presents modeling, fabrication and experimental calculations of various performance features of the device including lifetime, power consumption and resonance frequency. The fabricated device is 535 μm by 150 μm with a gap of 1.92 μm and a resonant frequency of 6.51 kHz. The device is capable of performing the switching operation with a frequency of 1 kHz.

  12. Prosthetic Valve Thrombosis: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Jalaj; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Pinnamaneni, Sowmya; Sarungbam, Judy; Jain, Diwakar

    2016-01-01

    St. Jude mechanical prosthesis is the most commonly used prosthetic device with least valvular complications with excellent hemodynamics. However, prosthetic valve thrombosis is one of the serious complications, with rates between 0.03% and 0.13% per patient-year depending on the type of anticoagulation used and compliance to the therapy. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the initial screening tool (class I) that would provide clues for the assessment of valvular hemodynamics. Fluoroscopy is an alternate imaging modality for the assessment of mechanical leaflet motion, especially in patients when prosthetic valves are difficult to image on TTE or transesophageal echocardiography. A complete fluoroscopic evaluation of a prosthetic valve includes assessment of valvular motion and structural integrity. Opening and closing angles can be measured fluoroscopically to determine whether a specific valve is functioning properly. We discuss a case of a 91-year-old man with thrombosis of bileaflet mechanical mitral prosthesis that was demonstrated on real-time fluoroscopy (not evident on TTE). An algorithmic approach to diagnosis and management of prosthetic heart valve thrombosis is outlined.

  13. A geometrical optimization of a magneto-rheological rotary brake in a prosthetic knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, K. H.; Jonsdottir, F.; Thorsteinsson, F.

    2010-03-01

    Magneto-rheological (MR) fluids have been successfully introduced to prosthetic devices. One such device is a biomechanical prosthetic knee that uses MR fluids to actively control its rotary stiffness. The brake is rotational, utilizing the MR fluid in shear mode. In this study, the geometrical design of the MR brake is addressed. This includes the design of the magnetic circuit and the geometry of the fluid chamber. Mathematical models are presented that describe the rotary torque of the brake. A novel perfluorinated polyether (PFPE)-based MR fluid is introduced, whose properties are tailored for the prosthetic knee. On-state and off-state rheological measurements of the MR fluid are presented. The finite element method is used to evaluate the magnetic flux density in the MR fluid. The design is formulated as an optimization problem, aiming to maximize the braking torque. A parametric study is carried out for several design parameters. Subsequently, a multi-objective optimization problem is defined that considers three design objectives: the field-induced braking torque, the off-state rotary stiffness and the weight of the brake. Trade-offs between the three design objectives are investigated which provides a basis for informed design decisions on furthering the success of the MR prosthetic knee.

  14. Imprecise knowledge based design and development of titanium alloys for prosthetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S; Mahfouf, M; Zhang, Q; Chattopadhyay, P P; Sultana, N

    2016-01-01

    Imprecise knowledge on the composition-processing-microstructure-property correlation of titanium alloys combined with experimental data are used for developing rule based models for predicting the strength and elastic modulus of titanium alloys. The developed models are used for designing alloys suitable for orthopedic and dental applications. Reduced Space Searching Algorithm is employed for the multi-objective optimization to find composition, processing and microstructure of titanium alloys suitable for orthopedic applications. The conflicting requirements attributes of the alloys for this particular purpose are high strength with low elastic modulus, along with adequate biocompatibility and low costs. The 'Pareto' solutions developed through multi-objective optimization show that the preferred compositions for the fulfilling the above objectives lead to β or near β-alloys. The concept of decision making employed on the solutions leads to some compositions, which should provide better combination of the required attributes. The experimental development of some of the alloys has been carried out as guided by the model-based design methodology presented in this research. Primary characterizations of the alloys show encouraging results in terms of the mechanical properties.

  15. [Prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with parodontitis based upon the use of 3D-technologies--clinical case example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riakhovskiĭ, A N

    2011-01-01

    Clinical case of prosthetic rehabilitation of patient (female) with generalized parodontitis complicated by defects and deformations of dentitions was offered. Using 3D-technologies position of teeth was corrected with the help of a series of temporary transparent splints-modifiers with subsequent guy splintage and esthetic 3D-planning of front teeth forms. Teeth forms correction was made by composite using preliminary prepared templet.

  16. DWDM Devices Based on Planar Waveguide Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A review is presented on some of our recent results for designs, simulations and fabrication of several photonic integrated devices, such as arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWGs) and etched diffraction gratings (EDGs), based on planar waveguide technologies. Some novel designs for flat-top AWGs and EDGs with flat-top spectral responses are presented.

  17. Neuroelectronic device based on nanocoax arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Jeffrey R.; Lundberg, Jaclyn N.; Varela, Juan A.; Burns, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.; Christianson, John P.; Naughton, Michael J.

    2015-03-01

    We report on development of a nanocoax-based neuroelectronic array. The device has been used in real time to noninvasively couple to a ganglion sac located along the main nerve cord of the leech Hirudo medicinalis. This allowed for extracellular recording of synaptic activity in the form of spontaneous synapse firing in pre- and post-synaptic somata, with the next target being recording of local field potentials from rat hippocampal cells. We also discuss an alteration of the architecture to facilitate optical integration of the nanoarray, toward utilizing the so-modified device to elicit / inhibit action potentials in optogenetically-modified cells.

  18. Cellphone-based devices for bioanalytical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Mudanyali, Onur; Schneider, E Marion; Zengerle, Roland; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade, there has been a rapidly growing trend toward the use of cellphone-based devices (CBDs) in bioanalytical sciences. For example, they have been used for digital microscopy, cytometry, read-out of immunoassays and lateral flow tests, electrochemical and surface plasmon resonance based bio-sensing, colorimetric detection and healthcare monitoring, among others. Cellphone can be considered as one of the most prospective devices for the development of next-generation point-of-care (POC) diagnostics platforms, enabling mobile healthcare delivery and personalized medicine. With more than 6.5 billion cellphone subscribers worldwide and approximately 1.6 billion new devices being sold each year, cellphone technology is also creating new business and research opportunities. Many cellphone-based devices, such as those targeted for diabetic management, weight management, monitoring of blood pressure and pulse rate, have already become commercially-available in recent years. In addition to such monitoring platforms, several other CBDs are also being introduced, targeting e.g., microscopic imaging and sensing applications for medical diagnostics using novel computational algorithms and components already embedded on cellphones. This report aims to review these recent developments in CBDs for bioanalytical sciences along with some of the challenges involved and the future opportunities.

  19. Amputations and prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzur, M S

    1999-01-01

    The author presents in a condensed way an overview of the principles of limb amputations and further treatment of patients who underwent such a procedure. The metabolic cost of walking, load transfer, and wound healing are reviewed in a concise manner. Particular attention is given to blood supply to the wound and methods to determine adequate perfusion with a clear analysis of the pro and cons of the Doppler method. Pediatric amputations, because of their specificity, are considered apart. Disarticulation of limbs is the method of choice in children, because of it retains growth potential of the bone and prevents bony overgrowth of the stump. The article discusses the main indications for limb amputations: trauma, peripheral vascular disease, musculoskeletal tumors and gas gangrene. In every case the specificity of the amputation is considered by the author. Postoperative care is also presented, with a short description of possible complications. Pain is the most common and treatment strategies should be similar to those used in treating patients with major reflex sympathetic causalgia. Edema, joint contracture, wound failure and dermatologic problems are all shortly reviewed. The last part of the article treats with the principles of prosthetics in both the upper and lower limb. These principles are presented basing on the level of amputation: for the upper limb hand, transradial, transhumeral amputations and shoulder disarticulation. For the lower limb foot and ankle, transtibial and transfemoral amputations are considered.

  20. Client Device Based Content Adaptation Using Rule Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velammal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Content adaptation have been playing an important role in mobile devices, wherein the content display differs from desktop computers in many aspects, such as display screens, processing power, network connection bandwidth. In order to display web contents appropriately on mobile devices and on other types of devices such as hand computers, PDAs, Smart phones, it is important to adapt or transcode them to fit the characteristics of these devices. Approach: Existing content adaptation systems deploy various techniques which have been developed for specific purposes and goals. By exploiting various possible combinations of available resources, appropriate adaptation process can be carried over on the actual data, so that the information can be assimilated in a different end system other than the intended system. In this study, we present a content adaptation system based on rules created for mobile devices. Rules are invoked based on the individual client device information. Results: The adaptation has been performed according to the delivery device which was formalized through the profiler system. A profile holds information about the hardware and software specifications of the device thereby enabling the adaption of web content based on their characteristics which enables the user to access the web easily on various devices. Conclusion/Recommendation: This study enhances the viability of the information being presented to user, which will be independent of the end system being used for accessing the information. With the help of configurable rules, effective content adaptation can be achieved to provide optimal result.

  1. 基于FMG信号的假手比例控制系统研究%Research on Proportional Control System of Prosthetic Hand Based on FMG Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易金花; 喻洪流; 李盼盼; 赵胜楠

    2013-01-01

    The control of prosthetic hand is always a focus in prosthesis research. For solving current problems of controlling signals of skin surface electrical signals, we applied force myography (FMG) signals in prosthetic control of this system. The control system based on FMG signals were designed, containing signal acquisition and pre-processing, prosthetic control, motor driving and so on. Two-freedom artificial hand with proportional control was proposed through acquiring two-channel FMG signals from the amputee stump. The proportional control of prosthetic hand was achieved according to the average of FMG amplitude. The results showed that the control system had a great potential to control artificial hand and to realize speed adjustment effectively. Besides, the Virtual instrument software LabVIEW is adopted to establish the FMG signal collection and calibration of experiment system.%假手控制方法的研究一直是假肢研究技术的一个热点问题.针对现有皮肤表面电信号作为控制源的假手存在的问题,本系统采用前臂上肢肌肉膨胀收缩产生的压力信号作为控制信息源,设计了基于肌肉力(FMG)信号的假手控制系统,包括信号采集调理、微控制器控制、电机驱动等部分.通过采集残臂端两路FMG信号,提取信号的时域信息并采用阈值算法实现了手部2个自由5个动作.根据FMG信号均值的大小,改变假手驱动电路中PWM的占空比,从而实现电动假手速度的比例调节.实验结果表明本控制系统能够有效控制假手执行动作,实现速度的调节.另外,利用LabVIEW搭建了FMG信号采集标定平台,实现了FMG信号的实时数据采集和标定.

  2. Carbon Based Transistors and Nanoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi, Nima

    Carbon based materials (carbon nanotube and graphene) has been extensively researched during the past decade as one of the promising materials to be used in high performance device technology. In long term it is thought that they may replace digital and/or analog electronic devices, due to their size, near-ballistic transport, and high stability. However, a more realistic point of insertion into market may be the printed nanoelectronic circuits and sensors. These applications include printed circuits for flexible electronics and displays, large-scale bendable electrical contacts, bio-membranes and bio sensors, RFID tags, etc. In order to obtain high performance thin film transistors (as the basic building block of electronic circuits) one should be able to manufacture dense arrays of all semiconducting nanotubes. Besides, graphene synthesize and transfer technology is in its infancy and there is plenty of room to improve the current techniques. To realize the performance of nanotube and graphene films in such systems, we need to economically fabricate large-scale devices based on these materials. Following that the performance control over such devices should also be considered for future design variations for broad range of applications. Here we have first investigated carbon nanotube ink as the base material for our devices. The primary ink used consisted of both metallic and semiconducting nanotubes which resulted in networks suitable for moderate-resistivity electrical connections (such as interconnects) and rfmatching circuits. Next, purified all-semiconducting nanotube ink was used to fabricate waferscale, high performance (high mobility, and high on/off ratio) thin film transistors for printed electronic applications. The parameters affecting device performance were studied in detail to establish a roadmap for the future of purified nanotube ink printed thin film transistors. The trade of between mobility and on/off ratio of such devices was studied and the

  3. Carbon Nanotube Paper-Based Electroanalytical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmi Koo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD, was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from a thick carbon nanotube (CNT sheet to a thin CNT sheet. A 200-layered HA-CNT sheet and a 100-layered HA-CNT sheet are explored as a working electrode. The device was fabricated using the following methods: (1 cellulose-based paper was patterned using a wax printer, (2 electrical connection was made using a silver ink-based circuit printer, and (3 three electrodes were stacked on a 2D Origami cell. Electrochemical behavior was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV. We believe that this platform could attract a great deal of interest for use in various chemical and biomedical applications.

  4. 21 CFR 872.3710 - Base metal alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Base metal alloy. 872.3710 Section 872.3710 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3710 Base metal alloy. (a) Identification. A base metal alloy is a device composed primarily of base metals, such as nickel, chromium, or cobalt, that...

  5. Prosthetic prescription in the Netherlands : an interview with clinical experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Linde, H; Geertzen, JHB; Hofstad, CJ; Postema, K

    2004-01-01

    In the process of guideline development for prosthetic prescription in the Netherlands the authors made a study of the daily clinical practice of lower limb prosthetics. Besides the evidence-based knowledge from literature the more implicit knowledge from clinical experts is of importance for guidel

  6. Topological insulator-based energy efficient devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong P.

    2012-06-01

    Topological insulators (TI) have emerged as a new class of quantum materials with many novel and unusual properties. In this article, we will give a brief review of the key electronic properties of topological insulators, including the signatures for the unusual electronic transport properties of their characteristic topological surface states (TSS). We will then discuss how these novel properties and physics may be utilized for TI-based energy efficient devices, such as lowpower- consumption electronics and high performance thermo-electrics. Furthermore, going beyond conventional singleparticle, charge-based transport, to utilize coherent many-body coherent ground states such as excitonic condensates (EC), new and intriguing functionalities previously unexplored in electronic and energy devices may be realized with the potential to dramatically improve the energy efficiency.

  7. 75 FR 52629 - Medicare Program; Establishing Additional Medicare Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... are defined in this section of the Act as ``devices (other than dental) which replace all or part of... prosthetic devices include cardiac pacemakers, cochlear implants, electrical continence aids,...

  8. Matching prosthetics order records in VA National Prosthetics Patient Database to healthcare utilization databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark W; Su, Pon; Phibbs, Ciaran S

    2010-01-01

    The National Prosthetics Patient Database (NPPD) is the national Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) dataset that records characteristics of individual prosthetic and assistive devices. It remains unknown how well NPPD records can be matched to encounter records for the same individuals in major VA utilization databases. We compared the count of prosthetics records in the NPPD with the count of prosthetics-related procedures for the same individuals recorded in major VA utilization databases. We then attempted to match the NPPD records to the utilization records by person and date. In general, 40% to 60% of the NPPD records could be matched to outpatient utilization records within a 14-day window around the NPPD dataset entry date. Match rates for inpatient data were lower: 10% to 16% within a 14-day window. The NPPD will be particularly important for studies of certain veteran groups, such as those with spinal cord injury or blast-related polytraumatic injury. Health services researchers should use both the NPPD and utilization databases to develop a full understanding of prosthetics use by individual patients.

  9. Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.

  10. Prosthetic Hand With Two Gripping Fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell B.; Vest, Thomas W.; Carden, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Prosthetic hand developed for amputee who retains significant portion of forearm. Outer end of device is end effector including two fingers, one moved by rotating remaining part of forearm about its longitudinal axis. Main body of end effector is end member supporting fingers, roller bearing assembly, and rack-and-pinion mechanism. Advantage of rack-and-pinion mechanism enables user to open or close gap between fingers with precision and force.

  11. Microresonator-based mid-IR devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ravinder K.; Hossein-Zadeh, Mani

    2013-03-01

    High optical quality (high-Q) whispering-gallery mode (WGM) microresonators are key enablers for numerous highperformance photonic devices, including ultrasensitive molecular detectors and advanced light sources such as narrowlinewidth lasers and comb generators. For sensing applications, the unique characteristics of such WGM devices appear to be particularly relevant in the mid-IR (MIR) spectral region because of the stronger molecular absorption bands in this spectral region. However, most current WGM-based passive and active devices function in the near-IR (NIR) spectral region. We propose the development of reproducible high-Q WGM microresonators for the MIR by using low phonon energy glasses (such as fluorides, chalcogenides, and tellurides) along with an elegant and reproducible microsphere fabrication technique based on the use of novel state-of-the-art microheaters. In this paper, we first review the current state-of-the-art of WGM MIR microresonators and related optoelectronic devices, and then present recent results of our work on fabrication and characterization of high-Q WGM optical microresonators with several fluoride (ZBLAN, InF3 and AlF3) glasses. Intrinsic quality factors in excess of ten million have been measured in the NIR regime in the fluoridebased microspheres fabricated in our lab with the proposed -- highly reliable and reproducible - microheater fabrication method, and similar or better performances are expected from similar microspheres at MIR wavelengths between 2 to 5 microns. We next discuss potential applications of these microresonators, notably for low-threshold and narrowlinewidth MIR lasers and MIR comb applications.

  12. Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal Coulter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. Thedevelopment of this facial prosthetic device focused onrecreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis ontiming, displacement and the appearance of the wrinklesand folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyesduring the expression.An animatronic face was constructed with actuations beingmade to a silicone representation musculature, usingmultiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside theartificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expressionrecognition software system was constructed. This formsthe basis of an automated calibration and reconfigurationsystem for the artificial muscles following implantation, soas to suit the implantee’s unique physiognomy.ResultsAn animatronic model face with silicone musculature wasdesigned and built to evaluate the performance of ShapeMemory Alloy artificial muscles, their power controlcircuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motionsensing system was designed to allow real time control overmodel – a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physicalmotion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real toartificial muscle performance.Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects wasmade, which give useful data upon which to base thesystems parameter limits.ConclusionThe system performed well, and the various strengths andshortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewedand considered for the next research phase, when newpolymer based artificial muscles are constructed

  13. Glow discharge based device for solving mazes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinov, Alexander E., E-mail: dubinov-ae@yandex.ru; Mironenko, Maxim S.; Selemir, Victor D. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center − All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation); Sarov Institute of Physics and Technology (SarFTI) of National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation); Maksimov, Artem N.; Pylayev, Nikolay A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center − All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-15

    A glow discharge based device for solving mazes has been designed and tested. The device consists of a gas discharge chamber and maze-transformer of radial-azimuth type. It allows changing of the maze pattern in a short period of time (within several minutes). The device has been tested with low pressure air. Once switched on, a glow discharge has been shown to find the shortest way through the maze from the very first attempt, even if there is a section with potential barrier for electrons on the way. It has been found that ionization waves (striations) can be excited in the maze along the length of the plasma channel. The dependancy of discharge voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. A reduction in discharge voltage with one or two potential barriers present has been found and explained. The dependency of the magnitude of discharge ignition voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. The reduction of the ignition voltage with the presence of one or two potential barriers has been observed and explained.

  14. Control system for prosthetic hand based on DSP%基于DSP的仿人形假手控制系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张可科; 熊蔡华; 贺磊; 熊大柱

    2013-01-01

    为解决假肢手控制系统复杂等问题,将欠驱动技术应用到假肢手的机械结构设计中,整个假手由3个电机驱动,手指结构选用绳索滑轮驱动方式.开展了对机械系统原理和结构的分析,提出了基于DSP的结构简单、开发周期短、具有力反馈的运动控制系统,该控制系统用于驱动各手指动作.介绍了控制系统的硬件实现方法和软件控制流程,硬件主要包括电平转换和传感器信号处理电路,共有两种类型、11个传感器,可为假手自主抓取中的感觉反馈提供数据;软件主要涉及事件管理器、模数转换模块的应用.最后对假手中的压力传感器进行了标定,并进行了假手抓取试验.研究结果表明,基于力传感器反馈的控制策略使得假手能够实现稳定包络抓取.%Aiming at solving problems of the control system's complexity of prosthetic hands, the under-actuated technology was investigated in the mechanical design of the hand. The total hand was actuated by 3 motors, tendons and pulleys were chosen for the finger mechanisms. According to analysis of the principle and architecture of the mechanical system, methods of easy configuration, short time of development, and force feedback were established based on DSP. The function of driving the motion of the fingers was supported by the control system. The design of hardware and software of this system was given and the voltage changing and sensor processing circuit were mainly included in the hardware design. Two kinds, a sum of 11 sensors were equipped for automatic grasp control and sensory feedback. Event managers and analog-to-digital converters were applied in the software design. Force sensing resistor of the prosthetic hand was calibrated and the grasping ability was tested. The results indicate that control strategy based on the force feedback makes prosthetic hand fulfill stable envelope grasp.

  15. Welding of Prosthetic Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowska M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the techniques of joining metal denture elements, used in prosthetic dentistry: the traditional soldering technique with a gas burner and a new technique of welding with a laser beam; the aim of the study was to make a comparative assessment of the quality of the joints in view of the possibility of applying them in prosthetic structures. Fractographic examinations were conducted along with tensile strength and impact strength tests, and the quality of the joints was assessed compared to the solid metal. The experiments have shown that the metal elements used to make dentures, joined by the technique which employs a laser beam, have better strength properties than those achieved with a gas burner.

  16. DARPA Revolutionizing Prosthetics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    therapeutic applications  System performance validation and design compliance  End-to-end interactive simulation  Acquires control signals ( myoelectric ...Cortical Control for Hand Movement CalTech • Higher Cortex Signal /Intent Extraction Otto Bock • Prosthetic Components • Control Bus Architecture...Clinical Support APL • Program Management • System Engineering & Integration • Signal & Image processing • Virtual Reality & Controls RIC • Virtual

  17. Magnets in prosthetic dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, M A; Walmsley, A D; Harris, I R

    2001-08-01

    Magnetic retention is a popular method of attaching removable prostheses to either retained roots or osseointegrated implants. This review chronicles the development of magnets in dentistry and summarizes future research in their use. The literature was researched by using the Science Citation Index and Compendex Web from 1981 to 2000. Articles published before 1981 were hand researched from citations in other publications. Articles that discussed the use of magnets in relation to prosthetic dentistry were selected.

  18. Development of prosthetic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilaru, Rohit

    The objective of this research was to embed tactile sensors in polyimides. This novel method could be utilized to realize prosthetic skin for sensing different kinds of mechanical stimuli. Tactile sensors have an increasing demand in medical sectors: upper and lower-limb prosthetics and in the industrial sectors: robot end-effectors, grippers and manipulators. The sensors developed are targeted for prosthetic arm tactile sensing applications. Current work presents piezoresistive differential pressure sensors fabricated on flexible polyimide film or substrate. A unique technique to bond a flexible superstrate polyimide layer to a MEMS tactile sensor array is presented in this thesis. The sensor is made of aluminium oxide membrane layer with nichrome piezoresistors as the half-Wheatstone bridge elements. Four different types of sensor designs have been characterized to obtain gauge factor of thin film nichrome. The sensor arrays with and without the superstrate film were simulated for obtaining the maximum stress, average strain and deflection of the membrane. The maximum change in output voltage was 0.8 mV. The gauge factors calculated for tactile sensor with superstrate range between 2.2 to 7.8 and without superstrate range 1.5 to 5.7.

  19. Design of a Compact, Reconfigurable, Prosthetic Wrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Zinck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a prosthetic wrist is the result of compromises between the function and the practicality of the device. Conventional prosthetic wrists use a single degree of freedom to produce pro/supination of the hand. It has not been demonstrated that this is the most functional alignment for a single axis. Previous work by the authors suggests that if the wrist must have only one rotatory axis then a more oblique orientation would be more functional. To test this idea, a compact wrist with a single axis and spherical design has been made that will allow any axis of rotation to be selected and the functional performance of the resulting arm be tested.

  20. Upper extremity amputations and prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, Steven A; Askari, Morad

    2015-02-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions.

  1. Committing to Memory: Memory Prosthetics Show Promise in Helping Those with Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Cell phone chimes, sticky notes, even the proverbial string around a finger-these timehonored external cues help guard against our inevitable memory lapses. But some internal help to the brain itself may be on the way in the form of what's being called memory prosthetics. Once considered to be on the fringes of neuroscience, the idea of adding hardware to the brain to help with memory has gathered steam. In 2014, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) made a US$30 million investment in memory prosthetic research as part of the Obama administration's Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies initiative. In August 2016, Kernel, a startup based in Los Angeles, California, announced its goal to develop a clinical memory device for those debilitated by neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a look at prosthetics--past, present and possible future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Randy; MacDonald, Peter B

    2008-01-01

    Biological tissue autograft reconstruction using the patellar tendon or quadrupled semitendinosus/gracilis tendons has become the most popular procedure in surgical treatment of a ruptured ACL. This article provides a review of the history of the use of prosthetics with respect to ACL reconstruction grafts including Carbon Fibre, Gore-Tex and Dacron prosthetics as well as the Leeds-Keio Artificial Ligament and the Kennedy Ligament Augmentation Device (LAD). Emphasis is placed on the Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) as preliminary investigations of its use have been encouraging. Significant progress has been made recently with respect to the understanding of ACL anatomy, composition, biomechanics, and healing processes, leading to innovative techniques using approaches based in tissue engineering principles and computer - assisted surgery. While research into improved ACL treatment options continues, the synthesis of recent advancements provides a new optimism towards the regeneration of an ACL mirroring its original stability, function, and longevity.

  3. Magnetic tunnel junction based spintronic logic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Andrew Paul

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) predicts that complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based technologies will hit their last generation on or near the 16 nm node, which we expect to reach by the year 2025. Thus future advances in computational power will not be realized from ever-shrinking device sizes, but rather by 'outside the box' designs and new physics, including molecular or DNA based computation, organics, magnonics, or spintronic. This dissertation investigates magnetic logic devices for post-CMOS computation. Three different architectures were studied, each relying on a different magnetic mechanism to compute logic functions. Each design has it benefits and challenges that must be overcome. This dissertation focuses on pushing each design from the drawing board to a realistic logic technology. The first logic architecture is based on electrically connected magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) that allow direct communication between elements without intermediate sensing amplifiers. Two and three input logic gates, which consist of two and three MTJs connected in parallel, respectively were fabricated and are compared. The direct communication is realized by electrically connecting the output in series with the input and applying voltage across the series connections. The logic gates rely on the fact that a change in resistance at the input modulates the voltage that is needed to supply the critical current for spin transfer torque switching the output. The change in resistance at the input resulted in a voltage margin of 50--200 mV and 250--300 mV for the closest input states for the three and two input designs, respectively. The two input logic gate realizes the AND, NAND, NOR, and OR logic functions. The three input logic function realizes the Majority, AND, NAND, NOR, and OR logic operations. The second logic architecture utilizes magnetostatically coupled nanomagnets to compute logic functions, which is the basis of

  4. Human-Machine Interface for the Control of Multi-Function Systems Based on Electrocutaneous Menu: Application to Multi-Grasp Prosthetic Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose; Dosen, Strahinja; Amsuess, Sebastian; Yu, Wenwei; Farina, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Modern assistive devices are very sophisticated systems with multiple degrees of freedom. However, an effective and user-friendly control of these systems is still an open problem since conventional human-machine interfaces (HMI) cannot easily accommodate the system's complexity. In HMIs, the user is responsible for generating unique patterns of command signals directly triggering the device functions. This approach can be difficult to implement when there are many functions (necessitating many command patterns) and/or the user has a considerable impairment (limited number of available signal sources). In this study, we propose a novel concept for a general-purpose HMI where the controller and the user communicate bidirectionally to select the desired function. The system first presents possible choices to the user via electro-tactile stimulation; the user then acknowledges the desired choice by generating a single command signal. Therefore, the proposed approach simplifies the user communication interface (one signal to generate), decoding (one signal to recognize), and allows selecting from a number of options. To demonstrate the new concept the method was used in one particular application, namely, to implement the control of all the relevant functions in a state of the art commercial prosthetic hand without using any myoelectric channels. We performed experiments in healthy subjects and with one amputee to test the feasibility of the novel approach. The results showed that the performance of the novel HMI concept was comparable or, for some outcome measures, better than the classic myoelectric interfaces. The presented approach has a general applicability and the obtained results point out that it could be used to operate various assistive systems (e.g., prosthesis vs. wheelchair), or it could be integrated into other control schemes (e.g., myoelectric control, brain-machine interfaces) in order to improve the usability of existing low-bandwidth HMIs.

  5. Human-Machine Interface for the Control of Multi-Function Systems Based on Electrocutaneous Menu: Application to Multi-Grasp Prosthetic Hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gonzalez-Vargas

    Full Text Available Modern assistive devices are very sophisticated systems with multiple degrees of freedom. However, an effective and user-friendly control of these systems is still an open problem since conventional human-machine interfaces (HMI cannot easily accommodate the system's complexity. In HMIs, the user is responsible for generating unique patterns of command signals directly triggering the device functions. This approach can be difficult to implement when there are many functions (necessitating many command patterns and/or the user has a considerable impairment (limited number of available signal sources. In this study, we propose a novel concept for a general-purpose HMI where the controller and the user communicate bidirectionally to select the desired function. The system first presents possible choices to the user via electro-tactile stimulation; the user then acknowledges the desired choice by generating a single command signal. Therefore, the proposed approach simplifies the user communication interface (one signal to generate, decoding (one signal to recognize, and allows selecting from a number of options. To demonstrate the new concept the method was used in one particular application, namely, to implement the control of all the relevant functions in a state of the art commercial prosthetic hand without using any myoelectric channels. We performed experiments in healthy subjects and with one amputee to test the feasibility of the novel approach. The results showed that the performance of the novel HMI concept was comparable or, for some outcome measures, better than the classic myoelectric interfaces. The presented approach has a general applicability and the obtained results point out that it could be used to operate various assistive systems (e.g., prosthesis vs. wheelchair, or it could be integrated into other control schemes (e.g., myoelectric control, brain-machine interfaces in order to improve the usability of existing low

  6. Nanoscale Properties of Neural Cell Prosthetic and Astrocyte Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, D. A.; Ayres, V. M.; Delgado-Rivera, R.; Ahmed, I.; Meiners, S. A.

    2009-03-01

    Preliminary data from in-vivo investigations (rat model) suggest that a nanofiber prosthetic device of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)-modified nanofibers can correctly guide regenerating axons across an injury gap with aligned functional recovery. Scanning Probe Recognition Microscopy (SPRM) with auto-tracking of individual nanofibers is used for investigation of the key nanoscale properties of the nanofiber prosthetic device for central nervous system tissue engineering and repair. The key properties under SPRM investigation include nanofiber stiffness and surface roughness, nanofiber curvature, nanofiber mesh density and porosity, and growth factor presentation and distribution. Each of these factors has been demonstrated to have global effects on cell morphology, function, proliferation, morphogenesis, migration, and differentiation. The effect of FGF-2 modification on the key nanoscale properties is investigated. Results from the nanofiber prosthetic properties investigations are correlated with astrocyte response to unmodified and FGF-2 modified scaffolds, using 2D planar substrates as a control.

  7. The agenetic body: prosthetics or the new Promethean ideal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmeyer, Cristina

    2016-07-04

    In our rapidly changing world, we are often encouraged to treat our bodies as objects of constant improvement by means of various facilities and innovations. As part of this "Promethean tendency," the present-day alliance between medicine and technology has opened up a new perspective on the ill and disabled body, by providing access to sophisticated prosthetics that are increasingly seen as ideal remedies. These devices allow patients to benefit from previously unimaginable treatments and inestimable scientific advances, yet they also create new forms of dependency that go beyond simply forming a habit. They are part of a complex process which results in the construction of a body full of paradoxes and whose effects go beyond the subject's image construction. Based on the case of Mathilde, a little girl with a partial arm agenesis, the author traces some elements of the psychic process of constructing a body: from a congenital malformation towards a body "supplemented" by a prosthesis.

  8. Vaginal rejuvenation using energy-based devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Karcher, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Physiologic changes in a woman’s life, such as childbirth, weight fluctuations, and hormonal changes due to aging and menopause, may alter the laxity of the vaginal canal, damage the pelvic floor, and devitalize the mucosal tone of the vaginal wall. These events often lead to the development of genitourinary conditions such as stress urinary incontinence; vaginal atrophy; dryness; and physiologic distress affecting a woman’s quality of life, self-confidence, and sexuality. Various treatment modalities are currently available to manage these indications, varying from invasive vaginal surgery to more benign treatments like topical vaginal hormonal gels or hormone-replacement therapy. A new trend gaining momentum is the advent of energy-based devices for vaginal rejuvenation that apply thermal or nonthermal energy to the various layers of the vaginal tissue, stimulating collagen regeneration contracture of elastin fibers, neovascularization, and improved vaginal lubrication. This review aims to present the available technologies offering vaginal rejuvenation and the scientific evidence that underlines their safety and efficacy for this indication.

  9. Antimony Based III-V Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CA Wang

    2004-06-09

    Antimony-based III-V thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells are attractive converters for systems with low radiator temperature around 1100 to 1700 K, since these cells potentially can be spectrally matched to the thermal source. Cells under development include GaSb and the lattice-matched GaInAsSb/GaSb and InPAsSb/InAs quaternary systems. GaSb cell technology is the most mature, owing in part to the relative ease in preparation of the binary alloy compared to quaternary GaInAsSb and InPAsSb alloys. Device performance of 0.7-eV GaSb cells exceeds 90% of the practical limit. GaInAsSb TPV cells have been the primary focus of recent research, and cells with energy gap E{sub g} ranging from {approx}0.6 to 0.49 eV have been demonstrated. Quantum efficiency and fill factor approach theoretical limits. Open-circuit voltage factor is as high as 87% of the practical limit for the higher-E{sub g} cells, but degrades to below 80% with decreasing E{sub g} of the alloy, which might be due to Auger recombination. InPAsSb cells are the least studied, and a cell with E{sub g} = 0.45-eV has extended spectral response out to 4.3 {micro}m. This paper briefly reviews the main contributions that have been made for antimonide-based TPV cells, and suggests additional studies for further performance enhancements.

  10. Cosmetic devices based on active transdermal technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica A; Banga, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Active transdermal technology, commonly associated with drug delivery, has been used in recent years by the cosmetic industry for the aesthetic restoration of skin and delivery of cosmetic agents. In this article, we provide an overview of the skin's structure, various skin types, skin's self-repair mechanisms that are stimulated from the usage of cosmetic devices and discuss cosmetic applications. Summaries of the most common active transdermal technologies such as microneedles, iontophoresis, sonophoresis, lasers and microdermabrasion will be provided, in relation to the marketed cosmetic devices available that incorporate these technologies. Lastly, we cover combinations of active technologies that allow for more enhanced cosmetic results, and the current limitations of cosmetic devices.

  11. Integrating Sphere-based Weathering Device

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In the artificial ultraviolet (UV) weathering of materials, a need exists for weathering devices that can uniformly illuminate test specimens with a high...

  12. Toward biomaterial-based implantable photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humar, Matjaž; Kwok, Sheldon J. J.; Choi, Myunghwan; Yetisen, Ali K.; Cho, Sangyeon; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Optical technologies are essential for the rapid and efficient delivery of health care to patients. Efforts have begun to implement these technologies in miniature devices that are implantable in patients for continuous or chronic uses. In this review, we discuss guidelines for biomaterials suitable for use in vivo. Basic optical functions such as focusing, reflection, and diffraction have been realized with biopolymers. Biocompatible optical fibers can deliver sensing or therapeutic-inducing light into tissues and enable optical communications with implanted photonic devices. Wirelessly powered, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and miniature lasers made of biocompatible materials may offer new approaches in optical sensing and therapy. Advances in biotechnologies, such as optogenetics, enable more sophisticated photonic devices with a high level of integration with neurological or physiological circuits. With further innovations and translational development, implantable photonic devices offer a pathway to improve health monitoring, diagnostics, and light-activated therapies.

  13. Synaptic devices based on purely electronic memristors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ruobing [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Institute of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Li, Jun; Zhuge, Fei, E-mail: zhugefei@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: h-cao@nimte.ac.cn; Zhu, Liqiang; Liang, Lingyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Gao, Junhua; Cao, Hongtao, E-mail: zhugefei@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: h-cao@nimte.ac.cn; Fu, Bing; Li, Kang [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2016-01-04

    Memristive devices have been widely employed to emulate biological synaptic behavior. In these cases, the memristive switching generally originates from electrical field induced ion migration or Joule heating induced phase change. In this letter, the Ti/ZnO/Pt structure was found to show memristive switching ascribed to a carrier trapping/detrapping of the trap sites (e.g., oxygen vacancies or zinc interstitials) in ZnO. The carrier trapping/detrapping level can be controllably adjusted by regulating the current compliance level or voltage amplitude. Multi-level conductance states can, therefore, be realized in such memristive device. The spike-timing-dependent plasticity, an important Hebbian learning rule, has been implemented in this type of synaptic device. Compared with filamentary-type memristive devices, purely electronic memristors have potential to reduce their energy consumption and work more stably and reliably, since no structural distortion occurs.

  14. Prosthetic abutment influences bone biomechanical behavior of immediately loaded implants

    OpenAIRE

    Camargos, Germana de Villa; SOTTO-MAIOR,Bruno Salles; Silva,Wander José da; Priscilla Cardoso LAZARI; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the type of prosthetic abutment associated to different implant connection on bone biomechanical behavior of immediately and delayed loaded implants. Computed tomography-based finite element models comprising a mandible with a single molar implant were created with different types of prosthetic abutment (UCLA or conical), implant connection (external hexagon, EH or internal hexagon, IH), and occlusal loading (axial or oblique), for both i...

  15. Toward flexible polymer and paper-based energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, Leif; Nyström, Gustav; Mihranyan, Albert; Strømme, Maria

    2011-09-01

    All-polymer and paper-based energy storage devices have significant inherent advantages in comparison with many currently employed batteries and supercapacitors regarding environmental friendliness, flexibility, cost and versatility. The research within this field is currently undergoing an exciting development as new polymers, composites and paper-based devices are being developed. In this report, we review recent progress concerning the development of flexible energy storage devices based on electronically conducting polymers and cellulose containing composites with particular emphasis on paper-based batteries and supercapacitors. We discuss recent progress in the development of the most commonly used electronically conducting polymers used in flexible device prototypes, the advantages and disadvantages of this type of energy storage devices, as well as the two main approaches used in the manufacturing of paper-based charge storage devices.

  16. Graphene-based liquid crystal device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Peter; Brimicombe, Paul D; Nair, Rahul R; Booth, Tim J; Jiang, Da; Schedin, Fred; Ponomarenko, Leonid A; Morozov, Sergey V; Gleeson, Helen F; Hill, Ernie W; Geim, Andre K; Novoselov, Kostya S

    2008-06-01

    Graphene is only one atom thick, optically transparent, chemically inert, and an excellent conductor. These properties seem to make this material an excellent candidate for applications in various photonic devices that require conducting but transparent thin films. In this letter, we demonstrate liquid crystal devices with electrodes made of graphene that show excellent performance with a high contrast ratio. We also discuss the advantages of graphene compared to conventionally used metal oxides in terms of low resistivity, high transparency and chemical stability.

  17. Devising the prosthetic prescription and typical examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passero, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Limb deficiency has a significant impact on the involved person, with upper limb absence presenting a materially different set of issues than lower limb absence. The primary objectives in fitting a patient with a prosthesis are to enhance their independence in performing daily activities, and to improve their quality of life. For lower limb absence, the primary issues are safety, stability, and the ability to ambulate in a manner consistent with their overall health. The primary objectives in prescribing upper limb prosthetics are function, durability, appearance, comfort, and usability of the device. This article discusses the nuances associated with managing these patients.

  18. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for medical purposes to support, protect, or aid in the use of a cast, orthosis (brace), or prosthesis. Examples of prosthetic and orthotic accessories include the following: A pelvic support band and belt, a cast shoe, a cast bandage, a limb cover, a prosthesis alignment device, a postsurgical pylon,...

  19. Prosthetic arm monitoring system using a programmable interface controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaro, B A; Schoenberg, J S; Self, B P; Bagley, A

    2001-01-01

    Children with upper extremity limb deficiency are often prescribed a prosthetic arm to assist with daily function. Three types of prostheses are available: passive, active body-powered, and active myoelectric; costs range from $3,000 to $15,000. Clinicians rely on parent and child feedback regarding the usefulness of the prosthesis, and may assess the child's skill in using the device in a controlled setting. However, these methods do not provide an objective quantification of the wear and use of the device during daily activities. The purpose of this project is to develop a sensor to record the amount of time per day the prosthetic arm is worn, and to count the number of times per day the child activates (closes) the prosthetic hand (or terminal device). The system that has been developed can be integrated unobtrusively into a child's prosthetic arm. A programmable interface controller (PIC) with interface circuitry and memory was developed to record the daily wear pattern and hand usage of the prosthesis at 15-minute intervals. Memory and battery capacities are sufficient to record data over a three-month period. A personal computer interface downloads the collected data and may be used to reprogram the device for different time periods of data collection. All components, including the battery, have a mass of 87 grams and fit inside the forearm cavity of a 9-year old's prosthesis. Controlled trials are underway at Shriners Hospital for Children, Northern California, to determine system reliability.

  20. 基于语音控制的智能假手系统%The system of intelligent prosthetic hand based on speech control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔杰; 李致金; 郝一飞; 胡鸣蕾

    2015-01-01

    In order to realize the intelligent control of the prosthetic hand, this paper proposed a design based on speech control. Speech recognition system receives the user's voice command, and converts the voice command into digital signal which can be recognized by main control system. After receiving the digital signal, main control system will send data which can drive finger joint servo motor rotating forwardly or reversely, at the same time the angle data will be convert into electrical signal by finger joint potentiometer. Main control system will convert this electrical signal into digital signal, and compare this digital signal with original command data. Finally, main control system can get revised data, which can drive finger joint servo motor moving to the correct position. When needing to grasp the different objects, this system can detect the fingertip pressure by high sensitivity pressure sensors mounted at the fingertip, which can ensure the item is to be grasped and will not be crushed. Thus, the intelligent control of the prosthetic hand can be realized.%为了实现对假手的智能控制,文中提出一种基于语音控制的设计方案。语音识别系统接收发音人的语音命令,并将语音命令转换成主控系统能识别的数字信号。主控系统接收数字信号,同时根据命令向指关节发送数据驱动指关节伺服电机正向或反向转动。指关节转动的角度被指关节电位器转换成相应的电信号。主控系统将角度电信号转换成数字信号,并将此数字信号和命令初始数据比较,从而发出修正命令数据,驱动指关节伺服电机走到指定的位置。在抓握不同物品时,本系统中在每个指尖安装有高灵敏度的压力传感器以检测指尖的受力,确保物品既被抓牢又不被压坏,从而实现对假手的智能控制。

  1. Recent advancements in prosthetic hand technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Angana; Mazumdar, Sushmi; Sahai, Nitin; Paul, Sudip; Bhatia, Dinesh; Verma, Suresh; Rohilla, Punit Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Recently, significant advances over the past decade have been made in robotics, artificial intelligence and other cognitive related fields, allowing development of highly sophisticated bio-mimetic robotics systems. In addition, enormous number of robots have been designed and assembled by explicitly realising their biological oriented behaviours. To enhance skill behaviours and adequate grasping abilities in these devices, a new phase of dexterous hands has been developed recently with bio-mimetically oriented and bio-inspired functionalities. The aim in writing this review paper is to present a detailed insight towards the development of the bio-mimetic based dexterous robotic multi-fingered artificial hand. An "ideal" upper limb prosthesis should be perceived as a part of their natural body by the amputee and should replicate sensory-motor capabilities of the amputated limb. Upper-limb amputations are most often the result of sudden trauma to the body, although they also can be caused by malignancy, congenital deficiencies and vascular diseases. This paper discusses the different bio-mimetic approaches using a framework that permits for a common description of biological and technical based hand manipulation behaviour. In particular, the review focuses on a number of developments in the inspired robotic systems. In conclusion, the study found that a huge amount of research efforts in terms of kinematics, dynamics, modelling and control methodologies are being put in to improve the present hand technology, thereby providing more functionality to the prosthetic limb of the amputee. This would improve their quality-of-life and help in performing activities of daily living (ADL) tasks with comparative ease in the near future.

  2. Advances in upper extremity prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H

    2012-11-01

    Until recently, upper extremity prostheses had changed little since World War II. In 2006, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency responded to an increasing number of military amputees with the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program. The program has yielded several breakthroughs both in the engineering of new prosthetic arms and in the control of those arms. Direct brain-wave control of a limb with 22° of freedom may be within reach. In the meantime, advances such as individually powered digits have opened the door to multifunctional full and partial hand prostheses. Restoring sensation to the prosthetic limb remains a major challenge to full integration of the limb into a patient's self-image.

  3. [Survey of carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses and occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire administered to companies involved in the manufacture of prosthetics and orthotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshiro, Yuko; Furuta, Nami; Makino, Kenichiro; Wada, Futoshi; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    We surveyed carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses (carbon orthoses) and their associated occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire sent to 310 companies which were members of the Japan Orthotics and Prosthetics Association. Of all the companies, 232 responded: 77 of the 232 companies dealt with ready-made carbon orthoses, 52 dealt with fabricated custom-made orthoses, and 155 did not dealt with carbon orthoses. Although the total number of custom-made carbon ortheses in Japan was 829/ 5 years, there was a difference by region, and one company fabricated only 12 (per 5 years) custom-made carbon orthoses on average. The advantages of the carbon orthosis were the fact that it was "light weight", "well-fitted", had a "good appearance", and "excellent durability", while the disadvantages were that it was "expensive", "high cost of production", of "black color", and required a "longer time for completion", and "higher fabrication techniques". From the standpoint of industrial medicine, "scattering of fine fragments of carbon fibers", "itching on the skin" and "health hazards" were indicated in companies that manufacture the orthosis. In order to make the carbon orthosis more popular, it is necessary to develop a new carbon material that is easier to fabricate at a lower cost, to improve the fabrication technique, and to resolve the occupational and medical problems.

  4. Optimization-Based Design of a Small Pneumatic-Actuator-Driven Parallel Mechanism for a Shoulder Prosthetic Arm with Statics and Spatial Accessibility Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Sekine

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human arms undertake most tasks in the activities of daily living (ADLs. When designing shoulder prostheses for high‐level upper‐limb amputees, we should consider not only how to realize high degrees of freedom under weight and shape constraints but also the user’s individual task space in daily life. An appropriate mechanical structure that can make full use of state‐of‐the‐art actuators and a scheme to optimize the structure’s configuration to match users’ spatial access and manipulability requirements are essential. In our previous research, a small pneumatic‐actuator‐driven parallel mechanism was studied as a shoulder prosthetic arm. In this paper, a systematic procedure is proposed to design the mechanism for a shoulder prosthesis considering force and spatial accessibility. This procedure includes ADL measurements to obtain the task spaces for individual subjects, indexes to evaluate the force and spatial accessibility and an optimization process based on kinematic and statics models. With this approach, the parallel mechanism was optimized for one important ADL task group, considering the trade‐off between its required force and working space. Moreover, it was confirmed that the proposed design procedure could find solutions for various spatial specifications. That is, the approach could be used for individualized shoulder prosthesis design.

  5. Anticoagulation for Prosthetic Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Kaneko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of prosthetic valve requires consideration for anticoagulation. The current guideline recommends warfarin on all mechanical valves. Dabigatran is the new generation anticoagulation medication which is taken orally and does not require frequent monitoring. This drug is approved for treatment for atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism, but the latest large trial showed that this drug increases adverse events when used for mechanical valve anticoagulation. On-X valve is the new generation mechanical valve which is considered to require less anticoagulation due to its flow dynamics. The latest study showed that lower anticoagulation level lowers the incidence of bleeding, while the risk of thromboembolism and thrombosis remained the same. Anticoagulation poses dilemma in cases such as pregnancy and major bleeding event. During pregnancy, warfarin can be continued throughout pregnancy and switched to heparin derivative during 6–12 weeks and >36 weeks of gestation. Warfarin can be safely started after 1-2 weeks of discontinuation following major bleeding episode.

  6. Printable Graphene-based Thermoelectric Device with High Temperature Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian; Chen, Yanan; Drew, Dennis; Hu, Liangbing; NanomaterialsEmerging Devices Collaboration

    Thermoelectric devices are of particular interest due to their capability to convert heat into electrical power. We demonstrate the use of a Graphene-based thermoelectric device that can generate output voltages of hundreds of millivolts with an illuminating Graphene strip as the blackbody source. Our proposed device is superior for thermoelectric conversion mainly due to its high temperature capability that yields a maximum Carnot efficiency limit of 90% (referenced to room temperature) and a high Seebeck coefficient. Our device is also macroscopic with good mechanical strength and stabilized performance, making it attractive for large scale and reliable thermoelectric devices.

  7. Model-based engineering for medical-device software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Arnab; Jetley, Raoul; Jones, Paul L; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the benefits of adopting model-based design techniques for engineering medical device software. By using a patient-controlled analgesic (PCA) infusion pump as a candidate medical device, the authors show how using models to capture design information allows for i) fast and efficient construction of executable device prototypes ii) creation of a standard, reusable baseline software architecture for a particular device family, iii) formal verification of the design against safety requirements, and iv) creation of a safety framework that reduces verification costs for future versions of the device software. 1.

  8. Polymer-based symmetric electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbizzani, Catia; Cerroni, Maria Grazia [Department of Chemistry `G. Ciamician`, University of Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Mastragostino, Marina [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Palermo, via Archirafi 26, 20123 Palermo (Italy)

    1998-12-30

    The fact that conjugated polymers repeatedly undergo electrochemical doping/undoping processes, which are accompanied by color changes, makes these materials very attractive, and much effort has been devoted to their use in advanced devices. There is renewed interest in electroactive polymers that reversibly undergo both p- and n-doping because of their potential application in symmetric electrochemical devices. We employed fused molecules, dithienothiophenes, as monomers to obtain polymers with a narrow band gap suitable for n- and p-doping. The performance results of two symmetric electrochromic devices having as electrodes both poly(dithieno[3,4-b:3`,4`-d]thiophene) (pDTT1) and poly(dithieno[3,4-b:2`,3`-d]thiophene) (pDTT3) are reported and discussed

  9. Conducting polymer based biomolecular electronic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B D Malhotra; Rahul Singhal

    2003-08-01

    Biomolecular electronics is rapidly evolving from physics, chemistry, biology, electronics and information technology. Organic materials such as proteins, pigments and conducting polymers have been considered as alternatives for carrying out the functions that are presently being performed by semiconductor silicon. Conducting polymers such as polypyrroles, polythiophenes and polyanilines have been projected for applications for a wide range of biomolecular electronic devices such as optical, electronic, drug-delivery, memory and biosensing devices. Our group has been actively working towards the application of conducting polymers to Schottky diodes, metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) devices and biosensors for the past 10 years. This paper is a review of some of the results obtained at our laboratory in the area of conducting polymer biomolecular electronics.

  10. Toxicology of antimicrobial nanoparticles for prosthetic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez-Anita RE; Acosta-Torres LS; Vilar-Pineda J; Martínez-Espinosa JC; de la Fuente-Hernández J; Castaño VM

    2014-01-01

    Rosa Elvira Nuñez-Anita,1 Laura Susana Acosta-Torres,2 Jorge Vilar-Pineda,2 Juan Carlos Martínez-Espinosa,3 Javier de la Fuente-Hernández, 2 Víctor Manuel Castaño4 1Facultad de Medicina Veterinariay Zootecnia, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Tarìmbaro Municipio de Morelia, Michoacán, México; 2Escuela Nacionalde Estudios Superiores, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de M...

  11. Animation Based Learning of Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, Aharon; Zoabi, Wishah; Sabag, Nissim

    2014-01-01

    Two-year college teachers face great difficulty when they teach the principle of operation of the bipolar junction transistor--a subject which forms the basis for electronics studies. The difficulty arises from both the complexity of the device and by the lack of adequate scientific background among the students. We, therefore, developed a unique…

  12. Parameter Estimation Technique of Nonlinear Prosthetic Hand System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.Jali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrated the parameter estimation technique of motorized prosthetic hand system. Prosthetic hands have become importance device to help amputee to gain a normal functional hand. By integrating various types of actuators such as DC motor, hydraulic and pneumatic as well as mechanical part, a highly useful and functional prosthetic device can be produced. One of the first steps to develop a prosthetic device is to design a control system. Mathematical modeling is derived to ease the control design process later on. This paper explained the parameter estimation technique of a nonlinear dynamic modeling of the system using Lagrangian equation. The model of the system is derived by considering the energies of the finger when it is actuated by the DC motor. The parameter estimation technique is implemented using Simulink Design Optimization toolbox in MATLAB. All the parameters are optimized until it achieves a satisfactory output response. The results show that the output response of the system with parameter estimation value produces a better response compare to the default value

  13. Methods for characterization of mechanical and electrical prosthetic vacuum pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluseeni Komolafe, PhD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasingly widespread adoption of vacuum-assisted suspension systems in prosthetic clinical practices, there remain gaps in the body of scientific knowledge guiding clinicians’ choices of existing products. In this study, we identified important pump-performance metrics and developed techniques to objectively characterize the evacuation performance of prosthetic vacuum pumps. The sensitivity of the proposed techniques was assessed by characterizing the evacuation performance of two electrical (Harmony e-Pulse [Ottobock; Duderstadt, Germany] and LimbLogic VS [Ohio Willow Wood; Mt. Sterling, Ohio] and three mechanical (Harmony P2, Harmony HD, and Harmony P3 [Ottobock] prosthetic pumps in bench-top testing. Five fixed volume chambers ranging from 33 cm3 (2 in.3 to 197 cm3 (12 in.3 were used to represent different air volume spaces between a prosthetic socket and a liner-clad residual limb. All measurements were obtained at a vacuum gauge pressure of 57.6 kPa (17 inHg. The proposed techniques demonstrated sensitivity to the different electrical and mechanical pumps and, to a lesser degree, to the different setting adjustments of each pump. The sensitivity was less pronounced for the mechanical pumps, and future improvements for testing of mechanical vacuum pumps were proposed. Overall, this study successfully offers techniques feasible as standards for assessing the evacuation performance of prosthetic vacuum pump devices.

  14. Methods for characterization of mechanical and electrical prosthetic vacuum pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolafe, Oluseeni; Wood, Sean; Caldwell, Ryan; Hansen, Andrew; Fatone, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasingly widespread adoption of vacuum-assisted suspension systems in prosthetic clinical practices, there remain gaps in the body of scientific knowledge guiding clinicians' choices of existing products. In this study, we identified important pump-performance metrics and developed techniques to objectively characterize the evacuation performance of prosthetic vacuum pumps. The sensitivity of the proposed techniques was assessed by characterizing the evacuation performance of two electrical (Harmony e-Pulse [Ottobock; Duderstadt, Germany] and LimbLogic VS [Ohio Willow Wood; Mt. Sterling, Ohio]) and three mechanical (Harmony P2, Harmony HD, and Harmony P3 [Ottobock]) prosthetic pumps in bench-top testing. Five fixed volume chambers ranging from 33 cm(3) (2 in.(3)) to 197 cm(3) (12 in.(3)) were used to represent different air volume spaces between a prosthetic socket and a liner-clad residual limb. All measurements were obtained at a vacuum gauge pressure of 57.6 kPa (17 inHg). The proposed techniques demonstrated sensitivity to the different electrical and mechanical pumps and, to a lesser degree, to the different setting adjustments of each pump. The sensitivity was less pronounced for the mechanical pumps, and future improvements for testing of mechanical vacuum pumps were proposed. Overall, this study successfully offers techniques feasible as standards for assessing the evacuation performance of prosthetic vacuum pump devices.

  15. Prosthetic stomatitis with removable dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalieva Yu.Yu.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Research Objective: To study patients with prosthetic stomatitis, who use the removable laminar dentures. Materials: The consultations and treatment of 79 patients aged 47-65 years have been conducted. The patients have been divided into two clinical groups. The first clinical group (39 persons with the performance of immediate prosthet-ics; the second control clinical group (40 persons — the permanent dentures were produced without the preliminary instruction. Results: All the patients, having the laminar dentures without the preliminary use of immediate constructions of dentures, in spite of repeated correction of them, have had changes of dentures and transitory fold. Patients have been exposed to prosthetic stomatitis of different etiology (without trauma; the single-shot or multiple correction of dentures by the method of rebasing with using of cold cure plastics has been made. Conclusion: Structural and functional changes of dentition during the prosthetic stomatitis lead to disorders, associated by the mucositis. Use of the term of «prosthetic stomatitis» reflects etiological and pathogenetic component of changes in the denture-supporting tissues

  16. The use of underactuation in prosthetic grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Kyberd

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Underactuation as a method of driving prosthetic hands has a long history. The pragmatic requirements of such a device to be light enough to be worn and used regularly have meant that any multi degree of freedom prosthetic hand must have fewer actuators than the usable degrees of freedom. Aesthetics ensures that while the hand needs five fingers, five actuators have considerable mass, and only in recent years has it even been possible to construct a practical anthropomorphic hand with five motors. Thus there is an important trade off as to which fingers are driven, and which joints on which fingers are actuated, and how the forces are distributed to create a functional device. This paper outlines some of the historical solutions created for this problem and includes those designs of recent years that are now beginning to be used in the commercial environment.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  17. Studying Quantum Phase-Based Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-15

    variety of different III-V material configurations, (4) and treat transient transport in silicon and germanium heterostructures. It is capable of studying...nonuniform field distribution may prevent the appearance of NDR . TRANSPORT IN ULTRA-SUBMICRON DEVICES The entire discussion of transport has been predicated...differential resistance. Indeed, the calculations .ugpt that it is the significantly reduced velocity at resonance that is resjponsible for NDR . The low

  18. [Optogenetics and prosthetic treatment of retinal degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpichnikov, M P; Ostrovskiy, M A

    2015-01-01

    This is a review of the current state of optogenetics-based research in the field of ophthalmology and physiology of vision. Optogenetics employs an interdisciplinary approach that amalgamates gene engineering, optics, and physiology. It involves exogenous expression of a light-activated protein in a very particular retinal cell enabling regulation (stimulation vs. inhibition) of its physiological activity. The experience with gene therapy came in very useful for optogenetics. However, unlike gene therapy, which is aimed at repairing damaged genes or replacing them with healthy ones, optogenetics is focused on protein genes delivery for further molecular control of the cell. In retina, the loss of photoreceptors is not necessarily followed by neuronal loss (at least ganglion cells remain intact), which determines the practicability of prosthetic treatment. Clinical trials can now be considered, owing to the first successful conversion of ganglion cells of mouse degenerative retinas into artificial photoreceptive cells with ON and OFF receptive fields, which is crucial for spatial vision. The following issues are reviewed here in detail: 1. Choice of cell targets within the degenerative retina. 2. Strategy of utilizing the existing light-sensitive agents and development of new optogenetic tools. 3. Gene delivery and expression in retinal cells. 4. Methods of evaluating the treatment success. 5. Selection criteria for optogenetic prosthetics. The conclusion discusses currently unsolved problems and prospects for optogenetic approaches to retinal prosthetics.

  19. 修复前正畸56例临床分析%Clinical analysis of orthodontic treatment before prosthetic treatment based on 56 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍丽; 戴宁; 刘芳霞

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析修复前正畸的作用及特点.方法:对56例修复条件不佳的患者,先行正畸治疗创造修复条件,再行修复治疗,恢复牙列完整.结果:除1例放弃治疗外,55例患者修复条件得到改善,修复体在功能和美观方面都达到了满意的效果.结论:与常规正畸相比,修复前正畸有其自身的特点和规律.%Objective To analyze the effect and clinical features of the orthodontic treatment before prosthetic treatment. Methods 56 patients with poor oral conditions for prosthetic treatment were first applied to orthodontics treatment and then the missing teeth were fixed. Results In addition to 1 patient who abandoned treatment,55 patients' conditions for prosthetic treatment were improved through orthodontic treatment. Patients were satisfied with functions and aesthetics of the restoration. Conclusion The orthodontic treatment before prosthetic treatment has its own characteristics and regulations compared with conventional orthodontic treatment.

  20. Differentiation between solid-ankle cushioned heel and energy storage and return prosthetic foot based on step-to-step transition cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wezenberg, Daphne; Cutti, Andrea G; Bruno, Antonino; Houdijk, Han

    2014-01-01

    Decreased push-off power by the prosthetic foot and inadequate roll-over shape of the foot have been shown to increase the energy dissipated during the step-to-step transition in human walking. The aim of this study was to determine whether energy storage and return (ESAR) feet are able to reduce the mechanical energy dissipated during the step-to-step transition. Fifteen males with a unilateral lower-limb amputation walked with their prescribed ESAR foot (Vari-Flex, Ossur; Reykjavik, Iceland) and with a solid-ankle cushioned heel foot (SACH) (1D10, Ottobock; Duderstadt, Germany), while ground reaction forces and kinematics were recorded. The positive mechanical work on the center of mass performed by the trailing prosthetic limb was larger (33%, p = 0.01) and the negative work performed by the leading intact limb was lower (13%, p = 0.04) when walking with the ESAR foot compared with the SACH foot. The reduced step-to-step transition cost coincided with a higher mechanical push-off power generated by the ESAR foot and an extended forward progression of the center of pressure under the prosthetic ESAR foot. Results can explain the proposed improvement in walking economy with this kind of energy storing and return prosthetic foot.

  1. A microfluidic device based on an evaporation-driven micropump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, C.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Mandamparambil, R.; Toonder, J.M.J. den

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a microfluidic device ultimately to be applied as a wearable sweat sensor. We show proof-of-principle of the microfluidic functions of the device, namely fluid collection and continuous fluid flow pumping. A filter-paper based layer, that eventually will form the interface

  2. Optoelectronics Devices Based on Zinc Oxide Thin Films and Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Optoelectronics devices based on ZnO thin films and nanostructures are discussed in this dissertation. A ZnO homojunction LED was demonstrated. Sb-doped p-type ZnO and Ga-doped n-type ZnO on Si (100) substrate were used for the LED device. After achieving ohmic contacts on both types of ZnO, the device showed rectifying current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Under forward bias, the device successfully showed ultraviolet emissions. The emission properties were analyzed and the emission was con...

  3. [Prosthetic dental alloys. 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Engelmbright, M A

    1990-11-01

    A wide variety of restoration materials for prosthetic odontology is now available to the dental surgeon, either of the covalent type (acrylic resins), metallic (alloys), ionic (porcelains), or a combination of them, as in the so-called composites, such as the composite resins, or as ceramics-metals mixtures. An example of the latter is a product called Miracle-Mix, a glass ionomere cement reinforced with an amalgam alloy. In those cases where the blend is done by a synterization process, the material is called Cermet. The above-listed alternatives clearly evidence day-to-day advances in odontology, with researchers and manufacturers engaged the world over in improving existing products or developing new ones to enrich the dentist's armamentarium. As a side effect of this constant renewal, those dentists who have failed to update their knowledge fall behind in their practice as they persist in using products they have known for years, and may be deceived by advertisements of too-often unreliable products. It is, therefore, important to be aware of available products and their latest improvements.

  4. [Prosthetic dental alloys (2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Englembright, M A

    1990-12-01

    A wide variety of restoration materials for prosthetic odontology is now available to the dental surgeon, either of the covalent type (acrylic resins), metallic (alloys), ionic (porcelains), or a combination of them, as in the so-called composites, such as the composite resins, or as ceramics-metals mixtures. An example of the latter is a product called Miracle-Mix, a glass ionomere cement reinforced with an amalgam alloy. In those cases where the blend is done by a synterization process, the material is called Cermet. The above-listed alternatives clearly evidence day-to-day advances in odontology, with researchers and manufacturers engaged the world over in improving existing products or developing new ones to enrich the dentist's armamentarium. As a side effect of this constant renewal, those dentists who have failed to update their knowledge fall behind in their practice as they persist in using products they have known for years, and may be deceived by advertisements of too-often unreliable products. It is, therefore, important to be aware of available products and their latest improvements.

  5. Smartphones as image processing systems for prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapf, Marc P; Matteucci, Paul B; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of implants for prosthetic vision has been demonstrated by research and commercial organizations. In most devices, an essential forerunner to the internal stimulation circuit is an external electronics solution for capturing, processing and relaying image information as well as extracting useful features from the scene surrounding the patient. The capabilities and multitude of image processing algorithms that can be performed by the device in real-time plays a major part in the final quality of the prosthetic vision. It is therefore optimal to use powerful hardware yet to avoid bulky, straining solutions. Recent publications have reported of portable single-board computers fast enough for computationally intensive image processing. Following the rapid evolution of commercial, ultra-portable ARM (Advanced RISC machine) mobile devices, the authors investigated the feasibility of modern smartphones running complex face detection as external processing devices for vision implants. The role of dedicated graphics processors in speeding up computation was evaluated while performing a demanding noise reduction algorithm (image denoising). The time required for face detection was found to decrease by 95% from 2.5 year old to recent devices. In denoising, graphics acceleration played a major role, speeding up denoising by a factor of 18. These results demonstrate that the technology has matured sufficiently to be considered as a valid external electronics platform for visual prosthetic research.

  6. Development of a prototype over-actuated biomimetic prosthetic hand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Williams

    Full Text Available The loss of a hand can greatly affect quality of life. A prosthetic device that can mimic normal hand function is very important to physical and mental recuperation after hand amputation, but the currently available prosthetics do not fully meet the needs of the amputee community. Most prosthetic hands are not dexterous enough to grasp a variety of shaped objects, and those that are tend to be heavy, leading to discomfort while wearing the device. In order to attempt to better simulate human hand function, a dexterous hand was developed that uses an over-actuated mechanism to form grasp shape using intrinsic joint mounted motors in addition to a finger tendon to produce large flexion force for a tight grip. This novel actuation method allows the hand to use small actuators for grip shape formation, and the tendon to produce high grip strength. The hand was capable of producing fingertip flexion force suitable for most activities of daily living. In addition, it was able to produce a range of grasp shapes with natural, independent finger motion, and appearance similar to that of a human hand. The hand also had a mass distribution more similar to a natural forearm and hand compared to contemporary prosthetics due to the more proximal location of the heavier components of the system. This paper describes the design of the hand and controller, as well as the test results.

  7. Development of a prototype over-actuated biomimetic prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matthew R; Walter, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The loss of a hand can greatly affect quality of life. A prosthetic device that can mimic normal hand function is very important to physical and mental recuperation after hand amputation, but the currently available prosthetics do not fully meet the needs of the amputee community. Most prosthetic hands are not dexterous enough to grasp a variety of shaped objects, and those that are tend to be heavy, leading to discomfort while wearing the device. In order to attempt to better simulate human hand function, a dexterous hand was developed that uses an over-actuated mechanism to form grasp shape using intrinsic joint mounted motors in addition to a finger tendon to produce large flexion force for a tight grip. This novel actuation method allows the hand to use small actuators for grip shape formation, and the tendon to produce high grip strength. The hand was capable of producing fingertip flexion force suitable for most activities of daily living. In addition, it was able to produce a range of grasp shapes with natural, independent finger motion, and appearance similar to that of a human hand. The hand also had a mass distribution more similar to a natural forearm and hand compared to contemporary prosthetics due to the more proximal location of the heavier components of the system. This paper describes the design of the hand and controller, as well as the test results.

  8. Mini array of quantum Hall devices based on epitaxial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, S.; Lebedeva, N.; Hämäläinen, J.; Iisakka, I.; Immonen, P.; Manninen, A. J.; Satrapinski, A.

    2016-05-01

    Series connection of four quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices based on epitaxial graphene films was studied for realization of a quantum resistance standard with an up-scaled value. The tested devices showed quantum Hall plateaux RH,2 at a filling factor v = 2 starting from a relatively low magnetic field (between 4 T and 5 T) when the temperature was 1.5 K. The precision measurements of quantized Hall resistance of four QHE devices connected by triple series connections and external bonding wires were done at B = 7 T and T = 1.5 K using a commercial precision resistance bridge with 50 μA current through the QHE device. The results showed that the deviation of the quantized Hall resistance of the series connection of four graphene-based QHE devices from the expected value of 4×RH,2 = 2 h/e2 was smaller than the relative standard uncertainty of the measurement (resistance bridge.

  9. Product-based Safety Certification for Medical Devices Embedded Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, José Augusto; Figueiredo Damásio, Jemerson; Monthaler, Paul; Morais, Misael

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide medical device embedded software certification practices are currently focused on manufacturing best practices. In Brazil, the national regulatory agency does not hold a local certification process for software-intensive medical devices and admits international certification (e.g. FDA and CE) from local and international industry to operate in the Brazilian health care market. We present here a product-based certification process as a candidate process to support the Brazilian regulatory agency ANVISA in medical device software regulation. Center of Strategic Technology for Healthcare (NUTES) medical device embedded software certification is based on a solid safety quality model and has been tested with reasonable success against the Class I risk device Generic Infusion Pump (GIP).

  10. Reduced graphene oxide based flexible organic charge trap memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Adila; Song, Ji-Min; Jung Lee, Mi; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2012-12-01

    A nonvolatile organic transistor memory device was developed using layer-by-layer assembly of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and solution-processed, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as the charge trapping layer on flexible substrates. Reduction of graphene oxide and successful adsorption of the rGO on APTES-covered substrates were confirmed. The organic memory devices based on rGO exhibited reliable programmable memory operations, confirmed by program/erase operations, data retention, and endurance properties. These methods can potentially play a significant role in the fabrication of next-generation flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on graphene materials.

  11. A quantum computer based on recombination processes in microelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoropoulos, K.; Ntalaperas, D.; Petras, I.; Konofaos, N.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a quantum computer based on the recombination processes happening in semiconductor devices is presented. A "data element" and a "computational element" are derived based on Schokley-Read-Hall statistics and they can later be used to manifest a simple and known quantum computing process. Such a paradigm is shown by the application of the proposed computer onto a well known physical system involving traps in semiconductor devices.

  12. A quantum computer based on recombination processes in microelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodoropoulos, K [Computer Engineering and Informatics Department, University of Patras, Patras (Greece); Ntalaperas, D [Computer Engineering and Informatics Department, University of Patras, Patras (Greece); Research Academic Computer Technology Institute, Riga Feraiou 61, 26110, Patras (Greece); Petras, I [Computer Engineering and Informatics Department, University of Patras, Patras (Greece); Konofaos, N [Computer Engineering and Informatics Department, University of Patras, Patras (Greece)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a quantum computer based on the recombination processes happening in semiconductor devices is presented. A 'data element' and a 'computational element' are derived based on Schokley-Read-Hall statistics and they can later be used to manifest a simple and known quantum computing process. Such a paradigm is shown by the application of the proposed computer onto a well known physical system involving traps in semiconductor devices.

  13. A Flexible Microcontroller-Based Data Acquisition Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Hercog

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low-cost microcontroller-based data acquisition device. The key component of the presented solution is a configurable microcontroller-based device with an integrated USB transceiver and a 12-bit analogue-to-digital converter (ADC. The presented embedded DAQ device contains a preloaded program (firmware that enables easy acquisition and generation of analogue and digital signals and data transfer between the device and the application running on a PC via USB bus. This device has been developed as a USB human interface device (HID. This USB class is natively supported by most of the operating systems and therefore any installation of additional USB drivers is unnecessary. The input/output peripheral of the presented device is not static but rather flexible, and could be easily configured to customised needs without changing the firmware. When using the developed configuration utility, a majority of chip pins can be configured as analogue input, digital input/output, PWM output or one of the SPI lines. In addition, LabVIEW drivers have been developed for this device. When using the developed drivers, data acquisition and signal processing algorithms as well as graphical user interface (GUI, can easily be developed using a well-known, industry proven, block oriented LabVIEW programming environment.

  14. A flexible microcontroller-based data acquisition device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercog, Darko; Gergič, Bojan

    2014-06-02

    This paper presents a low-cost microcontroller-based data acquisition device. The key component of the presented solution is a configurable microcontroller-based device with an integrated USB transceiver and a 12-bit analogue-to-digital converter (ADC). The presented embedded DAQ device contains a preloaded program (firmware) that enables easy acquisition and generation of analogue and digital signals and data transfer between the device and the application running on a PC via USB bus. This device has been developed as a USB human interface device (HID). This USB class is natively supported by most of the operating systems and therefore any installation of additional USB drivers is unnecessary. The input/output peripheral of the presented device is not static but rather flexible, and could be easily configured to customised needs without changing the firmware. When using the developed configuration utility, a majority of chip pins can be configured as analogue input, digital input/output, PWM output or one of the SPI lines. In addition, LabVIEW drivers have been developed for this device. When using the developed drivers, data acquisition and signal processing algorithms as well as graphical user interface (GUI), can easily be developed using a well-known, industry proven, block oriented LabVIEW programming environment.

  15. Compact prosthetic hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, W. A.; Wiker, G. A.

    1977-01-01

    Device combines tilt, wrist-rotation, and grasping mechanisms in single housing. Main body is about 15 centimeters long and 7.5 centimeters wide. Reduced weight and increased flexibility result from redesign and rearrangement of components.

  16. 100 top-cited scientific papers in limb prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Arezoo; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Ali, Sadeeq; Shadgan, Babak

    2013-11-17

    Research has tremendously contributed to the developments in both practical and fundamental aspects of limb prosthetics. These advancements are reflected in scientific articles, particularly in the most cited papers. This article aimed to identify the 100 top-cited articles in the field of limb prosthetics and to investigate their main characteristics. Articles related to the field of limb prosthetics and published in the Web of Knowledge database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) from the period of 1980 to 2012. The 100 most cited articles in limb prosthetics were selected based on the citation index report. All types of articles except for proceedings and letters were included in the study. The study design and level of evidence were determined using Sackett's initial rules of evidence. The level of evidence was categorized either as a systematic review or meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial, cohort study, case-control study, case series, expert opinion, or design and development. The top cited articles in prosthetics were published from 1980 to 2012 with a citation range of 11 to 90 times since publication. The mean citation rate was 24.43 (SD 16.7) times. Eighty-four percent of the articles were original publications and were most commonly prospective (76%) and case series studies (67%) that used human subjects (96%) providing level 4 evidence. Among the various fields, rehabilitation (47%), orthopedics (29%), and sport sciences (28%) were the most common fields of study. The study established that studies conducted in North America and were written in English had the highest citations. Top cited articles primarily dealt with lower limb prosthetics, specifically, on transtibial and transradial prosthetic limbs. Majority of the articles were experimental studies.

  17. Is the prosthetic homologue necessary for embodiment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Dornfeld

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Embodiment is the process by which patients with limb loss come to accept their peripheral device as a natural extension of self. However, there is little guidance as to how exacting the prosthesis must be in order for embodiment to take place: is it necessary for the prosthetic hand to look just like the absent hand? Here, we describe a protocol for testing whether an individual would select a hand that looks like their own from among a selection of 5 hands, and whether the hand selection (regardless of homology is consistent across multiple exposures to the same (but reordered set of candidate hands. Pilot results using healthy volunteers reveals that hand selection is only modestly consistent, and that selection of the prosthetic homologue is atypical (61 of 192 total exposures. Our protocol can be executed in minutes, and makes use of readily available equipment and softwares. We present both a face-to-face and a virtual protocol, for maximum flexibility of implementation.

  18. Is the Prosthetic Homologue Necessary for Embodiment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornfeld, Chelsea; Swanston, Michelle; Cassella, Joseph; Beasley, Casey; Green, Jacob; Moshayev, Yonatan; Wininger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Embodiment is the process by which patients with limb loss come to accept their peripheral device as a natural extension of self. However, there is little guidance as to how exacting the prosthesis must be in order for embodiment to take place: is it necessary for the prosthetic hand to look just like the absent hand? Here, we describe a protocol for testing whether an individual would select a hand that looks like their own from among a selection of five hands, and whether the hand selection (regardless of homology) is consistent across multiple exposures to the same (but reordered) set of candidate hands. Pilot results using healthy volunteers reveals that hand selection is only modestly consistent, and that selection of the prosthetic homologue is atypical (61 of 192 total exposures). Our protocol can be executed in minutes, and makes use of readily available equipment and softwares. We present both a face-to-face and a virtual protocol, for maximum flexibility of implementation. PMID:28066228

  19. Internal Location Based System for Mobile Devices Using Passive RFID

    CERN Document Server

    Vhatkar, Kapil N

    2010-01-01

    We have explored our own innovative work about the design & development of internal location-identification system for mobile devices based on integration of RFID and wireless technology. The function of our system is based on strategically located passive RFID tags placed on objects around building which are identified using an RFID reader attached to a mobile device. The mobile device reads the RFID tag and through the wireless network, sends the request to the server. The server resolves the request and sends the desired location-based information back to the mobile device. We had addressed that we can go through the RFID technology for internal location identification (indoor), which provides us better location accuracy because of no contact between the tag and the reader, and the system requires no line of sight. In this paper we had also focused on the issues of RFID technologies i.e. Non-line-of-sight & High inventory speeds.

  20. Nanotube devices based crossbar architecture: toward neuromorphic computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W S; Agnus, G; Derycke, V; Filoramo, A; Bourgoin, J-P; Gamrat, C

    2010-04-30

    Nanoscale devices such as carbon nanotube and nanowires based transistors, memristors and molecular devices are expected to play an important role in the development of new computing architectures. While their size represents a decisive advantage in terms of integration density, it also raises the critical question of how to efficiently address large numbers of densely integrated nanodevices without the need for complex multi-layer interconnection topologies similar to those used in CMOS technology. Two-terminal programmable devices in crossbar geometry seem particularly attractive, but suffer from severe addressing difficulties due to cross-talk, which implies complex programming procedures. Three-terminal devices can be easily addressed individually, but with limited gain in terms of interconnect integration. We show how optically gated carbon nanotube devices enable efficient individual addressing when arranged in a crossbar geometry with shared gate electrodes. This topology is particularly well suited for parallel programming or learning in the context of neuromorphic computing architectures.

  1. Medical Device Integration Model Based on the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Aiyu; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    At present, hospitals in our country have basically established the HIS system, which manages registration, treatment, and charge, among many others, of patients. During treatment, patients need to use medical devices repeatedly to acquire all sorts of inspection data. Currently, the output data of the medical devices are often manually input into information system, which is easy to get wrong or easy to cause mismatches between inspection reports and patients. For some small hospitals of which information construction is still relatively weak, the information generated by the devices is still presented in the form of paper reports. When doctors or patients want to have access to the data at a given time again, they can only look at the paper files. Data integration between medical devices has long been a difficult problem for the medical information system, because the data from medical devices are lack of mandatory unified global standards and have outstanding heterogeneity of devices. In order to protect their own interests, manufacturers use special protocols, etc., thus causing medical decices to still be the "lonely island" of hospital information system. Besides, unfocused application of the data will lead to failure to achieve a reasonable distribution of medical resources. With the deepening of IT construction in hospitals, medical information systems will be bound to develop towards mobile applications, intelligent analysis, and interconnection and interworking, on the premise that there is an effective medical device integration (MDI) technology. To this end, this paper presents a MDI model based on the Internet of Things (IoT). Through abstract classification, this model is able to extract the common characteristics of the devices, resolve the heterogeneous differences between them, and employ a unified protocol to integrate data between devices. And by the IoT technology, it realizes interconnection network of devices and conducts associate matching

  2. Resource-efficient proces chains to manufacture patient-specific prosthetic fingers

    OpenAIRE

    Hagedorn-Hansen, D.; Oosthuizen, G. A.; Gerhold, T.

    2016-01-01

    The high cost of quality prostheses, together with the lack of trained prosthetists, makes it challenging to obtain prosthetic devices in developing communities. Modern 3D digitising techniques and additive manufacturing (AM) technologies are gaining popularity in the bio-medical industry and, in the case of prosthesis production, reduce the need for a trained prosthetist. The objective of this research was to develop a new resource-efficient process chain for the manufacturing of prosthetic ...

  3. Design of myoelectric controlled prosthetic hand system based on MSP430%基于MSP430的肌电假手系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天博; 陈玲; 陈坤华; 吕继东

    2012-01-01

    在对人体表面肌电信号研究的基础上,设计出一种肌电假手系统,其中包括肌电信号采集调理系统和假手控制系统.肌电信号经信号调理电路放大、滤波、陷波后,由低功耗的MSP430F149单片机进行A/D转换、特征计算.单片机结合肌电信号与触滑觉传感器反馈的信息来控制电机转向与转速,从而控制假手做出相应动作.通过实际采集的肌电信号在示波器上显示的波形与假手的动作进行对比,说明系统设计是合理有效的.%On the basis of research on surface electromyography ( sEMG) signal, a myoelectrical controlled prosthetic hand system is designed. It includes electromyography (EMG) signal acquiring and conditioning system and the prosthetic hand control system. Through the signal acquiring and conditioning circuit, the EMG signal is amplified,filtered and notched, A/D is converted and feature calculated by MSP430F149 microcontroller whose power consumption is low. The single-chip microcontroller combines the EMG signal with the feedback signal of the tactile and slip sensor,to control the velocity and the direction of the motor,so as to let the prosthetic hand to do corresponding action. The signal displayed on oscilloscope is compared with the action of prosthetic hand. The result shows that the design is reasonable and effective.

  4. Integrating Android Devices into Network Management Systems based on SNMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hidalgo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices are becoming essential for today life. In developed countries, about half of the people have a smartphone, resulting in millions of these electronic devices. Android is the most popular operating system for smartphones and other electronic devices such as tablets. Hence, for network administrators, it is essential to start managing all the Android based devices. SNMP is the de facto standard for network administration, where agents that are running in managed devices are polled by management stations. Some primitive tools have already been developed to transform an Android device as a basic management station. However, so far, there is no SNMP agent for this operating system. In this paper, we develop the first SNMP agent for Android. We also propose an SNMP benchmark to study the SNMP traffic that can be supported by our SNMP agent over some real and actual Android devices. The results obtained show that it is realistic to integrate mobile Android devices in network management systems since they can handle a high number of SNMP requests in a reasonable period of time.

  5. A Rhythm-Based Authentication Scheme for Smart Media Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Dong Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ubiquitous computing has been rapidly emerged in our lives and extensive studies have been conducted in a variety of areas related to smart devices, such as tablets, smartphones, smart TVs, smart refrigerators, and smart media devices, as a measure for realizing the ubiquitous computing. In particular, smartphones have significantly evolved from the traditional feature phones. Increasingly higher-end smartphone models that can perform a range of functions are now available. Smart devices have become widely popular since they provide high efficiency and great convenience for not only private daily activities but also business endeavors. Rapid advancements have been achieved in smart device technologies to improve the end users’ convenience. Consequently, many people increasingly rely on smart devices to store their valuable and important data. With this increasing dependence, an important aspect that must be addressed is security issues. Leaking of private information or sensitive business data due to loss or theft of smart devices could result in exorbitant damage. To mitigate these security threats, basic embedded locking features are provided in smart devices. However, these locking features are vulnerable. In this paper, an original security-locking scheme using a rhythm-based locking system (RLS is proposed to overcome the existing security problems of smart devices. RLS is a user-authenticated system that addresses vulnerability issues in the existing locking features and provides secure confidentiality in addition to convenience.

  6. 75 FR 14510 - Implementation of Device Registration and Listing Requirements Enacted in the Public Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... hospital, clinic, dental laboratory, orthoepic or prosthetic retail facility whose primary responsibility... as whether the device contains materials from animal sources, is an implanted device, and...

  7. Diffractive devices based on blue phase liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Huang, Shuaijia; Su, Yikai

    2016-09-01

    Blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) has been attractive for display and photonic applications for its sub-millisecond response time, no need for surface alignment, and an optically isotropic dark state. Because of these advantages, diffractive devices based on blue phase liquid crystals have great potential for wide applications. In this work, we present several BPLC diffractive devices. The operation principles, fabrication and experimental measurements will be discussed in details for two BPLC gratings realized by holographic method and a BPLC Fresnel lens using a spatial light modulator projector. All of these devices exhibit several attractive features such as sub-millisecond response, relatively high spatial resolution and polarization-independence.

  8. Development of optical devices based on neutron refractive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oku, T.; Morita, S.; Moriyasu, S. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (JP)] [and others

    2001-03-01

    We have been developing neutron optical devices based on neutron refractive optics, such as a neutron lens and prism to improve neutron scattering methods. Prototypes of a compound Fresnel lens, a magnetic lens and prism for neutrons have been developed. The functions of each devices were verified by experimental and numerical simulation studies, and their improvement and applications are still being investigated. The recent progress in our work is reviewed and perspective of their application to neutron scattering experiments is described. (author)

  9. 基于人手抓握复现的欠驱动假手结构设计%Underactuated Prosthetic Hand Design Based on Manpower Grip Reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何其佳; 赵京东; 刘源

    2016-01-01

    假手的运动拟人性主要体现在抓取过程中手指各个关节间的协同性上。根据神经学原理,人手完成一个抓握动作需要几十个肌肉协同作用。人手是假手设计的范本,将这个原理推广到假手中,通过2个电机的协同输入,实现四指12个关节的协同输出。协同的具体参数通过人手抓握数据采集的降维处理计算得出。在拟人假手的设计中,首次提出通过集成在手掌内部的微型行星齿轮来合成2路输入,实现协同控制。经过ADAMS仿真,本假手能够完成多种日常抓握姿势。%The anthropomorphic movement of a prosthetic hand is mainly reflected on the synergy a‐mong various joints of the fingers during the grabbing process .According to the principle in neurology ,a gripping action requires manpower to complete dozens of muscle synergies .Manpower is the template for prosthetic hand design .This principle will be extended to the prosthetic hand .Collaborative output of twelve joints of the four fingers is achieved by collaborative input of two motors .Specific parameters of the synergy are calculated by collection of hand gripping data and dimension reduction .The anthropomorphic prosthetic hand design first proposes that the integrated inside the palm of the minor planet gear can be used to synthesize two inputs to achieve cooperative control .According to the simulation of ADAMS ,the prosthetic hand can complete a variety of daily grip positions .

  10. Postoperative transcutaneous oxygen measurement in the prediction of delayed wound healing and prosthetic fitting among amputees during rehabilitation. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablon, S A; Novick, E S; Jain, S S; Inhoffer, M; Graves, D E

    1995-01-01

    Postoperative assessment of amputation wound healing remains largely subjective in nature, being based on the physician's clinical judgement. These considerations significantly impact on the rehabilitation course, as premature prosthetic fitting may result in wound breakdown. Alternatively, delayed healing may result in prolonged hospital length of stay. Few attempts have been made to correlate objective parameters of limb perfusion with amputation wound healing or prosthetic fitting outcome during the rehabilitation phase of treatment. A pilot study was conducted, in which the transcutaneous oxygen monitor, a noninvasive device measuring transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen (tcpO2), was applied to the stumps of 11 consecutive above-or below-knee amputees admitted for rehabilitation after amputation. All patients were tested within 1 wk of admission and 45 days of amputation. The treatment team was blinded as to the test results. A direct correlation was observed between wound healing outcome and tcpO2 results (Fisher's exact test [FET], P = 0.03), and no patient with a tcpO2 of rpbi], = -0.835; P = 0.01), delayed prosthetic fitting (rpbi = 0.742; p = 0.01), and poorer wound healing at admission (rpbi = 0.932; P = 0.001). Postoperative tcpO2 measurement may have use in objectively identifying patients at greater risk of delayed wound healing and prosthetic fitting, although further study is warranted.

  11. Prosthetics & Orthotics Manufacturing Initiative (POMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    regions either smeared unacceptably or the joint between the disparate regions was unacceptably weak during thermoforming events. The solution was to...The thin sheets were able to survive the thermoforming process and function as sensors. Prosthetics & Orthotics Manufacturing Initiative (POMI

  12. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  13. Neural-Network Control Of Prosthetic And Robotic Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic neural networks proposed for use in controlling robotic and prosthetic hands and exoskeletal or glovelike electromechanical devices aiding intact but nonfunctional hands. Specific to patient, who activates grasping motion by voice command, by mechanical switch, or by myoelectric impulse. Patient retains higher-level control, while lower-level control provided by neural network analogous to that of miniature brain. During training, patient teaches miniature brain to perform specialized, anthropomorphic movements unique to himself or herself.

  14. Prosthetic prescription in the Netherlands: An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Linde, H.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Hofstad, C.J.; Van Limbeek, J.; Postema, K.

    2003-01-01

    Prosthetic prescription for lower limb amputees and the methodology used are primarily based on empirical knowledge. Clinical expertise plays an important role that can lead to an adequate prescription; however, a clear evidence based motivation for the choices made cannot be given. This can lead to

  15. Prosthetic prescription in the Netherlands : an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linde, H; Geertzen, JHB; Hofstad, CJ; Postema, K

    2003-01-01

    Prosthetic prescription for lower limb amputees and the methodology used are primarily based on empirical knowledge. Clinical expertise plays an important role that can lead to an adequate prescription; however, a clear evidence based motivation for the choices made cannot be given. This can lead to

  16. Ambient Sound-Based Collaborative Localization of Indeterministic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamminga, Jacob; Le, Duc; Havinga, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Localization is essential in wireless sensor networks. To our knowledge, no prior work has utilized low-cost devices for collaborative localization based on only ambient sound, without the support of local infrastructure. The reason may be the fact that most low-cost devices are indeterministic and suffer from uncertain input latencies. This uncertainty makes accurate localization challenging. Therefore, we present a collaborative localization algorithm (Cooperative Localization on Android with ambient Sound Sources (CLASS)) that simultaneously localizes the position of indeterministic devices and ambient sound sources without local infrastructure. The CLASS algorithm deals with the uncertainty by splitting the devices into subsets so that outliers can be removed from the time difference of arrival values and localization results. Since Android is indeterministic, we select Android devices to evaluate our approach. The algorithm is evaluated with an outdoor experiment and achieves a mean Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 2.18 m with a standard deviation of 0.22 m. Estimated directions towards the sound sources have a mean RMSE of 17.5° and a standard deviation of 2.3°. These results show that it is feasible to simultaneously achieve a relative positioning of both devices and sound sources with sufficient accuracy, even when using non-deterministic devices and platforms, such as Android. PMID:27649176

  17. MOF-based electronic and opto-electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavila, V; Talin, A A; Allendorf, M D

    2014-08-21

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of hybrid materials with unique optical and electronic properties arising from rational self-assembly of the organic linkers and metal ions/clusters, yielding myriads of possible structural motifs. The combination of order and chemical tunability, coupled with good environmental stability of MOFs, are prompting many research groups to explore the possibility of incorporating these materials as active components in devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, radiation detectors, and chemical sensors. Although this field is only in its incipiency, many new fundamental insights relevant to integrating MOFs with such devices have already been gained. In this review, we focus our attention on the basic requirements and structural elements needed to fabricate MOF-based devices and summarize the current state of MOF research in the area of electronic, opto-electronic and sensor devices. We summarize various approaches to designing active MOFs, creation of hybrid material systems combining MOFs with other materials, and assembly and integration of MOFs with device hardware. Critical directions of future research are identified, with emphasis on achieving the desired MOF functionality in a device and establishing the structure-property relationships to identify and rationalize the factors that impact device performance.

  18. Terahertz biochip based on optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ja-Yu; Chen, Li-Jin; Kao, Tzeng-Fu; Chang, Hsu-Hao; Liu, An-Shyi; Yu, Yi-Chun; Wu, Ruey-Beei; Liu, Wei-Sheng; Chyi, Jen-Inn; Pan, Ci-Ling; Tsai, Ming-Cheng; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2005-10-01

    The accurate detection of minute amounts of chemical and biological substances has been a major goal in bioanalytical technology throughout the twentieth century. Fluorescence dye labeling detection remains the effective analysis method, but it modifies the surroundings of molecules and lowering the precision of detection. An alternative label free detecting tool with little disturbance of target molecules is highly desired. Theoretical calculations and experiments have demonstrated that many biomolecules have intrinsic resonance due to vibration or rotation level transitions, allowing terahertz (THz)-probing technique as a potential tool for the label-free and noninvasive detection of biomolecules. In this paper, we first ever combined the THz optoelectronic technique with biochip technology to realize THz biosensing. By transferring the edge-coupled photonic transmitter into a thin glass substrate and by integrating with a polyethylene based biochip channel, near field THz detection of the biomolecules is demonstrated. By directly acquiring the absorption micro-spectrum in the THz range, different boiomecules can then be identified according to their THz fingerprints. For preliminary studies, the capability to identity different illicit drug powders is successfully demonstrated. This novel biochip sensing system has the advantages including label-free detection, high selectivity, high sensitivity, ease for sample preparation, and ease to parallel integrate with other biochip functionality modules. Our demonstrated detection capability allows specifying various illicit drug powders with weight of nano-gram, which also enables rapid identification with minute amounts of other important molecules including DNA, biochemical agents in terrorism warfare, explosives, viruses, and toxics.

  19. Impact testing of the residual limb: System response to changes in prosthetic stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Boutwell, PhD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is unknown whether changing prosthetic limb stiffness affects total limb stiffness and/or influences the shock absorption of an individual with transtibial amputation. The hypotheses tested within this study are that a decrease in longitudinal prosthetic stiffness will produce (1 reduced total limb stiffness and (2 reduced magnitude of peak impact forces and increased time delay to peak force. Fourteen subjects with a transtibial amputation participated in this study. Prosthetic stiffness was modified by means of a shock-absorbing pylon that provides reduced longitudinal stiffness through compression of a helical spring within the pylon. A sudden loading evaluation device was built to examine changes in limb loading mechanics during a sudden impact event. No significant change was found in the peak force magnitude or timing of the peak force between prosthetic limb stiffness conditions. Total limb stiffness estimates ranged from 14.9 to 17.9 kN/m but were not significantly different between conditions. Thus, the prosthetic-side total limb stiffness was unaffected by changes in prosthetic limb stiffness. The insensitivity of the total limb stiffness to prosthetic stiffness may be explained by the mechanical characteristics (i.e., stiffness and damping of the anatomical tissue within the residual limb.

  20. Prosthetic abutment influences bone biomechanical behavior of immediately loaded implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Germana de Villa; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Salles; Silva, Wander José da; Lazari, Priscilla Cardoso; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha

    2016-05-31

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the type of prosthetic abutment associated to different implant connection on bone biomechanical behavior of immediately and delayed loaded implants. Computed tomography-based finite element models comprising a mandible with a single molar implant were created with different types of prosthetic abutment (UCLA or conical), implant connection (external hexagon, EH or internal hexagon, IH), and occlusal loading (axial or oblique), for both immediately and delayed loaded implants. Analysis of variance at 95%CI was used to evaluate the peak maximum principal stress and strain in bone after applying a 100 N occlusal load. The results showed that the type of prosthetic abutment influences bone stress/strain in only immediately loaded implants. Attachment of conical abutments to IH implants exhibited the best biomechanical behavior, with optimal distribution and dissipation of the load in peri-implant bone.

  1. Prosthetic abutment influences bone biomechanical behavior of immediately loaded implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana de Villa CAMARGOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the type of prosthetic abutment associated to different implant connection on bone biomechanical behavior of immediately and delayed loaded implants. Computed tomography-based finite element models comprising a mandible with a single molar implant were created with different types of prosthetic abutment (UCLA or conical, implant connection (external hexagon, EH or internal hexagon, IH, and occlusal loading (axial or oblique, for both immediately and delayed loaded implants. Analysis of variance at 95%CI was used to evaluate the peak maximum principal stress and strain in bone after applying a 100 N occlusal load. The results showed that the type of prosthetic abutment influences bone stress/strain in only immediately loaded implants. Attachment of conical abutments to IH implants exhibited the best biomechanical behavior, with optimal distribution and dissipation of the load in peri-implant bone.

  2. Evaluation of Grasping Motion Using a Virtual Prosthetic Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Osamu; Bu, Nan; Ueno, Naohiro

    Electromyogram (EMG) signals can be measured from human muscles and can be used to anticipate movements. In fact, many researchers have tried to use these signals as an interface tool for a prosthetic hand. However, most of these studies focused on the discrimination performance of the EMG signals, and only discussed the control method for the prosthetic hand. Evaluation of the operating performance was seldom reported. This paper proposes a virtual prosthetic control system and presents the analyses of a grasp motion under two different EMG control methods: on/off control and proportional control. The proportional control is able to proportionally control the grasping velocity based on the amplitude of the EMG signal. The on/off control controls the hand at a uniform rate while the amplitude of the EMG signal is greater than a predefined threshold. We conducted experiments with five subjects, and confirmed the usefulness of the developed system.

  3. Noise and its reduction in graphene based nanopore devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashvani; Park, Kyeong-Beom; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Ki-Bum

    2013-12-13

    Ionic current fluctuations in graphene nanopore devices are a ubiquitous phenomenon and are responsible for degraded spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we descriptively investigate the impact of different substrate materials (Si and quartz) and membrane thicknesses on noise characteristics of graphene nanopore devices. To mitigate the membrane fluctuations and pin-hole defects, a SiNx membrane is transferred onto the substrate and a pore of approximately 70 nm in diameter is perforated prior to the graphene transfer. Comprehensive noise study reveals that the few layer graphene transferred onto the quartz substrate possesses low noise level and higher signal to noise ratio as compared to single layer graphene, without deteriorating the spatial resolution. The findings here point to improvement of graphene based nanopore devices for exciting opportunities in future single-molecule genomic screening devices.

  4. A planar parallel manipulator based novel MEMS device bonding system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Junhong; Sun Lining; Zhu Yuhong

    2006-01-01

    A novel MEMS device boning system is presented. Aiming at the high velocity, high precision and high flexibility requirements, a novel manipulator of planar parallel structure is developed to substitute ordinary X-Y table. In addition, the machine vision is implemented to improve the system's flexibility. The initial angular positions of the joints are estimated by the extended Kalman filter algorithm. As a result, the manipulator's absolute locating accuracy in its workspace is guaranteed indirectly. For any MEMS device, the bonding system itself can be used as measurement equipment to create the device's geometry model, which is the base to do off-line programming. A quite ideal trade-off between the system's flexibility and efficiency is got. Finally, some verified motion specification of the manipulator, the bonding experimental results and the verified qualities of the bonded devices are provided.

  5. Magnetophoretic-based microfluidic device for DNA Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sangjo; Shim, Jiwook; Taylor, William R; Kosari, Farhad; Vasmatzis, George; Ahlquist, David A; Bashir, Rashid

    2016-04-01

    Nucleic acids serve as biomarkers of disease and it is highly desirable to develop approaches to extract small number of such genomic extracts from human bodily fluids. Magnetic particles-based nucleic acid extraction is widely used for concentration of small amount of samples and is followed by DNA amplification in specific assays. However, approaches to integrate such magnetic particles based capture with micro and nanofluidic based assays are still lacking. In this report, we demonstrate a magnetophoretic-based approach for target-specific DNA extraction and concentration within a microfluidic device. This device features a large chamber for reducing flow velocity and an array of μ-magnets for enhancing magnetic flux density. With this strategy, the device is able to collect up to 95 % of the magnetic particles from the fluidic flow and to concentrate these magnetic particles in a collection region. Then an enzymatic reaction is used to detach the DNA from the magnetic particles within the microfluidic device, making the DNA available for subsequent analysis. Concentrations of over 1000-fold for 90 bp dsDNA molecules is demonstrated. This strategy can bridge the gap between detection of low concentration analytes from clinical samples and a range of micro and nanofluidic sensors and devices including nanopores, nano-cantilevers, and nanowires.

  6. Flexible non-volatile memory devices based on organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosseddu, Piero; Casula, Giulia; Lai, Stefano; Bonfiglio, Annalisa

    2015-09-01

    The possibility of developing fully organic electronic circuits is critically dependent on the ability to realize a full set of electronic functionalities based on organic devices. In order to complete the scene, a fundamental element is still missing, i.e. reliable data storage. Over the past few years, a considerable effort has been spent on the development and optimization of organic polymer based memory elements. Among several possible solutions, transistor-based memories and resistive switching-based memories are attracting a great interest in the scientific community. In this paper, a route for the fabrication of organic semiconductor-based memory devices with performances beyond the state of the art is reported. Both the families of organic memories will be considered. A flexible resistive memory based on a novel combination of materials is presented. In particular, high retention time in ambient conditions are reported. Complementary, a low voltage transistor-based memory is presented. Low voltage operation is allowed by an hybrid, nano-sized dielectric, which is also responsible for the memory effect in the device. Thanks to the possibility of reproducibly fabricating such device on ultra-thin substrates, high mechanical stability is reported.

  7. Silicon Nanowire‐Based Devices for Gas-Phase Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anping Cao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 2001, SiNW-based sensor devices have attracted considerable interest as a general platform for ultra-sensitive, electrical detection of biological and chemical species. Most studies focus on detecting, sensing and monitoring analytes in aqueous solution, but the number of studies on sensing gases and vapors using SiNW-based devices is increasing. This review gives an overview of selected research papers related to the application of electrical SiNW-based devices in the gas phase that have been reported over the past 10 years. Special attention is given to surface modification strategies and the sensing principles involved. In addition, future steps and technological challenges in this field are addressed.

  8. Assessment of Myoelectric Controller Performance and Kinematic Behavior of a Novel Soft Synergy-Inspired Robotic Hand for Prosthetic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fani, Simone; Bianchi, Matteo; Jain, Sonal; Pimenta Neto, José Simões; Boege, Scott; Grioli, Giorgio; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Myoelectric artificial limbs can significantly advance the state of the art in prosthetics, since they can be used to control mechatronic devices through muscular activity in a way that mimics how the subjects used to activate their muscles before limb loss. However, surveys indicate that dissatisfaction with the functionality of terminal devices underlies the widespread abandonment of prostheses. We believe that one key factor to improve acceptability of prosthetic devices is to attain human likeness of prosthesis movements, a goal which is being pursued by research on social and human-robot interactions. Therefore, to reduce early abandonment of terminal devices, we propose that controllers should be designed so as to ensure effective task accomplishment in a natural fashion. In this work, we have analyzed and compared the performance of three types of myoelectric controller algorithms based on surface electromyography to control an underactuated and multi-degrees of freedom prosthetic hand, the SoftHand Pro. The goal of the present study was to identify the myoelectric algorithm that best mimics the native hand movements. As a preliminary step, we first quantified the repeatability of the SoftHand Pro finger movements and identified the electromyographic recording sites for able-bodied individuals with the highest signal-to-noise ratio from two pairs of muscles, i.e., flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis, and flexor carpi radialis/extensor carpi ulnaris. Able-bodied volunteers were then asked to execute reach-to-grasp movements, while electromyography signals were recorded from flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis as this was identified as the muscle pair characterized by high signal-to-noise ratio and intuitive control. Subsequently, we tested three myoelectric controllers that mapped electromyography signals to position of the SoftHand Pro. We found that a differential electromyography-to-position mapping ensured the

  9. ServoSEA concept: Cheap, miniature series-elastic actuators for orthotic, prosthetic and robotic hands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, S.; Sluiter, V.I.; Lammertse, P.; Stienen, A.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    For interactive humanoids, rehabilitation robots, and orthotic and prosthetic devices, the human-robot interaction is an essential but challenging element. Compliant Series-Elastic Actuators (SEAs) are ideal to power such devices due to their low impedance and smoothness of generated forces. In this

  10. A computational method for comparing the behavior and possible failure of prosthetic implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, C.; Hollerbach, K.; Perfect, S.; Underhill, K.

    1995-05-01

    Prosthetic joint implants currently in use exhibit high Realistic computer modeling of prosthetic implants provides an opportunity for orthopedic biomechanics researchers and physicians to understand possible in vivo failure modes, without having to resort to lengthy and costly clinical trials. The research presented here is part of a larger effort to develop realistic models of implanted joint prostheses. The example used here is the thumb carpo-metacarpal (cmc) joint. The work, however, can be applied to any other human joints for which prosthetic implants have been designed. Preliminary results of prosthetic joint loading, without surrounding human tissue (i.e., simulating conditions under which the prosthetic joint has not yet been implanted into the human joint), are presented, based on a three-dimensional, nonlinear finite element analysis of three different joint implant designs.

  11. Efficient Signature Based Malware Detection on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Venugopal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat of malware on mobile devices is gaining attention recently. It is important to provide security solutions to these devices before these threats cause widespread damage. However, mobile devices have severe resource constraints in terms of memory and power. Hence, even though there are well developed techniques for malware detection on the PC domain, it requires considerable effort to adapt these techniques for mobile devices. In this paper, we outline the considerations for malware detection on mobile devices and propose a signature based malware detection method. Specifically, we detail a signature matching algorithm that is well suited for use in mobile device scanning due to its low memory requirements. Additionally, the matching algorithm is shown to have high scanning speed which makes it unobtrusive to users. Our evaluation and comparison study with the well known Clam-AV scanner shows that our solution consumes less than 50% of the memory used by Clam-AV while maintaining a fast scanning rate.

  12. Electrochromic Devices Based on Porous Tungsten Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Djaoued

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the synthesis of transition metal oxides in the form of porous thin films have opened up opportunities in the construction of electrochromic devices with enhanced properties. In this paper, synthesis, characterization and electrochromic applications of porous WO3 thin films with different nanocrystalline phases, such as hexagonal, monoclinic, and orthorhombic, are presented. Asymmetric electrochromic devices have been constructed based on these porous WO3 thin films. XRD measurements of the intercalation/deintercalation of Li+ into/from the WO3 layer of the device as a function of applied coloration/bleaching voltages show systematic changes in the lattice parameters associated with structural phase transitions in LixWO3. Micro-Raman studies show systematic crystalline phase changes in the spectra of WO3 layers during Li+ ion intercalation and deintercalation, which agree with the XRD data. These devices exhibit interesting optical modulation (up to ~70% due to intercalation/deintercalation of Li ions into/from the WO3 layer of the devices as a function of applied coloration/bleaching voltages. The obtained optical modulation of the electrochromic devices indicates that, they are suitable for applications in electrochromic smart windows.

  13. Assistive Technology Based on Robotics and Rise in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoyu; WANG Kaixuan

    2013-01-01

    The concept of assistive technology based on robotics,rehabilitation robot and intelligent assistive devices.Domestic intelligence assistive devices include intelligent prosthetics,intelligent orthotics,intelligent walker,assistive devices for smart home environment control,intelligent life assistive devices; Domestic intelligent rehabilitation robot include upper limb rehabilitation robot,hand rehabilitation robot,lower limb rehabilitation robot,robotic smart wheelchair,intelligent nursing bed,daily care robot,the development trend of intelligent assistive devices and rehabilitation robot.

  14. Game theory-based mode cooperative selection mechanism for device-to-device visible light communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxin; Huang, Zhitong; Li, Wei; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-03-01

    Various patterns of device-to-device (D2D) communication, from Bluetooth to Wi-Fi Direct, are emerging due to the increasing requirements of information sharing between mobile terminals. This paper presents an innovative pattern named device-to-device visible light communication (D2D-VLC) to alleviate the growing traffic problem. However, the occlusion problem is a difficulty in D2D-VLC. This paper proposes a game theory-based solution in which the best-response dynamics and best-response strategies are used to realize a mode-cooperative selection mechanism. This mechanism uses system capacity as the utility function to optimize system performance and selects the optimal communication mode for each active user from three candidate modes. Moreover, the simulation and experimental results show that the mechanism can attain a significant improvement in terms of effectiveness and energy saving compared with the cases where the users communicate via only the fixed transceivers (light-emitting diode and photo diode) or via only D2D.

  15. Finite element analysis of the contact interface between trans-femoral stump and prosthetic socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Ming; Shen, Ling; Zheng, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Transfemoral amputees need prosthetic devices after amputation surgery, and the interface pressure between the residual limb and prosthetic socket has a significant effect on an amputee's satisfaction and comfort. The purpose of this study was to build a nonlinear finite element model to investigate the interface pressure between the above-knee residual limb and its prosthetic socket. The model was three-dimensional (3D) with consideration of nonlinear boundary conditions. Contact analysis was used to simulate the friction conditions between skin and the socket. The normal stresses up to 80.57 kPa at the distal end of the soft tissue. The longitudinal and circumferential shear stress distributions at the limb-socket interface were also simulated. This study explores the influences of load transfer between trans-femoral residual limb and its prosthetic socket.

  16. Prosthetic finger phalanges with lifelike skin compliance for low-force social touching interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cabibihan, John-John; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; 10.1186/1743-0003-8-16

    2011-01-01

    Prosthetic arms and hands that can be controlled by the user's electromyography (EMG) signals are emerging. Eventually, these advanced prosthetic devices will be expected to touch and be touched by other people. As realistic as they may look, the currently available prosthetic hands have physical properties that are still far from the characteristics of human skins because they are much stiffer. In this paper, different configurations of synthetic finger phalanges have been investigated for their skin compliance behaviour and have been compared with the phalanges of the human fingers and a phalanx from a commercially available prosthetic hand. Handshake tests were performed to identify which areas on the human hand experience high contact forces. After these areas were determined, experiments were done on selected areas using an indenting probe to obtain the force-displacement curves. Finite element simulations were used to compare the force-displacement results of the synthetic finger phalanx designs with th...

  17. Microscopic theory of semiconductor-based optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iotti, Rita C.; Rossi, Fausto

    2005-11-01

    Since the seminal paper by Esaki and Tsu, semiconductor-based nanometric heterostructures have been the subject of impressive theoretical and experimental activity due to their high potential impact in both fundamental research and device technology. The steady scaling down of typical space and time scales in quantum optoelectronic systems inevitably leads to a regime in which the validity of the traditional Boltzmann transport theory cannot be taken for granted and a more general quantum-transport description is imperative. In this paper, we shall review state-of-the-art approaches used in the theoretical modelling, design and optimization of optoelectronic quantum devices. The primary goal is to provide a cohesive treatment of basic quantum-transport effects, able to explain and predict the performances of new-generation semiconductor devices. With this aim, we shall review and discuss a fully three-dimensional microscopic treatment of time-dependent as well as steady-state quantum-transport phenomena, based on the density matrix formalism. This will allow us to introduce in a quite natural way the separation between coherent and incoherent processes. Starting with this general theoretical framework, we shall analyse two different types of quantum devices, namely periodically repeated structures and quantum systems with open boundaries. For devices within the first class, we will show how a proper use of periodic boundary conditions allows us to reproduce and predict their current-voltage characteristics without resorting to phenomenological parameters. For the second class of devices, we will address the relevant issue of a quantum treatment of charge transport in systems with open boundaries (electrical contacts) when studying and simulating an at least two-terminal device.

  18. Nano-Bio Electronic Devices Based on DNA Bases and Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, R.; Maruccio, G.; Bramanti, A.; Visconti, P.; Biasco, A.; Arima, V.; D'Amico, S.; Cingolani, R.

    A key challenge of the current research in nanoelectronics is the realization of biomolecular devices. The biomolecules have specific functionalies that can be exploited for the implementation of electronic and optoelectronic devices. Different nanotechnological strategies have been pursued to implement the biomolecular devices, following a bottom-up or a topdown approach depending on the used biomolecule and on its functionality. In this paper we present our results on the implementation of nano-biomolecular devices based on modified DNA nucleosides and metalloproteins.

  19. In plane optical sensor based on organic electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.M; Rensing, P.A.; Heck, G.T. van; Sharpe, R.B.A.; Allard, B.A.M.; Wieringa, F.P.; Kruijt, P.G.M.; Meulendijks, N.M.M.; Jansen, H.; Schoo, H.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sensors based on organic electronic devices are emerging in a wide range of application areas. Here we present a sensor platform using organic light emitting diodes (OLED) and organic photodiodes (OPD) as active components. By means of lamination and interconnection technology the functional foils w

  20. Dynamical Properties of QD-based Nanolaser Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorke, Michael; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the switch-on behavior of semiconductor QD-based nanocavity laser devices. From a microscopic treatment of the carrier-carrier and carrier-photon interaction, we find a fast switch-on, that is accompanied by heavily damped relaxation oscillations and caused by an ultrafast carrier...

  1. Field-Based Experiential Learning Using Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Technologies such as GPS and cellular triangulation allow location-specific content to be delivered by mobile devices, but no mechanism currently exists to associate content shared between locations in a way that guarantees the delivery of coherent and non-redundant information at every location. Thus, experiential learning via mobile devices must currently take place along a predefined path, as in the case of a self-guided tour. I developed a mobile-device-based system that allows a person to move through a space along a path of their choosing, while receiving information in a way that guarantees delivery of appropriate background and location-specific information without producing redundancy of content between locations. This is accomplished by coupling content to knowledge-concept tags that are noted as fulfilled when users take prescribed actions. Similarly, the presentation of the content is related to the fulfillment of these knowledge-concept tags through logic statements that control the presentation. Content delivery is triggered by mobile-device geolocation including GPS/cellular navigation, and sensing of low-power Bluetooth proximity beacons. Together, these features implement a process that guarantees a coherent, non-redundant educational experience throughout a space, regardless of a learner's chosen path. The app that runs on the mobile device works in tandem with a server-side database and file-serving system that can be configured through a web-based GUI, and so content creators can easily populate and configure content with the system. Once the database has been updated, the new content is immediately available to the mobile devices when they arrive at the location at which content is required. Such a system serves as a platform for the development of field-based geoscience educational experiences, in which students can organically learn about core concepts at particular locations while individually exploring a space.

  2. Pattern recognition with TiOx-based memristive devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Zahari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development of TiOx-based memristive devices for bio-inspired neuromorphic systems. In particular, capacitor like structures of Al/AlOx/TiOx/Al with, respectively 20 nm and 50 nm thick TiOx-layers were fabricated and analyzed in terms of their use in neural network circuits. Therefore, an equivalent circuit model is presented which mimics the observed device properties on a qualitative level and relies on mobile oxygen ions by taking electronic transport through local conducting filaments and hopping between TiOx defect states into account. The model also comprises back diffusion of oxygen ions and allows for a realistic description of the experimental recorded device characteristics. The in Refs. [1-3] reported computing paradigms for pattern recognition have been used as guidelines for a device performance investigation at the network level. In particular, simulations of a spiking neural network are presented which allows for pattern recognition. As input patterns hand written digits taken from the MNIST Data base have been used. Within the network the memristive devices are arranged in a cross-bar array connected by 196 input neurons and ten output neurons. While, each input neuron corresponds to a specific pixel of the image of the input pattern, the output neurons were implemented as spiking neurons. In addition, the output neurons were inhibitory linked within an winner-take-it-all network and consist of a homeostasis-like behavior for their spiking thresholds. Based on the network simulation essential requirements for the development of optimal memristive device for neuromorphic circuits are discussed.

  3. Electrocaloric devices based on thini-film heat switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Malloy, Kevin J [UNM

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new approach to refrigeration and electrical generation that exploits the attractive properties of thin films of electrocaloric materials. Layers of electrocaloric material coupled with thin-film heat switches can work as either refrigerators or electrical generators, depending on the phasing of the applied voltages and heat switching. With heat switches based on thin layers of liquid crystals, the efficiency of these thin-film heat engines can be at least as high as that of current thermoelectric devices. Advanced heat switches would enable thin-film heat engines to outperform conventional vaporcompression devices.

  4. Amputation and Prosthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  5. Nuclear Medicine in Diagnosis of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Musso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades cardiovascular disease management has been substantially improved by the increasing introduction of medical devices as prosthetic valves. The yearly rate of infective endocarditis (IE in patient with a prosthetic valve is approximately 3 cases per 1,000 patients. The fatality rate of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE remains stable over the years, in part due to the aging of the population. The diagnostic value of echocardiography in diagnosis is operator-dependent and its sensitivity can decrease in presence of intracardiac devices and valvular prosthesis. The modified Duke criteria are considered the gold standard for diagnosing IE; their sensibility is 80%, but in clinical practice their diagnostic accuracy in PVE is lower, resulting inconclusively in nearly 30% of cases. In the last years, these new imaging modalities have gained an increasing attention because they make it possible to diagnose an IE earlier than the structural alterations occurring. Several studies have been conducted in order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of various nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis of PVE. We performed a review of the literature to assess the available evidence on the role of nuclear medicine techniques in the diagnosis of PVE.

  6. A novel LED-based device for occlusal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Ali Murat; Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Ciftçi, Mehmet Ertuğrul; Sirin Karaarslan, Emine

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the performance of laser-based (DIAGNOdent, KaVo, Biberach, Germany) and LED-based (Midwest Caries I.D., DENTSPLY Professional, New York, USA) caries detectors in the detection of occlusal caries in permanent molars. The study consisted of 129 visually sound or non-cavitated pits or fissures in 82 extracted permanent human molar teeth. Two trained examiners used the laser-based and LED-based caries detectors to examine the fissures for caries. The teeth were then sectioned at the surfaces suspected of containing occlusal caries and histologically evaluated using stereomicroscopy as a gold standard. Inter-examiner reliability of the caries detector examination was assessed using Cohen's Kappa statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in diagnosing occlusal caries using the two devices were calculated according to appropriate cut-off scores. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were also determined to compare the diagnostic performance of the devices in occlusal caries diagnosis. The cut-off level of significance was taken as p = 0.005. Cohen's Kappa showed substantial agreement for the laser-based caries detector (0.74), and almost perfect agreement for the LED-based (0.89) caries detector. The specificity of the laser-based device varied from 0.49 to 0.97 at T1 and T2. Its sensitivity varied from 0.33 to 0.65 at T1 and T2. The specificity of the LED-based device varied from 0.48 to 0.56 at T1 and T2. Its sensitivity varied from 0.65 to 0.84 at T1 and from 0.80 to 0.84 at T2. Taking the limitations of the current study into consideration, the DIAGNOdent laser pen was more accurate in determining when teeth were free of occlusal caries than was the Midwest Caries I.D. LED-based device, although the Midwest Caries I.D. device more often revealed the presence of occlusal caries than did the DIAGNOdent pen.

  7. Robotic hand with locking mechanism using TCP muscles for applications in prosthetic hand and humanoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Lokesh; Tadesse, Yonas

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a biomimetic, lightweight, 3D printed and customizable robotic hand with locking mechanism consisting of Twisted and Coiled Polymer (TCP) muscles based on nylon precursor fibers as artificial muscles. Previously, we have presented a small-sized biomimetic hand using nylon based artificial muscles and fishing line muscles as actuators. The current study focuses on an adult-sized prosthetic hand with improved design and a position/force locking system. Energy efficiency is always a matter of concern to make compact, lightweight, durable and cost effective devices. In natural human hand, if we keep holding objects for long time, we get tired because of continuous use of energy for keeping the fingers in certain positions. Similarly, in prosthetic hands we also need to provide energy continuously to artificial muscles to hold the object for a certain period of time, which is certainly not energy efficient. In this work we, describe the design of the robotic hand and locking mechanism along with the experimental results on the performance of the locking mechanism.

  8. Antimonide-Based Compound Semiconductors for Electronic Devices: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    currents, apparently due to exten- sive interface recombination [137]. Dodd et al. fabricated npn InAs bipolar transistors on InP in an attempt to achieve...Demonstration of npn InAs bipolar transistors with inverted base doping. IEEE Electron Dev Lett 1996;17(4):166–8. [139] Moran PD, Chow D, Hunter A, Kuech TF...based electronic devices: high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), and heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs

  9. A cloud-based multimodality case file for mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkman, Jason D; Loehfelm, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Recent improvements in Web and mobile technology, along with the widespread use of handheld devices in radiology education, provide unique opportunities for creating scalable, universally accessible, portable image-rich radiology case files. A cloud database and a Web-based application for radiologic images were developed to create a mobile case file with reasonable usability, download performance, and image quality for teaching purposes. A total of 75 radiology cases related to breast, thoracic, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neuroimaging subspecialties were included in the database. Breast imaging cases are the focus of this article, as they best demonstrate handheld display capabilities across a wide variety of modalities. This case subset also illustrates methods for adapting radiologic content to cloud platforms and mobile devices. Readers will gain practical knowledge about storage and retrieval of cloud-based imaging data, an awareness of techniques used to adapt scrollable and high-resolution imaging content for the Web, and an appreciation for optimizing images for handheld devices. The evaluation of this software demonstrates the feasibility of adapting images from most imaging modalities to mobile devices, even in cases of full-field digital mammograms, where high resolution is required to represent subtle pathologic features. The cloud platform allows cases to be added and modified in real time by using only a standard Web browser with no application-specific software. Challenges remain in developing efficient ways to generate, modify, and upload radiologic and supplementary teaching content to this cloud-based platform. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  10. Paper-based inkjet-printed microfluidic analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kentaro; Henares, Terence G; Suzuki, Koji; Citterio, Daniel

    2015-04-27

    Rapid, precise, and reproducible deposition of a broad variety of functional materials, including analytical assay reagents and biomolecules, has made inkjet printing an effective tool for the fabrication of microanalytical devices. A ubiquitous office device as simple as a standard desktop printer with its multiple ink cartridges can be used for this purpose. This Review discusses the combination of inkjet printing technology with paper as a printing substrate for the fabrication of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs), which have developed into a fast-growing new field in analytical chemistry. After introducing the fundamentals of μPADs and inkjet printing, it touches on topics such as the microfluidic patterning of paper, tailored arrangement of materials, and functionalities achievable exclusively by the inkjet deposition of analytical assay components, before concluding with an outlook on future perspectives.

  11. A triple quantum dot based nano-electromechanical memory device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozner, R.; Lifshitz, E. [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Solid State Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Peskin, U., E-mail: uri@tx.technion.ac.il [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Lise Meitner Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2015-09-14

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are free-standing nano-structures with chemically tunable electronic properties. This tunability offers intriguing possibilities for nano-electromechanical devices. In this work, we consider a nano-electromechanical nonvolatile memory (NVM) device incorporating a triple quantum dot (TQD) cluster. The device operation is based on a bias induced motion of a floating quantum dot (FQD) located between two bound quantum dots (BQDs). The mechanical motion is used for switching between two stable states, “ON” and “OFF” states, where ligand-mediated effective interdot forces between the BQDs and the FQD serve to hold the FQD in each stable position under zero bias. Considering realistic microscopic parameters, our quantum-classical theoretical treatment of the TQD reveals the characteristics of the NVM.

  12. Development of a flat membrane based device for electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Eibak, Lars Erik Eng; Gjelstad, Astrid;

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a single-well electromembrane extraction (EME) device was developed based on a thin (100μm) and flat porous membrane of polypropylene supporting a liquid membrane. The new EME device was operated with a relatively large acceptor solution volume to promote a high recovery. Using...... for obtaining exhaustive extraction. 2-Nitrophenyl octyl ether was selected as the optimal organic solvent for the supported liquid membrane. From spiked acidified water samples (600μl), EME was carried out with 600μl of 20mM HCOOH as acceptor solution for 15min and with an extraction voltage of 250V. Under...... this EME device, exhaustive extraction of the basic drugs quetiapine, citalopram, amitriptyline, methadone and sertraline was investigated from both acidified water samples and human plasma. The volume of acceptor solution, extraction time, and extraction voltage were found to be important factors...

  13. Measurement-device-independent entanglement-based quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiuqing; Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang; Sun, Shihai; Liu, Hongwei; Yin, Zhenqiang; Li, Zuohan; Lian, Shibin; Du, Yungang; Wu, Lingan

    2016-05-01

    We present a quantum key distribution protocol in a model in which the legitimate users gather statistics as in the measurement-device-independent entanglement witness to certify the sources and the measurement devices. We show that the task of measurement-device-independent quantum communication can be accomplished based on monogamy of entanglement, and it is fairly loss tolerate including source and detector flaws. We derive a tight bound for collective attacks on the Holevo information between the authorized parties and the eavesdropper. Then with this bound, the final secret key rate with the source flaws can be obtained. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over 144 km can be made secure using only standard threshold detectors.

  14. Nanotechnology based devices and applications in medicine: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis A Martis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been the most explored and extensively studied area in recent times. Many devices which were earlier impossible to imagine, are being developed at a lightning speed with the application of nanotechnology. To overcome the challenges offered by the most dreaded diseases, such as cancer or any disease involving the central nervous system or other inaccessible areas of the human body, nanotechnology has been proved to be a boon in making the treatment more target specific and minimizing the toxicities. This review describes a handful of important devices and applications based on nanotechnology in medicine made in recent times. This article also describes in brief the regulatory concerns and the ethical issues pertaining to nanomedical devices.

  15. A hyperlens-based device for nanoscale focusing of light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangnan Zhao; Guoxing Zheng; Song Li; Hui Zhou; Yue Ma; Ruiying Zhang; Yah Shi; Ping'an He

    2012-01-01

    To resolve the problem of missed evanescent waves in a beam focusing system,a hyperlens-based beam focusing device is proposed in this letter.This device can convert the evanescent waves into propagating waves,and then a super-resolution spot is formed at the center of the hyperlens.The working principle of the device is presented,and the way in which the material and structural parameters of the hyperlens affect the resolution and transmission is analyzed in detail. A multibeam focusing device is optimally designed,and the simulated results verify that a nanoscale spot with a diameter of 15.6 nm (corresponding to λ0/24,where λ0 is the working wavelength in vacuum) is achieved,which is far less than the diffraction limited resolution with a value of 625 nm (l.7λ0).The device is expected to find numerous applications in optical data storage and nano-photolithography,among others.

  16. An implantable thermoresponsive drug delivery system based on Peltier device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongbing; Gorelov, Alexander V; Aldabbagh, Fawaz; Carroll, William M; Rochev, Yury

    2013-04-15

    Locally dropping the temperature in vivo is the main obstacle to the clinical use of a thermoresponsive drug delivery system. In this paper, a Peltier electronic element is incorporated with a thermoresponsive thin film based drug delivery system to form a new drug delivery device which can regulate the release of rhodamine B in a water environment at 37 °C. Various current signals are used to control the temperature of the cold side of the Peltier device and the volume of water on top of the Peltier device affects the change in temperature. The pulsatile on-demand release profile of the model drug is obtained by turning the current signal on and off. The work has shown that the 2600 mAh power source is enough to power this device for 1.3 h. Furthermore, the excessive heat will not cause thermal damage in the body as it will be dissipated by the thermoregulation of the human body. Therefore, this simple novel device can be implanted and should work well in vivo.

  17. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetse, Marc M.; Rensing, Peter A.; Sharpe, Ruben B. A.; van Heck, Gert T.; Allard, Bart A. M.; Meulendijks, Nicole N. M. M.; Kruijt, Peter G. M.; Tijdink, Marcel W. W. J.; De Zwart, René M.; Houben, René J.; Enting, Erik; van Veen, Sjaak J. J. F.; Schoo, Herman F. M.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be integrated in clothing, be worn on the skin, or may even be placed inside the body. This implies that flexibility and wearability of the systems is essential for their success. Devices based on polymer semiconductors allow for these demands since they can be fabricated with thin film technology. The use of thin film device technology allows for the fabrication of very thin sensors (e.g. integrated in food product packaging), flexible or bendable sensors in wearables, large area/distributed sensors, and intrinsically low-cost applications in disposable products. With thin film device technology a high level of integration can be achieved with parts that analyze signals, process and store data, and interact over a network. Integration of all these functions will inherently lead to better cost/performance ratios, especially if printing and other standard polymer technology such as high precision moulding is applied for the fabrication. In this paper we present an optical transmission sensor array based on polymer semiconductor devices made by thin film technology. The organic devices, light emitting diodes, photodiodes and selective medium chip, are integrated with classic electronic components. Together they form a versatile sensor platform that allows for the quantitative measurement of 100 channels and communicates wireless with a computer. The emphasis is given to the sensor principle, the design, fabrication technology and integration of the thin film devices.

  18. Validation of the prosthetic esthetic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özhayat, Esben B; Dannemand, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In order to diagnose impaired esthetics and evaluate treatments for these, it is crucial to evaluate all aspects of oral and prosthetic esthetics. No professionally administered index currently exists that sufficiently encompasses comprehensive prosthetic esthetics. This study aimed...... to validate a new comprehensive index, the Prosthetic Esthetic Index (PEI), for professional evaluation of esthetics in prosthodontic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The content, criterion, and construct validity; the test-retest, inter-rater, and internal consistency reliability; and the sensitivity...

  19. State-space control of prosthetic hand shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velliste, M; McMorland, A J C; Diril, E; Clanton, S T; Schwartz, A B

    2012-01-01

    In the field of neuroprosthetic control, there is an emerging need for simplified control of high-dimensional devices. Advances in robotic technology have led to the development of prosthetic arms that now approach the look and number of degrees of freedom (DoF) of a natural arm. These arms, and especially hands, now have more controllable DoFs than the number of control DoFs available in many applications. In natural movements, high correlations exist between multiple joints, such as finger flexions. Therefore, discrepancy between the number of control and effector DoFs can be overcome by a control scheme that maps low-DoF control space to high-DoF joint space. Imperfect effectors, sensor noise and interactions with external objects require the use of feedback controllers. The incorporation of feedback in a system where the command is in a different space, however, is challenging, requiring a potentially difficult inverse high-DoF to low-DoF transformation. Here we present a solution to this problem based on the Extended Kalman Filter.

  20. Computer Aided Facial Prosthetics Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial deformities can impose burden to the patient. There are many solutions for facial deformities such as plastic surgery and facial prosthetics. However, current fabrication method of facial prosthetics is high-cost and time consuming. This study aimed to identify a new method to construct a customized facial prosthetic. A 3D scanner, computer software and 3D printer were used in this study. Results showed that the new developed method can be used to produce a customized facial prosthetics. The advantages of the developed method over the conventional process are low cost, reduce waste of material and pollution in order to meet the green concept.

  1. 基于EMG的假手实时力跟踪控制%Tracking control of real-time force for prosthetic hand based on EMG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新庆; 刘伊威; 杨大鹏; 樊绍巍; 刘宏

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at such problems as low level of flexibility and intellectualization existing in commercial prosthetic hand,the study on a five-fingered prosthetic hand with moment/position perception and its control method was performed.The electromyography(EMG) signal of body forearm was taken as a control source,and the fingertip normal force was tested with a force sensor.A prediction model for fingertip force was established with a support vector regression(SVR) machine.The parameters of the proposed model were determined with a grid search method.And thus,the training time is shortened,and the generalization ability of the model gets enhanced.The real-time tracking of fingertip force was realized through combining the online prediction and fuzzy PID control method with a second-order differential tracker.The proposed control method has quick response speed,small ultra regulation and strong robustness,and thus,the control level for prosthetic hand gets improved.%针对商业假手灵活性及智能化水平较低的问题,进行了具有力矩/位置感知的五指假手及其控制方法的研究.以人体前臂肌电信号(EMG)为控制源,以力传感器检测指尖法向力,通过SVR支持向量机(Support Vector Regression,SVR)构建了指尖力的预测模型;采用网格搜索法确定模型的参数,缩短了训练时间,提高了模型的泛化能力.通过在线预测,结合带有二阶微分跟踪器的模糊PID控制方法实现了指尖施力实时跟踪;速度快,超调小,鲁棒性强,提高了假手的控制水平.

  2. The influence of a hydraulic prosthetic ankle on residual limb loading during sloped walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler-McNicholas, Sara R; Nickel, Eric A; Medvec, Joseph; Barrons, Kyle; Mion, Spencer; Hansen, Andrew H

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, numerous prosthetic ankle-foot devices have been developed to address the demands of sloped walking for individuals with lower-limb amputation. The goal of this study was to compare the performance of a passive, hydraulic ankle-foot prosthesis to two related, non-hydraulic ankles based on their ability to minimize the socket reaction moments of individuals with transtibial amputation during a range of sloped walking tasks. After a two-week accommodation period, kinematic data were collected on seven subjects with a transtibial amputation walking on an instrumented treadmill set at various slopes. Overall, this study was unable to find significant differences in the torque at the distal end of the prosthetic socket between an ankle-foot prosthesis with a hydraulic range-of-motion and other related ankle-foot prosthesis designs (rigid ankle, multiaxial ankle) during the single-support phase of walking. In addition, socket comfort and perceived exertion were not significantly different for any of the ankle-foot prostheses tested in this study. These results suggest the need for further work to determine if more advanced designs (e.g., those with microprocessor control of hydraulic features, powered ankle-foot designs) can provide more biomimetic function to prosthesis users.

  3. Conservative medical therapy of prosthetic joint infections: retrospective analysis of an 8-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavoni, G L; Giannella, M; Falcone, M; Scorzolini, L; Liberatore, M; Carlesimo, B; Serra, P; Venditti, M

    2004-09-01

    Successful treatment of prosthetic joint infections often requires multiple surgical interventions and prolonged antimicrobial therapy. However, in certain situations, a surgical approach may not be in the best interest of the patient. A conservative approach was used to treat 34 patients with prosthetic joint infection between 1995 and 2003. Diagnosis of infection was based on clinical-microbiological evidence, confirmed by (99)Tc-labelled leukocyte scintigraphy, and involved 12 Staphylococcus aureus infections, nine Staphylococcus epidermidis infections, two Enterococcus faecalis infections, two mixed infections (S. aureus plus Pseudomonas aeruginosa; S. epidermidis plus E. faecalis), with the infecting pathogen being unidentified for nine patients. Most infections were treated initially with intravenous or intramuscular teicoplanin +/- ciprofloxacin or rifampicin, followed by oral ciprofloxacin or minocycline plus rifampicin. The mean duration of antimicrobial therapy was 41.2 weeks. Overall, only three patients did not respond to therapy, and infection was controlled in the remaining 31 patients. Among these, no relapse was observed in 17 patients during follow-up for 9-57 months; improvement with early (within 6 months of antibiotic discontinuation) or late relapse was observed in seven and three patients, respectively; two patients improved clinically, but continued to receive antibiotic therapy; and two patients whose condition improved initially were lost after a 6-month follow-up following discontinuation of antibiotics. No patient complained of side effects requiring discontinuation of antibiotic therapy. The study confirmed that suppression of infection, with salvage of the infected device in an acceptably functional state, can be achieved in selected cases.

  4. The influence of a hydraulic prosthetic ankle on residual limb loading during sloped walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Eric A.; Medvec, Joseph; Barrons, Kyle; Mion, Spencer; Hansen, Andrew H.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, numerous prosthetic ankle-foot devices have been developed to address the demands of sloped walking for individuals with lower-limb amputation. The goal of this study was to compare the performance of a passive, hydraulic ankle-foot prosthesis to two related, non-hydraulic ankles based on their ability to minimize the socket reaction moments of individuals with transtibial amputation during a range of sloped walking tasks. After a two-week accommodation period, kinematic data were collected on seven subjects with a transtibial amputation walking on an instrumented treadmill set at various slopes. Overall, this study was unable to find significant differences in the torque at the distal end of the prosthetic socket between an ankle-foot prosthesis with a hydraulic range-of-motion and other related ankle-foot prosthesis designs (rigid ankle, multiaxial ankle) during the single-support phase of walking. In addition, socket comfort and perceived exertion were not significantly different for any of the ankle-foot prostheses tested in this study. These results suggest the need for further work to determine if more advanced designs (e.g., those with microprocessor control of hydraulic features, powered ankle-foot designs) can provide more biomimetic function to prosthesis users. PMID:28278172

  5. 基于有限状态机控制的智能假肢踝关节*☆%Intelligent prosthetic ankle based on the finite state machine control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鹏; 柏健; 王欣然; 耿艳利

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, intel igent prosthesis only focuses on the function of knee joint, while ankle joint prosthesis is only used as the aid of prosthetic knee joint. So the normal gait cannot be realized according to the change of external environment and gait. OBJECTIVE: To develop a reliable intel igent prosthetic ankle in order to improve the gait of amputees effectively. METHODS: Based on the variable damping ankle-foot prosthesis, the control method of finite state machine was proposed. The ankle joint gait was planned in detail, and the relevant control strategy was developed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results indicate that the intel igent prosthetic ankle based on the finite state machine control can effectively fol ow health limb lateral movement, and can adapt to different paces, which lays an experimental basement for later knee ankle coordinated movement.%  背景:目前智能假肢只是考虑了膝关节的作用,假肢踝关节只是作为假肢膝关节的辅助工具,无法根据外部环境和步态的变化实现假肢自然的行走。目的:研制出可靠的智能假肢踝关节,有效改善截肢者的步态。方法:在阻尼可变式踝足假肢的基础上,提出了有限状态机的控制方法,对踝足步态进行了详细的划分,在每个步态内制定了相关的控制策略。结果与结论:实验结果表明,基于有限状态机控制的智能假肢踝关节能够有效的跟随健肢侧运动,能够适应不同的步速,为以后膝踝协调运动奠定了一定的实验基础。

  6. New horizons for orthotic and prosthetic technology: artificial muscle for ambulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Hugh M.; Kornbluh, Roy D.

    2004-07-01

    The rehabilitation community is at the threshold of a new age in which orthotic and prosthetic devices will no longer be separate, lifeless mechanisms, but intimate extensions of the human body-structurally, neurologically, and dynamically. In this paper we discuss scientific and technological advances that promise to accelerate the merging of body and machine, including the development of actuator technologies that behave like muscle and control methodologies that exploit principles of biological movement. We present a state-of-the-art device for leg rehabilitation: a powered ankle-foot orthosis for stroke, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis patients. The device employs a forcecontrollable actuator and a biomimetic control scheme that automatically modulates ankle impedance and motive torque to satisfy patient-specific gait requirements. Although the device has some clinical benefits, problems still remain. The force-controllable actuator comprises an electric motor and a mechanical transmission, resulting in a heavy, bulky, and noisy mechanism. As a resolution of this difficulty, we argue that electroactive polymer-based artificial muscle technologies may offer considerable advantages to the physically challenged, allowing for joint impedance and motive force controllability, noise-free operation, and anthropomorphic device morphologies.

  7. Instance-based XML data binding for mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Tamayo, Alain; Huerta, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    XML and XML Schema are widely used in different domains for the definition of standards that enhance the interoperability between parts exchanging information through the Internet. The size and complexity of some standards, and their associated schemas, have been growing with time as new use case scenarios and data models are added to them. The common approach to deal with the complexity of producing XML processing code based on these schemas is the use of XML data binding generators. Unfortunately, these tools do not always produce code that ?ts the limitations of resource-constrained devices, such as mobile phones, in the presence of large schemas. In this paper we present Instance-based XML data binding, an approach to produce compact application-specific XML processing code for mobile devices. The approach utilises information extracted from a set of XML documents about how the application make use of the schemas.

  8. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD approach to designing a prosthetic myoelectric hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Sofía Olaya Escobar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Quality Function Deployment (QFD model based on computing with words. It is specifically used in the House of Quality (HOQ construction phase. It illustrates the methodology employed in designing a prosthetic myoelectric hand.

  9. Memory devices based on organic electric bistable materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qi; BAI Hua; SHI GaoQuan

    2007-01-01

    Organic/metallic composites have demonstrated electrical bistability, as well as memory effects. These advanced materials have shown potential applications in digital information storage because of their good stability, flexibility and fast response speed. The electric bistability phenomenon can be explained by electric field-induced electron transfer/storage. This article reviews the recent progress of memory devices based on organic/metallic and polymeric composites with electric bistability.

  10. Network-based Fingerprint Authentication System Using a Mobile Device

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qihu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract— Fingerprint-based user authentication is highly effective in networked services such as electronic payment, but conventional authentication solutions have problems in cost, usability and security. To resolve these problems, we propose a touch-less fingerprint authentication solution, in which a mobile device's built-in camera is used to capture fingerprint image, and then it is sent to the server to determine the identity of the user. We designed and implemented a prototype as an a...

  11. Parametric analysis using the finite element method to investigate prosthetic interface stresses for persons with trans-tibial amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver-Thorn, M B; Childress, D S

    1996-07-01

    A finite element (FE) model of the below-knee residual limb and prosthetic socket was created to investigate the effects of parameter variations on the interface stress distribution during static stance. This model was based upon geometric approximations of anthropometric residual limb geometry. The model was not specific to an individual with amputation, but could be scaled to approximate the limb of a particular subject. Parametric analyses were conducted to investigate the effects of prosthetic socket design and residual limb geometry on the residual limb/prosthetic socket interface stresses. Behavioral trends were illustrated via sensitivity analysis. The results of the parametric analyses indicate that the residual limb/prosthetic socket interface stresses are affected by variations in both prosthetic design and residual limb geometry. Specifically, the analyses indicate: 1) the residual limb/prosthetic liner interface pressures are relatively insensitive to the socket stiffness; 2) the stiffness of the prosthetic liner influences the interface stress distribution for both the unrectified and patellar-tendon-bearing (PTB) rectified models-the external load state appears to influence the interface pressure distribution, while the prosthetic socket rectification appears to influence the interface shear stress distribution; 3) the interface pressures are very sensitive to the prosthetic rectification; 4) the shape and relative bulk of soft tissue may significantly influence the interface pressure distribution; 5) the interface pressure distribution is also influenced by the residual limb length; and 6) the stiffness/compliance of the residual limb soft tissues may significantly alter the interface pressure distribution.

  12. Microcontact printing-based fabrication of digital microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael W L; Abdelgawad, Mohamed; Ye, George; Yonson, Neal; Trottier, Justin; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2006-11-15

    Digital microfluidics is a fluid manipulation technique in which discrete droplets are actuated on patterned arrays of electrodes. Although there is great enthusiasm for the application of this technique to chemical and biological assays, development has been hindered by the requirement of clean room fabrication facilities. Here, we present a new fabrication scheme, relying on microcontact printing (microCP), an inexpensive technique that does not require clean room facilities. In microCP, an elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamp is used to deposit patterns of self-assembled monolayers onto a substrate. We report three different microCP-based fabrication techniques: (1) selective etching of gold-on-glass substrates; (2) direct printing of a suspension of palladium colloids; and (3) indirect trapping of gold colloids from suspension. In method 1, etched gold electrodes are used for droplet actuation; in methods 2 and 3, colloid patterns are used to seed electroless deposition of copper. We demonstrate, for the first time, that digital microfluidic devices can be formed by microCP and are capable of the full range of digital microfluidics operations: dispensing, merging, motion, and splitting. Devices formed by the most robust of the new techniques were comparable in performance to devices formed by conventional methods, at a fraction of the fabrication time. These new techniques for digital microfluidics device fabrication have the potential to facilitate expansion of this technology to any research group, even those without access to conventional microfabrication tools and facilities.

  13. 基于先进制造平台的假肢接受腔计算机辅助制造系统%Computer-aided prosthetic socket manufacturing system based on an advanced manufacture technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鹏; 陈玲玲; 李松; 宣伯凯

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To overcome the shortcoming of manual method,computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system of prosthetic socket is applied to improve socket's quality and processing efficiency,which also reduces the demand of operator's knowledge and experience.METHODS:Prosthetic socket CAM system was discussed based on an advanced manufacture technology,and the hardware and software were designed.The advanced manufacture platform was composed of an industrial personal computer (IPC),a motion control card,four sets of Panasonic digital AC servo control system,four lead screw guides,two spindle motor of milling cutter,a transducer,two switching power supply,limit switch and proximity switch.The software of prosthetic socket CAM system mainly included three function modules:parameter setting,machine testing and beginning processing.Through adjusting command pulse's input and driver's coefficient,the motor worked at different speeds.RESULTS:The result of experiment demonstrated that maximum rotational speed restriction was applied to protect the motor,and the motor could work very smoothly without vibration in very low speed.It was suitable for manufacture prosthetic sockets,and could manufacture the high quality prosthetic socket to satisfy the requirements of amputee.CONCLUSION:Prosthetic socket CAM system based on the advanced manufacture platform can overcome the shortcoming of traditional manual method,ensure product quality,and reduce the cost.The protracted experience of certified prosthetist was incorporated into the design program to reduce the demand of manipulator's knowledge and experience,increase the one-time success rate of manufacture prosthetic sockets,and improve the quality uncertainty of sockets.It can change the backward production mode of designing,measuring,taking model,and modifying model which depends on handwork.%目的:为了克服手工制作假肢接受腔的缺点,将计算机辅助制造技术用于加工假肢接受腔,提高接受腔的质量

  14. 基于特征映射的义齿表面三维变形设计方法%3D Deformation Design Method for Prosthetic Dental Surface Based on Feature Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑淑贤; 李佳; 孙庆丰

    2011-01-01

    The prosthetic tooth surface design is an important issue in dental computer aided design systems(CAD). The designed tooth shape should fit to the patient's tooth articulation environment and keep the topological features of the generic teeth. Aiming at the problem, a 3D deformation approach for prosthetic dental surface design based on feature mapping is presented. The main idea is by identifying the corresponding feature points between the preparation tooth and the standard tooth firstly, using a suitable radial basis function to define the feature mapping relations in both teeth, then through the corresponding features alignment and the surface interpolation deformation, the prosthetic tooth surface deformation is realized. The result of case study of the first molar in lower jaw shows that the design process is simple, the standard tooth surface deformation is reasonable, the surface distortion can be avoided and the final inlay surface matches well with the preparation tooth. The feature mapping design method provides a new way for clinic application in dental CAD.%义齿表面设计是牙科计算机辅助设计和制造系统的一个重要环节,设计的义齿形状必须符合患者的口腔咬合环境并能保持牙齿的拓扑结构特征.针对这一问题,在此提出一种基于特征映射的义齿表面三维变形设计方法.该方法主要思想是首先识别预备体与同名标准牙的重要特征点,采用径向基函数建立两者的特征映射关系,再通过对应特征点的位置对齐和表面的插值变形,实现义齿表面的变形设计.下颌第一磨牙嵌体的设计案例结果表明,该方法设计程序简单,标准牙曲面变形合理,能有效地避免曲面失真,最终生成的嵌体与预备体匹配良好,为牙科计算机辅助设计和制造系统的临床应用提供一种新的方法.

  15. Radio frequency identification--an innovative solution to guide dexterous prosthetic hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Matthew S; Singhal, Girish; Kaliki, Rahul; Smith, Ryan J; Thakor, Nitish V

    2011-01-01

    Dexterous manipulation of a multi-fingered prosthetic hand requires far more cognitive effort compared to typical 1 degree of freedom hands, which hinders their acceptance clinically. This paper presents a Myoelectrically-Operated Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Prosthetic Hand (MORPH); an implementation of RFID with a myoelectric prosthetic hand as a means to amplify the controllable degrees of freedom. Contextual information from an object equipped with an RFID tag allows automatic preshaping along with dexterous control in an attempt to reduce the cognitive effort required to operate the terminal device. The myoelectric-RFID hybrid has been demonstrated in a proof-of-concept case study where an amputee was fitted with the device and subjected to activities adapted from the Jebsen Hand Function Test and the Smith Hand Function Evaluation with RFID-tagged and untagged items. Evaluation tests revealed that the MORPH system performed significantly better in 4 of the 8 tasks, and comparable to the control in the remainder.

  16. Consumer satisfaction with the services of prosthetics and orthotics facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Joline; Geertzen, Jan; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2009-03-01

    Consumer satisfaction with the services provided in a prosthetics and orthotics (P&O) facility has seldom been studied. The aim of this study was to analyze consumer satisfaction regarding the services provided by 15 P&O facilities in The Netherlands. Consumers (n = 1,364) of these P&O facilities who were fitted with a prosthesis, orthopaedic shoes, an orthosis, or another device, were asked to rate the overall services provided and whether they were satisfied with the device provided and its delivery time. Additionally, they filled in a modified SERVQUAL questionnaire (see Appendix). Consumers gave the service provided by P&O facilities a mean overall rating of 8.1. The highest ratings were given by consumers fitted with a prosthesis (mean overall rating of services: 8.4). In total, 78% of the consumers were satisfied with the device provided and 93% with the delivery time. The results of our study showed that, on the SERVQUAL, 50% of the statements fulfilled the criteria for a satisfactory quality of the services. The overall consumer rating of the service provided by P&O facilities is high and depends on the device provided. The outcomes on the SERVQUAL were moderate. In future, it is important to study consumer satisfaction more extensively in order to improve the quality of P&O services in daily practice. Additionally, specific questionnaires need to be developed to measure all aspects of prosthetic and orthotic care, with the aim to improve the services.

  17. Telemedicine Based on Mobile Devices and Mobile Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidong Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets support kinds of mobile computing and services. They can access to the cloud or offload the computation-intensive part to the cloud computing resources. Mobile cloud computing (MCC integrates the cloud computing into the mobile environment, which extends mobile devices’ battery lifetime, improves their data storage capacity and processing power, and improves their reliability and information security. In this paper, the applications of smartphones in telemedicine and MCC-based telemedicine were presented. Issues on the information security of smartphones and tablets, challenges of smartphones in telemedicine and challenges of MCC-based telemedicine were also introduced.

  18. Analysis of Android Device-Based Solutions for Fall Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casilari, Eduardo; Luque, Rafael; Morón, María-José

    2015-07-23

    Falls are a major cause of health and psychological problems as well as hospitalization costs among older adults. Thus, the investigation on automatic Fall Detection Systems (FDSs) has received special attention from the research community during the last decade. In this area, the widespread popularity, decreasing price, computing capabilities, built-in sensors and multiplicity of wireless interfaces of Android-based devices (especially smartphones) have fostered the adoption of this technology to deploy wearable and inexpensive architectures for fall detection. This paper presents a critical and thorough analysis of those existing fall detection systems that are based on Android devices. The review systematically classifies and compares the proposals of the literature taking into account different criteria such as the system architecture, the employed sensors, the detection algorithm or the response in case of a fall alarms. The study emphasizes the analysis of the evaluation methods that are employed to assess the effectiveness of the detection process. The review reveals the complete lack of a reference framework to validate and compare the proposals. In addition, the study also shows that most research works do not evaluate the actual applicability of the Android devices (with limited battery and computing resources) to fall detection solutions.

  19. Photonic devices based on black phosphorus and related hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, M. S.; Viti, L.

    2016-08-01

    Artificial semiconductor heterostructures played a pivotal role in modern electronic and photonic technologies, providing a highly effective means for the manipulation and control of carriers, from the visible to the far-infrared, leading to the development of highly efficient devices like sources, detectors and modulators. The discovery of graphene and the related fascinating capabilities have triggered an unprecedented interest in devices based on inorganic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Amongst them, black phosphorus (BP) recently showed an extraordinary potential in a variety of applications across micro-electronics and photonics. With an energy gap between the gapless graphene and the larger gap transition metal dichalcogenides, BP can form the basis for a new generation of high-performance photonic devices that could be specifically engineered to comply with different applications, like transparent saturable absorbers, fast photocounductive switches and low noise photodetectors, exploiting its peculiar electrical, thermal and optical anisotropy. This paper will review the latest achievements in black-phosphorus-based THz photonics and discuss future perspectives of this rapidly developing research field.

  20. Analysis of Android Device-Based Solutions for Fall Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Casilari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Falls are a major cause of health and psychological problems as well as hospitalization costs among older adults. Thus, the investigation on automatic Fall Detection Systems (FDSs has received special attention from the research community during the last decade. In this area, the widespread popularity, decreasing price, computing capabilities, built-in sensors and multiplicity of wireless interfaces of Android-based devices (especially smartphones have fostered the adoption of this technology to deploy wearable and inexpensive architectures for fall detection. This paper presents a critical and thorough analysis of those existing fall detection systems that are based on Android devices. The review systematically classifies and compares the proposals of the literature taking into account different criteria such as the system architecture, the employed sensors, the detection algorithm or the response in case of a fall alarms. The study emphasizes the analysis of the evaluation methods that are employed to assess the effectiveness of the detection process. The review reveals the complete lack of a reference framework to validate and compare the proposals. In addition, the study also shows that most research works do not evaluate the actual applicability of the Android devices (with limited battery and computing resources to fall detection solutions.

  1. Analytical Devices Based on Direct Synthesis of DNA on Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavan, Ana C; Niu, Jia; Chen, Zhen; Güder, Firat; Cheng, Chao-Min; Liu, David; Whitesides, George M

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses a growing need in clinical diagnostics for parallel, multiplex analysis of biomarkers from small biological samples. It describes a new procedure for assembling arrays of ssDNA and proteins on paper. This method starts with the synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides covalently linked to paper and proceeds to assemble microzones of DNA-conjugated paper into arrays capable of simultaneously capturing DNA, DNA-conjugated protein antigens, and DNA-conjugated antibodies. The synthesis of ssDNA oligonucleotides on paper is convenient and effective with 32% of the oligonucleotides cleaved and eluted from the paper substrate being full-length by HPLC for a 32-mer. These ssDNA arrays can be used to detect fluorophore-linked DNA oligonucleotides in solution, and as the basis for DNA-directed assembly of arrays of DNA-conjugated capture antibodies on paper, detect protein antigens by sandwich ELISAs. Paper-anchored ssDNA arrays with different sequences can be used to assemble paper-based devices capable of detecting DNA and antibodies in the same device and enable simple microfluidic paper-based devices.

  2. Mass measurements based on nanomechanical devices: differential measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcamone, J; Rius, G; Llobet, J; Borrise, X; Perez-Murano, F [CNM-IMB (CSIC). Campus UAB. E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)], E-mail: francesc.perez@cnm.es, E-mail: julien.arcamone@cnm.es

    2008-03-15

    In the last few years, there has been a strong interest in implementing nano-mechanical devices as mass sensors. Regarding this application, an important question to address is to know to what extent the observed frequency shift is exclusively due to the targeted mass loading. For this purpose, we present a device, a polysilicon double cantilever, with an innovative design that allows the direct determination of the measurement uncertainty. Two almost identical nanomechanical resonators are simultaneously operated: one serves as sensor and the other as reference. In this way, rapid and reliable measurements in air are made possible. In first experimental measurements, some masses in the order of 300 fg, locally deposited by focused ion beam, have been measured with an uncertainty of 30 fg. These results are corroborated by the determination of the deposits size based on SEM images.

  3. Isophorone-based Fluorescent Dopant for Red Organic Electroluminescence Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU, Di; ZHEN, Chang-Gua; HOU, Yuan-Jun; WANG, Xue-Song; ZOU, De-Chun; ZHANG, Bao-Wen; CAO, Yi

    2003-01-01

    Isophorone-based red fluorescent compound 3-(dicyanomethylene )-5,5-dimethyl-1-[ 2-( N-ethyl-3-carbazyl ) ethylene ] cyclohexene (DCDCC) was synthesized for use in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). DCDCC was characterized by narrow emission in photoluminescence with full-width at half-maximum of only 50 nm in solution and in thin solid film of 70 nm width.Eiectroluminescence devices with configuration of ITO/NPB/Alq3: DCDCC/Alq3/Mg: Ag were fabricated utilizing DCDCCas dopant emitter. An efficient red emission peaked at 612 nm was obtained for the device with 1% (wt. %) DCDCC in Alq3.The maximum luminance and current efficiency were as high as 3700 cd/m2 at 14 V and 1.25 cd/A at 150 mA/cm2, respectively.

  4. Tunable photonic devices and modules based on micro-optomechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Yoshitada

    2001-10-01

    Photonic devices with ultra-wide and precise controllability for lightwaves are essential for constructing flexible optical networks to serve versatile multimedia applications. However, conventional monolithically fabricated photonic devices suffer from their controllability being limited by the physical characteristics. Micro-optomechatronics based on precise positional control of optical elements is a promising method of meeting the above requirements. This paper presents typical examples, which include repetition- rate tunable optical pulse sources with a micro mechanically controllable cavity length and synchro-scanned tunable disk- shaped optical fiber modules. The operations of these modules were demonstrated to confirm the validity of micro- optomechatronics as the ultimate lightwave control scheme, which will be useful for future optical telecommunications systems.

  5. A novel testbed structure for nanoshell based devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Mohammad A [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Geiger, Richard T [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kim, Jaekyun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2007-06-27

    The design and the fabrication of a novel testbed for nanoshell based devices is reported. We have identified six criteria for an ideal resistive nanodevice and show that our testbed satisfies most of these criteria. We describe how the unique design of the testbed minimizes most of the resilient problems in the current nanodevices, like non-uniformity, assembly, stray nanocomponents and cost. We have tested the testbed by using gold nanoshell coated silica spheres as the active device element. We discuss the nature and the implications of the contact resistance between a flat electrode and a spherical nanoshell. We suggest various applications of the testbed, from nanofuses to ultrafast oxide sensors and to bio-sensors. We describe methods and steps for miniaturization of the testbed.

  6. A Miniature Force Sensor for Prosthetic Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Robert; Chu, Mars; Diftler, Myron; Martin, Toby; Valvo, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Tactile sensing is an important part of the development of new prosthetic hands. A number of approaches to establishing an afferent pathway back to the patient for tactile information are becoming available including tactors and direct stimulation of the afferent nerves. Tactile information can also be used by low-level control systems that perform simple tasks for the patient such as establishing a stable grasp and maintaining the grasping forces needed to hold an object. This abstract reports on the design of a small fingertip load cell based on semi-conductor strain gauges. Since this load cell is so small (measuring only 8.5mm in diameter and 6.25 mm in height), it easily fits into the tip of an anthropomorphic mechatronic hand. This load cell is tested by comparing a time series of force and moment data with reference data acquired from a much larger high-precision commercial load cell.

  7. 21 CFR 870.3545 - Ventricular bypass (assist) device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventricular bypass (assist) device. 870.3545... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3545 Ventricular bypass (assist) device. (a) Identification. A ventricular bypass (assist) device is a device that...

  8. An electromagnetic inerter-based vibration suppression device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Buelga, A.; Clare, L. R.; Neild, S. A.; Jiang, J. Z.; Inman, D. J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes how an inerter-based device for structural vibration suppression can be realized using an electromagnetic transducer such as a linear motor. When the motor shaft moves, a difference of voltage is generated across the transducer coil. The voltage difference is proportional to the relative velocity between its two terminals. The electromagnetic transducer will exert a force proportional to current following the Lorentz principle if the circuit is closed around the transducer coil. If an electronic circuit consisting of a capacitor, an inductance and a resistance with the appropriate configuration is connected, the resulting force reflected back into the mechanical domain is equivalent to that achieved by a mechanical inerter-based device. The proposed configuration is easy to implement and very versatile, provided a high quality conversion system with negligible losses. With the use of electromagnetic devices, a new generation of vibration absorbers can be realized, for example in the electrical domain it would be relatively uncomplicated to synthesize multi-frequency or real time tunable vibration absorbers by adding electrical components in parallel. In addition by using resistance emulators in the electrical circuits, part of the absorbed vibration energy can be converted into usable power. Here an electromagnetic tuned inerter damper (E-TID) is tested experimentally using real time dynamic substructuring. A voltage compensation unit was developed in order to compensate for coil losses. This voltage compensation unit requires power, which is acquired through harvesting from the vibration energy using a resistance emulator. A power balance analysis was developed in order to ensure the device can be self sufficient. Promising experimental results, using this approach, have been obtained and are presented in this paper. The ultimate goal of this research is the development of autonomous electromagnetic vibration absorbers, able to harvest energy

  9. Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of Gastrointestinal Microorganism Multiplex Nucleic Acid-Based Assay. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying a gastrointestinal microorganism multiplex nucleic acid-based assay into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  10. 3D Printed Graphene Based Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Christopher W; Down, Michael P; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo; Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Smith, Graham C; Kelly, Peter J; Banks, Craig E

    2017-03-03

    3D printing technology provides a unique platform for rapid prototyping of numerous applications due to its ability to produce low cost 3D printed platforms. Herein, a graphene-based polylactic acid filament (graphene/PLA) has been 3D printed to fabricate a range of 3D disc electrode (3DE) configurations using a conventional RepRap fused deposition moulding (FDM) 3D printer, which requires no further modification/ex-situ curing step. To provide proof-of-concept, these 3D printed electrode architectures are characterised both electrochemically and physicochemically and are advantageously applied as freestanding anodes within Li-ion batteries and as solid-state supercapacitors. These freestanding anodes neglect the requirement for a current collector, thus offering a simplistic and cheaper alternative to traditional Li-ion based setups. Additionally, the ability of these devices' to electrochemically produce hydrogen via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as an alternative to currently utilised platinum based electrodes (with in electrolysers) is also performed. The 3DE demonstrates an unexpectedly high catalytic activity towards the HER (-0.46 V vs. SCE) upon the 1000th cycle, such potential is the closest observed to the desired value of platinum at (-0.25 V vs. SCE). We subsequently suggest that 3D printing of graphene-based conductive filaments allows for the simple fabrication of energy storage devices with bespoke and conceptual designs to be realised.

  11. Conducting-polymer-based supercapacitor devices and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Graeme A.; Kao, Pon; Best, Adam S.

    Supercapacitor electrodes and devices that utilise conducting polymers are envisaged to bridge the gap between existing carbon-based supercapacitors and batteries to form units of intermediate specific energy. This review looks at the major conducting polymer materials, namely, polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene and derivatives of polythiophene, as well as composites of these materials with carbon nanotubes and inorganic battery materials. Various treatments of the conducting polymer materials to improve their properties are considered and comparisons are made with other supercapacitor materials such as carbon and with inorganic battery materials. Conducting polymers are pseudo-capacitive materials, which means that the bulk of the material undergoes a fast redox reaction to provide the capacitive response and they exhibit superior specific energies to the carbon-based supercapacitors (double-layer capacitors). In general conducting polymers are more conductive than the inorganic battery materials and consequently have greater power capability. On the downside, conducting polymers swell and contract substantially on charge and discharge, respectively. Consequently, cycle-life is poor compared with carbon-based supercapacitors which generally only charge via adsorption and desorption of ions (giving typically a few thousand cycles for conducting polymers compared with >500 000 cycles for carbon-based devices).

  12. Three-Dimensional Printing Based Hybrid Manufacturing of Microfluidic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapan, Yunus; Hasan, Muhammad Noman; Shen, Richang; Gurkan, Umut A

    2015-05-01

    Microfluidic platforms offer revolutionary and practical solutions to challenging problems in biology and medicine. Even though traditional micro/nanofabrication technologies expedited the emergence of the microfluidics field, recent advances in advanced additive manufacturing hold significant potential for single-step, stand-alone microfluidic device fabrication. One such technology, which holds a significant promise for next generation microsystem fabrication is three-dimensional (3D) printing. Presently, building 3D printed stand-alone microfluidic devices with fully embedded microchannels for applications in biology and medicine has the following challenges: (i) limitations in achievable design complexity, (ii) need for a wider variety of transparent materials, (iii) limited z-resolution, (iv) absence of extremely smooth surface finish, and (v) limitations in precision fabrication of hollow and void sections with extremely high surface area to volume ratio. We developed a new way to fabricate stand-alone microfluidic devices with integrated manifolds and embedded microchannels by utilizing a 3D printing and laser micromachined lamination based hybrid manufacturing approach. In this new fabrication method, we exploit the minimized fabrication steps enabled by 3D printing, and reduced assembly complexities facilitated by laser micromachined lamination method. The new hybrid fabrication method enables key features for advanced microfluidic system architecture: (i) increased design complexity in 3D, (ii) improved control over microflow behavior in all three directions and in multiple layers, (iii) transverse multilayer flow and precisely integrated flow distribution, and (iv) enhanced transparency for high resolution imaging and analysis. Hybrid manufacturing approaches hold great potential in advancing microfluidic device fabrication in terms of standardization, fast production, and user-independent manufacturing.

  13. Research progress of Si-based germanium materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buwen, Cheng; Cheng, Li; Zhi, Liu; Chunlai, Xue

    2016-08-01

    Si-based germanium is considered to be a promising platform for the integration of electronic and photonic devices due to its high carrier mobility, good optical properties, and compatibility with Si CMOS technology. However, some great challenges have to be confronted, such as: (1) the nature of indirect band gap of Ge; (2) the epitaxy of dislocation-free Ge layers on Si substrate; and (3) the immature technology for Ge devices. The aim of this paper is to give a review of the recent progress made in the field of epitaxy and optical properties of Ge heterostructures on Si substrate, as well as some key technologies on Ge devices. High crystal quality Ge epilayers, as well as Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with high Ge content, were successfully grown on Si substrate with a low-temperature Ge buffer layer. A local Ge condensation technique was proposed to prepare germanium-on-insulator (GOI) materials with high tensile strain for enhanced Ge direct band photoluminescence. The advances in formation of Ge n+p shallow junctions and the modulation of Schottky barrier height of metal/Ge contacts were a significant progress in Ge technology. Finally, the progress of Si-based Ge light emitters, photodetectors, and MOSFETs was briefly introduced. These results show that Si-based Ge heterostructure materials are promising for use in the next-generation of integrated circuits and optoelectronic circuits. Project supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 61036003, 61435013) and the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (No. 2013CB632103).

  14. Prosthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokpong Amornvit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular trauma can be caused by road traffic accidents, falls, assaults, or work-related accidents. Enucleation is often indicated after ocular injury or for the treatment of intraocular tumors, severe ocular infections, and painful blind eyes. Rehabilitation of an enucleated socket without an intraocular implant or with an inappropriately sized implant can result in superior sulcus deepening, enophthalmos, ptosis, ectropion, and lower lid laxity, which are collectively known as post-enucleation socket syndrome. This clinical report describes the rehabilitation of post-enucleation socket syndrome with a modified ocular prosthesis. Modifications to the ocular prosthesis were performed to correct the ptosis, superior sulcus deepening, and enophthalmos. The rehabilitation procedure produced satisfactory results.

  15. Mashup Based Content Search Engine for Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai

    2013-01-01

    Mashup based content search engine for mobile devices is proposed. Example of the proposed search engine is implemented with Yahoo!JAPAN Web SearchAPI, Yahoo!JAPAN Image searchAPI, YouTube Data API, and Amazon Product Advertising API. The retrieved results are also merged and linked each other. Therefore, the different types of contents can be referred once an e-learning content is retrieved. The implemented search engine is evaluated with 20 students. The results show usefulness and effectiv...

  16. Mashup Based Content Search Engine for Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mashup based content search engine for mobile devices is proposed. Example of the proposed search engine is implemented with Yahoo!JAPAN Web SearchAPI, Yahoo!JAPAN Image searchAPI, YouTube Data API, and Amazon Product Advertising API. The retrieved results are also merged and linked each other. Therefore, the different types of contents can be referred once an e-learning content is retrieved. The implemented search engine is evaluated with 20 students. The results show usefulness and effectiveness on e-learning content searches with a variety of content types, image, document, pdf files, moving picture.

  17. Neural-Based Models of Semiconductor Devices for SPICE Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanene B. Hammouda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses a simple and fast new approach to implement Artificial Neural Networks (ANN models for the MOS transistor into SPICE. The proposed approach involves two steps, the modeling phase of the device by NN providing its input/output patterns, and the SPICE implementation process of the resulting model. Using the Taylor series expansion, a neural based small-signal model is derived. The reliability of our approach is validated through simulations of some circuits in DC and small-signal analyses.

  18. Development of the Embedded Protective Device Based on ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-wen; LI Na; PAN Chun-de

    2005-01-01

    An embedded protective device for 35kV power line is worked out based on Philips' LPC2292 ARM MCU. Several aspects such as embedded design technique adopted in the system framework, application of adaptive theory in data acquisition, Board Support Packet (BSP) developing and task dispatching related to operating system are discussed. Both hardware and software framework of the system are given. Advanced hardware platform and software development environment is applied in design of the system, with the advanced co-design technology.

  19. A Silicon-Based Ferroelectric Capacitor for Memory Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任天令; 张林涛; 刘理天; 李志坚

    2002-01-01

    We study a silicon-based Pb TiO3/Pb(Zro.53 Tio.47)O3/Pb TiO3 capacitor, prepared by an improved sol-gel method.The ferroelectric capacitor has a high remanent polarization of 15 pC/crm2 at a coercive field of about 30 k V/cm,an ultra-low leakage current density of 0.1 hA/crm2, and almost fatigue free properties. It can be used as a promising candidate for ferroelectric memory devices.

  20. Prosthetic rehabilitation of the upper limb amputee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard O′Keeffe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of all or part of the arm is a catastrophic event for a patient and a significant challenge to rehabilitation professionals and prosthetic engineers. The large, upper extremity amputee population in India has, historically, been poorly served, with most having no access to support or being provided with ineffective prostheses. In recent years, the arrival of organisations like Otto Bock has made high quality service standards and devices accessible to more amputees. This review attempts to provide surgeons and other medical professionals with an overview of the multidisciplinary, multistage rehabilitation process and the solution options available. With worldwide upper extremity prosthesis rejection rates at significant levels, the review also describes some of the factors which influence the outcome. This is particularly relevant in the Indian context where the service can involve high cost investments. It is the responsibility of all contributing professionals to guide vulnerable patients through the process and try to maximise the benefit that can be obtained within the resources available.

  1. Maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation of the oral cancer patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfaardt, J.F.; Monteith, B.D. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Prosthetic Dentistry)

    1982-08-01

    The victim of orofacial cancer is frequently subjected to severe morphological and functional disturbance: a condition which the maxillofacial prosthetist can do much to alleviate through the use of various prosthetic devices. The successful rehabilitation of these patients, however, is often compromised by the presence of psychosocial and other problems, the solution of which extends beyond the limits of a single clinical discipline. The modern approach to orofacial cancer, therefore, is organised within the context of interdisciplinary co-operation: each phase of patient management being planed and executed according to the co-ordinated efforts of the various members of a head and neck cancer team.

  2. Quantum Electrodynamic Modeling of Silicon-Based Active Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyuan Shi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a time-domain analysis of an active medium based on a coupled quantum mechanical and electromagnetic model to accurately simulate the dynamics of silicon-based photonic devices. To fully account for the nonlinearity of an active medium, the rate equations of a four-level atomic system are introduced into the electromagnetic polarization vector. With these auxiliary differential equations, we solve the time evolution of the electromagnetic waves and atomic population densities using the FDTD method. The developed simulation approach has been used to model light amplification and amplified spontaneous emission in silicon nanocrystals, as well as the lasing dynamics in a novel photonic crystal-based silicon microcavity.

  3. A Graphical Password Based System for Small Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Wazir Zada; Xiang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Passwords provide security mechanism for authentication and protection services against unwanted access to resources. A graphical based password is one promising alternatives of textual passwords. According to human psychology, humans are able to remember pictures easily. In this paper, we have proposed a new hybrid graphical password based system, which is a combination of recognition and recall based techniques that offers many advantages over the existing systems and may be more convenient for the user. Our scheme is resistant to shoulder surfing attack and many other attacks on graphical passwords. This scheme is proposed for smart mobile devices (like smart phones i.e. ipod, iphone, PDAs etc) which are more handy and convenient to use than traditional desktop computer systems.

  4. A Graphical Password Based System for Small Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wazir Zada Khan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Passwords provide security mechanism for authentication and protection services against unwanted access to resources. A graphical based password is one promising alternatives of textual passwords. According to human psychology, humans are able to remember pictures easily. In this paper, we have proposed a new hybrid graphical password based system, which is a combination of recognition and recall based techniques that offers many advantages over the existing systems and may be more convenient for the user. Our scheme is resistant to shoulder surfing attack and many other attacks on graphical passwords. This scheme is proposed for smart mobile devices (like smart phones i.e. ipod, iphone, PDAs etc which are more handy and convenient to use than traditional desktop computer systems.

  5. An investigation of paper based microfluidic devices for size based separation and extraction applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Z W; Wu, R G; Wang, Z P; Tan, H L

    2015-09-01

    Conventional microfluidic devices are typically complex and expensive. The devices require the use of pneumatic control systems or highly precise pumps to control the flow in the devices. This work investigates an alternative method using paper based microfluidic devices to replace conventional microfluidic devices. Size based separation and extraction experiments conducted were able to separate free dye from a mixed protein and dye solution. Experimental results showed that pure fluorescein isothiocyanate could be separated from a solution of mixed fluorescein isothiocyanate and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled bovine serum albumin. The analysis readings obtained from a spectrophotometer clearly show that the extracted tartrazine sample did not contain any amount of Blue-BSA, because its absorbance value was 0.000 measured at a wavelength of 590nm, which correlated to Blue-BSA. These demonstrate that paper based microfluidic devices, which are inexpensive and easy to implement, can potentially replace their conventional counterparts by the use of simple geometry designs and the capillary action. These findings will potentially help in future developments of paper based microfluidic devices.

  6. Rehand: Realistic electric prosthetic hand created with a 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Sato, Ryo; Higashihara, Takanori; Ogasawara, Tsukasa; Kawashima, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    Myoelectric prosthetic hands provide an appearance with five fingers and a grasping function to forearm amputees. However, they have problems in weight, appearance, and cost. This paper reports on the Rehand, a realistic electric prosthetic hand created with a 3D printer. It provides a realistic appearance that is same as the cosmetic prosthetic hand and a grasping function. A simple link mechanism with one linear actuator for grasping and 3D printed parts achieve low cost, light weight, and ease of maintenance. An operating system based on a distance sensor provides a natural operability equivalent to the myoelectric control system. A supporter socket allows them to wear the prosthetic hand easily. An evaluation using the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) demonstrated that an amputee was able to operate various objects and do everyday activities with the Rehand.

  7. Prosthetics and Techniques in Repair of Animal's Abdominal Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouf, Gamal; Zaghloul, Adel; Abou-Alsaud, Mohamed; Barbour, Elie; Abouelnasr, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    The management of abdominal wall repair continues to present a challenging problem, especially in the repair of major defects. Many abdominal wall defects can be repaired by primary closure; however, if the defect is large and there is a tension on the closure of the wound, the use of prosthetic materials becomes indispensable. Many studies have been performed with various materials and implant techniques, without the comparison of their degrees of success, based on sound meta-analysis and/or inclusive epidemiologic studies. This review covered the effectiveness of recent advances in prosthetic materials and implant procedures used in repair of abdominal wall, based on biomechanical properties and economic aspects of reconstructed large abdominal wall defects and hernias in animals. The presented results in this review helped to reach treatment algorithms that could maximize outcomes and minimize morbidity.

  8. Development of prosthetic arm with pneumatic prosthetic hand and tendon-driven wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroyuki; Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki; Kan, Hiroto; Hirano, Masanori; Nakamura, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    Recently, various prosthetic arms have been developed, but few are both attractive and functional. Considering human coexistence, prosthetic arms must be both safe and flexible. In this research, we developed a novel prosthetic arm with a five-fingered prosthetic hand using our original pneumatic actuators and a slender tendon-driven wrist using a wire drive and two small motors. Because the prosthetic hand's driving source is comprised of small pneumatic actuators, the prosthetic hand is safe when it makes contact with people; it can also operate flexibly. In addition, the arm has a tendon-driven wrist to expand its motion space and to perform many operations. First, we explain the pneumatic hand's drive mechanism and its tendon-driven wrist. Next, we identify the characteristics of the hand and the wrist and construct a control system for this arm and verify its control performance.

  9. Liquid crystal devices based on photoalignment and photopatterning materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigrinov, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    Liquid crystal (LC) display and photonics devices based on photo-alignment and photo-patterning LC cells are developed. A fast switchable grating based on ferroelectric liquid crystals and orthogonal planar alignment by means of photo alignments. Both 1D and 2D gratings have been constructed. The proposed diffracting element provides fast response time of around 20 μs, contrast of 7000:1 and high diffraction efficiency, at the electric field of 6V/μm. A switchable LC Fresnel zone lens was also developed with the efficiency of ~42% that can be further improved, and the switching time for the 3 μm thick cell is ~6.7 ms which is relatively fast in comparison of existing devices. Thus, because of the photoalignment technology the fabrication of Fresnel lens became considerably simpler than others. A thin high spatial resolution, photo-patterned micropolarizer array for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors was implemented for the complete optical visualization of so called "invisible" objects, which are completely transparent (reflective) and colorless. Four Stokes parameters, which fully characterized the reflected light beam can be simultaneously detected using the array of photo-patterned polarizers on CMOS sensor plate. The cheap, high resolution photo-patterned LC matrix sensor was developed to be able successfully compete with the expensive and low reliable wire grid polarizer patterned arrays currently used for the purpose.

  10. A monitoring device for pressurised-air-driven diaphragm-based artificial heart assist devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeben, F.P.; Mul, de F.F.M.; Stokkink, H.S.D.; Koelink, M.H.; Greve, J.

    1992-01-01

    A non-invasive device has been developed to monitor the diaphragm position and the blood flow in artificial heart assist devices equipped with a pressurised-air-driven diaphragm. Light scattering from the diaphragm is used as a mechanism for measuring. Information about the position of several point

  11. 21 CFR 888.3080 - Intervertebral body fusion device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intervertebral body fusion device. 888.3080... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3080 Intervertebral body fusion device. (a) Identification. An intervertebral body fusion device is an implanted single or...

  12. A Game-theoretic Framework for Network Coding Based Device-to-Device Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-06-29

    This paper investigates the delay minimization problem for instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) based deviceto- device (D2D) communications. In D2D enabled systems, users cooperate to recover all their missing packets. The paper proposes a game theoretic framework as a tool for improving the distributed solution by overcoming the need for a central controller or additional signaling in the system. The session is modeled by self-interested players in a non-cooperative potential game. The utility functions are designed so as increasing individual payoff results in a collective behavior achieving both a desirable system performance in a shared network environment and the Nash equilibrium. Three games are developed whose first reduces the completion time, the second the maximum decoding delay and the third the sum decoding delay. The paper, further, improves the formulations by including a punishment policy upon collision occurrence so as to achieve the Nash bargaining solution. Learning algorithms are proposed for systems with complete and incomplete information, and for the imperfect feedback scenario. Numerical results suggest that the proposed game-theoretical formulation provides appreciable performance gain against the conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP), especially for reliable user-to-user channels.

  13. Computed Tomography of Prosthetic Heart Valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, J.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction is an infrequent but potentially life-threatening disease with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Patients with PHV dysfunction clinically can present with symptoms of congestive heart failure (dyspnea, fatigue, edema), fever, angina pectoris, dizziness d

  14. Ultrasound imaging in lower limb prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Tania; Solomonidis, Stephan; Sandham, William; Spence, William

    2002-03-01

    The biomechanical interaction between the residual limb and the prosthetic socket determines the quality of fit of the socket in lower limb prosthetics. An understanding of this interaction and the development of quantitative measures to predict the quality of fit of the socket are important for optimal socket design. Finite-element modeling is used widely for biomechanical modeling of the limb/socket interaction and requires information on the internal and external geometry of the residual limb. Volumetric imaging methods such as X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound have been used to obtain residual limb shape information. Of these modalities, ultrasound has been introduced most recently and its development for visualization in prosthetics is the least mature. This paper reviews ultrasound image acquisition and processing methods as they have been applied in lower limb prosthetics.

  15. Advanced prosthetic techniques for below knee amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, T B

    1985-02-01

    Recent advances in the evaluation of the amputation stump, the materials that are available for prosthetic application, techniques of improving socket fit, and prosthetic finishings promise to dramatically improve amputee function. Precision casting techniques for providing optimal fit of the amputation stump using materials such as alginate are described. The advantages of transparent check sockets for fitting the complicated amputation stump are described. Advances in research that promise to provide more functional prosthetic feet and faster and more reliable socket molding are the use of CAD-CAM (computer aided design-computer aided manufacturing) and the use of gait analysis techniques to aid in the alignment of the prosthesis after socket fitting. Finishing techniques to provide a more natural appearing prosthesis are described. These advances will gradually spread to the entire prosthetic profession.

  16. DME Prosthetics Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics-Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule. The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure codes...

  17. A Novel Gas Sensor Transducer Based on Phthalocyanine Heterojunction Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Bouvet

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental data concerning the changes in the current-voltage (I-V perfor-mances of a molecular material-based heterojunction consisting of hexadecafluorinatednickel phthalocyanine (Ni(F16Pc and nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc,(Au|Ni(F16Pc|NiPc|Al are introduced as an unprecedented principle of transduction for gassensing performances. The respective n- and p-type doped-insulator behaviors of therespective materials are supported, owing to the observed changes in surface potential(using the Kelvin probe method after submission to electron donor (ammonia and electronacceptor gases (ozone. On the other hand, the bilayer device exhibits strong variations inthe built-in potential of the junction and in its rectification ratio. Moreover, large increasesoccur in forward and reverse currents in presence of ammonia vapors. These make possiblea multimodal principle of detection controlled by a combined effect between theheterojunction and the NiPc|Al contact. Indeed, this metal/organic junction plays a criticalrole regarding the steady asymmetry of the I-V profiles during the device’s doping evenusing high ammonia concentrations. This approach offers a more sophisticated alternative tothe classically studied, but at times rather operation-limited, resistive gas sensors.

  18. Modeling graphene based surface plasmon waveguides and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, J.; Duque-Gomez, F.; Alam, A.; Armenta, R.; Niegemann, J.; McGuire, D.; Reid, A.

    2016-02-01

    Graphene is different from most optical materials in that it is a thin material layer with a thickness as small as one atom. Graphene layers can be incorporated into optical simulations using either a surface conductivity material model or a volumetric permittivity material model; however, introducing graphene through a volumetric permittivity is computationally inefficient because it requires very fine discretization grids. We have recently developed a more efficient approach that enables the use of comparatively coarse grids by formulating a discretization of Maxwell's equations (in the time or frequency domains) that combines a surface conductivity description of graphene layers with a volumetric permittivity description of other optical materials. This approach includes the full dispersion characteristics of graphene as specified by the Kubo formula. This paper demonstrates how the combined material description approach can be used to efficiently model state-of-the-art devices that take advantage of the energy confinement provided by surface plasmons. We show how to efficiently model TE and TM polarized surface plasmons, a surface plasmon waveguide switch, and an electro-optical modulator. This last example also includes electrical simulations of graphene and demonstrates how both optical and electrical simulations can be combined to produce a complete model of a graphene based device. For each example, we compare with previously published results, including experimental results.

  19. Device-independent quantum key distribution based on measurement inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Ramij; Parker, Matthew G.; Mironowicz, Piotr; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2015-12-01

    We provide an analysis of a family of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that has the following features. (a) The bits used for the secret key do not come from the results of the measurements on an entangled state but from the choices of settings. (b) Instead of a single security parameter (a violation of some Bell inequality) a set of them is used to estimate the level of trust in the secrecy of the key. The main advantage of these protocols is a smaller vulnerability to imperfect random number generators made possible by feature (a). We prove the security and the robustness of such protocols. We show that using our method it is possible to construct a QKD protocol which retains its security even if the source of randomness used by communicating parties is strongly biased. As a proof of principle, an explicit example of a protocol based on the Hardy's paradox is presented. Moreover, in the noiseless case, the protocol is secure in a natural way against any type of memory attack, and thus allows one to reuse the device in subsequent rounds. We also analyze the robustness of the protocol using semidefinite programming methods. Finally, we present a postprocessing method, and observe a paradoxical property that rejecting some random part of the private data can increase the key rate of the protocol.

  20. Auditory display as a prosthetic hand sensory feedback for reaching and grasping tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jose; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Natsumi, Nakayama; Sekine, Masashi; Yu, Wenwei

    2012-01-01

    Upper limb amputees have to rely extensively on visual feedback in order to monitor and manipulate successfully their prosthetic device. This situation leads to high consciousness burden, which generates fatigue and frustration. Therefore, in order to enhance motor-sensory performance and awareness, an auditory display was used as a sensory feedback system for the prosthetic hand's spatio-temporal and force information in a complete reaching and grasping setting. The main objective of this study was to explore the effects of using the auditory display to monitor the prosthetic hand during a complete reaching and grasping motion. The results presented in this paper point out that the usage of an auditory display to monitor and control a robot hand improves the temporal and grasping performance greatly, while reducing mental effort and improving their confidence.

  1. Software tool for the prosthetic foot modeling and stiffness optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbac, Matija; Popović, Dejan B

    2012-01-01

    We present the procedure for the optimization of the stiffness of the prosthetic foot. The procedure allows the selection of the elements of the foot and the materials used for the design. The procedure is based on the optimization where the cost function is the minimization of the difference between the knee joint torques of healthy walking and the walking with the transfemural prosthesis. We present a simulation environment that allows the user to interactively vary the foot geometry and track the changes in the knee torque that arise from these adjustments. The software allows the estimation of the optimal prosthetic foot elasticity and geometry. We show that altering model attributes such as the length of the elastic foot segment or its elasticity leads to significant changes in the estimated knee torque required for a given trajectory.

  2. Software Tool for the Prosthetic Foot Modeling and Stiffness Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Štrbac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the procedure for the optimization of the stiffness of the prosthetic foot. The procedure allows the selection of the elements of the foot and the materials used for the design. The procedure is based on the optimization where the cost function is the minimization of the difference between the knee joint torques of healthy walking and the walking with the transfemural prosthesis. We present a simulation environment that allows the user to interactively vary the foot geometry and track the changes in the knee torque that arise from these adjustments. The software allows the estimation of the optimal prosthetic foot elasticity and geometry. We show that altering model attributes such as the length of the elastic foot segment or its elasticity leads to significant changes in the estimated knee torque required for a given trajectory.

  3. Surgical and Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Combination Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Carlino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report is to analyze the clinical symptoms, ethologic factors, and prosthetic rehabilitation in a case of Combination Syndrome (CS. The treatment of CS can be conventional or surgical, with or without the bone reconstruction of maxilla. The correct prosthetic treatment helps this kind of patients to restore the physiologic occlusion plane to allow a correct masticatory and aesthetic function. Management of this kind of patients can be a challenge for a dental practitioner.

  4. Advances in lower-limb prosthetic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laferrier, Justin Z; Gailey, Robert

    2010-02-01

    The boundaries once faced by individuals with amputations are quickly being overcome through biotechnology. Although there are currently no prosthetics capable of replicating anatomic function, there have been radical advancements in prosthetic technology, medical science, and rehabilitation in the past 30 years, vastly improving functional mobility and quality of life for individuals with lower-limb amputations. What once seemed impossible is rapidly becoming reality. The future seems limitless, and the replication of anatomic function now seems possible.

  5. Tenecteplase in prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the few reported cases of prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis, where surgical intervention was considered as high risk, fibrinolytic therapy had proved life saving. The authors present clinical, laboratory, and imaging data from such a patient, with prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis and its successful management with tenecteplase. The use of tenecteplase as a viable fibrinolytic agent for the first time was justified, due to the lack of immunogenicity concerns compared to streptokinase.

  6. Tenecteplase in prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyub Ghori, Masood; Bakir, Sherif; Ellahham, Samer; Al Nassir, Adnan; Al Zubaidi, Abdulmajeed; Augustin, Norbert; Abdelaziz, Moataz Ayman; Turrin, Nicolas Patrick; Al Mahmeed, Wael Abdulrahman

    2011-04-01

    In the few reported cases of prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis, where surgical intervention was considered as high risk, fibrinolytic therapy had proved life saving. The authors present clinical, laboratory, and imaging data from such a patient, with prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis and its successful management with tenecteplase. The use of tenecteplase as a viable fibrinolytic agent for the first time was justified, due to the lack of immunogenicity concerns compared to streptokinase.

  7. Graduates’ perceptions of prosthetic and orthotic education and clinical practice in Tanzania and Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Magnusson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintaining and improving the quality of prosthetics and orthotics education at the Tanzania Training Centre for Orthopaedic Technologists is essential for the provision of appropriate prosthetics and orthotics services in African countries.Objectives: To describe how Tanzanian and Malawian graduates’ of the Diploma in Orthopaedic Technology perceive their education and how it could be improved or supplemented to facilitate clinical practice of graduates.Methods: Nineteen graduates from the diploma course in orthopaedic technology were interviewed and phenomenographic analysis was applied to the data.Results: Seven descriptive categories emerged, namely varied awareness of the profession before starting education, well-equipped teaching facilities, aspects lacking in the learning context, need for changes in the curriculum, enabling people to walk is motivating, obstacles in working conditions and the need for continuous professional development. All participants perceived possible improvements to the content and learning environment.Conclusions: Prosthetic and orthotic education can be better provided by modifying the content of the diploma programme by dedicating more time to the clinical management of different patient groups and applied biomechanics as well as reducing the programme content focusing on technical aspects of prosthetic and orthotic practice. Graduates were not prepared for the rural working conditions and the graduates desired continued training.Keywords: orthotic; prosthetic; education; Malawi; Tanzania; assistive device; assistive technology; developing countries; low-income country

  8. FEM Analysis of Mandibular Prosthetic Overdenture Supported by Dental Implants: Evaluation of Different Retention Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicciù, M.; Cervino, G.; Bramanti, E.; Lauritano, F.; Lo Gudice, G.; Scappaticci, L.; Rapparini, A.; Guglielmino, E.; Risitano, G.

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic rehabilitation of total edentulous jaws patients is today a common technique that clinicians approach in their daily practice. The use of dental implants for replacing missing teeth is going to be a safe technique and the implant-prosthetic materials give the possibility of having long-term clinical success. Aim of this work is to evaluate the mechanical features of three different prosthetic retention systems. By applying engineering systems of investigations like FEM and von Mises analyses, how the dental implant material holds out against the masticatory strength during the chewing cycles has been investigated. Three common dental implant overdenture retention systems have been investigated. The ball attachment system, the locator system, and the common dental abutment have been processed by Ansys Workbench 15.0 and underwent FEM and von Mises investigations. The elastic features of the materials used in the study have been taken from recent literature data. Results revealed different response for both types of device, although locator system showed better results for all conditions of loading. The data of this virtual model show all the features of different prosthetic retention systems under the masticatory load. Clinicians should find the better prosthetic solution related to the patients clinical condition in order to obtain long-term results. PMID:26798405

  9. FEM Analysis of Mandibular Prosthetic Overdenture Supported by Dental Implants: Evaluation of Different Retention Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cicciù

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic rehabilitation of total edentulous jaws patients is today a common technique that clinicians approach in their daily practice. The use of dental implants for replacing missing teeth is going to be a safe technique and the implant-prosthetic materials give the possibility of having long-term clinical success. Aim of this work is to evaluate the mechanical features of three different prosthetic retention systems. By applying engineering systems of investigations like FEM and von Mises analyses, how the dental implant material holds out against the masticatory strength during the chewing cycles has been investigated. Three common dental implant overdenture retention systems have been investigated. The ball attachment system, the locator system, and the common dental abutment have been processed by Ansys Workbench 15.0 and underwent FEM and von Mises investigations. The elastic features of the materials used in the study have been taken from recent literature data. Results revealed different response for both types of device, although locator system showed better results for all conditions of loading. The data of this virtual model show all the features of different prosthetic retention systems under the masticatory load. Clinicians should find the better prosthetic solution related to the patients clinical condition in order to obtain long-term results.

  10. Development of a Tactile and Slip Sensor Controlled Prosthetic Hand System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Wang, R. C.; Zhang, J. C.; Jin, D. W.

    2008-10-01

    Supported by the latest sensor and microcontroller technologies, prosthetic hands have been widely used to reclaim the human functionaries. Among these, the most advanced prosthetic hand was controlled by the tactile and EMG singles. However, for a slippery object, attention has to be taken for the inexperienced users who need to control the shrinkage of the wrist flexor carefully. In this paper, the authors presented a prosthetic hand control system using PVDF film sensor to provide both tactile and slip force feedback signals to operate the hand. The PVDF film sensor used for this control system was specifically developed to detect both tactile and slip force between the prosthetic finger and object. The method of distinguishing two signals was described. A prototype system was constructed using a microcontroller to process the signal from the sensor and provide control signal to the motors operate the prosthetic hand. The test result of the prototype device shown that comparing with the one without slippery signal feedback, this system was easy to operate for an inexperienced user.

  11. Illusion thermal device based on material with constant anisotropic thermal conductivity for location camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Quanwen; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Meng, Tong; Liu, Cunliang

    2016-09-01

    Thermal metamaterials and devices based on transformation thermodynamics often require materials with anisotropic and inhomogeneous thermal conductivities. In this study, still based on the concept of transformation thermodynamics, we designed a planar illusion thermal device, which can delocalize a heat source in the device such that the temperature profile outside the device appears to be produced by a virtual source at another position. This device can be constructed by only one kind of material with constant anisotropic thermal conductivity. The condition which should be satisfied by the device is provided, and the required anisotropic thermal conductivity is then deduced theoretically. This study may be useful for the designs of metamaterials or devices since materials with constant anisotropic parameters have great facility in fabrication. A prototype device has been fabricated based on a composite composed by two naturally occurring materials. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the device.

  12. Effects of a flat prosthetic foot rocker section on balance and mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hansen, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the effective rocker shape of the physiologic ankle-foot system during standing and fore-aft swaying is much flatter than that used during walking, which indicates a more stable base of support for the standing/swaying activity. Previous work suggests that flat regions within the effective rocker shapes of prosthetic ankle-foot systems could provide enhanced stability for standing balance tasks. An experimental prosthetic foot was altered to provide three different flat region lengths within its effective rocker shape. It was hypothesized that longer flat regions of the effective rocker shape would lead to improved standing balance outcomes and reduced walking performance for unilateral transtibial prosthesis users. However, no significant changes were seen in the balance and mobility outcomes of 12 unilateral transtibial prosthesis users when using the three prosthetic foot conditions. Subjects in the study significantly preferred prosthetic feet with relatively low to moderate flat regions over those with long flat regions. All the subjects without loss of light touch or vibratory sensation selected the prosthetic foot with the shortest flat region. More work is needed to investigate the effects of prosthetic foot properties on balance and mobility of prosthesis users.

  13. Analysis of maxillofacial prosthetics at university dental hospitals in the capital region of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic patterns of maxillofacial prosthetic treatment to identify the characteristics and geographic distribution of patients with maxillofacial prosthetics in the capital region of Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS This retrospective analytical multicenter study was performed by chart reviews. This study included patients who visited the department of prosthodontics at four university dental hospitals for maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation. Patients with facial and congenital defects or with insufficient medical data were excluded. The patients were classified into three categories based on the location of the defect. Patients' sex, age, and residential area were analyzed. Pearson's chi-square test with a significance level of 0.05 was used to analyze the variables. RESULTS Among 540 patients with maxillofacial prosthetics, there were 284 (52.59%) male patients and 256 (47.41%) female patients. The number of the patients varied greatly by hospital. Most patients were older than 70, and the most common defect was a hard palate defect. Chi-square analysis did not identify any significant differences in sex, age, and distance to hospital for any defect group (P>.05). CONCLUSION The results of this study indicated that there was imbalance in the distribution of patients with maxillofacial prosthetic among the hospitals in the capital region of Korea. Considerations on specialists and insurance policies for the improvement of maxillofacial prosthetics in Korea are required. PMID:27350859

  14. Effects of a flat prosthetic foot rocker section on balance and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew; Nickel, Eric; Medvec, Joseph; Brielmaier, Steven; Pike, Alvin; Weber, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the effective rocker shape of the physiologic ankle-foot system during standing and fore-aft swaying is much flatter than that used during walking, which indicates a more stable base of support for the standing/swaying activity. Previous work suggests that flat regions within the effective rocker shapes of prosthetic ankle-foot systems could provide enhanced stability for standing balance tasks. An experimental prosthetic foot was altered to provide three different flat region lengths within its effective rocker shape. It was hypothesized that longer flat regions of the effective rocker shape would lead to improved standing balance outcomes and reduced walking performance for unilateral transtibial prosthesis users. However, no significant changes were seen in the balance and mobility outcomes of 12 unilateral transtibial prosthesis users when using the three prosthetic foot conditions. Subjects in the study significantly preferred prosthetic feet with relatively low to moderate flat regions over those with long flat regions. All the subjects without loss of light touch or vibratory sensation selected the prosthetic foot with the shortest flat region. More work is needed to investigate the effects of prosthetic foot properties on balance and mobility of prosthesis users.

  15. 3D Printed Graphene Based Energy Storage Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Christopher W.; Down, Michael P.; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo; Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Smith, Graham C.; Kelly, Peter J.; Banks, Craig E.

    2017-03-01

    3D printing technology provides a unique platform for rapid prototyping of numerous applications due to its ability to produce low cost 3D printed platforms. Herein, a graphene-based polylactic acid filament (graphene/PLA) has been 3D printed to fabricate a range of 3D disc electrode (3DE) configurations using a conventional RepRap fused deposition moulding (FDM) 3D printer, which requires no further modification/ex-situ curing step. To provide proof-of-concept, these 3D printed electrode architectures are characterised both electrochemically and physicochemically and are advantageously applied as freestanding anodes within Li-ion batteries and as solid-state supercapacitors. These freestanding anodes neglect the requirement for a current collector, thus offering a simplistic and cheaper alternative to traditional Li-ion based setups. Additionally, the ability of these devices’ to electrochemically produce hydrogen via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as an alternative to currently utilised platinum based electrodes (with in electrolysers) is also performed. The 3DE demonstrates an unexpectedly high catalytic activity towards the HER (‑0.46 V vs. SCE) upon the 1000th cycle, such potential is the closest observed to the desired value of platinum at (‑0.25 V vs. SCE). We subsequently suggest that 3D printing of graphene-based conductive filaments allows for the simple fabrication of energy storage devices with bespoke and conceptual designs to be realised.

  16. Rechargeable wireless EMG sensor for prosthetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, P A; Lange, E H; Riehle, T H; Anderson, S M; Hedin, D S

    2010-01-01

    Surface electrodes in modern myoelectric prosthetics are often embedded in the prosthesis socket and make contact with the skin. These electrodes detect and amplify muscle action potentials from voluntary contractions of the muscle in the residual limb and are used to control the prosthetic's movement and function. There are a number of performance-related deficiencies associated with external electrodes including the maintenance of sufficient electromyogram (EMG) signal amplitude, extraneous noise acquisition, and proper electrode interface maintenance that are expected to be improved or eliminated using the proposed implanted sensors. This research seeks to investigate the design components for replacing external electrodes with fully-implantable myoelectric sensors that include a wireless interface to the prosthetic limbs. This implanted technology will allow prosthetic limb manufacturers to provide products with increased performance, capability, and patient-comfort. The EMG signals from the intramuscular recording electrode are amplified and wirelessly transmitted to a receiver in the prosthetic limb. Power to the implant is maintained using a rechargeable battery and an inductive energy transfer link from the prosthetic. A full experimental system was developed to demonstrate that a wireless biopotential sensor can be designed that meets the requirements of size, power, and performance for implantation.

  17. Very High Output Thermoelectric Devices Based on ITO Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, Gustave; Gregory, Otto J.

    2009-01-01

    A material having useful thermoelectric properties was synthesized by combining indium-tin-oxide (ITO) with a NiCoCrAlY alloy/alumina cermet. This material had a very large Seebeck coefficient with electromotive-force-versustemperature behavior that is considered to be excellent with respect to utility in thermocouples and other thermoelectric devices. When deposited in thin-film form, ceramic thermocouples offer advantages over precious-metal (based, variously, on platinum or rhodium) thermocouples that are typically used in gas turbines. Ceramic thermocouples exhibit high melting temperatures, chemical stability at high temperatures, and little or no electromigration. Oxide ceramics also resist oxidation better than metal thermocouples, cost substantially less than precious-metal thermocouples, and, unlike precious-metal thermocouples, do not exert catalytic effects.

  18. Large area MEMS based ultrasound device for cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodnicki, Robert, E-mail: wodnicki@research.ge.com [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Thomenius, Kai [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Ming Hooi, Fong; Sinha, Sumedha P.; Carson, Paul L. [Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lin Dersong; Zhuang Xuefeng; Khuri-Yakub, Pierre [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Woychik, Charles [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States)

    2011-08-21

    We present image results obtained using a prototype ultrasound array that demonstrates the fundamental architecture for a large area MEMS based ultrasound device for detection of breast cancer. The prototype array consists of a tiling of capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers (cMUTs) that have been flip-chip attached to a rigid organic substrate. The pitch on the cMUT elements is 185 {mu}m and the operating frequency is nominally 9 MHz. The spatial resolution of the new probe is comparable to those of production PZT probes; however the sensitivity is reduced by conditions that should be correctable. Simulated opposed-view image registration and Speed of Sound volume reconstruction results for ultrasound in the mammographic geometry are also presented.

  19. Amyloid detection using a Peltier-based device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Miguel A; Ferreyra, Martin G; Cortez, Leonardo; Grupalli, Silvina A; Alvarez, L Leguina; Chehin, Rosana

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid aggregation of polypeptides is related to a growing number of pathologic states known as amyloid disorders. At present, it is clear that any proteins submitted to appropriate physicochemical environment can acquire fibrilar conformation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) has been a widely used technique to study temperature- induced amyloid-fibrils formation in vitro. In this way, strict changes and temperature controls are required to characterize the physicochemical basis of the amyloid-fibrils formation. In this article, the development of a highly efficient and accurate Peltier-based system to improve FTIR measurements is presented (see An Old Physics Phenomenon Applied to a Serious Biomedical Pathology. The accuracy of the thermostatic control was tested with biophysical parameters on biological samples probing its reproducibility. The design of the present device contributes to maintain the FTIR environment stable, which represents a real contribution to improve the spectral quality and thus, the reliability of the results.

  20. Working cycles of devices based on bistable carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklyaev, Oleg; Mockensturm, Eric; Crespi, Vincent; Carbon Nanotubes Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Shape-changing nanotubes are an example of variable-shape sp2 carbon-based systems where the competition between strain and surface energies can be moderated by an externally controllable stimuli such as applied voltage, temperature, or pressure of gas encapsulated inside the tube. Using any of these stimuli one can transition a bistable carbon nanotube between the collapsed and inflated states and thus perform mechanical work. During the working cycle of such a device, energy from an electric or heat source is transferred to mechanical energy. Combinations of these stimuli allow the system to convert energy between different sources using the bistable shape-changing tube as a mediator. For example, coupling a bistable carbon nanotube to the heat and charge reservoirs can enable energy transfer between heat and electric forms. The developed theory can be extended to other nano-systems which change configurations in response to external stimuli.

  1. Nanoscale strain engineering of graphene and graphene-based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, N.-C.; Hsu, C.-C.; Teague, M. L.; Wang, J.-Q.; Boyd, D. A.; Chen, C.-C.

    2016-06-01

    Structural distortions in nano-materials can induce dramatic changes in their electronic properties. This situation is well manifested in graphene, a two-dimensional honeycomb structure of carbon atoms with only one atomic layer thickness. In particular, strained graphene can result in both charging effects and pseudo-magnetic fields, so that controlled strain on a perfect graphene lattice can be tailored to yield desirable electronic properties. Here, we describe the theoretical foundation for strain-engineering of the electronic properties of graphene, and then provide experimental evidence for strain-induced pseudo-magnetic fields and charging effects in monolayer graphene. We further demonstrate the feasibility of nano-scale strain engineering for graphene-based devices by means of theoretical simulations and nano-fabrication technology.

  2. Nanoscale strain engineering of graphene and graphene-based devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N-C Yeh; C-C Hsu; M L Teague; J-Q Wang; D A Boyd; C-C Chen

    2016-01-01

    Structural distortions in nano-materials can induce dramatic changes in their electronic properties. This situation is well manifested in graphene, a two-dimensional honeycomb structure of carbon atoms with only one atomic layer thickness. In particular, strained graphene can result in both charging effects and pseudo-magnetic fields, so that controlled strain on a perfect graphene lattice can be tailored to yield desirable electronic properties. Here, we describe the theoretical foundation for strain-engineering of the electronic properties of graphene, and then provide experimental evidence for strain-induced pseudo-magnetic fields and charging effects in monolayer graphene. We further demonstrate the feasibility of nano-scale strain engineering for graphene-based devices by means of theoretical simula-tions and nano-fabrication technology.

  3. ELOPTA: a novel microcontroller-based operant device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adam M; Song, Jianjian; Tuttle, Elaina M

    2007-11-01

    Operant devices have been used for many years in animal behavior research, yet such devices a regenerally highly specialized and quite expensive. Although commercial models are somewhat adaptable and resilient, they are also extremely expensive and are controlled by difficult to learn proprietary software. As an alternative to commercial devices, we have designed and produced a fully functional, programmable operant device, using a PICmicro microcontroller (Microchip Technology, Inc.). The electronic operant testing apparatus (ELOPTA) is designed to deliver food when a study animal, in this case a bird, successfully depresses the correct sequence of illuminated keys. The device logs each keypress and can detect and log whenever a test animal i spositioned at the device. Data can be easily transferred to a computer and imported into any statistical analysis software. At about 3% the cost of a commercial device, ELOPTA will advance behavioral sciences, including behavioral ecology, animal learning and cognition, and ethology.

  4. [Pre-prosthetics: role of the physiotherapist in the treatment of the residual limb and prosthetic preparation of the person].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffi, Alberto; Mulè, Chiara; Taveggia, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The rehabilitation of amputees requires a multi-discipline approach. Within the work of the team, physiotherapy plays a central role both in terms of the technical skills made available to the patient, as well as in terms of the psychological-motivational support offered to the amputee during treatment. The pre-prosthetic phase of rehabilitation is the beginning of a complex rehabilitative process during which starts with an assessment of the general clinical condition of the patient and their residual capacities, so as to develop personalised rehabilitative strategies based upon the needs of the amputee. This whole process aims to get the amputee standing with a prosthetic as quickly as possible, thus allowing the social reintegration of the amputee.

  5. 77 FR 8900 - Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Termination of the Investigation Based on Withdrawal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Termination of the Investigation Based on Withdrawal... within the United States after importation of certain vaginal birth control devices by reason...

  6. Swarm Optimization-Based Magnetometer Calibration for Personal Handheld Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser El-Sheimy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inertial Navigation Systems (INS consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a processor that generates position and orientation solutions by integrating the specific forces and rotation rates. In addition to the accelerometers and gyroscopes, magnetometers can be used to derive the user heading based on Earth’s magnetic field. Unfortunately, the measurements of the magnetic field obtained with low cost sensors are usually corrupted by several errors, including manufacturing defects and external electro-magnetic fields. Consequently, proper calibration of the magnetometer is required to achieve high accuracy heading measurements. In this paper, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO-based calibration algorithm is presented to estimate the values of the bias and scale factor of low cost magnetometers. The main advantage of this technique is the use of the artificial intelligence which does not need any error modeling or awareness of the nonlinearity. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can help in the development of Pedestrian Navigation Devices (PNDs when combined with inertial sensors and GPS/Wi-Fi for indoor navigation and Location Based Services (LBS applications.

  7. Rapid light transmittance measurements in paper-based microfluidic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Swanson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We developed methodology and built a portable reader to assess light transmittance in paper-based microfluidic devices in a highly sensitive, user-friendly and field-appropriate manner. By sandwiching the paper assay between micro-light-emitting diodes and micro-photodetectors, the reader quantifies light transmittance through the paper independent of ambient light conditions. To demonstrate the utility of the reader, we created a single-use paper-based microfluidic assay for measurement of alanine aminotransferase, an indicator of liver health in blood. The paper assay and reader system accurately differentiated alanine aminotransferase levels across the human reference range and demonstrated significant differences at clinically relevant cutoff values. Results were provided within 10 min and were automatically generated without complex image analysis. Performance of this point-of-care diagnostic rivals the accuracy of lab-based spectrometer tests at a fraction of the cost, while matching the timeliness of low-cost portable assays, which have historically shown lower accuracy. This combination of features allows flexible deployment of low cost and quantitative diagnostics to resource-poor settings.

  8. Graphene-Based Integrated Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting/Storage Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Tao; Hiralal, Pritesh; Wang, Di-Yan; Huang, I-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Chun; Chen, Chun-Wei; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

    2015-06-24

    Energy scavenging has become a fundamental part of ubiquitous sensor networks. Of all the scavenging technologies, solar has the highest power density available. However, the energy source is erratic. Integrating energy conversion and storage devices is a viable route to obtain self-powered electronic systems which have long-term maintenance-free operation. In this work, we demonstrate an integrated-power-sheet, consisting of a string of series connected organic photovoltaic cells (OPCs) and graphene supercapacitors on a single substrate, using graphene as a common platform. This results in lighter and more flexible power packs. Graphene is used in different forms and qualities for different functions. Chemical vapor deposition grown high quality graphene is used as a transparent conductor, while solution exfoliated graphene pastes are used as supercapacitor electrodes. Solution-based coating techniques are used to deposit the separate components onto a single substrate, making the process compatible with roll-to-roll manufacture. Eight series connected OPCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60 BM) bulk-heterojunction cells with aluminum electrodes, resulting in a ≈5 V open-circuit voltage, provide the energy harvesting capability. Supercapacitors based on graphene ink with ≈2.5 mF cm(-2) capacitance provide the energy storage capability. The integrated-power-sheet with photovoltaic (PV) energy harvesting and storage functions had a mass of 0.35 g plus the substrate.

  9. Origami paper-based fluidic batteries for portable electrophoretic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sung-Sheng; Hu, Chih-Wei; Yu, I-Fan; Liao, Ying-Chih; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2014-06-21

    A manufacturing approach for paper-based fluidic batteries was developed based on the origami principle (three-dimension paper folding). Microfluidic channels were first created on a filter paper by a wax-printing method. Copper and aluminium sheets were then glued onto the paper as electrodes for the redox reaction. After the addition of copper sulphate and aluminium chloride, commonly available cellophane paper was attached as a membrane to separate the two electrodes. The resulting planar paper sheets were then folded into three-dimensional structures and compiled as a single battery with glue. The two half reactions (Al/Al(3+) and Cu/Cu(2+)) in the folded batteries provided an open-circuit potential from 0.82 V (one cell) to 5.0 V (eight cells in series) depending on the origami design. The prepared battery can provide a stable current of 500 μA and can light a regular LED for more than 65 min. These paper-based fluidic batteries in a set can also be compiled into a portable power bank to provide electric power for many electric or biomedical applications, such as LED lights and electrophoretic devices, as we report here.

  10. 3D Printed Paper-Based Microfluidic Analytical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a pump-free and lightweight analytical tool, paper-based microfluidic analytical devices (μPADs attract more and more interest. If the flow speed of μPAD can be programmed, the analytical sequences could be designed and they will be more popular. This reports presents a novel μPAD, driven by the capillary force of cellulose powder, printed by a desktop three-dimensional (3D printer, which has some promising features, such as easy fabrication and programmable flow speed. First, a suitable size-scale substrate with open microchannels on its surface is printed. Next, the surface of the substrate is covered with a thin layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS to seal the micro gap caused by 3D printing. Then, the microchannels are filled with a mixture of cellulose powder and deionized water in an appropriate proportion. After drying in an oven at 60 °C for 30 min, it is ready for use. As the different channel depths can be easily printed, which can be used to achieve the programmable capillary flow speed of cellulose powder in the microchannels. A series of microfluidic analytical experiments, including quantitative analysis of nitrite ion and fabrication of T-sensor were used to demonstrate its capability. As the desktop 3D printer (D3DP is very cheap and accessible, this device can be rapidly printed at the test field with a low cost and has a promising potential in the point-of-care (POC system or as a lightweight platform for analytical chemistry.

  11. Cetacean Swimming with Prosthetic Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode-Oke, Ayodeji; Ren, Yan; Dong, Haibo; Fish, Frank

    2016-11-01

    During entanglement in fishing gear, dolphins can suffer abrasions and amputations of flukes and fins. As a result, if the dolphin survives the ordeal, swimming performance is altered. Current rehabilitation technques is the use of prosthesis to regain swimming ability. In this work, analyses are focused on two dolphins with locomotive impairment; Winter (currently living in Clearwater Marine Aquarium in Florida) and Fuji (lived in Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium in Japan). Fuji lost about 75% of its fluke surface to necrosis (death of cells) and Winter lost its tail due to amputation. Both dolphins are aided by prosthetic tails that mimic the shape of a real dolphin tail. Using 3D surface reconstruction techniques and a high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow solver, we were able to elucidate the kinematics and hydrodynamics and fluke deformation of these swimmers to clarify the effectiveness of prostheses in helping the dolphins regain their swimming ability. Associated with the performance, we identified distinct features in the wake structures that can explain this gap in the performance compared to a healthy dolphin. This work was supported by ONR MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533.

  12. Mg2(Si,Sn)-based thermoelectric materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng

    Thermoelectric effects are phenomena found in materials that can achieve direct conversion between heat flow and electricity. One important application of thermoelectric effects is thermoelectric generators, which can generate electricity when a temperature gradient is applied. Thermoelectric generators make use of various sources of heat and it is considered a promising solution for waste heat recovery. The conversion efficiency of thermoelectric generators depends on the materials used in the devices. Significant improvement in the performance of thermoelectric materials has been made in the past few decades. However, most of the good thermoelectric materials being investigated have limitations, such as the high materials cost, high materials density and toxicity of the constituent elements. The Mg2(Si,Sn)-based materials studied in this work are promising candidates for thermoelectric generators in the mid-temperature range and have drawn increasing research interest in recent years because these materials are high performance thermoelectrics that are low cost, low-density and non-toxic. In this work, systematic studies were performed on the Mg2(Si,Sn) thermoelectric materials. Thermal phase stability was studied for different compositions of Mg2Si1-xSnx and Mg2Si0.4Sn 0.6 was used as base material for further optimization. Both n-type and p-type samples were obtained by doping the materials with different elements. Peak ZT ˜ 1.5 for the n-type and ZT ˜ 0.7 for the p-type materials were obtained, both of which are among the best reported results so far. Experimental work was also done to study the techniques to develop the Mg2Si 0.4Sn0.6 materials into working devices. Different electrode materials were tested in bonding experiment for this compound, and copper was found to be the best electrode material for Mg2Si 0.4Sn0.6. Preliminary work was done to demonstrate the possibility of fabricating a Mg2Si0.4Sn0.6-based thermoelectric generator and the result is

  13. Assessment of Myoelectric Controller Performance and Kinematic Behavior of a Novel Soft Synergy-inspired Robotic Hand for Prosthetic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Myoelectric-artificial limbs can significantly advance the state of the art in prosthetics, since they can be used to control mechatronic devices through muscular activity in a way that mimics how the subjects used to activate their muscles before limb loss. However, surveys indicate that dissatisfaction with the functionality of terminal devices underlies the widespread abandonment of prostheses. We believe that one key factor to improve acceptability of prosthetic devices is to attain human-likeness of prosthesis movements, a goal which is being pursued by research on social and human-robot interactions. Therefore, to reduce early abandonment of terminal devices, we propose that controllers should be designed such as to ensure effective task accomplishment in a natural fashion. In this work, we have analyzed and compared the performance of three types of myoelectric controller algorithms based on surface electromyography to control an under-actuated and multi-degrees of freedom prosthetic hand, the SoftHand Pro. The goal of the present study was to identify the myoelectric algorithm that best mimics the native hand movements. As a preliminary step, we first quantified the repeatability of the SoftHand Pro finger movements and identified the electromyographic recording sites for able-bodied individuals with the highest signal-to-noise ratio from two pairs of muscles, i.e. flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis, and flexor carpi radialis/extensor carpi ulnaris. Able-bodied volunteers were then asked to execute reach-to-grasp movements, while electromyography signals were recorded from flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis as this was identified as the muscle pair characterized by high signal-to-noise ratio and intuitive control. Subsequently, we tested three myoelectric controllers that mapped electromyography signals to position of the SoftHand Pro. We found that a differential electromyography

  14. Assessment of Myoelectric Controller Performance and Kinematic Behavior of a Novel Soft Synergy-Inspired Robotic Hand for Prosthetic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fani, Simone; Bianchi, Matteo; Jain, Sonal; Pimenta Neto, José Simões; Boege, Scott; Grioli, Giorgio; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Myoelectric artificial limbs can significantly advance the state of the art in prosthetics, since they can be used to control mechatronic devices through muscular activity in a way that mimics how the subjects used to activate their muscles before limb loss. However, surveys indicate that dissatisfaction with the functionality of terminal devices underlies the widespread abandonment of prostheses. We believe that one key factor to improve acceptability of prosthetic devices is to attain human likeness of prosthesis movements, a goal which is being pursued by research on social and human–robot interactions. Therefore, to reduce early abandonment of terminal devices, we propose that controllers should be designed so as to ensure effective task accomplishment in a natural fashion. In this work, we have analyzed and compared the performance of three types of myoelectric controller algorithms based on surface electromyography to control an underactuated and multi-degrees of freedom prosthetic hand, the SoftHand Pro. The goal of the present study was to identify the myoelectric algorithm that best mimics the native hand movements. As a preliminary step, we first quantified the repeatability of the SoftHand Pro finger movements and identified the electromyographic recording sites for able-bodied individuals with the highest signal-to-noise ratio from two pairs of muscles, i.e., flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis, and flexor carpi radialis/extensor carpi ulnaris. Able-bodied volunteers were then asked to execute reach-to-grasp movements, while electromyography signals were recorded from flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis as this was identified as the muscle pair characterized by high signal-to-noise ratio and intuitive control. Subsequently, we tested three myoelectric controllers that mapped electromyography signals to position of the SoftHand Pro. We found that a differential electromyography-to-position mapping ensured

  15. Simulation of a sensor array for multiparameter measurements at the prosthetic limb interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Gabriel I.; Mamishev, Alexander V.

    2004-07-01

    Sensitive skin is a highly desired device for biomechanical devices, wearable computing, human-computer interfaces, exoskeletons, and, most pertinent to this paper, for lower limb prosthetics. The measurement of shear stress is very important because shear effects are key factors in developing surface abrasions and pressure sores in paraplegics and users of prosthetic/orthotic devices. A single element of a sensitive skin is simulated and characterized in this paper. Conventional tactile sensors are designed for measurement of the normal stress only, which is inadequate for comprehensive assessment of surface contact conditions. The sensitive skin discussed here is a flexible array capable of sensing shear and normal forces, as well as humidity and temperature on each element.

  16. Development and measurement properties of the Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey (OPUS): a comprehensive set of clinical outcome instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, A W; Bode, R K; O'Reilly, C

    2003-12-01

    The need to measure and evaluate orthotics and prosthetics (O&P) practice has received growing recognition in the past several years. Reliable and valid self-report instruments are needed that can help facilities evaluate patient outcomes. The objective of this project was to develop a set of self-report instruments that assess functional status, quality of life, and satisfaction with devices and services that can be used in an orthotics and prosthetics clinic. Selecting items from a variety of existing instruments, the authors developed and revised four instruments that differentiate patients with varying levels of lower limb function, quality of life, and satisfaction with devices and services. Evidence of construct validity is provided by hierarchies of item difficulty that are consistent with clinical experience. For example, with the lower limb function instrument, running one block was much more difficult than walking indoors. The instruments demonstrate adequate internal consistency (0.88 for lower limb function, 0.88 for quality of life, 0.74 for service satisfaction, 0.78 for device satisfaction). The next steps in their research programme are to evaluate sensitivity and construct validity. The Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey (OPUS) is a promising self-report instrument which may, with further development, allow orthotic and prosthetic practitioners to evaluate the quality and effectiveness of their services as required by accreditation standards such as those of the American Board for Certification in Orthotics and Prosthetics that mandate quality assessment.

  17. New electromagnetic methods for the evaluation of prosthetic heart valves (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udpa, Satish

    2002-05-01

    Prosthetic devices are being implanted at record levels as the nation "ages" and advances in prosthetic science are made. Devices that are implanted range from artificial limbs and hips to devices such as heart valves. Periodic evaluation of the state of the devices is of significant interest particularly in the case of prosthetics whose failure can be fatal. An example of such a device is the artificial heart valve. Heart valves are usually replaced when stenosis or incompetence is indicated. This article presents a selection of some new techniques that are being developed for the detection of outlet strut failures in Bjork-Shiley heart valves. Methods that show particular promise include a noninvasive electromagnetic method that relies on the excitation and measurement of the resonant vibration modes of the strut. An alternate approach involves the induction of currents in the outlet strut using a pair of external excitation coils. The field generated by the current induced in the strut perturbs the field generated by the excitation coils. The field perturbations are measured using a catheter-mounted gradiometer. Test results obtained using an experimental rig designed to demonstrate the proof-of-concept are presented.

  18. A Mobile Motion Analysis System Using Intertial Sensors for Analysis of Lower Limb Prosthetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, John Kyle P [ORNL; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Farquhar, Ethan [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Soldiers returning from the global war on terror requiring lower leg prosthetics generally have different concerns and requirements than the typical lower leg amputee. These subjects are usually young, wish to remain active and often desire to return to active military duty. As such, they demand higher performance from their prosthetics, but are at risk for chronic injury and joint conditions in their unaffected limb. Motion analysis is a valuable tool in assessing the performance of new and existing prosthetic technologies as well as the methods in fitting these devices to both maximize performance and minimize risk of injury for the individual soldier. We are developing a mobile, low-cost motion analysis system using inertial measurement units (IMUs) and two custom force sensors that detect ground reaction forces and moments on both the unaffected limb and prosthesis. IMUs were tested on a robot programmed to simulate human gait motion. An algorithm which uses a kinematic model of the robot and an extended Kalman filter (EKF) was used to convert the rates and accelerations from the gyro and accelerometer into joint angles. Compared to encoder data from the robot, which was considered the ground truth in this experiment, the inertial measurement system had a RMSE of <1.0 degree. Collecting kinematic and kinetic data without the restrictions and expense of a motion analysis lab could help researchers, designers and prosthetists advance prosthesis technology and customize devices for individuals. Ultimately, these improvements will result in better prosthetic performance for the military population.

  19. Advanced molecular devices based on light-driven molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jiawen

    2015-01-01

    Nature has provided a large collection of molecular machines and devices that are among the most amazing nanostructures on this planet. These machines are able to operate complex biological processes which are of great importance in our organisms. Inspired by these natural devices, artificial molecu

  20. Charge transfer devices. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-04-01

    The technology, design, fabrication, and applications of charge transfer devices are presented in the cited research reports. Applications include imaging, signal processing, detectors, filters, amplifiers, and memory devices. This updated bibliography contains 107 abstracts, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  1. Fabrication and characterisation of carbon-based devices

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Thin film material properties and measurement characterisation techniques are crucial for the development of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. Furthermore, as the technology scales down from microtechnology towards nanotechnology, nanoscale materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are required in electronic devices to overcome the limitations encountered by conventional materials at the nanoscale. The integration of CNTs into micro-electronics and material app...

  2. Efficient light emitting devices based on phosphorescent partially doped emissive layers

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2013-05-29

    We report efficient organic light emitting devices employing an ultrathin phosphor emissive layer. The electroluminescent spectra of these devices can be tuned by introducing a low-energy emitting phosphor layer into the emission zone. Devices with the emissive layer consisting of multiple platinum-complex/spacer layer cells show a peak external quantum efficiency of 18.1%, which is among the best EQE values for platinum-complex based light emitting devices. Devices with an ultrathin phosphor emissive layer show stronger luminance decay with the operating time compared to the counterpart devices having a host-guest emissive layer.

  3. Two-component laser Doppler anemometer for measurement of velocity and turbulent shear stress near prosthetic heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Y R; Yoganathan, A P

    1985-01-01

    The velocity and turbulent shear stress measured in the immediate vicinity of prosthetic heart valves play a vital role in the design and evaluation of these devices. In the past hot wire/film and one-component laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) systems were used extensively to obtain these measurements. Hot wire/film anemometers, however, have some serious disadvantages, including the inability to measure the direction of the flow, the disturbance of the flow field caused by the probe, and the need for frequent calibration. One-component LDA systems do not have these problems, but they cannot measure turbulent shear stresses directly. Since these measurements are essential and are not available in the open literature, a two-component LDA system for measuring velocity and turbulent shear stress fields under pulsatile flow conditions was assembled under an FDA contract. The experimental methods used to create an in vitro data base of velocity and turbulent shear stress fields in the immediate vicinity of prosthetic heart valves of various designs in current clinical use are also discussed.

  4. Organic Light-Emitting Device Based on Terbium Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ying; Deng Zhenbo; Xu Denghui; Xiao Jing; Wang Ruifen

    2005-01-01

    A new rare earth complex Tb(p-MBA)3phen was synthesized, which is first used as an emitting material in organic electroluminescence. By doping it into the conjugated polymer PVK, single-layer and double-layer devices were fabricated with structures: device 1: ITO/PVK∶ Tb(p-MBA)3phen/Al; device 2∶ ITO/PVK: Tb(p-MBA)3phen/AlQ/LiF/Al. The characteristics of these devices have been investigated. The emission of PVK is completely restrained, and only the pure green emission from Tb3+ can be observed in electroluminescence. The optimized device 2 has better monochromatic characteristics with the maximal brightness of 152 cd · m-2 at the voltage of 20 V.

  5. Nonvolatile WORM memory devices based on polymethacrylate with azoanthraquinone group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel polymethacrylate containing azoanthraquinone chromophore in the side chain(PMAzoaq6) was synthesized and characterized.An electronic memory device having the indium-tin oxide(ITO)/PMAzoaq6/Al sandwich structure was fabricated and its electrical bistability was investigated.The as-fabricated device was initially found to be at the OFF state and the switching threshold voltage was 1.5 V.After undergoing the OFF-to-ON transition,the device maintains the high conducting state(ON state) even after turning off the electrical power and applying a reverse bias.The device exhibits a write-once-read-many-times(WORM) memory effect with a high ON/OFF current ratio of up to 105 and a long retention time in both ON and OFF states,which demonstrated that the synthetic azoanthraquinone-containing polymer possesses a high potential to become polymeric memory devices.

  6. Adaptive prosthetics for the lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, K

    2001-06-01

    The potential for lifestyle recovery is tremendous for most lower extremity amputees. The amazing and ever-expanding array of adaptive prosthetics can help make the devastating loss of amputation more bearable for patients, their families, and their health care team. The new amputee, in a state of shock and grief, does not know what his or her prosthetic options are. It is crucial that the surgeon is knowledgeable about what the patient can have and what the patient needs to ask for. Dana Bowman stated: Ideally, the new amputee should say to their doctor, "I'd like my leg to be lightweight, flexible, durable, comfortable. I want to do sports or I want to ride bikes with my kids." Whatever it is they like to do. I was told I would never be able to wear two dynamic feet and that my sky diving days were over. I said, "Well how do you know? Can't I try?" It took years to find out what I could have and then to find people to help me get it. The prosthetic prescription the physician writes is the patient's gateway to the kind of prosthetics that will enable him or her to pursue the activities of their life. Often, new amputees end up with the bare minimum prosthesis, which can cause problems with comfort and mobility. A poorly designed or badly fitting prosthesis is as disabling as the actual amputation. When the surgeon can help the amputee and his or her family understand what kind of prosthetic choices are available, it establishes an optimistic outlook that is highly beneficial to the entire recovery process physically and mentally. "When I lost my leg, if someone would have told me that I could at least try to run again, that would have meant a lot," said Brian Frasure. "Getting that positive mental attitude is every bit as important as having good medical and prosthetic care." By asking probing questions about the patient's preamputation lifestyle and postamputation goals, the physician can write a prescription for truly adaptive prosthetics. The surgeon should

  7. Magnet-based Around Device Interaction for Playful Music Composition and Gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Ali, A.; Ketabdar, H.

    2013-01-01

    Around Device Interaction (ADI) has expanded the interaction space on mobile devices to allow 3D gesture interaction around the device. In this paper, the authors look specifically at magnet-based ADI and its applied use in a playful, music-related context. Using three musical applications developed

  8. Prototyping Cognitive Prosthetics for People with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Richard; Nugent, Chris D.; Donnelly, Mark

    In the COGKNOW project, a cognitive prosthetic has been developed through the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-based services to address the unmet needs and demands of persons with dementia. The primary aim of the developed solution was to offer guidance with conducting everyday activities for persons with dementia. To encourage a user-centred design process, a three-phased methodology was introduced to facilitate cyclical prototype development. At each phase, user input was used to guide the future development. As a prerequisite to the first phase of development, user requirements were gathered to identify a small set of functional requirements from which a number of services were identified. Following implementation of these initial services, the prototype was evaluated on a cohort of users and, through observing their experiences and recording their feedback, the design was refined and the prototype redeveloped to include a number of additional services in the second phase. The current chapter provides an overview of the services designed and developed in the first two phases.

  9. Comparison of satisfaction with current prosthetic care in veterans and servicemembers from Vietnam and OIF/OEF conflicts with major traumatic limb loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Gary M; Fergason, John; Milani, John R; Hattingh, John; McDowell, Martin; Nguyen, Viet; Reiber, Gayle E

    2010-01-01

    Prosthetic care is a vital aspect of healthcare and rehabilitation for veterans and servicemembers with major traumatic limb loss. Our survey queried 581 veterans and servicemembers with limb loss from the Vietnam and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)/Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) conflicts. Among survey participants, 78.2% from the Vietnam conflict and 90.5% from the OIF/OEF conflict currently use prosthetic devices. In Vietnam respondents, 78% received prosthetic care from private sources, 16% from Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) prosthetic laboratories, 0.9% from Department of Defense (DOD), and 5% from multiple sources. In OIF/OEF respondents, 42% received prosthetic care from private sources, 9% percent from VA, 39% from DOD, and 10% from multiple sources. Participants identified their satisfaction with current prosthetic devices and prosthetic services. Reports of pain, sweating, skin irritation, and problems with socket fit continue to be significant issues for participants from both conflicts regardless of level of amputation or site of service. In those with upper-limb loss who used myoelectric prostheses, minimal effect on prosthesis use and satisfaction was noted. Among lower-limb loss participants from both conflicts, notable differences existed in prosthesis satisfaction by source of care.

  10. Comparison of satisfaction with current prosthetic care in veterans and servicemembers from Vietnam and OIF/OEF conflicts with major traumatic limb loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary M. Berke, MS, CP, FAAOP

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic care is a vital aspect of healthcare and rehabilitation for veterans and servicemembers with major traumaticlimb loss. Our survey queried 581 veterans and servicememberswith limb loss from the Vietnam and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF/Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF conflicts. Among survey participants, 78.2% from the Vietnam conflict and 90.5% from the OIF/OEF conflict currently use prosthetic devices. In Vietnam respondents, 78% received prosthetic care from private sources, 16% from Department of Veterans Affairs (VA prosthetic laboratories, 0.9% from Department of Defense (DOD, and 5% from multiple sources. In OIF/OEF respondents,42% received prosthetic care from private sources, 9% percent from VA, 39% from DOD, and 10% from multiple sources. Participants identified their satisfaction with current prosthetic devices and prosthetic services. Reports of pain, sweating, skin irritation, and problems with socket fit continue to be significant issues for participants from both conflicts regardless of level of amputation or site of service. In those with upper-limb loss who used myoelectric prostheses, minimal effect on prosthesis use and satisfaction was noted. Among lower-limb loss participants from both conflicts, notable differencesexisted in prosthesis satisfaction by source of care.

  11. Biomechanical characteristics, patient preference and activity level with different prosthetic feet: a randomized double blind trial with laboratory and community testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, Silvia U; Orendurff, Michael S; Mattie, Johanne L; Kenyon, David E A; Jones, O Yvette; Moe, David; Winder, Lorne; Wong, Angie S; Moreno-Hernández, Ana; Highsmith, M Jason; J Sanderson, David; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    2015-01-02

    Providing appropriate prosthetic feet to those with limb loss is a complex and subjective process influenced by professional judgment and payer guidelines. This study used a small load cell (Europa™) at the base of the socket to measure the sagittal moments during walking with three objective categories of prosthetic feet in eleven individuals with transtibial limb loss with MFCL K2, K3 and K4 functional levels. Forefoot stiffness and hysteresis characteristics defined the three foot categories: Stiff, Intermediate, and Compliant. Prosthetic feet were randomly assigned and blinded from participants and investigators. After laboratory testing, participants completed one week community wear tests followed by a modified prosthetics evaluation questionnaire to determine if a specific category of prosthetic feet was preferred. The Compliant category of prosthetic feet was preferred by the participants (P=0.025) over the Stiff and Intermediate prosthetic feet, and the Compliant and Intermediate feet had 15% lower maximum sagittal moments during walking in the laboratory (P=0.0011) compared to the Stiff feet. The activity level of the participants did not change significantly with any of the wear tests in the community, suggesting that each foot was evaluated over a similar number of steps, but did not inherently increase activity. This is the first randomized double blind study in which prosthetic users have expressed a preference for a specific biomechanical characteristic of prosthetic feet: those with lower peak sagittal moments were preferred, and specifically preferred on slopes, stairs, uneven terrain, and during turns and maneuvering during real world use.

  12. Clinical evaluation of a new, above-elbow, body-powered prosthetic arm: a final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupo, M E; Sheredos, S J

    1998-10-01

    The AdVAntage Arm is an above-elbow (AE) body-powered arm designed to improve upon, and overcome, some of the major limitations of conventional prostheses. It is the result of research and development (R&D) accomplished at the Center for Engineering Design (CED), University of Utah and Sarcos Research Corporation (SRC), Salt Lake City, UT. The AdVAntage Arm was developed to provide the following main features: lightweight, independent elbow and terminal device (TD) control, and a cable recovery system for full TD actuation at any elbow position. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Rehab R&D Service's Technology Transfer Section (TTS), with collaboration from the VA National Prosthetic and Sensory Aids Service (PSAS), managed a multi-center clinical evaluation of the precommercial AdVAntage Arm (the Arm). The purpose was to objectively assess and affirm the Arm's functional advantages, reliability, clinical application, and commercial readiness. Eleven VA prosthetic services served as evaluation sites with a total of 16 subjects with amputation (14 unilateral and 2 bilateral). Fifteen prosthetists provided their comments. Overall, the results demonstrated that the Arm could be fit for use by persons with transhumeral, and even with forequarter, amputation. Once the learning curve was overcome, the majority of subjects reported that the Arm offered several functional advantages over their conventional prosthesis. Its overall light weight, separation of elbow and TD function, and cable recovery system allowed opening and closure of the TD at any elbow position; resulting in a more fluid manner of use and allowing subjects to perform more activities from waist level and above (especially in the outstretched and overhead positions). At the conclusion of clinical trials, 10 subjects elected to keep the Arm for continued use. The manufacturer is committed to the commercial marketing and technical support of the arm. Based upon the clinical findings, the AdVAntage Arm

  13. Performance Optimization based Spectrum Analysis on OFRA and EDFA Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Liying

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As the key devices, erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA and optical Raman fiber amplifier (OFRA have been widely applied in the fields of optical communication, sensing and measurement. However, the performance optimization is always one of the hot topics in the study of optical fiber amplifiers, because its output characteristics are hardly dependent to the key designing parameters. In this paper, in order to cope with such problem, we adopt the novel analysis based spectrum to study the output performance of EDFA and OFRA systems, respectively. Through simulating the operation of the two amplifying system, their output characteristics are first demonstrated with the various parameters. And according to the numerical results obtained, the key designing parameters of EDFA and OFRA systems are determinate, and the performance of amplifying systems are improved and optimized obviously in terms of output power, signal noise ratio, and the level of gain flatness.   Keywords: Fiber Raman Amplifier, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier, Performance optimization, Spectrum analysis, Simulation.  

  14. NiCu-based superconducting devices: fabrication and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotolo, A [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Facolta d' Ingegneria, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Pullini, D [Centro Ricerche FIAT, Strada Torino 50, 10043 Orbassano, Turin (Italy); Adamo, C [Universita di Salerno, Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Via S. Allende 1, 84081 Baronissi, Salerno (Italy); Pepe, G P [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Facolta d' Ingegneria, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Maritato, L [Universita di Salerno, Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Via S. Allende 1, 84081 Baronissi, Salerno (Italy); Innocenti, G [Centro Ricerche FIAT, Strada Torino 50, 10043 Orbassano, Turin (Italy); Perlo, P [Centro Ricerche FIAT, Strada Torino 50, 10043 Orbassano, Turin (Italy)

    2006-06-01

    The critical Josephson current (I{sub C}) in superconducting/ferromagnetic (S/F) multilayer-based junctions can be controlled by changing the relative directions of the magnetization in the F-layers. Recent experimental works show that an enhancement of I{sub C} is achieved in S/F weak links when the alternating F-layers are antiparallel aligned. We present preliminary experimental results concerning the dependence of I{sub C} on the relative orientation of the ferromagnetic layers in S/F{sub 1}/I/F{sub 2}/S tunnel junctions where the F-layers are obtained by changing the relative composition of NiCu alloys. The multilayers were grown by electron beam deposition, and processed by Focused Ion Beam lithography. The magnetic state of the devices was directly determined by measuring the current perpendicular to plane (CPP) magnetoresistance (MR) at high bias. I{sub C} was found to be larger when the F-layers are antiparallel aligned. The maximum change of I{sub C} corresponds to the maximum change of MR. The application of a magnetic field induces a transition in the shape of the currentvoltage curve that seems to suggest Coulomb blockade effect.

  15. NiCu-based superconducting devices: fabrication and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotolo, A.; Pullini, D.; Adamo, C.; Pepe, G. P.; Maritato, L.; Innocenti, G.; Perlo, P.

    2006-06-01

    The critical Josephson current (IC) in superconducting/ferromagnetic (S/F) multilayer-based junctions can be controlled by changing the relative directions of the magnetization in the F-layers. Recent experimental works [1, 2] show that an enhancement of IC is achieved in S/F weak links when the alternating F-layers are antiparallel aligned. We present preliminary experimental results concerning the dependence of IC on the relative orientation of the ferromagnetic layers in S/F1/I/F2/S tunnel junctions where the F-layers are obtained by changing the relative composition of NiCu alloys. The multilayers were grown by electron beam deposition, and processed by Focused Ion Beam lithography. The magnetic state of the devices was directly determined by measuring the current perpendicular to plane (CPP) magnetoresistance (MR) at high bias. IC was found to be larger when the F-layers are antiparallel aligned. The maximum change of IC corresponds to the maximum change of MR. The application of a magnetic field induces a transition in the shape of the currentvoltage curve that seems to suggest Coulomb blockade effect.

  16. Carbon material based microelectromechanical system (MEMS): Fabrication and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjun

    This PhD dissertation presents the exploration and development of two carbon materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon fiber (CF), as either key functional components or unconventional substrates for a variety of MEMS applications. Their performance in three different types of MEMS devices, namely, strain/stress sensors, vibration-powered generators and fiber solar cells, were evaluated and the working mechanisms of these two non-traditional materials in these systems were discussed. The work may potentially enable the development of new types of carbon-MEMS devices. Carbon nanotubes were selected from the carbon family due to several advantageous characteristics that this nanomaterial offers. They carry extremely high mechanical strength (Ey=1TPa), superior electrical properties (current density of 4x109 A/cm2), exceptional piezoresistivity (G=2900), and unique spatial format (high aspect ratio hollow nanocylinder), among other properties. If properly utilized, all these merits can give rise to a variety of new types of carbon nanotube based micro- and nanoelectronics that can greatly fulfill the need for the next generation of faster, smaller and better devices. However, before these functions can be fully realized, one substantial issue to cope with is how to implement CNTs into these systems in an effective and controllable fashion. Challenges associated with CNTs integration include very poor dispersibility in solvents, lack of melting/sublimation point, and unfavorable rheology with regard to mixing and processing highly viscous, CNT-loaded polymer solutions. These issues hinder the practical progress of CNTs both in a lab scale and in the industrial level. To this end, a MEMS-assisted electrophoretic deposition technique was developed, aiming to achieve controlled integration of CNT into both conventional and flexible microsystems at room temperature with a relatively high throughput. MEMS technology has demonstrated strong capability in developing

  17. Raoultella ornithinolytica: An unusual pathogen for prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Piseth; Theron, Françoise; Honnorat, Estelle; Prost, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Stein, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We herein report the first case of a prosthetic joint infection caused by Raoultella ornithinolytica in an immunocompetent patient. The clinical outcome was favorable after a two-stage prosthetic exchange and a six-month course of antimicrobial therapy.

  18. Fundamentals of photoelectric effects in molecular electronic thin film devices: applications to bacteriorhodopsin-based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, F T

    1995-01-01

    This tutorial lecture focuses on the fundamental mechanistic aspects of light-induced charge movements in pigment-containing membranes. The topic is relevant to molecular electronics because many prototypes optoelectronic devices are configured as pigment-containing thin films. We use reconstituted bacteriorhodopsin membranes as an example to illustrate the underlying principle of measurements and data interpretation. Bacteriorhodopsin, a light-driven proton pump, is the only protein component in the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium. It resembles the visual pigment rhodopsin chemically but performs the function of photosynthesis. Bacteriorhodopsin thus offers an unprecedented opportunity for us to compare the visual photoreceptor and the photosynthetic apparatus from a mechanistic point of view. Bacteriorhodopsin, well known for its exceptional chemical and mechanical stability, is also a popular advanced biomaterial for molecular device construction. The tutorial approaches the subject from two angles. First, the fundamental photoelectric properties are exploited for device construction. Second, basic design principles for photosensors and photon energy converters can be elucidated via 'reverse engineering'. The concept of molecular intelligence and the principle of biomimetic science are discussed.

  19. GaN based transfer electron and avalanche transit time devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.K.Parida; A.K.Panda

    2012-01-01

    A new model is developed to study the microwave/mm wave characteristics of two-terminal GaN- based transfer electron devices (TEDs),namely a Gunn diode and an impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) device.Microwave characteristics such as device efficiency and the microwave power generated are computed and compared at D-band (140 GHz center frequency) to see the potentiality of each device under the same operating conditions.It is seen that GaN-based IMPATT devices surpass the Gunn diode in the said frequency region.

  20. GaN based transfer electron and avalanche transit time devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, R. K.; Panda, A. K.

    2012-05-01

    A new model is developed to study the microwave/mm wave characteristics of two-terminal GaN-based transfer electron devices (TEDs), namely a Gunn diode and an impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) device. Microwave characteristics such as device efficiency and the microwave power generated are computed and compared at D-band (140 GHz center frequency) to see the potentiality of each device under the same operating conditions. It is seen that GaN-based IMPATT devices surpass the Gunn diode in the said frequency region.

  1. Electronic and optoelectronic nano-devices based on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarselli, M; Castrucci, P; De Crescenzi, M

    2012-08-08

    The discovery and understanding of nanoscale phenomena and the assembly of nanostructures into different devices are among the most promising fields of material science research. In this scenario, carbon nanostructures have a special role since, in having only one chemical element, they allow physical properties to be calculated with high precision for comparison with experiment. Carbon nanostructures, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in particular, have such remarkable electronic and structural properties that they are used as active building blocks for a large variety of nanoscale devices. We review here the latest advances in research involving carbon nanotubes as active components in electronic and optoelectronic nano-devices. Opportunities for future research are also identified.

  2. Surface acoustic wave vapor sensors based on resonator devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grate, Jay W.; Klusty, Mark

    1991-05-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices fabricated in the resonator configuration have been used as organic vapor sensors and compared with delay line devices more commonly used. The experimentally determined mass sensitivities of 200, 300, and 400 MHz resonators and 158 MHz delay lines coated with Langmuir-Blodgett films of poly(vinyl tetradecanal) are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. The response of LB- and spray-coated sensors to various organic vapors were determined, and scaling laws for mass sensitivities, vapor sensitivities, and detection limits are discussed. The 200 MHz resonators provide the lowest noise levels and detection limits of all the devices examined.

  3. Topographic analysis of silicon nanoparticles-based electroluminescent devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Sanchez, A., E-mail: amorales@inaoep.mx [INAOE, Electronics Department, Apartado 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Barreto, J.; Dominguez, C. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Aceves, M.; Leyva, K.M. [INAOE, Electronics Department, Apartado 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Luna-Lopez, J.A.; Carrillo, J. [CIDS-BUAP, Apdo. 1651, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Pedraza, J. [INAOE, Electronics Department, Apartado 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    Electroluminescent properties of silicon nanoparticles embedded in MOS devices have been studied. Silicon rich oxide (SRO) films with 4 at.% of silicon excess were used as active layers. Intense and stable light emission is observed with the naked eye as shining spots at the surface of devices. AFM measurements on these devices exhibit a remarkably granular surface where the EL spots are observed. The EL measurements show a broad visible spectrum with various peaks between 420 and 870 nm. These EL spots are related with charge injection through conductive paths created by adjacent Si-nps within the SRO.

  4. Adaptive sports technology and biomechanics: prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luigi, Arthur Jason; Cooper, Rory A

    2014-08-01

    With the technologic advances in medicine and an emphasis on maintaining physical fitness, the population of athletes with impairments is growing. It is incumbent upon health care practitioners to make every effort to inform these individuals of growing and diverse opportunities and to encourage safe exercise and athletic participation through counseling and education. Given the opportunities for participation in sports for persons with a limb deficiency, the demand for new, innovative prosthetic designs is challenging the clinical and technical expertise of the physician and prosthetist. When generating a prosthetic prescription, physicians and prosthetists should consider the needs and preferences of the athlete with limb deficiency, as well as the functional demands of the chosen sporting activity. The intent of this article is to provide information regarding the current advancements in the adaptive sports technology and biomechanics in the field of prosthetics, and to assist clinicians and their patients in facilitating participation in sporting activities.

  5. Changes in lower extremity prosthetic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trower, Ted A

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, much attention has been given to the revolution in new materials for prosthetics and the components that they have made possible. The average weight of a delivered prosthesis has decreased, currently available components offer improved function and superior symmetry of gait, and limb interfaces provide superior skin protection and comfort. The focus on the features of these components sometimes has led to neglect of the basic elements of prosthetic design--the fit and the alignment. If the fit and alignment are on the mark, an amputee can function at remarkably high levels with rudimentary components. This article discusses the basics of lower extremity prosthetic practice and addresses challenges for the future.

  6. Graphene Electronic Device Based Biosensors and Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, are emerging as an exciting material system for a new generation of atomically thin electronic devices. With their ultrahigh surface to volume ratio and excellent electrical properties, 2D-layered materials hold the promise for the construction of a generation of chemical and biological sensors with unprecedented sensitivity. In my PhD thesis, I mainly focus on graphene based electronic biosensors and chemical sensors. In the first part of my thesis, I demonstrated the fabrication of graphene nanomesh (GNM), which is a graphene thin film with a periodic array of holes punctuated in it. The periodic holes introduce long periphery active edges that provide a high density of functional groups (e.g. carboxylic groups) to allow for covalent grafting of specific receptor molecules for chemical and biosensor applications. After covalently functionalizing the GNM with glucose oxidase, I managed to make a novel electronic sensor which can detect glucose as well as pH change. In the following part of my thesis I demonstrate the fabrication of graphene-hemin conjugate for nitric oxide detection. The non-covalent functionalization through pi-pi stacking interaction allows reliable immobilization of hemin molecules on graphene without damaging the graphene lattice to ensure the highly sensitive and specific detection of nitric oxide. The graphene-hemin nitric oxide sensor is capable of real-time monitoring of nitric oxide concentrations, which is of central importance for probing the diverse roles of nitric oxide in neurotransmission, cardiovascular systems, and immune responses. Our studies demonstrate that the graphene-hemin sensors can respond rapidly to nitric oxide in physiological environments with sub-nanomolar sensitivity. Furthermore, in vitro studies show that the graphene-hemin sensors can be used for the detection of nitric oxide released from macrophage cells and endothelial cells, demonstrating their

  7. The role of virtual articulator in prosthetic and restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koralakunte, Pavankumar Ravi; Aljanakh, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Virtual reality is a computer based technology linked with the future of dentistry and dental practice. The virtual articulator is one such application in prosthetic and restorative dentistry based on virtual reality that will significantly reduce the limitations of the mechanical articulator, and by simulation of real patient data, allow analyses with regard to static and dynamic occlusion as well as to jaw relation. It is the purpose of this article to present the concepts and strategies for a future replacement of the mechanical articulator by a virtual one. Also, a brief note on virtual reality haptic system has been highlighted along with newly developed touch enabled virtual articulator.

  8. Organic Light Emitting Devices Based on Terbium Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖静; 邓振波; 张志锋; 徐登辉; 徐颖; 王瑞芬

    2004-01-01

    Rare earth complex TbY(m-MOBA)6(phen)2·2H2O was synthesized,which was first used as an emitting material in electroluminescence.The properties of monolayer device with the rate of 1000 r·min-1 (70 nm) and the impure concentration of 1∶5 were the best.And the highest brightness of this device reached 21.8 cd·cm-2 at a fixed bias of 20 V.Bright green emission can be obtained from the optimized double-layer device,and the highest EL brightness of the device reached 289 cd·m-2 at the voltage of 21 V.

  9. Organic Light Emitting Devices Based on Terbium Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Jing; Deng Zhenbo; Xu Denghui; Xu Ying; Wang Ruifen

    2005-01-01

    Rare earth complex Tb(BA)3phen was synthesized, which is first used as an emitting material in electroluminescence. The properties of monolayer device with the swing film rate of 1000 r·min-1(70 nm) and the weight ratio of 1:5(PVK:Tb(BA)3phen) are the best. And the highest brightness of this device reached 26.8 cd·cm-2 at a fixed bias of 21 V. Bright green emission could be obtained from the optimized double-layer device and the highest EL brightness of the device reached 322 cd·m-2 at the voltage of 22 V.

  10. Effective Surface Conductivity Approach for Graphene Metamaterials Based Terahertz Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Booth, Tim;

    2013-01-01

    We propose a description of graphene metamaterials properties through the effective surface conductivity. On the example of tunable absorber we demonstrate that this approach allows for fast and efficient design of functional terahertz devices....

  11. Ultrathin flexible memory devices based on organic ferroelectric transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Ryo; Hirai, Yoshinori; Tashiro, Tomoya; Sekine, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Domingues dos Santos, Fabrice; Miyabo, Atsushi; Tokito, Shizuo

    2016-10-01

    Here, we demonstrate ultrathin, flexible nonvolatile memory devices with excellent durability under compressive strain. Ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors (FeFETs) employing organic semiconductor and polymer ferroelectric layers are fabricated on a 1-µm-thick plastic film substrate. The FeFETs are characterized by measuring their transfer characteristics, programming time, and data retention time. The data retention time is almost unchanged even when a 50% compressive strain is applied to the devices. To clarify the origin of the excellent durability of the devices against compressive strain, an intermediate plane is calculated. From the calculation result, the intermediate plane is placed close to the channel region of the FeFETs. The high flexibility of the ferroelectric polymer and ultrathin device structure contributes to achieving a bending radius of 0.8 µm without the degradation of memory characteristics.

  12. Memristor device based on carbon nanotubes decorated with gold nanoislands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoi, A.; Dragoman, M.; Dragoman, D.

    2011-08-01

    Memristors are passive nanoelectronics devices with applications in memories and switches which, although not containing magnetic components, have as distinct signature a hysteresis loop in the current-voltage dependence. Even if the prototype material for memristors is a binary oxide, we demonstrate that such devices can be easily implemented using carbon nanotubes decorated with metallic nanoislands, where the hysteretic action is a result of the thermionic emission of electrons trapped in the gold nanoislands.

  13. Pediatric unilateral below-elbow amputees: retrospective analysis of 34 patients given multiple prosthetic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Robin C; Tomhave, Wendy

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-four unilateral below-elbow amputees from the Shriners Hospitals for Children/Twin Cities were retrospectively analyzed in long-term follow-up. All of these patients were provided with a variety of prosthetic options, including a "passive" cosmetic upper extremity device. Most of the patients were also fitted with conventional prostheses using a body-powered voluntary closing terminal device (97%) as well as myoelectric prostheses (82%). These patients were considered consistent prosthetic users by the clinic team. The average follow-up was 14 years, with many of the patients being followed up throughout their entire childhood. All patients were sent questionnaires, and the authors carried out patient interviews and chart review. Final analysis indicated that 15 patients (44%) selected a simple cosmetic "passive hand" as their prosthesis of choice. In long-term follow-up 14 patients (41%) continued as multiple users. Fourteen patients (41%) selected the conventional prosthesis using a voluntary closing terminal device as the prosthesis of choice. Only five patients (15%) selected the myoelectric device as their primary prosthesis. The authors conclude that successful unilateral pediatric amputees may choose multiple prostheses on the basis of function and that frequently the most functional prosthesis selected in the long term is the simplest in design. The authors believe strongly that unilateral pediatric amputees should be offered a variety of prosthetic options to help with normal activities of daily living.

  14. Comparative roll-over analysis of prosthetic feet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtze, Carolin; Hof, At L.; van Keeken, Helco G.; Halbertsma, Jan P. K.; Postema, Klaas; Otten, Bert

    2009-01-01

    A prosthetic foot is a key element of a prosthetic leg, literally forming the basis for a stable and efficient amputee gait. We determined the roll-over characteristics of a broad range of prosthetic feet and examined the effect of a variety of shoes on these characteristics. The body weight of a pe

  15. Quantum transport in nanowire-based hybrid devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenel, Haci Yusuf

    2013-05-08

    the Andreev reflection of quasiparticles at single interface, by suppressing the superconductivity of Al with small magnetic fields, as well as at double interface for zero magnetic field. The junction geometry was further changed by replacing the InAs nanowire with the InAs tube. In this case the GaAs/InAs core/shell tubular nanowires were contacted by two superconducting Nb electrodes. For this junction geometry we have demonstrated the interference of phase conjugated electron-hole pairs in the presence of coaxial magnetic. The effect of temperature, constant dc bias current and gate voltage on the magnetoresistance oscillations were examined. In the last part of this thesis, we have fabricated and characterized the single crystal Au nanowire-based proximity superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID).

  16. Design and properties of maxillofacial prosthetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreopoulos, A G; Theophanides, T

    1993-11-01

    Maxillofacial reconstruction by prosthetic means is a valuable contribution that medicine offers to the public. Materials design and properties are the main problems faced by scientists in this field. Materials used for intraoral prostheses are not ideal, but they have been perfected to the point of practical use. Denture resins, gold, chromium-cobalt alloys, and porcelain are widely used and produce acceptable results in the oral cavity. In this review, the properties and performance of some polymeric materials used in maxillofacial prosthetics are discussed, and new trends in research and development are also reported.

  17. Mesofluidic controlled robotic or prosthetic finger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Randall F; Jansen, John F; Love, Lonnie J

    2013-11-19

    A mesofluidic powered robotic and/or prosthetic finger joint includes a first finger section having at least one mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a first actuator, a second mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a second actuator and a second prosthetic finger section pivotally connected to the first finger section by a joint pivot, wherein the first actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger to provide a first mechanical advantage relative to the joint point and wherein the second actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger section to provide a second mechanical advantage relative to the joint point.

  18. Capability Enhancement and Amputee Care in Operation Iraqi Freedom: The Role of a Rehabilitation and Prosthetics Assistance Team in Reconstruction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    prosthetic devices were delivered (21% of patients seen) with the remainder of patients either BK (36% Multiple (1%) Bilateral Upper (1% Partial Foot (2% KD...femoral limb loss KO- knee disarticulation Seines- ankle disarticulation P;u1ial Foot - Carpal-in et a carpal amputation Bilateral lower extremity limb loss...prosthetic limb lypi- cally marked the transition in rehabilitation goals to functional outcomes such as using an upper extremity prosthesis to per

  19. Perspectives on embodiment and prosthetic incorporation in those with spinal cord injury: Comment on "The embodiment of assistive devices-from wheelchair to exoskeleton" by M. Pazzaglia and M. Molinari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Pazzaglia's group is introducing contemporary cognitive neuroscience research into rehabilitation after spinal cord injury (SCI), in novel ways [5]. And, importantly, this work also overlaps with the priorities of patients. In a recent statement from the UK James Lind Alliance (which sets aims for research between professionals and patients), their top priority was: 'whether activity based rehabilitation, including functional electrical stimulation coupled with physical activity and hydrotherapy, improved outcomes after SCI?' [3]. It is a propitious time for cognitive science and rehabilitation to come together.

  20. Concepts and Models Regarding the Behavior of Antiseismic Devices for the Base Isolation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polidor BRATU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main antiseismic devices, as component elements of the base isolation systems, in such a manner that the functional and constructive parameters are correlated with the inertial and stiffness characteristics of the dynamic isolated building. Also, each device will be characterized through a rheological model, which conditions the eigenvalues and eigenvectors spectrum, as well as the dynamic response to an exterior excitation of a seismic nature. In this context, antiseismic devices defined and characterized by the European Standard EN 15129 will be presented. Based on the requirements formulated in the norm, the devices can be identified and their laws of evolution established and checked as follows: antiseismic devices with permanent rigid connection; antiseismic devices with rigid connections with respect to the instantaneous displacement and antiseismic devices dependent on the velocity and on the velocity variation in time.

  1. Graphene base heterojunction transistor: An explorative study on device potential, optimization, and base parasitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lecce, Valerio; Grassi, Roberto; Gnudi, Antonio; Gnani, Elena; Reggiani, Susanna; Baccarani, Giorgio

    2015-12-01

    The Graphene-Base Heterojunction Transistor (GBHT) is a novel device concept with a high potential for analog high-frequency RF operation, in which the current is due to both thermionic emission and tunneling. In this paper we study through numerical simulations the influence of previously uninvestigated aspects of Si- and Ge-based GBHTs-namely, crystallographic orientation and doping density values-on the device performance; a comparison with an aggressively scaled HBT structure is then reported. The simulations are carried out with an in-house developed code based on a 1-D quantum transport model within the effective mass approximation and the assumptions of ballistic transport with non-parabolic corrections and ideal semiconductor-graphene interface. We show that crystallographic orientation has a negligible effect on the GBHT performance. The doping density values in the GBHT emitter and collector regions can be tailored to maximize the device performance: the Si device shows better overall performance than the Ge one, yielding a peak cut-off frequency fT higher than 4 THz together with an intrinsic voltage gain above 10, or even higher fT at the cost of a lower gain. The Si-based GBHT can potentially outperform the SiGe HBT by a 2.8 higher fT . For a Si-based GBHT with a circular active region of diameter 50-100 nm, a theoretical balanced value for fT and fmax above 2 THz can be achieved, provided the base parasitics are carefully minimized.

  2. Development of New Photovoltaic Devices Based on Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes and Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2013-0014 Development of new photovoltaic devices based on multi wall carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles... photovoltaic devices based on multi wall carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8655-11-1-3036 5b. GRANT NUMBER Grant 11...response is registered in all the photon spectral range studied. The new kind of Graetzel-like solar cell device was built without dye and TiO2 , showing

  3. A novel thermal acoustic device based on porous graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Lu-Qi; Liu, Ying; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Xie, Qian-Yi; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling, E-mail: RenTL@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084 (China); Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology (TNList), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tian, He [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    A thermal acoustic (TA) device was fabricated by laser scribing technology. Polyimide (PI) can be converted into patterned porous graphene (PG) by laser’s irradiation in one step. The sound pressure level (SPL) of such TA device is related to laser power. The theoretical model of TA effect was established to analyze the relationship between the SPL and laser power. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experiment results. It was found that PG has a flat frequency response in the range of 5-20 kHz. This novel TA device has the advantages of one-step procedure, high flexibility, no mechanical vibration, low cost and so on. It can open wide applications in speakers, multimedia, medical, earphones, consumer electronics and many other aspects.

  4. Speech and Swallowing Data in Individual Patients Who Underwent Glossectomy after Prosthetic Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining oral function in patients undergoing glossectomy boosts interventions such as prosthetic rehabilitation. However, current literature still fails in the presentation of results of prosthetic rehabilitation in relation to speech or swallowing. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of prosthetic rehabilitation on voice, speech, and swallowing in patients undergoing glossectomy by performing a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of individual cases. Studies were identified by relevant electronic database and included all dates available. The criteria used were sample with any n; resection due to malignant tumors, restricted to tongue and/or floor of mouth; type of prosthetic rehabilitation; and description of the oral functions outcomes with prosthesis. For the meta-analysis of individual data, associations between the variables of interest and the type of prosthesis were evaluated. Thirty-three of 471 articles met the selection criteria. Results on speech and/or voice and swallowing were reported in 27 and 28 articles, respectively. There were improvement of speech intelligibility and swallowing in 96 patients and in 73 patients, respectively, with prosthesis. Based on the available evidences, this article showed that prosthetic rehabilitation was able to improve oral functions and can be a strategy used with surgical reconstruction in selected cases.

  5. 基于动态阈值的肌电假手动作控制方法研究%Movement Pattern Control for Prosthetic Hand Based on a Method of Dynamic Threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻洪流; 胡加华

    2011-01-01

    由于构成肌电信号采集电路的电子元器件性能不可能完全对称及干扰信号的存在,有时会导致两路肌电信号发生阈值不一致。这时仍采用固定阈值来对两路肌电信号控制的动作进行判别,会导致动作的误判率增加。为了提高对假手动作判别的正确率,本文提出了利用动态阈值对假手动作进行判别。实验结果表明,利用动态阈值对假手动作进行判别,能够提高对动作判别的正确率达约10%。%Due to the function asymmetry of electrical components used for EMG signal acquisition circuit and the existing of undesired signals, sometimes thresholds for judging EMG's occur may be incongruent. If a fixed threshold is used to recognize Prosthetic Hand's movement,the matching rate of prosthetic hand's movement pattern recognition will be increased. In order to improve prosthetic hand's movement pattern recognition, a method of dynamic threshold was used to recognize the prosthetic hand's movement. The exprimental results showed that the method of dynamic threshold can obviously improve Prosthetic Hand's movement pattern recognition by about 10%.

  6. Fabrication of polyimide based microfluidic channels for biosensor devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zulfiqar, Azeem; Pfreundt, Andrea; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing complexity of the fabrication process of Point-of-care (POC) devices, due to high demand of functional versatility, compact size and ease-of-use, emphasizes the need of multifunctional materials that can be used to simplify this process. Polymers, currently in use for the fabr...... in uniformity of PI is also compared to the most commonly used SU8 polymer, which is a near UV sensitive epoxy resin. The potential applications of PI processing are POC and biosensor devices integrated with microelectronics....

  7. ADHOC MOBILE WIRELESS NETWORK ENHANCEMENT BASED ON CISCO DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Khedr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhoc wireless networks become one of the most researchable areas in the studying of routing protocols depending on the Open System Interconnection (OSI Model. This paper use Cisco devices as a reference to enhance the performance of the network. This enhancement will be due to high processing, reliability, average cost, power consumption and accessibility. The aim of this research not only to get the cost down, it also to choose a time to time device to process the data as rapid as it can. Using NAT, Access List and DHCP protocols defined in Cisco (Graphical Unit Interface GUI of the (Command Line Interface CLI, the task can be made.

  8. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: A new integrated SOI power device based on self-isolation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanmei, Gao; Xiaorong, Luo; Wei, Zhang; Hao, Deng; Tianfei, Lei

    2010-08-01

    A new SOI LDMOS structure with buried n-islands (BNIs) on the top interface of the buried oxide (BOX) is presented in a p-SOI high voltage integrated circuits (p-SOI HVICs), which exhibits good self-isolation performance between the power device and low-voltage control circuits. Furthermore, both the donor ions of BNIs and holes collected between depleted n-islands not only enhance the electric field in BOX from 32 to 113 V/μm, but also modulate the lateral electric field distribution, resulting in an improvement of the breakdown voltage of the BNI SOI LDMOS. A 673 V BNI SOI LDMOS is experimentally obtained and presents an excellent self-isolation performance in a p-SOI HVIC.

  9. New optimum humanoid hand design for prosthetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mogeeb A; Taher, Mona F; Metwalli, Sayed M

    2012-04-30

    To address the need for a commercially feasible prosthetic hand, the current work presents the design of a new humanoid hand actuated using shape memory alloy (SMA) artificial muscle wires. The hand has 3 compliant fingers and a thumb attached to the palm. The palm structure is a novel design, which is based on the natural arches of the human hand to provide better grasping capabilities. A compact actuator module is proposed to house and cool the SMA wires. Design parameters of the hand were selected to maximize the work density. The hand is lightweight, low cost, and operates silently. It has functional opening and closing speeds and fingertip force.

  10. Polymer-based electrochemical devices for logic functions and paper displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Magnus; Nilsson, David; Chen, Miaoxiang; Andersson, Peter; Kugler, Thomas; Malmstroem, Anna; Haell, Jessica; Remonen, Tommi; Robinson, Nathaniel D.

    2003-07-01

    Here, we report on devices based on patterned thin films of the conducting polymer system poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulphonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) combined with patterns of solid electrolyte. The key device functionalities base on the updating of the RedOx state of PEDOT. This results in control of the electronic properties of this conjugated polymer, i.e. the conductivity and optical properties are updated. Based on this we have achieved electric current rectifiers, transistors and display cells. Also, matrix addressed displays will be presented. Electrochemical switching is taking place when the oxidation and reduction potentials are overcome respectively. Therefore, these devices operate at voltage levels less then 2 Volts. Low voltage operation is achieved in devices not requiring any extremely narrow dimensions, as is the case for field effect driven devices. All devices reported can or has been made using standard printing techniques on flexible carriers.

  11. Reengineering a PC-based System into the Mobile Device Product Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Jarzabek, Stanislaw; Loughran, Neil

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing demand to port existing PC-based software systems to mobile device platforms. Systems running on mobile devices share basic characteristics with their PC-based counterparts, but differ from them in details of user interfaces, application models, etc. Systems running on mobile d...

  12. Optimizing MEMS-Based Storage Devices for Mobile Battery-Powered Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, Mohammed G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2010-01-01

    An emerging storage technology, called MEMS-based storage, promises nonvolatile storage devices with ultrahigh density, high rigidity, a small form factor, and low cost. For these reasons, MEMS-based storage devices are suitable for battery-powered mobile systems such as PDAs. For deployment in such

  13. Using of the Modern Semiconductor Devices Based on the SiC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Drabek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with possibility of application of the semiconductor devices based on the SiC (Silicon Carbide inthe power electronics. Basic synopsis of SiC based materials problems are presented, appreciation of their properties incomparison with current using power semiconductor devices ((IGBT, MOSFET, CoolFET transistors.

  14. Custom design in lower limb prosthetics for athletic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, J R; Boone, D A

    2000-08-01

    In summary, the prosthetist is the best source of information with regard to the fast-changing lower extremity prosthetics technology for sports. The needs and desires of the amputee should be outlined and balanced with the cost of the desired components and design. In many cases, one carefully designed prosthesis can serve in dual roles for everyday ambulation and certain athletic activities. In other cases, the amputee is limited severely by a prosthesis that is not designed for a specific activity. Using a prosthesis for activities that it was not designed to accommodate can cause physical injury to the amputee as well as structural failure of the device. A properly designed and fitted prosthesis can open a whole new world of activity to the amputee and helps him or her to reach the desired a vocational goals.

  15. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Design consideration of the thermal and electro stability of multi-finger HBTs based on different device structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanhu, Chen; Huajun, Shen; Xinyu, Liu; Hui, Xu; Ling, Li; Huijun, Li

    2010-10-01

    The thermal and electro stability of multi-finger heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) with different structures were analyzed and discussed simultaneously. The thermal stability of the devices with different layout structures was assessed by the DC-IV test and thermal resistance calculation. Their electro stability was assessed by the calculation of the stability factor K based on the S parameter of the HBT. It is found that HBTs with higher thermal stability are prone to lower electro stability. The trade-off relationship between the two types of stability was explained and discussed by using a compact K-factor analytic formula which is derived from the small signal equivalent circuit model of HBT. The electro stability of the device with a thermal ballasting resistor was also discussed, based on the analytic formula.

  16. Multimodality Imaging Assessment of Prosthetic Heart Valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suchá, D.; Symersky, Petr; Tanis, W; Mali, Willem P Th M; Leiner, Tim; van Herwerden, LA; Budde, Ricardo P J

    2015-01-01

    Echocardiography and fluoroscopy are the main techniques for prosthetic heart valve (PHV) evaluation, but because of specific limitations they may not identify the morphological substrate or the extent of PHV pathology. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have emerg

  17. Proceedings, 1972 Carahan Conference on Electronic Prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John S., Ed.; DeVore, R. William, Ed.

    Presented are 28 papers given at a 1972 conference on electronic prosthetics for the handicapped. Among the papers are the following titles: "Therapy for Cerebral Palsy Employing Artifician Sense Organs for Alternatives to Proprioceptive Feedback"; "Excessive Neuromuscular Time Delay as a Possible Cause of Poor Hand-Eye Coordination and…

  18. The Prosthetic Experience Between Body and Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that a prosthetic aesthetic instigated by experimental art practices operate with and within a ‘second nature’ – in-between science and art. Drawing on theories from Dewey and Edelman and examples from Da Vinci, Brancusi, Man Ray, Dali and Stelarc, I am calling for an exper...

  19. Consumer satisfaction in prosthetics and orthotics facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, J.H.B.; Gankema, H.G.J.; Groothoff, J.W.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess consumer/patient satisfaction with the services of the prosthetics and orthotics (P&O) facilities in the north of the Netherlands, using a modified SERVQUAL questionnaire. In this questionnaire, consumer interests and experiences are assessed on a 5-point Likert s

  20. The traumatic lower extremity amputee: surgical challenges and advances in prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannada, Lisa K; Vaidya, Rahul; Covey, Dana C; Hanna, Kathryn; Dougherty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The mangled lower extremity is a challenging injury to treat. Orthopaedic surgeons treating patients with these severe injuries must have a clear understanding of contemporary advantages and disadvantages of limb salvage versus amputation. It is helpful to review the acute management of mangled extremity injuries in the civilian and military populations, to be familiar with current postoperative protocols, and to recognize recent advances in prosthetic devices.

  1. Design and characterization of a biologically inspired quasi-passive prosthetic ankle-foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Luke M; Lai, Cara H; Rouse, Elliott J

    2014-01-01

    By design, commonly worn energy storage and release (ESR) prosthetic feet cannot provide biologically realistic ankle joint torque and angle profiles during walking. Additionally, their anthropomorphic, cantilever architecture causes their mechanical stiffness to decrease throughout the stance phase of walking, opposing the known trend of the biological ankle. In this study, the design of a quasi-passive pneumatic ankle-foot prosthesis is detailed that is able to replicate the biological ankle's torque and angle profiles during walking. The prosthetic ankle is comprised of a pneumatic piston, bending spring and solenoid valve. The mechanical properties of the pneumatic ankle prosthesis are characterized using a materials testing machine and the properties are compared to those from a common, passive ESR prosthetic foot. The characterization spanned a range of ankle equilibrium pressures and testing locations beneath the foot, analogous to the location of center of pressure within the stance phase of walking. The pneumatic ankle prosthesis was shown to provide biologically appropriate trends and magnitudes of torque, angle and stiffness behavior, when compared to the passive ESR prosthetic foot. Future work will focus on the development of a control system for the quasi-passive device and clinical testing of the pneumatic ankle to demonstrate efficacy.

  2. Polymer-based and Polymer-templated Nanostructured Thermoelectric Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-23

    Thermoelectric Devices Grant Number: FA9550-11-1-0017 PI : Dr. Anish Tuteja Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan...10.1021/la036369u (2004). 6 Ming, W., Wu, D., van Benthem, R. & de With, G. Superhydrophobic films from raspberry -like particles. Nano Letters 5

  3. Night vision devices. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habercom, G. E., Jr.

    1980-08-01

    This bibliography contains 323 citations in which various types of night vision devices are investigated. Most were developed for military applications but they can readily be adapted for civil usage, as for example, law enforcement. Abstracts on display screens, equipment design and effectiveness, electronic components, spurious noise reduction, and test methods are cited.

  4. Web-Based Spatial Training Using Handheld Touch Screen Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Dorta, Norena; Saorin, Jose Luis; Contero, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to harness the opportunities for mobility and the new user interfaces that handheld touch screen devices offer, in a non-formal learning context, with a view to developing spatial ability. This research has addressed two objectives: first, analyzing the effects that training can have on spatial visualisation using the…

  5. Development and Manufacture of Polymer-based Electrochromic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Hösel, Markus; Dyer, Aubrey L.;

    2015-01-01

    -to-roll methods compatible with upscaling and manufacture. The successful approaches to operational devices are presented in detail, as well as areas where future research would have a high impact and accelerate the development such as highly conducting and transparent substrates, electrolytes adapted...... for multilayer application and morphologically stable conjugated polymers....

  6. Status and Prospects of ZnO-Based Resistive Switching Memory Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanjuntak, Firman Mangasa; Panda, Debashis; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2016-12-01

    In the advancement of the semiconductor device technology, ZnO could be a prospective alternative than the other metal oxides for its versatility and huge applications in different aspects. In this review, a thorough overview on ZnO for the application of resistive switching memory (RRAM) devices has been conducted. Various efforts that have been made to investigate and modulate the switching characteristics of ZnO-based switching memory devices are discussed. The use of ZnO layer in different structure, the different types of filament formation, and the different types of switching including complementary switching are reported. By considering the huge interest of transparent devices, this review gives the concrete overview of the present status and prospects of transparent RRAM devices based on ZnO. ZnO-based RRAM can be used for flexible memory devices, which is also covered here. Another challenge in ZnO-based RRAM is that the realization of ultra-thin and low power devices. Nevertheless, ZnO not only offers decent memory properties but also has a unique potential to be used as multifunctional nonvolatile memory devices. The impact of electrode materials, metal doping, stack structures, transparency, and flexibility on resistive switching properties and switching parameters of ZnO-based resistive switching memory devices are briefly compared. This review also covers the different nanostructured-based emerging resistive switching memory devices for low power scalable devices. It may give a valuable insight on developing ZnO-based RRAM and also should encourage researchers to overcome the challenges.

  7. Status and Prospects of ZnO-Based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanjuntak, Firman Mangasa; Panda, Debashis; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2016-08-01

    In the advancement of the semiconductor device technology, ZnO could be a prospective alternative than the other metal oxides for its versatility and huge applications in different aspects. In this review, a thorough overview on ZnO for the application of resistive switching memory (RRAM) devices has been conducted. Various efforts that have been made to investigate and modulate the switching characteristics of ZnO-based switching memory devices are discussed. The use of ZnO layer in different structure, the different types of filament formation, and the different types of switching including complementary switching are reported. By considering the huge interest of transparent devices, this review gives the concrete overview of the present status and prospects of transparent RRAM devices based on ZnO. ZnO-based RRAM can be used for flexible memory devices, which is also covered here. Another challenge in ZnO-based RRAM is that the realization of ultra-thin and low power devices. Nevertheless, ZnO not only offers decent memory properties but also has a unique potential to be used as multifunctional nonvolatile memory devices. The impact of electrode materials, metal doping, stack structures, transparency, and flexibility on resistive switching properties and switching parameters of ZnO-based resistive switching memory devices are briefly compared. This review also covers the different nanostructured-based emerging resistive switching memory devices for low power scalable devices. It may give a valuable insight on developing ZnO-based RRAM and also should encourage researchers to overcome the challenges.

  8. A new repeatable, optical writing and electrical erasing device based on photochromism and electrochromism of viologen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-ping; Wei, Jian; Wang, Yue-chuan; Ding, Guo-jing; Yang, Yu-lin

    2012-08-01

    New optical writing and electrical erasing devices have been successfully fabricated that exploit the photochromism and electrochromism of viologen. In a preliminary study, both the structures of viologen and device were investigated in detail by UV-vis spectra in order to confirm their effects on the optical writing and electrical erasing performances of corresponding devices. For sandwiched, single and complementary devices based on benzyl viologen (BV 2+), only optical writing can be performed, not electrical erasing operations, which indicated these devices cannot realize optical information rewriting. For single and complementary devices based on styrene-functional viologen (V BV 2+) and acrylic-functional viologen (ACV 2+), optical writing and electrical erasing operations can be reversibly performed and optical information rewriting realized. It is clear that single devices based on V BV2+ and ACV2+ possess better performance accompanied with contrast without significant degradation and bleaching times and without significant deterioration over 10 repeated writing/erasing cycles. Furthermore, we put forward possible mechanisms for sandwiched, single and complementary devices based on V BV2+ and ACV2+ for the optical writing and electrical erasing operations. This study provides a new strategy to design optical writing and electrical erasing devices to realize optical information rewriting.

  9. Effect of different prosthetic knees/feet on the roll-over shape

    OpenAIRE

    Abouhossein, A; Awad, MI; Crisp, C; Dehghani-Sanij, AA; Messenger, N.; Stewart, TD; Querin, OM; Richardson, R; Bradley, D

    2016-01-01

    Roll-over shape (ROS) of knee-ankle-foot (KAF) is a scientific method which has been used to compare performance and design of the different prosthetic foot. In the current study, however, we aimed to understand the influence of the prosthetic components (i.e. knee and foot) on the knee-ankle-foot roll-over shape in a unilateral transfemoral amputee. We performed a case study based on series of experiments with repeated measures on single amputee wearing two different commercially available m...

  10. Experimental study of blast mitigating devices based on combined construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, K.; Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.

    2016-09-01

    A robust blast inhibiting bin is the most often used device for damage blast effects suppression. In particular, a top open cylindrical bin significantly reduces a fragmentation effect resulted from a detonation of an explosive device placed inside the bin. However, reduction of blast wave overpressure and impulse by such cylindrical bins is not sufficient [1]. A reasonable alternative to endless increase of height and thickness of robust blast inhibiting bins is a development of destructible inhibitors having no solid elements in their structure and, therefore, excluding secondary fragmentation. So, the family of "Fountain" inhibitors [2,3] localizes and suppresses damaging blast effects due to multiphase working system. The present study is analyzing data obtained in testing of prototypes of new combined inhibitors. Their structure combines robust elements (bottoms, side surfaces) with elements responsible for blast loads reduction due to multi-phase working system (top and low transverse embeddings) and fairings impeding wave propagation in undesirable directions.

  11. Maritime Improvised Explosive Devices: A Threat Based Technology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    ROV Remotely Operated Vehicle ix RSP Render Safe Procedure SIPRNet Secret Internet Protocol Router Network SLOC Sea Lines of Communication TTP...ways to inflict terrorism at sea, such as piracy and maritime improvised explosive devices (MIED). “MIEDs can take many forms, which can include...natural disaster, and we cannot intercede when whole societies are torn asunder by slavery, weapons of mass destruction, drugs, and piracy . Without sea

  12. DNA-Based Photonic Bandgap Structures and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-29

    Genes to Machines: DNA Nanomechanical Devices, Trends in Biochemical Sciences 30, 119-125 (2005). 4. N.C. Seeman. Structural DNA Nanotechnology: An... kpc ≥ ω , k becomes purely real.. If the dispersion relation just given is written as =++ 22)( kpkak 1ε 2)( c ω , it resembles that for modes in a...waveguide. By analogy, the frequency region for which 1ε 22)( kpc < ω will be referred to as cutoff. IV. APPLICATIONS The presence of molecules

  13. Ozone Treatment Improved the Resistive Switching Uniformity of HfAlO2 Based RRAM Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HfAlO2 based resistive random access memory (RRAM devices were fabricated using atomic layer deposition by modulating deposition cycles for HfO2 and Al2O3. Effect of ozone treatment on the resistive switching uniformity of HfAlO2 based RRAM devices was investigated. Compared to the as-fabricated devices, the resistive switching uniformity of HfAlO2 based RRAM devices with the ozone treatment is significantly improved. The uniformity improvement of HfAlO2 based RRAM devices is related to changes in compositional and structural properties of the HfAlO2 resistive switching film with the ozone treatment.

  14. Fabrication of polyimide based microfluidic channels for biosensor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfiqar, Azeem; Pfreundt, Andrea; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Dimaki, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The ever-increasing complexity of the fabrication process of Point-of-care (POC) devices, due to high demand of functional versatility, compact size and ease-of-use, emphasizes the need of multifunctional materials that can be used to simplify this process. Polymers, currently in use for the fabrication of the often needed microfluidic channels, have limitations in terms of their physicochemical properties. Therefore, the use of a multipurpose biocompatible material with better resistance to the chemical, thermal and electrical environment, along with capability of forming closed channel microfluidics is inevitable. This paper demonstrates a novel technique of fabricating microfluidic devices using polyimide (PI) which fulfills the aforementioned properties criteria. A fabrication process to pattern microfluidic channels, using partially cured PI, has been developed by using a dry etching method. The etching parameters are optimized and compared to those used for fully cured PI. Moreover, the formation of closed microfluidic channel on wafer level by bonding two partially cured PI layers or a partially cured PI to glass with high bond strength has been demonstrated. The reproducibility in uniformity of PI is also compared to the most commonly used SU8 polymer, which is a near UV sensitive epoxy resin. The potential applications of PI processing are POC and biosensor devices integrated with microelectronics.

  15. Analysis of degradation mechanisms in donor-acceptor copolymer based organic photovoltaic devices using impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S. B.; Sonar, P.; Singh, S. P.

    2016-09-01

    The stability of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices in ambient conditions has been a serious issue which needs to be addressed and resolved timely. In order to probe the degradation mechanism in a donor-acceptor polymer PDPP-TNT: PC71BM bulk heterojunction based OPV devices, we have studied current density-voltage (J-V) behavior and impedance spectroscopy of fresh and aged devices. The current-voltage characteristic of optimized fresh devices exhibit a short circuit current density (J sc) of 8.9 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (V oc) of 0.79 V, fill factor (FF) of 54.6%, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.8%. For aged devices, J sc, V oc, FF, and PCE were reduced to 57.3%, 89.8%, 44.3% and 23.7% of its initial value, respectively. The impedance spectra measured under illumination for these devices were successfully fitted using a CPE-based circuit model. For aged devices, the low-frequency response in impedance spectra suggests an accumulation of the photo-generated charge carriers at the interfaces which leads to a significant lowering in fill factor. Such degradation in device performance is attributed to the incorporation of oxygen and water molecules in devices. An increase in the recombination resistance indicates a deterioration of free charge carrier generation and conduction in devices.

  16. Method of controlling illumination device based on current-voltage model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an illumination device comprising a number of LEDs, means for receiving an input signal, means for generating an activation signal for at least one of the LEDs based on the input signal. The illumination device comprises further means for obtaining the voltage...... and the colorimetric properties of said light emitted by LED. The present invention relates also to a method of controlling and a meted of calibrating such illumination device....

  17. Novel Nanoelectronic Device Applications Based on the Nonlinearity of Three-Terminal Ballistic Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Wallin, D.; Brusheim, P.; Maximov, I.; Wang, Z. G.; Xu, H. Q.

    2007-04-01

    Nanometer-scale electron devices containing three-terminal ballistic junctions are fabricated by electron-beam lithography on InP/InGaAs two-dimensional electron gas materials. Based on the intrinsic nonlinearity of the devices, frequency mixer, phase detector and RS flip-flop memory functioning at room temperature are successfully achieved. The devices have simple structure layout and small size, and are expected to function at high speed.

  18. Integration of Multiple Components in Polystyrene-based Microfluidic Devices Part 1: Fabrication and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alicia S.; Anderson, Kari B.; Halpin, Stephen T.; Kirkpatrick, Douglas C.; Spence, Dana M.; Martin, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    In Part I of a two-part series, we describe a simple, and inexpensive approach to fabricate polystyrene devices that is based upon melting polystyrene (from either a Petri dish or powder form) against PDMS molds or around electrode materials. The ability to incorporate microchannels in polystyrene and integrate the resulting device with standard laboratory equipment such as an optical plate reader for analyte readout and micropipettors for fluid propulsion is first described. A simple approach for sample and reagent delivery to the device channels using a standard, multi-channel micropipette and a PDMS-based injection block is detailed. Integration of the microfluidic device with these off-chip functions (sample delivery and readout) enables high throughput screens and analyses. An approach to fabricate polystyrene-based devices with embedded electrodes is also demonstrated, thereby enabling the integration of microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection through the use of a palladium electrode (for a decoupler) and carbon-fiber bundle (for detection). The device was sealed against a PDMS-based microchannel and used for the electrophoretic separation and amperometric detection of dopamine, epinephrine, catechol, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Finally, these devices were compared against PDMS-based microchips in terms of their optical transparency and absorption of an anti-platelet drug, clopidogrel. Part I of this series lays the foundation for Part II, where these devices were utilized for various on-chip cellular analysis. PMID:23120747

  19. Device modeling of superconductor transition edge sensors based on the two-fluid theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tian-Shun; Zhu, Qing-Feng; Wang, Jun-Xian; Li, Tie-Fu; Liu, Jian-She; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Xingxiang

    2012-01-01

    In order to support the design and study of sophisticated large scale transition edge sensor (TES) circuits, we use basic SPICE elements to develop device models for TESs based on the superfluid-normal fluid theory. In contrast to previous studies, our device model is not limited to small signal simulation, and it relies only on device parameters that have clear physical meaning and can be easily measured. We integrate the device models in design kits based on powerful EDA tools such as CADENCE and OrCAD, and use them for versatile simulations of TES circuits. Comparing our simulation results with published experimental data, we find good agreement which suggests that device models based on the two-fluid theory can be used to predict the behavior of TES circuits reliably and hence they are valuable for assisting the design of sophisticated TES circuits.

  20. A point-based rendering approach for real-time interaction on mobile devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG XiaoHui; ZHAO QinPing; HE ZhiYing; XIE Ke; LIU YuBo

    2009-01-01

    Mobile device is an Important interactive platform. Due to the limitation of computation, memory, display area and energy, how to realize the efficient and real-time interaction of 3D models based on mobile devices is an important research topic. Considering features of mobile devices, this paper adopts remote rendering mode and point models, and then, proposes a transmission and rendering approach that could interact in real time. First, improved simplification algorithm based on MLS and display resolution of mobile devices is proposed. Then, a hierarchy selection of point models and a QoS transmission control strategy are given based on interest area of operator, interest degree of object in the virtual environment and rendering error. They can save the energy consumption. Finally, the rendering and interaction of point models are completed on mobile devices. The experiments show that our method is efficient.

  1. High-density force myography: A possible alternative for upper-limb prosthetic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Radmand, PhD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Several multiple degree-of-freedom upper-limb prostheses that have the promise of highly dexterous control have recently been developed. Inadequate controllability, however, has limited adoption of these devices. Introducing more robust control methods will likely result in higher acceptance rates. This work investigates the suitability of using high-density force myography (HD-FMG for prosthetic control. HD-FMG uses a high-density array of pressure sensors to detect changes in the pressure patterns between the residual limb and socket caused by the contraction of the forearm muscles. In this work, HD-FMG outperforms the standard electromyography (EMG-based system in detecting different wrist and hand gestures. With the arm in a fixed, static position, eight hand and wrist motions were classified with 0.33% error using the HD-FMG technique. Comparatively, classification errors in the range of 2.2%–11.3% have been reported in the literature for multichannel EMG-based approaches. As with EMG, position variation in HD-FMG can introduce classification error, but incorporating position variation into the training protocol reduces this effect. Channel reduction was also applied to the HD-FMG technique to decrease the dimensionality of the problem as well as the size of the sensorized area. We found that with informed, symmetric channel reduction, classification error could be decreased to 0.02%.

  2. Silicon based nanogap device for investigating electronic transport through 12 nm long oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, S.; Albert, E.; Csaba, G.

    2009-01-01

    We have fabricated vertical nanogap electrode devices based on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) substrates for investigating the electronic transport properties of long, conjugated molecular wires. Our nanogap electrode devices comprise smooth metallic contact pairs situated at the sidewall of an SOI...... qualitatively well with the data. © 2009 IEEE NANO Organizers....

  3. High-performance spinning device for DVD-based micromechanical signal transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwu, En-Te; Chen, Ching-Hsiu; Bosco, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Here we report a high-throughput spinning device for nanometric scale measurements of microstructures with instrumentation details and experimental results. The readout technology implemented in the designed disc-like device is based on a DVD data storage optical pick-up unit (OPU). With a spinning...

  4. Cost Effective Paper-Based Colorimetric Microfluidic Devices and Mobile Phone Camera Readers for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesdjojo, Myra T.; Pengpumkiat, Sumate; Wu, Yuanyuan; Boonloed, Anukul; Huynh, Daniel; Remcho, Thomas P.; Remcho, Vincent T.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a simple and direct method to fabricate paper-based microfluidic devices that can be used for a wide range of colorimetric assay applications. With these devices, assays can be performed within minutes to allow for quantitative colorimetric analysis by use of a widely accessible iPhone camera and an RGB color reader application…

  5. Coronary artery assessment by multidetector computed tomography in patients with prosthetic heart valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, Jesse; van den Brink, Renee B. A.; Uijlings, Ruben; Spijkerboer, Anje M.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Chamuleau, Steven A. J.; Budde, Ricardo P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Patients with prosthetic heart valves may require assessment for coronary artery disease. We assessed whether valve artefacts hamper coronary artery assessment by multidetector CT. Methods ECG-gated or -triggered CT angiograms were selected from our PACS archive based on the presence of p

  6. Holographic optical traps for atom-based topological Kondo devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccheri, F.; Bruce, G. D.; Trombettoni, A.; Cassettari, D.; Babujian, H.; Korepin, V. E.; Sodano, P.

    2016-07-01

    The topological Kondo (TK) model has been proposed in solid-state quantum devices as a way to realize non-Fermi liquid behaviors in a controllable setting. Another motivation behind the TK model proposal is the demand to demonstrate the quantum dynamical properties of Majorana fermions, which are at the heart of their potential use in topological quantum computation. Here we consider a junction of crossed Tonks-Girardeau gases arranged in a star-geometry (forming a Y-junction), and we perform a theoretical analysis of this system showing that it provides a physical realization of the TK model in the realm of cold atom systems. Using computer-generated holography, we experimentally implement a Y-junction suitable for atom trapping, with controllable and independent parameters. The junction and the transverse size of the atom waveguides are of the order of 5 μm, leading to favorable estimates for the Kondo temperature and for the coupling across the junction. Since our results show that all the required theoretical and experimental ingredients are available, this provides the demonstration of an ultracold atom device that may in principle exhibit the TK effect.

  7. A biosensor based on graphene nanoribbon with nanopores: a first-principles devices-design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ouyang Fang-Ping; Peng Sheng-Lin; Zhang Hua; Weng Li-Bo; Xu Hui

    2011-01-01

    A biosensor device, built from graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with nanopores, was designed and studied by firstprinciples quantum transport simulation. We have demonstrated the intrinsic transport properties of the device and the effect of different nucleobases on device properties when they are located in the nanopores of GNRs. It was found that the device's current changes remarkably with the species of nucleobases, which originates from their different chemical compositions and coupling strengths with GNRs. In addition, our first-principles results clearly reveal that the distinguished ability of a device's current depends on the position of the pore to some extent. These results may present a new way to read off the nucleobases sequence of a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecule by such GNRs-based device with designed nanopores

  8. Medical devices; immunology and microbiology devices; classification of nucleic acid-based devices for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and the genetic mutations associated with antibiotic resistance. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying nucleic acid-based in vitro diagnostic devices for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB-complex) and the genetic mutations associated with MTB-complex antibiotic resistance in respiratory specimens devices into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) because special controls, in addition to general controls, will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  9. History of the prosthetic treatment of impotence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretan, P N

    1989-02-01

    Early records of observations of the os penis or baculum in mammals go back to Aristotle. These heritable cartilaginous supports were noted to help the penis during copulation. Prosthetic surgery for treatment of impotence was born from the initial experience with the use of the "artificial os penis" (rib cartilage) in post-traumatic reconstruction in 1936. Slow progress was made with the use of extracavernosal acrylic stents, followed by intracavernosal polypropylene rods, and finally the silicone prosthesis over the next 20 years. The introduction in 1973 of the inert silicone semirigid prosthesis and inflatable prosthesis met with great successes. Most recently (1985), there has been development of self-contained prostheses that are technically more simple to insert. Today, much more is known about specific organic causes of impotence that are amenable to many successful nonprosthetic alternative therapies, adding more stimuli to continued innovations in prosthetic surgery for erectile dysfunction.

  10. Measuring the color of maxillofacial prosthetic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X; Johnston, W M; Seghi, R R

    2010-12-01

    Color information from different color-measuring systems varies during color matching in maxillofacial prosthetics. We studied the hypothesis that a non-contact measuring system and 4 contact color-measuring instruments perform comparably in accuracy and precision on measurements of pigmented maxillofacial elastomer specimens having human skin colors. Measurement comparisons in accuracy on opaque standard color patches were made in Phase I. In Phase II, the system with the best accuracy was used as the reference instrument, and comparisons in accuracy and precision on elastomer specimens were made. The CIEDE2000 color difference formula was used. Repeated-measures ANOVA with Tukey testing and linear regression analysis for CIELAB and color differences among the instruments were performed. The contact measuring systems perform differently in accuracy, possibly due to edge loss and other factors, but performed comparably in precision with the non-contact measuring instrument. This non-contact system is recommended for color measurement of maxillofacial prosthetic materials.

  11. Retinal prosthetics, optogenetics, and chemical photoswitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Robert; Pfeiffer, Rebecca; Jones, Bryan

    2014-10-15

    Three technologies have emerged as therapies to restore light sensing to profoundly blind patients suffering from late-stage retinal degenerations: (1) retinal prosthetics, (2) optogenetics, and (3) chemical photoswitches. Prosthetics are the most mature and the only approach in clinical practice. Prosthetic implants require complex surgical intervention and provide only limited visual resolution but can potentially restore navigational ability to many blind patients. Optogenetics uses viral delivery of type 1 opsin genes from prokaryotes or eukaryote algae to restore light responses in survivor neurons. Targeting and expression remain major problems, but are potentially soluble. Importantly, optogenetics could provide the ultimate in high-resolution vision due to the long persistence of gene expression achieved in animal models. Nevertheless, optogenetics remains challenging to implement in human eyes with large volumes, complex disease progression, and physical barriers to viral penetration. Now, a new generation of photochromic ligands or chemical photoswitches (azobenzene-quaternary ammonium derivatives) can be injected into a degenerated mouse eye and, in minutes to hours, activate light responses in neurons. These photoswitches offer the potential for rapidly and reversibly screening the vision restoration expected in an individual patient. Chemical photoswitch variants that persist in the cell membrane could make them a simple therapy of choice, with resolution and sensitivity equivalent to optogenetics approaches. A major complexity in treating retinal degenerations is retinal remodeling: pathologic network rewiring, molecular reprogramming, and cell death that compromise signaling in the surviving retina. Remodeling forces a choice between upstream and downstream targeting, each engaging different benefits and defects. Prosthetics and optogenetics can be implemented in either mode, but the use of chemical photoswitches is currently limited to downstream

  12. Maxillofacial Prosthetic Materials- An Inclination Towards Silicones

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Aparajita; Choudhary, Sunita; Garg, Hemlata; H.G., Jagadeesh

    2014-01-01

    There have been constant searches and researches which are taking place in the field of dental materials to best suit the ideal selection criteria to satisfy the functionality, biocompatibility, aesthetics as well as the durability as a maxillofacial material. Among all the different materials, Silicone is the most popularly used, but still studies are carried out to overcome their weaknesses and to come out with a material which can be labeled as the “ideal maxillofacial prosthetic material”...

  13. Prosthetic management of an ocular defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddesh Kumar Chintal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The disfigurement associated with the loss of an eye can cause significant physical and emotional problems. Various treatment modalities are available, one of which is implants. Although implant has a superior outcome, it may not be advisable in all patients due to economic factors. The present article describes the prosthetic management of an ocular defect with a custom-made ocular prosthesis.

  14. Tactile Sensing Reflexes for Advanced Prosthetic Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Quad Chart 37 1. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this research is to equip a myoelectric prosthetic hand with contact detecting sensors and a...controller to perform contact detection reflex (11-13 mos.) 80% • Program controller to perform software functions for clinical studies (12-13 mos.) 60...candidates have been ordered, and are having pressure relief holes laser drilled . A custom flexible component board that holds the pressure sensor

  15. Physically-based modelling of polycrystalline semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S

    2000-01-01

    model and characterisation method are introduced to study the effects of the multienergetic trap states on the electrical characteristics of poly-TFTs using CdSe devices as the experimental example, and the electrical parameters such as the density distribution of the trapping states are extracted. The results show excellent agreement between the simulation and experimental data. The limitations of this proposed physical model are also studied and discussed. Thin-film technology using polycrystalline semiconductors has been widely applied to active-matrix-addressed liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) where thin-film transistors act as digital pixel switches. Research and development is in progress to integrate the driver circuits around the peripheral of the display, resulting in significant cost reduction of connections between rows and columns and the peripheral circuitry. For this latter application, where for instance it is important to control the greyscale voltage level delivered to the pixel, an understan...

  16. SAW devices based on novel surface wave excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Joel; Dai, Lian

    2015-03-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices have applications in radio frequency and microwave filtering as well as highly sensitive sensors. Current SAW design employs the use of an array of electrode pairs, referred to as Inter-Digitated Transducers (IDTs) for creating and receiving surface waves on piezoelectric substrates. The pitch of the electrode pairs along with the properties of the substrate determine the operating frequency. The number of electrode pairs determine the bandwidth of the emitted waves. We will present a novel configuration that eliminates the need for the IDTs and replaces with with a single circular electrode located inside a larger ground ring. This configuration induces drumhead modes. We will show that the resonant frequencies follow the zeros of Bessel functions of the first kind. Applications in RF filtering and mass sensing will be presented.

  17. 25th anniversary article: carbon nanotube- and graphene-based transparent conductive films for optoelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jinhong; Pei, Songfeng; Ma, Laipeng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2014-04-02

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)- and graphene (G)-based transparent conductive films (TCFs) are two promising alternatives for commonly-used indium tin oxide-based TCFs for future flexible optoelectronic devices. This review comprehensively summarizes recent progress in the fabrication, properties, modification, patterning, and integration of CNT- and G-TCFs into optoelectronic devices. Their potential applications and challenges in optoelectronic devices, such as organic photovoltaic cells, organic light emitting diodes and touch panels, are discussed in detail. More importantly, their key characteristics and advantages for use in these devices are compared. Despite many challenges, CNT- and G-TCFs have demonstrated great potential in various optoelectronic devices and have already been used for some products like touch panels of smartphones. This illustrates the significant opportunities for the industrial use of CNTs and graphene, and hence pushes nanoscience and nanotechnology one step towards practical applications.

  18. Battery-Bandwidth Based Handover Framework for 3G/WLAN Using Android Handheld Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Prakash M V

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In a heterogeneous network environment, transparent horizontal and vertical handover is a much desired feature. Effective handover solution would allow mobile device users to stay steadily connected, seamlessly switching between different access networks. If it is consistently connected to networks which offers best Quality of Service (QoS then that would dramatically improve user experience. Switching of network requires more device energy and also high bandwidth to guarantee the QoS. Automatic handover between 3G and WLAN networks is typically done when the current network link is going down. Current devices does not consider these two major metrics during handover. Hence, we propose a framework for creating our own custom handover solutions which could run on the clients’ Android based mobile devices. To provide an example of using the framework, we implement and test our proposed framework in Android based hand held devices and showcase the improvement in QoS.

  19. Prosthetic reconstruction to restore function in transcarpal amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminger, S; Roche, A D; Hruby, L A; Sturma, A; Riedl, O; Bergmeister, K D; Aszmann, O C

    2016-03-01

    Mutilated hands at the distal level may pose a challenge for reconstruction. Biological treatment options may require multiple surgical interventions and a long rehabilitation course with little hope of good functional outcome. Standard hand prostheses are also not an ideal solution, as they are too long and cumbersome for partial hand injuries. This paper outlines the functional outcomes of prosthetic reconstruction with devices customized for the transcarpal amputation levels. The functional outcome was evaluated with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH). Functional evaluation was performed at least 12 months after final fitting. Psychological assessment was performed with the Short Form-36. The three patients achieved a mean ARAT score of 35.67 ± 0.58. The average SHAP score was 74 ± 7.81. The average DASH score was found to be 16.11 ± 12.03. The reconstructed hand achieved a score of 75.27 ± 8.16% in SHAP and 62.57 ± 1.02% in ARAT in relation to the healthy hand. All patients exhibited average physical and mental component summary scales in the Short Form-36. The majority of transcarpal amputations are seen in manual laborers due to work-related trauma. Returning to work is the main goal in such young and otherwise-healthy patients. As shown with this study, prosthetic fitting results in quick and reliable functional reconstruction. Therefore, this treatment should be considered as an option during the initial decision-making process of reconstructing difficult traumatic injuries of the hand.

  20. RSPF-based Prognosis Framework for Estimation of Remaining Useful Life in Energy Storage Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a case study where a RSPF-based prognosis framework is applied to estimate the remaining useful life of an energy storage device (Li-Ion...

  1. Flexible Graphene-based Energy Storage Devices for Space Application Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2014-01-01

    Develop prototype graphene-based reversible energy storage devices that are flexible, thin, lightweight, durable, and that can be easily attached to spacesuits, rovers, landers, and equipment used in space.

  2. High torque ultrasonic motors for hand prosthetics: current status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, J L; Rodríguez, H; Luyckx, I; Reynaerts, D; Ceres, R; Van Brussel, H

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the work carried out at the Instituto de Automática Industrial, in the framework of the EU MANUS project and with the co-operation of the Katholieke Universiteit of Leuven, to develop a specifically designed TWUM for driving our prototype of hand prosthesis. The application of TWUM to prosthetic devices has clear advanteges, namely, noiseless operation, self-braking drive, high torque and low speed characteristics. Here we analyse main actuation advantages, point out main drawbacks of this technology and describe our research in the area of specific design of TWUM for high torque actuation, improved control characteristics and enhanced overall performance. We intend to provide a concurrent approach to the overall actuator design involving electronics, mechanical design as well as improved control strategies having in mind the prosthetic application.

  3. Molecular characterization of an early invasive Staphylococcus epidermidis prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marnie E; Dever, Lisa L; Moucha, Calin S; Chavda, Kalyan D; Otto, Michael; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2011-09-01

    Historically regarded as a skin commensal, Staphylococcus epidermidis has been increasingly implicated in invasive foreign body infections such as catheter-related bloodstream infections, indwelling device infections, and prosthetic joint infections. We report a case of an aggressive, difficult-to-eradicate, invasive prosthetic hip infection occurring early after hardware implant and associated with a high-grade bacteremia and assess its salient molecular characteristics. The clinical and molecular characteristics of this isolate mirror the pathogenesis and persistence commonly seen with invasive methicillin-resistant S. aureus and may be attributed to the combination of resistance genes (SCCmec type IV), putative virulence factors (arcA and opp3a), cytolytic peptide production (α-type phenol-soluble modulins), and biofilm adhesion, interaction, and maturation (bhp, aap, and β-type phenol-soluble modulins).

  4. 100 top-cited scientific papers in limb prosthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Eshraghi, Arezoo; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Ali, Sadeeq; Shadgan, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Research has tremendously contributed to the developments in both practical and fundamental aspects of limb prosthetics. These advancements are reflected in scientific articles, particularly in the most cited papers. This article aimed to identify the 100 top-cited articles in the field of limb prosthetics and to investigate their main characteristics. Articles related to the field of limb prosthetics and published in the Web of Knowledge database of the Institute for Scientific Information (...

  5. Prosthetic options available for the diabetic lower limb amputee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitragari, Gautham; Mahler, David B; Sumpio, Brandon J; Blume, Peter A; Sumpio, Bauer E

    2014-01-01

    Although the rate of lower limb amputation in patients with diabetes is decreasing, amputation still remains a major complication of diabetes. Prosthetics have been long used to help amputees ambulate. The last decade has seen many advances in prostheses with the enhanced understanding of the mechanics of ambulation and improved use of technology. This review describes the different types of prosthetic options available for below knee, ankle, and foot amputees, emphasizing the latest advances in prosthetic design.

  6. Below knee prosthetic socket designs and suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M L

    2000-08-01

    The prosthetic socket must act as a customized connection between the residual limb's surrounding tissues and the prosthetic components. The socket must be designed to control weight bearing, suspension, and ambulation stability. When making a below-the-knee socket, the prosthetist attempts to maximize loading and minimize displacements, such as vertical, transverse, or rotational. This article discusses the engineering designs or shapes of the two basic forms of below-the-knee prosthetic sockets used today.

  7. Protein-based biomemory device consisting of the cysteine-modified azurin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Woo; Oh, Byung-Keun; Kim, Young Jun; Min, Junhong

    2007-12-01

    We demonstrated a protein-based memory device using recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin (azurin), a metalloprotein with a redox property. Azurin was recombined with a cysteine residue to enhance the stability of the self-assembled protein on the gold surface. The memory device characteristics, including the "read," "write," and "erase" functions of the self-assembled azurin layer, were well demonstrated with three distinct electrical states of azurin layers by cyclic voltammetry. The robustness of the protein-based biomemory device was validated by the repeated electrochemical performance of 500000cycles.

  8. [Wearable Medical Devices' MCU Selection Analysis Based on the ARM Cortex-MO+ Architecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zaoquan; Liu, Mengxing; Qin, Liping; Ye, Shuming; Chen, Hang

    2015-03-01

    According to the characteristics of low cost, high performance, high integration and long battery life of wearable medical devices, the mainstream low-power microcontroller(MCU) series were compared, and came to the conclusion that the MCU series based on ARM Cortex-M0+ architecture were suitable for the development of wearable medical devices. In aspects of power consumption, operational performance, integrated peripherals and cost, the MCU series based on Cortex-M0+ architecture of primary semiconductor companies were compared, aimed at providing the guides of MCU selection for wearable medical devices.

  9. Analogue spin-orbit torque device for artificial-neural-network-based associative memory operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, William A.; Akima, Hisanao; Fukami, Shunsuke; Moriya, Satoshi; Kurihara, Shouta; Horio, Yoshihiko; Sato, Shigeo; Ohno, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate associative memory operations reminiscent of the brain using nonvolatile spintronics devices. Antiferromagnet-ferromagnet bilayer-based Hall devices, which show analogue-like spin-orbit torque switching under zero magnetic fields and behave as artificial synapses, are used. An artificial neural network is used to associate memorized patterns from their noisy versions. We develop a network consisting of a field-programmable gate array and 36 spin-orbit torque devices. An effect of learning on associative memory operations is successfully confirmed for several 3 × 3-block patterns. A discussion on the present approach for realizing spintronics-based artificial intelligence is given.

  10. A droplet-based, optofluidic device for high-throughput, quantitative bioanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Feng; Lapsley, Michael Ian; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Zhao, Yanhui; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Chen, Yuchao; Yang, Shikuan; Zhao, Xing-Zhong; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of chemical or biomolecular contents in a tiny amount of specimen presents a significant challenge in many biochemical studies and diagnostic applications. In this work, we present a single-layer, optofluidic device for real-time, high-throughput, quantitative analysis of droplet contents. Our device integrates an optical fiber-based, on-chip detection unit with a droplet-based microfluidic unit. It can quantitatively analyze the contents of individual droplets in real-time. It also ...

  11. Integrated Graphene-Based Optoelectronic Devices Used for Ultrafast Optical-THz Photodetectors, Modulators and Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-03

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0083 TR-2015-0083 INTEGRATED GRAPHENE -BASED OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES USED FOR ULTRAFAST OPTICAL-THZ PHOTODETECTORS...From - To) 7 Nov 2011 – 12 Feb 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Integrated Graphene -Based Optoelectronic Devices Used for Ultrafast Optical-THz...quasiparticles in graphene electrons, phlasmons and electron-hole pairs with the ultimate goal to convert them into or be extracted from terahertz

  12. Technology Efficacy in Active Prosthetic Knees for Transfemoral Amputees: A Quantitative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M. El-Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have presented technological ensembles of active knee systems for transfemoral prosthesis. Other studies have examined the amputees’ gait performance while wearing a specific active prosthesis. This paper combined both insights, that is, a technical examination of the components used, with an evaluation of how these improved the gait of respective users. This study aims to offer a quantitative understanding of the potential enhancement derived from strategic integration of core elements in developing an effective device. The study systematically discussed the current technology in active transfemoral prosthesis with respect to its functional walking performance amongst above-knee amputee users, to evaluate the system’s efficacy in producing close-to-normal user performance. The performances of its actuator, sensory system, and control technique that are incorporated in each reported system were evaluated separately and numerical comparisons were conducted based on the percentage of amputees’ gait deviation from normal gait profile points. The results identified particular components that contributed closest to normal gait parameters. However, the conclusion is limitedly extendable due to the small number of studies. Thus, more clinical validation of the active prosthetic knee technology is needed to better understand the extent of contribution of each component to the most functional development.

  13. In vitro study of biofilm growth on biologic prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Charles; Smith, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Biologic prosthetics are increasingly used for the repair of abdominal wall hernia defects but can become infected as a result of peri- or early post-operative bacterial contamination. Data evaluating biofilm formation on biologic prosthetics is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different biologic prosthetics on the growth behavior of two different bacterial species and their ability to form biofilms. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Pseudomrnonas aeruginosa were incubated on disks of two biologic prosthetics-human acellular dermis (ADM), and porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS). The bacteria were allowed to attach to the prosthetics and propagate into mature biofilms for 24 hours at 370C. Images of biofilms were obtained using confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The number of viable cells and the biofilm biomass were quantified by colony forming units (CFUs) and crystal violet staining respectively. Analysis of variance was performed to compare the mean values for the different prosthetics. Each biologic matrix had a distinct surface characteristic. SEM visualized mature biofilms characterized by highly organized multi-cellular structures on surface of both biologic prosthetics. Quantification of bacterial growth over time showed that ADM had the lowest CFUs and biofilm biomass at 24 hours post-inoculation compared to SIS for both bacterial strains. MRSA and P. aeruginosa can form mature biofilms on biologic prosthetics but the relative abundance of the biofilm varies on different prosthetic constructs. Biologic material composition and manufacturing methods may influence bacterial adherence.

  14. 21 CFR 890.3420 - External limb prosthetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... total prosthesis. Examples of external limb prosthetic components include the following: Ankle, foot... shoulder joint components; and cable and prosthesis suction valves. (b) Classification. Class I...

  15. The role of osteoblasts in peri-prosthetic osteolysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, S C

    2013-08-01

    Peri-prosthetic osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening is the most common reason for revising total hip replacements. Wear particles originating from the prosthetic components interact with multiple cell types in the peri-prosthetic region resulting in an inflammatory process that ultimately leads to peri-prosthetic bone loss. These cells include macrophages, osteoclasts, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. The majority of research in peri-prosthetic osteolysis has concentrated on the role played by osteoclasts and macrophages. The purpose of this review is to assess the role of the osteoblast in peri-prosthetic osteolysis. In peri-prosthetic osteolysis, wear particles may affect osteoblasts and contribute to the osteolytic process by two mechanisms. First, particles and metallic ions have been shown to inhibit the osteoblast in terms of its ability to secrete mineralised bone matrix, by reducing calcium deposition, alkaline phosphatase activity and its ability to proliferate. Secondly, particles and metallic ions have been shown to stimulate osteoblasts to produce pro inflammatory mediators in vitro. In vivo, these mediators have the potential to attract pro-inflammatory cells to the peri-prosthetic area and stimulate osteoclasts to absorb bone. Further research is needed to fully define the role of the osteoblast in peri-prosthetic osteolysis and to explore its potential role as a therapeutic target in this condition.

  16. Design of a prosthetic hand with remote actuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kurt; Perez-Gracia, Alba

    2012-01-01

    One of the main issues of prosthetic hands is to be able to fulfill all the specifications about speed, torque, weight and inertia while placing all the components within the prosthetic hand. This is especially true when full dexterity is required in the prosthesis. In this paper, a new design for a prosthetic hand is presented, which uses remote actuation in order to satisfy most of those requirements. The actuators are to be located in the back of the subject and the transmission is implemented via cables. Other characteristics of this new prosthetic hand include torque limitation and the possibility of switching between underactuated and fully actuated functions.

  17. Dental prosthetic status and prosthetic need of the institutionalized elderly living in geriatric homes in mangalore: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Rekha P; Hegde, Vijaya

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. To promote oral health among the elderly, we need to know their prosthetic status and prosthetic need. Hence, a survey of prosthetic status and need of elderly inmates of old age homes in Mangalore was done. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was undertaken, and 133 subjects aged 60 years and above were examined (54.9% males and 45.1% females). Results. Eighty-eight percent of those examined were fully edentulous, and only 12% had complete dentures; none of the study subjects had partial dentures. Prosthetic status was significantly associated with gender (P = .024), while prosthetic need and gender were not significantly associated (P = .395). Conclusions. A high unmet need for prosthetic care existed among the institutionalized elderly surveyed.

  18. A five-fingered underactuated prosthetic hand: hardware and its control scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing-dong; JIANG Li; CAI He-gao; LIU hong

    2008-01-01

    A five-fingered underactuated prosthetic hand controlled by surface EMG (electromyographic) sig-nals is presented in this paper. The prosthetic hand was designed with simplicity, lightweight and dexterity on the requirement of anthropomorphic hands. Underactuated self-adaptive theory was adopted to decrease the number of motors and weight. The control part of the prosthetic hand was based on a surface EMG motion pat-tern classifier which combines LM-based (Levenberg-Marquardt) neural network with the parametric AR ( au-toregressive) model. This motion pattern classifier can successfully identify the flexions of the thumb, the index finger and the middle finger by measuring the surface EMG signals through two electrodes mounted on the flexor digitorum profundus and flexor pollicis longus. Furthermore, via continuously controlling a single finger' s mo-tion, the five-fingered underactuated prosthetic hand can achieve more prehensile postures such as power grasp,centralized grip, fingertip grasp, cylindrical grasp, etc. The experimental results show that the classifier has a great potential application to the control of bionic man-machine systems because of its fast learning speed, high recognition capability and strong robustness.

  19. A novel design method of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands for reproducing human hand grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baiyang; Xiong, Caihua; Chen, Wenrui; Zhang, Qiaofei; Mao, Liu; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Because hand is often used for grasping, developing a design of prosthetic hands, particularly light and compact underactuated anthropomorphic transradial prostheses for reproducing human hand complex grasping is crucial for upper-limb amputees. Obviously, the less the number of actuators is, the worse the anthropomorphic motion capability of the prosthetic hands will be. This paper aims to design a transmission mechanism with few motors actuating fingers which could serve the relatively accurate grasp movement of a human hand and has the potential to be embedded in a palm including the motors. We start with establishing an index for evaluating the anthropomorphic motion capability of a prosthetic hand. Based on the optimization of this index, we determine the number of actuators in fingers and the transmission relationship between the actuators and the metacarpophalangeal(MCP) joints. Then, a new design method to mechanically implement the transmission relationship based on a novel decomposition of transmission matrix is proposed in this paper. Utilizing this method, we obtained the final mechanical structure of a new prosthetic hand.

  20. Integrated optic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tomme, Emmanuel; van Daele, Peter P.; Baets, Roel G.; Lagasse, Paul E.

    1991-03-01

    An examination is made of the state of the art of nonlinear optical polymeric materials in view of their potential advantages. It is shown that these organic materials have many attractive features compared to LiNbO3 and III-V semiconductors with regard to their use in integrated optic circuits, especially since the level of integration is ever increasing. Considering more specifically electro-optic devices, a description is given of some of the theoretical background and basic properties. These polymers have already demonstrated a very high and extremely fast electro-optic effect compared to LiNbO3. It is also shown how low-loss waveguides can be fabricated by using easy techniques such as direct UV bleaching. The performance of phase modulators, Mach-Zehnder interferometers, and 2 x 2 space switches built with such polymers is already very promising. The results described in this study indicate a rapid rate of progress made by this technology, and one can expect that polymers in general and NLO polymers in particular will play an increasingly important role in integrated optics.

  1. Cobaloxime-based photo-catalytic devices for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fihri, A.; Artero, V.; Razavet, M.; Baffert, C.; Fontecave, M. [CEA Grenoble, DSV, iRTSV, Lab Chim et Biol Metaux, CNRS, UMR 5249, Univ Grenoble 1, F-38054 Grenoble 9 (France); Leibl, W. [CEA, DSV, iBiTecS, Lab Photocatalyse et Biohydrogene, CNRS, URA 2096, Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper is described the synthesis and activity of a series of novel hetero-dinuclear ruthenium-cobaloxime photo-catalysts able to achieve the photochemical production of hydrogen with the highest turnover numbers so far reported for such devices. First of all, substituting cobalt for rare and expensive platinum, palladium, or rhodium metals in photo-catalysts is a first step toward economically viable hydrogen production. Cobaloximes appear to be good candidates for H{sub 2}-evolving catalysts, and they may provide a good basis for the design of photo-catalysts that function in pure water as both the solvent and the sustainable proton source. Secondly, a molecular connection between the sensitizer and the H{sub 2}-evolving catalyst seems to provide advantages regarding the photo-catalytic activity. Structural modifications of this connection should allow a better tuning of the electron transfer between the light-harvesting unit and the catalytic center and thus an increase of the efficiency of the system. (O.M.)

  2. Learning-Based Detection of Harmful Data in Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Woo Jang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has supported diverse types of multimedia content flowing freely on smart phones and tablet PCs based on its easy accessibility. However, multimedia content that can be emotionally harmful for children is also easily spread, causing many social problems. This paper proposes a method to assess the harmfulness of input images automatically based on an artificial neural network. The proposed method first detects human face areas based on the MCT features from the input images. Next, based on color characteristics, this study identifies human skin color areas along with the candidate areas of nipples, one of the human body parts representing harmfulness. Finally, the method removes nonnipple areas among the detected candidate areas using the artificial neural network. The experimental results show that the suggested neural network learning-based method can determine the harmfulness of various types of images more effectively by detecting nipple regions from input images robustly.

  3. A personalized 3D-printed prosthetic joint replacement for the human temporomandibular joint: From implant design to implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackland, David C; Robinson, Dale; Redhead, Michael; Lee, Peter Vee Sin; Moskaljuk, Adrian; Dimitroulis, George

    2017-05-01

    Personalized prosthetic joint replacements have important applications in cases of complex bone and joint conditions where the shape and size of off-the-shelf components may not be adequate. The objective of this study was to design, test and fabricate a personalized 3D-printed prosthesis for a patient requiring total joint replacement surgery of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The new 'Melbourne' prosthetic TMJ design featured a condylar component sized specifically to the patient and fixation screw positions that avoid potential intra-operative damage to the mandibular nerve. The Melbourne prosthetic TMJ was developed for a 58-year-old female recipient with end-stage osteoarthritis of the TMJ. The load response of the prosthesis during chewing and a maximum-force bite was quantified using a personalized musculoskeletal model of the patient's masticatory system developed using medical images. The simulations were then repeated after implantation of the Biomet Microfixation prosthetic TMJ, an established stock device. The maximum condylar stresses, screw stress and mandibular stress at the screw-bone interface were lower in the Melbourne prosthetic TMJ (259.6MPa, 312.9MPa and 198.4MPa, respectively) than those in the Biomet Microfixation device (284.0MPa, 416.0MPa and 262.2MPa, respectively) during the maximum-force bite, with similar trends also observed during the chewing bite. After trialing surgical placement and evaluating prosthetic TMJ stability using cadaveric specimens, the prosthesis was fabricated using 3D printing, sterilized, and implanted into the female recipient. Six months post-operatively, the prosthesis recipient had a normal jaw opening distance (40.0 mm), with no complications identified. The new design features and immediate load response of the Melbourne prosthetic TMJ suggests that it may provide improved clinical and biomechanical joint function compared to a commonly used stock device, and reduce risk of intra-operative nerve damage

  4. Detection of nucleic acids by graphene-based devices: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hua [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Xu, Hui, E-mail: xuhui@csu.edu.cn, E-mail: ouyangfp06@tsinghua.org.cn; Ni, Xiang; Lin Peng, Sheng; Liu, Qi; Ping OuYang, Fang, E-mail: xuhui@csu.edu.cn, E-mail: ouyangfp06@tsinghua.org.cn [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2014-04-07

    Based on first-principles quantum transport calculations, we design a graphene-based biosensor device, which is composed of graphene nanoribbons electrodes and a biomolecule. It is found that when different nucleobases or poly nucleobase chains are located in the nanogap, the device presents completely different transport properties, showing different current informations. And the change of currents from 2 to 5 orders of magnitude for four different nucleobases suggests a great ability of discrimination by utilizing such a device. The physical mechanism of this phenomenon originates from their different chemical composition and structure. Moreover, we also explore the coupling effect of several neighboring bases and the size effect of the nanogap on transport properties. Our results show the possibility of rapid sequencing DNA by measuring such a transverse-current of the device, and provide a new idea for sequencing DNA.

  5. [Web-based support system for medical device maintenance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinhai; Hou, Wensheng; Chen, Haiyan; Tang, Wei; Wang, Yihui

    2015-01-01

    A Web-based technology system was put forward aiming at the actual problems of the long maintenance cycle and the difficulties of the maintenance and repairing of medical equipments. Based on analysis of platform system structure and function, using the key technologies such as search engine, BBS, knowledge base and etc, a platform for medical equipment service technician to use by online or offline was designed. The platform provides users with knowledge services and interactive services, enabling users to get a more ideal solution.

  6. Organic bistable memory devices based on MoO3 nanoparticle embedded Alq3 structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhijith, T.; Kumar, T. V. Arun; Reddy, V. S.

    2017-03-01

    Organic bistable memory devices were fabricated by embedding a thin layer of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) between two tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) layers. The device exhibited excellent switching characteristics with an ON/OFF current ratio of 1.15 × 103 at a read voltage of 1 V. The device showed repeatable write–erase capability and good stability in both the conductance states. These conductance states are non-volatile in nature and can be obtained by applying appropriate voltage pulses. The effect of MoO3 layer thickness and its location in the Alq3 matrix on characteristics of the memory device was investigated. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images of the MoO3 layer revealed the presence of isolated nanoparticles. Based on the experimental results, a mechanism has been proposed for explaining the conductance switching of fabricated devices.

  7. Efficient light-emitting devices based on platinum-complexes-anchored polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane materials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2010-08-24

    The synthesis, photophysical, and electrochemical characterization of macromolecules, consisting of an emissive platinum complex and carbazole moieties covalently attached to a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) core, is reported. Organic light-emitting devices based on these POSS materials exhibit a peak external quantum efficiency of ca. 8%, which is significantly higher than that of the analogous devices with a physical blend of the platinum complexes and a polymer matrix, and they represent noticeable improvement in the device efficiency of solution-processable phosphorescent excimer devices. Furthermore, the ratio of monomer and excimer/aggregate electroluminescent emission intensity, as well as the device efficiency, increases as the platinum complex moiety presence on the POSS macromolecules decreases. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Dielectric Coating Thermal Stabilization During GaAs-Based Laser Fabrication for Improved Device Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Michael K.; Millsapp, Jamal E.; Turner, George W.

    2016-06-01

    The quality and yield of GaAs-based ridge waveguide devices fabricated at MIT Lincoln Laboratory were negatively impacted by the random lot-to-lot appearance of blisters in the front-side contact metal. The blisters signaled compromised adhesion between the front-side contact metal, underlying SiO2 dielectric coating, and semiconductor surface. A thermal-anneal procedure developed for the fabrication of GaAs slab coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) ridge waveguide devices stabilizes the SiO2 dielectric coating by means of outgassing and stress reduction. This process eliminates a primary source of adhesion loss, as well as blister generation, and thereby significantly improves device yield. Stoney's equation was used to analyze stress-induced bow in device wafers fabricated using this stabilization procedure. This analysis suggests that changes in wafer bow contribute to the incidence of metal blisters in SCOW devices.

  9. Low-cost rapid prototyping of flexible plastic paper based microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-04-01

    This research presents a novel rapid prototyping method for paper-based flexible microfluidic devices. The microchannels were fabricated using laser ablation on a piece of plastic paper (permanent paper), the dimensions of the microchannels was carefully studied for various laser powers and scanning speeds. After laser ablation of the microchannels on the plastic paper, a transparent poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) film was thermally bonded to the plastic paper to enclose the channels. After connection of tubing, the device was ready to use. An example microfluidic device (droplet generator) was also fabricated using this technique. Due to the flexibility of the fabricated device, this technique can be used to fabricate 3D microfluidic devices. The fabrication process was simple and rapid without any requirement of cleanroom facilities. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Fabrication techniques and applications of flexible graphene-based electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luqi, Tao; Danyang, Wang; Song, Jiang; Ying, Liu; Qianyi, Xie; He, Tian; Ningqin, Deng; Xuefeng, Wang; Yi, Yang; Tian-Ling, Ren

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, flexible electronic devices have become a hot topic of scientific research. These flexible devices are the basis of flexible circuits, flexible batteries, flexible displays and electronic skins. Graphene-based materials are very promising for flexible electronic devices, due to their high mobility, high elasticity, a tunable band gap, quantum electronic transport and high mechanical strength. In this article, we review the recent progress of the fabrication process and the applications of graphene-based electronic devices, including thermal acoustic devices, thermal rectifiers, graphene-based nanogenerators, pressure sensors and graphene-based light-emitting diodes. In summary, although there are still a lot of challenges needing to be solved, graphene-based materials are very promising for various flexible device applications in the future. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60936002, 61025021, 61434001, 61574083), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002) and the Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest of China (No. 201303107). M.A.M is additionally supported by the Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF) Program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and China's Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF).

  11. Graphene based Photonics Devices for Remote Sensing Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop scalable graphene-based bolometer technology. Use low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) technique to grow large area graphene. Develop a process to...

  12. Stackelberg Game Based Power Allocation for Physical Layer Security of Device-to-device Communication Underlaying Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Junyue; Cai, Yueming; Wu, Dan; Chen, Hualiang

    2014-05-01

    The problem of power allocation for device-to-device (D2D) underlay communication to improve physical layer security is addressed. Specifically, to improve the secure communication of the cellular users, we introduce a Stackelberg game for allocating the power of the D2D link under a total power constraint and a rate constraint at the D2D pair. In the introduced Stackelberg game the D2D pair works as a seller and the cellular UEs work as buyers. Firstly, because the interference signals from D2D pair are unknown to both the legitimate receiver and the illegitimate eavesdropper, it is possible that a cellular UE decline to participate in the introduced Stackelberg game. So the condition under which a legitimate user will participate in the introduced Stackelberg game is discussed. Then, based on the Stackelberg game, we propose a semi-distributed power allocation algorithm, which is proved to conclude after finite-time iterations. In the end, some simulations are presented to verify the performance improvement in the physical layer security of cellular UEs using the proposed power allocation algorithm. We can determine that with the proposed algorithm, while the D2D pair's communication demand is met, the physical layer security of cellular UEs can be improved.

  13. Terahertz Performance of a GaN-Based Planar Nanochannel Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a combined two-dimensional-three-dimensional (2D-3D ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC model, the performance of a planar nanochannel device is studied at the terahertz (THz region. The device is based on a GaN/AlGaN heterostructure in which a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG forms at the interface. Simulation results reveal that, at low working frequencies, the performance of the device is almost frequency independent. However, when the working frequency is higher than 0.5 THz, obvious enhancements in the device performance have been observed. The enhancements are characterized by two resonant peaks at frequencies of about 4 THz and 8 THz. Also, the frequency-dependent performance exhibits nonmonotonicity. Further studies show that the performance enhancements can be attributed to the excitations of 2D plasma waves in the device, with the emergence of the above resonant peaks corresponding to the formation of standing plasma waves. Moreover, simulation results show that the device performance increases monotonically with signal amplitude, when the device is unbiased. However, when a DC bias is applied, the performance remains almost unchanged for large signals but is significantly enhanced for small signals. Therefore, the device performance shows a strong nonmonotonic dependence on signal amplitude, and its minimal value occurs when the signal amplitude is only about 2 times the DC bias.

  14. Introduction. Carbon-based electronics: fundamentals and device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Robin J; Mainwood, Alison; Eaves, Laurence

    2008-01-28

    Carbon-based materials offer a number of exciting possibilities for both new science and applications. Many of these are based on the novel band structure of graphene, by which solids mimic the properties of relativistic fermions and which offers the potential for high speed nanoscale electronics. When sheets of graphene are rolled up to make carbon nanotubes, further interesting properties are found; for example, both semiconducting and metallic nanotubes able to be produced. The novel properties of these new materials, together with the already remarkable properties of diamond itself, are discussed by a series of experts who came together in May 2007 to discuss and debate the potential for future development.

  15. The Role of Fast Carrier Dynamics in SOA Based Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Berg, Tommy Winther; Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup;

    2004-01-01

    We describe the characteristics of all-optical switching schemes based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), with particular emphasis on the role of the fast carrier dynamics. The SOA response to a single short pulse as well as to a data-modulated pulse train is investigated and the propert......We describe the characteristics of all-optical switching schemes based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), with particular emphasis on the role of the fast carrier dynamics. The SOA response to a single short pulse as well as to a data-modulated pulse train is investigated...

  16. Novel optical devices based on the tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid and their characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yong, E-mail: zhaoyong@ise.neu.edu.cn [College of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang Yuyan [College of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Shenyang Institute of Engineering, Shenyang 110136 (China); Lv Riqing; Wang Qi [College of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2011-12-15

    As a new type of functional material, magnetic fluid (MF) is a stable colloid of magnetic nanoparticles, dressed with surfactant and dispersed in the carrier liquid uniformly. The MF has many unique optical properties, and the most important one is its tunable refractive index property. This paper summarizes the properties of the MF refractive index and the related optical devices. The refractive index can be easily controlled by external magnetic field, temperature, and so on. But the tunable refractive index of MF has a relaxation effect. As a result, the response time is more than milliseconds and the MF is only suitable for low speed environment. Compared with the traditional optical devices, the magnetic fluid based optical devices have the tuning ability. Compared with the tunable optical devices (the electro-optic devices (LiNbO{sub 3}) of more than 10 GHz modulation speed, acoustic-optic devices (Ge) of more than 20 MHz modulation speed), the speed of the magnetic fluid based optical devices is low. Now there are many applications of magnetic fluid based on the refractive index in the field of optical information communication and sensing technology, such as tunable beam splitter, optical-fiber modulator, tunable optical gratings, tunable optical filter, optical logic device, tunable interferometer, and electromagnetic sensor. With the development of the research and application of magnetic fluid,a new method, structure and material to improve the response time can be found, which will play an important role in the fields of optical information communication and sensing technology. - Highlights: > Magnetic fluid is a new type of functional material, which has many unique optical properties. > We summarize the tunable refractive index property and the related optical devices. > Refractive index can be easily controlled by external magnetic field, temperature and so on. > There are many applications in the field of optical communication and sensing technology

  17. Studies on GaN-based laser devices make progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A research team led by YANG Hui and CHEN Lianghui with the CAS Institute of Semiconductors (ISCAS) has made breakthrough progress in addressing key technological problems for the GaN-based laser diodes development. The research results were spoken highly at a panel meeting of experts held on 26 November, 2007 in Beijing.

  18. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics.

  19. Field-based validation of a tactile navigation device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, L.R.; Erp, J. van; Redden, E.S.; Duistermaat, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present three field-based evaluations of a tactile land navigation system. In Experiment 1, we transition from a laboratory setting to rugged terrain used to train US Army soldier land navigation. Navigation in this challenging terrain requires careful attention to one's surroundin

  20. Data base management system configuration specification. [computer storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiers, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The functional requirements and the configuration of the data base management system are described. Techniques and technology which will enable more efficient and timely transfer of useful data from the sensor to the user, extraction of information by the user, and exchange of information among the users are demonstrated.