Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L
Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community......-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education......, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport...
Physics education research has shown that learning environments that engage students and allow them to take an active part in their learning can lead to large conceptual gains compared to those of good traditional instruction. Examples of successful curricula and methods include Peer Instruction, Just in Time Teaching, RealTime Physics, Workshop Physics, Scale-Up, and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs). RealTime Physics promotes interaction among students in a laboratory setting and makes use of powerful real-time data logging tools to teach concepts as well as quantitative relationships. An active learning environment is often difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions and Workshop Physics and Scale-Up largely eliminate lectures in favor of collaborative student activities. Peer Instruction, Just in Time Teaching, and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) make lectures more interactive in complementary ways. This presentation will introduce these reforms and use Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) with the audience to illustrate the types of curricula and tools used in the curricula above. ILDs make use real experiments, real-time data logging tools and student interaction to create an active learning environment in large lecture classes. A short video of students involved in interactive lecture demonstrations will be shown. The results of research studies at various institutions to measure the effectiveness of these methods will be presented.
McKenzie, Thomas L.
Physical activity is place-based, and being able to assess the number of people and their characteristics in specific locations is important both for public health surveillance and for practitioners in their design of physical activity spaces and programs. Although physical activity measurement has improved recently, many investigators avoid or…
Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.
Physical activity (PA) participation levels among youth remain well below national recommendations. Thus, a variety of strategies to promote youth PA have been advocated, including multifaceted, school-based approaches. One identified as having great potential is a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). The goal of a CSPAP is to…
Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip
Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…
Hager, Ronald L.; Hardy, Aaron; Aldana, Steven G.; George, James D.
Evaluated the impact of online, stage-based materials on exercise behavior and stage of readiness to change. College faculty participated in stage-based, action-message, or control groups. Occupational and leisure activity, 7-day physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and stage of readiness to change were assessed at baseline and 6 weeks.…
Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Todosijczuk, Ivan; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini
The authors conducted a secondary analysis on 202 adults from the Physical Activity Workplace Study. The aim of this analysis was to examine demographic characteristics associated with reading Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), being motivated by the guide, and whether participants in the Physical Activity Workplace Study who read the CPAG increased their physical activity levels over 1 year. Results revealed that less than 50% of participants read the full version of CPAG, and less than 10% were motivated by it. The CPAG also appears to be more appealing to and effective for women than for men. Although the CPAG had some influence in increasing mild physical activity levels in a workplace sample, there was also a decrease in physical activity levels among some members of the group. Overall, the effectiveness of CPAG was not substantial, and the findings of this analysis could help guide future targeted intervention materials and programs.
... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...
Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.
The development of research-based active-learning instructional methods in physics has significantly altered the landscape of U.S. physics education during the past 20 years. Based on a recent review [D.E. Meltzer and R.K. Thornton, Am. J. Phys. 80, 478 (2012)], we define these methods as those (1) explicitly based on research in the learning and teaching of physics, (2) that incorporate classroom and/or laboratory activities that require students to express their thinking through speaking, writing, or other actions that go beyond listening and the copying of notes, or execution of prescribed procedures, and (3) that have been tested repeatedly in actual classroom settings and have yielded objective evidence of improved student learning. We describe some key features common to methods in current use. These features focus on (a) recognizing and addressing students' physics ideas, and (b) guiding students to solve problems in realistic physical settings, in novel and diverse contexts, and to justify or explain the reasoning they have used.
Kosma, Maria; Cardinal, Bradley J
Given the benefits of physical activity and the high proportion of inactivity among older adults, the purpose was to elicit theory-based behavioral, normative, and control physical activity beliefs among 140 educationally and economically diverse older adults and compare their beliefs by race (Blacks vs. Whites) and physical activity levels (inactive/underactive vs. highly active individuals). This was an elicitation study that took place in eight, mostly rural community settings in a Southeastern US state, such as Council of Aging Offices, retirement centers, and churches. Participants' behavioral, normative, and control beliefs were elicited via in person interviews. A valid and reliable questionnaire was also used to assess their physical activity levels. According to the content analysis, inactive/underactive participants reported fewer physical activity advantages than highly active participants. Common physical activity advantages between the two groups were overall health, emotional functioning, and physical functioning. Similar physical activity advantages were reported among Blacks and Whites with overall health being the most important advantage. The most common physical activity disadvantages and barriers for all four groups were falls, injuries, pain, and health issues. Inactive/underactive individuals and Blacks tended to report more disadvantages and barriers than their peers. Common physical activity supporters were family members, friends and peers, and health-care professionals. In their physical activity motivational programs, health promoters should reinforce physical activity benefits, social support, access to activity programs, and safety when intervening among older adults.
Kari, Jaana T; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Tammelin, Tuija H
This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women) who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day). In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity.
Objectives. Non-communicable diseases and limited participation in school physical education have become increasing concerns in South Africa. In response to these concerns, a schoolbased physical activity intervention, Healthnutz, was implemented in three primary schools in Alexandra Township, Johannesburg.
Largo-Wight, Erin; Todorovich, John R.; O'Hara, Brian K.
Understanding and promoting physical activity is critical to combat the growing obesity epidemic in the U.S. This study was designed to compare two 10-week physical activity programs among college students. One hundred and thirty-six undergraduate college students participated in this randomized posttest only control group study. Seventy-seven…
Naylor, Patti-Jean; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Race, Douglas; Hoy, Christa; Ashe, Maureen C; Wharf Higgins, Joan; McKay, Heather A
Implementation science is an emerging area in physical activity (PA) research. We sought to establish the current state of the evidence related to implementation of school-based PA models to explore 1) the relationship between implementation and health outcomes, and 2) factors that influence implementation. We searched 7 electronic databases (1995-2014) and included controlled studies of school-based PA programmes for healthy youth (6-18 y) measuring at least one physical health-related outcome. For objective 1, studies linked implementation level to student-level health outcome(s). For objective 2, studies reported factors associated with implementation. There was substantial variability in how health outcomes and implementation were assessed. Few studies linked implementation and health outcomes (n=15 interventions). Most (11/15) reported a positive relationship between implementation and at least one health outcome. Implementation factors were reported in 29 interventions. Of 22 unique categories, time was the most prevalent influencing factor followed by resource availability/quality and supportive school climate. Implementation evaluation supports scale-up of effective school-based PA interventions and thus population-level change. Our review serves as a call to action to 1) address the link between implementation and outcome within the school-based PA literature and 2) improve and standardize definitions and measurement of implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik
Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....
Full Text Available In the last decades, an alarming rise in prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been observed which is partly attributed to a lack in physical activity and has started to become a public health concern. Therefore, the necessity for accurate physical activity assessment has become more and more apparent. Physical activity can be assessed objectively using accelerometers or combined devices. The application of such devices is sometimes complex and wearing the device may influence the behaviour of the test person. Therefore, assessment without any worn device would be an advantage.
Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.
Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…
Wieringa, Wilko; op den Akker, Harm; Jones, Valerie M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.
This article describes a new, AI-inspired telemedicine system for providing feedback on daily activity. Optimising daily levels of physical activity is an important focus in the treatment of chronic illnesses. An ambulatory monitoring and feedback system has been developed to monitor activity and
Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Pirzadeh, Asiyeh
Today, many jobs are associated with the inactivity or sedentary lifestyle. Employees' health will be affected by their depriving of the benefits of physical activity (PA). Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the PA among employee women in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences based on the transtheoretical model. This is a cross-sectional study has been performed in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences employee women (2013). A convenience sample of 100 women was selected. Data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire in three parts (demographics information, PA scale, and TTM constructs). Data were analyzed by SPSS SPSS (version 16.0; SPSS, IBM, Inc, Chicago, IL, USA) and descriptive and analytical statistics such as ANOVA and independent t-test were used. A two-tailed P employee.
van Sluijs, E.M.F.; van Poppel-Bruinvels, M.N.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Brug, J.; van Mechelen, W.
PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise) is an individualized theory-based minimal intervention strategy aimed at the enhancement of regular physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a PACE intervention applied by general practitioners (GPs)
As we move into the 21st Century, nuclear technology is on the verge of rejuvenation in advanced Member States and of expansion in developing Member States. The principal responsibilities of the IAEA are transferring technologies, co-ordinating scientific research, managing specialized projects and maintaining analytical quality control. The IAEA physics activities provide assistance with nuclear instrumentation, promote more effective utilization of research reactors and accelerators, and facilitate global co-operation in nuclear fusion research. These activities will help Member States improve their standards of living through the benefits of nuclear technology. This booklet presents a brief profile on the physics activities and involvement in these fields of the Physics Section, IAEA
David Molero López-Barajas
Full Text Available The aims of this article are to evaluate the physical self-concept in adolescence and to get to know the outcomes in the perceptions of the different dimensions in the physical self-concept. Furthermore, we aim to check the existence of noticeable differences in the outcomes regarding gender variables and regarding the level of physical activity of those polled. The sample consists of 81 individuals divided in two groups: secondary school teenager students and swimmers in adolescence. We use the Physical Self-concept Questionnaire (PSQ as a tool for getting information; there are six scales: physical skills, physical conditions, physical charming, strength, and general physical self-concept. We use the Physical Self-concept Questionnaire (PSQ as an instrument of collection of information which consists of 6 different scales: physical skills, physical condition, physical attractiveness, strength and general self-concept. We will show the results in two different analysis of the variant. In the first one we have found remarkable differences as far as the statistic point of view is concerned in gender perceptions in the scales of physical skills, physical condition, strength and general physical self-concept in favour of men (p<0,05. In the second analysis we have checked the existence of noticeable differences between the two groups of young people within the scales of physical skills and strength in favour of those who practice physical activity regularly (p<0,05.
James, Peter; Hart, Jaime E; Hipp, J Aaron; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hurvitz, Philip M; Glanz, Karen; Laden, Francine
Background: Physical inactivity is a risk factor for cancer that may be influenced by environmental factors. Indeed, dense and well-connected built environments and environments with natural vegetation may create opportunities for higher routine physical activity. However, studies have focused primarily on residential environments to define exposure and self-reported methods to estimate physical activity. This study explores the momentary association between minute-level global positioning systems (GPS)-based greenness exposure and time-matched objectively measured physical activity. Methods: Adult women were recruited from sites across the United States. Participants wore a GPS device and accelerometer on the hip for 7 days to assess location and physical activity at minute-level epochs. GPS records were linked to 250 m resolution satellite-based vegetation data and Census Block Group-level U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Smart Location Database walkability data. Minute-level generalized additive mixed models were conducted to test for associations between GPS measures and accelerometer count data, accounting for repeated measures within participant and allowing for deviations from linearity using splines. Results: Among 360 adult women (mean age of 55.3 ± 10.2 years), we observed positive nonlinear relationships between physical activity and both greenness and walkability. In exploratory analyses, the relationships between environmental factors and physical activity were strongest among those who were white, had higher incomes, and who were middle-aged. Conclusions: Our results indicate that higher levels of physical activity occurred in areas with higher greenness and higher walkability. Impact: Findings suggest that planning and design policies should focus on these environments to optimize opportunities for physical activity. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 525-32. ©2017 AACR See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Geospatial
Sternfeld, Barbara; Jiang, Sheng-Fang; Picchi, Teresa; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Ainsworth, Barbara; Quesenberry, Charles P
Physical activity (PA) diaries reduce the recall error inherent in self-reported PA but are burdensome. The purpose of this study was to compare a cell phone-based diary with a paper diary and examine the reliability and validity of the cell phone diary. In a pilot study, 25 women and 23 men, age 45-65 yr, completed cell phone and paper PA diaries 4 d·wk(-1) for three consecutive weeks and a user satisfaction survey. In the subsequent validation study, 623 middle-age participants (52.5% women) were asked to complete the cell phone diary and wear an accelerometer for two 7-d periods, approximately 6 months apart. They also completed two PA questionnaires. Fitness, body mass index, and percent body fat were obtained as indirect validation criteria. Estimates of PA from the cell phone and paper diaries were similar (mean within person difference = -43.8 MET·min·d(-1) of total PA, SD = 360, P = 0.49, 7.4 min·d(-1) of moderate-vigorous PA, SD = 66, P = 0.53). Users preferred the cell phone diary over the paper diary (59.6% vs 35.4%). In the subsequent study, intraclass correlations for the cell phone diary ranged from 0.55 for light PA to 0.63 for vigorous PA. Although PA estimates from the cell phone diary were generally significantly higher than those from the accelerometer and the questionnaires, correlations for moderate and vigorous PA were moderate (ρ = 0.25-0.59 with the questionnaires and 0.27-0.35 with the accelerometer). The correlations between the cell phone diary and the indirect validation criteria were generally in the expected direction and of moderate magnitude. A cell phone-based PA diary is equivalent to a paper diary, acceptable to users, and a relatively reliable and valid approach to self-reported PA.
De Vera, Mary A.; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek
Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005–2006. Reliability was examined u...
Full Text Available There is limited understanding of the relationship between physical activity and use of screen-based media, two important behaviors associated with adolescents’ health outcomes. To understand this relationship, researchers may need to consider not only physical activity level but also physical activity experience (i.e., affective experience obtained from doing physical activity. Using a sample predominantly consisting of African and Latino American urban adolescents, this study examined the interrelationships between physical activity experience, physical activity level, and use of screen-based media during leisure time. Data collected using self-report, paper and pencil surveys was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that physical activity experience was positively associated with physical activity level and had a direct negative relationship with use of non-active video games for males and a direct negative relationship with use of computer/Internet for both genders, after controlling for physical activity level. Physical activity level did not have a direct relationship with use of non-active video games or computer/Internet. However, physical activity level had a direct negative association with use of TV/movies. This study suggests that physical activity experience may play an important role in promoting physical activity and thwarting use of screen-based media among adolescents.
Xie, Hui; Scott, Jason L.; Caldwell, Linda L.
There is limited understanding of the relationship between physical activity and use of screen-based media, two important behaviors associated with adolescents’ health outcomes. To understand this relationship, researchers may need to consider not only physical activity level but also physical activity experience (i.e., affective experience obtained from doing physical activity). Using a sample predominantly consisting of African and Latino American urban adolescents, this study examined the interrelationships between physical activity experience, physical activity level, and use of screen-based media during leisure time. Data collected using self-report, paper and pencil surveys was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that physical activity experience was positively associated with physical activity level and had a direct negative relationship with use of non-active video games for males and a direct negative relationship with use of computer/Internet for both genders, after controlling for physical activity level. Physical activity level did not have a direct relationship with use of non-active video games or computer/Internet. However, physical activity level had a direct negative association with use of TV/movies. This study suggests that physical activity experience may play an important role in promoting physical activity and thwarting use of screen-based media among adolescents. PMID:29410634
Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Perrin, James M; Robinson, Alyssa I; Goodman, Elizabeth
National guidelines recommend adolescents achieve 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)/day, yet few adolescents meet these guidelines. We piloted a novel quasi-randomized physical activity intervention to promote adolescent's use of their surrounding built environment among 30 intervention and 30 control overweight/obese adolescents aged 10-16 years living in greater Boston from 2013 to 2015. Location-specific MPVA was measured by accelerometry and global positioning system for three one-week periods (Time 1 [T1], Time 2 [T2], and Time 3 [T3]). One month after T1, intervention participants received individualized counseling on how to use their surrounding built environment to increase MVPA, and control participants received standard-of-care lifestyle modification counseling; both groups received their T1 physical activity data. T2 assessment occurred the week after the counseling visit and T3 assessment 3-4 months later. The main outcome was change in average daily minutes of MVPA; the secondary outcome was meeting national MVPA guidelines. Multivariable modeling accounted for covariates (baseline MVPA, body mass index, age, sex, race/ethnicity) and clustering by study group and town. Among the 60 adolescents recruited, 55 (92%) completed data collection. Short-term (T2) intervention effects included increased average MVPA of +13.9 minutes intervention versus -.6 minutes control (p group; p = .0006). The proportion of adolescents in the intervention group who achieved 60 minutes/day of MVPA increased from 11% (T1) to 21% (T2), whereas declining (7%-0%) among controls. Individualized counseling about the built environment can help increase MVPA among overweight and obese adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Bucksch, Jens; Nalecz, Hanna; Sigmundova, Dagmar; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Background: The aim of this study is to explore if perception of an activity-friendly environment is associated with more physical activity and fewer screen-based activities among adolescents. Methods: We collected self-reported data in 2014 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children
Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L; Andersen, Lars Bo; Owen, Neville; Goenka, Shifalika; Montes, Felipe; Brownson, Ross C
Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport policy and practices, and community-wide policies and planning. Thus, many approaches lead to acceptable increases in physical activity among people of various ages, and from different social groups, countries, and communities.
Morales, Marie Paz Escaño
"Laro-ng-Lahi" (Indigenous Filipino game) based physics activities invigorated the integration of culture in the pre-service physics education to develop students' epistemic beliefs and the notion of conceptual understanding through conceptual change. The study conveniently involved 28 pre-service undergraduate physics students enrolled…
Christiansen, Lars B.; Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brondeel, Ruben
Purpose Physical activity at school can improve the mental health of all children – especially if it targets children's developmental needs and is carried out in a positive social climate. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a 9-month school intervention focusing......) PE lessons, 2) in-class activity outside PE, and 3) physical activity during break-time. It used a cluster-randomized design to select 24 Danish schools either for intervention or for control. Survey data on self-perception variables, socio-demographics and physical activity was collected prior...... on physical self-worth, self-perceived sport competence, body attractiveness, social competences and global self-worth in children aged 10–13 years. Methods Taking self-determination theory as its starting point, the intervention was developed and pilot-tested in close co-operation with schools. It targeted 1...
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between social capital (trust) and leisure-time physical activity. STUDY DESIGN: The 2004 Public Health Survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: In total, 27,757 individuals aged 18-80 years answered a postal questionnaire (59% participation). Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between trust, desire to increase physical activity and leisure-time physical activity. RESULTS: ...
Bocarro, Jason N.; Floyd, Myron F.; Smith, William R.; Edwards, Michael B.; Schultz, Courtney L.; Baran, Perver; Moore, Robin A.; Cosco, Nilda; Suau, Luis J.
Introduction Parks provide opportunities for physical activity for children. This study examined sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity because differences may indicate that a standard environmental intervention to increase activity among children may not equally benefit boys and girls. Methods The System for Observation Play and Recreation in Communities was used to measure physical activity among 2,712 children and adolescents in 20 neighborhood parks in Durham, North...
Harris, Marc Ashley
Mental ill health accounts for 13 per cent of total global disease burden with predictions that depression alone will be the leading cause of disease burden globally by 2030. Poor mental health is consistently associated with deprivation, low income, unemployment, poor education, poorer physical health and increased health-risk behaviour. A plethora of research has examined the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing; however, the influence of community-wide gamification-based physical activity interventions on mental wellbeing, to the authors' knowledge, is yet to be explored. In view of this paucity of attention, the current study examined the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing pre/post a community-wide, gamification-based intervention. The findings revealed that increases in mental wellbeing were significantly greater for the least active prior to the intervention, and a strong, positive correlation between increase in physical activity and increase in mental wellbeing was observed.
Marc Ashley Harris
Full Text Available Mental ill health accounts for 13 per cent of total global disease burden with predictions that depression alone will be the leading cause of disease burden globally by 2030. Poor mental health is consistently associated with deprivation, low income, unemployment, poor education, poorer physical health and increased health-risk behaviour. A plethora of research has examined the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing; however, the influence of community-wide gamification-based physical activity interventions on mental wellbeing, to the authors’ knowledge, is yet to be explored. In view of this paucity of attention, the current study examined the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing pre/post a community-wide, gamification-based intervention. The findings revealed that increases in mental wellbeing were significantly greater for the least active prior to the intervention, and a strong, positive correlation between increase in physical activity and increase in mental wellbeing was observed.
Floyd, Myron F.; Smith, William R.; Edwards, Michael B.; Schultz, Courtney L.; Baran, Perver; Moore, Robin A.; Cosco, Nilda; Suau, Luis J.
Introduction Parks provide opportunities for physical activity for children. This study examined sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity because differences may indicate that a standard environmental intervention to increase activity among children may not equally benefit boys and girls. Methods The System for Observation Play and Recreation in Communities was used to measure physical activity among 2,712 children and adolescents in 20 neighborhood parks in Durham, North Carolina, in 2007. Sedentary activity, walking, vigorous park activity, and energy expenditure were the primary outcome variables. Hierarchical logit regression models of physical activity were estimated separately for boys and girls. Results Type of activity area and presence of other active children were positively associated with boys’ and girls’ physical activity, and presence of a parent was negatively associated. A significant interaction involving number of recreation facilities in combination with formal activities was positively associated with girls’ activity. A significant interaction involving formal park activity and young boys (aged 0–5 y) was negatively associated with park-based physical activity. Conclusion Activity area and social correlates of park-based physical activity were similar for boys and girls; findings for formal park programming, age, and number of facilities were mixed. Results show that girls’ physical activity was more strongly affected by social effects (eg, presence of other active children) whereas boys’ physical activity was more strongly influenced by the availability of park facilities. These results can inform park planning and design. Additional studies are necessary to clarify sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity. PMID:26086610
Bocarro, Jason N; Floyd, Myron F; Smith, William R; Edwards, Michael B; Schultz, Courtney L; Baran, Perver; Moore, Robin A; Cosco, Nilda; Suau, Luis J
Parks provide opportunities for physical activity for children. This study examined sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity because differences may indicate that a standard environmental intervention to increase activity among children may not equally benefit boys and girls. The System for Observation Play and Recreation in Communities was used to measure physical activity among 2,712 children and adolescents in 20 neighborhood parks in Durham, North Carolina, in 2007. Sedentary activity, walking, vigorous park activity, and energy expenditure were the primary outcome variables. Hierarchical logit regression models of physical activity were estimated separately for boys and girls. Type of activity area and presence of other active children were positively associated with boys' and girls' physical activity, and presence of a parent was negatively associated. A significant interaction involving number of recreation facilities in combination with formal activities was positively associated with girls' activity. A significant interaction involving formal park activity and young boys (aged 0-5 y) was negatively associated with park-based physical activity. Activity area and social correlates of park-based physical activity were similar for boys and girls; findings for formal park programming, age, and number of facilities were mixed. Results show that girls' physical activity was more strongly affected by social effects (eg, presence of other active children) whereas boys' physical activity was more strongly influenced by the availability of park facilities. These results can inform park planning and design. Additional studies are necessary to clarify sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity.
Pinto, B M; Lynn, H; Marcus, B H; DePue, J; Goldstein, M G
In theory-based interventions for behavior change, there is a need to examine the effects of interventions on the underlying theoretical constructs and the mediating role of such constructs. These two questions are addressed in the Physically Active for Life study, a randomized trial of physician-based exercise counseling for older adults. Three hundred fifty-five patients participated (intervention n = 181, control n = 174; mean age = 65.6 years). The underlying theories used were the Transtheoretical Model, Social Cognitive Theory and the constructs of decisional balance (benefits and barriers), self-efficacy, and behavioral and cognitive processes of change. Motivational readiness for physical activity and related constructs were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 8 months. Linear or logistic mixed effects models were used to examine intervention effects on the constructs, and logistic mixed effects models were used for mediator analyses. At 6 weeks, the intervention had significant effects on decisional balance, self-efficacy, and behavioral processes, but these effects were not maintained at 8 months. At 6 weeks, only decisional balance and behavioral processes were identified as mediators of motivational readiness outcomes. Results suggest that interventions of greater intensity and duration may be needed for sustained changes in mediators and motivational readiness for physical activity among older adults.
Suminski, Richard R; Petosa, Rick L; Jones, Larry; Hall, Lisa; Poston, Carlos W
There is a scientific and practical need for high-quality effectiveness studies of physical activity interventions in "real-world" settings. To use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to develop, implement, operate, and evaluate an intervention for promoting physical activity called Neighborhoods on the Move. Two communities with similar physical and social characteristics participated in this study. One community was involved in Neighborhoods on the Move; the other (comparison community) participated only in the assessments. Academic personnel and residents/organizations in the Neighborhoods on the Move community worked together to create a community environment that was more conducive for physical activity. Pre- and posttest data on new initiatives promoting physical activity, existing physical activity initiatives, and business policies supporting physical activity were collected simultaneously in both communities. The success of the CBPR approach was evidenced by several developments, including substantial resident involvement and the formation of a leadership committee, marketing campaign, and numerous community partnerships. The number of businesses with policies promoting physical activity and breadth of existing physical activity initiatives (participants, activities, hours) increased substantially more in the Neighborhoods on the Move community than in the comparison community. A total of sixty new initiatives promoting physical activity were implemented in the Neighborhoods on the Move community during the intervention. The CBPR approach is an effective strategy for inducing environmental changes that promote physical activity. Additional research is needed to assess the portability and sustainability of Neighborhoods on the Move.
Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn Wulff
Many people in Western countries do not follow public health physical activity (PA) recommendations. Web-based interventions provide cost- and time-efficient means of delivering individually targeted lifestyle modification at a population level.......Many people in Western countries do not follow public health physical activity (PA) recommendations. Web-based interventions provide cost- and time-efficient means of delivering individually targeted lifestyle modification at a population level....
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to explore if perception of an activity-friendly environment is associated with more physical activity and fewer screen-based activities among adolescents. Methods: We collected self-reported data in 2014 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study from four European countries (n = 13,800, mean age = 14.4, 49.4% boys. We explored the association of perceived environment (e.g., “There are other children nearby home to go out and play with” with physical activity and screen-based activities using a binary logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, family affluence and country. Results: An environment perceived as activity-friendly was associated with higher odds that adolescents meet recommendations for physical activity (odds ratio (OR for one standard deviation (SD change = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.05–1.18 and lower odds for excessive screen-based activities (OR for 1 SD better = 0.93, 95% CI 0.88–0.98. Conclusions: Investment into an activity-friendly environment may support the promotion of active life styles in adolescence.
Erwin, Heather; Fedewa, Alicia; Beighle, Aaron; Ahn, Soyeon
Research suggests that physical activity may foster improved academic performance, yet schools are receiving more pressure to achieve high academic standards. It is important for classroom teachers, administrators and school psychologists to understand the benefits of incorporating physical activity into the school day. This article serves as a…
Hartman, Sheri J; Dunsiger, Shira I; Marinac, Catherine R; Marcus, Bess H; Rosen, Rochelle K; Gans, Kim M
Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Physical activity interventions that can be delivered through the Internet have the potential to increase participant reach. The efficacy of an Internet-based physical activity intervention was tested in a sample of women at an elevated risk for breast cancer. A total of 55 women with at least 1 first-degree relative with breast cancer (but no personal history of breast cancer) were randomized to a 3-month theoretically grounded Internet-based physical activity intervention or an active control arm. Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, psychosocial mediators of physical activity adoption and maintenance, as well as worry and perceived risk of developing breast cancer were assessed at baseline, 3-month, and 5-month follow up. Participants were on average 46.2 (SD = 11.4) years old with a body mass index of 27.3 (SD = 4.8) kg/m2. The intervention arm significantly increased minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity compared to the active control arm at 3 months (213 vs. 129 min/week) and 5 months (208 vs. 119 min/week; both ps Internet-based physical activity intervention may substantially increase physical activity in women with a family history of breast cancer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A
BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inact...
Blake, Holly; Suggs, L Suzanne; Coman, Emil; Aguirre, Lucia; Batt, Mark E
Increase physical activity in health care employees using health messaging, and compare e-mail with mobile phone short-message service (SMS) as delivery channels. Randomized controlled trial Setting. U.K. hospital workplace. Two hundred ninety-six employees (19-67 years, 53% of study Web site visitors). Twelve-week messaging intervention designed to increase physical activity and delivered via SMS (n =147) or e-mail (n =149); content tailored using theory of planned behavior (TPB) and limited to 160 characters. Baseline and 6, 12, and 16 weeks. Online measures included TPB constructs, physical activity behavior on the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, and health-related quality of life on the Short-Form 12. General linear models for repeated measures. Increase in duration (mean h/d) of moderate work-related activity and moderate recreational activity from baseline to 16 weeks. Short-lived increase in frequency (d/wk) of vigorous recreational activity from baseline to 6 weeks. Increase in duration and frequency of active travel from baseline to 16 weeks. E-mails generated greater changes than SMS in active travel and moderate activity (work and recreational). Minimal physical activity promotion delivered by SMS or e-mail can increase frequency and duration of active travel and duration of moderate intensity physical activity at work and for leisure, which is maintained up to 1 month after messaging ends. Both channels were useful platforms for health communication; e-mails were particularly beneficial with hospital employees.
Göritz Anja S
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the relation between social desirability and self-reported physical activity in web-based research. Findings A longitudinal study (N = 5,495, 54% women was conducted on a representative sample of the Dutch population using the Marlowe-Crowne Scale as social desirability measure and the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Social desirability was not associated with self-reported physical activity (in MET-minutes/week, nor with its sub-behaviors (i.e., walking, moderate-intensity activity, vigorous-intensity activity, and sedentary behavior. Socio-demographics (i.e., age, sex, income, and education did not moderate the effect of social desirability on self-reported physical activity and its sub-behaviors. Conclusions This study does not throw doubt on the usefulness of the Internet as a medium to collect self-reports on physical activity.
Corseuil, M.W.; Schneider, I.J.C.; Orsi, E.; Hallal, P.C.; Corseuil, H.X.
Objective. To evaluate the association between safety from crime and physical activity among older adults. Methods. A population-based survey including 1,656 older adults (60+ years) took place in Florianopolis, Brazil, in 2009-2010. Commuting and leisure time physical activity were assessed through the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Perception of safety from crime was assessed using the Neighbourhood Environment Walk ability Scale. Results. Perceiving the neighbourhood as safe during the day was related to a 25% increased likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.02-1.53); general perception of safety was also associated with a 25% increase in the likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.01-1.54). Street lighting was related to higher levels of commuting physical activity (prevalence ratio: 1.89; 95% CI 1.28-2.80). Conclusions. Safety investments are essential for promoting physical activity among older adults in Brazil
Knowles Zoe R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low childhood physical activity levels are currently one of the most pressing public health concerns. Numerous school-based physical activity interventions have been conducted with varied success. Identifying effective child-based physical activity interventions are warranted. The purpose of this formative study was to elicit subjective views of children, their parents, and teachers about physical activity to inform the design of the CHANGE! (Children's Health, Activity, and Nutrition: Get Educated! intervention programme. Methods Semi-structured mixed-gender interviews (group and individual were conducted in 11 primary schools, stratified by socioeconomic status, with 60 children aged 9-10 years (24 boys, 36 girls, 33 parents (4 male, 29 female and 10 teachers (4 male, 6 female. Questions for interviews were structured around the PRECEDE stage of the PRECEDE-PROCEDE model and addressed knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards physical activity, as well as views on barriers to participation. All data were transcribed verbatim. Pen profiles were constructed from the transcripts in a deductive manner using the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model framework. The profiles represented analysis outcomes via a diagram of key emergent themes. Results Analyses revealed an understanding of the relationship between physical activity and health, although some children had limited understanding of what constitutes physical activity. Views elicited by children and parents were generally consistent. Fun, enjoyment and social support were important predictors of physical activity participation, though several barriers such as lack of parental support were identified across all group interviews. The perception of family invested time was positively linked to physical activity engagement. Conclusions Families have a powerful and important role in promoting health-enhancing behaviours. Involvement of parents and the whole family is a
Thanamee, Sanhapan; Pinyopornpanish, Kanokporn; Wattanapisit, Apichai; Suerungruang, Suparerk; Thaikla, Kanittha; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri
Reducing physical inactivity among the population is a challenge for many nations. Targeting leisure time physical activity (LTPA) may be useful in increasing overall physical activity as it is assumed it is associated with a higher degree of free choice and personal preference than physical activity at work and during travel. The study explored the prevalence of physical inactivity and focused on the overall level of energy expenditure and energy level spent during leisure time among those who were physically inactive and assessed the stages of change for LTPA among those who were physically inactive. A population-based survey was conducted in 2014 in Chiang Mai, Thailand using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to collect the data on physical activity. Sufficient levels of physical activity (PA) were defined as ≥150 min/week of moderate-intensity PA or ≥75 min/week of vigorous-intensity PA or ≥600 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-minutes/week. Weighted analyses were used to estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity, the total energy expenditure and expenditure during LTPA as well as stages of change among the physically inactive population. A total of 1744 people (808 men and 936 women), aged 15 to 64 years, participated in the study. We estimated that a quarter (26%) of the population were physically inactive. Physical inactivity was more commonly found among women than men in most age groups. LTPA contributed a small proportion of overall PA. On average, physically inactive men spent 132.8 MET-minutes/week and inactive women spent 208.2 MET-minutes/week in overall PA which is well below the 600 MET-minutes/week recommend by the World Health Organization. Around 75% of physically inactive people had no intention of engaging in regular LTPA. About a quarter of the investigative population were physically inactive. Most physically inactive members of the population
Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen
INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...
Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen
INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...
Rasberry, Catherine N; Lee, Sarah M; Robin, Leah; Laris, B A; Russell, Lisa A; Coyle, Karin K; Nihiser, Allison J
The purpose of this review is to synthesize the scientific literature that has examined the association between school-based physical activity (including physical education) and academic performance (including indicators of cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic achievement). Relevant research was identified through a search of nine electronic databases using both physical activity and academic-related search terms. Forty-three articles (reporting a total of 50 unique studies) met the inclusion criteria and were read, abstracted, and coded for this synthesis. Findings of the 50 studies were then summarized. Across all the studies, there were a total of 251 associations between physical activity and academic performance, representing measures of academic achievement, academic behavior, and cognitive skills and attitudes. Slightly more than half (50.5%) of all associations examined were positive, 48% were not significant, and 1.5% were negative. Examination of the findings by each physical activity context provides insights regarding specific relationships. Results suggest physical activity is either positively related to academic performance or that there is not a demonstrated relationship between physical activity and academic performance. Results have important implications for both policy and schools. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ardestani, Monasadat; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Hidarnia, Alireza; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim
The importance of increasing adolescence girl's level of physical activity is recognized as a priority for having a healthy lifestyle. However, adolescent girls especially Iranian, are at high risk for physical inactivity. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is a successful theory to explain physical activity behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of physical activity based on the SCT. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 adolescent girls (15-16 yr old) in Tehran, Iran (2013). The participants were randomly chosen with multistage sampling. The SCT constructs consisted of self-efficacy, self-regulation, social support, outcome expectancy, and self-efficacy to overcoming impediments. Statistical analysis was carried out applying SPSS: 16, LISREL 8.8. Stepwise regression was used to test predictors of behavior. Pearson correlation was assessed. Self efficacy to overcoming impediments was the main construct to predict physical activity (Beta=0.37). Other determinants were self-efficacy (Beta=0.29), family support (beta=0.14), outcome expectancy (beta=0.13), friend support (beta=0.12), and self-regulation (beta=0.11), respectively. In general, the SCT questionnaire determined 0.85 variation of physical activity behavior. All of the constructs had direct significant relation to physical activity behavior (P<0.001). The constructs of SCT provide a suitable framework to perform promoting physical activity programs and self-efficacy to overcoming impediments and self-efficacy are the best predictors of physical activity in adolescent girls.
Friederichs, Stijn Ah; Bolman, Catherine; Oenema, Anke; Lechner, Lilian
In order to promote physical activity uptake and maintenance in individuals who do not comply with physical activity guidelines, it is important to increase our understanding of physical activity motivation among this group. The present study aimed to examine motivational profiles in a large sample of adults who do not comply with physical activity guidelines. The sample for this study consisted of 2473 individuals (31.4% male; age 44.6 ± 12.9). In order to generate motivational profiles based on motivational regulation, a cluster analysis was conducted. One-way analyses of variance were then used to compare the clusters in terms of demographics, physical activity level, motivation to be active and subjective experience while being active. Three motivational clusters were derived based on motivational regulation scores: a low motivation cluster, a controlled motivation cluster and an autonomous motivation cluster. These clusters differed significantly from each other with respect to physical activity behavior, motivation to be active and subjective experience while being active. Overall, the autonomous motivation cluster displayed more favorable characteristics compared to the other two clusters. The results of this study provide additional support for the importance of autonomous motivation in the context of physical activity behavior. The three derived clusters may be relevant in the context of physical activity interventions as individuals within the different clusters might benefit most from different intervention approaches. In addition, this study shows that cluster analysis is a useful method for differentiating between motivational profiles in large groups of individuals who do not comply with physical activity guidelines.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A positive association between time spent on sedentary screen-based activities and physical complaints has been reported, but the cumulative association between different types of screen-based activities and physical complaints has not been examined thoroughly. Methods The cross-sectional association between screen-based activity and physical complaints (backache and headache among students was examined in a sample of 31022 adolescents from Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Iceland and Greenland, as part of the Health behaviour in school-aged children 2005/06 (HBSC study. Daily hours spent on screen-based activities and levels of physical complaints were assessed using self-reports. Results Logistic regression analysis indicated that computer use, computer gaming and TV viewing contributed uniquely to prediction of weekly backache and headache. The magnitude of associations was consistent across types of screen based activities, and across gender. Conclusion The observed associations indicate that time spent on screen-based activity is a contributing factor to physical complaints among young people, and that effects accumulate across different types of screen-based activities.
Kern, Ben D.; Graber, Kim C.; Shen, Sa; Hillman, Charles H.; McLoughlin, Gabriella
Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) is the most accurate predictor of academic performance in US schools. Third-grade reading is highly predictive of high school graduation. Chronic physical activity (PA) is shown to improve cognition and academic performance. We hypothesized that school-based PA opportunities (recess and physical education)…
Sandroff, Brian M; Motl, Robert W; Scudder, Mark R; DeLuca, John
Cognitive dysfunction is highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly-managed in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence suggests that exercise might have beneficial effects on cognition in this population. The current systematic, evidence-based review examined the existing literature on exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness effects on cognition in MS to accurately describe the current status of the field, offer recommendations for clinicians, and identify study-specific and participant-specific characteristics for providing future direction for ongoing MS research. We performed an open-dated search of Medline, PsychInfo, and CINAHL in December 2015. The search strategy involved using the terms 'exercise' OR 'physical activity' OR 'physical fitness' OR 'aerobic' OR 'resistance' OR 'balance' OR 'walking' OR 'yoga' OR 'training' OR 'rehabilitation' AND 'multiple sclerosis'. Articles were eliminated from the systematic review if it was a review article, theoretical paper, or textbook chapter; did not involve persons with MS; involved only persons with pediatric-onset MS; did not involve neuropsychological outcomes; did not include empirical data to evaluate outcomes; involved pharmacological interventions; or was not available in English. The selected articles were first classified as examining exercise, physical activity, or physical fitness, and were then randomly assigned to 2 independent reviewers who rated each article for level of evidence based on American Academy of Neurology criteria. Reviewers further completed a table to characterize important elements of each study (i.e., intervention characteristics), the cognitive domain(s) that were targeted, participant-specific characteristics, outcome measures, and study results. The present review resulted in 26 studies on the effects of exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness on cognition in persons with MS. This included 1 Class I study, 3 Class II studies, 8 Class III studies, and
... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Physical Activity and Cancer On This Page What is physical activity? What is known about the relationship between physical ...
Tristão Parra, Maíra; Porfírio, Gustavo J M; Arredondo, Elva M; Atallah, Álvaro N
To review and assess the effectiveness of physical activity interventions delivered in faith-based organizations. We searched the Cochrane Library, DoPHER, EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, WHO ICTRP, and Clinicaltrials.gov databases until January 2016, without restriction of language or publication date. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials investigating physical activity interventions for adults delivered in faith-based organizations. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed study methodological quality. We used relative risk and mean difference with 95% confidence interval to estimate the effect of the interventions on measures of physical activity, physical fitness, and health. The review included 18 studies. Study participants were predominantly female, and the majority of trials were conducted in the United States. Study heterogeneity did not allow us to conduct meta-analyses. Although interventions delivered in faith-based organizations increased physical activity and positively influenced measures of health and fitness in participants, the quality of the evidence was very low. Faith-based organizations are promising settings to promote physical activity, consequently addressing health disparities. However, high-quality randomized clinical trials are needed to adequately assess the effectiveness of interventions delivered in faith-based organizations.
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA on physical activity in older adults with schizophrenia. Methods: In this one group pretest posttest pilot study, twenty participants played an active videogame for 30 minutes, once a week for 6 weeks. Physical activity was measured by self-report with the Yale Physical Activity Survey and objectively with the Sensewear Pro armband at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. Results: There was a significant increase in frequency of self-reported vigorous physical activity. We did not detect a statistically significant difference in objectively measured physical activity although increase in number of steps and sedentary activity were in the desired direction. Conclusions: These results suggest participants’ perception of physical activity intensity differs from the intensity objectively captured with a valid and reliable physical activity monitor.
Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin; Cooper, Bruce; Dowling, Glenna
The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA) on physical activity in older adults with schizophrenia. In this one group pre-test, post-test pilot study, 20 participants played an active videogame for 30 min, once a week for 6 weeks. Physical activity was measured by self-report with the Yale Physical Activity Survey and objectively with the Sensewear Pro armband at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. There was a significant increase in frequency of self-reported vigorous physical activity. We did not detect a statistically significant difference in objectively measured physical activity although increase in number of steps and sedentary activity were in the desired direction. These results suggest participants' perception of physical activity intensity differs from the intensity objectively captured with a valid and reliable physical activity monitor.
Müftüler, Mine; İnce, Mustafa Levent
This study examined how a physical activity course based on the Trans-Contextual Model affected the variables of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, determinants of leisure-time physical activity behavior, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and leisure-time physical activity behaviors. The participants were 70 Turkish university students (M age=23.3 yr., SD=3.2). A pre-test-post-test control group design was constructed. Initially, the participants were randomly assigned into an experimental (n=35) and a control (n=35) group. The experimental group followed a 12 wk. trans-contextual model-based intervention. The participants were pre- and post-tested in terms of Trans-Contextual Model constructs and of self-reported leisure-time physical activity behaviors. Multivariate analyses showed significant increases over the 12 wk. period for perceived autonomy support from instructor and peers, autonomous motivation in leisure-time physical activity setting, positive intention and perceived behavioral control over leisure-time physical activity behavior, more fulfillment of psychological needs, and more engagement in leisure-time physical activity behavior in the experimental group. These results indicated that the intervention was effective in developing leisure-time physical activity and indicated that the Trans-Contextual Model is a useful way to conceptualize these relationships.
Reifegerste, Doreen; Rossmann, Constanze
Past research in social and health psychology has shown that affiliation motivation is associated with health behavior, especially for high-risk populations, suggesting that targeting this motivation could be a promising strategy to promote physical activity. However, the effects that affiliation appeals (e.g., pictures depicting companionship during physical activities) and accompanying slogans have on motivating physical activity have been largely unexplored. Hence, our two studies experimentally tested the effects of exposure to affiliation-based pictures for overweight or less active people, as well as the moderating effect of affiliation motivation. The results of these two studies give some indication that group pictures (with or without an accompanying slogan) can be an effective strategy to improve high-risk populations' attitudes, self-efficacy, and intentions to engage in physical activity. Affiliation motivation as a personality trait did not interact with these effects, but was positively associated with attitudes, independent of the group picture effect.
Østergaard, Elisabeth Bomholt; Sritharan, Sophia Sajitha; Thomsen, Pernille Maja
Title Barriers and motivational factors towards physical activity in COPD - an interview based pilot study Authors Elisabeth Bomholt Østergaard, Sophia Sajitha Sritharan, Pernille Maja Thomsen, Anne Dal Kristiansen, Anders Løkke Background: Surprisingly few people in Denmark with Chronic...... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) engage in physical activity even though it is evident that pulmonary rehabilitation has positive effects on activity level, dyspnea, anxiety, fatigue and quality of life. Aims: To explore why people with COPD do not engage in physical activity and their motivational...... factors for being physically active. Methods: Fieldwork among five people with COPD in Jutland, Denmark 2013-2016 using qualitative semi-structured interviews. Supplementary short semistructured interviews with three general practitioners, and participation in a closed Facebook-group for people with COPD...
Bryant, Carol A; Courtney, Anita H; McDermott, Robert J; Alfonso, Moya L; Baldwin, Julie A; Nickelson, Jen; McCormack Brown, Kelli R; Debate, Rita D; Phillips, Leah M; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang
Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age) called VERB Summer Scorecard. Based on the national VERB media campaign, the program offered opportunities for tweens to try new types of physical activity during the summer months. The VERB Summer Scorecard was implemented and monitored between 2004 and 2007 using the 9-step CBPM framework. Program performance was assessed through in-depth interviews and a school-based survey of youth. The CBPM process and principles used by school and community personnel to promote physical activity among tweens are presented. Observed declines may become less steep if school officials adopt a marketing mind-set to encourage youth physical activity: deemphasizing health benefits but promoting activity as something fun that fosters spending time with friends while trying and mastering new skills. Community-based programs can augment and provide continuity to school-based prevention programs to increase physical activity among tweens.
Hubbard, Erin M.; Dowling, Glenna A.
Abstract Objectives: Adults with schizophrenia are a growing segment of the older adult population. Evidence suggests that they engage in limited physical activity. Interventions are needed that are tailored around their unique limitations. An active videogame-based physical activity program that can be offered at a treatment facility can overcome these barriers and increase motivation to engage in physical activity. The purpose of this report is to describe the adherence to a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect® for Xbox® 360 game system (Microsoft®, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive longitudinal study among 34 older adults with schizophrenia to establish the adherence to an active videogame-based physical activity program. In our ongoing program, once a week for 6 weeks, participants played an active videogame, using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system, for 30 minutes. Adherence was measured with a count of sessions attended and with the total minutes attended out of the possible total minutes of attendance (180 minutes). Results: Thirty-four adults with schizophrenia enrolled in the study. The mean number of groups attended was five out of six total (standard deviation=2), and the mean total minutes attended were 139 out of 180 possible (standard deviation=55). Fifty percent had perfect attendance. Conclusions: Older adults with schizophrenia need effective physical activity programs. Adherence to our program suggests that videogames that use the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system are an innovative way to make physical activity accessible to this population. PMID:26192371
Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Dowling, Glenna A
Adults with schizophrenia are a growing segment of the older adult population. Evidence suggests that they engage in limited physical activity. Interventions are needed that are tailored around their unique limitations. An active videogame-based physical activity program that can be offered at a treatment facility can overcome these barriers and increase motivation to engage in physical activity. The purpose of this report is to describe the adherence to a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect(®) for Xbox(®) 360 game system (Microsoft(®), Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia. This was a descriptive longitudinal study among 34 older adults with schizophrenia to establish the adherence to an active videogame-based physical activity program. In our ongoing program, once a week for 6 weeks, participants played an active videogame, using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system, for 30 minutes. Adherence was measured with a count of sessions attended and with the total minutes attended out of the possible total minutes of attendance (180 minutes). Thirty-four adults with schizophrenia enrolled in the study. The mean number of groups attended was five out of six total (standard deviation=2), and the mean total minutes attended were 139 out of 180 possible (standard deviation=55). Fifty percent had perfect attendance. Older adults with schizophrenia need effective physical activity programs. Adherence to our program suggests that videogames that use the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system are an innovative way to make physical activity accessible to this population.
Carter, Cindy L; Onicescu, Georgiana; Cartmell, Kathleen B; Sterba, Katherine R; Tomsic, James; Alberg, Anthony J
Physical activity benefits cancer survivors, but the comparative effectiveness of a team-based delivery approach remains unexplored. The hypothesis tested was that a team-based physical activity intervention delivery approach has added physical and psychological benefits compared to a group-based approach. A team-based sport accessible to survivors is dragon boating, which requires no previous experience and allows for diverse skill levels. In a non-randomized trial, cancer survivors chose between two similarly structured 8-week programs, a dragon boat paddling team (n = 68) or group-based walking program (n = 52). Three separate intervention rounds were carried out in 2007-2008. Pre-post testing measured physical and psychosocial outcomes. Compared to walkers, paddlers had significantly greater (all p team cohesion, program adherence/attendance, and increased upper-body strength. For quality-of-life outcomes, both interventions were associated with pre-post improvements, but with no clear-cut pattern of between-intervention differences. These hypothesis-generating findings suggest that a short-term, team-based physical activity program (dragon boat paddling) was associated with increased cohesion and adherence/attendance. Improvements in physical fitness and psychosocial benefits were comparable to a traditional, group-based walking program. Compared to a group-based intervention delivery format, the team-based intervention delivery format holds promise for promoting physical activity program adherence/attendance in cancer survivors.
Freene, Nicole; Waddington, Gordon; Chesworth, Wendy; Davey, Rachel; Goss, John
It is well recognised that the adoption and longer term adherence to physical activity by adults to reduce the risk of chronic disease is a challenge. Interventions, such as group and home based physical activity programs, have been widely reported upon. However few studies have directly compared these interventions over the longer term to determine their adherence and effectiveness. Participant preference for home based or group interventions is important. Some evidence suggests that home based physical activity programs are preferred by middle aged adults and provide better long term physical activity adherence. Physiotherapists may also be useful in increasing physical activity adherence, with limited research on their impact. 'Physical Activity at Home' is a 2 year pragmatic randomised control trial, with a non-randomised comparison to group exercise. Middle-aged adults not interested in, or unable to attend, a group exercise program will be targeted. Sedentary community dwelling 50-65 year olds with no serious medical conditions or functional impairments will be recruited via two mail outs using the Australian federal electoral roll. The first mail out will invite participants to a 6 month community group exercise program. The second mail out will be sent to those not interested in the group exercise program inviting them to take part in a home based intervention. Eligible home based participants will be randomised into a 6 month physiotherapy-led home based physical activity program or usual care. Outcome measures will be taken at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. The primary outcome is physical activity adherence via exercise diaries. Secondary outcomes include the Active Australia Survey, accelerometry, aerobic capacity (step test), quality of life (SF-12v2), blood pressure, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index. Costs will be recorded prospectively and qualitative data will be collected. The planned 18 month follow-up post
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Abichahine, Hayfa; Veenstra, Gerry
Leisure-based physical activity is socially stratified in Canada. To date, inequalities in physical activity by race or ethnicity, gender, class or sexual orientation, in Canada and elsewhere, have largely been investigated as distinct, additive phenomena. Informed by intersectionality theory, this paper examines whether racial identity, gender, class and sexuality 'intersect' with one another to predict physical activity in data from Cycles 2.1 and 3.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (n= 149 574). In particular, we apply the intersectional principle of multiplicativity which suggests that people's experiences of their gender identities are raced, classed and sexualized; their racial experiences are gendered, classed and sexualized, and so forth. We find that the positive effect of income on being physically active is strong among visible minority men, of moderate strength among White men and women and weak to non-existent among visible minority women. We also find that a lesbian, gay or bisexual orientation corresponds with a higher likelihood of being physically active among women (especially among less educated women) but not among men. These multiplicative findings undermine additive approaches to investigating social inequalities in leisure-based physical activity and pave the way for future intersectional analyses of axes of inequality and their diverse, intersecting effects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
De Vera, Mary A; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek
Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005-2006. Reliability was examined using a test-retest study. Validity was examined in a 2-part study consisting of 1) comparisons with previously validated instruments measuring similar constructs, the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire (LT-PAQ) and the Chasan-Taber Physical Activity Questionnaire (CT-PAQ), and 2) a priori hypothesis tests of constructs measured by the L-PAQ. The L-PAQ demonstrated good reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.67 (household activity) to 0.89 (sports/recreation). Comparison between the L-PAQ and the LT-PAQ resulted in Spearman correlation coefficients ranging from 0.41 (total activity) to 0.71 (household activity); comparison between the L-PAQ and the CT-PAQ yielded coefficients of 0.58 (sports/recreation), 0.56 (household activity), and 0.50 (total activity). L-PAQ validity was further supported by observed relations between the L-PAQ and sociodemographic variables, consistent with a priori hypotheses. Overall, the L-PAQ is a useful instrument for assessing multiple domains of lifetime physical activity with acceptable reliability and validity.
Saber, Fatemeh; Shanazi, Hossein; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hasanzadeh, Akbar
Background: Sedentary life has been recognized as a serious problem in today's Iranian society. Promoting the lifestyle with increased physical activity and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is imperative. The purpose of this study was identifying the determinants of physical activity in the housewives of Nain city in 2012 based on the theory of planned behavior. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 120 housewives were selected by simple random sampling method. Data collection tool was a questionnaire designed based on a standardized and fabricated questionnaire and consisted of four parts. The questionnaire included awareness variables, theory of structures, planned behavior, and physical activity. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS software version 18 and associated statistical tests. Findings: The 120 housewives under study had a mean age of 34.58 ± 6.86 years. The mean scores of awareness, attitude, motivation to perform, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control variables were 74.1 ± 18.5, 82.6 ± 12.1, 59.4 ± 21.7, 63.2 ± 21.2, and 48.1 ± 12.9 respectively. There was a significant relationship between the motivation for physical activity among women and knowledge (P = 0.02) attitude (P = 0.04) subjective norms (P = 0.002) perceived behavioral control (P = 0.001), and physical activity (P = 0.04). Conclusions: It seems that the housewives, despite being aware of and having a positive attitude on the benefits of physical activity, had a poor lifestyle. Perhaps further studies can help in finding the causes of this issue and the barriers to physical activity such as the conditions and plan for greater measures for improving physical activity, in order to promote women's health which has a significant role in family and community health. PMID:25250360
Troelsen, Jens; Klinker, Charlotte Demant; Breum, Lars
Settings for Physical Activity – Developing a Site-specific Physical Activity Behavior Model based on Multi-level Intervention Studies Introduction: Ecological models of health behavior have potential as theoretical framework to comprehend the multiple levels of factors influencing physical...... to be taken into consideration. A theoretical implication of this finding is to develop a site-specific physical activity behavior model adding a layered structure to the ecological model representing the determinants related to the specific site. Support: This study was supported by TrygFonden, Realdania...... activity (PA). The potential is shown by the fact that there has been a dramatic increase in application of ecological models in research and practice. One proposed core principle is that an ecological model is most powerful if the model is behavior-specific. However, based on multi-level interventions...
Full Text Available Standard "cookbook" laboratory activities that are used to teach students the optimal physical growth conditions of microorganisms should be modified so that they more effectively foster student's higher order cognitive skills and attract student interest. This paper describes a laboratory activity that engages students in an inquiry-based approach to studying the physical growth requirements of microorganisms. In this activity, students design and implement an experiment to obtain pure cultures of specific microorganisms, with distinct growth properties, that are provided to them in a mixed culture.
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Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.
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Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Klein, Daniel; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
The aim was to assess the association between physical activity and screen-based activities in adolescents and selected school factors and urbanization and whether these associations were modified by degree of urbanization. We obtained data regarding the fifth-ninth grade students from 130 schools
Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 The Physical Activity and Exercise Continuum 7 Darren Warburton Definition of Health, Physical Activity, and Exercise . . . . . . . 7 The Continuum...
Albert, Nancy M; Butler, Robert; Sorrell, Jeanne
Hospitals often promote healthy lifestyles, but little is known about nurses' actual diet and physical activity. Greater understanding about these lifestyle choices for clinical nurses may improve existing hospital-based programs and/or create desirable services. This article discusses a study that considered diet and physical activity of clinical nurses, using elements of Pender's self-care theory as a conceptual framework. Study methods included a cross-sectional, correlational design and a convenience sample of 278 nurses who worked on units with 24 hours/day and seven days-per-week responsibilities. Participants completed diet and exercise questionnaires about perceptions of attitudes and opinions, barriers, diet benefits/exercise motivators, self-efficacy, and locus of control, and personal and work characteristics. Diet and activity categories were created. Study results demonstrated that over 50% of nurses had moderately healthy diets but were insufficiently active. Healthy diet and physical activity levels were associated with higher self-efficacy, more diet benefits and physical activity motivators, fewer perceived barriers, and confidence in body image. The article discussion and conclusion sections note areas for future research and suggest that focused interventions that address benefits, motivators, and self-efficacy may increase participation in hospital-based programs and enhance healthy lifestyle for hospital-based clinical nurses.
Krops, Leonie A; Folkertsma, Nienke; Hols, Doortje H J; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Dekker, Rienk
To explore ideas of the target population about a community-based intervention to stimulate physical activity in hard-to-reach physically disabled people. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 21 physically disabled people, and analyzed using thematic analyses. Findings were interpreted using the integrated Physical Activity for People with a Disability and Intervention Mapping model. The intervention should aim to stimulate intrinsic motivation and raise awareness for the health effects of physical activity. It should provide diverse activities, increase visibility of these activities, and improve image of physical activity for physically disabled people. Participants suggested to provide individual coaching sessions, increase marketing, present role models, and assign buddies. Potential users should be approached personally through intermediate organizations, or via social media and word of mouth promotion. Participants suggested that users, government, sponsors, and health insurers should finance the intervention. Self-responsibility for being physically active was strongly emphasized by participants. An intervention to stimulate physical activity in hard-to-reach physically disabled people should be individualized, include personal support, and should include marketing to improve image of physical activity of physically disabled people. The intervention that fulfills these requirements should be developed and tested for effects in future research. Implications for rehabilitation An intervention to stimulate physical activity in physically disabled people should aim to raise awareness for the health effects of physical activity, stimulate intrinsic motivation, offer diverse activities, increase the visibility of the possible activities, and improve the image of physical activity for physically disabled people. An intervention should include both individual- and environmental-level intervention methods. Physically disabled people most emphasized
Booth, Michael; Okely, Anthony
Paediatric overweight and obesity is recognised as one of Australia's most significant health problems and effective approaches to increasing physical activity and reducing energy consumption are being sought urgently. Every potential approach and setting should be subjected to critical review in an attempt to maximise the impact of policy and program initiatives. This paper identifies the strengths and limitations of schools as a setting for promoting physical activity. The strengths are: most children and adolescents attend school; most young people are likely to see teachers as credible sources of information; schools provide access to the facilities, infrastructure and support required for physical activity; and schools are the workplace of skilled educators. Potential limitations are: those students who like school the least are the most likely to engage in health-compromising behaviours and the least likely to be influenced by school-based programs; there are about 20 more hours per week available for physical activity outside schools hours than during school hours; enormous demands are already being made on schools; many primary school teachers have low levels of perceived competence in teaching physical education and fundamental movement skills; and opportunities for being active at school may not be consistent with how and when students prefer to be active.
A growing number of studies have pulled from Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory to design interventions targeting health behavior change. More recently, researchers have begun using SDT to promote the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In this review, we aim to highlight how researchers and practitioners can draw from the SDT framework to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention efforts centered on increasing physical activity levels in different contexts and different populations. In the present paper, the rationale for using SDT to foster physical activity engagement is briefly reviewed before particular attention is given to three recent randomized controlled trials, the Canadian Physical Activity Counseling (PAC) Trial, the Empower trial from the UK, and the Portuguese PESO (Promotion of Health and Exercise in Obesity) trial, each of which focused on promoting physical activity behavior. The SDT-based intervention components, procedures, and participants are highlighted, and the key findings that have emanated from these three trials are presented. Lastly, we outline some of the limitations of the work conducted to date in this area and we acknowledge the challenges that arise when attempting to design, deliver, and test SDT-grounded interventions in the context of physical activity promotion. PMID:22385751
Amanda Cristina de Souza Andrade
Full Text Available The practice of physical activity is an important factor in the prevention of health problems. However, a small portion of the population is physically active. Recent reviews show that physical activity classes in community settings have the potential to increase population levels of physical activity and reduce health inequalities.To evaluate the effect of the Academias da Cidade Program in Belo Horizonte on the practice of physical activity in leisure time (PALT by non-users living near the program centers.We conducted a home-based health survey in Belo Horizonte (2008-2009 with 1,581 adults who were non-users of the program and who lived within a 1,500-meter radius of one active program center (exposed group and two nonoperational centers with sites reserved for their construction (unexposed group. We collected data on PALT levels (≥150 minutes/week, which was measured with the Physical Activity International Questionnaire and analyzed with binary logistic regression using the Generalized Estimating Equations method. The propensity score was used as an adjustment variable to control the potential confusion in the measures of effect of exposure studied.The overall prevalence of the PALT was 26.5% in the exposed group and 22.7% in the unexposed group. The exposed group was more likely to be active in leisure time (OR = 1.05; CI 95%: 1.01-1.10. When considering the interaction between exposed group and distance, individuals in the exposed group who lived less than 500 meters from the program center were more likely to be active in leisure time (OR = 1.18, CI 95%: 1.03-1.35 compared to their counterparts.Promoting physical activity in the community can favorably affect PALT levels among residents, especially those living closest to intervention centers. We believe the Academias da Cidade Program is a promising strategy to facilitate the access to appropriate spaces for the practice of physical activity and contribute to increase the levels
Universities have the potential to make significant contributions to their neighboring schools and youth agencies through university-community partnerships and the programs they spawn. However, even with proven goals, trained staff, and eager students, collaborative physical-activity-based youth development programs can fail despite the best…
Roberts, Simon; Reeves, Matthew; Ryrie, Angus
Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the adult population fails to achieve the recommended target of 30-minutes moderate intensity exercise, days a week. This includes university students who often have the time to engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine exercise motives for a UK-based student population. The…
Collard, D.C.M.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Knol, D.L.; van Mechelen, W.
Objective: To study the effects of a school-based injury prevention program on physical activity injury incidence and severity. Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial performed from January 1, 2006, through July 31, 2007. Setting: Forty Dutch primary schools. Participants: Atotal of 2210
Till, Jude; Ferkins, Lesley; Handcock, Phil
Objective: This study sought to investigate teachers' perceptions of a physical activity-related professional development intervention. Design: Interview-based qualitative approach founded on the interpretive paradigm. Setting: Purposive selection of one high-rated independent, and one low-rated public primary school from Auckland, New Zealand.…
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Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper
BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...... this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment....
Full Text Available Classroom-based physical activity breaks are postulated to positively impact children’s attention during their school day. However, empirical evidence for this claim is scarce and the role of cognitive engagement in enhancing children’s attentional performance is unexplored in studies on physical activity breaks. The aim of the present study was therefore to disentangle the separate and/or combined effects of physical exertion and cognitive engagement induced by physical activity breaks on primary school children’s attention. In addition, the role of children’s affective reactions to acute interventions at school was investigated. Using a 2 × 2 between-subjects experimental design, 92 children between the ages of 11 and 12 years (M = 11.77, SD = 0.41 were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: (1 combo group (physical activity with high cognitive demands, (2 cognition group (sedentary with high cognitive demands, (3 physical group (physical activity with low cognitive demands, and (4 control group (sedentary with low cognitive demands. Attention and affect were measured before and immediately after a 10-minute intervention. ANCOVAs revealed that whereas physical exertion had no effect on any measure of children’s attentional performance, cognitive engagement was the crucial factor leading to increased focused attention and enhanced processing speed. Mediational analyses showed that changes in positive affect during the interventions mediated the effect between cognitive engagement and focused attention as well as between cognitive engagement and processing speed. These surprising results are discussed in the light of theories predicting both facilitating and deteriorative effects of positive affect on cognitive performance.
Antikainen, Iina; Ellis, Rebecca
Although physical activity interventions have been shown to effectively modify behavior, little research has examined the potential of these interventions for adoption in real-world settings. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the external validity of 57 theory-based physical activity interventions using the RE-AIM framework. The physical activity interventions included were more likely to report on issues of internal, rather than external validity and on individual, rather than organizational components of the RE-AIM framework, making the translation of many interventions into practice difficult. Furthermore, most studies included motivated, healthy participants, thus reducing the generalizability of the interventions to real-world settings that provide services to more diverse populations. To determine if a given intervention is feasible and effective in translational research, more information should be reported about the factors that affect external validity.
Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Liao, Yue; Almanza, Estela; Jerrett, Micheal; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann
Background Parental factors may play an important role in influencing children’s physical activity levels. Purpose This cross-sectional study sought to describe the locations of joint physical activity among parents and children. Methods Parent-child pairs (N = 291) wore an Actigraph GT2M accelerometer and GlobalSat BT-335 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) device over the same 7-day period. Children were ages 8–14 years. Joint behavior was defined by a linear separation distance of less than 50m between parent and child. Land use classifications were assigned to GPS data points. Results Joint physical activity was spread across residential locations (35%), and commercial venues (24%), and open spaces/parks (20%). Obese children and parents performed less joint physical activity in open spaces/parks than under/normal weight children and parents (p’s parent-child physical activity naturally occurs may inform location-based interventions to promote these behaviors. PMID:23011914
Rodríguez-Díaz, Luciano; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; Vázquez-Lara, Juana María; Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Torres-Luque, Gema
To assess the effectiveness and safety of a physical activity programme based on use of the Pilates method, over eight weeks in pregnant women, on functional parameters, such as weight, blood pressure, strength, flexibility and spinal curvature, and on labour parameters, such as, type of delivery, episiotomy, analgesia and newborn weight. A randomized clinical trial was carried out on pregnant women, applying a programme of physical activity using the Pilates method, designed specifically for this population. A sample consisting of a total of 105 pregnant women was divided into two groups: intervention group (n=50) (32.87±4.46 years old) and control group (n=55) (31.52±4.95 years old). The intervention group followed a physical activity programme based on the Pilates method, for 2 weekly sessions, whereas the control group did not follow the program. Significant improvements (p<0.05) in blood pressure, hand grip strength, hamstring flexibility and spinal curvature, in addition to improvements during labour, decreasing the number of Caesareans and obstructed labour, episiotomies, analgesia and the weight of the newborns were found at the end of the intervention. A physical activity programme of 8 weeks based on the Pilates method improves functional parameters in pregnant women and benefits delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
In nature, many proteins function as carriers, being able to bind, transport and possibly release a ligand within a biological system. Protein-based carriers are interesting systems for drug delivery, with the remarkable advantage of being water-soluble and, as inherent components of biosystems, highly bio-compatible. This work focuses on the use of protein-based carriers for the delivery of hydrophobic photo-physically active molecules, whose structure and chemical properties lead to spontan...
Yamaguchi, Yukio; Yamada, Yosuke; Tokushima, Satoru; Hatamoto, Yoichi; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Misaka; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki
Background Online or Web-based measurement systems have been proposed as convenient methods for collecting physical activity data. We developed two Web-based physical activity systems—the 24-hour Physical Activity Record Web (24hPAR WEB) and 7 days Recall Web (7daysRecall WEB). Objective To examine the validity of two Web-based physical activity measurement systems using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Methods We assessed the validity of the 24hPAR WEB and 7daysRecall WEB in 20 individuals, aged 25 to 61 years. The order of email distribution and subsequent completion of the two Web-based measurements systems was randomized. Each measurement tool was used for a week. The participants’ activity energy expenditure (AEE) and total energy expenditure (TEE) were assessed over each week using the DLW method and compared with the respective energy expenditures estimated using the Web-based systems. Results The mean AEE was 3.90 (SD 1.43) MJ estimated using the 24hPAR WEB and 3.67 (SD 1.48) MJ measured by the DLW method. The Pearson correlation for AEE between the two methods was r = .679 (P WEB and 3.80 (SD 1.36) MJ by the DLW method. The Pearson correlation for AEE between the two methods was r = .144 (P = .54). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement ranged from –3.83 to 4.81 MJ between the two methods. The Pearson correlation for TEE between the two methods was r = .590 (P = .006). The average input times using terminal devices were 8 minutes and 10 seconds for the 24hPAR WEB and 6 minutes and 38 seconds for the 7daysRecall WEB. Conclusions Both Web-based systems were found to be effective methods for collecting physical activity data and are appropriate for use in epidemiological studies. Because the measurement accuracy of the 24hPAR WEB was moderate to high, it could be suitable for evaluating the effect of interventions on individuals as well as for examining physical activity behavior. PMID:23010345
Mailey, Emily L; Huberty, Jennifer; Irwin, Brandon C
The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of a web-based intervention to promote physical activity and self-worth among working mothers. Participants (N = 69) were randomly assigned to receive a standard web-based intervention or an enhanced intervention that included group dynamics strategies to promote engagement. The 8-week intervention was guided by self-determination theory. Each week, participants were instructed to complete 3 tasks: listen to a podcast related to well-being, complete a workbook assignment, and communicate with other participants on a discussion board. Participants in the enhanced condition received an additional weekly task to enhance group cohesion. Data were collected at baseline, week 8, and week 16. Physical activity (P working mothers. Group dynamics strategies only minimally enhanced user engagement, and future studies are needed to optimize web-based intervention designs.
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Full Text Available Background It has been proved that physical activity has positive effects for all people. However, low activity is common among adolescents especially girl teenagers. The present study aimed to determine the condition of physical activity among girl adolescents by use of the stages of change derived from Trantheoretical model (TTM. Materials and Methods: This descriptive- analytical investigation was done (in 2016 and 2017 school year in the first – round girl high school among 324 students studying in state schools of Shahrekord city (Western Iran. They were selected through clustering method. The data were collected by researcher-made questionnaires including demographic characteristics, knowledge construct and the stages of change (pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS (version 18.0. Results The mean age of participants was 13.69+ 1.95 years old. The mean score of girls' knowledge about types of physical activity was 53.18± 21.82 (a total of 100 scores, which represents the average level of knowledge among them. The study of physical activity in students based on stages of change showed that 165 ones (43 %, 102 ones (26.6 % and only 22 ones (5.7 % of the studied students were in precontemplation, contemplation and maintenance stages, respectively. There was a significant relation between students' knowledge level and their mothers' age (P
Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Webster, Collin A.; Moore, Justin
The YMCA of the USA serves more than nine million youth in its summer day camping programs nationwide. In spring 2011, the YMCA of Columbia, SC, with support from the University of South Carolina, adopted a competency-based staff-level training approach in an attempt to align staff behaviors with the YMCA of the USA new physical activity standards…
The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 10 week aerobic-based exercise programme performed twice a week, with a 30 minutes duration and an intensity level of 55 – 70% heart rate max would improve aerobic endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition of 10 – 15 ...
Barthalos, Istvan; Dorgo, Sandor; Kopkáné Plachy, Judit; Szakály, Zsolt; Ihász, Ferenc; Ráczné Németh, Teodóra; Bognár, József
Nursing home residing older adults often experience fear of sickness or death, functional impairment and pain. It is difficult for these older adults to maintain a physically active lifestyle and to keep a positive outlook on life. This study evaluated the changes in quality of life, attitude to aging, assertiveness, physical fitness and body composition of nursing home residing elderly through a 15-week organized resistance training based physical activity program. Inactive older adults living in a state financed nursing home (N.=45) were randomly divided into two intervention groups and a control group. Both intervention groups were assigned to two physical activity sessions a week, but one of these groups also had weekly discussions on health and quality of life (Mental group). Data on anthropometric measures, fitness performance, as well as quality of life and attitudes to aging survey data were collected. Due to low attendance rate 12 subjects were excluded from the analyses. Statistical analysis included Paired Samples t-tests and Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance. Both intervention groups significantly improved their social participation, and their upper- and lower-body strength scores. Also, subjects in the Mental group showed improvement in agility fitness test and certain survey scales. No positive changes were detected in attitude towards aging and body composition measures in any groups. The post-hoc results suggest that Mental group improved significantly more than the Control group. Regular physical activity with discussions on health and quality of life made a more meaningful difference for the older adults living in nursing home than physical activity alone. Due to the fact that all participants were influenced by the program, it is suggested to further explore this area for better understanding of enhanced quality of life.
Bombardier, Charles H; Ehde, Dawn M; Gibbons, Laura E; Wadhwani, Roini; Sullivan, Mark D; Rosenberg, Dori E; Kraft, George H
Physical activity represents a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a single-blind, two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-week physical activity counseling intervention delivered primarily by telephone (n = 44) to a wait-list control group (N = 48). Ninety-two adults with MS and MDD or dysthymia (M(age) = 48 years; 86% female, 92% White) completed an in-person baseline assessment and were randomized to wait-list control or an intervention involving motivational-interviewing-based promotion of physical activity. The treatment group received an initial in-person session; 7 telephone counseling sessions (Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10), and an in-person session at Week 12. The primary outcome, treatment response, was defined as those with 50% or greater reduction in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score. Our primary hypothesis, that the proportion of responders in the treatment group would be significantly greater than in the control group, was not confirmed. However, compared with the control group, those in the treatment group evidenced significantly lower depression severity on the HAM-D, on self-reported depression, and on a measure of potential side effects and at 12 weeks were less likely to meet the criteria for MDD as set forth in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Physical activity increased significantly more in the treatment condition, though it did not mediate improvement in depression severity. Telephone-based physical activity promotion represents a promising approach to treating MDD in MS. Further research is warranted on ways to bolster the impact of the intervention and on mediators of the treatment effect.
M.I. Both (Marieke); M.A. Overvest (Mathilde); M.F. Wildhagen (Mark); J. Golding (Jean); H.I.J. Wildschut (Hajo)
textabstractThe potential relationship between daily physical activity and pregnancy outcome remains unclear because of the wide variation in study designs and physical activity assessment measures. We sought to prospectively quantify the potential effects of the various domains of physical activity
Fredriksen, Per Morten; Hjelle, Ole Petter; Mamen, Asgeir; Meza, Trine J; Westerberg, Ane C
The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD's is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP) study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables. The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools (n = 1545) with two control schools (n = 752); all aged 6-11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA) of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP) and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c). In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL), mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance. HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention. The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714 ) as of June 20 th - 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.
Per Morten Fredriksen
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs is increasing worldwide, also among children. Information about primary prevention of NCD’s is increasing; however, convincing strategies among children is needed. The present paper describes the design and methods in the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP study. The main objective is to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity intervention program on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Secondary objectives include assessment of physical, psychological and academic performance variables. Methods The HOPP study is a 7 years longitudinal large-scale controlled intervention in seven elementary schools (n = 1545 with two control schools (n = 752; all aged 6–11 years at baseline. The school-based physical activity intervention program includes an increase in physical activity (PA of 225 min/week as an integrated part of theoretical learning, in addition to the curriculum based 90 min/week of ordinary PA. Primary outcomes include cardio-metabolic risk factors measured as PA level, BMI status, waist circumference, muscle mass, percent fat, endurance test performance, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, micro C-reactive protein (mCRP and long-term blood sugar (HbA1c. In addition, secondary outcomes include anthropometric growth measures, physical fitness, quality of life (QoL, mental health, executive functions, diet and academic performance. Discussion HOPP will provide evidence of effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors after a long-term PA intervention program in elementary schoolchildren. School-based PA intervention programs may be an effective arena for health promotion and disease prevention. Trial registration The study is registered in Clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02495714 as of June 20th – 2015, retrospectively registered. The collection of baseline values was initiated in mid-January 2015.
Hussain, Sultana Monira; Urquhart, Donna M.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dunstan, David; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Magliano, Dianna J.; Wluka, Anita E.; Cicuttini, Flavia M.
Abstract Two systematic reviews concluded that there was limited evidence to support an association between physical activity and sedentary behavior and developing low back pain (LBP). The aim of this study was to examine the associations of physical activity and television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability in community-based adults. Five thousand fifty-eight participants (44% men) of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study had physical activity and television viewing time measured in 1999 to 2000, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2012, and LBP intensity and disability assessed in 2013 to 2014 using the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratio for LBP intensity and disability associated with physical activity and television viewing time. Analyses were adjusted for age, education, smoking, dietary guideline index score, body mass index, and mental component summary score. To test whether associations of physical activity or television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability were modified by sex, obesity, or age, interactions were tested using the likelihood ratio test. As gender modified the associations between physical activity and television viewing time and LBP disability (P = 0.05), men and women were examined separately. A total of 81.7% men and 82.1% women had LBP. Most men (63.6%) and women (60.2%) had low intensity LBP with fewer having high intensity LBP (18.1% men, 21.5% women). Most participants had no LBP disability (74.5% men, 71.8% women) with the remainder reporting low (15.8% men, 15.3% women) or high (9.7% men, 12.9% women) LBP disability. Insufficient physical activity (television viewing time (≥2 hours/day) was associated with greater prevalence of LBP disability in women (low disability OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04–1.73; high disability OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01–1.72). Although it needs to be confirmed in RCTs our findings suggest that targeting time spent
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is a leading preventable cause of chronic disease and premature death globally, yet over half of the adult Australian population is inactive. To address this, web-based physical activity interventions, which have the potential to reach large numbers of users at low costs, have received considerable attention. To fully realise the potential of such interventions, there is a need to further increase their appeal to boost engagement and retention, and sustain intervention effects over longer periods of time. This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the efficacy of a gamified physical activity intervention that connects users to each other via Facebook and is delivered via a mobile app. Methods The study is a three-group, cluster-RCT. Four hundred and forty (440 inactive Australian adults who use Facebook at least weekly will be recruited in clusters of three to eight existing Facebook friends. Participant clusters will be randomly allocated to one of three conditions: (1 waitlist control condition, (2 basic experimental condition (pedometer plus basic app with no social and gamification features, or (3 socially-enhanced experimental condition (pedometer plus app with social and gamification features. Participants will undertake assessments at baseline, three and nine months. The primary outcome is change in total daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity at three months measured objectively using GENEActive accelerometers [Activeinsights Ltd., UK]. Secondary outcomes include self-reported physical activity, depression and anxiety, wellbeing, quality of life, social-cognitive theory constructs and app usage and engagement. Discussion The current study will incorporate novel social and gamification elements in order to examine whether the inclusion of these components increases the efficacy of app-based physical activity interventions. The findings will be used to guide the development
Edney, Sarah; Plotnikoff, Ronald; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Olds, Tim; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Ryan, Jillian; Maher, Carol
Physical inactivity is a leading preventable cause of chronic disease and premature death globally, yet over half of the adult Australian population is inactive. To address this, web-based physical activity interventions, which have the potential to reach large numbers of users at low costs, have received considerable attention. To fully realise the potential of such interventions, there is a need to further increase their appeal to boost engagement and retention, and sustain intervention effects over longer periods of time. This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the efficacy of a gamified physical activity intervention that connects users to each other via Facebook and is delivered via a mobile app. The study is a three-group, cluster-RCT. Four hundred and forty (440) inactive Australian adults who use Facebook at least weekly will be recruited in clusters of three to eight existing Facebook friends. Participant clusters will be randomly allocated to one of three conditions: (1) waitlist control condition, (2) basic experimental condition (pedometer plus basic app with no social and gamification features), or (3) socially-enhanced experimental condition (pedometer plus app with social and gamification features). Participants will undertake assessments at baseline, three and nine months. The primary outcome is change in total daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity at three months measured objectively using GENEActive accelerometers [Activeinsights Ltd., UK]. Secondary outcomes include self-reported physical activity, depression and anxiety, wellbeing, quality of life, social-cognitive theory constructs and app usage and engagement. The current study will incorporate novel social and gamification elements in order to examine whether the inclusion of these components increases the efficacy of app-based physical activity interventions. The findings will be used to guide the development and increase the effectiveness of future health
Mijnarends, Donja M.; Koster, Annemarie; Schols, Jos M. G. A.; Meijers, Judith M. M.; Halfens, Ruud J. G.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Jónsson, Pálmi V.; Meirelles, Osorio; Harris, Tamara
Background: the prevalence of sarcopenia increases with age. Physical activity might slow the rate of muscle loss and therewith the incidence of sarcopenia. Objective: to examine the association of physical activity with incident sarcopenia over a 5-year period. Design: data from the population-based Age, Gene/Environment, Susceptibility–Reykjavik Study were used. Setting: people residing in the Reykjavik area at the start of the study. Subjects: the study included people aged 66–93 years (n = 2309). Methods: the amount of moderate–vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. Sarcopenia was identified using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People algorithm, including muscle mass (computed tomography imaging), grip strength (computerised dynamometer) and gait speed (6 m). Results: mean age of the participants was 74.9 ± 4.7 years. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 7.3% at baseline and 16.8% at follow-up. The incidence proportion of sarcopenia over 5 years was 14.8% in the least-active individuals and 9.0% in the most-active individuals. Compared with the least-active participants, those reporting a moderate–high amount of MVPA had a significantly lower likelihood of incident sarcopenia (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.45–0.91). Participants with a high amount of MVPA had higher baseline levels of muscle mass, strength and walking speed, but baseline MVPA was not associated with the rate of muscle loss. Conclusion: a higher amount of MVPA seems to contribute to counteracting the development of sarcopenia. To delay the onset of sarcopenia and its potential adverse outcomes, attention should be paid to increasing physical activity levels in older adults. PMID:27189729
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Dwyer, John J M; Allison, Kenneth R; LeMoine, Karen N; Adlaf, Edward M; Goodman, Jack; Faulkner, Guy E J; Lysy, Daria C
Adolescents spend considerable time at school and thus it is important to understand their opportunities for school-based physical activity. This study surveyed Ontario secondary schools to identify the range of structured opportunities and their engagement by students. A questionnaire was mailed to key informants in 600 randomly selected secondary schools in Ontario, for which 474 respondents (79%) returned completed questionnaires. Curriculum-based physical education (PE) classes in grade nine were reported to be offered in all schools and these classes in grades 10, 11 and 12 were offered in almost all schools. Student enrollment in PE decreased from grades 9 to 12 (97.9%, 49.6%, 43.3% and 35.9%, respectively). Respondents reported that funding, timetable, facilities and resources made it somewhat difficult to implement the health and physical education curriculum in their schools. About two-thirds (65.5%) of the schools had an intramural program and 15.0% of students participated in it, whereas 97.2% of the schools had an inter-school sports program and 25.0% of students participated in it. Supervision issues made it difficult to provide intramural programs and funding made it difficult to provide inter-school sports programs. Although provision of physical activity opportunities in Ontario appears satisfactory, actual engagement by students is low. The results suggest that strategies to increase student participation in PE, intramural programs, and inter-school sports programs need further consideration.
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Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.
Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…
Gu, Xiangli; Chen, Yu-Lin; Jackson, Allen W.; Zhang, Tao
Background: School physical education (PE) programs provide a prime environment for interventions that attempt to develop school-aged children's motor competence and overall physical fitness, while also stimulating competence motivation to engage in physical activity during childhood. It is generally recognized that a pedometer-based intervention…
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Full Text Available Physical activity is an essential component of a healthy lifestyle, promoting health and preventing various chronic diseases. Despite this evidence, it is known that the younger generations invest much time in sedentary activities such as television viewing, videogames or reading, which potentially can lead to an increase in the prevalence of sedentary behaviors in adulthood. These behaviors have been identified as factors of disturbance in the balance between intake and energy expenditure, contributing to the increasing number of overweight and obese people and, further downstream, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and cancer (among others. The emergence of the Exergames (videogames that involve physical activity, either light, moderate or intense and games whose narrative alters pathogenic beliefs, contrary to the potential risk effect of gaming, by combining the playful context of videogames with physical activity (mild to intense. This study discusses some salutogenic principles of a new generation of videogames where virtual and real come together, ipromoting salutogenic behavioral patterns, namely through greater energy expenditure. The ideas are based on theoretical and empirical contributions from health psychology, in addition to the potential of computer technology applicable to traditional videogames and Exergames.
Østergaard, Lars Domino
It is important, not only on health grounds, to exercise and to be physically active. In school, physical activities have shown to improve the students’ academic behaviour resulting in improved attention and information processing as well as enhanced coping. To stimulate and motivate students...... to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...
Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Schiff, Annie; van Sluijs, Esther M F
Family-based interventions present a much-needed opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. However, little is known about how best to engage parents and their children in physical activity research. This study aimed to engage with the whole family to understand how best to recruit for, and retain participation in, physical activity research. Families (including a 'target' child aged between 8 and 11 years, their parents, siblings, and others) were recruited through schools and community groups. Focus groups were conducted using a semi-structured approach (informed by a pilot session). Families were asked to order cards listing the possible benefits of, and the barriers to, being involved in physical activity research and other health promotion activities, highlighting the items they consider most relevant, and suggesting additional items. Duplicate content analysis was used to identify transcript themes and develop a coding frame. Eighty-two participants from 17 families participated, including 17 'target' children (mean age 9.3 ± 1.1 years, 61.1% female), 32 other children and 33 adults (including parents, grandparents, and older siblings). Social, health and educational benefits were cited as being key incentives for involvement in physical activity research, with emphasis on children experiencing new things, developing character, and increasing social contact (particularly for shy children). Children's enjoyment was also given priority. The provision of child care or financial reward was not considered sufficiently appealing. Increased time commitment or scheduling difficulties were quoted as the most pertinent barriers to involvement (especially for families with several children), but parents commented these could be overcome if the potential value for children was clear. Lessons learned from this work may contribute to the development of effective recruitment and retention strategies for children and their families. Making the wide
Karnes, Sasha L; Meyer, Barbara B; Berger, Lisa M; Brondino, Michael J
Web-based interventions for enhancing physical activity participation are in demand for application in health care settings. Recent research suggests Web-based interventions that are based on motivational interviewing are effective to increase physical activity. It is unclear whether motivational interviewing can influence targeted psychological variables such as perceived readiness, willingness, and ability to participate in physical activity. The aims of this study were to determine whether there were changes in physical activity and psychological variables associated with readiness, willingness, and perceived ability to participate in physical activity following completion of a novel Web-based intervention. The goal of the motivational interviewing-based intervention was to increase physical activity. Twenty-three underactive or inactive urban dwelling adults were recruited at a medical office for participation in a 4-session Web-based intervention lasting approximately 15 minutes per week. Sessions were based on principles of motivational interviewing. Assessment of physical activity was conducted using pedometers immediately prior to intervention participation (pre) and immediately post intervention (post1). Self-report assessments of physical activity and psychological variables were conducted using online surveys at pre, post1, and again at one month following intervention participation (post2). Comparisons of pre and post1 pedometer recordings revealed significant increases in steps per day (t22=2.09, P=.049). There were also significant changes in total physical activity energy expenditure per week (χ(2) 2=8.4, P=.02) and in moderate intensity physical activity energy expenditure per week (χ(2) 2=13.9, Ptool to promote physical activity in health care settings. Additional research is needed to test the effectiveness of motivational interviewing compared to a control condition and to refine content by considering mediation by psychological variables in a
Mortazavi, Seyede Salehe; Shati, Mohsen; Ardebili, Hassan Eftekhar; Mohammad, Kazem; Beni, Reza Dorali; Keshteli, A H
The present study focuses on comparing the effects of home-based (HB) and group-based (GB) physical activity on mental health in a sample of older adults in Shahr-e-kord. In this quasi-experimental study, a twice-weekly physical activity program for 2 months was provided either individually at home or in a group format for 181 people who were divided into two groups (HB and GB). The outcome, mental health, was measured with the 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Mental health status improved after participation in the physical activity program. The decrease in GHQ-28 total score in GB group, 3 months after intervention, was 3.61 ± 2.28 (P effects of GB physical activity on mental health compared with HB physical activity, adjusted for related baseline variables, were significant. These findings reveal the probable effects of GB rather than HB physical activity on mental health among the elderly.
Kawabata, Masato; Chua, Khai Leng; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D
Regular participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is important to manage obesity. Physical education (PE) is considered to play an important role in promoting lifelong participation in physical activity (PA) because it provides an existing network where cost-effective interventions can be implemented to produce sustainable change in health behavior. However, the association between compulsory school PA (e.g., PE lessons) and body composition levels has received mixed support in the literature. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether a school-based intervention targeting salient PA benefits and barriers grounded on the theory of planned behavior would promote young people's participation in MVPA during leisure time and reduce body mass index (BMI) of overweight students. A total of 171 students from 3 secondary schools in Singapore underwent the control condition followed by the intervention condition. Both the conditions consisted of PE lessons twice per week over 4 weeks. In the control condition, PE teachers encouraged students to participate in PA during leisure time without providing persuasive message. While in the intervention condition, PE teachers delivered persuasive messages that targeted the salient benefits and barriers associated with PA to the students at the last 5 to 10 min of each PE lesson. PA levels over a week were measured objectively with wrist-mounted GENEActiv Original accelerometers and subjectively with self-reporting questionnaires three times (Baseline, Post 1, and Post 2) in each condition. Student's self-reported PA level was measured using the Leisure-Time Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and their attitudes, intentions, subjective norms and perceived behavior control towards leisure-time PA were measured with a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior. Furthermore, students' intention, determination and
Alvin Hung Chih Yu
The benefits of physical activity have been well documented in recent years. Physical activity may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease, assist in weight management, improve personal mood, and promote physiological health. In light of this increased activity, it is important to understand the reasons for it. This exploratory study attempted to identify college...
Full Text Available Background. Though the influence of physical activity in preventing cardiovascular diseases is well documented, only a few comparative studies have determined the degree of adherence to physical activity recommendations among populations and identified the demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and health-related factors associated with good compliance. Design and methods. Cross-sectional interregional NESCaV survey of 3133 subjects compared three populations, Luxembourg, Lorraine (France and Wallonia (Belgium, by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Age and gender prevalence rates of physical activity were standardized to the European population. Results. The likelihood to meet the recommendations was higher in Luxembourg, after adjustment for age, gender, education, employment, weight status, morbidity score, health perception and level of importance attributed to the practice of physical activity (P<0.0001. The odds for meeting the recommendations were significantly higher among those with secondary than tertiary education. Compared to good self-health perception, subjects with poor or fair self-perceived health were less likely to meet the recommendations; this also applied to those attributing little or enough importance to physical activity compared with great importance. Conclusions. Region, education, self-perceived health and perception of importance of physical activity were emerged as independent determinants of meeting the recommendations. Awareness of the positive health effects of physical activity might thus be crucial for motivating the people to become more active. Further research is needed to explore potential region-specific factors which might explain the difference in population behaviours with respect to physical activity.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to investigate the changes on physical stability (color, creaming, liquefaction, pH, conductivity, centrifugation, viscosity and rheological parameters by non-ionic surfactant polysiloxane polyalkyl polyether copolymer based creams following inclusion of plant extract containing phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity of the plant extract alone and after addition in the cream was assessed using the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Physical stability was assessed by submitting the creams to storage at 8°C, 25°C, 40°C, and at 40°C with 70% RH (relative humidity for a period of two months. Physical characteristics of polysiloxane polyalkyl polyether copolymer based creams, that is, color, creaming, liquefaction, centrifugation and pH were noted at various intervals for 2 months. The viscosities and rheological behavior of creams were determined using a rotational rheometer. Data were analyzed by using Brookfield Software Rheocalc version (2.6 with IPC Paste and Power Law (PL math models. Cream with plant extract showed pseudo plastic behaviour with decreasing on viscosity. The Acacia nilotica (AN extract alone and the cream containing this extract showed great antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Power Law and IPC analysis were found to fit all the rheograms.
Estabrooks, Paul A; Glasgow, Russ E; Xu, Stan; Dzewaltowski, David A; Lee, Rebecca E; Thomas, Deborah; Almeida, Fabio A; Thayer, Amy N; Smith-Ray, Renae L
OBJECTIVES: Despite the widely acknowledged benefits of regular physical activity (PA), specific goals for increased population levels of PA, and strongly recommended strategies to promote PA, there is no evidence suggesting that the prevalence of PA is improving. If PA intervention research is to be improved, theory should be used as the basis for intervention development, participant context or environment should be considered in the process, and intervention characteristics that will heighten the likelihood of translation into practice should be implemented (e.g., ease of implementation, low human resource costs). The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of the aforementioned concepts within the intervention development process associated with CardiACTION an ongoing randomized 2 × 2 factorial trial. METHODS: The Ecological Model of Physical Activity integrated with Protection Motivation Theory was used to inform the design of the interventions. This integrated model was selected to allow for the development of theory-based individual, environmental, and individually + environmentally targeted physical activity interventions. All intervention strategies were matched to proposed mediators of behavior change. Strategies were then matched to the most appropriate interactive technology (i.e., interactive computer session, automated telephone counseling, and tailored mailings) delivery channel. CONCLUSIONS: The potential implications of this study include determining the independent and combined influence of individual and environment mechanisms of behavior change on intervention effectiveness. In addition, all intervention models are developed to be scalable and disseminable to a broad audience at a low cost.
Schmid, Thomas L; Librett, John; Neiman, Andrea; Pratt, Michael; Salmon, Art
A growing interest in promoting physical activity through multi-sectoral community-based programmes has highlighted the need for effective programme evaluation. Meeting in Rio de Janeiro, an international workgroup of behavioural, medical, public health and other scientists and practitioners endorsed the principle of careful evaluation of all programmes and in a consensus process developed the Rio de Janeiro Recommendations for Evaluation of Physical Activity Interventions". Among these recommendations and principles were that when possible, evaluation should 'built into' the programme from the beginning. The workgroup also called for adequate funding for evaluation, setting a goal of about 10% of programme resources for evaluation. The group also determined that evaluations should be developed in conjunction with and the results shared with all appropriate stakeholders in the programme; evaluations should be guided by ethical standards such as those proposed by the American Evaluation Association and should assess programme processes as well as outcomes; evaluation outcomes should be used to revise and refine ongoing programmes and guide decisions about programme continuation or expansion. It was also recognised that additional training in programme evaluation is needed and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Physical Activity Evaluation Handbook could be easily adapted for use in culturally diverse communities, especially in Latin America. This paper describes a 6-step evaluation process and provides the full set of recommendations from the Rio de Janeiro Workgroup. The handbook has been translated and additional case studies from Colombia and Brazil have been added. Spanish and Portuguese language editions of the Evaluation Handbook are available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Physical Activity and Health Branch.
Sawyer, A; Smith, L; Ucci, M; Jones, R; Marmot, A; Fisher, A
Individuals in office-based occupations have low levels of physical activity but there is little research into the socio-ecological correlates of workplace activity. To identify factors contributing to office-based workers' perceptions of the office environment and explore cross-sectional relationships between these factors and occupational physical activity. Participants in the Active Buildings study reported perceptions of their office environment using the Movement at Work Survey. A principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on survey items. A sub-sample wore the ActivPAL3TM accelerometer for ≥3 workdays to measure occupational step count, standing, sitting and sit-to-stand transitions. Linear regression analyses assessed relationships between environmental perceptions and activity. There were 433 participants, with accelerometer data available for 115 participants across 11 organ izations. The PCA revealed four factors: (i) perceived distance to office destinations, (ii) perceived office aesthetics and comfort, (iii) perceived office social environment and (iv) perceived management discouragement of unscheduled breaks. Younger participants perceived office destinations as being closer to their desk. Younger and female participants perceived more positive office social environments; there were no other socio-demographic differences. Within the sub-sample with accelerometer data, perceived discouragement of breaks by management was related to occupational step count/hour (B = -64.5; 95% CI -109.7 to -19.2). No other environmental perceptions were related to activity or sitting. Perceived managerial discouragement of breaks could be related to meaningful decreases in occupational step count. Future research should aim to elucidate the role of the workplace socio-cultural environment in occupational walking, with a focus on the role of management. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All
Baghianimoghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Bakhtari-Aghdam, Fatemeh; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Dabagh-Nikookheslat, Saeed; Nourizadeh, Roghaiyeh
Regular physical activity (PA) has been shown to reduce risk of morbidity and overall mortality. A study has displayed that achieving 10,000 steps/day is associated with important health outcomes and have been used to promote PA. Pedometers are a popular tool for PA interventions in different setting. This study investigated the effects on pedometer-based and self-reported PA among Tabriz University employees. This experimental study assessed the effects of 16 weeks pedometer-based workplace intervention. Participants (n = 154) were employees of two worksites. Pedometer-based and self-reported PA from one intervention worksite was compared with the data of a comparison workplace. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for self-reported measure of PA, and demographic (age, marital status, educational level, employment status, and stage of change) variables were obtained. To measure PA objectively pedometer was used. Participants reported to increase the step counts from baseline (end of summer) to posttest (winter). The intervention effect revealed significant increase in the intervention group (8279 ± 2759 steps/day than in the comparison work place (4118 ± 1136). Self-reported based on IPAQ concluded women in intervention worksite had a significant increase in the leisure time domain, but similar finding was not found in the comparison worksite. Pedometer used might rather benefit those individuals who want feedback on their current PA, also walking should be considered to increase PA in employee women.
Cabrita, M.; Tabak, Monique; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé
An active lifestyle is of utmost importance for the quality of life of the older adults. With active lifestyle is meant not only physically active, but also engaged with the social environment. Although some individuals can achieve a desired level of physical activity and engagement by themselves,
Dunn, Andrea L; Buller, David B; Dearing, James W; Cutter, Gary; Guerra, Michele; Wilcox, Sara; Bettinghaus, Erwin P
BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of research studies that have examined academic-commercial partnerships to disseminate evidence-based physical activity programs. Understanding this approach to dissemination is essential because academic-commercial partnerships are increasingly common. Private companies have used dissemination channels and strategies to a degree that academicians have not, and declining resources require academicians to explore these partnerships. PURPOSE: This paper describes a retrospective case-control study design including the methods, demographics, organizational decision-making, implementation rates, and marketing strategy for Active Living Every Day (ALED), an evidence-based lifestyle physical activity program that has been commercially available since 2001. Evidence-based public health promotion programs rely on organizations and targeted sectors to disseminate these programs although relatively little is known about organizational-level and sector-level influences that lead to their adoption and implementation. METHODS: Cases (n=154) were eligible if they had signed an ALED license agreement with Human Kinetics (HK), publisher of the program's textbooks and facilitator manuals, between 2001 and 2008. Two types of controls were matched (2:2:1) and stratified by sector and region. Active controls (Control 1; n=319) were organizations that contacted HK to consider adopting ALED. Passive controls (Control 2; n=328) were organizations that received unsolicited marketing materials and did not initiate contact with HK. We used Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT) constructs as the basis for developing the survey of cases and controls. RESULTS: Using the multi-method strategy recommended by Dillman, a total of n=801 cases and controls were surveyed. Most organizations were from the fitness sector followed by medical, nongovernmental, governmental, educational, worksite and other sectors with significantly higher response rates from government
Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L
A community-based participatory research project using social marketing strategies was implemented to promote physical activity among women aged 35 to 54 who were insufficiently active or completely inactive. A variety of media were used to disseminate messages about how to enroll in Step Up. Step Out! This article describes the effectiveness and cost of the recruitment strategies and lessons learned in recruiting the women. Of the total inquiries (n = 691), 430 women were eligible and enrolled in the program. Based on data from questionnaires, the most effective method of recruiting women into Step Up. Step Out! was word of mouth (36%). Newspaper ads accounted for 29% of the women's responses. The least effective method was billboards. Mass media was not as effective in recruiting women for the program as interpersonal efforts such as word of mouth. Interpersonal efforts are a valuable and possibly underrated recruitment and promotion tool.
Bassett, David R
Measurement of physical activity is important, given the vital role of this behavior in physical and mental health. Over the past quarter of a century, the use of small, non-invasive, wearable monitors to assess physical activity has become commonplace. This review is divided into three sections. In the first section, a brief history of physical activity monitoring is provided, along with a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of different devices. In the second section, recent applications of physical activity monitoring in physical activity and public health research are discussed. Wearable monitors are being used to conduct surveillance, and to determine the extent and distribution of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in populations around the world. They have been used to help clarify the dose–response relation between physical activity and health. Wearable monitors that provide feedback to users have also been used in longitudinal interventions to motivate research participants and to assess their compliance with program goals. In the third section, future directions for research in physical activity monitoring are discussed. It is likely that new developments in wearable monitors will lead to greater accuracy and improved ease-of-use. (paper)
Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian
This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…
Geraedts, Hilde; Zijlstra, Agnes; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Stevens, Martin; Zijlstra, Wiebren
Objective: To evaluate the literature on effectiveness of remote feedback on physical activity and capacity in home-based physical activity interventions for older adults with or without medical conditions. In addition, the effect of remote feedback on adherence was inventoried. Methods: A
Nørgaard, M; Twilt, M; Andersen, L B
with regard to disease activity and physical variables and to compare the data with those from healthy age- and gender-matched controls.Method: Patients underwent an evaluation of disease activity, functional ability, physical capacity, and pain. Accelerometer monitoring was assessed using the GT1M Acti...... range of motion (ROM). No correlation was found between PA and pain scores, functional ability, and hypermobility. Patients with involvement of ankles or hips demonstrated significantly lower levels of PA.Conclusions: Children with JIA are less physically active and have lower physical capacity......Objectives: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) may cause functional impairment, reduced participation in physical activity (PA) and, over time, physical deconditioning. The aim of this study was to objectively monitor daily free-living PA in 10-16-year-old children with JIA using accelerometry...
Bombardier, Charles H.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Wadhwani, Roini; Sullivan, Mark D.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Kraft, George H.
Objective: Physical activity represents a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a single-blind, two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-week physical activity counseling intervention delivered primarily by telephone (n = 44) to a wait-list control group (N = 48).…
Peyman, Nooshin; Rezai-Rad, Majid; Tehrani, Hadi; Gholian-Aval, Mahdi; Vahedian-Shahroodi, Mohammad; Heidarian Miri, Hamid
Technological advances have caused poor mobility and lower physical activity among humankind. This study was conducted to assess the impact of a digital media-based (multi-media, internet, and mobile phone) health intervention on promotion of women's physical activity. In this quasi-experimental study, 360 women were divided into case and control groups. The digital media-based educational intervention was conducted in two months in the case group electronically, using mail and Internet and telephone platforms. Physical activity was measured using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) that estimated women's physical activity rate in the previous week. Data was analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics (ANOVA, chi-square, paired and independent t-tests) using SPSS 20. The mean score of knowledge, attitude and level of physical activity in the control group were not significantly different before and after the intervention. While in the case group, this difference before and after the intervention was significant (p digital media-based health education can be effective in improving health-based behavior such as physical activity. Therefore, it seems necessary to develop user-based strategies and strengthen the behavioral change theories and hypotheses based on digital media for effective influence on behavior. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT), IRCT20160619028529N5 . Registered December 24, 2017 [retrospectively registered].
The customary view of today’s recreational physical activities turns the human movement into a rational practice that is pursued for practical reasons only: for health, vitality, stamina and longevity. This prevalent point of view affects the understanding of the ends, content and quality of physical activities and it creates a bias where the biological, physiological and medical characteristics of physical activities are emphasized while the sensuous, experiential and creative aspects are su...
Slootmaker, Sander M; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Schuit, Albertine J; Seidell, Jacob C; van Mechelen, Willem
BACKGROUND: Inactive people are often not aware of the fact that they are insufficiently active. Providing insight into their actual physical activity (PA) levels may raise awareness and could, in combination with tailored PA advice, stimulate a physically active lifestyle. OBJECTIVE: This study
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Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa
Full Text Available We aimed to measure the prevalence of physical inactivity (PI during leisure time and to identify variables associated with it in a southern Brazilian adult population. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out, covering a multiple-stage sample of 1,968 subjects aged 20-69 years. Weekly participation in leisure-time physical activity was addressed. For each activity, energy expenditure was calculated using data on duration, metabolic equivalent, and body weight. Energy expenditures of individual activities were summed to give a weekly total. PI was defined as fewer than 1,000 kilocalories per week. The prevalence of PI was 80.7% (95%CI: 78.9-82.4. After adjusted analyses, the following variables were positively associated with the outcome: female gender, age, living with a partner, and smoking. Schooling and economic status were inversely associated with PI. Chronically undernourished individuals were significantly more likely to be inactive. We found no differences according to skin color or alcohol consumption. In conclusion, the prevalence of PI in this adult population was higher than in populations from developed countries, but the associated variables were similar.
Borghese, Michael M; Janssen, Ian
Children participate in four main types of physical activity: organized sport, active travel, outdoor active play, and curriculum-based physical activity. The objective of this study was to develop a valid approach that can be used to concurrently measure time spent in each of these types of physical activity. Two samples (sample 1: n = 50; sample 2: n = 83) of children aged 10-13 wore an accelerometer and a GPS watch continuously over 7 days. They also completed a log where they recorded the start and end times of organized sport sessions. Sample 1 also completed an outdoor time log where they recorded the times they went outdoors and a description of the outdoor activity. Sample 2 also completed a curriculum log where they recorded times they participated in physical activity (e.g., physical education) during class time. We describe the development of a measurement approach that can be used to concurrently assess the time children spend participating in specific types of physical activity. The approach uses a combination of data from accelerometers, GPS, and activity logs and relies on merging and then processing these data using several manual (e.g., data checks and cleaning) and automated (e.g., algorithms) procedures. In the new measurement approach time spent in organized sport is estimated using the activity log. Time spent in active travel is estimated using an existing algorithm that uses GPS data. Time spent in outdoor active play is estimated using an algorithm (with a sensitivity and specificity of 85%) that was developed using data collected in sample 1 and which uses all of the data sources. Time spent in curriculum-based physical activity is estimated using an algorithm (with a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 92%) that was developed using data collected in sample 2 and which uses accelerometer data collected during class time. There was evidence of excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability of the estimates for all of these types of
Prestwich, Andrew; Conner, Mark; Hurling, Robert; Ayres, Karen; Morris, Ben
reviews were explicitly based on control theory (see Prestwich et al., ). What does this study add? This study is the first experimental test of the cumulative effects of behaviour change techniques as proposed by control theory. Intervening on all aspects of the feedback loop noted by control theory leads to more change; however, the risk that some participants coast in relation to their set goal is significant. This approach increased physical activity more in those with weaker intentions pre-intervention. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Ramulu, Pradeep Y; Chan, Emilie S; Loyd, Tara L; Ferrucci, Luigi; Friedman, David S
Measuring physical at home and away from home is essential for assessing health and well-being, and could help design interventions to increase physical activity. Here, we describe how physical activity at home and away from home can be quantified by combining information from cellular network-based tracking devices and accelerometers. Thirty-five working adults wore a cellular network-based tracking device and an accelerometer for 6 consecutive days and logged their travel away from home. Performance of the tracking device was determined using the travel log for reference. Tracking device and accelerometer data were merged to compare physical activity at home and away from home. The tracking device detected 98.6% of all away-from-home excursions, accurately measured time away from home and demonstrated few prolonged signal drop-out periods. Most physical activity took place away from home on weekdays, but not on weekends. Subjects were more physically active per unit of time while away from home, particularly on weekends. Cellular network-based tracking devices represent an alternative to global positioning systems for tracking location, and provide information easily integrated with accelerometers to determine where physical activity takes place. Promoting greater time spent away from home may increase physical activity.
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Full Text Available Study aim: To assess the effects of an eight-week pedometer-based walking intervention, using different strategies of goalsetting, on self-efficacy, physical activity enjoyment, and body image.
Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. email@example.com OBJECTIVES: Three aspects of obesity and physical activity are reviewed: whether the obese are inactive; how the activity level can be increased; and which are the effects of an increase in physical
Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
This study explored children's participation in recreational (physical) activities and the extent to which this participation was influenced by individual and household socio-demographics and characteristics of the social and physical environment. Travel and activity diaries were used to collect
People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.
Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M
The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... to understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not....
Karim, Nafis I.; Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha
Prior research suggests that using evidence-based pedagogies can not only improve learning for all students, it can also reduce the gender gap. We describe the impact of physics education research-based pedagogical techniques in flipped and active-engagement non-flipped courses on the gender gap observed with validated conceptual surveys. We compare male and female students’ performance in courses which make significant use of evidence-based active-engagement (EBAE) strategies with courses that primarily use lecture-based (LB) instruction. All courses had large enrolment and often had more than 100 students. The analysis of data for validated conceptual surveys presented here includes data from two-semester sequences of algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses. The conceptual surveys used to assess student learning in the first and second semester courses were the force concept inventory and the conceptual survey of electricity and magnetism, respectively. In the research discussed here, the performance of male and female students in EBAE courses at a particular level is compared with LB courses in two situations: (I) the same instructor taught two courses, one of which was an EBAE course and the other an LB course, while the homework, recitations and final exams were kept the same; (II) student performance in all of the EBAE courses taught by different instructors was averaged and compared with LB courses of the same type also averaged over different instructors. In all cases, on conceptual surveys we find that students in courses which make significant use of active-engagement strategies, on average, outperformed students in courses of the same type using primarily lecture-based instruction even though there was no statistically significant difference on the pre-test before instruction. However, the gender gap persisted even in courses using EBAE methods. We also discuss correlations between the performance of male and female students on
Esslinger, Keri A.; Grimes, Amanda R.; Pyle, Elizabeth
In this study, we investigated students' attitudes toward physical activity (PA) when including a required PA component in a university-required personal wellness class. The study included (a) an experimental group of students enrolled in a personal wellness course in which there was a required PA requirement and (b) a control group of students…
Loong, Claudine; Leo, Latasha; Goh, Danielle; Lim, Pei Sin; Loke, Wai Mun
Limited data are available on the effectiveness of the school-based structured fitness and wellness program to influence dietary quality and physical activity levels in Singaporean adolescents. The study examined if a 20-h (over 10 weeks) school-based structured fitness and wellness module affects the diet quality indices, energy intakes, physical activity levels and the associated energy expenditures in a group of healthy, male adolescents with low diet quality and physical activity levels. Participant demography, anthropometry, dietary intake and daily physical activity were obtained at the beginning, mid-point and end of the 10-week program. Physical activity levels were assessed accelerometrically over a 1-weekday period. Dietary intake were taken using a structured 7-day food diary, and diet quality assessed using the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). The 31 enrolled participants (age 19.8 ± 0.6 years) with body mass index (BMI) (19.8 ± 0.6 kg/m2) followed diets of low diet quality scores (48.3 ± 9.6 out of 100) and engaged in 3.87 ± 2.00 h of physical activity daily before the start of the intervention. Their dietary quality and physical activity levels did not change significantly throughout the intervention period. They scored poorly in the moderation and overall balance components of the diet quality assessment. The physical activity duration correlated inversely to the diet quality scores. Our results suggest that the prescribed school-based fitness and wellness module was ineffective in influencing the diet quality and physical activity levels of Singaporean male adolescents with low diet quality and physical activity levels.
Hammer, Nanna Maria; Midtgaard, Julie; Hetland, Merete Lund; Krogh, Niels Steen; Esbensen, Bente Appel
Physical activity is recommended as an essential part of the non-pharmacological management of inflammatory joint disease, but previous research in this area has predominantly included women. The aim of this study was to examine physical activity behaviour in men with inflammatory joint disease. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional register-based study. Data on physical activity behaviour in men with RA, PsA and AS were matched with sociodemographic and clinical variables extracted from the DANBIO registry. Logistic regression analyses using multiple imputations were performed to investigate demographic and clinical variables associated with regular engagement in physical activity (moderate-vigorous ⩾2 h/week). Descriptive statistics were applied to explore motivation, barriers and preferences for physical activity. A total of 325 men were included of whom 129 (40%) engaged in regular physical activity. In univariate analyses, higher age, visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, VAS fatigue, VAS patient's global, CRP level, disease activity, functional disability and current smoking were negatively associated with regular engagement in physical activity. In the final multivariable regression model only a high VAS fatigue score (⩾61 mm) (OR = 0.228; CI: 0.119, 0.436) remained significantly independently associated with regular physical activity. A majority of men with inflammatory joint disease do not meet the recommendations of regular physical activity. Both sociodemographic and clinical parameters were associated with engagement in physical activity, and fatigue especially seems to play a pivotal role in explaining suboptimal physical activity behaviour in this patient group.
McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K; Sagdalen, Vanessa; Manohar, Chinmay U; Levine, James A
This study examined the impact of short activity breaks in preschool children. The hypotheses were that preschool children receiving three five-minute activity breaks per day would increase (a) school time physical activity and (b) education scores compared to a control group not receiving the intervention. For 8 weeks, the Intervention Group (n = 13) incorporated three 5-minute activity breaks into their classroom time while the Control Group (n = 12) did not incorporate the activity breaks. Physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. Education was assessed using standardized methods. After 8 weeks, the preschool children in the Intervention Group increased their school time physical activity from 11,641 ± (SD) 1,368 Acceleration Units (AU)/ hour to 16,058 ± 2,253 AU/hour (P < 0.001). The children in the control group did not increase their physical activity (11,379 ± 2,427 cf 11,624 ± 2,441; ns). Students in the Intervention Group improved their education scores more than students in the control group (18 ± 12 cf 8 ± 7 points, P = 0.01); Letter Recognition improved in particular (9 ± 6 cf 2 ± 4 points, P = 0.001). The incorporation of three 5-minute activity breaks was associated with increased school time physical activity and improved learning.
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Smith, Matthew Lee; Durrett, Nicholas K; Bowie, Maria; Berg, Alison; McCullick, Bryan A; LoPilato, Alexander C; Murray, Deborah
Given the rising prevalence of obesity in the United States, innovative methods are needed to increase physical activity (PA) in community settings. Evidence suggests that individuals are more likely to engage in PA if they are given a choice of activities and have support from others (for encouragement, motivation, and accountability). The objective of this study was to describe the use of the online Walk Georgia PA tracking platform according to whether the user was an individual user or group user. Walk Georgia is a free, interactive online tracking platform that enables users to log PA by duration, activity, and perceived difficulty, and then converts these data into points based on metabolic equivalents. Users join individually or in groups and are encouraged to set weekly PA goals. Data were examined for 6,639 users (65.8% were group users) over 28 months. We used independent sample t tests and Mann-Whitney U tests to compare means between individual and group users. Two linear regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with activity logging. Users logged 218,766 activities (15,119,249 minutes of PA spanning 592,714 miles [41,858,446 points]). On average, group users had created accounts more recently than individual users (P < .001); however, group users logged more activities (P < .001). On average, group users logged more minutes of PA (P < .001) and earned more points (P < .001). Being in a group was associated with a larger proportion of weeks in which 150 minutes or more of weekly PA was logged (B = 20.47, P < .001). Use of Walk Georgia was significantly higher among group users than among individual users. To expand use and dissemination of online tracking of PA, programs should target naturally occurring groups (eg, workplaces, schools, faith-based groups).
Rashidi, Nor Adilla; Yusup, Suzana
The feasibility of biomass-based activated carbons has received a huge attention due to their excellent characteristics such as inexpensiveness, good adsorption behaviour and potential to reduce a strong dependency towards non-renewable precursors. Therefore, in this research work, eco-friendly activated carbon from palm kernel shell that has been produced from one-stage physical activation by using the Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology is highlighted. The effect of three input parameters-temperature, dwell time and gas flow rate-towards product yield and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) uptake at room temperature and atmospheric pressure are studied. Model accuracy has been evaluated through the ANOVA analysis and lack-of-fit test. Accordingly, the optimum condition in synthesising the activated carbon with adequate CO 2 adsorption capacity of 2.13 mmol/g and product yield of 25.15 wt% is found at a temperature of 850 °C, holding time of 60 min and CO 2 flow rate of 450 cm 3 /min. The synthesised activated carbon has been characterised by diverse analytical instruments including thermogravimetric analyser, scanning electron microscope, as well as N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. The characterisation analysis indicates that the synthesised activated carbon has higher textural characteristics and porosity, together with better thermal stability and carbon content as compared to pristine palm kernel shell. Activated carbon production via one-step activation approach is economical since its carbon yield is within the industrial target, whereas CO 2 uptake is comparable to the synthesised activated carbon from conventional dual-stage activation, commercial activated carbon and other published data from literature.
Ayala, Guadalupe X
This within-participants, single time-series study tested a train-the-trainer, promotor-based physical activity (PA) intervention to improve fitness and health indicators. Thirty unpaid promotores were trained to promote PA through free exercise classes. Measurements of 337 female community participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months assessed changes in health indicators, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index (defined as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), aerobic fitness, and hamstring flexibility, as well as self-reported health indicators (PA, depression) and psychosocial factors (barriers, self-efficacy, and social support-all specific to PA). Mixed effects models showed intervention participation improved systolic blood pressure (P ≤ .001), waist circumference (P ≤ .001), fitness (P ≤ .001), and hamstring flexibility (P ≤ .001). We also noted improvements in use of community resources (P ≤ .05), depressed mood and anhedonia (P ≤ .01), perceived barriers to be physically active (P ≤ .05), and community support for PA (P ≤ .001). Self-efficacy decreased (P ≤ .05), and participation dose (i.e., exposure), as measured by attendance at exercise classes, was not associated with observed changes. Promotores can promote PA in their community and achieve meaningful changes in the residents' health.
Rajala, Katja; Kankaanpää, Anna; Laine, Kaarlo; Itkonen, Hannu; Goodman, Elizabeth; Tammelin, Tuija
This study examined the associations of subjective social status (SSS) with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) among adolescents. The study population consisted of 420 Finnish adolescents aged 13 to 14 years. The adolescents reported their own SSS within their school (school SSS) and their family's social position within society (society SSS) based on the youth version of the Subjective Social Status Scale. Adolescents' moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and ST were measured objectively by accelerometers and analyzed separately for the whole day and the school day. The associations between SSS and MVPA and ST outcomes were analyzed using multilevel modeling. School SSS was positively associated with whole-day MVPA and negatively associated with school-time ST. Society SSS was not significantly associated with objectively measured MVPA or ST. Both MVPA and ST are important behavioral determinants of health. As an important correlate of MVPA and ST, school SSS should be addressed by providers when discussing obesity risk and healthy behaviors with adolescents.
Salway, Ruth E.; Sebire, Simon J.; Solomon-Moore, Emma; Thompson, Janice L.; Jago, Russell
Background Physical activity in children is associated with better physical and mental health but many children do not meet physical activity guidelines. Friendship groups are potentially an important influence on children’s physical activity and sedentary time. This paper examines the association between children of physical activity and sedentary time in school-based same-sex friendship networks, for both moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time. Moreover, ...
Full Text Available Although the benefits of physical activity in preventing chronic medical conditions are well established, its impacts on infectious diseases, and seasonal influenza in particular, are less clearly defined. We examined the association between physical activity and influenza-coded outpatient visits, as a proxy for influenza infection.We conducted a cohort study of Ontario respondents to Statistics Canada's population health surveys over 12 influenza seasons. We assessed physical activity levels through survey responses, and influenza-coded physician office and emergency department visits through physician billing claims. We used logistic regression to estimate the risk of influenza-coded outpatient visits during influenza seasons. The cohort comprised 114,364 survey respondents who contributed 357,466 person-influenza seasons of observation. Compared to inactive individuals, moderately active (OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.74-0.94 and active (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.77-0.98 individuals were less likely to experience an influenza-coded visit. Stratifying by age, the protective effect of physical activity remained significant for individuals <65 years (active OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.75-0.98, moderately active: OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74-0.97 but not for individuals ≥ 65 years. The main limitations of this study were the use of influenza-coded outpatient visits rather than laboratory-confirmed influenza as the outcome measure, the reliance on self-report for assessing physical activity and various covariates, and the observational study design.Moderate to high amounts of physical activity may be associated with reduced risk of influenza for individuals <65 years. Future research should use laboratory-confirmed influenza outcomes to confirm the association between physical activity and influenza.
Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Grace, Martha; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic eating disorder affecting females and males, defined by body weight loss, higher physical activity levels and restricted food intake. Currently, the commonalities and differences between genders in etiology of AN are not well understood. Animal models of AN, such as activity-based anorexia (ABA), can be helpful in identifying factors determining individual susceptibility to AN. In ABA, rodents are given an access to a running wheel while food restricted, resulting in paradoxical increased physical activity levels and weight loss. Recent studies suggest that different behavioral traits, including voluntary exercise, can predict individual weight loss in ABA. A higher inherent drive for movement may promote development and severity of AN, but this hypothesis remains untested. In rodents and humans, drive for movement is defined as spontaneous physical activity (SPA), which is time spent in low-intensity, non-volitional movements. In this paper, we show that a profile of body weight history and behavioral traits, including SPA, can predict individual weight loss caused by ABA in male and female rats with high accuracy. Analysis of the influence of SPA on ABA susceptibility in males and females rats suggests that either high or low levels of SPA increase the probability of high weight loss in ABA, but with larger effects in males compared to females. These results suggest that the same behavioral profile can identify individuals at-risk of AN for both male and female populations and that SPA has predictive value for susceptibility to AN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Coolbaugh, Crystal L; Raymond, Stephen C; Hawkins, David A
Computer tailored, Web-based interventions have emerged as an effective approach to promote physical activity. Existing programs, however, do not adjust activities according to the participant's compliance or physiologic adaptations, which may increase risk of injury and program attrition in sedentary adults. To address this limitation, objective activity monitor (AM) and heart rate data could be used to guide personalization of physical activity, but improved Web-based frameworks are needed to test such interventions. The objective of this study is to (1) develop a personalized physical activity prescription (PPAP) app that combines dynamic Web-based guidance with multi-sensor AM data to promote physical activity and (2) to assess the feasibility of using this system in the field. The PPAP app was constructed using an open-source software platform and a custom, multi-sensor AM capable of accurately measuring heart rate and physical activity. A novel algorithm was written to use a participant's compliance and physiologic response to aerobic training (ie, changes in daily resting heart rate) recorded by the AM to create daily, personalized physical activity prescriptions. In addition, the PPAP app was designed to (1) manage the transfer of files from the AM to data processing software and a relational database, (2) provide interactive visualization features such as calendars and training tables to encourage physical activity, and (3) enable remote administrative monitoring of data quality and participant compliance. A 12-week feasibility study was performed to assess the utility and limitations of the PPAP app used by sedentary adults in the field. Changes in physical activity level and resting heart rate were monitored throughout the intervention. The PPAP app successfully created daily, personalized physical activity prescriptions and an interactive Web environment to guide and promote physical activity by the participants. The varied compliance of the
Ehlers, Diane K; Huberty, Jennifer L
The purpose of this study was to describe which theory-based behavioral and technological features middle-aged women prefer to be included in a mobile application designed to help them adopt and maintain regular physical activity (PA). Women aged 30 to 64 years (N = 120) completed an online survey measuring their demographics and mobile PA application preferences. The survey was developed upon behavioral principles of Social Cognitive Theory, recent mobile app research, and technology adoption principles of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Frequencies were calculated and content analyses conducted to identify which features women most preferred. Behavioral features that help women self-regulate their PA (PA tracking, goal-setting, progress monitoring) were most preferred. Technological features that enhance perceived effort expectancy and playfulness were most preferred. Many women reported the desire to interact and compete with others through the application. Theory-based PA self-regulation features and theory-based design features that improve perceived effort expectancy and playfulness may be most beneficial in a mobile PA application for middle-aged women. Opportunities to interact with other people and the employment of social, game-like activities may also be attractive. Interdisciplinary engagement of experts in PA behavior change, technology adoption, and software development is needed.
Hunter, Stephen; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Storey, Kate; Carson, Valerie
Background Adolescence is characterized by low moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels. Targeting the school setting can increase MVPA among a large proportion of adolescents. However, school-based physical activity interventions for adolescents remain largely ineffective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how naturally-occurring changes to school physical activity policy, recreational programming, public health resources, and the physical environmen...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of physical activity and increasing time spent in sedentary behaviours during childhood place importance on developing low cost, easy-toimplement school-based interventions to increase physical activity among children. The PREVIENE Project will evaluate the effectiveness of five innovative, simple, and feasible interventions (active commuting to/from school, active Physical Education lessons, active school recess, sleep health promotion, and an integrated program incorporating all 4 interventions to improve physical activity, fitness, anthropometry, sleep health, academic achievement, and health-related quality of life in primary school children. Methods A total of 300 children (grade 3; 8-9 years of age from six schools in Granada (Spain will be enrolled in one of the 8-week interventions (one intervention per school; 50 children per school or a control group (no intervention school; 50 children. Outcomes will include physical activity (measured by accelerometry, physical fitness (assessed using the ALPHA fitness battery, and anthropometry (height, weight and waist circumference. Furthermore, they will include sleep health (measured by accelerometers, a sleep diary, and sleep health questionnaires, academic achievement (grades from the official school’s records, and health-related quality of life (child and parental questionnaires. To assess the effectiveness of the different interventions on objectively measured PA and the other outcomes, the generalized linear model will be used. Discussion The PREVIENE Project will provide the information about the effectiveness and implementation of different school-based interventions for physical activity promotion in primary school children.
Tercedor, Pablo; Villa-González, Emilio; Ávila-García, Manuel; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Martínez-Baena, Alejandro; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Pérez-López, Isaac José; García-Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Mandic, Sandra; Palomares-Cuadros, Juan; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Huertas-Delgado, Francisco Javier
The lack of physical activity and increasing time spent in sedentary behaviours during childhood place importance on developing low cost, easy-toimplement school-based interventions to increase physical activity among children. The PREVIENE Project will evaluate the effectiveness of five innovative, simple, and feasible interventions (active commuting to/from school, active Physical Education lessons, active school recess, sleep health promotion, and an integrated program incorporating all 4 interventions) to improve physical activity, fitness, anthropometry, sleep health, academic achievement, and health-related quality of life in primary school children. A total of 300 children (grade 3; 8-9 years of age) from six schools in Granada (Spain) will be enrolled in one of the 8-week interventions (one intervention per school; 50 children per school) or a control group (no intervention school; 50 children). Outcomes will include physical activity (measured by accelerometry), physical fitness (assessed using the ALPHA fitness battery), and anthropometry (height, weight and waist circumference). Furthermore, they will include sleep health (measured by accelerometers, a sleep diary, and sleep health questionnaires), academic achievement (grades from the official school's records), and health-related quality of life (child and parental questionnaires). To assess the effectiveness of the different interventions on objectively measured PA and the other outcomes, the generalized linear model will be used. The PREVIENE Project will provide the information about the effectiveness and implementation of different school-based interventions for physical activity promotion in primary school children.
Sleddens, Ester F C; Gubbels, Jessica S; Kremers, Stef P J; van der Plas, Eline; Thijs, Carel
It has been generally assumed that activity-related parenting practices influence children's activity behavior and weight status. However, vice versa parents may also change their parenting behaviors in response to their perceptions of their child's activity behavior and weight status. This study examined the bidirectional relationships between activity-related parenting practices, and physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior, and body mass index (BMI) between children's age of 5 and 7 years. Three scales of the Activity-related Parenting Questionnaire (i.e. 'restriction of sedentary behavior', 'stimulation of physical activity', and 'monitoring of physical activity') were completed by 1694 parents of the Dutch KOALA Birth Cohort Study at the child's age of around 5 and again around age 7. Physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior and BMI were measured at both ages as well. Linear regression models were used to estimate the bidirectional associations between each parenting practice and the child's physical activity levels, sedentary screen-based behavior and BMI z-scores. Several parenting practices at age 5 predicted child physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior, and BMI z-scores at age 7. Restriction of sedentary behavior positively predicted child BMI and sedentary screen-based behavior, whereas this practice negatively predicted child physical activity. In addition, stimulation of physical activity at age 5 was significantly associated with higher levels of child physical activity at age 7. The following child factors at age 5 predicted parenting practices at age 7: Child physical activity positively predicted parental stimulation of physical activity and monitoring activities. Sedentary screen-based behavior was associated with lower parental stimulation to be active. Findings generally revealed that parents and children mutually influence each other's behavior. A reinforcing feedback loop was present between parental stimulation
Zavala, Genaro; Alarcon, Hugo; Benegas, Julio
In this contribution we describe a short development course for in-service physics teachers. The course structure and materials are based on the results of educational research, and its main objective is to provide in-service teachers with a first contact with the active learning strategy "Tutorials in Introductory Physics," developed by…
Reis, Rodrigo S; Yan, Yan; Parra, Diana C; Brownson, Ross C
This study aimed to develop and validate a risk prediction model to examine the characteristics that are associated with participation in community-based physical activity programs in Brazil. We used pooled data from three surveys conducted from 2007 to 2009 in state capitals of Brazil with 6166 adults. A risk prediction model was built considering program participation as an outcome. The predictive accuracy of the model was quantified through discrimination (C statistic) and calibration (Brier score) properties. Bootstrapping methods were used to validate the predictive accuracy of the final model. The final model showed sex (women: odds ratio [OR] = 3.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.14-4.71), having less than high school degree (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.16-2.53), reporting a good health (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02-2.24) or very good/excellent health (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.05-2.51), having any comorbidity (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.26-2.39), and perceiving the environment as safe to walk at night (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.18-2.15) as predictors of participation in physical activity programs. Accuracy indices were adequate (C index = 0.778, Brier score = 0.031) and similar to those obtained from bootstrapping (C index = 0.792, Brier score = 0.030). Sociodemographic and health characteristics as well as perceptions of the environment are strong predictors of participation in community-based programs in selected cities of Brazil.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactive and unhealthy lifestyles are common among adolescent men. The planned intervention examines the effectiveness of an interactive, gamified activation method, based on tailored health information, peer networks and participation, on physical activity, health and wellbeing in young men. We hypothesize that following the intervention the physical activation group will have an improved physical activity, as well as self-determined and measured health compared with the controls. Methods/design Conscription-aged men (18 years attending compulsory annual call-ups for military service in the city of Oulu in Finland (n = 1500 will be randomized to a 6-months intervention (n = 640 or a control group (n = 640 during the fall 2013. A questionnaire on health, health behaviour, diet and wellbeing is administered in the beginning and end of the intervention. In addition, anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference, body composition, grip strength, heart rate variability and aerobic fitness will be measured. The activation group utilizes an online gamified activation method in combination with communal youth services, objective physical activity measurement, social networking, tailored health information and exercise programs according to baseline activity level and the readiness of changes of each individual. Daily physical activity of the participants is monitored in both the activation and control groups. The activation service rewards improvements in physical activity or reductions in sedentary behaviour. The performance and completion of the military service of the participants will also be followed. Discussion The study will provide new information of physical activity, health and health behaviour of young men. Furthermore, a novel model including methods for increasing physical activity among young people is developed and its effects tested through an intervention. This unique gamified service
Ahola, Riikka; Pyky, Riitta; Jämsä, Timo; Mäntysaari, Matti; Koskimäki, Heli; Ikäheimo, Tiina M; Huotari, Maija-Leena; Röning, Juha; Heikkinen, Hannu I; Korpelainen, Raija
Inactive and unhealthy lifestyles are common among adolescent men. The planned intervention examines the effectiveness of an interactive, gamified activation method, based on tailored health information, peer networks and participation, on physical activity, health and wellbeing in young men. We hypothesize that following the intervention the physical activation group will have an improved physical activity, as well as self-determined and measured health compared with the controls. Conscription-aged men (18 years) attending compulsory annual call-ups for military service in the city of Oulu in Finland (n = 1500) will be randomized to a 6-months intervention (n = 640) or a control group (n = 640) during the fall 2013. A questionnaire on health, health behaviour, diet and wellbeing is administered in the beginning and end of the intervention. In addition, anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference), body composition, grip strength, heart rate variability and aerobic fitness will be measured. The activation group utilizes an online gamified activation method in combination with communal youth services, objective physical activity measurement, social networking, tailored health information and exercise programs according to baseline activity level and the readiness of changes of each individual. Daily physical activity of the participants is monitored in both the activation and control groups. The activation service rewards improvements in physical activity or reductions in sedentary behaviour. The performance and completion of the military service of the participants will also be followed. The study will provide new information of physical activity, health and health behaviour of young men. Furthermore, a novel model including methods for increasing physical activity among young people is developed and its effects tested through an intervention. This unique gamified service for activating young men can provide a translational model for community
Kobza Cee E
Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of physical activity in improving cardiovascular disease (CVD risk profiles has been well established. However, the effectiveness of health promotion programs implemented at the community level remains controversial. This study evaluated a school-based work-site physical activity program. Methods Using a community-based participatory research model, a work-site wellness intervention was implemented in a rural public school system in Southwestern Oklahoma. During the 2005-2006 school year, 187 participants (mean age 45 years completed a pre intervention screening for CVD risk factors followed by a physical activity promotion program. Post intervention screening was conducted after a 6 month period. During both screening sessions, body composition, blood pressure, lipids, glucose and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed. The focus of the intervention was on promoting physical activity. Opportunities for in school physical activity were created by marking hallways, adding a treadmill in each school, and allowing teachers to use planning periods for physical activity. Results During the post intervention screening, compared to pre intervention levels, participants had lower total, low, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (t = 5.9, p Conclusions A successful participatory program was associated with improvements in several CVD risk factors among school employees. Limitations of this study such as seasonal variation in the outcome variables and lack of a control group limit our ability to draw solid conclusions about the effectiveness of the intervention.
Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W.; Qi, Rong
Objectives Aside from fat, ethanol is the macronutrient with the highest energy density. Whether the energy derived from ethanol affects the body composition and fat mass is debatable. We investigated the relationship between alcohol intake, body composition, and physical activity in the US population using the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods Ten thousand five hundred and fifty subjects met eligible criteria and constituted our study cohort. Estimated percent body fat and resting metabolic rate were calculated based on the sum of the skinfolds. Multivariate regression analyses were performed accounting for the study sampling weight. Results In both genders, moderate and hazardous alcohol drinkers were younger (pphysical activity compared to those with no alcohol use and moderate drinkers in both genders. Female had significantly higher percent body fat than males. In the multivariate linear regression analyses, the levels of alcohol consumption were found to be an independent predictor associated with lower percent body fat only in male subjects. Conclusions Our results showed that alcoholics are habitually less active and that alcohol drinking is an independent predictor of lower percent body fat especially in male alcoholics. PMID:20696406
Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; J.M. Bowker
Public parks play an important role in healthy, active living, but the extent to which parks influence the physical activity (PA) of diverse youth outside of urban areas has not been adequately explored. This study used systematic behavioural observations to examine demographic factors and environmental attributes associated with youth PA in non-urban state parks of...
Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...
Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...
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Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...
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Full Text Available ... Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting ... attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple ...
Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.
... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...
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Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Aparicio, Virginia A; Ortega, Francisco B; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Romero, Alejandro; Estévez-López, Fernando; Samos, Blanca; Casimiro, Antonio J; Sierra, Ángela; Latorre, Pedro A; Pulido-Martos, Manuel
Background: The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in w...
Leinonen, Anna-Maiju; Pyky, Riitta; Ahola, Riikka; Kangas, Maarit; Siirtola, Pekka; Luoto, Tim; Enwald, Heidi; Ikäheimo, Tiina M; Röning, Juha; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Mäntysaari, Matti; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo
The majority of young people do not meet the recommendations on physical activity for health. New innovative ways to motivate young people to adopt a physically active lifestyle are needed. The study aimed to study the feasibility of an automated, gamified, tailored Web-based mobile service aimed at physical and social activation among young men. A population-based sample of 496 young men (mean age 17.8 years [standard deviation 0.6]) participated in a 6-month randomized controlled trial (MOPO study). Participants were randomized to an intervention (n=250) and a control group (n=246). The intervention group was given a wrist-worn physical activity monitor (Polar Active) with physical activity feedback and access to a gamified Web-based mobile service, providing fitness guidelines, tailored health information, advice of youth services, social networking, and feedback on physical activity. Through the trial, the physical activity of the men in the control group was measured continuously with an otherwise similar monitor but providing only the time of day and no feedback. The primary outcome was the feasibility of the service based on log data and questionnaires. Among completers, we also analyzed the change in anthropometry and fitness between baseline and 6 months and the change over time in weekly time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Mobile service users considered the various functionalities related to physical activity important. However, compliance of the service was limited, with 161 (64.4%, 161/250) participants visiting the service, 118 (47.2%, 118/250) logging in more than once, and 41 (16.4%, 41/250) more than 5 times. Baseline sedentary time was higher in those who uploaded physical activity data until the end of the trial (P=.02). A total of 187 (74.8%, 187/250) participants in the intervention and 167 (67.9%, 167/246) in the control group participated in the final measurements. There were no differences in the change in anthropometry and
Lenhart, Clare M; Wiemken, Andrew; Hanlon, Alexandra; Perkett, Mackenzie; Patterson, Freda
A growing proportion of adolescents have poor cardiovascular health behaviors, including low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behavior, thus increasing the likelihood of poor heart health in later years. This study tested the hypothesis that low perceived neighborhood safety would be associated with low levels of physical activity and high levels of recreational sedentary behavior in high-school students. Using cross-sectional, weighted data from the 2015 Pennsylvania (USA) State and Philadelphia city Youth Risk Behavior Survey, multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to examine the association between perceived neighborhood safety, and physical activity levels and recreational screen-based sedentary behavior time respectively, while controlling for potential confounders. After adjustment for other significant correlates of physical activity, students with low perceived neighborhood safety had a 21% reduced odds of being physically active on 5 or more days of the last week as compared to those who felt safe (p = 0.044). Perceived safety was not related to sedentary behavior; but sports team participation emerged as a strong correlate of low screen-based sedentary behavior (OR = 0.73, p = .002). These data add to a growing body of work demonstrating the importance of perceived safety with physical activity levels in youth. Sports team participation may be a viable target to reduce screen-based sedentary time.
Clare M. Lenhart
Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing proportion of adolescents have poor cardiovascular health behaviors, including low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behavior, thus increasing the likelihood of poor heart health in later years. This study tested the hypothesis that low perceived neighborhood safety would be associated with low levels of physical activity and high levels of recreational sedentary behavior in high-school students. Methods Using cross-sectional, weighted data from the 2015 Pennsylvania (USA State and Philadelphia city Youth Risk Behavior Survey, multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to examine the association between perceived neighborhood safety, and physical activity levels and recreational screen-based sedentary behavior time respectively, while controlling for potential confounders. Results After adjustment for other significant correlates of physical activity, students with low perceived neighborhood safety had a 21% reduced odds of being physically active on 5 or more days of the last week as compared to those who felt safe (p = 0.044. Perceived safety was not related to sedentary behavior; but sports team participation emerged as a strong correlate of low screen-based sedentary behavior (OR = 0.73, p = .002. Conclusion These data add to a growing body of work demonstrating the importance of perceived safety with physical activity levels in youth. Sports team participation may be a viable target to reduce screen-based sedentary time.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents can influence their children's physical activity participation and screen time.This study examined the relative significance of perceived parental barriers and self-efficacy in relation to children's physical activity participation and screen time viewing. The associations between these factors and the behaviours were analysed. Methods Cross-sectional population survey in New South Wales, Australia of parents of pre-school (N = 764, younger (Kindergarten, Grades 2 and 4; N = 1557 and older children (Grades 6, 8 and 10; N = 1665. Parents reported barriers and self-efficacy to influence their child's physical activity and screen time behaviours in a range of circumstances. Differences were examined by child's sex and age group, household income, maternal education and location of residence. The duration of physical activity and screen viewing was measured by parental report for pre-school and younger children and self-report for older children. Associations between parental factors and children's organised, non-organised and total activity and screen time were analysed. Results Cost, lack of opportunities for participation and transport problems were the barriers most often reported, particularly by low income parents and those in rural areas. The number of barriers was inversely related to children's time spent in organised activity, but not their non-organised activity. Higher parental self-efficacy was positively associated with organised physical activity in the younger and older children's groups and the non-organised activity of older children. School-age children (younger and older groups were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines when parents reported ≥4 barriers (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.25-11.34 and OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.71-8.11 respectively. Low parental self-efficacy was also associated with the likelihood of children exceeding screen time guidelines for each age group (pre-school OR 0.62, 95% CI 0
Ali, Sadiq Mohammad; Lindström, Martin
To investigate the association between psychosocial work conditions and unemployment, and low leisure-time physical activity. The 2000 public health survey in Scania is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 59% participation rate. A total of 5,180 persons aged 18-64 years who belonged to the workforce and the unemployed were included in this study. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between psychosocial factors at work and unemployment, and low leisure-time physical activity. Psychosocial conditions at work were defined according to the Karasek-Theorell demand-control/decision latitudes into relaxed, active, passive, and job strain categories. The multivariate analyses included age, country of birth, education, economic stress, and social participation. In total, 16.1% of men and 14.8% of women had low leisure-time physical activity. The job strain (high demands/low control) and unemployed categories had significantly higher odds ratios of low leisure-time physical activity among both men and women compared with the relaxed (low demands/high control) reference category. However, the significant differences between the job strain, the unemployed, and the relaxed categories disappeared in the multivariate models. Respondents with job strain or unemployment have significantly higher odds ratios of low leisure-time physical activity than the relaxed category. However, after adjustments for education in particular the differences disappear. Nevertheless, the results suggest that the association between psychosocial work conditions, which are often dependent on education, and leisure-time physical activity may be interesting to study in more detail.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This intervention aimed to ascertain whether a low-cost, accessible, physical activity and nutrition program could improve physical activity and nutrition behaviours of insufficiently active 60–70 year olds residing in Perth, Australia. Methods A 6-month home-based randomised controlled trial was conducted on 478 older adults (intervention, n = 248; control, n = 230 of low to medium socioeconomic status. Both intervention and control groups completed postal questionnaires at baseline and post-program, but only the intervention participants received project materials. A modified fat and fibre questionnaire measured nutritional behaviours, whereas physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Generalised estimating equation models were used to assess the repeated outcomes over both time points. Results The final sample consisted of 176 intervention participants and 199 controls (response rate 78.5% with complete data. After controlling for demographic and other confounding factors, the intervention group demonstrated increased participation in strength exercise (p Conclusions A minimal contact, low-cost and home-based physical activity program can positively influence seniors’ physical activity and nutrition behaviours. Trial registration anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12609000735257
Amineh Sahranavard Gargari
Full Text Available Although active life style is one of the main determining factors of health, the level of regular physical activities in women is less than in men and even this level decreases with aging. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an intervention based on the social ecological model on promotion of physical activity among female employees. In this study, 160 women employed at Shabestar universities were selected, and randomly divided into two groups of control (n=80 and intervention (n=80. The intervention group received an instructional program according to the model, including one session for general instruction and four sessions for group discussion along with daily walking for 30 minutes within 8 weeks. In order to objectively measure the physical activity, the pedometer was used and to measure the perceived physical activity, the long form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied. The variables related to the components of socio-ecological model were measured using the socio-ecological model questionnaire. A significant difference was found between two groups after the intervention in terms of That is, the average number of steps in walking in the intervention group increased significantly (from 4204 to 7882 steps per day, while it did not significantly increase in the control group. Thus, it can be argued that designing and implementing the interventional programs based on the socio-ecological model can promote physical activity behavior among employed women
Friederichs, Stijn; Bolman, Catherine; Oenema, Anke; Guyaux, Janneke; Lechner, Lilian
Developing Web-based physical activity (PA) interventions based on motivational interviewing (MI) could increase the availability and reach of MI techniques for PA promotion. Integrating an avatar in such an intervention could lead to more positive appreciation and higher efficacy of the intervention, compared to an intervention that is purely text-based. The present study aims to determine whether a Web-based PA intervention based on MI with an avatar results in more positive appreciation and higher effectiveness of the intervention, when compared to an intervention that is purely text-based. A three-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted, containing the following research conditions: (1) a Web-based PA intervention based on MI with an avatar, (2) a content-identical intervention without an avatar, and (3) a control condition that received no intervention. Measurements included PA behavior and process variables, measured at baseline, directly following the intervention and 1 month post intervention. Both interventions significantly increased self-reported PA at 1 month, compared to the control condition (beta(AVATARvsCONTROL)=.39, P=.011; beta(TEXTvsCONTROL)=.44, P=.006). No distinctions were found regarding intervention effect on PA between both interventions. Similarly, the results of the process evaluation did not indicate any significant differences between both interventions. Due to the limited relational skills of the avatar in this study, it probably did not succeed in forming a stronger relationship with the user, over and above text alone. The findings suggest that avatars that do not strengthen the social relationship with the user do not enhance the intervention impact. Future research should determine whether Web-based PA interventions based on MI could benefit from inclusion of a virtual coach capable of more complex relational skills than used in the current study, such as responding in gesture to the user's state and input. Dutch Trial
Subitha, L; Soudarssanane, M Bala; Murugesan, R
We aimed to study the development and implementation of promotion of physical activity in a rural community by applying the principles of social marketing and to determine participation behaviour in a physical activity programme in a community setting. The intervention targeted 485 people, 20-49 years of age, residents of Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam villages, Tamil Nadu. This community-based participatory research was based on the principles of 'social marketing'. Health education by one-to-one counselling, written materials and community events were used to popularize moderate intensity physical activity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on 4 days/week). We formed 30 walking groups under four coordinators, in a home-based setting with professional supervision and guidance. A log of physical activity sessions for the 10-week intervention period was maintained in the form of group attendance record. Village leaders, self-help groups and youth clubs were involved in promoting physical activity. Of the 485 subjects, 265 people (54.6%) engaged in brisk walking >4 days a week, while 156 subjects (32.2%) performed walking on 1-4 days per week during the intervention. The drop-out rate was 13.2% (64 subjects). Age, occupation and educational status were important determinants of participation and adherence to the physical activity programme. Application of social marketing techniques in an intervention to promote physical activity was successful in a rural Indian community. Studying the determinants of adoption of a physical activity programme and addressing the barriers to behaviour change are essential for designing relevant policies and effective programmes. Copyright 2012, NMJI.
Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F
that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector...... effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...
Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Balemans, Astrid; Lankhorst, Kristel; Te Velde, Saskia; van Gaalen, Leendert; de Groot, Janke; Meilij, JMA; Takken, Tim
Objective: To investigate the effects of a school-based once-a-week sports program on physical fitness, physical activity, and cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents with a physical disability. Methods: This controlled clinical trial included 71 children and adolescents from four schools
Alley, Stephanie; Jennings, Cally; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vandelanotte, Corneel
Background Cost-effective and efficient methods to attract people to Web-based health behavior interventions need to be identified. Traditional print methods including leaflets, posters, and newspaper advertisements remain popular despite the expanding range of Web-based advertising options that have the potential to reach larger numbers at lower cost. Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness of multiple Web-based and print-based methods to attract people to a Web-based physical activ...
Goldstein, Stephanie P; Forman, Evan M; Butryn, Meghan L; Herbert, James D
College students report several barriers to exercise, highlighting a need for university-based programs that address these challenges. In contrast to in-person interventions, several web-based programs have been developed to enhance program engagement by increasing ease of access and lowering the necessary level of commitment to participate. Unfortunately, web-based programs continue to struggle with engagement and less-than-ideal outcomes. One explanation for this discrepancy is that different intervention modalities may attract students with distinctive activity patterns, motivators, barriers, and program needs. However, no studies have formally evaluated intervention modality preference (e.g., web-based or in-person) among college students. The current study sought to examine the relationship between intervention modality preference and physical activity programming needs. Undergraduate students (n = 157) enrolled in psychology courses at an urban university were asked to complete an online survey regarding current activity patterns and physical activity program preferences. Participants preferring web-based physical activity programs exercised less (p = .05), were less confident in their abilities to exercise (p = .01), were less likely to endorse the maintenance stage of change (p web-based programming may require programs that enhance self-efficacy by fostering goal-setting and problem-solving skills. A user-centered design approach may enhance the engagement (and therefore effectiveness) of physical activity promotion programs for college students.
van Putten, Margreet; Husson, O.; Mols, F.; Luyer, Misha D P; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Ezendam, N.P.M.
PURPOSE: Physical activity can improve health of cancer survivors. To increase physical activity levels among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors, we need to understand which factors affect physical activity. Therefore, this study examined the longitudinal relationship between symptom-related,
Putten, M van; Husson, O.; Mols, F.; Luyer, M.D.; Poll-Franse, L.V. van de; Ezendam, N.P.
PURPOSE: Physical activity can improve health of cancer survivors. To increase physical activity levels among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors, we need to understand which factors affect physical activity. Therefore, this study examined the longitudinal relationship between symptom-related,
Harris, Marc Ashley
There is a plethora of published research reporting the wealth and breadth of biopsychosocial benefits of physical activity; however, a recent Cochrane systematic review concluded insufficient evidence for current population level physical activity interventions, citing scalability as a major contributory factor, with many of the interventions failing to reach a substantial proportion of the community. The current study aimed to conduct a pilot evaluation of a technology-enabled, gamification-based intervention called Beat the Street and sought to examine the impact of the Beat the Street intervention on self-reported physical activity. In total, n = 329 people completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (I-PAQ-SF) in full at baseline (before the intervention) and follow-up (immediately following the 7-week intervention). Overall, participants increased their weekly walking by +180 minutes per week (P < 0.001) and their weekly physical activity by +335 minutes per week (P < 0001). Vigorous activity increased by +48 minutes per week (P = 0.004) and moderate activity increased by +60 minutes per week (P < 0.001). The findings provide preliminary evidence that the Beat the Street intervention may be a promising approach to increasing physical activity at a community-wide level and warrants further investigation.
Glapa, Agata; Grzesiak, Joanna; Laudanska-Krzeminska, Ida; Chin, Ming-Kai; Edginton, Christopher R; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Bronikowski, Michal
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Solutions in changing attitudes toward physical activity of school children in a community in Poland. In 2015, a sample of 326 pupils aged 9-11 years old from 19 classes at three selected primary schools were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups within the study. During the classes, children in the experimental group performed physical activities two times per day in three to five minutes using Brain Breaks® videos for four months, while the control group did not use the videos during the test period. Students' attitudes toward physical activities were assessed before and after the intervention using the "Attitudes toward Physical Activity Scale". Repeated measures of ANOVA were used to examine the change from pre- to post-intervention. Overall, a repeated measures ANOVA indicated time-by-group interaction effects in 'Self-efficacy on learning with video exercises', F(1.32) = 75.28, p = 0.00, η2 = 0.19. Although the changes are minor, there were benefits of the intervention. It may be concluded that HOPSports Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Program contributes to better self-efficacy on learning while using video exercise of primary school children.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Solutions in changing attitudes toward physical activity of school children in a community in Poland. In 2015, a sample of 326 pupils aged 9–11 years old from 19 classes at three selected primary schools were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups within the study. During the classes, children in the experimental group performed physical activities two times per day in three to five minutes using Brain Breaks® videos for four months, while the control group did not use the videos during the test period. Students’ attitudes toward physical activities were assessed before and after the intervention using the “Attitudes toward Physical Activity Scale”. Repeated measures of ANOVA were used to examine the change from pre- to post-intervention. Overall, a repeated measures ANOVA indicated time-by-group interaction effects in ‘Self-efficacy on learning with video exercises’, F(1.32 = 75.28, p = 0.00, η2 = 0.19. Although the changes are minor, there were benefits of the intervention. It may be concluded that HOPSports Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Program contributes to better self-efficacy on learning while using video exercise of primary school children.
Frierson, Georita M; Morrow, James R; Vidales, Andrew
Researchers studying physical activity often face challenges dealing with recruitment and resources, particularly when conducting longitudinal Internet-based research. Commonly raised methodological problems such as minority recruitment, participant commitment, and participant-staff involvement are addressed through a theoretically driven recruitment and adherence protocol in The Women's Exercise Injuries: Incidence and Risk Factors (WIN) Internet-based study. The objectives of this paper were to review and suggest solutions to problems of: (1) low recruitment of diverse samples, (2) low adherence, and (3) staffing needs. We recruited 1303 community-dwelling women and followed them through a multiple-phase, longitudinal, Internet-based study. Recruitment and adherence data were analyzed through descriptive methods and logistic regressions to examine participant adherence and sociodemographic factors and predictors of who entered the long-term phase of the study. We successfully retained 71.6% of the sample through 4 recruitment phases. Twenty-seven percent of the initially recruited sample was racial/ethnically diverse, 24% began the long-term phase, and 23% completed. Several strategies to enhance participant commitment were successfully used during the practice phase, providing a successful, low staff to participant ratio. Logistic regression indicated being married, being older, and having greater Internet skills were predictive of successfully entering the long-term phase of the study. Recruitment and compliance protocols were successful in meeting overall and racial/ethnic enrollment and recruitment goals. The theoretically based practice phase techniques were successful in re-engaging noncompliant participants. Strategies for minority enrollment and compliance are evaluated.
Annette Quinto Romani
Full Text Available AbstractChildhood obesity and inactivity is a significant public health problem that also has economic consequences. Therefore, economists have a role to play in determining the causal impacts. The influences of childhood background on outcomes can, usefully, be broken down into the effect of family, school and peer. To combat the raising childhood obesity, schools have been advocated as a potential area. This paper analyses whether increasing physical activity in a school context can contribute to health improvement using multiple outcomes. We address the issue by using a unique longitudinal data set of, respectively, 1087 (BMI and 1047 (fitness schoolchildren attending 37 state schools in the Municipality of Aalborg, Denmark. The effect is identified by using a randomized experiment that creates an exogenous increase in physical activity. Surprisingly, we find that the intervention did not have the expected impact on schoolchildren’s health, and the scant evidence we have points towards a negative effect. A plausible explanation is that the results mask important heterogeneity. Another plausible explanation is that the results also capture any compensating behaviour that schoolchildren engage in by being less active out of school. From a public-policy perspective, increasing physical activity in a school context seems to increase the ‘gap’ in child health and ‘crowd-out’ outside-school physical activity. Consequently, a supportive cost-benefit case might exist if parental behaviour is assumed to be affected by school resources and endogenous.
Barrett-Williams, Shannon L; Franks, Padra; Kay, Christi; Meyer, Adria; Cornett, Kelly; Mosier, Brian
Power Up for 30 (PU30) is a schoolwide intervention that encourages schools to provide an additional 30 minutes of physical activity during the school day, beyond physical education. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of PU30 on Georgia public elementary schools and their students. A total of 719 of 1320 public elementary schools in Georgia that were sent a baseline survey about school physical activity during October 2013 to September 2014 completed the survey, 160 of which were asked to complete a second survey. In the interim (March to June 2015), half (80) of these schools implemented the PU30 program. The interim surveys, which were completed during March to June 2015, assessed opportunities for student physical activity and staff member professional development focused on student physical activity. Compared with schools that had not implemented the program, more schools using the PU30 program reported offering before- and after-school physical activity programs. Forty-four of 78 (57%) PU30 schools compared with 20 of 53 (38%) non-PU30 schools offered before-school physical activity programs. Likewise, more PU30 schools than non-PU30 schools offered after-school physical activity programs (35% vs 16%), and a greater proportion of students at PU30 schools compared with non-PU30 schools met fitness benchmarks: recess 5 days per week (91% [288 of 323] vs 80% [273 of 341]), offering ≥11 minutes per day of classroom-based physical activity (39% [53 of 136] vs 25% [47 of 189] for kindergarten through second grade; 20% [37 of 187] vs 6% [9 of 152] for grades 3 through 5), and receiving physical activity-related professional development time (42% [136 of 323] vs 14% [48 of 341]). The surveys provided a statewide picture of the physical activity opportunities offered to students and staff members in Georgia elementary schools and demonstrated the effective use of a comprehensive, multicomponent program to offer more school-based physical activity
Garcia-Aymerich, J; Lange, Peter; Benet, M
.97). Low, moderate and high levels of regular physical activity were associated with an adjusted lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 0.76, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.90) and respiratory mortality (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.02). No effect modification was found for sex, age group, COPD severity......BACKGROUND: Information about the influence of regular physical activity on the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is scarce. A study was undertaken to examine the association between regular physical activity and both hospital admissions for COPD and all-cause and specific...... mortality in COPD subjects. METHODS: From a population-based sample recruited in Copenhagen in 1981-3 and 1991-4, 2386 individuals with COPD (according to lung function tests) were identified and followed until 2000. Self-reported regular physical activity at baseline was classified into four categories...
Accurately estimating free-living energy expenditure (EE) is important for monitoring or altering energy balance and quantifying levels of physical activity. The use of accelerometers to monitor physical activity and estimate physical activity EE is common in both research and consumer settings. Recent advances in physical activity monitors include the ability to identify specific activities (e.g. stand vs. walk) which has resulted in improved EE estimation accuracy. Recently, a multi-sensor footwear-based physical activity monitor that is capable of achieving 98% activity identification accuracy has been developed. However, no study has compared the EE estimation accuracy for this monitor and compared this accuracy to other similar devices. Purpose . To determine the accuracy of physical activity EE estimation of a footwear-based physical activity monitor that uses an embedded accelerometer and insole pressure sensors and to compare this accuracy against a variety of research and consumer physical activity monitors. Methods. Nineteen adults (10 male, 9 female), mass: 75.14 (17.1) kg, BMI: 25.07(4.6) kg/m2 (mean (SD)), completed a four hour stay in a room calorimeter. Participants wore a footwear-based physical activity monitor, as well as three physical activity monitoring devices used in research: hip-mounted Actical and Actigraph accelerometers and a multi-accelerometer IDEEA device with sensors secured to the limb and chest. In addition, participants wore two consumer devices: Philips DirectLife and Fitbit. Each individual performed a series of randomly assigned and ordered postures/activities including lying, sitting (quietly and using a computer), standing, walking, stepping, cycling, sweeping, as well as a period of self-selected activities. We developed branched (i.e. activity specific) linear regression models to estimate EE from the footwear-based device, and we used the manufacturer's software to estimate EE for all other devices. Results. The shoe-based
... State and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Physical Activity and Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Your Chances of Living Longer The Benefits of Physical Activity Regular physical activity is one of the most ...
Nicaise, Virginie; Kahan, David
Some religions espouse doctrines that (in)directly impact physical activity (PA) behavior. Yet limited PA interventions have been tailored to religious minorities. Thus, a formative study was conducted to examine the effect of a faith-based pedometer program (Virtual Umra) on psychological correlates of PA behavior and their contribution to school-time changes in PA among Muslim adolescents. Forty-three (27 girls, 16 boys; M(age) = 12.3 +/- 1.0 years) students at 1 Islamic middle school participated. Prebaseline and postprogram enjoyment and motivation were measured using the shortened PA Enjoyment Scale and the Situational Motivation Scale, respectively. Pedometer step counts were measured daily during a 2-week baseline and 8 weeks of Virtual Umra. The Reliable Change Index and Cohen's d were used to analyze individual- and group-level changes in enjoyment and motivation, respectively. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (RM-MANOVA) was used to analyze program and gender effects over time. Partial correlations examined the relationships between psychological correlates and PA change. One third of the sample expressed greater enjoyment postprogram (p motivation was unaffected (p > .05; range, d = - 0.02 to 0.32). RM-MANOVA revealed that boys increased their steps, whereas girls reduced their step number through the program. Enjoyment increased and extrinsic motivation and amotivation decreased. Partial correlations revealed that enjoyment and more self-determined behavioral regulations were positively associated with non-physical education (PE)-day PA change; only intrinsic motivation was positively associated with PE-day PA change. Virtual Umra was associated with increased enjoyment of PA but needs further modification to more positively impact girls' PA.
Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hallal, Pedro Curi
Background Evidence from developing countries is limited on how income level for a given neighborhood is related to physical activity among its residents. Purpose The goal of the study was to examine the association between walkability and physical activity outcomes, and the effect of income on the relationship between walkability and physical activity in adults. Methods The Spaces for Physical Activity in Adults Study (ESPACOS Project) took place in Curitiba, Brazil. Data were collected in 2010 in 32 census tracts selected to vary in income and walkability, as measured by GIS. Participants were 697 individuals aged 18–65 years (52.0% were women) randomly sampled from the selected neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results The proportion of those who walked for transportation for ≥150 minutes/week was 21.1% in low-walkability areas, and ranged from 33.5% to 35.0% in high-walkability areas. A total of 12.6% of residents were found to walk for leisure for ≥150 minutes/week; this result did not vary across quadrants of walkability and income level. The prevalence of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 7.1–10.5 percentage points higher in high-compared to low-walkability areas. After adjusting for all individual confounders, walkability showed an independent association with walking for transport (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.31, 3.37, p=0.002) and leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.06, 2.32; p=0.024). Neighborhood income level was independently associated with leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.70; 95% CI=1.06, 2.74, p=0.029). No association was found between walkability and walking for leisure. No interaction was found between walkability and neighborhood income level. Conclusions This study, among adults living in Curitiba, Brazil, confirms findings from studies of high-income countries showing that walkability is positively associated with
Iannotti Ronald J
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia and the USA, national guidelines exist for limiting children's screen-exposure to two hours per day. This study aims to determine whether exceeding the suggested guidelines for screen-based sedentary behavior is associated with reduced levels of physical activity across different geographical regions. Methods Data material were taken from the 2005/2006 survey of "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study; A WHO cross-National Survey". Data were collected through questionnaires from 11-,13- and,15- year olds. The final sample included 200,615 adolescents from 39 different countries in Europe and North America. Gender and country stratified analyses regressed time spent in leisure-time vigorous physical activity (VPA and days of 60 minutes moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA on time spent in screen-based sedentary behaviors. To simplify interpretation, the estimates from each country were pooled using a meta-analytic procedure. Results Exceeding 2 hrs of daily total screen-time was negatively associated with MVPA for both boys and girls, and with VPA for girls. When investigating the different types of screen-based behaviors separately, exceeding 2 hrs daily of TV viewing was associated with less MVPA for both boys and girls and less VPA for girls. Gaming was associated with less MVPA and VPA for boys, and non-gaming computer use was associated with higher levels of VPA for both genders. Stronger negative associations between physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviors were found in countries where mean levels of physical activity were relatively high. The association between physical activity and sedentary behavior was not significantly associated with national levels of screen-based sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The displacement mechanism does not appear to be universal across countries. On a national level, negative associations between physical activity and screen-based
Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda
A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…
Said Catherine M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults receiving inpatient rehabilitation have low activity levels and poor mobility outcomes. Increased physical activity may improve mobility. The objective of this Phase II study was to evaluate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT of enhanced physical activity in older adults receiving rehabilitation. Methods Patients admitted to aged care rehabilitation with reduced mobility were randomized to receive usual care or usual care plus additional physical activity, which was delivered by a physiotherapist or physiotherapy assistant. The feasibility and safety of the proposed RCT protocol was evaluated. The primary clinical outcome was mobility, which was assessed on hospital admission and discharge by an assessor blinded to group assignment. To determine the most appropriate measure of mobility, three measures were trialled; the Timed Up and Go, the Elderly Mobility Scale and the de Morton Mobility Index. Results The protocol was feasible. Thirty-four percent of people admitted to the ward were recruited, with 47 participants randomised to a control (n = 25 or intervention group (n = 22. The rates of adverse events (death, falls and readmission to an acute service did not differ between the groups. Usual care therapists remained blind to group allocation, with no change in usual practice. Physical activity targets were met on weekdays but not weekends and the intervention was acceptable to participants. The de Morton Mobility Index was the most appropriate measure of mobility. Conclusions The proposed RCT of enhanced physical activity in older adults receiving rehabilitation was feasible. A larger multi-centre RCT to establish whether this intervention is cost effective and improves mobility is warranted. Trial registration The trial was registered with the ANZTCR (ACTRN12608000427370.
Knudsen, Louise Stjerne; Skovgaard, Thomas; Bredahl, Thomas
INTRODUCTION: The benefits of physical activity for children's health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited......: The study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Schools from across Denmark are included in the sample. The design comprises two separated phases-a quantitative and qualitative phase. The quantitative phase is guided by the self-determination theory where teachers' motivation will be measured...... have been acquired. All participants in this study will provide written informed consent prior to data collection. All data emerging from the quantitative and qualitative phase will be anonymised for analysis. Ethics approval was requested from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics...
Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C
To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...
Kang, Minsoo; Marshall, Simon J.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Lee, Jin-Oh
Regular physical activity (PA) improves mental health and reduces the risk of a number of adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease mortality, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. Many studies with different strategies have been conducted to increase the level of PA for people of all ages. One of many strategies…
Nassabi, Hossein; op den Akker, Harm; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé
The increasing ageing population and the prevalence of chronic diseases have introduced new challenges to healthcare systems motivating researchers to use telemonitoring solutions for providing care. In some solutions, a special focus has been given to promoting physical activity as it can decrease
Valle, Carmina G; Tate, Deborah F; Mayer, Deborah K; Allicock, Marlyn; Cai, Jianwen
Over half of young adult cancer survivors do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. PA interventions can enhance health and quality of life among young adult cancer survivors. However, few exercise interventions have been designed and tested in this population. This study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a 12-week, Facebook-based intervention (FITNET) aimed at increasing moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA compared with a Facebook-based self-help comparison (SC) condition. Young adult cancer survivors (n = 86) were randomly assigned to the FITNET or SC group. All participants were asked to complete self-administered online questionnaires at baseline and after 12 weeks. Seventy-seven percent of participants completed postintervention assessments, and most participants reported using intervention components as intended. Participants in both groups would recommend the program to other young adult cancer survivors (FITNET, 46.9 vs. SC, 61.8 %; p = 0.225). Over 12 weeks, both groups increased self-reported weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (FITNET, 67 min/week (p = 0.009) vs. SC, 46 min/week (p = 0.045)), with no significant difference between groups. Increases in light PA were 135 min/week greater in the FITNET group relative to the SC group (p = 0.032), and the FITNET group reported significant weight loss over time (-2.1 kg, p = 0.004; p = 0.083 between groups). Facebook-based intervention approaches demonstrated potential for increasing PA in young adult cancer survivors. Social networking sites may be a feasible way for young adult cancer survivors to receive health information and support to promote PA and healthy behaviors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA rates decline precipitously during the high school years and are consistently lower among adolescent girls than adolescent boys. Due to cultural barriers, this problem might be exacerbated in female Iranian adolescents. However, little intervention research has been conducted to try to increase PA participation rates with this population. Because PA interventions in schools have the potential to reach many children and adolescents, this study reports on PA intervention research conducted in all-female Iranian high schools. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the effects of two six-month tailored interventions on potential determinants of PA and PA behavior. Students (N = 161 were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: an intervention based on Pender's Health Promotion model (HP, an intervention based on an integration of the health promotion model and selected constructs from the Transtheoretical model (THP, and a control group (CON. Measures were administered prior to the intervention, at post-intervention and at a six-month follow-up. Results Repeated measure ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between group and time for perceived benefits, self efficacy, interpersonal norms, social support, behavioral processes, and PA behavior, indicating that both intervention groups significantly improved across the 24-week intervention, whereas the control group did not. Participants in the THP group showed greater use of counter conditioning and stimulus control at post-intervention and at follow-up. While there were no significant differences in PA between the HP and CON groups at follow-up, a significant difference was still found between the THP and the CON group. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence of the effectiveness of a PA intervention based on Pender's HP model combined with selected aspects of the TTM on potential determinants to increase PA among
were supplemented with study level data from studies that did not provide IPD, the overall effect was similar, with stronger evidence of benefit for gestational diabetes (0.76, 0.65 to 0.89, I2=36.8%; 59 studies, 16 885 women).Conclusion Diet and physical activity based interventions during pregnancy......Objective To synthesise the evidence on the overall and differential effects of interventions based on diet and physical activity during pregnancy, primarily on gestational weight gain and maternal and offspring composite outcomes, according to women's body mass index, age, parity, ethnicity...... Randomised trials on diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy.Data synthesis Statistical models accounted for clustering of participants within trials and heterogeneity across trials leading to summary mean differences or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the effects overall...
Randomised trials on diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy.Data synthesis Statistical models accounted for clustering of participants within trials and heterogeneity across trials leading to summary mean differences or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the effects overall......Objective To synthesise the evidence on the overall and differential effects of interventions based on diet and physical activity during pregnancy, primarily on gestational weight gain and maternal and offspring composite outcomes, according to women's body mass index, age, parity, ethnicity...... were supplemented with study level data from studies that did not provide IPD, the overall effect was similar, with stronger evidence of benefit for gestational diabetes (0.76, 0.65 to 0.89, I2=36.8%; 59 studies, 16 885 women).Conclusion Diet and physical activity based interventions during pregnancy...
Alley, Stephanie; Jennings, Cally; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vandelanotte, Corneel
There is a need for effective population-based physical activity interventions. The internet provides a good platform to deliver physical activity interventions and reach large numbers of people at low cost. Personalised advice in web-based physical activity interventions has shown to improve engagement and behavioural outcomes, though it is unclear if the effectiveness of such interventions may further be improved when providing brief video-based coaching sessions with participants. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness, in terms of engagement, retention, satisfaction and physical activity changes, of a web-based and computer-tailored physical activity intervention with and without the addition of a brief video-based coaching session in comparison to a control group. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups (tailoring + online video-coaching, tailoring-only and wait-list control). The tailoring + video-coaching participants will receive a computer-tailored web-based physical activity intervention ('My Activity Coach') with brief coaching sessions with a physical activity expert over an online video calling program (e.g. Skype). The tailoring-only participants will receive the intervention but not the counselling sessions. The primary time point's for outcome assessment will be immediately post intervention (week 9). The secondary time points will be at 6 and 12 months post-baseline. The primary outcome, physical activity change, will be assessed via the Active Australia Questionnaire (AAQ). Secondary outcome measures include correlates of physical activity (mediators and moderators), quality of life (measured via the SF-12v2), participant satisfaction, engagement (using web-site user statistics) and study retention. Study findings will inform researchers and practitioners about the feasibility and effectiveness of brief online video-coaching sessions in combination with computer-tailored physical activity advice
Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean
We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252
Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean
We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described.
Rationale and study protocol of the EASY Minds (Encouraging Activity to Stimulate Young Minds) program: cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary school-based physical activity integration program for mathematics
Riley, Nicholas; Lubans, David R; Holmes, Kathryn; Morgan, Philip J
Background Novel strategies are required to increase school-based physical activity levels of children. Integrating physical activity in mathematics lessons may lead to improvements in students’ physical activity levels as well as enjoyment, engagement and learning. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a curriculum-based physical activity integration program known as EASY Minds (Encouraging Activity to Stimulate Young Minds) on children’s daily school time physical activ...
Banerjee, Ananya Tina; Landry, Mireille; Zawi, Maha; Childerhose, Debbie; Stephens, Neil; Shafique, Ammara; Price, Jennifer
Low levels of physical activity have been reported in South Asian Muslim women. Mosques could be beneficial in providing physical activity opportunities for Muslim women. This study examined the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a mosque-based physical activity program for South Asian Muslim women in Canada. Sixty-two South Asian Muslim women participated in a 24-week mosque-based exercise intervention. Feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of the program was evaluated by pre-post survey questions from the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire among 28 women who consented to the research data collection. Nineteen women were assessed pre-and post-intervention. The women demonstrated increase in median scores of self-efficacy (90 pre vs. 100 post; p = 0.004) and the importance of engaging in regular physical activity (90 pre vs. 100 post; p = 0.01). Fewer participants were classified as inactive at the end of the intervention (42 % pre vs. 10 % post; p = 0.006). There was a mean increase in DASI scores (39.2 pre vs. 44.6 post; p = 0.06) reflecting an improvement in peak aerobic capacity and functional quality of life. Culturally relevant structured networks such as mosques are important assets when designing healthy lifestyle interventions for South Asian Muslim women.
Borhani, Mahboobe; Sadeghi, Roya; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Harandi, Tayebeh Fasihi; Vakili, Mohammad Ali
The progress of technology in developed countries has changed lifestyles to sedentary and has increased non-communicable diseases. Identifying factors affecting patterns of physical activity among adolescents is valuable and it is important to change these pattern. This study aimed to explore teenage girls' experiences regarding the determinants of physical activity promotion based on Pender's Health Promotion Model. This qualitative study is a content analysis research on the girls of three high schools in Minoodasht city for six months from September 2015 until the end of February 2016. The data were obtained by focused group discussions and semi-structured in-depth interviews from 48 girls ranging from 15 to 18 years old and six teachers. Data analysis was done using theory-driven qualitative content analysis. Data analysis resulted in a total number of 53 primary codes which were classified in the six predetermined classifications of Pender's Health Promotion Model (Perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy of physical activity behavior, feelings related to physical activity behavior, interpersonal and situational influencers). The results showed that two classifications (perceived barriers, and situational influencers) were considered more important than other classifications in reducing levels of physical activity in adolescent girls and also high self-efficacy for promoting physical activity in adolescents. The results obtained from this study specified the determinants affecting the promotion of physical activity among adolescent girls and can help the planners to choose the most appropriate methods and strategies in order to promote physical activity among adolescent girls and to prevent chronic non-communicable diseases in this age group and gender.
Escalon, Hélène; Serry, Anne-Juliette; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt; Vuillemin, Anne; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Verlhiac, Jean-Francois; Salanave, Benoît; Simon, Chantal; Tausan, Simona; Dailly, Olivier; Arwidson, Pierre
This paper demonstrates the feasibility of developing a multimodal media campaign-based intervention to promote physical activity using theory, evidence and media campaign construction expertise. An evaluation of this media campaign and its various components is the next stage of this work..
Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Gubbels, Jessica S.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; van der Plas, Eline; Thijs, Carel
Background It has been generally assumed that activity-related parenting practices influence children?s activity behavior and weight status. However, vice versa parents may also change their parenting behaviors in response to their perceptions of their child?s activity behavior and weight status. This study examined the bidirectional relationships between activity-related parenting practices, and physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior, and body mass index (BMI) between children?s ...
Full Text Available ... Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, ... The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity based upon the ...
Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...
Yun, Joonkoo; Beamer, Jennifer
The importance of physical activity has received considerable attention during the past decade. Physical education has been viewed as a cost-effective way to promote physical activity as a public health initiative. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that a "substantial percentage" of students' overall…
Vander Ploeg, Kerry A; McGavock, Jonathan; Maximova, Katerina; Veugelers, Paul J
Comprehensive school health (CSH) is a multifaceted approach to health promotion. A key objective of CSH is to foster positive health behaviors outside of school. This study examined the 2-year change in physical activity during and after school among students participating in a CSH intervention in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. This was a quasi-experimental, pre-post trial with a parallel, nonequivalent control group. Intervention schools had to be located in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. In the spring of 2009 and 2011, pedometer recordings (7 full days) and demographic data were collected from cross-sectional samples of fifth grade students from 10 intervention schools and 20 comparison schools. A total of 1157 students participated in the study. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders and the clustered design. Relative to 2009, children in 2011 were more active on schools days (1172 steps per day; P affect children's physical activity during and outside of school. Results of this study justify broader implementation of effective CSH interventions for physical activity promotion and obesity prevention in the long term.
Bonvin, Antoine; Barral, Jérôme; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Kriemler, Susi; Longchamp, Anouk; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J
Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA) using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight) for body mass index (BMI). Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2), 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059) for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ≤ 0.04). Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting health promotion interventions in young children.
Full Text Available ... June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...
Full Text Available ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...
Maher, Carol; Ferguson, Monika; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Plotnikoff, Ron; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Thomas, Samantha; Nelson-Field, Karen; Olds, Tim
Online social networks offer considerable potential for delivery of socially influential health behavior change interventions. To determine the efficacy, engagement, and feasibility of an online social networking physical activity intervention with pedometers delivered via Facebook app. A total of 110 adults with a mean age of 35.6 years (SD 12.4) were recruited online in teams of 3 to 8 friends. Teams were randomly allocated to receive access to a 50-day online social networking physical activity intervention which included self-monitoring, social elements, and pedometers ("Active Team" Facebook app; n=51 individuals, 12 teams) or a wait-listed control condition (n=59 individuals, 13 teams). Assessments were undertaken online at baseline, 8 weeks, and 20 weeks. The primary outcome measure was self-reported weekly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes were weekly walking, vigorous physical activity time, moderate physical activity time, overall quality of life, and mental health quality of life. Analyses were undertaken using random-effects mixed modeling, accounting for potential clustering at the team level. Usage statistics were reported descriptively to determine engagement and feasibility. At the 8-week follow-up, the intervention participants had significantly increased their total weekly MVPA by 135 minutes relative to the control group (P=.03), due primarily to increases in walking time (155 min/week increase relative to controls, Plife or mental health quality of life at either time point. High levels of engagement with the intervention, and particularly the self-monitoring features, were observed. An online, social networking physical activity intervention with pedometers can produce sizable short-term physical activity changes. Future work is needed to determine how to maintain behavior change in the longer term, how to reach at-need populations, and how to disseminate such interventions on a mass scale. Australian New Zealand
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable scope to improve the delivery of practices that increase the physical activity of children in centre based childcare services. Few studies have reported the effectiveness of interventions to address this, particularly at a population level. The primary aim of this study was to describe the impact of an intervention to increase the adoption of multiple policies and practices to promote physical activity in centre based childcare services. Methods A quasi experimental study was conducted in centre based childcare services (n =228 in New South Wales (NSW, Australia and involved a three month intervention to increase the adoption of eight practices within childcare services that have been suggested to promote child physical activity. Intervention strategies to support the adoption of practices included staff training, resources, incentives, follow-up support and performance monitoring and feedback. Randomly selected childcare services in the remainder of NSW acted as a comparison group (n = 164 and did not receive the intervention but may have been exposed to a concurrent NSW government healthy eating and physical activity initiative. Self reported information on physical activity policies, fundamental movement skills sessions, structured physical activity opportunities, staff involvement in active play and provision of verbal prompts to encourage physical activity, small screen recreation opportunities, sedentary time, and staff trained in physical activity were collected by telephone survey with childcare service managers at baseline and 18 months later. Results Compared with the comparison area, the study found significantly greater increases in the prevalence of intervention services with a written physical activity policy, with policy referring to placing limits on small screen recreation, and with staff trained in physical activity. In addition, non-significant trends towards a greater increase in the
Full Text Available Background & aim: Health literacy is the degree to which individuals can obtain, process, and understand the required basic health information and services to enhance and sustain good health status. Mothers with higher health literacy may have more physical activity than others in the postpartum period. This study sought to assess the effect of an educational program based on health literacy strategies on promoting physical activity in postpartum women. Methods: This quasi-experimental study conducted on 80 postpartum women who referred to healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran, 2016, and randomly selected by multistage cluster sampling method. The subjects were placed in two groups of control and intervention (n=40 for each group. The intervention group received three 80-min theoretical and practical training sessions based on the health literacy strategies, while the control group received the routine care. Data was collected using Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM, and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ before and eight weeks after training. Data analysis was performed using the chi-square, independent and paired t-tests with SPSS software version 16. Results: There was no significant difference between the levels of health literacy and physical activity among the groups before intervention; however, eight weeks after the educational intervention, the levels of both health literacy and physical activity significantly increased among the intervention group (P
Lorenz, Elizabeth C; Amer, Hatem; Dean, Patrick G; Stegall, Mark D; Cosio, Fernando G; Cheville, Andrea L
The majority of kidney transplant recipients die from cardiovascular events. Physical activity may be a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease following transplant. The goal of our study was to examine adherence to a physical activity intervention following kidney transplant and its impact on metabolic parameters. All patients who received a kidney transplant at our center between 12/2010 and 12/2011 received usual care (n = 162), while patients transplanted between 12/2011 and 1/2013 received a 90-day pedometer-based physical activity intervention (n = 145). Metabolic parameters were assessed at four and 12 months post-transplant. Baseline demographics and clinical management were similar between cohorts. Adherence to the prescription was 36.5%. Patients in the physical activity cohort had lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure four months post-transplant compared to the usual care cohort (122 ± 18 vs. 126 ± 16 mmHg, p = 0.049 and 73 ± 10 vs. 77 ± 9, p = 0.004) and less impaired fasting glucose (20.7% vs. 30.9%, p = 0.04). Twelve-month outcomes were not different between cohorts. Over one-third of our cohort adhered to a pedometer-based physical activity intervention following kidney transplant, and the intervention was associated with improved metabolic parameters. Further study of post-transplant exercise interventions and methods to optimize long-term adherence are needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Physics education research has shown that learning environments that engage students and allow them to take an active part in their learning can lead to large conceptual gains compared to traditional instruction. Examples of successful curricula and methods include Peer Instruction, Just in Time Teaching, RealTime Physics, Workshop Physics, Scale-Up, and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs). An active learning environment is often difficult to achieve in lecture sessions. This presentation will demonstrate the use of sequences of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) that use real experiments often involving real-time data collection and display combined with student interaction to create an active learning environment in large or small lecture classes. Interactive lecture demonstrations will be done in the area of mechanics using real-time motion probes and the Visualizer. A video tape of students involved in interactive lecture demonstrations will be shown. The results of a number of research studies at various institutions (including international) to measure the effectiveness of ILDs and guided inquiry conceptual laboratories will be presented.
Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Roya
Lack of physical activity is ranked fourth among the causes of human death and chronic diseases. Using models and theories to design, implement, and evaluate the health education and health promotion interventions has many advantages. Using models and theories of physical activity, we decided to systematically study the educational and promotional interventions carried out in Iran from 2003 to 2013.Three information databases were used to systematically select papers using key words including Iranian Magazine Database (MAGIRAN), Iran Medical Library (MEDLIB), and Scientific Information Database (SID). Twenty papers were selected and studied .Having been applied in 9 studies, The Trans Theoretical Model (TTM) was the most widespread model in Iran (PENDER in 3 studies, BASNEF in 2, and the Theory of Planned Behavior in 2 studies). With regards to the educational methods, almost all studies used a combination of methods. The most widely used Integrative educational method was group discussion. Only one integrated study was done. Behavior maintenance was not addressed in 75% of the studies. Almost all studies used self-reporting instruments. The effectiveness of educational methods was assessed in none of the studies. Most of the included studies had several methodological weaknesses, which hinder the validity and applicability of their results. According to the findings, the necessity of need assessment in using models, epidemiology and methodology consultation, addressing maintenance of physical activity, using other theories and models such as social marketing and social-cognitive theory, and other educational methods like empirical and complementary are suggested.
Klassen, Tara D; Semrau, Jennifer A; Dukelow, Sean P; Bayley, Mark T; Hill, Michael D; Eng, Janice J
Identifying practical ways to accurately measure exercise intensity and dose in clinical environments is essential to advancing stroke rehabilitation. This is especially relevant in monitoring walking activity during inpatient rehabilitation where recovery is greatest. This study evaluated the accuracy of a readily available consumer-based physical activity monitor during daily inpatient stroke rehabilitation physical therapy sessions. Twenty-one individuals admitted to inpatient rehabilitation were monitored for a total of 471 one-hour physical therapy sessions which consisted of walking and nonwalking therapeutic activities. Participants wore a consumer-based physical activity monitor (Fitbit One) and the gold standard for assessing step count (StepWatch Activity Monitor) during physical therapy sessions. Linear mixed modeling was used to assess the relationship of the step count of the Fitbit to the StepWatch Activity Monitor. Device accuracy is reported as the percent error of the Fitbit compared with the StepWatch Activity Monitor. A strong relationship (slope=0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.01) was found between the number of steps captured by the Fitbit One and the StepWatch Activity Monitor. The Fitbit One had a mean error of 10.9% (5.3) for participants with walking velocities 0.8 m/s. This study provides preliminary evidence that the Fitbit One, when positioned on the nonparetic ankle, can accurately measure walking steps early after stroke during inpatient rehabilitation physical therapy sessions. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01915368. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying ... Exercise FAQ045, November 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits ...
McDonald, Suzanne; O'Brien, Nicola; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F
There are considerable inter-individual differences in the direction and degree of change in physical activity (PA) levels during the retirement transition. There is currently a limited theoretical understanding of how these differences can be explained. This study aimed to explore and compare perceptions about how theory-based factors influence PA change during the transition from employment to retirement among individuals approaching retirement and recently retired. Theory-based, one-to-one, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 28 adults (15 retired) within 24 months of retirement. Participants were sampled to reflect a diverse range of socio-economic and occupational backgrounds. The interview was based on the 12 domains within the Theory Domain Framework and designed to elicit anticipated or experienced retirement-related changes in PA behaviour and perceived determinants. Interview transcripts were analysed using Framework analysis to explore intra- and inter-individual perceptions of how PA changes after retirement and the factors which may influence this change. The majority of participants perceived retirement to be related to an increase in PA levels. Four themes emerged from the data regarding factors perceived to influence changes in PA behaviour after retirement: (1) resources for PA; (2) structure of daily life in retirement; (3) opportunities for PA; and (4) transitional PA phases after retirement. Retirement is associated with a number of inter-related changes and opportunities which can have a positive or negative impact on PA behaviour. The influence of these factors does not appear to be static and may change over time. A number of different transitional phases may be experienced after leaving work and each phase may have a differential impact on PA behaviour. The findings of this qualitative study contribute to the theoretical understanding of PA change during the retirement transition. Each post-retirement PA
Bennell, Kim L; Campbell, Penny K; Egerton, Thorlene; Metcalf, Ben; Kasza, Jessica; Forbes, Andrew; Bills, Caroline; Gale, Janette; Harris, Anthony; Kolt, Gregory S; Bunker, Stephen J; Hunter, David J; Brand, Caroline A; Hinman, Rana S
To investigate whether simultaneous telephone coaching improves the clinical effectiveness of a physiotherapist-prescribed home-based physical activity program for knee osteoarthritis (OA). A total of 168 inactive adults ages ≥50 years with knee pain on a numeric rating scale ≥4 (NRS; range 0-10) and knee OA were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to a physiotherapy (PT) and coaching group (n = 84) or PT-only (n = 84) group. All participants received five 30-minute consultations with a physiotherapist over 6 months for education, home exercise, and physical activity advice. PT+coaching participants also received 6-12 telephone coaching sessions by clinicians trained in behavioral-change support for exercise and physical activity. Primary outcomes were pain (NRS) and physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC; score range 0-68]) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were these same measures at 12 and 18 months, as well as physical activity, exercise adherence, other pain and function measures, and quality of life. Analyses were intent-to-treat with multiple imputation for missing data. A total of 142 (85%), 136 (81%), and 128 (76%) participants completed 6-, 12-, and 18-month measurements, respectively. The change in NRS pain (mean difference 0.4 unit [95% confidence interval (95% CI) -0.4, 1.3]) and in WOMAC function (1.8 [95% CI -1.9, 5.5]) did not differ between groups at 6 months, with both groups showing clinically relevant improvements. Some secondary outcomes related to physical activity and exercise behavior favored PT+coaching at 6 months but generally not at 12 or 18 months. There were no between-group differences in most other outcomes. The addition of simultaneous telephone coaching did not augment the pain and function benefits of a physiotherapist-prescribed home-based physical activity program. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
Gates, L S; Leyland, K M; Sheard, S
Physical activity (PA) is increasingly recognised as an important factor within studies of osteoarthritis (OA). However, subjective methods used to assess PA are highly variable and have not been developed for use within studies of OA, which creates difficulties when comparing and interpreting PA...... established via an international expert consensus meeting and modified Delphi exercise using a geographically diverse committee selected on the basis of individual expertise in physical activity, exercise medicine, and OA. Agreement was met for all aims of study: (1) The use of Metabolic Equivalent of Task...... (MET) minutes per week (MET-min/week) as a method for harmonising PA variables among cohorts; (2) The determination of methods for treating missing components of MET-min/week calculation; a value will be produced from comparable activities within a representative cohort; (3) Exclusion of the domain...
The physics data base is introduced along with its associated data base management system. The emphasis is on data and their use and a classification of data and of data bases is developed to distinguish compilation organizations. The characteristics of these organizations are examined briefly and the long term consequences of the physics data base discussed. (orig.)
Hulteen, Ryan M; Lander, Natalie J; Morgan, Philip J; Barnett, Lisa M; Robertson, Samuel J; Lubans, David R
It has been suggested that young people should develop competence in a variety of 'lifelong physical activities' to ensure that they can be active across the lifespan. The primary aim of this systematic review is to report the methodological properties, validity, reliability, and test duration of field-based measures that assess movement skill competency in lifelong physical activities. A secondary aim was to clearly define those characteristics unique to lifelong physical activities. A search of four electronic databases (Scopus, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest, and PubMed) was conducted between June 2014 and April 2015 with no date restrictions. Studies addressing the validity and/or reliability of lifelong physical activity tests were reviewed. Included articles were required to assess lifelong physical activities using process-oriented measures, as well as report either one type of validity or reliability. Assessment criteria for methodological quality were adapted from a checklist used in a previous review of sport skill outcome assessments. Movement skill assessments for eight different lifelong physical activities (badminton, cycling, dance, golf, racquetball, resistance training, swimming, and tennis) in 17 studies were identified for inclusion. Methodological quality, validity, reliability, and test duration (time to assess a single participant), for each article were assessed. Moderate to excellent reliability results were found in 16 of 17 studies, with 71% reporting inter-rater reliability and 41% reporting intra-rater reliability. Only four studies in this review reported test-retest reliability. Ten studies reported validity results; content validity was cited in 41% of these studies. Construct validity was reported in 24% of studies, while criterion validity was only reported in 12% of studies. Numerous assessments for lifelong physical activities may exist, yet only assessments for eight lifelong physical activities were included in this review
Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.
Kimberley A. Dawson
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an "unhappy employee" typology
Schifferdecker, Karen E; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Butcher, Rebecca L; O'Connor, Sharon; Li, Zhigang; Bazos, Dorothy A
Action Learning Collaboratives (ALCs), whereby teams apply quality improvement (QI) tools and methods, have successfully improved patient care delivery and outcomes. We adapted and tested the ALC model as a community-based obesity prevention intervention focused on physical activity and healthy eating. The intervention used QI tools (e.g., progress monitoring) and team-based activities and was implemented in three communities through nine monthly meetings. To assess process and outcomes, we used a longitudinal repeated-measures and mixed-methods triangulation approach with a quasi-experimental design including objective measures at three time points. Most of the 97 participants were female (85.4%), White (93.8%), and non-Hispanic/Latino (95.9%). Average age was 52 years; 28.0% had annual household income of $20,000 or less; and mean body mass index was 35. Through mixed-effects models, we found some physical activity outcomes improved. Other outcomes did not significantly change. Although participants favorably viewed the QI tools, components of the QI process such as sharing goals and data on progress in teams and during meetings were limited. Participants' requests for more education or activities around physical activity and healthy eating, rather than progress monitoring and data sharing required for QI activities, challenged ALC model implementation. An ALC model for community-based obesity prevention may be more effective when applied to preexisting teams in community-based organizations. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Stevens, M.; Kempen, G.I.J.M.
This study investigated differences in physical-fitness test scores between actively and passively recruited older adults and the consequences thereof for norm-based classification of individuals. Walking endurance, grip strength, hip flexibility, balance, manual dexterity, and reaction time were
Hynynen, S-T; van Stralen, M M; Sniehotta, F F; Araújo-Soares, V; Hardeman, W; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Vasankari, T.; Hankonen, N.
Lack of physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (SB) have been associated with health problems. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of school-based interventions to increase PA and decrease SB among 15-19-year-old adolescents, and examines whether intervention
González-Cutre, David; Sierra, Ana C.; Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Peláez-Pérez, Manuel; Cervelló, Eduardo
The authors analyzed the effects of a multidimensional intervention to promote physical activity (PA) in school, based on self-determination theory. The study involved 88 students, between 14 and 17 years old, who were divided into a control group (n = 59) and an experimental group (n = 29). In the experimental group, a 6-month intervention was…
Lindgren, Eva-Carin; Baigi, Amir; Apitzsch, Erwin; Bergh, Hakan
Objective: This study evaluated changes in self-efficacy in non-physically active adolescent girls (13-19 years old) who participated in a six-month, empowerment-based exercise intervention programme (EIP). Design: The study used a pre- and post-test randomized group design and included one pre- and one post-test (at six months) and non-physically…
Stoutenberg, Mark; Falcon, Ashley; Arheart, Kris; Stasi, Selina; Portacio, Francia; Stepanenko, Bryan; Lan, Mary L.; Castruccio-Prince, Catarina; Nackenson, Joshua
Background: Lifestyle modification programs improve several health-related behaviors, including physical activity (PA) and nutrition. However, few of these programs have been expanded to impact a large number of individuals in one setting at one time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a PA- and nutrition-based lifestyle…
Hays, Laura M.; Hoen, Helena M.; Slaven, James E.; Finch, Emily A.; Marrero, David G.; Saha, Chandan; Ackermann, Ronald T.
Background: Moderate weight loss and physical activity (PA) can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes however there is a need for innovative, effective programs to promote PA in high-risk individuals. Purpose: We examined the effect of a group-based adaption of the DPP lifestyle intervention implemented in partnership with the YMCA (YDPP) on changes in…
Midtgaard, J; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Tolver, Anders
Sedentary behavior and impaired cardiovascular reserve capacity are common late effects of cancer therapy emphasizing the need for effective strategies to increase physical activity (PA) in cancer survivors. We examined the efficacy of a 12-month exercise-based rehabilitation program on self...
Brindova, Daniela; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Klein, Daniel; Hamrik, Zdenek; Sigmundova, Dagmar; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association between screen-based (SB) behaviour and selected health complaints in adolescents and whether physical activity (PA) moderates this association. METHODS: Data from the cross-sectional Health Behaviour of School-aged Children study
Reichert César L
Full Text Available Abstract Background - The association between a sedentary lifestyle and obesity is well documented, and is linked to an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS. There is some evidence that information regarding the health benefits of physical activity is beginning to impact on the elderly people and is beginning to change their behavior. We aimed to investigate the level of physical activity undertaken by elderly people with MS and those without this condition. Methods - We evaluated 362 community-dwelling elders of Novo Hamburgo, southern Brazil. Diagnosis of MS was based on the International Diabetes Federation criteria and the physical activity (PA level was estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Analysis of covariance was carried out to verify associations between MS risk factors and the level of PA. Logistic regression was used to estimate the MS odds ratio for each level of PA. Results - No significant association was found between MS and the level of physical activity, irrespective of sex. The odds ratio for the presence of MS adjusted for sex and age and using insufficiently active elderly people as reference was 1.04 (95% CI, 0.6 to 1.7 in sufficiently active elderly people and 1.15 (95% CI, 0.7 to 2.0 in very active elderly people. Conclusion - The elderly citizens of a southern Brazilian community who were diagnosed with MS presented the same levels of PA as the individuals who did not have this diagnosis. This may imply that information on the importance of physical activity has already reached this higher risk population.
Jemmott, John B; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Ngwane, Zolani; Mtose, Xoliswa
Increasing physical activity is an important public-health goal worldwide, but there are few published mediation analyses of physical-activity interventions in low-to-middle-income countries like South Africa undergoing a health transition involving markedly increased mortality from non-communicable diseases. This article reports secondary analyses on the mediation of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based behavioral intervention that increased self-reported physical activity in a trial with 1181 men in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Twenty-two matched-pairs of neighborhoods were randomly selected. Within pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to a health-promotion intervention or an attention-matched control intervention with baseline, immediate-post, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Theory-of-planned-behavior constructs measured immediately post-intervention were tested as potential mediators of the primary outcome, self-reported physical activity averaged over the 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments, using a product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework. Data were collected in 2007-2010. Attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention were significant mediators of intervention-induced increases in self-reported physical activity. The descriptive norm, not affected by the intervention, was not a mediator, but predicted increased self-reported physical activity. The results suggest that interventions targeting theory-of-planned-behavior constructs may contribute to efforts to increase physical activity to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases among South African men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Riley-Jacome, Mary; Gallant, Mary P; Fisher, Brian D; Gotcsik, Frances S; Strogatz, David S
The University at Albany Prevention Research Center, guided by a needs assessment in two underserved communities (one urban, one rural), initiated a pilot project that opened a public school for community walking in a rural setting. This study examined a 9-week program for potential barriers, benefits, influential factors, and the physical activity levels of program participants. Evaluation was based on daily logs, pedometer diaries, participant surveys, and focus groups. Results indicated that rural schools provide a useful resource for residents and increase participants' physical activity levels. A more comprehensive rural community walking program has been implemented as a result of these findings.
Lee, C Ellen; Warden, Stuart J; Szuck, Beth; Lau, Y K James
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week community-based physical activity (PA) intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among 56 breast cancer survivors (BCS) who had completed treatments. This was a single-group longitudinal study. The multimodal PA intervention included aerobic, strengthening, and balance components. Physical function outcomes based on the 4-meter walk, chair stand, one-leg stance, tandem walk, and dynamic muscular endurance tests were assessed at 6-week pre-intervention (T1), baseline (T2), and post-intervention (T3). T1 to T2 and T2 to T3 were the control and intervention periods, respectively. All outcomes, except the tandem walk test, significantly improved after the intervention period (P control period (P > 0.05). Based on the falls risk criterion in the one-leg stance test, the proportion at risk for falls was significantly lower after the intervention period (P = 0.04), but not after the control period. A community-based multimodal PA intervention for BCS may be efficacious in improving physical function-related risk factors for falls, and lowering the proportion of BCS at risk for falls based on specific physical function-related falls criteria. Further larger trials are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.
Lee, C. Ellen; Warden, Stuart J.; Szuck, Beth; Lau, Y.K. James
Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week community-based physical activity (PA) intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among 56 breast cancer survivors (BCS) who had completed treatments. Design This was a single-group longitudinal study. The multimodal PA intervention included aerobic, strengthening and balance components. Physical function outcomes based on the 4-meter walk, chair stand, one-leg stance, tandem walk, and dynamic muscular endurance tests were assessed at 6-week pre-intervention (T1), baseline (T2), and post-intervention (T3). T1-T2 and T2-T3 were the control and intervention periods, respectively. Results All outcomes, except the tandem walk test, significantly improved after the intervention period (p 0.05). Based on the falls risk criterion in the one-leg stance test, the proportion at risk for falls was significantly lower after the intervention period (p = 0.04), but not after the control period. Conclusions A community-based multimodal PA intervention for BCS may be efficacious in improving physical function-related risk factors for falls, and lowering the proportion of BCS at risk for falls based on specific physical function-related falls criteria. Further larger trials are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:26829081
Brown, H.E.; Atkin, A.J.; Panter, J.; Corder, K.; Wong, G.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Sluijs, E.
Introduction: Despite the established relationship between physical activity and health, data suggest that many children are insufficiently active, and that levels decline into adolescence. Engaging the family in interventions may increase and maintain children's physical activity levels at the
Berntsen, S; Richardsen, K R; Mørkrid, K; Sletner, L; Birkeland, K I; Jenum, A K
This study aimed to compare objectively recorded physical activity (PA) levels and walking steps among pregnant women. Cross-sectional data from a multiethnic cohort (n = 823) of pregnant women consisting of 44% from Western countries, 24% from South Asia, 14% from Middle East, and 18% from other countries. PA and steps were recorded by the activity monitor SenseWear™ Pro3 Armband. A total of 678 women were included in the analysis. Western women walked significantly more steps and had higher moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels compared with South Asian women per weekday and weekend day. Interaction terms (P = 0.008) between ethnicity (Western vs South Asian) and parity, and education, respectively, were identified: having ≥ 1 children was positively associated with steps during weekends in South Asians in contrast to Western women. Having pregnancy and South Asian women without children and with higher education may have an elevated risk for an inactive lifestyle during pregnancy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Borgestig, Maria; Sandqvist, Jan; Ahlsten, Gunnar; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Hemmingsson, Helena
To establish the impact of a gaze-based assistive technology (AT) intervention on activity repertoire, autonomous use, and goal attainment in children with severe physical impairments, and to examine parents' satisfaction with the gaze-based AT and with services related to the gaze-based AT intervention. Non-experimental multiple case study with before, after, and follow-up design. Ten children with severe physical impairments without speaking ability (aged 1-15 years) participated in gaze-based AT intervention for 9-10 months, during which period the gaze-based AT was implemented in daily activities. Repertoire of computer activities increased for seven children. All children had sustained usage of gaze-based AT in daily activities at follow-up, all had attained goals, and parents' satisfaction with the AT and with services was high. The gaze-based AT intervention was effective in guiding parents and teachers to continue supporting the children to perform activities with the AT after the intervention program.
Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity (PA is protective against non-communicable diseases and it can reduce premature mortality. However, it is difficult to assess the frequency, duration, type and intensity of PA. The global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ has been developed by World Health Organization with the aim of having valid and reliable estimates of PA. The primary aim of this study is to assess the repeatability of the GPAQ instrument and the secondary aim is to validate it against International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and against an objective measure of PA (i.e., using pedometers in both rural and peri-urban areas of North India. Methods: A total of 262 subjects were recruited by random selection from Ballabgarh Block of Haryana State in India. For test retest repeatability of GPAQ and IPAQ, the instruments were administered on two occasions separated by at least 3 days. For concurrent validity, both questionnaires were administered in random order and for criterion validity step counters were used. Spearman′s correlation coefficient, intra-class correlation (ICC and Cohen′s kappa was used in the analysis. Results: For GPAQ validity, the spearman′s Rho ranged from 0.40 to 0.59 and ICC ranged from 0.43 to 0.81 while for IPAQ validity, spearman correlation coefficient ranged from 0.42 to 0.43 and ICC ranged from 0.56 to 0.68. The observed concurrent validity coefficients suggested that both the questionnaires had reasonable agreement (Spearman Rho of >0.90; P < 0.0001; ICC: 0.76-0.91, P < 0.05. Conclusions: GPAQ is similar to IPAQ in measuring PA and can be used for measurement of PA in community settings.
Direito, Artur; Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; Shields, Emma; Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph
There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklist can be used to identify BCTs in smartphone apps. The top-20 paid and top-20 free physical activity and/or dietary behaviour apps from the New Zealand Apple App Store Health & Fitness category were downloaded to an iPhone. Four independent raters user-tested and coded each app for the presence/absence of BCTs using the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (26 BCTs in total). The number of BCTs included in the 40 apps was calculated. Krippendorff's alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability for each of the 26 BCTs. Apps included an average of 8.1 (range 2-18) techniques, the number being slightly higher for paid (M = 9.7, range 2-18) than free apps (M = 6.6, range 3-14). The most frequently included BCTs were "provide instruction" (83% of the apps), "set graded tasks" (70%), and "prompt self-monitoring" (60%). Techniques such as "teach to use prompts/cues", "agree on behavioural contract", "relapse prevention" and "time management" were not present in the apps reviewed. Interrater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 (Mean 0.6, SD = 0.2). Presence of BCTs varied by app type and price; however, BCTs associated with increased intervention effectiveness were in general more common in paid apps. The taxonomy checklist can be used by independent raters to reliably identify BCTs in physical activity and dietary behaviour smartphone apps.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences
Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye
Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%)), four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%)). Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving) when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences of physical activity on academic achievement and other
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is a key factor for facing the increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight, and should be part of every public health programs. In this context, a community-based public health program promoting PA was developed in a low-income neighborhood of the city of Saint-Denis (France. Methods This work aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a 2-year PA promotion program. A quasi-experimental study was carried out using a pre/post design, with an assessment before (2013 and after (2015 the program. The interviewees were selected using a stratified random cluster sampling. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants practicing sufficient PA (WHO guidelines, and was measured using the RPAQ questionnaire. External interventions (on both neighborhood environment and inhabitants were listed. Results We collected 199 questionnaires at baseline and 217 in 2015. There was a majority of women in both samples: 64.3 % in 2013 and 58.2 % in 2015. The average age of participants was 38.1 years (+/−1.1 and 40.6 (+/−1.1 respectively. The proportion of people practicing sufficient PA was modified from 48.1 % in 2013 to 63.5 % in 2015 (p = 0.001. This was mainly driven by women whose level of PA, increased from 40.3 % to 60.3 % (p = 0.002, reaching the average national French estimation of PA level among adults (63.5 %. Conclusions This work showed a significant increase of the proportion of people practicing PA in a disadvantaged neighborhood where a community-based program promoting PA was developed. Simultaneous external interventions contributed to the results, showing the necessity of synergic interventions to reach efficiency.
Tomasone, Jennifer R; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P; Pila, Eva; Lamontagne, Marie-Eve; Cummings, Isabelle; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Routhier, François
In Canada, two counseling services are offered to facilitate physical activity participation among persons with physical disabilities, yet both have encountered concerns related to the recruitment and retainment of clients. The purpose of this paper is to explore factors related to service adoption among nonusers, and the barriers and facilitators to maintaining service participation among adopters. Individuals who had never enrolled in the services (nonusers, n = 13) as well as current/previous service clients (adopters, n = 26) participated in interviews based on the Theoretical Domains Framework. Transcripts were subjected to deductive thematic analysis according to participant group. Fifteen themes relating to service adoption within 10 of the 12 theoretical domains were identified for nonusers, while 23 themes relating to maintenence of service participation were identified across all 12 theoretical domains for adopters. The findings provide strategies to improve recruitment, adoption, and retention of clients in counseling services and to enhance the experiences of targeted service users. Implications for Rehabiliation Peer support and education for equipment use should be built into physical activity programs to encourage participation among persons with physical disabilities. Programs that encourage physical activity among individuals with disabilities should be designed by practitioners to be responsive to a variety of needs, which are addressed in the program's advertisements and offerings. The Theoretical Domains Framework is a useful framework for providing valuable insight about clients' experiences of adoption and maintenance of a behavior change service, suggesting merit in other rehabilitation settings.
Vandelanotte, C; Short, C; Plotnikoff, R C; Hooker, C; Canoy, D; Rebar, A; Alley, S; Schoeppe, S; Mummery, W K; Duncan, M J
Physical inactivity levels are unacceptably high and effective interventions that can increase physical activity in large populations at low cost are urgently needed. Web-based interventions that use computer-tailoring have shown to be effective, though people tend to 'skim' and 'scan' text on the Internet rather than thoroughly read it. The use of online videos is, however, popular and engaging. Therefore, the aim of this 3-group randomised controlled trial is to examine whether a web-based physical activity intervention that provides personally-tailored videos is more effective when compared with traditional personally-tailored text-based intervention and a control group. In total 510 Australians will be recruited through social media advertisements, e-mail and third party databases. Participants will be randomised to one of three groups: text-tailored, video-tailored, or control. All groups will gain access to the same web-based platform and a library containing brief physical activity articles. The text-tailored group will additionally have access to 8 sessions of personalised physical activity advice that is instantaneously generated based on responses to brief online surveys. The theory-based advice will be provided over a period of 3 months and address constructs such as self-efficacy, motivation, goal setting, intentions, social support, attitudes, barriers, outcome expectancies, relapse prevention and feedback on performance. Text-tailored participants will also be able to complete 7 action plans to help them plan what, when, where, who with, and how they will become more active. Participants in the video-tailored group will gain access to the same intervention content as those in the text-tailored group, however all sessions will be provided as personalised videos rather than text on a webpage. The control group will only gain access to the library with generic physical activity articles. The primary outcome is objectively measured physical activity
Olsen, Heidi M; Brown, Wendy J; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy; Burton, Nicola W
Many Australian employees now regularly work from home in some capacity. This new way of working has not been widely studied in relation to the potential implications for employees' health-related behaviour or workplace health promotion. The aim of this study was to explore office-based employees' perceptions of the impact of flexible work on physical activity and sedentary behaviour; and preferences for associated interventions. Three focus groups were conducted with office-based employees (n = 28) 6 months after the introduction of a flexible work policy. A semi-structured interview format with open-ended questions was used with summary statements to check understanding. Sessions were audiotaped, and dominant themes were identified. Findings on intervention preferences were interpreted using a social cognitive framework. An overview of results was provided to a group of managers (n = 9) for comment. Employees reported that physical activity was not impacted, but sedentary behaviour had increased, with flexible work. Intervention preferences focussed on occupational sedentary behaviour, self-regulation, prompts and social connections, and not the physical work environment. Managers agreed with employees' preferences and also wanted interventions to be sustainable. Self-directed interventions with social components and targeting occupational sedentary behaviour were more acceptable than physical activity interventions in this flexible workplace. SO WHAT?: Health promotion for workplaces with flexible work practices may benefit from prioritising strategies that promote self-regulation and social connections rather than being linked to the physical worksite. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.
Background: In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are
Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette
The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Participation in regular physical activity is associated with a variety of positive outcomes for young people. Physical activity (PA rates decline precipitously during the high school years and are consistently lower among adolescent girls than among adolescent boys. In order to stop or diverse this negative trend, there are necessary interventions based on various theories and models to promote physical activity in girls. Materials & Methods: This randomized control study evaluated the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise education program based on Pender’s Health Promotion model to improve cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with physical activity and to promote physical activity in adolescent girls (n =106. The program included educational sessions and tailored counseling. Results: There was an increase of 45 minutes for daily physical activity in the experimental group compared to their baseline. After intervention, the training group had a positive significant progression in stages along with significant improvements in self efficacy, enjoyment of physical activity, interpersonal influences, planning for physical activity, and also a decrease in perceived barriers to physical activity and competing preferences (p ≤ .0001-0.04. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed the positive effect of program on stage of change and potential determinants of the behavior of physical activity. The high proportion of the people in action and maintenance in experimental group compared to the baseline and the attainment of recommend criteria for physical activity are promising findings of school-based intervention based on Pender’s health promotion model.
Ng, C.; Losso, J.N.; Rao, R.M. [Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Department of Food Science; Marshall, W.E. [USDA-ARS, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)
The objectives of this study were to evaluate selected physical and chemical properties of agricultural byproduct-based activated carbons made from pecan shells and sugarcane bagasse, and compare those properties to a commercial coal-based activated carbon as well as to compare the adsorption efficiency of these carbons for geosmin. Comparison of the physical and chemical properties of pecan shell- and bagasse-based carbons to the commercial carbon, Calgon Filtrasorb 400, showed that pecan shell carbon, but not the bagasse carbon, compared favorably to Filtrasorb 400, especially in terms of surface area, bulk density, ash and attrition. A carbon dosage study done in a model system showed the amount of geosmin adsorbed to be greater for Filtrasorb 400 and the bagasse-based carbon at low carbon concentrations than for the pecan shell carbons, but geosmin adsorption was similar in all carbons at higher carbon dosages. Application of the Freundlich isotherm model to the adsorption data showed that carbons made by steam activation of pecan shells or sugarcane bagasse had geosmin adsorption characteristics most like those of the commercial carbon. In terms of physical, chemical and adsorptive properties, steam-activated pecan shell carbon most resembled the commercial carbon and has the potential to replace Filtrasorb 400 in applications involving removal of geosmin from aqueous environments. (author)
Thompson, Wanda M; Berry, Diane; Hu, Jie
To feasibility test a 12-week church-based physical activity intervention that was culturally sensitive, age- and gender specific directed at changing attitudes of Black adolescent girls' to be more physically active. A one-group pre- and posttest design was used. A convenience sample of Black adolescent girls between the age of 12-18 (n = 41). A 60-min 12-week church-based program that included interactive educational sessions followed by a high energy dance aerobics class was used. Data were collected on biophysical measures. Surveys were used to assess the following variables: attitudes, enjoyment, self-efficacy, intention, social and family support, and PA levels. Paired t-tests and repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant changes in key variables. Positive changes were noted in the odds ratios for attitudes, self-efficacy, and intention. Body mass index, metabolic equivalent tasks, and fitness showed positive trends from pre to post intervention. Family support was significantly correlated with physical activity level (p Black churches aimed at Black adolescent girls are feasible. Participants evaluated the intervention very favorably. Family support may be a key factor in increasing physical activity levels in Black adolescent girls. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ditte Marie Bruun
Full Text Available As the number of cancer survivors continues to increase, there is an increasing focus on management of the long-term consequences of cancer including health promotion and prevention of co-morbidity. Prostate cancer is the most frequent type of cancer type in men and causes increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. Epidemiological evidence points to a positive effect of regular physical activity on all-cause and prostate cancer mortality and current clinical evidence supports the use of exercise in cancer rehabilitation. However, the external validity of existing exercise studies is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport environments, the study offers a novel approach in the strive towards sustained physical activity adherence and accessibility in prostate cancer survivors.
Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter; Brasso, Klaus; Johansen, Christoffer; Rørth, Mikael; Midtgaard, Julie
As the number of cancer survivors continues to increase, there is an increasing focus on management of the long-term consequences of cancer including health promotion and prevention of co-morbidity. Prostate cancer is the most frequent type of cancer type in men and causes increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. Epidemiological evidence points to a positive effect of regular physical activity on all-cause and prostate cancer mortality and current clinical evidence supports the use of exercise in cancer rehabilitation. However, the external validity of existing exercise studies is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport environments, the study offers a novel approach in the strive towards sustained physical activity adherence and accessibility in prostate cancer survivors. PMID:24865394
Hataji, Osamu; Nishii, Yoichi; Ito, Kentaro; Sakaguchi, Tadashi; Saiki, Haruko; Suzuki, Yuta; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina; Fujimoto, Hajime; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Gabazza, Esteban C.; Taguchi, Osamu
Combined therapy with tiotropium and olodaterol notably improves parameters of lung function and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to mono-components; however, its effect on physical activity is unknown. The present study evaluated whether combination therapy affects daily physical performance in patients with COPD under a smart watch-based encouragement program. This was a non-blinded clinical trial with no randomization or placebo control. A total of 20 patients with COPD were enrolled in the present study. The patients carried an accelerometer for 4 weeks; they received no therapy during the first 2 weeks but they were treated with combined tiotropium and olodaterol under a smart watch-based encouragement program for the last 2 weeks. The pulmonary function test, COPD assessment test, 6-min walk distance and parameters of physical activity were significantly improved (Pcoaching compared with values prior to treatment. To the best of our knowledge, the present study for the first time provides evidence that smart watch-based coaching in combination with tiotropium and olodaterol may improve daily physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:29104624
Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Aparicio, Virginia A; Ortega, Francisco B; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Alvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Romero, Alejandro; Estévez-López, Fernando; Samos, Blanca; Casimiro, Antonio J; Sierra, Ángela; Latorre, Pedro A; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Femia, Pedro; Pérez-López, Isaac J; Chillón, Palma; Girela-Rejón, María J; Tercedor, Pablo; Lucía, Alejandro; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel
The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women with fibromyalgia. One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years) will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain). Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control) group (n = 60), a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60) or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60). Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each) per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention) on the studied variables. Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01490281.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome, and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes in women with fibromyalgia. Methods/Design One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain. Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control group (n = 60, a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60 or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60. Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention on the studied variables. Discussion Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. Trial registration Clinical
Background Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Methods Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA) using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight) for body mass index (BMI). Results Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2), 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059) for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ≤ 0.04). Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p motor skills. However, in accordance to data in older children, child care-based physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting health promotion interventions in young children. PMID:22405468
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Methods Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight for body mass index (BMI. Results Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2, 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059 for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ≤ 0.04. Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p Conclusions At this early age, there were no significant weight status- or gender-related differences in global motor skills. However, in accordance to data in older children, child care-based physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting
Valle, Carmina G; Tate, Deborah F
Few studies have examined how young adult cancer survivors use online social media. The objective of this study was to characterize Facebook engagement by young adult cancer survivors in the context of a physical activity (PA) intervention program. Young adult cancer survivors participated in one of two Facebook groups as part of a 12-week randomized trial of a PA intervention (FITNET) compared to a self-help comparison (SC) condition. A moderator actively prompted group discussions in the FITNET Facebook group, while social interaction was unprompted in the SC group. We examined factors related to engagement, differences in engagement by group format and types of Facebook posts, and the relationship between Facebook engagement and PA outcomes. There were no group differences in the number of Facebook comments posted over 12 weeks (FITNET, 153 vs. SC, 188 p = 0.85) or the proportion of participants that reported engaging within Facebook group discussions at least 1-2 days/week. The proportion of participants that made any posts decreased over time in both groups. SC participants were more likely than FITNET participants to agree that group discussions caused them to become physically active (p = 0.040) and that group members were supportive (p = 0.028). Participant-initiated posts elicited significantly more comments and likes than moderator-initiated posts. Responses posted on Facebook were significantly associated with light PA at 12 weeks (β = 11.77, t(85) = 1.996, p = 0.049) across groups. Engagement within Facebook groups was variable and may be associated with PA among young adult cancer survivors. Future research should explore how to promote sustained engagement in online social networks. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01349153.
Jajat; Sultoni, K.; Suherman, A.
The purpose of the research is to analyze the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students based on physical activity level. An internet-based survey was conducted. The participants were 158 University students from Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Barriers to Physical Activity Quiz (BPAQ) were used to assessed the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students. IPAQ (short form) were used to assessed physical activity level. The results show there was no differences BPAQ based on IPAQ level. But when analyzed further based on seven factors barriers there are differences in factors “social influence and lack of willpower” based IPAQ level. Based on this it was concluded that the “influence from other and lack of willpower” an inhibiting factor on students to perform physical activity.
Johansen, Danielle Louise Nørager; Skovgaard, Thomas; Møller, Niels Christian
condensed into a total amount of 63 factors, arranged into nine overall categories, and prioritized by the national expert group in the questionnaire (1.School leadership, 2.Co-workers, 3.Resources, 4.Policy level, 5.Organizational/cultural level, 6.Pupils, 7.Physical surroundings, 8.Intervention context......, and 9.External factors). Based on five expert interviews, outliers from the questionnaire was examined. Finally, at the workshop, five of the nine overall categories were rated as particularly relevant and important (School leadership, Co-workers, Policy level, Resources and Organizational/cultural...... level). Conclusions All nine overall categories are deemed as decisive for sustainable implementation of school-based PA. However, School leadership were singled out as a particular important category, since commitment at this level is deemed a pre-requisite for many of the other factors....
Full Text Available It is an old pursuit to find the balance between nature and society (within the individual and the sum of people. In order to talk about a healthy society, it is necessarry to have the people making up the society healthy too. The health condition of the individuals affects the society, creating a close connection amoing individuals and society. Health, mental and physical well-beings of members of society affects the economy, since a healthy workforce leads to developing economy, which hence can provide the requirements and conditions that ensure a mentally and physically healthy way of living for the society. Sport, everyday exercise, therefore regular training can also play an important social role, and can greatly contribute to social well-being. Decreased physical activity, sitting lifestyle are both specific traits of economically developed countres, and turns into a more and more threatening public health problem world-wide, which contribute to the development or aggravation of such chronic diseases and health damages, like morbid obesity, heart diseases, diabetes, hypertension, locomotor diseases, malignant tumors, depression. The topic of our research is related to mainly the subject of primary school healthcare programs. The measurements have been taken in 12 different educational institutions, which included primary, secondary, vocational schools, and a 6-grade school. The actuality of the topic is proven by the increased obesity appearing at more younger ages, and we intend to shed some light on the fact, that with a good healhcare strategy and short-term goals we can achieve positive results shortly on the fields of school healthcare.
Cowper, Patricia A; Peterson, Matthew J; Pieper, Carl F; Sloane, Richard J; Hall, Katherine S; McConnell, Eleanor S; Bosworth, Hayden B; Ekelund, Carola C; Pearson, Megan P; Morey, Miriam C
To perform an economic evaluation of a primary care-based physical activity counseling intervention that improved physical activity levels and rapid gait speed in older veterans. Secondary objective of randomized trial that assessed the effect of exercise counseling (relative to usual care) on physical performance, physical activity, function, disability, and medical resource use and cost. Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina. Male veterans aged ≥70 years (n = 398). An experienced health counselor provided baseline in-person exercise counseling, followed by telephone counseling at 2, 4, and 6 weeks, and monthly thereafter through one year. Each participant's primary care physician provided initial endorsement of the intervention, followed by monthly automated telephone messages tailored to the patient. Individualized progress reports were mailed quarterly. Intervention costs were assessed. Health care resource use and costs were estimated from enrollment through one year follow-up. The incremental cost of achieving clinically significant changes in major trial endpoints was calculated. The total direct cost of the intervention per participant was $459, 85% of which was counselor effort. With overhead, program cost totaled $696 per participant. Medical costs during follow-up reached $10,418 with the intervention, versus $12,052 with usual care (difference = -$1,634 (95% confidence interval = -$4,683 to $1,416; P = .29)). Expressed in terms of short-term clinical outcomes, the intervention cost $4,971 per additional patient reaching target exercise levels, or $4,640 per patient achieving a clinically significant change in rapid gait speed. Improvements in physical activity and rapid gait speed in the physical activity counseling group were obtained at a cost that represents a small fraction of patients' annual health care costs. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Skovgaard, Thomas; Bredahl, Thomas
Introduction The benefits of physical activity for children’s health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited amount of knowledge about teachers’ views when it comes to integrating physical activity as part of teaching. The aim of this study is to understand teachers’ motivation for integrating physical activity as part of teaching and to assess their need for guidance and support. Methods and analysis The study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Schools from across Denmark are included in the sample. The design comprises two separated phases—a quantitative and qualitative phase. The quantitative phase is guided by the self-determination theory where teachers’ motivation will be measured using the Work Task Motivation Scale for Teachers. The theory of scaffolding guides the qualitative phase, which consists of in-depth interviews with participants selected from the quantitative phase based on levels of motivation and on demographic information. In accordance with the study aims, the analysis of data will identify teachers’ internal and external levels of motivation. The purpose of the qualitative phase is to enhance understanding of teachers’ motivation and of their need for support in the use of physical activity in teaching. Ethics and dissemination All relevant ethics approvals have been acquired. All participants in this study will provide written informed consent prior to data collection. All data emerging from the quantitative and qualitative phase will be anonymised for analysis. Ethics approval was requested from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics for Southern Denmark approval ID S-20162000–40 and the Danish Data Protection Agency approval ID 16/15491). The study was deemed not notifiable by both authorities. Trial
Knudsen, Louise Stjerne; Skovgaard, Thomas; Bredahl, Thomas
The benefits of physical activity for children's health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited amount of knowledge about teachers' views when it comes to integrating physical activity as part of teaching. The aim of this study is to understand teachers' motivation for integrating physical activity as part of teaching and to assess their need for guidance and support. The study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Schools from across Denmark are included in the sample. The design comprises two separated phases-a quantitative and qualitative phase. The quantitative phase is guided by the self-determination theory where teachers' motivation will be measured using the Work Task Motivation Scale for Teachers. The theory of scaffolding guides the qualitative phase, which consists of in-depth interviews with participants selected from the quantitative phase based on levels of motivation and on demographic information. In accordance with the study aims, the analysis of data will identify teachers' internal and external levels of motivation. The purpose of the qualitative phase is to enhance understanding of teachers' motivation and of their need for support in the use of physical activity in teaching. All relevant ethics approvals have been acquired. All participants in this study will provide written informed consent prior to data collection. All data emerging from the quantitative and qualitative phase will be anonymised for analysis. Ethics approval was requested from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics for Southern Denmark approval ID S-20162000-40 and the Danish Data Protection Agency approval ID 16/15491). The study was deemed not notifiable by both authorities. NCT02894346; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated
Rosenbaum, Simon; Tiedemann, Anne; Stanton, Robert; Parker, Alexandra; Waterreus, Anna; Curtis, Jackie; Ward, Philip B
Physical activity (PA) and exercise is increasingly being recognised as an efficacious component of treatment for various mental disorders. The association between PA and cardiometabolic disease is well established, as is the strong link between mental illness, sedentary behaviour and poor cardiometabolic health. Examples of successful integration of clinical PA programs within mental health treatment facilities are increasing. The aim of this review was to summarise the evidence regarding PA and mental illness, and to present examples of clinical exercise programs within Australian mental health facilities. A narrative synthesis of systematic reviews and clinical trials was conducted. Evidence supporting the inclusion of PA programs as an adjunct to treatment for various conditions was presented; including depression, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and substance abuse. In light of the available evidence, the inclusion of clinical PA programs within mental health treatment, facilitated by dedicated clinicians (exercise physiologists / physiotherapists) was justified. PA is a feasible, effective and acceptable adjunct to usual care for a variety of mental disorders. There is a clear need for greater investment in initiatives aiming to increase PA among people experiencing mental illness, given the benefits to both mental and physical health outcomes. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Christensen, Line Brinch
Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...
Full Text Available Structural modification of organic molecule has considerable biological relevance. Further, coordination of a biomolecules to the metal ions significantly alters the effectiveness of the biomolecules. In view of the antimicrobial activity ligand [bis-(2-aminobenzaldehyde] malonoyl dihydrazone], metal complexes with Cu(II, Ni(II, Zn(II and oxovanadium(IV have been synthesized and found to be potential antimicrobial agents. An attempt is also made to correlate the biological activities with geometry of the complexes. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, spectra and cyclicvoltammetric measurements. The structural assessment of the complexes has been carried out based on electronic, infrared and molar conductivity values.
Hegaard, H K; Petersson, K; Hedegaard, M; Ottesen, B; Dykes, A K; Henriksen, T B; Damm, P
We examined the association between sports and other leisure-time physical activities during pregnancy and birth weight of babies born after 37 completed weeks of gestation. All Danish-speaking pregnant women attending routine antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, from August 1989 to September 1991 were invited to participate in the study. A total of 4458 healthy women who delivered after 37 completed gestational weeks participated in this study. The associations between sports (0, 1-2, 3+ h/week) or leisure-time physical activity (sedentary, light, and moderate to heavy) and birth weight were examined by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding factors such as smoking, parity, schooling, pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational age. The results showed that pregnant women who practiced sports or were moderate to heavy leisure-time physical active during the early second or the early third trimester gave birth to infants with a similar birth weight as inactive women. The proportion of newborns with a low (/=4500 g) was also unchanged. In conclusion, in this large population-based study, we found no association between sports and leisure-time physical activity and low-birth weight, high-birth weight, or average-birth weight.
Jiménez-Brobeil, Silvia A.
Full Text Available A collection of human remains, from the Argaric Culture sites, was studied to broaden knowledge about the physical activity carried out by those populations. Three types of activity markers were analyzed: osteoarthritis, musculoskeletal stress markers and traumatisms. The obtained results coincide with the environment and terrain in which the archaeological sites were found, demonstrating a remarkable difference between sexes. Although it is impossible to determine the profession of the studied individuals, it can be affirmed that the men would perform activities that required muscular strength, walking through rugged and steeped terrain in which they risked suffering further trauma. The women, however, carried out activities centred around the domestic environment.
Se estudian restos humanos procedentes de yacimientos de la Cultura de El Argar con el objetivo de ampliar el conocimiento sobre la actividad física llevada a cabo por los individuos. Se analizan tres tipos de marcadores: la artrosis, los marcadores de estrés músculo-esquelético y los traumatismos. Los resultados obtenidos son coincidentes con el entorno y los terrenos en los que se ubicaron los asentamientos argáricos y señalan una clara diferencia entre sexos. Aunque es imposible determinar la “profesión” de los individuos, sí se puede afirmar que los varones realizarían actividades que requerían fuerza muscular, caminar por terrenos duros y escarpados y en las que había riesgo de sufrir traumatismos. Las mujeres, sin embargo, llevarían a cabo actividades centradas en el entorno doméstico.
between self-reported and pedometer-measured physical activity was also determined. Results. Average ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among employed South African adults. Participant ... acquired information on physical activity habits. Questions ..... How many days of monitoring predict physical activity and ...
Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.
Bria, S; Zeppilli, P
A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.
Aadahl, M; Smith, L von Huth; Toft, U
Aim To examine the effect of a multifactorial lifestyle intervention on 5-year change in physical activity (PA) and to explore whether length of education had an impact on the effect of the intervention. Methods Two random samples (high intervention group A, n=11 708; low intervention group B, n......-based multifactorial lifestyle intervention did not influence social inequality in PA. Keywords Lifestyle, Exercise, Randomised Intervention Study, Ischemic Heart Disease, Socioeconomic Position....
Simonÿ, Charlotte; Dreyer, Pia; Pedersen, Birthe D.
interviews were performed 1-2 months later. A phenomenological hermeneutic interpretation was conducted, comprising three methodological steps: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive interpretation. Results. The preliminary findings are that although physically and especially mentally......Purpose. Patients face demanding and challenging processes when they experience cardiac problems. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation is established to enable these patients to move forward to lead a satisfying life. It is recognised that patients fail to join all sessions of the rehabilitation...... resulting in an alarming problem. It is outlined that barriers for better adherence are related to the fact that the services do not sufficiently address the patients’ specific situations. Thus, the request for firmly addressing rehabilitation as responsive to the patients’ needs is of paramount importance...
Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of active travel to school in children is low and declining. For example, the 2014 National Travel Survey showed that just 46% of primary school children walk to school. This is despite the fact that children who actively travel have been shown to be more physically active overall as well as perform better in class. Beat the Street is a community based intervention which uses RFID (Radio Frequency ID chip readers attached to locations around the neighbourhood. The aim of the intervention is to encourage walking and cycling by gamifying these travel behaviours; individuals taking part gain points by touching a smartcard on the readers and these points become part of a competition. One of the aims of Beat the Street is to encourage children who already walk and cycle to and from school to do so more, as well as achieve modal shift from motorised transport to active travel as a means of commuting. However, habitual travel mode is ‘sticky’ and, despite the potential health benefits being greater, it may be more difficult to change mode than it is to encourage more activity in those who already walk or cycle. Set in a neighbourhood in the city of Norwich, England, this analysis examines how travel mode prior to the initiation of Beat the Street is associated with subsequent engagement with the intervention and what the association of this engagement is with physical activity change. Aim: This pilot study evaluates how prior travel mode to school is associated with engagement in the Beat the Street intervention in schoolchildren in the city of Norwich, England. Methods: The Beat the Street intervention was conducted within a Norwich neighbourhood for 9 weeks during May-July 2014. Children were recruited to the evaluation via two schools; one in the intervention neighbourhood, and a control located on the opposite side of the city. All year 4 and 5 children (aged 8-10 years were invited at both schools. Recruited children
Krops, Leonie A; Hols, Doortje H J; Folkertsma, Nienke; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dekker, Rienk
To explore ideas experts, working in the field of physical activity for people with a disability, pose on a stimulating movement intervention for physically disabled people longer than one year post rehabilitation or not familiar with rehabilitation. Four semi-structured focus groups were conducted with experts (n = 28). Transcripts were analysed following thematic analysis, using the integrated physical activity for people with a disability and intervention mapping model. Experts expressed no need for a new intervention, but, instead, a need for adapting an existing intervention, and increased collaboration between organisations. Such an adapted intervention should aim to change participants and environmental attitude towards physical activity, and to increase visibility of potential activities. Several methods were mentioned, for instance individual coaching. Potential participants should be personally approached via various intermediates. The intervention owner and government are responsible for stimulating physical activity and should finance an intervention together with health insurances and the user. According to experts adapting an existing intervention, together with increased collaboration between organisations, will be effective in stimulating physical activity in the target population. This study provides requirements on an intervention to stimulate physical activity, and suggestions for the approach of the target population, finance, and responsibility. Implications for Rehabilitation There is no need for designing a new intervention, but need for adaptation of an existing intervention for stimulating physical activity in physically disabled people. An intervention to stimulate physical activity in physically disabled people should aim to change participants and environmental attitude towards physical activity, and to increase the visibility of potential activities. Methods for stimulating physical activity in physically disabled people could be
Wurz, Amanda; St-Aubin, Anik; Brunet, Jennifer
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the barriers and motives experienced by women attending an 8-week group-based physical activity program offered in the community following treatment for breast cancer. Seven women were interviewed during the first and last week of the program. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Factors that hindered women's continued participation could be subdivided into situational barriers, which encompassed community (i.e., distance of center and traffic) and institutional factors (i.e., competing roles and responsibilities), and internal barriers, which consisted of cancer-specific limitations. Motives for initial and continued participation were situational (i.e., gaining social support, networking, and being around similar others) and internal (i.e., feeling a sense of personal fulfillment, acquiring health benefits, and recovering from cancer). The findings contribute to a deeper understanding of women's motives to engage in a group-based physical activity program after treatment for breast cancer. Further, they underscore the necessity of considering situational and internal barriers when developing group-based physical activity programs to increase regular participation, optimize adherence, and reduce drop-out.
Bélanger-Gravel, A; Godin, G; Vézina-Im, L-A; Amireault, S; Poirier, P
Little attention has been paid to the evaluation of the long-term impact of theory-based interventions on physical activity participation among overweight/obese individuals after the interventions have ended. The primary aim of this systematic review was to investigate the long-term effectiveness of theory-based interventions increasing physical activity and identify the most effective techniques for behaviour change among overweight/obese individuals. The secondary aim was to investigate the effect of these interventions on theoretical variables. Eighteen studies were reviewed. Among these studies, three reported significant short-term and two long-term effects of interventions on physical activity participation. Most of the studies observed a significant short- or long-term effect of time on this behaviour. Theoretical frameworks most often applied included the Behavioural Model and the Social Learning/Cognitive Theory. However, few of the studies reported any impact on theoretical variables. The most prevalent techniques consisted of providing opportunities for social comparison and instruction as well as self-monitoring. Leading techniques differentiating the experimental group from the control group included prompting practice and intentions formation and barriers identification. Although the combination of these three techniques appears successful, the long-term impact of theory-based interventions remains ambiguous. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Jurakic, Danijel; Golubić, Antonija; Pedisic, Zeljko; Pori, Maja
The purpose of this study was to determine the level, pattern and correlates (socio-demographic, lifestyle and work-related) of physical activity among middle-aged employees in Croatia. In this cross-sectional study the data were collected using a household interview on a random sample of 766 middle-aged employees (52% female) living in Croatia. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-long) was used to assess physical activity. An additional questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic, lifestyle and work-related correlates. The median (95% CI) total physical activity for the whole sample was 78.7 (69.1-88.3) MET-hours/week. Most physical activity was accumulated in the domain of work (26.4 (20.3-32.5) MET-hours/week) or in domestic activities (19.2(17.8-20.7) MET-hours/week), whilst a significantly lower physical activity was found in the transport (3.3 (2.9-3.7) MET-hours/week) and leisure-time domains (6.5 (5.7-7.3) MET-hours/week). The multiple regression analysis showed an inverse relationship between educational level and the size of settlements with the domestic-related and total physical activity (β range: -0.11 to -0.22; p physical activity (β = 0.12; p physical activity (β = -0.10; p employees in Croatia accumulate most of their daily physical activity in the work and domestic domains. Analysis of the relationship between physical activity and potential socio-demographic, lifestyle, and work-related correlates indicated that physical activity promotional activities should be primarily focused on males, employees living in smaller settlements and those with higher educational levels. The correlates of physical activity among middle-aged employees seem to be domain-specific. Therefore, future studies in this area should consider assessing physical activity in each domain separately.
Cooper, Simon B; Dring, Karah J; Morris, John G; Sunderland, Caroline; Bandelow, Stephan; Nevill, Mary E
An acute bout of exercise elicits a beneficial effect on subsequent cognitive function in adolescents. The effect of games-based activity, an ecologically valid and attractive exercise model for young people, remains unknown; as does the moderating effect of fitness on the acute exercise-cognition relationship. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of games-based activity on subsequent cognition in adolescents, and the moderating effect of fitness on this relationship. Following ethical approval, 39 adolescents (12.3 ± 0.7 year) completed an exercise and resting trial in a counterbalanced, randomised crossover design. During familiarisation, participants completed a multi-stage fitness test to predict VO 2 peak. The exercise trial consisted of 60-min games-based activity (basketball), during which heart rate was 158 ± 11 beats∙min - 1 . A battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm, trail making and d2 tests) were completed 30-min before, immediately following and 45-min following the basketball. Response times on the complex level of the Stroop test were enhanced both immediately (p = 0.021) and 45-min (p = 0.035) post-exercise, and response times on the five item level of the Sternberg paradigm were enhanced immediately post-exercise (p = 0.023). There were no effects on the time taken to complete the trail making test or any outcome of the d2 test. In particular, response times were enhanced in the fitter adolescents 45-min post-exercise on both levels of the Stroop test (simple, p = 0.005; complex, p = 0.040) and on the three item level of the Sternberg paradigm immediately (p = 0.017) and 45-min (p = 0.008) post-exercise. Games-based activity enhanced executive function and working memory scanning speed in adolescents, an effect particularly evident in fitter adolescents, whilst the high intensity intermittent nature of games-based activity may be too demanding for
This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.
Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...
Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L
Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.
Alley, Stephanie; Jennings, Cally; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vandelanotte, Corneel
Cost-effective and efficient methods to attract people to Web-based health behavior interventions need to be identified. Traditional print methods including leaflets, posters, and newspaper advertisements remain popular despite the expanding range of Web-based advertising options that have the potential to reach larger numbers at lower cost. This study evaluated the effectiveness of multiple Web-based and print-based methods to attract people to a Web-based physical activity intervention. A range of print-based (newspaper advertisements, newspaper articles, letterboxing, leaflets, and posters) and Web-based (Facebook advertisements, Google AdWords, and community calendars) methods were applied to attract participants to a Web-based physical activity intervention in Australia. The time investment, cost, number of first time website visits, the number of completed sign-up questionnaires, and the demographics of participants were recorded for each advertising method. A total of 278 people signed up to participate in the physical activity program. Of the print-based methods, newspaper advertisements totaled AUD $145, letterboxing AUD $135, leaflets AUD $66, posters AUD $52, and newspaper article AUD $3 per sign-up. Of the Web-based methods, Google AdWords totaled AUD $495, non-targeted Facebook advertisements AUD $68, targeted Facebook advertisements AUD $42, and community calendars AUD $12 per sign-up. Although the newspaper article and community calendars cost the least per sign-up, they resulted in only 17 and 6 sign-ups respectively. The targeted Facebook advertisements were the next most cost-effective method and reached a large number of sign-ups (n=184). The newspaper article and the targeted Facebook advertisements required the lowest time investment per sign-up (5 and 7 minutes respectively). People reached through the targeted Facebook advertisements were on average older (60 years vs 50 years, Padvertising is the most cost-effective and efficient method at
Jennings, Cally; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vandelanotte, Corneel
Background Cost-effective and efficient methods to attract people to Web-based health behavior interventions need to be identified. Traditional print methods including leaflets, posters, and newspaper advertisements remain popular despite the expanding range of Web-based advertising options that have the potential to reach larger numbers at lower cost. Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness of multiple Web-based and print-based methods to attract people to a Web-based physical activity intervention. Methods A range of print-based (newspaper advertisements, newspaper articles, letterboxing, leaflets, and posters) and Web-based (Facebook advertisements, Google AdWords, and community calendars) methods were applied to attract participants to a Web-based physical activity intervention in Australia. The time investment, cost, number of first time website visits, the number of completed sign-up questionnaires, and the demographics of participants were recorded for each advertising method. Results A total of 278 people signed up to participate in the physical activity program. Of the print-based methods, newspaper advertisements totaled AUD $145, letterboxing AUD $135, leaflets AUD $66, posters AUD $52, and newspaper article AUD $3 per sign-up. Of the Web-based methods, Google AdWords totaled AUD $495, non-targeted Facebook advertisements AUD $68, targeted Facebook advertisements AUD $42, and community calendars AUD $12 per sign-up. Although the newspaper article and community calendars cost the least per sign-up, they resulted in only 17 and 6 sign-ups respectively. The targeted Facebook advertisements were the next most cost-effective method and reached a large number of sign-ups (n=184). The newspaper article and the targeted Facebook advertisements required the lowest time investment per sign-up (5 and 7 minutes respectively). People reached through the targeted Facebook advertisements were on average older (60 years vs 50 years, PFacebook advertising is the
Choi, Mi-Ri; Jeon, Sang-Wan; Yi, Eun-Surk
The purpose of this study is to analyze the differences among the hospitalized cancer patients on their perception of exercise and physical activity constraints based on their medical history. The study used questionnaire survey as measurement tool for 194 cancer patients (male or female, aged 20 or older) living in Seoul metropolitan area (Seoul, Gyeonggi, Incheon). The collected data were analyzed using frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis t -test, and one-way distribution using statistical program SPSS 18.0. The following results were obtained. First, there was no statistically significant difference between cancer stage and exercise recognition/physical activity constraint. Second, there was a significant difference between cancer stage and sociocultural constraint/facility constraint/program constraint. Third, there was a significant difference between cancer operation history and physical/socio-cultural/facility/program constraint. Fourth, there was a significant difference between cancer operation history and negative perception/facility/program constraint. Fifth, there was a significant difference between ancillary cancer treatment method and negative perception/facility/program constraint. Sixth, there was a significant difference between hospitalization period and positive perception/negative perception/physical constraint/cognitive constraint. In conclusion, this study will provide information necessary to create patient-centered healthcare service system by analyzing exercise recognition of hospitalized cancer patients based on their medical history and to investigate the constraint factors that prevents patients from actually making efforts to exercise.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of physical activity for the mental health and well-being of children and young people are well-established. Increased physical activity during school hours is associated with better physical, psychological and social health and well‐being. Unfortunately many children and young people exercise insufficiently to benefit from positive factors like well-being. The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a multi-component, school-based, physical activity intervention to improve psychosocial well-being among school-aged children and youths from the 4th to the 6th grade (10–13 years. Methods A four-phased intervention – design, pilot, RCT, evaluation - is carried out for the development, implementation and evaluation of the intervention which are guided by The Medical Research Council framework for the development of complex interventions. 24 schools have been randomized and the total study population consists of 3124 children (baseline, who are followed over a period of 9 months. Outcome measure data at the pupil level are collected using an online questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up, 9 months later with instruments for measuring primary (general physical self-worth and secondary outcomes (self-perceived sport competences, body attractiveness, scholastic competences, social competences and global self-worth; enjoyment of PA; self-efficacy; and general well-being that are both valid and manageable in setting-based research. The RE-AIM framework is applied as an overall instrument to guide the evaluation. Discussion The intervention focuses on the mental benefits of physical activity at school, which has been a rather neglected theme in health promotion research during recent decades. This is unfortunate as mental health has been proclaimed as one of the most important health concerns of the 21st century. Applying a cluster RCT study design, evaluating the real-world effectiveness of
Smedegaard, Søren; Christiansen, Lars Breum; Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Bredahl, Thomas; Skovgaard, Thomas
The benefits of physical activity for the mental health and well-being of children and young people are well-established. Increased physical activity during school hours is associated with better physical, psychological and social health and well-being. Unfortunately many children and young people exercise insufficiently to benefit from positive factors like well-being. The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a multi-component, school-based, physical activity intervention to improve psychosocial well-being among school-aged children and youths from the 4 th to the 6 th grade (10-13 years). A four-phased intervention - design, pilot, RCT, evaluation - is carried out for the development, implementation and evaluation of the intervention which are guided by The Medical Research Council framework for the development of complex interventions. 24 schools have been randomized and the total study population consists of 3124 children (baseline), who are followed over a period of 9 months. Outcome measure data at the pupil level are collected using an online questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up, 9 months later with instruments for measuring primary (general physical self-worth) and secondary outcomes (self-perceived sport competences, body attractiveness, scholastic competences, social competences and global self-worth; enjoyment of PA; self-efficacy; and general well-being) that are both valid and manageable in setting-based research. The RE-AIM framework is applied as an overall instrument to guide the evaluation. The intervention focuses on the mental benefits of physical activity at school, which has been a rather neglected theme in health promotion research during recent decades. This is unfortunate as mental health has been proclaimed as one of the most important health concerns of the 21 st century. Applying a cluster RCT study design, evaluating the real-world effectiveness of the intervention, this study is one of the largest
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Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.
Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.
Leutwyler, H; Hubbard, E; Cooper, B A; Dowling, G
The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) on walking speed in adults with schizophrenia. In this randomized controlled trial, 28 participants played either an active videogame for 30 min (intervention group) or played a sedentary videogame for 30 min (control group), once a week for 6 weeks. Walking speed was measured objectively with the Short Physical Performance Battery at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. The intervention group (n = 13) showed an average improvement in walking speed of 0.08 m/s and the control group (n = 15) showed an average improvement in walking speed of 0.03 m/s. Although the change in walking speed was not statistically significant, the intervention group had between a small and substantial clinically meaningful change. The results suggest a videogame based physical activity program provides clinically meaningful improvement in walking speed, an important indicator of health status.
Conte, Kathleen P; Schure, Marc B; Goins, R Turner
Despite the high prevalence of arthritis and physical disability among older American Indians, few evidence-based interventions that improve arthritis self-management via physical activity have been adapted for use in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs about health, arthritis, and physical activity among older American Indians living in a rural area in Oregon to help select and adapt an arthritis self-management program. In partnership with a tribal health program, we conducted surveys, a focus group, and individual interviews with older American Indians with arthritis. Our sample comprised 6 focus group participants and 18 interviewees. The 24 participants were aged 48 to 82 years, of whom 67% were women. Forms B and C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) instrument, modified for arthritis, measured MHLC. The concepts of health, arthritis, and physical activity overlapped in that health was a holistic concept informed by cultural teachings that included living a healthy lifestyle, socializing, and being functionally independent. Arthritis inhibited health and healthy behaviors. Participants identified barriers such as unreliable transportation and recruiting challenges that would make existing interventions challenging to implement in this setting. The Doctor subscale had the highest MHLC (mean = 4.4 [standard deviation (SD), 1.0]), followed by the Internal subscale (3.9 [SD, 1.4]) and the Other People subscale (2.8 [SD, 1.1]). Existing evidence-based programs for arthritis should be adapted to address implementation factors, such as access to transportation, and incorporate cultural values that emphasize holistic wellness and social interconnectedness. Culturally sensitive programs that build on indigenous values and practices to promote active coping strategies for older American Indians with arthritis are needed.
Ball, Kylie; Hunter, Ruth F; Maple, Jaimie-Lee; Moodie, Marj; Salmon, Jo; Ong, Kok-Leong; Stephens, Lena D; Jackson, Michelle; Crawford, David
mins/week (leisure-time), with 65% of the sample achieving at least 150 mins/week; and sitting time decreased by 3.1 h/day (both p incentives and other program components helpful/motivating. Acknowledging the uncontrolled design, the large pre-post changes in behavioral and health-related outcomes suggest that the ACHIEVE incentives-based behavior change program represents a promising approach for promoting physical activity and reducing sitting, and should be tested in a randomized controlled trial. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry IDACTRN12616000158460 , registered 10/2/16.
Lin, Chien-Yu; Chang, Yu-Ming
In this study, we employed Flash- and Scratch-based multimedia by using a MaKey-MaKey-based task system to increase the motivation level of children with cerebral palsy to perform physical activities. MaKey MaKey is a circuit board that converts physical touch to a digital signal, which is interpreted by a computer as a keyboard message. In this study, we used conductive materials to control this interaction. This study followed single-case design using ABAB models in which A indicated the baseline and B indicated the intervention. The experiment period comprised 1 month and a half. The experimental results demonstrated that in the case of two kindergarten children with cerebral palsy, their scores were considerably increased during the intervention phrases. The developmental applications of the results are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ebara, Takeshi; Azuma, Ryohei; Shoji, Naoto; Matsukawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Yasuyuki; Akiyama, Tomohiro; Kurihara, Takahiro; Yamada, Shota
Objective measurements using built-in smartphone sensors that can measure physical activity/inactivity in daily working life have the potential to provide a new approach to assessing workers' health effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate the characteristics and reliability of built-in step counting sensors on smartphones for development of an easy-to-use objective measurement tool that can be applied in ergonomics or epidemiological research. To evaluate the reliability of step counting sensors embedded in seven major smartphone models, the 6-minute walk test was conducted and the following analyses of sensor precision and accuracy were performed: 1) relationship between actual step count and step count detected by sensors, 2) reliability between smartphones of the same model, and 3) false detection rates when sitting during office work, while riding the subway, and driving. On five of the seven models, the inter-class correlations coefficient (ICC (3,1) ) showed high reliability with a range of 0.956-0.993. The other two models, however, had ranges of 0.443-0.504 and the relative error ratios of the sensor-detected step count to the actual step count were ±48.7%-49.4%. The level of agreement between the same models was ICC (3,1) : 0.992-0.998. The false detection rates differed between the sitting conditions. These results suggest the need for appropriate regulation of step counts measured by sensors, through means such as correction or calibration with a predictive model formula, in order to obtain the highly reliable measurement results that are sought in scientific investigation.
Wang, Xiaoming; Lin, Yaguang; Zhang, Shanshan; Cai, Zhipeng
Sudden disasters such as earthquake, flood and hurricane necessitate the employment of communication networks to carry out emergency response activities. Routing has a significant impact on the functionality, performance and flexibility of communication networks. In this article, the routing problem is studied considering the delivery ratio of messages, the overhead ratio of messages and the average delay of messages in mobile opportunistic networks (MONs) for enterprise-level emergency response communications in sudden disaster scenarios. Unlike the traditional routing methods for MONS, this article presents a new two-stage spreading and forwarding dynamic routing algorithm based on the proposed social activity degree and physical contact factor for mobile customers. A new modelling method for describing a dynamic evolving process of the topology structure of a MON is first proposed. Then a multi-copy spreading strategy based on the social activity degree of nodes and a single-copy forwarding strategy based on the physical contact factor between nodes are designed. Compared with the most relevant routing algorithms such as Epidemic, Prophet, Labelled-sim, Dlife-comm and Distribute-sim, the proposed routing algorithm can significantly increase the delivery ratio of messages, and decrease the overhead ratio and average delay of messages.
Kim, Kyungun; Ok, Gina; Jeon, Soeun; Kang, Minsoo; Lee, Sukho
Controversial results reported in past research pertaining to the effectiveness of sport-based physical activity interventions on weight loss. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of sport-based physical activity intervention on body weight in children and adolescents using a meta-analysis. Academic Search Complete, Education Source, ERIC, Medline, ProQuest, PsycINFO and SportDiscus databases were searched from January 2000 to April 2015. Eighteen studies met following inclusion criteria: sport-based intervention studies; subjects aged 6-18 years; reported body weight; published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. The mean intervention duration was 17.72 weeks. The overall effect size (ES) was 0.52 (Cohen's d (ES) = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.08, 0.95, P = 0.021), using a random effects model. Moderator analyses results showed that the Q statistic for the sport type (individual sport or team sport, Qbetween (Q b ) = 14.52, df = 1, P = 0.001) and diet control (Qbetween (Q b ) = 8.85, df = 1, P = 0.001), explained the heterogeneity of ESs. Our study showed that there was a moderate overall effect of sport-based physical activity intervention on body weight reduction. The team sport type (ES = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.44, 1.66) and diet control group (ES = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.26, 1.41) appeared to be more effective in reducing body weight.
Olander, Ellinor K; Atkinson, Lou; French, David P
Current NICE guidelines state that women in England need to be supported regarding eating healthily and being physically active during pregnancy. In response to these guidelines, the Just4Mums service was developed - a free six week community-based course for obese (BMI⩾30) pregnant women. The service encouraged a healthy weight gain in pregnancy through the provision of information on healthy eating and opportunities to be physically active. The aim of this evaluation was to provide preliminary evidence on efficacy. Participants' were assessed at the beginning and end of the course, in terms of healthy eating and physical activity (PA) behaviour, mental well-being, and mediating variables (i.e. intentions, self-efficacy and attitudes towards healthy eating and PA). Thirty-four out of 60 women (57%) women completed the course. There were few differences between those women who completed and did not complete the course. After attending the service, the intention-to-treat analysis showed an improvement in healthy eating (higher intake of fruit and vegetables, lower intake of fast food), no change in PA, reduction in sedentary behaviour and an improvement in mental well-being. Participants also increased their attitude, intention and self-efficacy towards engaging in PA and intention to eat fruit and vegetables. These findings suggest that women who completed the Just4Mums service improved their health behaviours. More research is needed to identify why so many women dropped out of the service. Copyright © 2014.
Pedersen, Scott J; Kitic, Cecilia M; Bird, Marie-Louise; Mainsbridge, Casey P; Cooley, P Dean
With the advent of workplace health and wellbeing programs designed to address prolonged occupational sitting, tools to measure behaviour change within this environment should derive from empirical evidence. In this study we measured aspects of validity and reliability for the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire that asks employees to recount the percentage of work time they spend in the seated, standing, and walking postures during a typical workday. Three separate cohort samples (N = 236) were drawn from a population of government desk-based employees across several departmental agencies. These volunteers were part of a larger state-wide intervention study. Workplace sitting and physical activity behaviour was measured both subjectively against the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and objectively against ActivPal accelerometers before the intervention began. Criterion validity and concurrent validity for each of the three posture categories were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, and a bias comparison with 95 % limits of agreement. Test-retest reliability of the survey was reported with intraclass correlation coefficients. Criterion validity for this survey was strong for sitting and standing estimates, but weak for walking. Participants significantly overestimated the amount of walking they did at work. Concurrent validity was moderate for sitting and standing, but low for walking. Test-retest reliability of this survey proved to be questionable for our sample. Based on our findings we must caution occupational health and safety professionals about the use of employee self-report data to estimate workplace physical activity. While the survey produced accurate measurements for time spent sitting at work it was more difficult for employees to estimate their workplace physical activity.
Scott J. Pedersen
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of workplace health and wellbeing programs designed to address prolonged occupational sitting, tools to measure behaviour change within this environment should derive from empirical evidence. In this study we measured aspects of validity and reliability for the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire that asks employees to recount the percentage of work time they spend in the seated, standing, and walking postures during a typical workday. Methods Three separate cohort samples (N = 236 were drawn from a population of government desk-based employees across several departmental agencies. These volunteers were part of a larger state-wide intervention study. Workplace sitting and physical activity behaviour was measured both subjectively against the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and objectively against ActivPal accelerometers before the intervention began. Criterion validity and concurrent validity for each of the three posture categories were assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients, and a bias comparison with 95 % limits of agreement. Test-retest reliability of the survey was reported with intraclass correlation coefficients. Results Criterion validity for this survey was strong for sitting and standing estimates, but weak for walking. Participants significantly overestimated the amount of walking they did at work. Concurrent validity was moderate for sitting and standing, but low for walking. Test-retest reliability of this survey proved to be questionable for our sample. Conclusions Based on our findings we must caution occupational health and safety professionals about the use of employee self-report data to estimate workplace physical activity. While the survey produced accurate measurements for time spent sitting at work it was more difficult for employees to estimate their workplace physical activity.
Harrold, S Akeya; Libet, Julian; Pope, Charlene; Lauerer, Joy A; Johnson, Emily; Edlund, Barbara J
Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), experience increased mortality-20 years greater disparity for men and 15 years greater disparity for women-compared to the general population (Thornicroft G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: The scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatr. 2011;199:441-442). Numerous factors contribute to premature mortality in persons with SMI, including suicide and accidental death (Richardson RC, Faulkner G, McDevitt J, Skrinar GS, Hutchinson D, Piette JD. Integrating physical activity into mental health services for persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2005;56(3):324-331; Thornicroft G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: The scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatr. 2011;199:441-442), but research has shown that adverse health behaviors-including smoking, low rate of physical activity, poor diet, and high alcohol consumption-also significantly contribute to premature deaths (Jones J. Life expectancy in mental illness. Psychiatry Services. 2010. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/news/2010/07/13/life-expectancy-in-mental-illness). This quality improvement (QI) project sought to improve health and wellness for veterans in the Mental Health Intensive Case Management Program (MHICM), which is a community-based intensive program for veterans with SMI at risk for decompensation and frequent hospitalizations. At the time of this QI project, the program had 69 veterans who were assessed and treated weekly in their homes. The project introduced a pedometer steps intervention adapted from the VA MOVE! Program-a physical activity and weight management program-with the addition of personalized assistance from trained mental health professionals in the veteran's home environment. Because a large percentage of the veterans in the MHICM program had high blood pressure and increased weight, these outcomes were the focus of this project. Through mental health case management involvement and
Nooijen, Carla F J; Möller, Jette; Forsell, Yvonne; Ekblom, Maria; Galanti, Maria R; Engström, Karin
Comparing lifestyle of people remaining sedentary during longer periods of their life with those favourably changing their behaviour can provide cues to optimize interventions targeting sedentary behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine lifestyle predictors of sustained leisure time sedentary behaviour and assess whether these predictors were dependent on gender, age, socioeconomic position and occupational sedentary behaviour. Data from a large longitudinal population-based cohort of adults (aged 18-97years) in Stockholm responding to public health surveys in 2010 and 2014 were analysed (n=49,133). Leisure time sedentary behaviour was defined as >3h per day of leisure sitting time e.g. watching TV, reading or using tablet. Individuals classified as sedentary at baseline (n=9562) were subsequently categorized as remaining sedentary (n=6357) or reduced sedentary behaviour (n=3205) at follow-up. Lifestyle predictors were unfavourable alcohol consumption, smoking, nutrition, and physical activity. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated, adjusting for potential confounders. Unfavourable alcohol consumption (OR=1.22, CI:1.11-1.34), unfavourable candy- or cake consumption (OR=1.15, CI:1.05-1.25), and unfavourable physical activity in different contexts were found to predict sustained sedentary behaviour, with negligible differences according to gender, age, socioeconomic position and occupational sedentary behaviour. People with unfavourable lifestyle profiles regarding alcohol, sweets, or physical activity are more likely to remain sedentary compared to sedentary persons with healthier lifestyle. The impact of combining interventions to reduce leisure time sedentary behaviour with reducing alcohol drinking, sweet consumption and increasing physical activity should be tested as a promising strategy for behavioural modification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jake-Schoffman, Danielle E; Wilcox, Sara; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Friedman, Daniela B; West, Delia S
As social media (eg, Twitter) continues to gain widespread popularity, health research and practice organizations may consider combining it with other electronic media (e-media) channels (eg, Web sites, e-newsletters) within their communication plans. However, little is known about added benefits of using social media when trying to reach public health audiences about physical activity. Learn about current use and preference for e-media communication channels among physical activity researchers and practitioners. A Web-based survey was used, open for responses from August 20, 2015, through January 5, 2016. Survey participation was voluntary and anonymous. The survey was advertised through multiple channels targeting physical activity researchers and practitioners, including announcements on professional listservs and in e-newsletters, Twitter, and posts on Facebook pages of public health organizations. A total of 284 survey respondents had complete data. Typical use of e-media to receive, seek out, and share information about physical activity and health and what appeals to researchers and practitioners for professional use. Most respondents preferred non-social media channels to social media and these preferences did not differ widely when examining subgroups such as researchers versus practitioners or social media users versus nonusers. There were few differences by respondent demographics, though younger respondents reported using social media more than older respondents. However, limiting analyses to respondents who identified as social media users, only about 1% of respondents ranked social media sources as their preferred channels for information; thus, most people would continue to be reached if communication remained largely via non-social media e-media channels. The present study supports growing evidence that careful surveying of a target audience should be undertaken when considering new communication channels, as preference and use may not support the
Rudolph, Sabrina; Göring, Arne; Padrok, Dennis
Sports and physical activity interventions are attracting considerable attention in the context of workplace health promotion. Due to increasing digitalization, especially software-based interventions that promote physical activity are gaining acceptance in practice. Empirical evidence concerning the efficiency of software-based interventions in the context of workplace health promotion is rather low so far. This paper examines the question in what way software-based interventions are more efficient than personal-based interventions in terms of increasing the level of physical activity. A systematic review according to the specifications of the Cochrane Collaboration was conducted. Inclusion criteria and should-have criteria were defined and by means of the should-have criteria the quality score of the studies was calculated. The software-based and personal-based interventions are presented in 2 tables with the categories author, year, country, sample group, aim of the intervention, methods, outcome and study quality. A total of 25 studies are included in the evaluation (12 personal- and 13 software-based interventions). The quality scores of the studies are heterogeneous and range from 3 to 9 points. 5 personal- and 5 software-based studies achieved an increase of physical activity. Other positive effects on health could be presented in the studies, for example, a reduction in blood pressure or body-mass index. A few studies did not show any improvement in health-related parameters. This paper demonstrates that positive effects can be achieved with both intervention types. Software-based interventions show advantages due to the use of new technologies. Use of desktop or mobile applications facilitate organization, communication and data acquisition with fewer resources needed. A schooled trainer, on the other hand, is able to react to specific and varying needs of the employees. This aspect should be considered as very significant. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kirwan, Morwenna; Rebar, Amanda; Alley, Stephanie; Short, Camille; Fallon, Luke; Buzza, Gavin; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Maher, Carol; Duncan, Mitch J
It has been shown that physical activity is more likely to increase if web-based interventions apply evidence-based components (e.g. self-monitoring) and incorporate interactive social media applications (e.g. social networking), but it is unclear to what extent these are being utilized in the publicly available web-based physical activity interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether freely accessible websites delivering physical activity interventions use evidence-based behavior change techniques and provide social media applications. In 2013, a systematic search strategy examined 750 websites. Data was extracted on a wide range of variables (e.g. self-monitoring, goal setting, and social media applications). To evaluate website quality a new tool, comprising three sub-scores (Behavioral Components, Interactivity and User Generated Content), was developed to assess implementation of behavior change techniques and social media applications. An overall website quality scored was obtained by summing the three sub-scores. Forty-six publicly available websites were included in the study. The use of self-monitoring (54.3%), goal setting (41.3%) and provision of feedback (46%) was relatively low given the amount of evidence supporting these features. Whereas the presence of features allowing users to generate content (73.9%), and social media components (Facebook (65.2%), Twitter (47.8%), YouTube (48.7%), smartphone applications (34.8%)) was relatively high considering their innovative and untested nature. Nearly all websites applied some behavioral and social media applications. The average Behavioral Components score was 3.45 (±2.53) out of 10. The average Interactivity score was 3.57 (±2.16) out of 10. The average User Generated Content Score was 4.02 (±2.77) out of 10. The average overall website quality score was 11.04 (±6.92) out of 30. Four websites (8.7%) were classified as high quality, 12 websites (26.1%) were classified as moderate
Hartman, Sheri J; Dunsiger, Shira I; Bock, Beth C; Larsen, Britta A; Linke, Sarah; Pekmezi, Dori; Marquez, Becky; Gans, Kim M; Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S; Marcus, Bess H
Spanish-speaking Latinas have some of the lowest rates of meeting physical activity guidelines in the U.S. and are at high risk for many related chronic diseases. The purpose of the current study was to examine the maintenance of a culturally and individually-tailored Internet-based physical activity intervention for Spanish-speaking Latinas. Inactive Latinas (N = 205) were randomly assigned to a 6-month Tailored Physical Activity Internet Intervention or a Wellness Contact Control Internet Group, with a 6-month follow-up. Maintenance was measured by assessing group differences in minutes per week of self-reported and accelerometer measured moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at 12 months after baseline and changes in MVPA between the end of the active intervention (month 6) and the end of the study (month 12). Potential moderators of the intervention were also examined. Data were collected between 2011 and 2014, and were analyzed in 2015 at the University of California, San Diego. The Intervention Group engaged in significantly more minutes of MVPA per week than the Control Group at the end of the maintenance period for both self-reported (mean diff. = 30.68, SE = 11.27, p = .007) and accelerometer measured (mean diff. = 11.47, SE = 3.19, p = .01) MVPA. There were no significant between- or within-group changes in MVPA from month 6 to 12. Greater intervention effects were seen for those with lower BMI (BMI × intervention = -6.67, SE = 2.88, p = .02) and lower perceived places to walk to in their neighborhood (access × intervention = -43.25, SE = 19.07, p = .02), with a trend for less family support (social support × intervention = -3.49, SE = 2.05, p = .08). Acculturation, health literacy, and physical activity related psychosocial variables were not significant moderators of the intervention effect during the maintenance period. Findings from the current study support the efficacy of an Internet
Voorrips, L E; Meijers, J H; Sol, P; Seidell, J C; van Staveren, W.A.
Development of overweight and physical activity during life was studied retrospectively in a group of physically active and a group of sedentary elderly women. The two groups of elderly women were selected based on a validated physical activity questionnaire. A previous study on their current
Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Balemans, Astrid; Lankhorst, Kristel; Te Velde, Saskia; van Gaalen, Leendert; de Groot, Janke; Visser-Meily, Anne; Takken, Tim
To investigate the effects of a school-based once-a-week sports program on physical fitness, physical activity, and cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents with a physical disability. This controlled clinical trial included 71 children and adolescents from four schools for special education [mean age 13.7 (2.9) years, range 8-19, 55% boys]. Participants had various chronic health conditions including cerebral palsy (37%), other neuromuscular (44%), metabolic (8%), musculoskeletal (7%), and cardiovascular (4%) disorders. Before recruitment and based on the presence of school-based sports, schools were assigned as sport or control group. School-based sports were initiated and provided by motivated experienced physical educators. The sport group ( n = 31) participated in a once-a-week school-based sports program for 6 months, which included team sports. The control group ( n = 40) followed the regular curriculum. Anaerobic performance was assessed by the Muscle Power Sprint Test. Secondary outcome measures included aerobic performance, VO 2 peak, strength, physical activity, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, body composition, and the metabolic profile. A significant improvement of 16% in favor of the sport group was found for anaerobic performance ( p = 0.003). In addition, the sport group lost 2.8% more fat mass compared to the control group ( p = 0.007). No changes were found for aerobic performance, VO 2 peak, physical activity, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and the metabolic profile. Anaerobic performance and fat mass improved following a school-based sports program. These effects are promising for long-term fitness and health promotion, because sports sessions at school eliminate certain barriers for sports participation and adding a once-a-week sports session showed already positive effects for 6 months. This trial was registered with the Dutch Trial Registry (NTR4698).
Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of a school-based once-a-week sports program on physical fitness, physical activity, and cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents with a physical disability.MethodsThis controlled clinical trial included 71 children and adolescents from four schools for special education [mean age 13.7 (2.9 years, range 8–19, 55% boys]. Participants had various chronic health conditions including cerebral palsy (37%, other neuromuscular (44%, metabolic (8%, musculoskeletal (7%, and cardiovascular (4% disorders. Before recruitment and based on the presence of school-based sports, schools were assigned as sport or control group. School-based sports were initiated and provided by motivated experienced physical educators. The sport group (n = 31 participated in a once-a-week school-based sports program for 6 months, which included team sports. The control group (n = 40 followed the regular curriculum. Anaerobic performance was assessed by the Muscle Power Sprint Test. Secondary outcome measures included aerobic performance, VO2 peak, strength, physical activity, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, body composition, and the metabolic profile.ResultsA significant improvement of 16% in favor of the sport group was found for anaerobic performance (p = 0.003. In addition, the sport group lost 2.8% more fat mass compared to the control group (p = 0.007. No changes were found for aerobic performance, VO2 peak, physical activity, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and the metabolic profile.ConclusionAnaerobic performance and fat mass improved following a school-based sports program. These effects are promising for long-term fitness and health promotion, because sports sessions at school eliminate certain barriers for sports participation and adding a once-a-week sports session showed already positive effects for 6 months.Clinical Trial RegistrationThis trial was registered with the Dutch Trial Registry (NTR
Berlin, Kathryn; Kruger, Tina; Klenosky, David B
This mixed-methods study compares active older women in different physically based leisure activities and explores the difference in subjective ratings of successful aging and quantifiable predictors of success. A survey was administered to 256 women, 60-92 years of age, engaged in a sports- or exercise-based activity. Quantitative data were analyzed through ANOVA and multiple regression. Qualitative data (n = 79) was analyzed using the approach associated with means-end theory. While participants quantitatively appeared similar in terms of successful aging, qualitative interviews revealed differences in activity motivation. Women involved in sports highlighted social/psychological benefits, while those involved in exercise-based activities stressed fitness outcomes.
Lelieveld, O.; Armbrust, W.; Geertzen, J.; De Graaf, I.; Van Leeuwen, M.; Sauer, P.; Van Weert, E.; Bouma, J.
Purpose: Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are less physically active than healthy peers. Therefore we developed an internet-based intervention to improve physical activity (PA). The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of the program in improving PA. Relevance: Evidence
Kuijpers, W.; Groen, W.G.; Aaronson, N.K.; van Harten, W.H.
Background: Patient empowerment reflects the ability of patients to positively influence their health and health behavior such as physical activity. While interactive Web-based interventions are increasingly used in various chronic disease settings to enhance empowerment and physical activity, such
Kuijpers, W.; Groen, W.G.; Aaronson, N.K.; van Harten, Willem H.
Background: Patient empowerment reflects the ability of patients to positively influence their health and health behavior such as physical activity. While interactive Web-based interventions are increasingly used in various chronic disease settings to enhance empowerment and physical activity, such
Lelieveld, Otto; Armbrust, Wineke; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; de Graaf, Inez; van Leeuwen, Miek A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; van Weert, Ellen; Bouma, Jelte
OBJECTIVE: Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are less physically active than healthy peers. Therefore, we developed an Internet-based intervention to improve physical activity (PA). The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the program in improving PA. METHODS: PA was
Boudreau, Francois; Godin, Gaston; Poirier, Paul
The promotion of regular physical activity for people with type 2 diabetes poses a challenge for public health authorities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a computer-tailoring print-based intervention to promote the adoption of regular physical activity among people with type 2 diabetes. An experimental design was…
Full Text Available Background: One of non pharmacologic strategies influencing diabetes is physical activity which is not easy to change and maintain due to its complexity. The main objective of the present study is to identify the factors which influence physical activities on the basis of health promotion model. Methods: In this study 350 women suffering from diabetes responded to the standard questionnaires related to the perceived self efficacy (belief about capabilities for doing physical activity under different sets of conditions , perceived barrier and benefit, family and friend support and perceived health status constructs. Linear and logistic regressions, t tests, and chi square tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The results of the present study indicated that self efficacy has positive and direct impacts on physical activities and the perceived benefits, the perceived health status, and the body mass index (BMI has indirect impacts on physical activities. Moreover, the perceived health status in addition to the indirect impacts has direct and positive impacts on physical activities and influence by factors such as job and duration of disease. Conclusion: The perceived health status is one of the most influential factors on physical activities of diabetic patients which is necessary to be taken into consideration especially for patients with long term disease. It is also urgent that through increasing self efficacy with using different techniques and emphasizing different aspects of physical activity benefits, resulted to promote the activity level of the patients.
Fowler, Stephanie L; Klein, William M P; Ball, Linda; McGuire, Jaclyn; Colditz, Graham A; Waters, Erika A
Internet-based cancer risk assessment tools might serve as a strategy for translating epidemiological risk prediction research into public health practice. Understanding how such tools affect key social-cognitive precursors of behavior change is crucial for leveraging their potential into effective interventions. To test the effects of a publicly available, Internet-based, breast cancer risk assessment tool on social-cognitive precursors of physical activity. Women (N = 132) aged 40-78 with no personal cancer history indicated their perceived risk of breast cancer and were randomly assigned to receive personalized ( www.yourdiseaserisk.wustl.edu ) or nonpersonalized breast cancer risk information. Immediately thereafter, breast cancer risk perceptions and physical activity-related behavioral intentions, self-efficacy, and response efficacy were assessed. Personalized information elicited higher intentions, self-efficacy, and response efficacy than nonpersonalized information, P values Internet-based risk assessment tools can produce beneficial effects on important social-cognitive precursors of behavior change, but lingering skepticism, possibly due to defensive processing, needs to be addressed before the effects can be maximized.
The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immobilization and associated periods of inactivity can cause osteopenia, the physiological response of the bone to disuse. Mechanical loading plays an essential role in maintaining bone integrity. Skeletal fractures represent one cause of reduction of the physical activity (PA level in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to quantify the reduction of PA in adolescents with limb fractures during the cast immobilization period compared with healthy controls. Methods Two hundred twenty adolescents were divided into three groups: those with upper limb fractures (50 cases; lower limb fractures (50 cases; and healthy cases (120 cases. Patients and their healthy peers were matched for gender, age, and seasonal assessment of PA. PA level was assessed during cast immobilization by accelerometer. Time spent in PA in each of the different intensity levels - sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous - was determined for each participant and expressed in minutes and as a percentage of total valid time. Results Reduction in PA during cast immobilization was statistically significant in patients with limb fractures compared to healthy controls. The total PA count (total number of counts/min was significantly lower in those with upper and lower limb fractures (-30.1% and -62.4%, respectively compared with healthy controls (p p = 0.0003 and 76.6% (p p = 0.0008 and 84.4% (p Conclusions PA measured by accelerometer is a useful and valid tool to assess the decrease of PA level in adolescents with limb fractures. As cast immobilization and reduced PA are known to induce bone mineral loss, this study provides important information to quantify the decrease of skeletal loading in this patient population. The observed reduction of high intensity skeletal loading due to the decrease in vigorous PA may explain osteopenia due to disuse, and these data should be kept in mind by trauma practitioners to avoid any unnecessary prolongation of the cast
Conclusions: Increasing the public knowledge about adopting physical activity habits in routine daily life, informing the families and students about the benefits of physical activity to improve learning, as well as providing safe places such as using the school facilities in non-school hours should be considered in planning effective preventive strategies and interventions.
Herens, M.C.; Ophem, van J.A.C.; Wagemakers, M.A.E.; Koelen, M.A.
Willingness to pay (WTP) is used to assess individuals’ value attribution to health-related quality of life interventions. Little is known about predictors of WTP for sport and physical activity in socially vulnerable groups in communitybased physical activity (CBHEPA) programs. This study addresses
M. van Schijndel-Speet (Marieke)
markdownabstractIn this study, extremely low physical activity and fitness levels among older adults with intellectual disabilities were demonstrated. Although the importance of physical activity for health has been recognised in the field of people with ID, only few welldesigned studies with a
Durant, Nefertiti H; Joseph, Rodney P; Cherrington, Andrea; Cuffee, Yendelela; Knight, BernNadette; Lewis, Dwight; Allison, Jeroan J
Innovative approaches are needed to promote physical activity among young adult overweight and obese African American women. We sought to describe key elements that African American women desire in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool to promote physical activity among overweight and obese young adult African American women. A mixed-method approach combining nominal group technique and traditional focus groups was used to elicit recommendations for the development of an Internet-based physical activity promotion tool. Participants, ages 19 to 30 years, were enrolled in a major university. Nominal group technique sessions were conducted to identify themes viewed as key features for inclusion in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool. Confirmatory focus groups were conducted to verify and elicit more in-depth information on the themes. Twenty-nine women participated in nominal group (n = 13) and traditional focus group sessions (n = 16). Features that emerged to be included in a culturally relevant Internet-based physical activity promotion tool were personalized website pages, diverse body images on websites and in videos, motivational stories about physical activity and women similar to themselves in size and body shape, tips on hair care maintenance during physical activity, and online social support through social media (eg, Facebook, Twitter). Incorporating existing social media tools and motivational stories from young adult African American women in Internet-based tools may increase the feasibility, acceptability, and success of Internet-based physical activity programs in this high-risk, understudied population.
Hnatiuk, Jill A; Hesketh, Kathryn R; van Sluijs, Esther M F
Identifying context-specific correlates of home- and neighbourhood-based physical activity in preschool-aged children may help improve intervention program development for these settings. A total of 153 3-4-year-old children were recruited through preschool settings in Cambridgeshire (January-July 2013). Children wore Actiheart accelerometers for ≤7 days to assess their sedentary time (ST), light-(LPA) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). A parent-completed questionnaire assessed correlates across the ecological model and the child's preschool attendance during the measurement week. Only accelerometer data for times when children were at home were used. Multilevel models (Level 1: days; Level 2: child) examined associations between maternal-reported exposure variables and each outcome (children's home- and neighbourhood-based ST, LPA and MVPA) (main analysis). Further analyses included the subsample of children with complete paternal correlates data (father analysis). In the main analyses, children with older siblings engaged in less ST. Children whose mothers reported being 'moderately inactive' or 'active' (vs. inactive) engaged in less LPA, while children whose mothers worked >35 h week -1 engaged in less MVPA. More equipment at home was associated with lower LPA but greater MVPA. In the father analysis, father's television viewing before 6 pm was associated with greater ST and less MVPA in children; the negative association between mother's activity and children's LPA was retained. Family demographics and parental behaviours appear to have the strongest association with children's home- and neighbourhood-based ST, LPA and MVPA. This study further highlights the importance of examining both maternal and paternal behaviours. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.
Réol, Lise Andersen
physical activity during each school day from 0th to 10th school year, as a tool to facilitate health, motivation and academic performance. A qualitative study on pupils in 6th grade (N=8) and teachers’ (N=3) experience of movement and physical activities in school gives support to the idea, that physical...... activities in school enhance positive emotions and support an inclusive and safe learning environment. Thought it does also point to the fact, that it is indeed not that simple. Teachers’ sport-specific educational competences, their own experience of well-being and fun related to physical activities...
Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.
Isabel Sobejano Tornos
, previously validated for the Spanish population, was used. Two definitions of "physically active" were employed: a total leisure-time energy expenditure of > 300 metabolic equivalentes (METs/day, and b physical exercise in activities expending > 4 METs for at least 25min/day for women and 30min/day for men. Results: When both definitions were applied, approximately half the population aged 35-84 years old were active in their leisure time. The prevalence of physically active persons (> 300 METs/day decreased after the age of 65 in women and no differences were found according to body mass index, educational level or occupation-based social class. In men, being active in their leisure time was related to age 65-74 years and medium or low social class. Conclusions: The population subgroups most susceptible to interventions aimed at promoting leisure-time physical activity in Navarre consisted of women over the age of 65 and men of high social class.
Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the association of alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease is the product of confounding and the degree to which this concern applies to other behaviors are unclear. Methods Using the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a population-based telephone survey of adults in the US, we compared chronic disease risk factors between 123,359 abstainers and 126,674 moderate drinkers, defined as intake of ≤ 2 drinks per day among men and ≤ 1 drink per day among women, using age- and sex- and multivariable-adjusted models. We also compared sedentary and active individuals, defined as moderate physical activity ≥ 30 minutes per day for ≥ 5 days per week, or vigorous activity for ≥ 20 minutes per day on ≥ 3 days. Results Chronic disease risk factors and features of unhealthy lifestyle were generally more prevalent among abstainers than drinkers in age- and sex-adjusted analyses, but these differences were generally attenuated or eliminated by additional adjustment for race and education. For low fruit and vegetable intake, divorced marital status, and absence of a personal physician, adjustment for race and education reversed initially positive age- and sex-adjusted associations with abstention. Comparison of sedentary and active individuals produced similar findings, with generally lower levels of risk factors among more physical active individuals. Conclusion The differences between abstainers and drinkers are attenuated after adjustment for limited sociodemographic features, and sedentary and active individuals share a similar pattern. Although observational studies of both factors may be susceptible to uncontrolled confounding, our results provide no evidence that moderate drinking is unique in this regard. Ultimately, randomized trials of all such lifestyle factors will be needed to answer these questions definitively.
There is a need to find out the association between school-based physical activity, including physical education and academic performance among school-aged youth. To better understand these connections, this research paper first finds out the independent variables upon which academic performance depends. Study is from a range of physical activity contexts, including school-based physical education, recess, classroom-based physical activity and extracurricular physical activity. In his attempt...
Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.
This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…
Macdonald, Heather M; Kontulainen, Saija A; Khan, Karim M; McKay, Heather A
This 16-month randomized, controlled school-based study compared change in tibial bone strength between 281 boys and girls participating in a daily program of physical activity (Action Schools! BC) and 129 same-sex controls. The simple, pragmatic intervention increased distal tibia bone strength in prepubertal boys; it had no effect in early pubertal boys or pre or early pubertal girls. Numerous school-based exercise interventions have proven effective for enhancing BMC, but none have used pQCT to evaluate the effects of increased loading on bone strength during growth. Thus, our aim was to determine whether a daily program of physical activity, Action Schools! BC (AS! BC) would improve tibial bone strength in boys and girls who were pre- (Tanner stage 1) or early pubertal (Tanner stage 2 or 3) at baseline. Ten schools were randomized to intervention (INT, 7 schools) or control (CON, 3 schools). The bone-loading component of AS! BC included a daily jumping program (Bounce at the Bell) plus 15 minutes/day of classroom physical activity in addition to regular physical education. We used pQCT to compare 16-month change in bone strength index (BSI, mg2/mm4) at the distal tibia (8% site) and polar strength strain index (SSIp, mm3) at the tibial midshaft (50% site) in 281 boys and girls participating in AS! BC and 129 same-sex controls. We used a linear mixed effects model to analyze our data. Children were 10.2+/-0.6 years at baseline. Intervention boys tended to have a greater increase in BSI (+774.6 mg2/mm4; 95% CI: 672.7, 876.4) than CON boys (+650.9 mg2/mm4; 95% CI: 496.4, 805.4), but the difference was only significant in prepubertal boys (p=0.03 for group x maturity interaction). Intervention boys also tended to have a greater increase in SSIp (+198.6 mm3; 95% CI: 182.9, 214.3) than CON boys (+177.1 mm3; 95% CI: 153.5, 200.7). Change in BSI and SSIp was similar between CON and INT girls. Our findings suggest that a simple, pragmatic program of daily activity
Full Text Available Background: There is an urgent need for interventions which can effectively change behaviours, in order to prevent and reduce the impact of costly chronic conditions such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (WHO, 2014. Smartphones offer a platform for cost-effective and broad implementation, and at the same time, via real-time tracking and sensor data, offer unprecedented possibilities for personalising interventions (Jovanov & Milenkovic, 2011. While a great number of health-related applications exist already, the content of these is rarely based on behaviour change theory, and, consequently, evidence for the effectiveness of digital behaviour change applications is minimal (Webb, Joseph, Yardley, & Michie, 2010. Even when health-related applications are theory-based, users will likely not achieve behavioural changes if they do not engage with the applications. This lack of engagement is supported by statistics: a quarter of downloaded apps were only used once (Leger, 2011. A major challenge of health care research is therefore the identification of personal treatment response, and factors which mitigate engagement and effectiveness within individuals. To address these issues, our research group, an EU-funded multi-disciplinary consortium has developed the PREventitive Care Infrastructure based On Ubiquitous Sensing (PRECIOUS mobile application. This app targets behavioural changes in physical activity, diet, and stress, and includes both motivational and action components for each. The service design draws from evidence-based techniques in self-determination theory (SDT, Deci & Ryan, 2000, motivational interviewing (MI, Miller & Rollnick, 2002, and social cognitive theories (e.g. Schwarzer, 2008, to enhance engagement with the process of behaviour change. Through integrating sensor data, self-reported responses, and self-monitoring records, the system provides each user with a dynamic, personalised trajectory through the app
Background This article describes the systematic development of the I Move intervention: a web-based computer tailored physical activity promotion intervention, aimed at increasing and maintaining physical activity among adults. This intervention is based on the theoretical insights and practical applications of self-determination theory and motivational interviewing. Methods/design Since developing interventions in a systemically planned way increases the likelihood of effectiveness, we used the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop the I Move intervention. In this article, we first describe how we proceeded through each of the six steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol. After that, we describe the content of the I Move intervention and elaborate on the planned randomized controlled trial. Discussion By integrating self-determination theory and motivational interviewing in web-based computer tailoring, the I Move intervention introduces a more participant-centered approach than traditional tailored interventions. Adopting this approach might enhance computer tailored physical activity interventions both in terms of intervention effectiveness and user appreciation. We will evaluate this in an randomized controlled trial, by comparing the I Move intervention to a more traditional web-based computer tailored intervention. Trial registration NTR4129 PMID:24580802
Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.
Full Text Available This study examines the associations of socioeconomic status (SES with intensity of different types of physical activity (PA in Chinese adults, aimed at outlining and projecting socioeconomic disparities in PA among the population undergoing a rapid nutrition transition.A community-based survey was conducted among 3,567 residents aged 30-65 years old in Jiaxing, China, in 2010. SES and PA were assessed by a structured questionnaire. SES was assessed as socioeconomic index (SEI score based on self-reported educational attainment, household income and occupation. Metabolic equivalents (METs were calculated for each subject to quantify the total amount of PA from occupation, exercise, transportation and housework.Intensity of overall PA in this population was 165 MET-hours/week, in which energy expenditure in occupational PA accounted for 82%. Both types and intensity of PA were significantly different by SES: middle SES groups had higher intensity of occupational activities; lower SES subjects engaged in more household work; whereas higher SES subjects were more likely to exercise, more active during commuting and had longer sedentary time. All the three components of SES, education attainment, income and occupation, contributed to socioeconomic disparities in PA in this population.Our results suggest an overall insufficiency and socioeconomic inequalities in PA among Chinese adults in Jiaxing, a typical city experiencing a rapid urbanization in China. There is an urgent need to promote leisure-time activities in this population.
Full Text Available This study aims to design learning Problem Based Learning Model based on syntax study recommendations and content issues on Physics Impulse materials through experiments. This research is a development research with Kemp model. The reference for making the learning design is the result of the syntax study and the content of existing PBL implementation problems from Agustina research. This instructional design is applied to the physics material about Impulse done through experimental activity. Limited trials were conducted on the SWCU Physics Education Study Program students group Salatiga, while the validity test was conducted by high school teachers and physics education lecturers. The results of the trial evaluation are limited and the validity test is used to improve the designs that have been made. The conclusion of this research is the design of learning by using PBL model on Impuls material by referring the result of syntax study and the problem content of existing PBL implementation can be produced by learning activity designed in laboratory experiment activity. The actual problem for Impuls material can be used car crash test video at factory. The results of validation tests and limited trials conducted by researchers assessed that the design of learning made by researchers can be used with small revisions. Suggestions from this research are in making learning design by using PBL model to get actual problem can by collecting news that come from newspaper, YouTube, internet, and television.
Hur, Taeho; Bang, Jaehun; Kim, Dohyeong; Banos, Oresti; Lee, Sungyoung
Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.
Garcia-Aymerich, J; Lange, Peter; Benet, M
RATIONALE: We have previously reported that regular physical activity reduces risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation. We hypothesized that higher levels of regular physical activity could reduce the risk of COPD by modifying smoking-related lung function decline....... OBJECTIVE: To estimate the longitudinal association between regular physical activity and FEV(1) and FVC decline and COPD risk. METHODS: A population-based sample (n = 6,790) was recruited and assessed with respect to physical activity, smoking, lung function, and other covariates, in Copenhagen in 1981....../yr of FEV(1), P-for-trend = 0.006, and +2.6 and +7.7 ml/yr of FVC, P-for-trend function decline. Active smokers with moderate to high physical activity had...
Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...
Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...
Gotsis, Marientina; Wang, Hua; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Valente, Thomas William
The United States is currently in an age of obesity and inactivity despite increasing public awareness and scientific knowledge of detrimental long-term health effects of this lifestyle. Behavior-tracking diaries offer an effective strategy for physical activity adherence and weight management. Furthermore, Web-based physical activity diaries can engage meaningful partners in people's social networks through fun online gaming interactions and generate motivational mechanisms for effective behavioral change and positive health outcomes. Wellness Partners (WP) is a Web-based intervention in the form of a physical activity diary with social networking and game features. Two versions were designed and developed for the purpose of this study-"Diary" only and "Diary+Game". The objectives of this study included pilot testing the research process of this intervention design, implementation, evaluation, and exploring the effectiveness of social gaming features on adult participants' physical activity and anthropometric measures. We conducted a field experiment with randomized crossover design. Assessments occurred at baseline, first follow-up (FU, 5-8 weeks after using one version of WP), and second FU (5-8 weeks of using the other version of WP). In the control condition, participants started with the "Diary" version of WP while in the experimental condition, participants started with the "Diary+Game" version of WP. A total of 54 adults (egos) ages 44-88, and their family and friends (alters) ages 17-69 participated in the study in ego-network groups. Both egos and their alters completed online surveys about their exercise habits. In addition, egos completed anthropometric measurements of BMI, fat percentage, and fat mass by bioimpedance. From October 2009 to May 2010, flyers, emails, and Web advertisements yielded 335 volunteers who were screened. Rolling recruitment resulted in enrollment of 142 qualified participants in 54 ego-network groups, which were randomly
Herens, Marion; Wagemakers, Annemarie
In community-based health enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programmes, group-based principles for action such as active participation, enjoyment, and fostering group processes are widely advocated. However, not much is known about participants' perceptions of these principles as there are no assessment tools available. Therefore, this article describes the development of the APEF (Active Participation, Enjoyment, and Fostering group processes) tool and reports on its implementation in a Dutch CBHEPA programme. Indicators for the principles have been identified from literature research, interviews with professionals, and secondary analysis of three group interviews with 11 practitioners. To address the identified indicators, the APEF tool was developed, pretested, and used in 10 focus groups with 76 participants. The APEF tool consists of eight statements about group-based principles for action, on which CBHEPA participants vote, followed by in-depth discussion. The voting procedure engages participants. Spider diagrams visualise participants' perceptions of group-based principles. The APEF tool addresses the challenge of relating group level outcomes to individual outcomes such as physical activity behaviour. The tool facilitates as well as evaluates group-based principles for action, it stimulates dialogue and is culturally sensitive, but it needs strong facilitating skills to manage group dynamics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Lander, Natalie; Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip J; Salmon, Jo; Barnett, Lisa M
Fundamental movement skill (FMS) competence is positively associated with physical activity (PA). However, levels of both FMS and PA are lower than expected. Current reviews of interventions to improve FMS and PA have shown that many school-based programs have achieved positive outcomes, yet the maintenance of these interventions is variable. Teachers play a central role in the success and longevity of school-based interventions. Despite the importance of teacher engagement, research into the nature and quality of teacher training in school-based PA and FMS interventions has received little attention. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the type and quantity of teacher training in school-based physical education PA and/or FMS interventions, and to identify what role teacher training had on the intervention outcome. A systematic search of eight electronic databases was conducted. Publication date restrictions were not implemented in any database, and the last search was performed on 1 March 2015. School physical education-based interventions facilitated by a school teacher, and that included a quantitative assessment of FMS competence and/or PA levels were included in the review. The search identified 39 articles. Eleven of the studies measured FMS, 25 studies measured PA and three measured both FMS and PA. Nine of the studies did not report on any aspect of the teacher training conducted. Of the 30 studies that reported on teacher training, 25 reported statistically significant intervention results for FMS and/or PA. It appears that teacher training programs: are ≥ 1 day; provide comprehensive subject and pedagogy content; are framed by a theory or model; provide follow-up or ongoing support; and measure teacher satisfaction of the training, are more effective at improving student outcomes in FMS and/or PA. However, the provision of information regarding the characteristics of the teacher training was largely inadequate. Therefore, it was
Watson, Doris L.; Newton, Maria; Kim, Mi-Sook
Examined the extent to which participants in a summer sports camp embraced values-based constructs, noting the relationship between perceptions of values-based constructs and affect and attitude. Data on ethnically diverse 10-13-year-olds indicated that care for others/goal setting, self-responsibility, and self-control/respect positively related…
Solomon-Moore, Emma; Sebire, Simon J; Thompson, Janice L; Zahra, Jesmond; Lawlor, Debbie A; Jago, Russ
Background/aim To examine the associations between parents’ motivation to exercise and intention to engage in family-based activity with their own and their child’s physical activity. Methods Cross-sectional data from 1067 parent–child pairs (76.1% mother–child); children were aged 5–6 years. Parents reported their exercise motivation (ie, intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, external regulation and amotivation) as described in self-determination theory and their intention to engage in family-based activity. Parents’ and children’s mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and mean counts per minute were derived from ActiGraph accelerometers worn for 3 to 5 days (including a mixture of weekdays and weekend days). Multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for parent sex, number of children, indices of multiple deprivation and clustering of children in schools were used to examine associations (total of 24 associations tested). Results In fully adjusted models, each unit increase in identified regulation was associated with a 6.08 (95% CI 3.27 to 8.89, p<0.001) min-per-day increase in parents’ MVPA. Parents’ external regulation was associated with children performing 2.93 (95% CI −5.83 to −0.03, p=0.05) fewer minutes of MVPA per day and a 29.3 (95% CI −53.8 to −4.7, p=0.02) accelerometer count-per-minute reduction. There was no evidence of association for the other 21 associations tested. Conclusions Future family-based physical activity interventions may benefit from helping parents identify personal value in exercise while avoiding the use of external control or coercion to motivate behaviour. PMID:28879025
Peels, Denise A; van Stralen, Maartje M; Bolman, Catherine; Golsteijn, Rianne Hj; de Vries, Hein; Mudde, Aart N; Lechner, Lilian
The Active Plus project is a systematically developed theory- and evidence-based, computer-tailored intervention, which was found to be effective in changing physical activity behavior in people aged over 50 years. The process and effect outcomes of the first version of the Active Plus project were translated into an adapted intervention using the RE-AIM framework. The RE-AIM model is often used to evaluate the potential public health impact of an intervention and distinguishes five dimensions: reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. To gain insight into the systematic translation of the first print-delivered version of the Active Plus project into an adapted (Web-based) follow-up project. The focus of this study was on the reach and effectiveness dimensions, since these dimensions are most influenced by the results from the original Active Plus project. We optimized the potential reach and effect of the interventions by extending the delivery mode of the print-delivered intervention into an additional Web-based intervention. The interventions were adapted based on results of the process evaluation, analyses of effects within subgroups, and evaluation of the working mechanisms of the original intervention. We pretested the new intervention materials and the Web-based versions of the interventions. Subsequently, the new intervention conditions were implemented in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Adaptations resulted in four improved tailoring interventions: (1) a basic print-delivered intervention, (2) a basic Web-based intervention, (3) a print-delivered intervention with an additional environmental component, and (4) a Web-based version with an additional environmental component. Pretest results with participants showed that all new intervention materials had modest usability and relatively high appreciation, and that filling in an online questionnaire and performing the online tasks was not problematic. We used the pretest results
This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement. Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 12/9/2014.
... causes your heart rate to go up Walking, hiking, jogging, running Water aerobics or swimming laps Bicycling, skateboarding, rollerblading, and jumping rope Ballroom dancing and aerobic dancing Tennis, soccer, hockey, and basketball Benefits of Physical Activity Physical activity has many health ...
Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.
This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265
Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy
It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…
Dowray, Sunaina; Swartz, Jonas J; Braxton, Danielle; Viera, Anthony J
In this study we examined the effect of physical activity based labels on the calorie content of meals selected from a sample fast food menu. Using a web-based survey, participants were randomly assigned to one of four menus which differed only in their labeling schemes (n=802): (1) a menu with no nutritional information, (2) a menu with calorie information, (3) a menu with calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, or (4) a menu with calorie information and miles to walk to burn those calories. There was a significant difference in the mean number of calories ordered based on menu type (p=0.02), with an average of 1020 calories ordered from a menu with no nutritional information, 927 calories ordered from a menu with only calorie information, 916 calories ordered from a menu with both calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, and 826 calories ordered from the menu with calorie information and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories. The menu with calories and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories appeared the most effective in influencing the selection of lower calorie meals (p=0.0007) when compared to the menu with no nutritional information provided. The majority of participants (82%) reported a preference for physical activity based menu labels over labels with calorie information alone and no nutritional information. Whether these labels are effective in real-life scenarios remains to be tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hatchett, Andrew; Hallam, Jeffrey S; Ford, M Allison
The aim of this study is to evaluate a 12-week social cognitive theory (SCT)-based email intervention designed to influence the physical activity of survivors of breast cancer. Seventy-four volunteers (intervention group, n = 36; control group, n = 38) were recruited by mass email and written letter solicitation. Participants completed a series of online questionnaires measuring demographic characteristics, physical activity readiness, level of physical activity and selected SCT variables at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. The intervention group received email messages based on SCT designed specifically for breast cancer survivors and targeting physical activity. For the first 6 weeks of the intervention, participants assigned to the intervention group received messages weekly, from weeks 7 to 12, participants received messages every other week and had access to an e-counselor. The control group did not receive email messages, nor did they have access to an e-counselor. Significant differences in levels of self-reported vigorous physical activity were found between groups at 6 and 12 weeks. Significant differences were also found for self-reported moderate physical activity at 12 weeks. Email-based interventions based on SCT can significantly influence levels of self-reported physical activity of breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Teller, E.; Hyde, T.; Wood, L.
We offer a case for active technical management of the radiative forcing of the temperatures of the Earth's fluid envelopes, rather than administrative management of atmospheric greenhouse gas inputs, in order to stabilize both the global- and time-averaged climate and its mesoscale features. We suggest that active management of radiative forcing entails negligible--indeed, likely strongly negative--economic costs and environmental impacts, and thus best complies with the pertinent mandate of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. We propose that such approaches be swiftly evaluated in sub-scale in the course of an intensive international program.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In adolescents, loss of bone mineral mass usually occurs during phases of reduced physical activity (PA, such as when an injured extremity spends several weeks in a cast. We recorded the PA of adolescents with lower limb fractures during the cast immobilization, at 6 and at 18 months after the fracture, and we compared these values with those of healthy controls. Methods Fifty adolescents with a first episode of limb fracture and a control group of 50 healthy cases were recruited for the study through an advertisement placed at the University Children’s Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland. PA was assessed during cast immobilization and at 6- and 18-month follow-up by accelerometer measurement (Actigraph® 7164, MTI, Fort Walton Beach, FL, USA. Patients and their healthy peers were matched for gender and age. Time spent in PA at each level of intensity was determined for each participant and expressed in minutes and as a percentage of total valid time. Results From the 50 initial teenagers with fractures, 44 sustained functional evaluations at 6 months follow-up, whereas only 38 patients were studied at 18 months. The total PA count (total number of counts/min was lower in patients with lower limb fractures (-62.4% compared with healthy controls (ppp Importantly, we observed that time spent in vigorous PA, which reflects high-intensity forces beneficial to skeletal health, returned to similar values between both groups from the six month follow-up in adolescents who sustained a fracture. However, a definitive reduction in time spent in moderate PA was observed among patients with a lower limb fracture at 18 months, when comparing with healthy controls values (p = 0.0174. Conclusions As cast immobilization and reduced PA are known to induce bone mineral loss, this study provides important information to quantify the decrease of skeletal loading in adolescents with limb fractures. The results of this study demonstrate
Ceroni, Dimitri; Martin, Xavier; Lamah, Léopold; Delhumeau, Cécile; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; De Coulon, Geraldo; Ferrière, Victor Dubois
In adolescents, loss of bone mineral mass usually occurs during phases of reduced physical activity (PA), such as when an injured extremity spends several weeks in a cast. We recorded the PA of adolescents with lower limb fractures during the cast immobilization, at 6 and at 18 months after the fracture, and we compared these values with those of healthy controls. Fifty adolescents with a first episode of limb fracture and a control group of 50 healthy cases were recruited for the study through an advertisement placed at the University Children's Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland. PA was assessed during cast immobilization and at 6- and 18-month follow-up by accelerometer measurement (Actigraph(®) 7164, MTI, Fort Walton Beach, FL, USA). Patients and their healthy peers were matched for gender and age. Time spent in PA at each level of intensity was determined for each participant and expressed in minutes and as a percentage of total valid time. From the 50 initial teenagers with fractures, 44 sustained functional evaluations at 6 months follow-up, whereas only 38 patients were studied at 18 months. The total PA count (total number of counts/min) was lower in patients with lower limb fractures (-62.4%) compared with healthy controls (plower by 76.6% (plower limb injuries compared to healthy controls values. At 6 and 18 months after the fracture, the mean PA level of injured adolescents was comparable to those of healthy teenagers (-2.3%, and -1.8%, respectively).Importantly, we observed that time spent in vigorous PA, which reflects high-intensity forces beneficial to skeletal health, returned to similar values between both groups from the six month follow-up in adolescents who sustained a fracture. However, a definitive reduction in time spent in moderate PA was observed among patients with a lower limb fracture at 18 months, when comparing with healthy controls values (p = 0.0174). As cast immobilization and reduced PA are known to induce bone mineral loss, this
Kriemler, S; Meyer, U; Martin, E
School-based interventions are thought to be the most universally applicable and effective way to counteract low physical activity (PA) and fitness although there is controversy about the optimal strategy to intervene.......School-based interventions are thought to be the most universally applicable and effective way to counteract low physical activity (PA) and fitness although there is controversy about the optimal strategy to intervene....
Burges Watson, Duika; Adams, Jean; Azevedo, Liane B; Haighton, Catherine
Physical activity is critical to improving health and well-being in children. Quantitative studies have found a decline in activity in the transition from primary to secondary education. Exergames (active video games) might increase physical activity in adolescents. In January 2011 exergame dance mat systems were introduced in to all secondary schools across two local authority districts in the UK. We performed a quasi-experimental evaluation of a natural experiment using a mixed methods design. The quantitative findings from this work have been previously published. The aim of this linked qualitative study was to explore the implementation of the dance mat scheme and offer insights into its uptake as a physical activity intervention. Embedded qualitative interviews at baseline and 12 month follow-up with purposively selected physical education teachers (n = 20) and 25 focus groups with a convenience sample of pupils (n = 120) from five intervention schools were conducted. Analysis was informed by sociology of translation approach. At baseline, participants (both teachers and pupils) reported different expectations about the dance mats and how they could be employed. Variation in use was seen at follow-up. In some settings they were frequently used to engage hard to reach groups of pupils. Overall, the dance mats were not used routinely to increase physical activity. However there were other unanticipated benefits to pupils such as improved reaction time, co-ordination and mathematic skills. The use of dance mats was limited in routine physical education classes because of contextual issues (school/government policy) technological failures (batteries/updates) and because of expectations about how and where they could be used. Our linked quantitative study (previously published) suggested that the dance mats were not particularly effective in increasing physical activity, but the qualitative results (reported here) show that the dance mats were not used
Duika Burges Watson
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is critical to improving health and well-being in children. Quantitative studies have found a decline in activity in the transition from primary to secondary education. Exergames (active video games might increase physical activity in adolescents. In January 2011 exergame dance mat systems were introduced in to all secondary schools across two local authority districts in the UK. We performed a quasi-experimental evaluation of a natural experiment using a mixed methods design. The quantitative findings from this work have been previously published. The aim of this linked qualitative study was to explore the implementation of the dance mat scheme and offer insights into its uptake as a physical activity intervention. Methods Embedded qualitative interviews at baseline and 12 month follow-up with purposively selected physical education teachers (n = 20 and 25 focus groups with a convenience sample of pupils (n = 120 from five intervention schools were conducted. Analysis was informed by sociology of translation approach. Results At baseline, participants (both teachers and pupils reported different expectations about the dance mats and how they could be employed. Variation in use was seen at follow-up. In some settings they were frequently used to engage hard to reach groups of pupils. Overall, the dance mats were not used routinely to increase physical activity. However there were other unanticipated benefits to pupils such as improved reaction time, co-ordination and mathematic skills. The use of dance mats was limited in routine physical education classes because of contextual issues (school/government policy technological failures (batteries/updates and because of expectations about how and where they could be used. Conclusions Our linked quantitative study (previously published suggested that the dance mats were not particularly effective in increasing physical activity, but the qualitative
García, Robert; Bracho, America; Cantero, Patricia; Glenn, Beth A
There has been an increasing realization of the need for environmental interventions to increase physical activity levels in the population. Although promising, the impact of these strategies in reducing obesity-related disparities will be limited by the presence of inequities in the distribution of activity-related resources in the community. Advocacy efforts are critically needed to ensure that all communities benefit from environmental strategies being implemented. This paper describes two activist community-based organizations in Southern California, The City Project and Latino Health Access, and their successful efforts to mandate equitable access to public resources critical for reducing obesity-related disparities. Principles for equitable development of public land are also presented as well as lessons learned that can inform future advocacy efforts.
Story, Chandra R.; Knutson, Douglas; Brown, Jameisha B.; Spears-Laniox, Erica; Harvey, Idethia Shevon; Gizlice, Ziya; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.
African-American women report higher levels of chronic conditions and church attendance relative to the overall US population. Therefore, efforts have increased over the past decade to design church-based health promotion programs. The present study compared changes in religiosity, religious social support and general social support across time…
Laura E. Bruno
Conclusions: Opportunities to participate in a community based intervention program should be extended throughout all communities in an effort to improve holistic well-being. Further, type and duration as well as point of data collection of such programs should be differentiated in future research.
Stuart, Mary; Benvenuti, Francesco; Macko, Richard; Taviani, Antonio; Segenni, Lucianna; Mayer, Federico; Sorkin, John D.; Stanhope, Steven J.; Macellari, Velio; Weinrich, Michael
Objective To determine whether Adaptive Physical Activity (APA-stroke), a community-based exercise program for participants with hemiparetic stroke, improves function in the community. Methods Nonrandomized controlled study in Tuscany, Italy, of participants with mild to moderate hemiparesis at least 9 months after stroke. Forty-nine participants in a geographic health authority (Empoli) were offered APA-stroke (40 completed the study). Forty-four control participants in neighboring health authorities (Florence and Pisa) received usual care (38 completed the study). The APA intervention was a community-based progressive group exercise regimen that included walking, strength, and balance training for 1 hour, thrice a week, in local gyms, supervised by gym instructors. No serious adverse clinical events occurred during the exercise intervention. Outcome measures included the following: 6-month change in gait velocity (6-Minute Timed Walk), Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Berg Balance Scale, Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), Barthel Index, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Index of Caregivers Strain. Results After 6 months, the intervention group improved whereas controls declined in gait velocity, balance, SPPB, and SIS social participation domains. These between-group comparisons were statistically significant at P glucose tolerance tests were performed on a subset of participants in the intervention group. For these individuals, insulin secretion declined 29% after 6 months (P = .01). Conclusion APA-stroke appears to be safe, feasible, and efficacious in a community setting. PMID:19318465
Full Text Available Many public health interventions are less effective than expected in 'real life settings', yet little work is undertaken to understand the reasons why. The effectiveness of complex public health interventions can often be traced back to a robust programme theory (how and why an intervention brings about a change in outcome(s and assumptions that are made about the context in which it is implemented. Understanding whether effectiveness (or lack thereof is due to the intervention or the context is hugely helpful in decisions about whether to a modify the intervention; b modify the context; c stop providing the intervention. Exergames-also known as Active Video Games or AVGS-are video games which use the player's bodily movements as input and have potential to increase physical activity in children. However, the results of a recent pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT of a location-based exergame (FitQuest in a school setting were inconclusive; no significant effect was detected for any of the outcome measures. The aim of this study was to explore whether the programme theory for FitQuest was correct with respect to how and why it would change children's perceptions of physical activity (PA and exercise self-efficacy in the school setting. A further aim was to investigate the features of the school setting (context that may impact on FitQuest's implementation and effectiveness. Qualitative data (gathered during the RCT were gathered from interviews with teachers and children, and observation of sessions using FitQuest. Thematic analysis indicated that whilst children enjoyed playing the game, engaged with goal setting within the game context and undertook low to vigorous physical activity, there were significant contextual factors that prevented it from being played as often as intended. These included environmental factors (e.g. size of the playground, school factors (cancellations due to other activities, school technology policy (rules
Robertson, Judy; Jepson, Ruth; Macvean, Andrew; Gray, Stuart
Many public health interventions are less effective than expected in 'real life settings', yet little work is undertaken to understand the reasons why. The effectiveness of complex public health interventions can often be traced back to a robust programme theory (how and why an intervention brings about a change in outcome(s)) and assumptions that are made about the context in which it is implemented. Understanding whether effectiveness (or lack thereof) is due to the intervention or the context is hugely helpful in decisions about whether to a) modify the intervention; b) modify the context; c) stop providing the intervention. Exergames-also known as Active Video Games or AVGS-are video games which use the player's bodily movements as input and have potential to increase physical activity in children. However, the results of a recent pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a location-based exergame (FitQuest) in a school setting were inconclusive; no significant effect was detected for any of the outcome measures. The aim of this study was to explore whether the programme theory for FitQuest was correct with respect to how and why it would change children's perceptions of physical activity (PA) and exercise self-efficacy in the school setting. A further aim was to investigate the features of the school setting (context) that may impact on FitQuest's implementation and effectiveness. Qualitative data (gathered during the RCT) were gathered from interviews with teachers and children, and observation of sessions using FitQuest. Thematic analysis indicated that whilst children enjoyed playing the game, engaged with goal setting within the game context and undertook low to vigorous physical activity, there were significant contextual factors that prevented it from being played as often as intended. These included environmental factors (e.g. size of the playground), school factors (cancellations due to other activities), school technology policy (rules relating to
Sturrock, Peter A.
The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.
Lenhart, Clare M.; Wiemken, Andrew; Hanlon, Alexandra; Perkett, Mackenzie; Patterson, Freda
Abstract Background A growing proportion of adolescents have poor cardiovascular health behaviors, including low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behavior, thus increasing the likelihood of poor heart health in later years. This study tested the hypothesis that low perceived neighborhood safety would be associated with low levels of physical activity and high levels of recreational sedentary behavior in high-school students. Methods Using cross-sectional, weighted data...
Full Text Available ... The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists examples ... of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water ...
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A population-based randomized controlled trial of the effect of combining a pedometer with an intervention toolkit on physical activity among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness
Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Severin, Maria; Hansen, Andreas Wolff
To examine if receiving a pedometer along with an intervention toolkit is associated with increased physical activity, aerobic fitness and better self-rated health among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness.......To examine if receiving a pedometer along with an intervention toolkit is associated with increased physical activity, aerobic fitness and better self-rated health among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness....
Cayres, Suziane Ungari; de Lira, Fabio Santos; Kemper, Han C G; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Barbosa, Maurício Fregonesi; Fernandes, Romulo Araújo
We analyzed the effects of 1 year of engagement in ≥ 300 min/week of organized sports on inflammatory levels and vascular structure in adolescents. The sample was composed of 89 adolescents (11.6 ± 0.7 years old [43 boys and 46 girls]), stratified according to engagement in ≥ 300 min/week of sport practice during at least 12 months of follow-up (n = 15, sport practice; n = 74, non-sport practice). Arterial thickness (carotid and femoral) was assessed by ultrasound scan, while high sensitive C-reactive protein levels were used to assess inflammatory status. Trunk fatness (densitometry scanner), biological maturation (age at peak height velocity), blood pressure, and skipping breakfast were treated as covariates. Independently of body fatness and biological maturation, the group engaged in sports presented a higher reduction in C-reactive protein (mean difference -1.559 mg/L [95%CI -2.539 to -0.579]) than the non-sport group (mean difference -0.414 mg/L [95%CI -0.846 to 0.017]) (p = 0.040). There was a significant relationship between changes in C-reactive protein and changes in femoral intima-media thickness in the non-sport group (r = 0.311 [95%CI 0.026 to 0.549]). Inflammation decreased in adolescents engaged in organized sports, independently of trunk fatness and biological maturation. Moreover, inflammation was related to arterial thickening only in adolescents not engaged in sports. What is Known: • Intima media thickness is a relevant marker of cardiovascular disease in pediatric groups, being affected by obesity and inflammation. • The importance of monitoring inflammatory markers from childhood is enhanced by the fact that alterations in these inflammatory markers in early life predict inflammation and alterations in carotid IMT in adulthood. What is New: • Anti-inflammatory properties related to physical exercise performed at moderate intensity, on inflammation and alterations in IMT are not clear in pediatric
, and pre-existing medical condition; and secondarily on individual complications.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD). Data sources Major electronic databases from inception to February 2017 without language restrictions.Eligibility criteria for selecting studies...... Randomised trials on diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy.Data synthesis Statistical models accounted for clustering of participants within trials and heterogeneity across trials leading to summary mean differences or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the effects overall...... intervention effects across subgroups, for either gestational weight gain or composite outcomes. There was strong evidence that interventions reduced the odds of caesarean section (0.91, 0.83 to 0.99, I2=0%; 32 studies, 11 410 women), but not for other individual complications in IPD meta-analysis. When IPD...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pedometers have become common place in physical activity promotion, yet little information exists on who is using them. The multi-strategy, community-based 10,000 Steps Rockhampton physical activity intervention trial provided an opportunity to examine correlates of pedometer use at the population level. Methods Pedometer use was promoted across all intervention strategies including: local media, pedometer loan schemes through general practice, other health professionals and libraries, direct mail posted to dog owners, walking trail signage, and workplace competitions. Data on pedometer use were collected during the 2-year follow-up telephone interviews from random population samples in Rockhampton, Australia, and a matched comparison community (Mackay. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the independent influence of interpersonal characteristics and program exposure variables on pedometer use. Results Data from 2478 participants indicated that 18.1% of Rockhampton and 5.6% of Mackay participants used a pedometer in the previous 18-months. Rockhampton pedometer users (n = 222 were more likely to be female (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.23, aged 45 or older (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.46 and to have higher levels of education (university degree OR = 4.23, 95% CI: 1.86, 9.6. Respondents with a BMI > 30 were more likely to report using a pedometer (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.54 than those in the healthy weight range. Compared with those in full-time paid work, respondents in 'home duties' were significantly less likely to report pedometer use (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.53. Exposure to individual program components, in particular seeing 10,000 Steps street signage and walking trails or visiting the website, was also significantly associated with greater pedometer use. Conclusion Pedometer use varies between population subgroups, and alternate strategies need to be investigated to engage men, people with lower levels
Full Text Available Sarcopenia is associated with loss of independence and ill-health in the elderly although the causes remain poorly understood. We examined the association between two screen-based leisure time sedentary activities (daily TV viewing time and internet use and muscle strength.We studied 6228 men and women (aged 64.9 ± 9.1 yrs from wave 4 (2008-09 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Muscle strength was assessed by a hand grip test and the time required to complete five chair rises. TV viewing and internet usage were inversely associated with one another. Participants viewing TV ≥ 6 hrs/d had lower grip strength (Men, B = -1.20 kg, 95% CI, -2.26, -0.14; Women, -0.75 kg, 95% CI, -1.48, -0.03 in comparison to <2 hrs/d TV, after adjustment for age, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, chronic disease, disability, depressive symptoms, social status, and body mass index. In contrast, internet use was associated with higher grip strength (Men, B = 2.43 kg, 95% CI, 1.74, 3.12; Women, 0.76 kg, 95% CI, 0.32, 1.20. These associations persisted after mutual adjustment for both types of sedentary behaviour.In older adults, the association between sedentary activities and physical function is context specific (TV viewing vs. computer use. Adverse effects of TV viewing might reflect the prolonged sedentary nature of this behavior.
Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Salcedo-Aguilar, Fernando; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Franquelo-Morales, Pablo; López-Martínez, Sara; García-Prieto, Jorge C; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Torrijos-Niño, Coral; Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando
Studies that have examined the impact of a physical activity intervention on cardiometabolic risk factors have yielded conflicting results. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a standardized physical activity program on adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors in schoolchildren. Cluster randomized trial study of 712 schoolchildren, 8-10 years, from 20 public schools in the Province of Cuenca, Spain. The intervention (MOVI-2) consisted of play-based and non-competitive activities. MOVI-2 was conducted during two 90-minute sessions on weekdays and one 150-minute session on Saturday mornings every week between September 2010 and May 2011. We measured changes in adiposity (overweight/obesity prevalence, body mass index [BMI], triceps skinfold thickness [TST], body fat %, fat-free mass, waist circumference) and other cardiometabolic risk factors (LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio, insulin, C-reactive protein and blood pressure). The analyses used mixed regression models to adjust for baseline covariates under cluster randomization. Among girls, we found a reduction of adiposity in intervention versus control schools, with a decrease in TST (-1.1 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.3 to -0.7), body fat % (-0.9%; 95% CI -1.3 to -0.4), waist circumference (-2.7 cm; 95% CI -4.5 to -0.9), and an increase in fat-free mass (0.3 kg; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.6). The intervention also led to lower serum LDL-cholesterol and insulin levels. Among boys, a reduction in waist circumference (-1.4 cm; 95% CI -2.6 to -0.1; P = 0.03), and an increase in fat-free mass (0.5 kg; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.9; P = 0.003) was associated with the intervention versus control schools. The prevalence of overweight/obesity or underweight, BMI, and other cardiometabolic risk factors was not modified by the intervention. No important adverse events were registered. An extracurricular intervention of non-competitive physical activity during an academic year, targeting all
Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to explore the barriers to physical activity in a representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents.Methods: The studywas conducted in 2007 in urban and rural areas of Isfahan district in Iran. In the qualitative part,we used the grounded theory approach, including semi-structured focus group discussionsand in-depth interviews. The quantitative part comprised 600 randomly selected students.Results: The qualitative study included 34 school students (16 girls, 20 parents (11 mothers and 11 school staff. All students disclosed that studying was a priority.They pointed to lack of safe and easy-access place for physical activity and unsupportive family as the main barriers. Lack of self-confidence and low self-worth were the two other concepts developed in this context.Parents pointed to lack of safe and easy-access place for activity followed by the priority of studying. The concepts derived from interviews with school staff included unhealthy modeling of parents, priority of studying, and inadequate public know-ledge about how to integrate physical activity in routine daily life.The quantitative survey comprised 600 students including 286 (47.8% girls. Parents’ education level had inverse association with children’s physical activity level. Significant inverse associations of self-efficacy and physical activity levels were documented.Conclusions: Increasing the public knowledge about adopting physical activity habits in routinedaily life, informing the families and students about the benefits of physical activity to improvelearning, as well as providing safe places such as using the school facilities in non-school hoursshould be considered in planning effective preventive strategies and interventions.
... Home Fitness Why physical activity is important Why physical activity is important You may wonder if being physically ... you are to be around. That's partly because physical activity gets your brain to make "feel-good" chemicals ...
... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Physical activity improves quality of life Updated:Mar 2,2015 ... proven to improve both mental and physical health. Physical activity boosts mental wellness. Regular physical activity can relieve ...
Blackford, Krysten; Jancey, Jonine; Howat, Peter; Ledger, Melissa; Lee, Andy H
Workplace health promotion programs to prevent overweight and obesity in office-based employees should be evidence-based and comprehensive and should consider behavioral, social, organizational, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to and enablers of physical activity and nutrition as well as intervention strategies for health promotion in office-based workplaces in the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan area in 2012. We conducted an online survey of 111 employees from 55 organizations. The online survey investigated demographics, individual and workplace characteristics, barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We used χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U statistics to test for differences between age and sex groups for barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis determined factors that affect physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We identified several factors that affected physical activity and nutrition behaviors, including the most common barriers ("too tired" and "access to unhealthy food") and enablers ("enjoy physical activity" and "nutrition knowledge"). Intervention-strategy preferences demonstrated employee support for health promotion in the workplace. The findings provide useful insights into employees' preferences for interventions; they can be used to develop comprehensive programs for evidence-based workplace health promotion that consider environmental and policy influences as well as the individual.
van Mierlo, Trevor; Hyatt, Douglas; Ching, Andrew T; Fournier, Rachel; Dembo, Ron S
Health care literature supports the development of accessible interventions that integrate behavioral economics, wearable devices, principles of evidence-based behavior change, and community support. However, there are limited real-world examples of large scale, population-based, member-driven reward platforms. Subsequently, a paucity of outcome data exists and health economic effects remain largely theoretical. To complicate matters, an emerging area of research is defining the role of Superusers, the small percentage of unusually engaged digital health participants who may influence other members. The objective of this preliminary study is to analyze descriptive data from GOODcoins, a self-guided, free-to-consumer engagement and rewards platform incentivizing walking, running and cycling. Registered members accessed the GOODcoins platform through PCs, tablets or mobile devices, and had the opportunity to sync wearables to track activity. Following registration, members were encouraged to join gamified group challenges and compare their progress with that of others. As members met challenge targets, they were rewarded with GOODcoins, which could be redeemed for planet- or people-friendly products. Outcome data were obtained from the GOODcoins custom SQL database. The reporting period was December 1, 2014 to May 1, 2015. Descriptive self-report data were analyzed using MySQL and MS Excel. The study period includes data from 1298 users who were connected to an exercise tracking device. Females consisted of 52.6% (n=683) of the study population, 33.7% (n=438) were between the ages of 20-29, and 24.8% (n=322) were between the ages of 30-39. 77.5% (n=1006) of connected and active members met daily-recommended physical activity guidelines of 30 minutes, with a total daily average activity of 107 minutes (95% CI 90, 124). Of all connected and active users, 96.1% (n=1248) listed walking as their primary activity. For members who exchanged GOODcoins, the mean balance was 4
Barbour, K E; Hootman, J M; Helmick, C G; Murphy, L B; Theis, Kristina A; Schwartz, T A; Kalsbeek, W D; Renner, J B; Jordan, J M
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability and joint pain. Although other risk factors of knee OA have been identified, how physical activity affects incident knee OA remains unclear. Using data from the first (1999-2004) and second (2005-2010) followup periods of the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project study, we tested the association between meeting physical activity guidelines and incident knee outcomes among 1,522 adults ages ≥45 years. The median followup time was 6.5 years (range 4.0-10.2 years). Physical activity at baseline (moderate-equivalent physical activity minutes/week) was calculated using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity questionnaire. Incident knee radiographic OA (ROA) was defined as the development of Kellgren/Lawrence grade ≥2 in a knee at followup. Incident knee symptomatic ROA (sROA) was defined as the development of ROA and symptoms in at least 1 knee at followup. Weibull regression modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for interval-censored data. In multivariable models, meeting the 2008 Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) physical activity guidelines (≥150 minutes/week) was not significantly associated with ROA (HR 1.20 [95% CI 0.92-1.56]) or sROA (HR 1.24 [95% CI 0.87-1.76]). Adults in the highest level (≥300 minutes/week) of physical activity had a higher risk of knee ROA and sROA compared with inactive (0 to guidelines was not associated with incident knee ROA or sROA in a cohort of middle-aged and older adults. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Bauman, Adrian E.; Grunseit, Anne C.; Rangul, Vegar
Background: Most studies of physical activity (PA) epidemiology use behaviour measured at a single time-point. We examined whether 'PA patterns' (consistently low, consistently high or inconsistent PA levels over time) showed different epidemiological relationships for anthropometric and mortality...
Bhaskarabhatla, Krishna V; Birrer, Richard
Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic syndrome consisting of two main groups, type 1 and 2, is characterized by absolute or relative insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. Individuals with DM take part in physical activity for health promotion, disease management, and or recreational or competitive sports. Several studies confirm the beneficial role of physical activity in favorably altering the prognosis of DM. Exercise as a therapeutic strategy has potential risks, too. Hence, sports medicine physicians caring for athletes with diabetes have several important responsibilities. Diabetic education; pre-participatory evaluation for vascular, neurological, retinal or joint disease; diabetic status and control; promotion of blood glucose self-monitoring; and individualized dietary, medication, and physical activity plans are essential to achieve safe and enjoyable outcomes in individuals with diabetes who are embarking on physical activity.
Mitchell, Jonathan A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.
Purpose We aimed to determine whether moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were independently associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in children and adolescents. Methods Data from the International Children's Accelerometry Database...
Cramer, N F
This book provides a timely review of our present understanding of plasma phenomena in magnetized terrestrial and solar space plasmas. The author's emphasis is on the fluid and particle modeling and interpretation of observed active processes in space plasmas, i.e. 'the physical background of large plasma eruptions in space'. It is somewhat alarming for a plasma physicist to read that an emphasis on processes in spatially inhomogeneous plasmas means that the work '... excludes a considerable fraction of the available methods in space plasma physics, such as the theory of waves, instabilities and wave particle interactions on a homogeneous background', particularly in light of the fact that much of our knowledge of these plasmas is derived from observations of such waves. However, it is clear on reading the book that such a restriction is not a disadvantage, but allows the author to concentrate on the main theme of the book, namely the use of fluid and particle pictures to model the equilibrium and active states of space plasmas. There are many other books which cover the wave aspects of space plasmas, and would complement this book. The book's coverage is based on the extensive and profound research of the author and his colleagues in the area of fluid and particle modeling of space plasma structures. After an introduction to the physical setting of active plasmas, and a necessarily concise, but effective, discussion of the fluid and particle models to be used, the steady states of the magnetized plasmas of interest are treated, including the magnetosphere, solar plasmas and current sheets. Next the dynamics of unstable states is covered, including MHD and tearing instabilities, and nonlinear aspects, with a detailed discussion of magnetic reconnection. Finally, the models are applied to magnetospheric and solar observations. The book is attractively written and produced, and this reviewer managed to find a minimum number of errors. A particularly attractive
Kaczynski Andrew T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parks are key environmental resources for encouraging population-level physical activity (PA. In measuring availability of parks, studies have employed both self-reported and objective indicators of proximity, with little correspondence observed between these two types of measures. However, little research has examined how the degree of correspondence between self-reported and objectively-measured distance to parks is influenced by individual, neighborhood, and park-related variables, or which type of measure is more strongly related to physical activity outcomes. Methods We used data from 574 respondents who reported the distance to their closest park and compared this with objective measurements of proximity to the closest park. Both indicators were dichotomized as having or not having a park within 750 m. Audits of all park features within this distance were also conducted and other personal characteristics and neighborhood context variables (safety, connectedness, aesthetics were gleaned from participants' survey responses. Participants also completed detailed seven-day PA log booklets from which measures of neighborhood-based and park-based PA were derived. Results Agreement was poor in that only 18% of respondents achieved a match between perceived and objective proximity to the closest park (kappa = 0.01. Agreement was higher among certain subgroups, especially those who reported engaging in at least some park-based PA. As well, respondents with a greater number of parks nearby, whose closest park had more features, and whose closest park contained a playground or wooded area were more likely to achieve a match. Having a ball diamond or soccer field in the closest park was negatively related to achieving a match between perceived and objective proximity. Finally, engaging in at least some park-based PA was not related to either perceived or objective proximity to a park, but was more likely when a match between and
Full Text Available Physical activity (PA promotion has proven effectiveness in preventing childhood obesity. Increasing children's health knowledge is the most frequently used approach in PA intervention programs targeting childhood obesity prevention. However, little is known about the specific association between the change in a child's knowledge awareness and their PA practice.A one-year follow-up study was conducted among primary and junior high school students in Nanjing, China. At baseline students' knowledge of healthy behavior, and their PA levels, were assessed. Students who were unaware of the association between PA and obesity were followed for one academic year. After nine-months their knowledge and PA levels were re-measured using the same validated questionnaire. Mixed effects regression models were used to estimate the relationship between awareness of knowledge about the link between PA and obesity and PA changes.Of the 1899 students who were unaware of the association between PA and obesity at baseline, 1859 (follow-up rate = 97.9% were successfully followed-up. After nine months 1318 (70.9% participants had become aware of PA-obesity association. Compared to their counterparts who remained unaware, students who became aware of the PA-obesity association were more likely to increase both the frequency (odds ratio (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.64 and duration (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.65 of PA, after adjusting for potentially confounding variables.Becoming aware of the known link between PA and obesity led to positive behavior modification regarding PA in this cohort of Chinese students. This is of particular importance that knowledge disimination and health education may be a useful approach for population-based physical activity promotion aiming at childhood obesity prevention in China.
Hinrichs, Timo; Brach, Michael
Positive influences of physical activity both on many chronic diseases and on preservation of mobility are well documented. But chronically ill or mobility restricted elderly living in their own homes are difficult to reach for interventions. The general practitioner's (GP) surgery offers one of the few opportunities to give advice for physical activity to those people. We used program theory to sound out knowledge on GP-centered physical activity counseling. The "conceptual theory" (evidence for training effects in old age) and the "implementation theory" (unique position of the GP) were reviewed narratively. The "action theory" (effects of GP counseling) was reviewed systematically. According to program theory, appropriate MeSH (Medical subject headings) concepts were Aged OR Aged, 80 and over (Target group), Physicians, Family OR Primary Health Care (Implementation/Setting), Counseling OR Patient Education as Topic OR Disease Management OR Health promotion (Intervention), Exercise OR Motor Activity OR Physical Fitness OR Sports (Determinants). The resulting six review papers (Pubmed, 2000-2009) were presented using the STARLITE mnemonic. Authors agree, that the GP plays a central role in the promotion of physical activity to elderly people, but there is conflicting evidence concerning counseling effectiveness. Utilizing behavioral change strategies and the collaboration between GPs and specialised professions are recommended and currently under research.
Full Text Available People with epilepsy are prone to be sedentary compared with the general population. The causes of inactivity are ignorance, prejudice, overprotection, fear and shame. There is no scientific evidence supporting a limitation of physical exercise in persons with epilepsy. The benefits of exercise in these patients are huge. Positive aspects are: physical conditioning, prevention of seizures, emotional wellbeing, social interaction, drug treatment adherence, osteoporosis prevention and better quality of life for patients and their families. Having in mind the individual characteristics, physical exercise should be prescribed and guided. Available evidence underlies the complementary therapeutic effects of physical activity with large positive results at a low cost. Sports or regular physical activity should be a standard indication for persons with epilepsy.
Bruun, Jesper; Christiansen, Frederik V
One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences...... of being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition...
... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...
Zhang, Jingwen; Jemmott, John B; O'Leary, Ann; Stevens, Robin; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Icard, Larry D; Hsu, Janet; Rutledge, Scott E
Few trials have tested physical-activity interventions among sexual minorities, including African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We examined the efficacy and mediation of the Being Responsible for Ourselves (BRO) physical-activity intervention among African American MSM. African American MSM were randomized to the physical-activity intervention consisting of three 90-min one-on-one sessions or an attention-matched control intervention and completed pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention audio computer-based surveys. Of the 595 participants, 503 completed the 12-month follow-up. Generalized estimating equation models revealed that the intervention increased self-reported physical activity compared with the control intervention, adjusted for pre-intervention physical activity. Mediation analyses suggested that the intervention increased reasoned action approach variables, subjective norm and self-efficacy, increasing intention immediately post-intervention, which increased physical activity during the follow-up period. Interventions targeting reasoned action approach variables may contribute to efforts to increase African American MSM's physical activity. The trial was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02561286 .
Full Text Available Abstract Background Converging international evidence suggests that diabetes incidence is lower among adults living in more walkable neighbourhoods. The association between walkability and physical activity (PA, the presumed mediator of this relationship, has not been carefully examined in adults with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the associations of walkability with total PA occurring within home neighbourhoods and overall PA, irrespective of location. Methods Participants (n = 97; 59.5 ± 10.5 years were recruited through clinics in Montreal (QC, Canada and wore a GPS-accelerometer device for 7 days. Total PA was expressed as the total Vector of the Dynamic Body Acceleration. PA location was determined using a Global Positioning System (GPS device (SIRF IV chip. Walkability (street connectivity, land use mix, population density was assessed using Geographical Information Systems software. The cross-sectional associations between walkability and location-based PA were estimated using robust linear regressions adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, university education, season, car access, residential self-selection, and wear-time. Results A one standard deviation (SD increment in walkability was associated with 10.4 % of a SD increment in neighbourhood-based PA (95 % confidence interval (CI 1.2, 19.7 – equivalent to 165 more steps/day (95 % 19, 312. Car access emerged as an important predictor of neighbourhood-based PA (Not having car access: 38.6 % of a SD increment in neighbourhood-based PA, 95 % CI 17.9, 59.3. Neither walkability nor car access were conclusively associated with overall PA. Conclusions Higher neighbourhood walkability is associated with higher home neighbourhood-based PA but not with higher overall PA. Other factors will need to be leveraged to facilitate meaningful increases in overall PA among adults with type 2 diabetes.
Hajna, Samantha; Kestens, Yan; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Joseph, Lawrence; Thierry, Benoit; Sherman, Mark; Trudeau, Luc; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Meissner, Leslie; Bacon, Simon L; Gauvin, Lise; Ross, Nancy A; Dasgupta, Kaberi
Converging international evidence suggests that diabetes incidence is lower among adults living in more walkable neighbourhoods. The association between walkability and physical activity (PA), the presumed mediator of this relationship, has not been carefully examined in adults with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the associations of walkability with total PA occurring within home neighbourhoods and overall PA, irrespective of location. Participants (n = 97; 59.5 ± 10.5 years) were recruited through clinics in Montreal (QC, Canada) and wore a GPS-accelerometer device for 7 days. Total PA was expressed as the total Vector of the Dynamic Body Acceleration. PA location was determined using a Global Positioning System (GPS) device (SIRF IV chip). Walkability (street connectivity, land use mix, population density) was assessed using Geographical Information Systems software. The cross-sectional associations between walkability and location-based PA were estimated using robust linear regressions adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, university education, season, car access, residential self-selection, and wear-time. A one standard deviation (SD) increment in walkability was associated with 10.4 % of a SD increment in neighbourhood-based PA (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.2, 19.7) - equivalent to 165 more steps/day (95 % 19, 312). Car access emerged as an important predictor of neighbourhood-based PA (Not having car access: 38.6 % of a SD increment in neighbourhood-based PA, 95 % CI 17.9, 59.3). Neither walkability nor car access were conclusively associated with overall PA. Higher neighbourhood walkability is associated with higher home neighbourhood-based PA but not with higher overall PA. Other factors will need to be leveraged to facilitate meaningful increases in overall PA among adults with type 2 diabetes.
da Costa, Filipe Ferreira; Schmoelz, Camilie Pacheco; Davies, Vanessa Fernandes; Di Pietro, Patrícia Faria; Kupek, Emil; de Assis, Maria Alice Altenburg
Information and communication technology (ICT) has been used with increasing frequency for the assessment of diet and physical activity in health surveys. A number of Web-based questionnaires have been developed for children and adolescents. However, their usability characteristics have scarcely been reported, despite their potential importance for improving the feasibility and validity of ICT-based methods. The objective of this study was to describe the usability evaluation of the Consumo Alimentar e Atividade Física de Escolares (CAAFE) questionnaire (Food Consumption and Physical Activity Questionnaire for schoolchildren), a new Web-based survey tool for the self-assessment of diet and physical activity by schoolchildren. A total of 114 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years took part in questionnaire usability testing carried out in computer classrooms at five elementary schools in the city of Florianopolis, Brazil. Schoolchildren used a personal computer (PC) equipped with software for recording what is on the computer screen and the children's speech during usability testing. Quantitative and qualitative analyses took into account objective usability metrics such as error counts and time to complete a task. Data on the main difficulties in accomplishing the task and the level of satisfaction expressed by the children were assessed by the observers using a standardized form and interviews with the children. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used to summarize both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of the data obtained. The mean time for completing the questionnaire was 13.7 minutes (SD 3.68). Compared to the children in 2nd or 3rd grades, those in 4th or 5th grades spent less time completing the questionnaire (median 12.4 vs 13.3 minutes, P=.022), asked for help less frequently (median 0 vs 1.0 count, P=.005), had a lower error count (median 2.0 vs 8.0 count, Pperformance score (median 73.0 vs 68.0, P=.005). Children with a PC at home
Friederichs, Stijn A H; Oenema, Anke; Bolman, Catherine; Lechner, Lilian
Our main objective in the current study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness (12 months from baseline) of I Move (a web-based computer tailored physical activity intervention, based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing). To this end, we compared I Move to a web-based computer tailored physical activity intervention based on traditional health behavior theories (Active Plus), and to a no-intervention control group. As a secondary objective, the present study aimed to identify participant characteristics that moderate the long term effects of I Move and Active Plus. A randomized controlled trial was conducted, comparing three research conditions: 1) the I Move condition, participants in this condition received I Move; 2) the Active Plus condition, participants in this condition received Active Plus; 3) the control condition; participants in this condition received no intervention and were placed on a waiting list. Main outcome measures were weekly minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity and weekly days with minimal 30 min of physical activity. All measurements were taken by web-based questionnaires via the study website. Intervention effects were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses. At 12 months from baseline, I Move was found to be effective in increasing weekly minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (ES = .13), while Active Plus was not. In contrast, Active Plus was found to be effective in increasing weekly days with ≥ 30 min PA at 12 months (ES = .11), while I Move was not. No moderators of the effects of I Move were found. The results suggest that web-based computer tailored physical activity interventions might best include elements based on both self-determination theory/motivational interviewing and traditional health behavioral theories. To be more precise, it is arguable that the focus of the theoretical foundations, used in new web-based PA interventions should depend on the
Yoong, Sze Lin; Wolfenden, Luke; Finch, Meghan; Williams, Amanda; Dodds, Pennie; Gillham, Karen; Wyse, Rebecca
Centre-based childcare services represent a promising setting to target the prevention of excessive weight gain in preschool-aged children. Staff training is a key component of multi-strategy interventions to improve implementation of effective physical activity and nutrition promoting practices for obesity prevention in childcare services. This randomised controlled trial aimed to examine whether an active telephone-based strategy to invite childcare-service staff to attend a training workshop was effective in increasing the proportion of services with staff attending training, compared with a passive strategy. Services were randomised to an active telephone-based or a passive-recruitment strategy. Those in the active arm received an email invitation and one to three follow-up phone calls, whereas services in the passive arm were informed of the availability of training only via newsletters. The proportion of services with staff attending the training workshop was compared between the two arms. One hundred and twenty-eight services were included in this study. A significantly larger proportion (52%) of services in the active arm compared with those in the passive-strategy arm (3.1%) attended training (d.f.=1, χ2=34.3; Pstaff attending training. Further strategies to improve staff attendance at training need to be identified and implemented. SO WHAT?: Active-recruitment strategies including follow-up telephone calls should be utilised to invite staff to participate in training, in order to maximise the use of training as an implementation strategy for obesity prevention in childcare services.
Full Text Available There is a need for efficacious interventions to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity, and a limited body of research suggests that collaborative community-based programs designed for children and their caregivers may be effective in reducing obesity rates. This paper reports the results of a community-based obesity intervention, South County Food, Fitness and Fun (SCFFF, designed for preadolescent children who are overweight or obese and their caregivers. SCFFF was developed in response to community concerns. Families were referred to the program by their physician and participated in the program at no cost. The 16-week intervention includes weekly group nutrition and physical activity sessions. Analyses determined that 65 out of the 97 children who completed SCFFF provided 2-year follow-up data and had reduced BMI z-scores over 2 years following the intervention. These participants decreased their energy, fat, carbohydrate, saturated fat, and sodium intake and increased core body strength and endurance from baseline to the end of the intervention. SCFFF was effective in reducing relative weight and improving diet and core muscle strength and endurance in children who are overweight or obese.
Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.; Silver, Lorraine Wallace; White, Susan L.; Buckworth, Janet; Sherman, W. Michael
Used a street-based survey to assess college students' physical activity level, exercise self-efficacy, and stages of change for exercise behavior. A large proportion of respondents were not regularly active. Exercise self-efficacy was an important variable in exercise behavior. The low cost, ease of data collection, and short turnaround for…
Full Text Available Background: Physical activity and screen based sedentary behaviors are both related to energy balance and to risk for becoming overweight. The aim of this study is to find out if these behaviors cluster together in order to find out whether groups of adolescents have particularly unfortunate levels of both physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviors. Methods: Data are from the Norwegian 2005/2006 sample of the international "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study; A WHO cross-National Survey". Data were collected through questionnaires from 13-, 15- and 16-year-olds. The final sample included 4848 adolescents. Gender-stratified latent profile analysis was used to identify the different profiles. Results: Six profiles were identified for both boys and girls. Less than 30% of adolescents were found to have behavioral patterns which were associated with higher risk for overweight relative to the most healthy behavioral profile. Physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviors cluster together in different ways suggesting independence between the behaviors. Low levels of physical activity was the most important predictor for overweight among boys. Screen-based sedentary behaviors were more important predictors of overweight among girls. Conclusions: Physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviors are independent behaviors and may cluster together in manners which lead to low energy expenditure and subsequent increased risk for overweight among adolescents.
We know that children who are physically active every day are less likely to develop chronic diseases as adults, including obesity. Dr. Sandy Slater, a researcher with the University of Illinois, Chicago Prevention Research Center, discusses how a park improvement project in Chicago helped engage communities to improve areas for play and activity.
Rütten, Alfred; Pfeifer, Klaus; Banzer, Winfried; Ferrari, Nina; Füzéki, Eszter; Geidl, Wolfgang; Graf, Christine; Hartung, Verena; Klamroth, Sarah; Völker, Klaus; Vogt, Lutz; Abu-Omar, Karim; Burlacu, Ionuţ; Gediga, Günther; Messing, Sven
Always and at any age, regular physical activity can act as a powerful elixir with a beneficial effect on health and well-being. The wide variety of health effects that physical activity can have, for example on our cardiovascular system, back and joints, is scientifically well proven. At the same time, we spend most of our time sitting – at school, at the office or in the car. Our bodies, however, want to be on the move! This fundamental instinct is deeply rooted in human nature and this bas...
Viitasalo, Anna; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Venäläinen, Taisa; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Karjalainen, Panu; Peltola, Jaana; Lampinen, Eeva-Kaarina; Haapala, Eero A; Paananen, Jussi; Schwab, Ursula; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A
To investigate the effects of a long-term, individualized and family-based lifestyle intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet quality in children. We carried out a 2-year intervention study in a population sample of 506 children aged 6-8years in Finland in 2007-2012. We allocated the participants at baseline in the intervention and control group. We assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior by questionnaires and diet by food records. Total physical activity (+9min/d in intervention group vs. -5min/d in control group, p=0.001 for time*group interaction), unsupervised physical activity (+7min/d vs. -9min/d, psedentary behavior and enhanced diet quality in children. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01803776. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Short, C E; James, E L; Plotnikoff, R C
The majority of post treatment breast cancer survivors do not engage in physical activity (PA) at the recommended level. The promotion of PA among this group has the potential to dramatically improve quality of life and health outcomes. To maximise effectiveness, programs should be theory-based and address key determinants of PA behaviour. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) has shown particular promise for developing and guiding PA interventions, but future research regarding how each SCT construct relates to PA among this group is needed. This study aims to explore how core SCT constructs impact on PA participation among post treatment breast cancer survivors, and gain greater insights into how to shape PA program strategies that will be appealing and effective for this group. Post treatment breast cancer survivors were recruited from the Breast Cancer Network Australia's review and survey group. Semi-structured telephone interviews examined PA patterns and SCT constructs and data were analysed thematically. Eight post treatment breast cancer survivors participated in the study. Changes in activity level since diagnosis were common; in most cases this reflected a decline in PA. Key social cognitive and environmental influences on PA were described under the following themes: knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and personal, behavioural and environment facilitators and inhibitors. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of SCT for guiding PA programs. Insight into how social cognitive factors may influence PA behaviour in this group is offered and direction for how oncology-based health professionals can promote PA among breast cancer survivors is provided. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abdin, S; Welch, R K; Byron-Daniel, J; Meyrick, J
Although the benefits of regular physical activity (PA) are widely accepted, most of the population fails to meet the recommended levels of activity. Public health bodies such as the World Health Organisation emphasise promoting PA within workplaces as a key intervention setting to reach the health and well-being of the working population. Given the importance of well-being in workplace settings, it seems worthwhile to explore the evidence of effectiveness in the literature. This systematic review aims to assess the effectiveness of PA interventions for improving psychological well-being in working adults. It provides a review of current evidence, assesses the quality of the research into this topic area and identifies issues and recommendations for future research. A systematic review guided by the Cochrane Handbook was conducted. PsycINFO, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Embase, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library literature searches were conducted from 2007 to April 2017. Using the keywords 'Physical Activity'; 'Exercise'; 'Wellbeing'; 'Employee' and 'Workplace', five articles were obtained that fit the inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria were a workplace setting, an intervention including a PA intervention and an outcome measure including well-being. Extraction of articles and quality assessment of the articles were performed independently by two authors using the Cochrane's data extraction form and the Cochrane's risk of bias. Owing to heterogeneity in population characteristics, intervention components, outcome measures and the durations of interventions, a narrative synthesis was conducted. The review identified five office-based workplace PA interventions in promoting psychological well-being in 1326 participants. The included studies varied substantially in sample size characteristics, methodological quality, duration of follow-up, types of interventions and assessed outcomes. Three of the five included studies were of high quality. The types of PA
Nelson, Candace C.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Kenwood, Christopher T.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian
Background The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. Purpose This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Methods Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. Results In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (pworkplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56; 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR= 1.62; 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. Conclusions These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. PMID:24512930
Charlotte Lund Rasmussen
Full Text Available Leisure time physical activity (LTPA is strongly associated with socioeconomic position (SEP. Few studies have investigated if demanding occupational physical activity (OPA could impede a physically active lifestyle in low SEP groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between OPA and LTPA among low SEP men and women. We used cross-sectional data from 895 low SEP workers who wore accelerometers for 1–5 consecutive workdays. The associations between the relative importance of activities performed during work and leisure time were assessed using compositional regression models stratified on sex. Compositional isotemporal substitution models were used to assess the implication of increasing occupational walking, standing, or sitting on LTPA. We found dissimilarity in LTPA between the sexes, with men spending more waking leisure time sedentary than women (men ~67%, women ~61%, suggesting women performed more household tasks. In men, the associations between OPA and LTPA were weak. In women, the strongest association was observed between the relative importance of occupational walking and leisure time standing (β^ = −0.16; p = 0.01, where reallocating 15 min work time to occupational walking showed an expected decrease in leisure time standing of 7 min. If this time was spent on additional sedentary leisure time, it could have adverse health consequences.