WorldWideScience

Sample records for based outdoor simulation

  1. Scenario based outdoor simulation in pre-hospital trauma care using a simple mannequin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grier Gareth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We describe a system of scenario-based training using simple mannequins under realistic circumstances for the training of pre-hospital care providers. Methods A simple intubatable mannequin or student volunteers are used together with a training version of the equipment used on a routine basis by the pre-hospital care team (doctor + paramedic. Training is conducted outdoors at the base location all year round. The scenarios are led by scenario facilitators who are predominantly senior physicians. Their role is to brief the training team and guide the scenario, results of patient assessment and the simulated responses to interventions and treatment. Pilots, fire-fighters and medical students are utilised in scenarios to enhance realism by taking up roles as bystanders, additional ambulance staff and police. These scenario participants are briefed and introduced to the scene in a realistic manner. After completion of the scenario, the training team would usually be invited to prepare and deliver a hospital handover as they would in a real mission. A formal structured debrief then takes place. Results This training method technique has been used for the training of all London Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (London HEMS doctors and paramedics over the last 24 months. Informal participant feedback suggests that this is a very useful teaching method, both for improving motor skills, critical decision-making, scene management and team interaction. Although formal assessment of this technique has not yet taken place we describe how this type of training is conducted in a busy operational pre-hospital trauma service. Discussion The teaching and maintenance of pre-hospital care skills is essential to an effective pre-hospital trauma care system. Simple mannequin based scenario training is feasible on a day-to-day basis and has the advantages of low cost, rapid set up and turn around. The scope of scenarios is limited only by

  2. Modelling and simulation of concrete leaching under outdoor exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, Nicoleta; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia; Jayr, Emmanuel; Méhu, Jacques; Moszkowicz, Pierre

    2009-02-15

    Recently, a demand regarding the assessment of release of dangerous substances from construction products was raised by European Commission which has issued the Mandate M/366 addressed to CEN. This action is in relation with the Essential Requirement No. 3 "Hygiene, Health and Environment" of the Construction Products Directive (89/106/EC). The potential hazard for environment and health may arise in different life cycle stages of a construction product. During the service life stage, the release of substances due to contact with the rain water is the main potential hazard source, as a consequence of the leaching phenomenon. The objective of this paper is to present the development of a coupled chemical-transport model for the case of a concrete based construction product, i.e. concrete paving slabs, exposed to rain water under outdoor exposure conditions. The development of the model is based on an iterative process of comparing the experimental results with the simulated results up to an acceptable fit. The experiments were conducted at laboratory scale (equilibrium and dynamic leaching tests) and field scale. The product was exposed for one year in two types of leaching scenarios under outdoor conditions, "runoff" and "stagnation", and the element release was monitored. The model was calibrated using the experimental data obtained at laboratory scale and validated against measured field data, by taking into account the specific rain water balance and the atmospheric CO2 uptake as input parameters. The numerical tool used in order to model and simulate the leaching behaviour was PHREEQC, coupled with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) thermodynamic data base. The simulation results are satisfying and the paper demonstrates the feasibility of the modelling approach for the leaching behaviour assessment of concrete type construction materials. PMID:19118868

  3. Response to simulated typical daily outdoor irradiation conditions of thin-film silicon-based triple-band-gap, triple-junction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, P.; Schuttauf, J.A.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Houshyani Hassanzadeh, B.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the response to various realistic outdoor conditions of thin-film silicon-based triple-band-gap, triple-junction cells that were made in house. The triple-junction cells consist of a stack of proto-Si:H/proto-SiGe:H/nanocrystalline (nc)-Si:H cells in an n–i–p configuration, fabricated usi

  4. Response to simulated typical daily outdoor irradiation conditions of thin-film silicon-based triple-band-gap, triple-junction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, P.; Schuettauf, J.W.A.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Schropp, R.E.I. [Nanophotonics - Physics of Devices, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Houshyani Hassanzadeh, B.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M. [Department of Chemistry, Science, Technology and Society, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    We studied the response to various realistic outdoor conditions of thin-film silicon-based triple-band-gap, triple-junction cells that were made in house. The triple-junction cells consist of a stack of proto-Si:H/proto-SiGe:H/nanocrystalline (nc)-Si:H cells in an n-i-p configuration, fabricated using hot-wire chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Current matching was determined for modeled spectra of four different days of the year that are typical for the northwestern European climate. Spectral modeling was based on measured irradiation data. The results showed that on a clear day in June, when the actual spectrum was closest to the reference AM1.5 spectrum, the matching was ideal. As the spectral shape varied during the course of the day with respect to the AM1.5 reference the matching became progressively worse. We found that the top cell (1.8 eV) and bottom cell (1.1 eV) are most sensitive to spectral changes, whereas the middle cell (1.5 eV) is less sensitive. Overall, it was evident that either cloudiness or seasonal variations led to an increase in current mismatch between the cells. If the sub-cells are closely matched, it may even occur that a cell designed to be current limiting no longer fulfills that role. (author)

  5. View Transformation Based on a Single Outdoor Image

    OpenAIRE

    Shi-hui Zhang; Shuo Yan

    2013-01-01

    An automatic approach for view transformation based on a single outdoor image is proposed in this paper. First, the hierarchical segmentation method is conducted to segment an outdoor image into several meaningful regions and each region is labelled as sky, ground or standing object. Then, different methods are used to estimate each region’s depth according to its label. After that, the obtained depth information is utilized to create a new view image after any rotation, translation and pitch...

  6. Simulation of the outdoor energy efficiency of an autonomous solar kit based on meteorological data for a site in Central Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzaki, Mohammed Moustafa; Chadel, Meriem; Benyoucef, Boumediene; Petit, Pierre; Aillerie, Michel

    2016-07-01

    This contribution analyzes the energy provided by a solar kit dedicated to autonomous usage and installed in Central Europa (Longitude 6.10°; Latitude 49.21° and Altitude 160 m) by using the simulation software PVSYST. We focused the analysis on the effect of temperature and solar irradiation on the I-V characteristic of a commercial PV panel. We also consider in this study the influence of charging and discharging the battery on the generator efficiency. Meteorological data are integrated into the simulation software. As expected, the solar kit provides an energy varying all along the year with a minimum in December. In the proposed approach, we consider this minimum as the lowest acceptable energy level to satisfy the use. Thus for the other months, a lost in the available renewable energy exists if no storage system is associated.

  7. Safety Cultures in Water-Based Outdoor Activities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren; Arvidsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the study Safe in Nature (Tryg i naturen) in which the aim was to analyze and discuss risk and safety related to outdoor recreation in the coastal regions of Denmark. A cultural perspective is applied to risk management and the safety cultures related to three selected...... water-based outdoor activities: small boat fishing, sea kayaking, and kite surfing. The theoretical framework used was cultural analysis and the methodological approach was mixed methods using case studies with survey and qualitative interviews. The study indicates that safety is a complex matter...... and that safety culture can be understood as the sum and interaction among six categories. The safety culture is closely related to the activity and differs widely among activities. We suggest a broad perspective be taken on risk management wherein risk and safety can be managed at different levels. Small boat...

  8. View Transformation Based on a Single Outdoor Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-hui Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An automatic approach for view transformation based on a single outdoor image is proposed in this paper. First, the hierarchical segmentation method is conducted to segment an outdoor image into several meaningful regions and each region is labelled as sky, ground or standing object. Then, different methods are used to estimate each region’s depth according to its label. After that, the obtained depth information is utilized to create a new view image after any rotation, translation and pitch. Finally, the image inpainting work for the missing colour region is accomplished using its neighbour’s colour. Extensive experiments show the proposed approach not only improves the accuracy of view transformation, but also performs well even for images with occlusion phenomena.

  9. Study on the Outdoor Wind Environment Simulation and Design Strategies of Rural Settlements in Cold Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Li; Hong Jin; Xin-Yu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    To improve the outdoor environment of rural settlement and reduce the energy consumption of rural houses in winterin cold areas,the seriously bad wind environment should been controlled and considered. This paper applies the method of numerical simulation to simulate the wind environment of some typical arrangement of building and courtyard in winter, and concludes the optimal building and courtyard arrangement types and strategies. It aims to provide some technical supports for improving the wind environment of rural settlements in cold regions.

  10. A Strengths-Based Approach to Outdoor and Adventure Education: Possibilities for Personal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarelli, Angela; Hall, Eric; Anderson, Mallory

    2010-01-01

    Outdoor and adventure education has been shown to result in positive psychological outcomes. This paper connects positive psychology--specifically, strengths-based education--to important outcomes in outdoor and adventure education. Strengths-based education encourages participants to intentionally use their talents to achieve success in the…

  11. Radiological dispersal device outdoor simulation test: Cesium chloride particle characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particles were generated from the detonation of simulated radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) using non-radioactive CsCl powder and explosive C4. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles were characterized. Two RDD simulation tests were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: one of the simulated RDDs was positioned 1 m above a steel plate and the other was partially buried in soil. Particles were collected with filters at a distance of 150 m from the origin of the RDD device, and particle mass concentrations were monitored to identify the particle plume intensity using real time particle samplers. Particles collected on filters were analyzed via computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (CCSEM/EDX) to determine their size distribution, morphology, and chemical constituents. This analysis showed that particles generated by the detonation of explosives can be associated with other materials (e.g., soil) that are in close proximity to the RDD device and that the morphology and chemical makeup of the particles change depending on the interactions of the RDD device with the surrounding materials.

  12. Maximum likelihood estimation of vehicle position for outdoor image sensor-based visible light positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiang; Lin, Jiming

    2016-04-01

    Image sensor-based visible light positioning can be applied not only to indoor environments but also to outdoor environments. To determine the performance bounds of the positioning accuracy from the view of statistical optimization for an outdoor image sensor-based visible light positioning system, we analyze and derive the maximum likelihood estimation and corresponding Cramér-Rao lower bounds of vehicle position, under the condition that the observation values of the light-emitting diode (LED) imaging points are affected by white Gaussian noise. For typical parameters of an LED traffic light and in-vehicle camera image sensor, simulation results show that accurate estimates are available, with positioning error generally less than 0.1 m at a communication distance of 30 m between the LED array transmitter and the camera receiver. With the communication distance being constant, the positioning accuracy depends on the number of LEDs used, the focal length of the lens, the pixel size, and the frame rate of the camera receiver.

  13. Designing and implementing outdoor augmented reality system based on ARToolKit

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zongyi; Liu, Yongqi; Chang, Yong; Hu, Shenghua

    2007-06-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is the overlay of virtual computer graphics images on real world objects, and has many potential applications in industrial operations and academic research. ARToolKit is a C and C++ language software library that allows programmers develop Augmented Reality applications easily. Since the registration method of ARToolKit is based on computer vision, ARToolKit is not suitable for outdoor environment. ARToolKit needs to be improved for outdoor augmented reality. Source code of ARToolkit is improved in this paper. The registration method of vision is kept down, and 3D Electronic compass+RTKGPS is added, so that the registration method of 3D can be carried out not only indoor environment, but also outdoor environment. The paper discusses the framework of outdoor 3D underground pipeline augmented reality system based on ARToolKit.

  14. Estimating Outdoor Illumination Conditions Based on Detection of Dynamic Shadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus B.; Lal, Brajesh Behari

    2013-01-01

    The paper proposes a technique for estimation outdoor illumination conditions in terms of sun and sky radiances directly from pixel values of dynamic shadows detected in video sequences produved by a commercial stereo camera. The technique is applied to the rendering of virtual object into the im...... scenes and does not require High Dynamic Range imagery. Experiments demonstrate that sun and sky radiances are estimated within 7% of ground truth values....

  15. Outdoor field experience with autonomous RPC based stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, L.; Assis, P.; Blanco, A.; Carolino, N.; Cerda, M. A.; Conceição, R.; Cunha, O.; Ferreira, M.; Fonte, P.; Luz, R.; Mendes, L.; Pereira, A.; Pimenta, M.; Sarmento, R.; Tomé, B.

    2016-09-01

    In the last two decades Resistive Plate Chambers were employed in the Cosmic Ray Experiments COVER-PLASTEX and ARGO/YBJ. In both experiments the detectors were housed indoors, likely owing to gas distribution requirements and the need to control environment variables that directly affect RPCs operational stability. But in experiments where Extended Air Shower (EAS) sampling is necessary, large area arrays composed by dispersed stations are deployed, rendering this kind of approach impossible. In this situation, it would be mandatory to have detectors that could be deployed in small standalone stations, with very rare opportunities for maintenance, and with good resilience to environmental conditions. Aiming to meet these requirements, we started some years ago the development of RPCs for Autonomous Stations. The results from indoor tests and measurements were very promising, both concerning performance and stability under very low gas flow rate, which is the main requirement for Autonomous Stations. In this work we update the indoor results and show the first ones concerning outdoor stable operation. In particular, a dynamic adjustment of the high voltage is applied to keep gas gain constant.

  16. Laser-Based Pedestrian Tracking in Outdoor Environments by Multiple Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Hashimoto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures.

  17. Laser-based pedestrian tracking in outdoor environments by multiple mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures. PMID:23202171

  18. Laser-based pedestrian tracking in outdoor environments by multiple mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-29

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures.

  19. Development and Evaluation of an RFID-Based Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tan-Hsu; Liu, Tsung-Yu; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Many issues have been identified in outdoor teaching, especially in places that lack the capacity to effectively present information about such subjects as historical relics, rare animals, and geological landscapes. This study proposes an Environment of Ubiquitous Learning with Educational Resources (EULER) based on radio frequency identification…

  20. Seamless Indoor/Outdoor Positioning Handover for Location-Based Services in Streamspin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Wind, Rico; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard;

    2009-01-01

    the delivery of truly ubiquitous location-based services by integrating GPS and Wi-Fi location fingerprinting. The paper puts focus on key aspects of the seamless handover between outdoor to indoor positioning. Several different handover solutions are presented,and their applicability is evaluated with respect...

  1. Outdoor W-Band Hybrid Photonic Wireless Link Based on an Optical SFP+ Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián; Chorchos, Łukasz;

    2016-01-01

    This letter proposes aW-band hybrid photonic wireless link based on a commercial SFP+ module and experimentally demonstrates its performance. Using a free running laser as local oscillator and heterodyne photonic upconversion, good frequency stability is achieved. Outdoor wireless transmission ov...... distribution networks and PONs and thus paves the way for future mobile front- and backhaul architectures...

  2. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),leisure time and 1 h/week (1 h men, 1.5 h women) while commuting to work. Factors associated with increased occupational cold exposure among men were: being employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  3. Measurements of MIMO Indoor Channels at 1800 MHz with Multiple Indoor and Outdoor Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaldén Niklas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes several configurations for multiple base stations in indoor MIMO systems and compares their performance. The results are based on channel measurements realized with a MIMO testbed. The receiver was moved along several routes and floors on an office building. Both outdoor and indoor locations are considered for the transmitters or base stations, which allow the analysis of not only indoor but also outdoor-to-indoor environment. The use of 2 base stations with different system level combinations of the two is analyzed. We show that the configuration with base station selection provides almost as good performance as a full water-filling scheme when the 2 base stations are placed at different locations. Also the spatial correlation properties for the different configurations are analyzed and the importance of considering path loss when evaluating capacity is highlighted.

  4. Evaluating design-based formative assessment practices in outdoor science teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmeyer, Rikke Dalgaard; P. Stevenson, Matt; Bentsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    that a formative assessment design that we call Eva-Mapping, which is developed on the principles of design-based research, can be a productive starting point for disseminating and further developing formative assessment practices in outdoor science teaching. Sample, design and methods: We conducted an evaluation......Background and purpose: Research in formative assessment often pays close attention to the strategies which can be used by teachers. However, less emphasis in the literature seems to have been paid to study the application of formative assessment designs in practice. In this paper, we argue...... useful guidelines for the future development of formative assessment in science teaching that integrates the outdoors. This is because such knowledge forms part of teachers’ perceptions regarding the acceptability and utility of the formative assessment design. In addition, our study contributes...

  5. Place-Based Curriculum Making: Devising a Synthesis between Primary Geography and Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor learning provides children with an opportunity to experience the interdisciplinary nature of the real world through interactions with each other and the planet. Geographical enquiry involves exploring the outdoors in an investigative capacity. Space, place and sustainability are three core concepts in primary geography, although…

  6. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    knowledge about the similarities and differences in outdoor recreation pattern of ethnic Danish and ethnic minorities’ outdoor recreation pattern which can be used in policy making, as well as planning and management of green spaces and other natural areas, to provide the best possibilities for outdoor...... in Denmark. The third aim is to investigate whether there is a match or a mismatch between the official statistic definitions of ethnic minority background (based on citizenship and place of birth), and the subjective perception of adolescents with ethnic minority backgrounds own ascription...

  7. Developing a Mobile Learning Management System for Outdoors Nature Science Activities Based on 5E Learning Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ah-Fur; Lai, Horng-Yih; Chuang, Wei-Hsiang; Wu, Zih-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Traditional outdoor learning activities such as inquiry-based learning in nature science encounter many dilemmas. Due to prompt development of mobile computing and widespread of mobile devices, mobile learning becomes a big trend on education. The main purpose of this study is to develop a mobile-learning management system for overcoming the…

  8. Computer-based simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Antonoaie, C.; Antonoaie, N.

    2010-01-01

    A computer-based simulation replicates an environment through a computer program designed to consider multiple variables, interactions, and system constraints. Computer-based simulation is used in organization studies to model human social systems to better understand the dynamics between individual and group behaviours.These methods advance organization studies research in many ways. They can be used for extrapolating theory, validating hypotheses, or revealing emergent behaviour. Simulation...

  9. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    The thesis has three aims: The first aim is to review the existing knowledge about ethnic minorities’ outdoor recreation in Europe. The second aim is to investigate similarities and differences in outdoor recreation patterns between adolescents with ethnic Danish and ethnic minority background...... in Denmark. The third aim is to investigate whether there is a match or a mismatch between the official statistic definitions of ethnic minority background (based on citizenship and place of birth), and the subjective perception of adolescents with ethnic minority backgrounds own ascription...... of their ethnicity. The implications from the review as well as the empirical study have been used to propose a theoretical framework for future research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation. The thesis consists of four papers: The first paper reviews the European research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation...

  10. To Know Where We Are: Vision-Based Positioning in Outdoor Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kuan-wen; Wang, Chun-Hsin; Wei, Xiao; Liang, Qiao; Yang, Ming-Hsuan; Chen, Chu-Song; Hung, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) displays become more and more popular recently, because of its high intuitiveness for humans and high-quality head-mounted display have rapidly developed. To achieve such displays with augmented information, highly accurate image registration or ego-positioning are required, but little attention have been paid for out-door environments. This paper presents a method for ego-positioning in outdoor environments with low cost monocular cameras. To reduce the computational a...

  11. XPS characterization of (copper-based) coloured stains formed on limestone surfaces of outdoor Roman monuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Anna Maria; Langerame, Fausto; Macchia, Andrea; Sammartino, Maria Pia; Tabasso, Marisa Laurenzi

    2012-01-01

    Limestone basements holding bronzes or other copper alloys artefacts such as sculptures, decorations and dedicatory inscriptions are frequently met both in modern and ancient monuments. In outdoor conditions, such a combination implies the corrosion products of the copper based alloy, directly exposed to rainwater, will be drained off and migrate through the porous surfaces, forming stains of different colours and intensities, finally causing the limestone structures to deteriorate.In this work we have analysed samples from two modern limestone monuments in Rome, the Botticino surfaces of the 'Vittoriano' (by G.Sacconi, 1885-1911- Piazza Venezia) and the travertine basement of the 'Statua dello Studente' (by A.Cataldi, 1920- University city, La Sapienza), and focussed our investigation on the chemical composition of the copper-stained zones using XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) as a surface-specific technique.Based on observations reporting on the structure and bonding at the calcite surfaces we have identified copper complexes and mixed calcium/copper carbonates associated with the stains, as well as the chemical state of other elements therein included, and related the compositional changes with differences in chromatic characteristics and sampling locations. PMID:22594435

  12. Aerosol transport simulations in indoor and outdoor environments using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landazuri, Andrea C.

    This dissertation focuses on aerosol transport modeling in occupational environments and mining sites in Arizona using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The impacts of human exposure in both environments are explored with the emphasis on turbulence, wind speed, wind direction and particle sizes. Final emissions simulations involved the digitalization process of available elevation contour plots of one of the mining sites to account for realistic topographical features. The digital elevation map (DEM) of one of the sites was imported to COMSOL MULTIPHYSICSRTM for subsequent turbulence and particle simulations. Simulation results that include realistic topography show considerable deviations of wind direction. Inter-element correlation results using metal and metalloid size resolved concentration data using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) under given wind speeds and directions provided guidance on groups of metals that coexist throughout mining activities. Groups between Fe-Mg, Cr-Fe, Al-Sc, Sc-Fe, and Mg-Al are strongly correlated for unrestricted wind directions and speeds, suggesting that the source may be of soil origin (e.g. ore and tailings); also, groups of elements where Cu is present, in the coarse fraction range, may come from mechanical action mining activities and saltation phenomenon. Besides, MOUDI data under low wind speeds (potential deleterious effects, but also that the application of CFD represents an important contribution to actual dispersion modeling studies; therefore, Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used as a source apportionment tool to identify areas that have an effect over specific sampling points and susceptible regions under certain meteorological conditions, and these conclusions can be supported with inter-element correlation matrices and lead isotope analysis, especially since there is limited access to the mining sites. Additional results concluded that grid adaption is a powerful tool that allows to refine

  13. Thin-Film LSCs Based on PMMA Nanohybrid Coatings: Device Optimization and Outdoor Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. El-Bashir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the design optimization of thin-film luminescent solar concentrators (TLSCs based on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA/silica nanohybrid films doped with coumarin dyestuffs specialized in coloring plastics. Two designs of TLSCs had been prepared and characterized. The first consists of a transparent nanohybrid layer coated on a fluorescent PMMA substrate. The second design is the ordinary configuration in which fluorescent nanohybrid layer is coated on a transparent PMMA substrate. The investigation of the spectral properties and efficiency parameters recommended the best solar energy conversion efficiency for the second design. The outdoor performance of optimized TLSC was also evaluated under clear sky conditions of Riyadh city, and the hourly values of the optical efficiency, ηopt, were calculated for one year. The best performance was achieved in summer since the short circuit current for PV cell was doubled after being attached to TLSC and the value of ηopt reached 40% which is higher than other values recorded before due to the abundant solar energy potential in the Arabian Peninsula.

  14. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  15. Delivering an evidence-based outdoor journey intervention to people with stroke: Barriers and enablers experienced by community rehabilitation teams

    OpenAIRE

    Middleton Sandy; McCluskey Annie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Transferring knowledge from research into practice can be challenging, partly because the process involves a change in attitudes, roles and behaviour by individuals and teams. Helping teams to identify then target potential barriers may aid the knowledge transfer process. The aim of this study was to identify barriers and enablers, as perceived by allied health professionals, to delivering an evidence-based (Level 1) outdoor journey intervention for people with stroke. Met...

  16. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly Petrina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. Results A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P P P P P P P Conclusion Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.

  17. Choice of experimental venue matters in ecotoxicology studies: Comparison of a laboratory-based and an outdoor mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikó, Zsanett; Ujszegi, János; Gál, Zoltán; Imrei, Zoltán; Hettyey, Attila

    2015-10-01

    The heavy application of pesticides and its potential effects on natural communities has attracted increasing attention to inadvertent impacts of these chemicals. Toxicologists conventionally use laboratory-based tests to assess lethal concentrations of pesticides. However, these tests often do not take into account indirect, interactive and long-term effects, and tend to ignore different rates of disintegration in the laboratory and under natural conditions. Our aim was to investigate the importance of the experimental venue for ecotoxicology tests. We reared tadpoles of the agile frog (Rana dalmatina) in the laboratory and in outdoor mesocosms and exposed them to three initial concentrations of a glyphosate-based herbicide (0, 2 and 6.5 mg a.e./L glyphosate), and to the presence or absence of caged predators (dragonfly larvae). The type of experimental venue had a large effect on the outcome: The herbicide was less lethal to tadpoles reared in outdoor mesocosms than in the laboratory. Further, while the herbicide had a negative effect on development time and on body mass in the laboratory, tadpoles exposed to the herbicide in mesocosms were larger at metamorphosis and developed faster in comparison to those reared in the absence of the herbicide. The effect of the herbicide on morphological traits of tadpoles also differed between the two venues. Finally, in the presence of the herbicide, tadpoles tended to be more active and to stay closer to the bottom of laboratory containers, while tadpole behaviour shifted in the opposite direction in outdoor mesocosms. Our results demonstrate major discrepancies between results of a classic laboratory-based ecotoxicity test and outcomes of an experiment performed in outdoor mesocosms. Consequently, the use of standard laboratory tests may have to be reconsidered and their benefits carefully weighed against the difficulties of performing experiments under more natural conditions. Tests validating experimentally estimated

  18. Difference in the outdoor performance of bulk and thin-film silicon-based photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minemoto, Takashi; Fukushige, Shunichi; Takakura, Hideyuki [College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Differences in the outdoor performances of bulk (multi- and single-crystalline Si) and thin-film (amorphous Si(a-Si), a-Si/micro-crystalline Si and a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe) photovoltaic (PV) modules are analyzed. The influence of module temperature and solar spectrum distribution on the PV output is clarified. The PV outputs almost only depend on module temperature in bulk-type Si PV modules while that depend both module temperature and spectrum distribution in thin-film ones. Also, the PV outputs of the bulk-type Si PV modules at most frequent condition at outdoor are lower than that at the standard test condition; in contrast, it was the other way round for thin-film ones. (author)

  19. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luevano-Gurrola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  20. Committed dose assessment based on background outdoor gamma exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luevano G, S.; Perez T, A.; Pinedo A, C.; Renteria V, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecologia, Perif. Francisco R. Almada Km 1, 31415 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Carrillo F, J.; Montero C, M. E., E-mail: mrenteria@uach.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31136 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on populations health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the committed dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, annual effective dose, and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected along the Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Muller counter. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 n Gy h{sup -1}. Results indicated that lifetime effective dose to inhabitants of Chihuahua City is in average of 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of activity concentrations in soil were 51.8, 73.1, and 1096.5 Bq kg{sup -1}, of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K is to north, to north-center, and to south of city, respectively. In conclusion, natural background gamma dose received by inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to geological characteristics of the zone. (Author)

  1. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-01-01

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize. PMID:26437425

  2. Dynamic simulation and thermo-economic analysis of a PhotoVoltaic/Thermal collector heating system for an indoor–outdoor swimming pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A PV/T heating system for indoor–outdoor swimming pools is proposed. • A comparison among some thermal pool models available in literature is carried out. • Dynamic simulations of the thermal behavior of the swimming-pools are performed. • PV/T thermal energy is used to heat the swimming pool and for DHW production. • Energy and economic parametric analyses of the proposed system are presented. - Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of an innovative renewable energy plant serving an existing indoor/outdoor swimming pool located in Naples. The proposed solar hybrid system is designed in order to balance the remarkable energy demand of the swimming pool facility and to ensure suitable comfort conditions for swimmers. With the aim to accomplish such goals, the dynamic thermal behavior of the swimming pool was analyzed as a function of the thermo-hygrometric conditions of the indoor space and on the meteorological conditions of the pool site. In order to properly design and size the proposed renewable energy system, different thermal pool loss formulations for the calculation of the swimming pool thermal balance, in indoor and outdoor regimes, are adopted. The solar hybrid system consists of a water cooled photovoltaic/thermal collectors plant (PV/T), designed to meet a part of the facility demands of electricity and heat. Electricity is completely utilized by the facility, while the produced thermal energy is primarily used to meet the pool thermal demand and secondarily for sanitary hot water scopes. In order to carry out dynamic simulations and sensitivity analyses, the system performance is designed and dynamically simulated in TRNSYS environment. The developed simulation model enables the calculation of both the indoor and outdoor swimming pool thermal losses and the overall energy and economic system performance. Such results are obtained as a function of the thermo-hygrometric conditions of the environment, of the occupants and the

  3. A diversified organic pork production – presentation of a concept based on seasonal outdoor rearing of very small entire males

    OpenAIRE

    Kongsted, A.G.; Hermansen, J.E.; Claudi-Magnussen, C.; Andersen, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    The risk of boar taint in entire males is supposed to increase with increased age and weight. Thus, a method to reduce this risk may be to slaughter the pigs at a low age and weight. This strategy is investigated as part of a new concept for organic pig production. It is hypothesised that organic pork has to differ markedly from conventional in order to overcome the heavy price competition. A seasonal outdoor rearing system based on production of small entire males, large female pigs and sows...

  4. Determining optimal clothing ensembles based on weather forecasts, with particular reference to outdoor winter military activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Pavlinic, Daniela Z; Crisci, Alfonso; Capecchi, Valerio; Orlandini, Simone; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2011-07-01

    Military and civil defense personnel are often involved in complex activities in a variety of outdoor environments. The choice of appropriate clothing ensembles represents an important strategy to establish the success of a military mission. The main aim of this study was to compare the known clothing insulation of the garment ensembles worn by soldiers during two winter outdoor field trials (hike and guard duty) with the estimated optimal clothing thermal insulations recommended to maintain thermoneutrality, assessed by using two different biometeorological procedures. The overall aim was to assess the applicability of such biometeorological procedures to weather forecast systems, thereby developing a comprehensive biometeorological tool for military operational forecast purposes. Military trials were carried out during winter 2006 in Pokljuka (Slovenia) by Slovene Armed Forces personnel. Gastrointestinal temperature, heart rate and environmental parameters were measured with portable data acquisition systems. The thermal characteristics of the clothing ensembles worn by the soldiers, namely thermal resistance, were determined with a sweating thermal manikin. Results showed that the clothing ensemble worn by the military was appropriate during guard duty but generally inappropriate during the hike. A general under-estimation of the biometeorological forecast model in predicting the optimal clothing insulation value was observed and an additional post-processing calibration might further improve forecast accuracy. This study represents the first step in the development of a comprehensive personalized biometeorological forecast system aimed at improving recommendations regarding the optimal thermal insulation of military garment ensembles for winter activities.

  5. Vision-based semi-autonomous outdoor robot system to reduce soldier workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Al; Rodgers, Michael H.

    2001-09-01

    Sensors and computational capability have not reached the point to enable small robots to navigate autonomously in unconstrained outdoor environments at tactically useful speeds. This problem is greatly reduced, however, if a soldier can lead the robot through terrain that he knows it can traverse. An application of this concept is a small pack-mule robot that follows a foot soldier over outdoor terrain. The solder would be responsible to avoid situations beyond the robot's limitations when encountered. Having learned the route, the robot could autonomously retrace the path carrying supplies and munitions. This would greatly reduce the soldier's workload under normal conditions. This paper presents a description of a developmental robot sensor system using low-cost commercial 3D vision and inertial sensors to address this application. The robot moves at fast walking speed and requires only short-range perception to accomplish its task. 3D-feature information is recorded on a composite route map that the robot uses to negotiate its local environment and retrace the path taught by the soldier leader.

  6. The application of One Health concept to an outdoor problem-based learning activity for veterinary students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Tengku Rinalfi Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The One Health (OH approach, which seeks to bring together human and animal health, is particularly suited to the effective management of zoonotic diseases across both sectors. To overcome professional silos, OH needs to be taught at the undergraduate level. Here, we describe a problem-based learning activity using the OH approach that was conducted outdoors for 3rd-year veterinary students in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A total of 118 students, divided into two groups, completed the activity which spanned 1½ days at a deer park adjacent to a wilderness area. Students were asked to evaluate the activity using an online survey that had quantitative and qualitative components. Results: Response rate was 69.5%. The activity was rated excellent by 69.5% and good by 30.4%. Levels of satisfaction were high on a range of criteria. 97.5% of students intended to take action in their studies as a result of what they had learned. Conclusions: Delivery of an outdoor problem-based learning activity using OH approach was very successful in terms of participation, knowledge delivery and understanding, and the willingness of students to integrate OH into their future practice. For the improvement of future programs, the involvement of other disciplines (such as Medical, Biology, Biotechnology, Biomedical, and Public Health is being considered.

  7. Predicting compliance with an information-based residential outdoor water conservation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Adam C.; Kyle, Gerard T.; Kaiser, Ronald A.

    2016-05-01

    Residential water conservation initiatives often involve some form of education or persuasion intended to change the attitudes and behaviors of residential consumers. However, the ability of these instruments to change attitudes toward conservation and their efficacy in affecting water use remains poorly understood. In this investigation the authors examine consumer attitudes toward complying with a persuasive water conservation program, the extent to which those attitudes predict compliance, and the influence of environmental contextual factors on outdoor water use. Results indicate that the persuasive program was successful in developing positive attitudes toward compliance, and that those attitudes predict water use. However, attitudinal variables explain a relatively small proportion of the variance in objectively measured water use behavior. Recommendations for policy are made stressing the importance of understanding both the effects of attitudes and environmental contextual factors in behavior change initiatives in the municipal water sector.

  8. Integrated algorithms for RFID-based multi-sensor indoor/outdoor positioning solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mi.; Retscher, G.; Zhang, K.

    2011-12-01

    Position information is very important as people need it almost everywhere all the time. However, it is a challenging task to provide precise positions indoor/outdoor seamlessly. Outdoor positioning has been widely studied and accurate positions can usually be achieved by well developed GPS techniques but these techniques are difficult to be used indoors since GPS signal reception is limited. The alternative techniques that can be used for indoor positioning include, to name a few, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), bluetooth and Ultra Wideband (UWB) etc.. However, all of these have limitations. The main objectives of this paper are to investigate and develop algorithms for a low-cost and portable indoor personal positioning system using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and its integration with other positioning systems. An RFID system consists of three components, namely a control unit, an interrogator and a transponder that transmits data and communicates with the reader. An RFID tag can be incorporated into a product, animal or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. In general, for RFID positioning in urban and indoor environments three different methods can be used, including cellular positioning, trilateration and location fingerprinting. In addition, the integration of RFID with other technologies is also discussed in this paper. A typical combination is to integrate RFID with relative positioning technologies such as MEMS INS to bridge the gaps between RFID tags for continuous positioning applications. Experiments are shown to demonstrate the improvements of integrating multiple sensors with RFID which can be employed successfully for personal positioning.

  9. Using narrative-based design scaffolds within a mobile learning environment to support learning outdoors with young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, Brian J.

    This study aims to advance learning outdoors with mobile devices. As part of the ongoing Tree Investigators design-based research study, this research investigated a mobile application to support observation, identification, and explanation of the tree life cycle within an authentic, outdoor setting. Recognizing the scientific and conceptual complexity of this topic for young children, the design incorporated technological and design scaffolds within a narrative-based learning environment. In an effort to support learning, 14 participants (aged 5-9) were guided through the mobile app on tree life cycles by a comic-strip pedagogical agent, "Nutty the Squirrel", as they looked to explore and understand through guided observational practices and artifact creation tasks. In comparison to previous iterations of this DBR study, the overall patterns of talk found in this study were similar, with perceptual and conceptual talk being the first and second most frequently coded categories, respectively. However, this study coded considerably more instances of affective talk. This finding of the higher frequency of affective talk could possibly be explained by the relatively younger age of this iteration's participants, in conjunction with the introduced pedagogical agent, who elicited playfulness and delight from the children. The results also indicated a significant improvement when comparing the pretest results (mean score of .86) with the posttest results (mean score of 4.07, out of 5). Learners were not only able to recall the phases of a tree life cycle, but list them in the correct order. The comparison reports a significant increase, showing evidence of increased knowledge and appropriation of scientific vocabulary. The finding suggests the narrative was effective in structuring the complex material into a story for sense making. Future research with narratives should consider a design to promote learner agency through more interactions with the pedagogical agent and a

  10. Outdoors classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska-Markowska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Why should students be trapped within the four walls of the classroom when there are a lot of ideas to have lessons led in the different way? I am not a fan of having lessons at school. For many students it is also boring to stay only at school, too. So I decided to organize workshops and trips to Universities or outdoors. I created KMO ( Discoverer's Club for Teenagers) at my school where students gave me some ideas and we started to make them real. I teach at school where students don't like science. I try hard to change their point of view about it. That's why I started to take parts in different competitions with my students. Last year we measured noise everywhere by the use of applications on a tablet to convince them that noise is very harmful for our body and us. We examined that the most harmful noises were at school's breaks, near the motorways and in the households. We also proved that acoustic screens, which were near the motorways, didn't protect us from noise. We measured that 30 meters from the screens the noise is the same as the motorway. We won the main prize for these measurements. We also got awards for calculating the costs of a car supplied by powered by a solar panel. We measured everything by computer. This year we decided to write an essay about trees and weather. We went to the forest and found the cut trees because we wanted to read the age of tree from the stump. I hadn't known earlier that we could read the weather from the tree's grain. We examined a lot of trees and we can tell that trees are good carriers of information about weather and natural disasters. I started studies safety education and I have a lot of ideas how to get my students interested in this subject that is similar to P.E., physics and chemistry, too. I hope that I will use my abilities from European Space Education Resource Office and GIFT workshop. I plan to use satellite and space to teach my students how they can check information about terrorism, floods or other

  11. Participant-Based Monitoring of Indoor and Outdoor Nitrogen Dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons among MICA-Air Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) study in Detroit, Michigan introduced a participant-based approach to reduce the resource burden associated with collection of indoor and outdoor residential air sampling data. A subset of participants designated as MICA-Air c...

  12. Investigating the Impact on Student Learning and Outdoor Science Interest through Modular Serious Educational Games: A Design-Based Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Elizabeth Eason

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to get children back outdoors and exploring the natural environment, a Modular Serious Educational Game (mSEG), Red Wolf Caper, was created as part of a design-based research study. Red Wolf Caper uses a combination of an augmented reality (AR) game and a serious educational game (SEG) to capture the students' interest in the natural…

  13. Simulation-based surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evgeniou, Evgenios; Loizou, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The reduction in time for training at the workplace has created a challenge for the traditional apprenticeship model of training. Simulation offers the opportunity for repeated practice in a safe and controlled environment, focusing on trainees and tailored to their needs. Recent technological advances have led to the development of various simulators, which have already been introduced in surgical training. The complexity and fidelity of the available simulators vary, therefore depending on our recourses we should select the appropriate simulator for the task or skill we want to teach. Educational theory informs us about the importance of context in professional learning. Simulation should therefore recreate the clinical environment and its complexity. Contemporary approaches to simulation have introduced novel ideas for teaching teamwork, communication skills and professionalism. In order for simulation-based training to be successful, simulators have to be validated appropriately and integrated in a training curriculum. Within a surgical curriculum, trainees should have protected time for simulation-based training, under appropriate supervision. Simulation-based surgical education should allow the appropriate practice of technical skills without ignoring the clinical context and must strike an adequate balance between the simulation environment and simulators. PMID:23088646

  14. Estimating individual-level exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the gestational period based on personal, indoor, and outdoor monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H.; Perera, F.; Pac, A.; Wang, L.; Flak, E.; Mroz, E.; Jacek, R.; Chai-Onn, T.; Jedrychowski, W.; Masters, E.; Camann, D.; Spengler, J. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Current understanding on health effects of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is limited by lack of data on time-varying nature of the pollutants at an individual level. In a cohort of pregnant women in Krakow, Poland, we examined the contribution of temporal, spatial, and behavioral factors to prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs within each trimester and developed a predictive model of PAH exposure over the entire gestational period. The observed personal, indoor, and outdoor B(a)P levels we observed in Krakow far exceed the recommended Swedish guideline value for B(a)P of 0.1 ng/m{sup 3}. Based on simultaneously monitored levels, the outdoor PAH level alone accounts for 93% of total variability in personal exposure during the heating season. Living near the Krakow bus depot, a crossroad, and the city, center and time spent outdoors or commuting were not associated with higher personal exposure. During the nonheating season only, a 1-hr increase in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with a 10-16% increase in personal exposure to the nine measured PAHs. A 1{degree}C decrease in ambient temperature was associated with a 3-5% increase in exposure to benz(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, after accounting for the outdoor concentration. A random effects model demonstrated that mean personal exposure at a given gestational period depends on the season, residence location, and ETS. Considering that most women reported spending < 3 hr/day outdoors, most women in the study were exposed to outdoor-originating PAHs within the indoor setting. Cross-sectional, longitudinal monitoring supplemented with questionnaire data allowed development of a gestation-length model of individual-level exposure with high precision and validity.

  15. Learning Through Nature: A Study of a Next Generation Science Standards Based Teacher Workshop that Blends Outdoor Learning Experiences with Formal Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Ashley

    Many teachers lack the confidence and knowledge to transition their classroom science lessons to an outdoor setting. Very few teacher professional development (PD) programs focus on improving teachers' self-efficacy and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) that is needed to enhance their science curriculum with outdoor lessons. This study examined an exception: The Connect2Science workshops, which provided elementary teachers the opportunity to experience nature-based science lessons. My research question for this study is: In what ways does a professional development workshop focused around the Next Generation Science Standards influence teachers': a) self-efficacy in teaching science outdoors and b) science pedagogical content knowledge? Data was collected using a retrospective pre and post survey, a reflection piece on participants' pedagogical content knowledge and semi-structured interviews. The results showed that participants' self-efficacy was positively affected by the Connect2Science workshops. As for pedagogical content knowledge, the results give a small insight into how participants viewed and thought about student misconceptions and how the instructional strategies presented in the workshops equipped them to better address science content in an outdoor setting.

  16. Cape Fear: an outdoor hillslope laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Petroselli, Andrea; Fiori, Aldo; Romano, Nunzio; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Porfiri, Maurizio; Palladino, Mario; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological processes occurring at the hillslope scale highly influence the response of natural catchments. However, modelling hillslope dynamics is often extremely challenging, and conceptualizations may be inadequate to simulate such complex processes. Towards this aim, field experiments on natural and artificial catchments have proved highly beneficial. In this work, we present Cape Fear, an ad hoc designed experimental plot whereby traditional and new measurement systems are integrated for improved comprehension of hillslope processes. This outdoor hillslope laboratory hosts diverse sensing apparatuses, spanning from a system of rainfall simulators, a v-notch weir for input and output fluxes analysis, sophisticated instrumentation for continuous measurements of surface and subsurface water and soil transport, to innovative image-based setups to remotely sense surface waters. We demonstrate the potential of such a versatile and thoroughly instrumented outdoor laboratory through a proof-of-concept experiment conducted during a natural rainfall event. The response of the plot to the storm is reconstructed based on continuous monitoring of input and output fluxes. Further, an innovative tracer-based approach involving the use of fluorescent particles is utilized to remotely investigate the onset of overland flow from captured images. Insight from experimental observations is utilized to identify the physical phenomena governing the response of the hillslope to the precipitation event. Cape Fear is a powerful resource for the hydrological community and this small scale experimental observatory is expected to provide diverse and innovative observations to advance current knowledge on hydrological processes at the hillslope scale.

  17. Integrating Whole Language and Outdoor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinsey, Laura

    1991-01-01

    Compares the philosophies of whole-language instruction and outdoor education. Both incorporate other subjects in a theme approach, use meaningful materials, are student-centered, and are process-oriented. An outline of a teaching unit based on the story "Sarah Plain and Tall" integrates whole language and outdoor education. (KS)

  18. UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

  19. Longitudinal associations with changes in outdoor recreation area use for physical activity during a community-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoffman, Danielle E; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Forthofer, Melinda; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent; Child, Stephanie T; Hughey, S Morgan

    2015-09-01

    Outdoor recreation areas (ORA) are important resources for physical activity (PA) and health promotion. While past research has identified correlates of ORA use, few studies have examined predictors of longitudinal changes in park- and trail-based PA in community settings. Using data from a 6-month community-based walking intervention study, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors of PA in ORAs. Data were collected from baseline and 6-month assessments from participants (n=295) in a group walking intervention in South Carolina; participants enrolled from January 2012-May 2013. A decomposition scheme was used to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors of average group ORA use for PA, including social support, self-efficacy for PA, perceptions of neighborhood environment, and accelerometer-based PA, adjusting for gender. On average, participants were 49.4+13.3years old, 66.1% were Black, and the majority were women. There was a mean increase in group ORA use of 2.1+0.4days/month from baseline to 6months. Cross-sectionally, higher levels of the percentage of time in MVPA, self-efficacy, and social support were associated with greater group-average ORA use. Longitudinally, increased social support from friends and rating of lighter motorized traffic were associated with increased group ORA use. Additionally, longitudinal increases in percentage of MVPA and more favorable rating of the neighborhood as a place to walk were both associated with decreased group ORA use. Better understanding how social and physical environmental characteristics impact ORA use for PA can lead to more effective intervention strategies and warrants greater attention in future research and public health promotion efforts. PMID:26096192

  20. Simulation of sound waves using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for fluid flow: Benchmark cases for outdoor sound propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.; Lohman, W.J.A.; Zhou, H.

    2016-01-01

    Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases: free-fi

  1. BlueDetect: An iBeacon-Enabled Scheme for Accurate and Energy-Efficient Indoor-Outdoor Detection and Seamless Location-Based Service

    OpenAIRE

    Han Zou; Hao Jiang; Yiwen Luo; Jianjie Zhu; Xiaoxuan Lu; Lihua Xie

    2016-01-01

    The location and contextual status (indoor or outdoor) is fundamental and critical information for upper-layer applications, such as activity recognition and location-based services (LBS) for individuals. In addition, optimizations of building management systems (BMS), such as the pre-cooling or heating process of the air-conditioning system according to the human traffic entering or exiting a building, can utilize the information, as well. The emerging mobile devices, which are equipped with...

  2. Delivering an evidence-based outdoor journey intervention to people with stroke: Barriers and enablers experienced by community rehabilitation teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middleton Sandy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transferring knowledge from research into practice can be challenging, partly because the process involves a change in attitudes, roles and behaviour by individuals and teams. Helping teams to identify then target potential barriers may aid the knowledge transfer process. The aim of this study was to identify barriers and enablers, as perceived by allied health professionals, to delivering an evidence-based (Level 1 outdoor journey intervention for people with stroke. Methods A qualitative design and semi-structured interviews were used. Allied health professionals (n = 13 from two community rehabilitation teams were interviewed, before and after receiving feedback from a medical record audit and attending a training workshop. Interviews allowed participants to identify potential and actual barriers, as well as enablers to delivering the intervention. Qualitative data were analysed using theoretical domains described by Michie and colleagues. Results Two barriers to delivery of the intervention were the social influence of people with stroke and their family, and professionals' beliefs about their capabilities. Other barriers included professionals' knowledge and skills, their role identity, availability of resources, whether professionals remembered to provide the intervention, and how they felt about delivering the intervention. Enablers to delivering the intervention included a belief that they could deliver the intervention, a willingness to expand and share professional roles, procedures that reminded them what to do, and feeling good about helping people with stroke to participate. Conclusions This study represents one step in the quality improvement process. The interviews encouraged reflection by staff. We obtained valuable data which have been used to plan behaviour change interventions addressing identified barriers. Our methods may assist other researchers who need to design similar behaviour change interventions.

  3. Simulation of Sound Waves Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for Fluid Flow: Benchmark Cases for Outdoor Sound Propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik M Salomons

    Full Text Available Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases: free-field propagation, propagation over porous and non-porous ground, propagation over a noise barrier, and propagation in an atmosphere with wind. LBM results are compared with solutions of the equations of acoustics. It is found that the LBM works well for sound waves, but dissipation of sound waves with the LBM is generally much larger than real dissipation of sound waves in air. To circumvent this problem it is proposed here to use the LBM for assessing the excess sound level, i.e. the difference between the sound level and the free-field sound level. The effect of dissipation on the excess sound level is much smaller than the effect on the sound level, so the LBM can be used to estimate the excess sound level for a non-dissipative atmosphere, which is a useful quantity in atmospheric acoustics. To reduce dissipation in an LBM simulation two approaches are considered: i reduction of the kinematic viscosity and ii reduction of the lattice spacing.

  4. Simulation of Sound Waves Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for Fluid Flow: Benchmark Cases for Outdoor Sound Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomons, Erik M; Lohman, Walter J A; Zhou, Han

    2016-01-01

    Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases: free-field propagation, propagation over porous and non-porous ground, propagation over a noise barrier, and propagation in an atmosphere with wind. LBM results are compared with solutions of the equations of acoustics. It is found that the LBM works well for sound waves, but dissipation of sound waves with the LBM is generally much larger than real dissipation of sound waves in air. To circumvent this problem it is proposed here to use the LBM for assessing the excess sound level, i.e. the difference between the sound level and the free-field sound level. The effect of dissipation on the excess sound level is much smaller than the effect on the sound level, so the LBM can be used to estimate the excess sound level for a non-dissipative atmosphere, which is a useful quantity in atmospheric acoustics. To reduce dissipation in an LBM simulation two approaches are considered: i) reduction of the kinematic viscosity and ii) reduction of the lattice spacing.

  5. Modified mosquito landing boxes dispensing transfluthrin provide effective protection against Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes under simulated outdoor conditions in a semi-field system.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés, Marta; Lorenz, Lena M; Mbeleya, Edgar; Moore, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Efforts to control malaria vectors have primarily focused on scaling-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying. Although highly efficient against indoor-biting and indoor-resting vectors, these interventions have lower impact on outdoor-biting mosquitoes. Innovative vector control tools are required to prevent outdoor human–mosquito contacts. In this work, the potential of spatial repellents, delivered in an active system that requires minim...

  6. Assistive peripheral prosthetic vision aids perception and mobility in outdoor environments: A virtual-reality simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapf, Marc Patrick H; Boon, Mei-Ying; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

    2015-08-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) causes visual field (VF) constriction due to progressive loss of photoreceptors, typically from the retinal periphery to the fovea. Retinal prostheses offer vision restoration via electrode implantation and stimulation near the fovea, thereby eliciting articifial percepts, so-called phosphenes in the center VF. Although foveal photoreceptors can persist for prolonged periods of time, bionic therapy is usually restricted to stages of RP with complete vision loss. However, persons with RP experience mobility impairment from peripherally restricted VFs much earlier. Consequently, the amount of visual scanning necessary for navigation is increased, and maintaining a steady pace is challenging. Receiving a retinal implant at this early stage might be feasible. We investigated the potential of a peripheral visual prosthesis coexisting with central residual vision to facilitate scene perception and mobility. Simulating prosthetic and residual vision in a virtual mobility environment, we found that assistive phosphene layouts were associated with reductions in visual scanning-related head movements of up to 42.1%, body rotations of up to 30%, and up to 45% lower frequency of stopping when circumventing low-lying obstacles, pedestrians and following a path. Further research on early implantation of retinal prostheses for the peripheral VF is therefore advised. PMID:26736589

  7. Outdoor Education Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince George's County Board of Education, Upper Marlboro, MD.

    Developed primarily as a source of information for teachers planning outdoor education experiences, the material in this resource book can be used by any teacher in environmental studies. Subjects and activities most often taught as part of the outdoor education program are outlined both as resource (basic information) and teaching units. The…

  8. EFFECT OF PRE-COOLING ON REPEAT-SPRINT PERFORMANCE IN SEASONALLY ACCLIMATISED MALES DURING AN OUTDOOR SIMULATED TEAM-SPORT PROTOCOL IN WARM CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly J. Brade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Whether precooling is beneficial for exercise performance in warm climates when heat acclimatised is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of precooling on repeat-sprint performance during a simulated team-sport circuit performed outdoors in warm, dry field conditions in seasonally acclimatised males (n = 10. They performed two trials, one with precooling (PC; ice slushy and cooling jacket and another without (CONT. Trials began with a 30-min baseline/cooling period followed by an 80 min repeat-sprint protocol, comprising 4 x 20-min quarters, with 2 x 5-min quarter breaks and a 10-min half-time recovery/cooling period. A clear and substantial (negative; PC slower effect was recorded for first quarter circuit time. Clear and trivial effects were recorded for overall circuit time, third and fourth quarter sprint times and fourth quarter best sprint time, otherwise unclear and trivial effects were recorded for remaining performance variables. Core temperature was moderately lower (Cohen's d=0.67; 90% CL=-1.27, 0.23 in PC at the end of the precooling period and quarter 1. No differences were found for mean skin temperature, heart rate, thermal sensation, or rating of perceived exertion, however, moderate Cohen's d effect sizes suggested a greater sweat loss in PC compared with CONT. In conclusion, repeat- sprint performance was neither clearly nor substantially improved in seasonally acclimatised players by using a combination of internal and external cooling methods prior to and during exercise performed in the field in warm, dry conditions. Of practical importance, precooling appears unnecessary for repeat-sprint performance if athletes are seasonally acclimatised or artificially acclimated to heat, as it provides no additional benefit

  9. BlueDetect: An iBeacon-Enabled Scheme for Accurate and Energy-Efficient Indoor-Outdoor Detection and Seamless Location-Based Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Han; Jiang, Hao; Luo, Yiwen; Zhu, Jianjie; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Xie, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The location and contextual status (indoor or outdoor) is fundamental and critical information for upper-layer applications, such as activity recognition and location-based services (LBS) for individuals. In addition, optimizations of building management systems (BMS), such as the pre-cooling or heating process of the air-conditioning system according to the human traffic entering or exiting a building, can utilize the information, as well. The emerging mobile devices, which are equipped with various sensors, become a feasible and flexible platform to perform indoor-outdoor (IO) detection. However, power-hungry sensors, such as GPS and WiFi, should be used with caution due to the constrained battery storage on mobile device. We propose BlueDetect: an accurate, fast response and energy-efficient scheme for IO detection and seamless LBS running on the mobile device based on the emerging low-power iBeacon technology. By leveraging the on-broad Bluetooth module and our proposed algorithms, BlueDetect provides a precise IO detection service that can turn on/off on-board power-hungry sensors smartly and automatically, optimize their performances and reduce the power consumption of mobile devices simultaneously. Moreover, seamless positioning and navigation services can be realized by it, especially in a semi-outdoor environment, which cannot be achieved by GPS or an indoor positioning system (IPS) easily. We prototype BlueDetect on Android mobile devices and evaluate its performance comprehensively. The experimental results have validated the superiority of BlueDetect in terms of IO detection accuracy, localization accuracy and energy consumption. PMID:26907295

  10. BlueDetect: An iBeacon-Enabled Scheme for Accurate and Energy-Efficient Indoor-Outdoor Detection and Seamless Location-Based Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The location and contextual status (indoor or outdoor is fundamental and critical information for upper-layer applications, such as activity recognition and location-based services (LBS for individuals. In addition, optimizations of building management systems (BMS, such as the pre-cooling or heating process of the air-conditioning system according to the human traffic entering or exiting a building, can utilize the information, as well. The emerging mobile devices, which are equipped with various sensors, become a feasible and flexible platform to perform indoor-outdoor (IO detection. However, power-hungry sensors, such as GPS and WiFi, should be used with caution due to the constrained battery storage on mobile device. We propose BlueDetect: an accurate, fast response and energy-efficient scheme for IO detection and seamless LBS running on the mobile device based on the emerging low-power iBeacon technology. By leveraging the on-broad Bluetooth module and our proposed algorithms, BlueDetect provides a precise IO detection service that can turn on/off on-board power-hungry sensors smartly and automatically, optimize their performances and reduce the power consumption of mobile devices simultaneously. Moreover, seamless positioning and navigation services can be realized by it, especially in a semi-outdoor environment, which cannot be achieved by GPS or an indoor positioning system (IPS easily. We prototype BlueDetect on Android mobile devices and evaluate its performance comprehensively. The experimental results have validated the superiority of BlueDetect in terms of IO detection accuracy, localization accuracy and energy consumption.

  11. Outdoor fitness routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000891.htm Outdoor fitness routine To use the sharing features on this ... you and is right for your level of fitness. Here are some ideas: Warm up first. Get ...

  12. Simulating Real-World Exposures during Emergency Events: Studying Effects of Indoor and Outdoor Releases in the Urban Dispersion Project in Upper Manhattan, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A prospective personal exposure study, involving indoor and outdoor releases, was conducted in upper Midtown Manhattan in New York City as part of the Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) focusing on atmospheric dispersion of chemicals in complex urban settings. The UDP experiments inv...

  13. Effect of pre-cooling on repeat-sprint performance in seasonally acclimatised males during an outdoor simulated team-sport protocol in warm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brade, Carly J; Dawson, Brian T; Wallman, Karen E

    2013-01-01

    Whether precooling is beneficial for exercise performance in warm climates when heat acclimatised is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of precooling on repeat-sprint performance during a simulated team-sport circuit performed outdoors in warm, dry field conditions in seasonally acclimatised males (n = 10). They performed two trials, one with precooling (PC; ice slushy and cooling jacket) and another without (CONT). Trials began with a 30-min baseline/cooling period followed by an 80 min repeat-sprint protocol, comprising 4 x 20-min quarters, with 2 x 5-min quarter breaks and a 10-min half-time recovery/cooling period. A clear and substantial (negative; PC slower) effect was recorded for first quarter circuit time. Clear and trivial effects were recorded for overall circuit time, third and fourth quarter sprint times and fourth quarter best sprint time, otherwise unclear and trivial effects were recorded for remaining performance variables. Core temperature was moderately lower (Cohen's d=0.67; 90% CL=-1.27, 0.23) in PC at the end of the precooling period and quarter 1. No differences were found for mean skin temperature, heart rate, thermal sensation, or rating of perceived exertion, however, moderate Cohen's d effect sizes suggested a greater sweat loss in PC compared with CONT. In conclusion, repeat- sprint performance was neither clearly nor substantially improved in seasonally acclimatised players by using a combination of internal and external cooling methods prior to and during exercise performed in the field in warm, dry conditions. Of practical importance, precooling appears unnecessary for repeat-sprint performance if athletes are seasonally acclimatised or artificially acclimated to heat, as it provides no additional benefit. Key PointsPre-cooling did not improve repeated sprint performance during a prolonged team-sport circuit in field conditions.If individuals are already heat acclimatised/acclimated, pre-cooling is

  14. Proposition of updating the method used in calculating the heat demand based on a new concept of design outdoor temperature and of building – soil boundary heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan CONSTANTINESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The dimensioning of the heating systems equipping new and existing buildings, in the case of their energy-related upgrading is an extremely important activity in the context of reaching the targets of the European Directive 31 /2010 / UE concerning the Buildings Energy Performance (PEC. The accurate determination, phenomenological based, of the buildings thermal response leads to determining the climatic parameters representative for the climatic zones and for the buildings structure.Unlike the EN 12831: 2003 European Regulation, the design outdoor temperature in the conditions of Romania’s various zones was determined by the identification of the thermal response specific to the transient conditions of the heat transfer through the composite structures of the opaque and glazing closing components with the thermal response in idealized, steadystate conditions; thus, the design outdoor temperature was determined, which is conditioned by an acceptable discomfort during the coldest pentads of a 48 years climatic statistics (1961-2008. The climatic parameter which generates the modeling similitude is the virtual outdoor temperature which allows the use of the steady-state conditions mathematical formalism in issues of heat transfer in transient conditions. A dependency relation between the design indoor temperature, identical to the resulting indoor temperature (different from the operational temperature and the air volume average temperature is emphasized.Special attention is given to the heat transfer at the building-soil boundary, in the form of various practical solutions (buildings the basement of which is not directly heated, equipped or not with heating systems, directly heated and occupied, as well as buildings on plinths; in all the cases, the solutions approached are specific to the envelope which is or not thermally insulated.

  15. Changes in Sunlight and Outdoor Thermal Environment Conditions Based on the Layout Plan of Flat Type Apartment Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukjin Jung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic growths lead to population increases in large cities. This has brought about the growing necessity for apartment housing which has resulted in higher density populations living in high-rise apartment complexes. Therefore, the urban microclimate is aggravated due to the increasing ratio of artificial coverage and substandard daylight availability. To achieve a comfortable living environment and improve urban microclimates, a process considering the daylight availability and the outdoor thermal environment is required when designing apartment housing complexes. This study selected a total of 27 valid cases using an orthogonal array, L27(313 design of experiments (DOE. As a result of significance probability obtained in DOE analysis, the design factors that have an effect on the outdoor thermal environment and daylight availability were found to be building coverage ratio, distance between buildings, and azimuth. The rankings of the effect of design factors were shown to be in the order of azimuth > building coverage ratio > distance between buildings > floor area ratio > width/depth ratio. The surface temperature of the whole building decreased by 0.3 °C and Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT decreased by 1.1 °C as a result of applying the greenery coverage ratio to apartment complexes. Heat Island Potential (HIP also showed a decrease of 5.4 °C (at noon.

  16. Long-Term Outdoor Reliability Assessment of a Wireless Unit for Air-Quality Monitoring Based on Nanostructured Films Integrated on Micromachined Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Decarli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated and tested in long-term field operating conditions a wireless unit for outdoor air quality monitoring. The unit is equipped with two multiparametric sensors, one miniaturized thermo-hygrometer, front-end analogical and digital electronics, and an IEEE 802.15.4 based module for wireless data transmission. Micromachined platforms were functionalized with nanoporous metal-oxides to obtain multiparametric sensors, hosting gas-sensitive, anemometric and temperature transducers. Nanoporous metal-oxide layer was directly deposited on gas sensing regions of micromachined platform batches by hard-mask patterned supersonic cluster beam deposition. An outdoor, roadside experiment was arranged in downtown Milan (Italy, where one wireless sensing unit was continuously operated side by side with standard gas chromatographic instrumentation for air quality measurements. By means of a router PC, data from sensing unit and other instrumentation were collected, merged, and sent to a remote data storage server, through an UMTS device. The whole-system robustness as well as sensor dataset characteristics were continuously characterized over a run-time period of 18 months.

  17. Physics-Based Simulator for NEO Exploration Analysis & Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaram, J.; Cameron, J.; Jain, A.; Kline, H.; Lim, C.; Mazhar, H.; Myint, S.; Nayar, H.; Patton, R.; Pomerantz, M.; Quadrelli, M.; Shakkotai, P.; Tso, K.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Space Exploration Analysis and Simulation (SEAS) task, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is using physics-based simulations at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to explore potential surface and near-surface mission operations at Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The simulator is under development at JPL and can be used to provide detailed analysis of various surface and near-surface NEO robotic and human exploration concepts. In this paper we describe the SEAS simulator and provide examples of recent mission systems and operations concepts investigated using the simulation. We also present related analysis work and tools developed for both the SEAS task as well as general modeling, analysis and simulation capabilites for asteroid/small-body objects.

  18. Turismo Activo y Outdoor Training: Metodología. (Adventure Sport Tourism and Outdoor Training: Methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gómez Encinas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUno de los aspectos más atractivos que tiene el outdoor training es su supuesta capacidad para conseguir que los aprendizajes obtenidos a través de sus actividades sean transferidos a otros ámbitos de la vida personal y profesional de sus participantes. En este sentido, la clave está en la metodología empleada. Este artículo profundiza en las fases que estructuran el proceso formativo del outdoor training describiendo: 1 las bases folosóficas que lo apoyan y que están expresadas en la teoría de la “educación a través de la experiencia” y 2 las diferentes fases que estructuran el proceso de formación de un outdoor, haciendo una descripción en profundidad de cada una de ellas: a Pre-Outdoor (Análisis y valoración de las necesidades, diseño de la actividad y reunión previa a la actividad, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflexión y transferencia, y d Seguimiento posterior.AbstractOne of the most attractive aspects that has the outdoor training is their supposed capacity to get that the learnings obtained through their activities are transferred to other environments of the personal life and their participants' professional. In this sense, the key is in the used methodology. This article deepens in the phases that structure the formative process of the outdoor training describing: 1 the philosophy´s bases that support this process and that are expressed in the theory of experiential education, and 2 the different phases that structure the process of formation of an outdoor, making a description in depth of each one of them: to Pre-Outdoor (Analysis and valuation of the necessities, design of the activity and previous meeting to the activity, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflection and transfer, and d Later Pursuit.

  19. Outdoor Education in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Ray H.

    In Dallas in 1970, high school outdoor education began as a cocurricular woods and waters boys' club sponsored by a community sportsman. Within one year, it grew into a fully accredited, coeducational, academic course with a curriculum devoted to the study of wildlife in Texas, ecology, conservation, hunting, firearm safety, fishing, boating and…

  20. Space and place in Outdoor Education in New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren

    2010-01-01

    on a qualitative approach using case study design with interviews and observations. For the analysis, ethnological cultural analysis was employed combined with configuration analysis to conceptualise the data. Theories and concepts of space and place in outdoor education in New Zealand are discussed. Results from...... the empirical studies on outdoor education in New Zealand are discussed and compared to the cultural perspective of friluftsliv in Denmark.......The article draws on a doctoral study of young peoples’ participation in organised friluftsliv and outdoor education in Denmark and New Zealand. The research questions concentrate on views of nature, values and general characteristics in friluftsliv and outdoor education. The results are based...

  1. Outdoor Simulation of Flocculation of Cyanobacterial Pellets in Chaohu Lake Using Polyaluminum Ferric Chloride and Clays%聚合氯化铝铁和粘土应急去除蓝藻的室外模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂祥平; 王晓蓉; 郭红岩

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor simulation of using PAFC and clays to remove cyanobacterial cells urgently in test water collected in Chaohu Lake were done in situ, based on indoor simulation of effect of factors on removal efficiency of Microcystis aeruginosa cells in freshwater using PAFC. Results showed polyalluminum ferric chloride (PAFC) could reduce cyanobacterial cells in test water better than poly aluminum chloride, achieving 97.7% removal efficiency at the dose of 20 mg/L. PAFC, PAFC with clays (kaolinite or sepiolite) could dramatically flocculate and sediment cyanobacterial cells in test water and keep more than 90.0% removal efficiency in 30 days. Inhibition of the release of toxins by PAFC and clays was discussed simultaneously. It showed that PAFC and clays (kaolinite or sepiolite) could effectively adsorb toxins in test water in one day, and PAFC with sepiolite removed toxins in water more effectively than PAFC with kaolinite, kept the concentrations of toxins less than the control in 30 days.%文章在开展PAFC去除淡水中的铜绿微囊藻影响因素的室内模拟研究基础上进行PAFC和粘土应急去除巢湖水中蓝藻的室外模拟研究.结果表明,在20 mg/L的絮凝剂用量下,聚合氯化铝铁(PAFC)对巢湖水中蓝藻的沉降去除效果优于聚合氯化铝,达到97.7%.PAFC,PAFC和粘土(高岭石或海泡石)可以快速高效絮凝沉降巢湖水中的蓝藻,并且在30 d之内除藻率稳定地维持90.0%以上.同时探讨其对藻毒素释放抑制的影响,结果表明,加入PAFC和粘土(海泡石或高岭石)1d后能有效地吸附水中的藻毒素,PAFC和海泡石组的吸附去除率大于PAFC和高岭石,且30 d内仍一直维持藻毒素浓度低于对照组.

  2. An HLA based flight simulation architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, W.; Jense, G.J.; Janssen, H.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    Modern distributed simulation concepts such as the US DoD High Level Architecture (HLA) support interoperability between heterogeneous simulations, thus enabling the development of flexible, re-usable simulation Federations. Based on the principles of HLA, the Dutch national collaborative project 'S

  3. Simulation-based medical teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmohsen H Al-Elq

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important steps in curriculum development is the introduction of simulation- based medical teaching and learning. Simulation is a generic term that refers to an artificial representation of a real world process to achieve educational goals through experiential learning. Simulation based medical education is defined as any educational activity that utilizes simulation aides to replicate clinical scenarios. Although medical simulation is relatively new, simulation has been used for a long time in other high risk professions such as aviation. Medical simulation allows the acquisition of clinical skills through deliberate practice rather than an apprentice style of learning. Simulation tools serve as an alternative to real patients. A trainee can make mistakes and learn from them without the fear of harming the patient. There are different types and classification of simulators and their cost vary according to the degree of their resemblance to the reality, or ′fidelity′. Simulation- based learning is expensive. However, it is cost-effective if utilized properly. Medical simulation has been found to enhance clinical competence at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. It has also been found to have many advantages that can improve patient safety and reduce health care costs through the improvement of the medical provider′s competencies. The objective of this narrative review article is to highlight the importance of simulation as a new teaching method in undergraduate and postgraduate education.

  4. Component-Based Framework for Subsurface Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Bruce J.; Fang, Yilin; Hammond, Glenn E.; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya

    2007-08-01

    Simulations in the subsurface environment represent a broad range of phenomena covering an equally broad range of scales. Developing modelling capabilities that can integrate models representing different phenomena acting at different scales present formidable challenges both from the algorithmic and computer science perspective. This paper will describe the development of an integrated framework that will be used to combine different models into a single simulation. Initial work has focused on creating two frameworks, one for performing smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of fluid systems, the other for performing grid-based continuum simulations of reactive subsurface flow. The SPH framework is based on a parallel code developed for doing pore scale simulations, the continuum grid-based framework is based on the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) code developed at PNNL. Future work will focus on combining the frameworks together to perform multiscale, multiphysics simulations of reactive subsurface flow.

  5. Simulation-based training for colonoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Louise; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Nerup, Nikolaj;

    2015-01-01

    simulations-based modalities provided reliable and valid assessments of competence in colonoscopy and credible pass/fail standards were established for both the tests. We propose to use these standards in simulation-based training programs before proceeding to supervised training on patients....

  6. Appropriate Benefits for Outdoor Programs Targeting Juvenile Male Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyere, Brett L.

    2002-01-01

    A benefits-based management approach will enable outdoor adventure therapy programs for male adolescent offenders to be built around desired outcomes such as building connections to community, enhancing self-esteem, and establishing intergenerational relationships. Outdoor programs must maintain informal environments, involve participants in…

  7. Simulation Platform: a cloud-based online simulation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tadashi; Ikeno, Hidetoshi; Okumura, Yoshihiro; Satoh, Shunji; Kamiyama, Yoshimi; Hirata, Yutaka; Inagaki, Keiichiro; Ishihara, Akito; Kannon, Takayuki; Usui, Shiro

    2011-09-01

    For multi-scale and multi-modal neural modeling, it is needed to handle multiple neural models described at different levels seamlessly. Database technology will become more important for these studies, specifically for downloading and handling the neural models seamlessly and effortlessly. To date, conventional neuroinformatics databases have solely been designed to archive model files, but the databases should provide a chance for users to validate the models before downloading them. In this paper, we report our on-going project to develop a cloud-based web service for online simulation called "Simulation Platform". Simulation Platform is a cloud of virtual machines running GNU/Linux. On a virtual machine, various software including developer tools such as compilers and libraries, popular neural simulators such as GENESIS, NEURON and NEST, and scientific software such as Gnuplot, R and Octave, are pre-installed. When a user posts a request, a virtual machine is assigned to the user, and the simulation starts on that machine. The user remotely accesses to the machine through a web browser and carries out the simulation, without the need to install any software but a web browser on the user's own computer. Therefore, Simulation Platform is expected to eliminate impediments to handle multiple neural models that require multiple software.

  8. Simulation Platform: a cloud-based online simulation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tadashi; Ikeno, Hidetoshi; Okumura, Yoshihiro; Satoh, Shunji; Kamiyama, Yoshimi; Hirata, Yutaka; Inagaki, Keiichiro; Ishihara, Akito; Kannon, Takayuki; Usui, Shiro

    2011-09-01

    For multi-scale and multi-modal neural modeling, it is needed to handle multiple neural models described at different levels seamlessly. Database technology will become more important for these studies, specifically for downloading and handling the neural models seamlessly and effortlessly. To date, conventional neuroinformatics databases have solely been designed to archive model files, but the databases should provide a chance for users to validate the models before downloading them. In this paper, we report our on-going project to develop a cloud-based web service for online simulation called "Simulation Platform". Simulation Platform is a cloud of virtual machines running GNU/Linux. On a virtual machine, various software including developer tools such as compilers and libraries, popular neural simulators such as GENESIS, NEURON and NEST, and scientific software such as Gnuplot, R and Octave, are pre-installed. When a user posts a request, a virtual machine is assigned to the user, and the simulation starts on that machine. The user remotely accesses to the machine through a web browser and carries out the simulation, without the need to install any software but a web browser on the user's own computer. Therefore, Simulation Platform is expected to eliminate impediments to handle multiple neural models that require multiple software. PMID:21741207

  9. Simulation and Non-Simulation Based Human Reliability Analysis Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Shirley, Rachel Elizabeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway develops approaches to estimating and managing safety margins. RISMC simulations pair deterministic plant physics models with probabilistic risk models. As human interactions are an essential element of plant risk, it is necessary to integrate human actions into the RISMC risk model. In this report, we review simulation-based and non-simulation-based human reliability assessment (HRA) methods. Chapter 2 surveys non-simulation-based HRA methods. Conventional HRA methods target static Probabilistic Risk Assessments for Level 1 events. These methods would require significant modification for use in dynamic simulation of Level 2 and Level 3 events. Chapter 3 is a review of human performance models. A variety of methods and models simulate dynamic human performance; however, most of these human performance models were developed outside the risk domain and have not been used for HRA. The exception is the ADS-IDAC model, which can be thought of as a virtual operator program. This model is resource-intensive but provides a detailed model of every operator action in a given scenario, along with models of numerous factors that can influence operator performance. Finally, Chapter 4 reviews the treatment of timing of operator actions in HRA methods. This chapter is an example of one of the critical gaps between existing HRA methods and the needs of dynamic HRA. This report summarizes the foundational information needed to develop a feasible approach to modeling human interactions in the RISMC simulations.

  10. Confirmation of the Conditional Outdoor Leadership Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Tim; Priest, Simon

    1991-01-01

    Responses of 75 expert outdoor leaders from Canada and the United States concerning leadership in 12 hypothetical backpacking scenarios provided partial support for a theory that predicted probability of leadership style (democratic, autocratic, or abdicratic) based on favorability of conditions, task orientation, and relationship orientation.…

  11. Measureson Tianjin Age-Appropriate Communities Outdoor Environment Design Based on the Behavior Needs%基于行为需求的天津适老性社区室外环境设计策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲翠萃; 王小荣; 袁逸倩; 张旭

    2014-01-01

    本文以适老性社区的室外空间环境为研究内容,通过调查天津代表社区老年人户外活动行为特点以及空间使用情况,结合老年人心理需求和生理机能等方面特征,总结了老年人在室外环境中的行为需求,并分析了目前社区环境中影响室外空间使用的地方,在空间营造、舒适提升、安全设计三方面对营建适老性社区室外环境提出设计策略。%In this paper, the outdoor space environment of age-appropriate communities is researched. Based on the survey on the behavior of the aged in outdoor activities and their space preferences, combined with the psychological needs and physiological deterioration of the aged, their behavior needs in outdoor environment are summarized. Then, design aspects of existing community environment are examined. Final y, design measures on the outdoor environment of age-appropriate communities are proposed.

  12. Lattice-Boltzmann-based Simulations of Diffusiophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castigliego, Joshua; Kreft Pearce, Jennifer

    We present results from a lattice-Boltzmann-base Brownian Dynamics simulation on diffusiophoresis and the separation of particles within the system. A gradient in viscosity that simulates a concentration gradient in a dissolved polymer allows us to separate various types of particles by their deformability. As seen in previous experiments, simulated particles that have a higher deformability react differently to the polymer matrix than those with a lower deformability. Therefore, the particles can be separated from each other. This simulation, in particular, was intended to model an oceanic system where the particles of interest were zooplankton, phytoplankton and microplastics. The separation of plankton from the microplastics was achieved.

  13. Outdoor lighting guide

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    As concern grows over environmental issues and light pollution, this book satisfies a need for a straightforward and accessible guide to the use, design and installation of outdoor lighting.This all-inclusive guide to exterior lighting from the Institution of Lighting Engineers, recognized as the pre-eminent professional source in the UK for authoritative guidance on exterior lighting, provides a comprehensive source of information and advice on all forms of exterior lighting, from floodlighting, buildings and road lighting to elaborate Christmas decorations. Useful to practitioners

  14. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    This is part two of an article on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreation-related outdoor education research published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This part covers resources for outdoor recreation-related outdoor education, and impacts of and participation in outdoor recreation-related outdoor education. It concludes ...

  15. Economic trade-offs between the performance of collector thermal performance tests on a Solar Simulator as opposed to outdoor testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reily, J. C.; Melton, D. E.; Reese, D. R.; Patrick, S. L.; Losey, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    In 1976 a large Solar Simulator was designed and installed at Marshall Space Flight Center. This Solar Simulator is the largest of its type in the country and has a 'working' area of 4 ft x 8 ft. Recently completed comparison tests show excellent correlation with data collected in the natural sun. The Solar Simulator has been in operation since September 1976 and the costs of operation are now determinable together with the cost of design and construction. The authors compare the total operational costs of obtaining test data using the simulator with analogous costs of testing in the natural sun. In addition, productivity is compared.

  16. 基于随机振动时可靠性约束的商用室外机管路优化%Pipes Optimization of Outdoor Unit of Commercial Air Conditioner Based on Reliability Constraint during Random Vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      应用ANSYS对随机振动下商用室外机管路的响应进行分析,应用Miner线性疲劳累计损伤理论和材料的S-N曲线,估算室外机的疲劳寿命,结合正交试验表,确定商用室外机管路最佳尺寸组合,提升室外机的疲劳寿命。%In this article, the FEA software ANSYS is used to simulate the stress distribution of the outdoor unit of commercial air conditioner caused by the random vibration. The Miner’s linear fatigue accumulation rule and the S-N curve of the materials are used to estimate the fatigue life of the outdoor unit of the commercial air conditioner. The orthogonal experiment is used to analyze the optimum size of pipe structure, so as to improve the fatigue life of outdoor unit.

  17. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-06-01

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants and they are typically used without venting. The objective of this study is to quantify pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. A mass balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes and the "exposure concentrations" experienced by individual occupants. The model was applied to estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for one week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs, NO{sub 2} and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of CO and NO{sub 2} were obtained from available databases. Ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use were inferred from household characteristics. Proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods were also explored. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying less than 10%. The simulation model estimates that in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods, 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3000, and 20 ppb for NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based

  18. Lightning Safety and Outdoor Sports Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Contact Us Glossary Lightning Safety and Outdoor Sports Activities I t’s a common situation — a thunderstorm ... associated with outdoor recreational activities. Officials responsible for sports outdoor activities need to understand thunderstorms and lightning ...

  19. Technology Works in the Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zita, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Technology is all around us and no matter how hard educators promote the value of outdoor and experiential education (OEE) to adults and children alike, they are pulled away by a different reality--one might say, a virtual reality. Even when one is engaged in the outdoors either through a night hike or a stream study, technology is lingering…

  20. Outdoor schools: Limits and dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Smetáčková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor school is a stable element of Czech educational system. However,many changes have occurred during the last twenty years in the purposes of outdoorschools and in their organization. The article presents various school statistics andresults of research which included questionnaire survey in elementary schools in Pragueand a case study of two classes. The study found that the outdoor school programmesare getting shorter, budgets for outdoor schools are reduced, and prices of outdoorschool programmes for parents are increasing. Because of high prices, almost 20 % ofpupils cannot attend outdoor schools. Nevertheless, according to teachers, pupils andparents, the main purpose of outdoor school programmes is to create a better socialclimate in peer groups. Because of high rates of absence, this goal is partly invalid.Another purpose should be that teachers and children get to know each other better.This goal is invalid as well because many schools hire commercial agencies which limitsthe time that pupils and teachers spend together.

  1. Simulation-Based Abdominal Ultrasound Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Ewertsen, C; Konge, L;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim is to provide a complete overview of the different simulation-based training options for abdominal ultrasound and to explore the evidence of their effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines and Medline, Embase, Web....... CONCLUSION: The included studies were heterogeneous in the choice of simulator, study design, participants, and outcome measures, and the level of evidence for effect was inadequate. In all studies simulation training was equally or more beneficial than other instructions or no instructions. Study designs...

  2. Simulation-based certification for cataract surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Kjaerbo, Hadi;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the EyeSi(™) simulator in regard to assessing competence in cataract surgery. The primary objective was to explore all simulator metrics to establish a proficiency-based test with solid evidence. The secondary objective was to evaluate whether the skill assessment was specific...... to cataract surgery. METHODS: We included 26 ophthalmic trainees (no cataract surgery experience), 11 experienced cataract surgeons (>4000 cataract procedures) and five vitreoretinal surgeons. All subjects completed 13 different modules twice. Simulator metrics were used for the assessments. RESULTS: Total...

  3. Scenario-based table top simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Edwards, Kasper; Nielsen, J.;

    2012-01-01

    This study developed and tested a scenario-based table top simulation method in a user-driven innovation setting. A team of researchers worked together with a user group of five medical staff members from the existing clinic. Table top simulations of a new clinic were carried out in a simple mode...... including patient scenarios, LEGO figures, shoeboxes, and cardboard. The results indicated that table top simulations is a simple, cheap and powerful tool to generate and test innovative conceptual solutions in the early stages of a design process....

  4. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DESIRE and its software environment supports the conceptual and detailed design, and execution of these models. Experiments reported in the literature on animal behaviour have been simulated for a num...

  5. Simulation based design of automotive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schiehlen, Werner

    1993-01-01

    The design of automotive systems using simulation tools features cost reduction and quality enhancement. This paper presents two basic approaches. The rust approach deals with the application of CAD data bases to the evaluation of input data for multibody system formalisms, most adequate for automotive system modeling. An object oriented data model for multibody systems is presented. The second approach covers the development of an integrated simulation tool for automotive vehicles and the co...

  6. Simulation-Based Training for Thoracoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjurström, Johanna Margareta; Konge, Lars; Lehnert, Per;

    2013-01-01

    An increasing proportion of thoracic procedures are performed using video-assisted thoracic surgery. This minimally invasive technique places special demands on the surgeons. Using simulation-based training on artificial models or animals has been proposed to overcome the initial part of the lear......An increasing proportion of thoracic procedures are performed using video-assisted thoracic surgery. This minimally invasive technique places special demands on the surgeons. Using simulation-based training on artificial models or animals has been proposed to overcome the initial part...... of the learning curve. This study aimed to investigate the effect of simulation-based training and to compare self-guided and educator-guided training....

  7. Simulation-based training for thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine; Ringsted, Charlotte; Hansen, Henrik Jessen;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Video-assisted thoracic surgery is gradually replacing conventional open thoracotomy as the method of choice for the treatment of early-stage non-small cell lung cancers, and thoracic surgical trainees must learn and master this technique. Simulation-based training could help trainees...... overcome the first part of the learning curve, but no virtual-reality simulators for thoracoscopy are commercially available. This study aimed to investigate whether training on a laparoscopic simulator enables trainees to perform a thoracoscopic lobectomy. METHODS: Twenty-eight surgical residents were...... randomized to either virtual-reality training on a nephrectomy module or traditional black-box simulator training. After a retention period they performed a thoracoscopic lobectomy on a porcine model and their performance was scored using a previously validated assessment tool. RESULTS: The groups did...

  8. Structured Debriefing in Simulation-Based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaganas, Janice C; Fey, Mary; Simon, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Debriefing following a simulation event is a conversational period for reflection and feedback aimed at sustaining or improving future performance. It is considered by many simulation educators to be a critical activity for learning in simulation-based education. Deep learning can be achieved during debriefing and often depends on the facilitation skills of the debriefer as well as the learner's perceptions of a safe and supportive learning environment as created by the debriefer. On the other hand, poorly facilitated debriefings may create adverse learning, generate bad feelings, and may lead to a degradation of clinical performance, self-reflection, or harm to the educator-learner relationship. The use of a structure that recognizes logical and sequential phases during debriefing can assist simulation educators to achieve a deep level of learning. PMID:26909457

  9. Agent Based Modelling for Social Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, S.K.; Ubink, E.M.; Vecht, B. van der; Langley, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    This document is the result of an exploratory project looking into the status of, and opportunities for Agent Based Modelling (ABM) at TNO. The project focussed on ABM applications containing social interactions and human factors, which we termed ABM for social simulation (ABM4SS). During the course

  10. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DES

  11. 2D PIM Simulation Based on COMSOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xinbo; Cui, Wanzhao; Wang, Jingyu;

    2011-01-01

    Passive intermodulation (PIM) is a problematic type of nonlinear distortion en- countered in many communication systems. To analyze the PIM distortion resulting from ma- terial nonlinearity, a 2D PIM simulation method based on COMSOL is proposed in this paper. As an example, a rectangular waveguide...

  12. Operations based optimisation using simulation and CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, JJ; Clifton, DP; Gillan, MA; Ciampoli, F

    2007-01-01

    An initial investigation of an optimisation based approach for design across a continuous range of operating conditions is presented. The objective for this 'operations based optimisation' approach is to avoid the need to choose critical design point conditions and associated weighting factors by tackling the overall operational performance instead. The approach integrates numerical optimisation, response surface modelling, CFD and operational simulation. An optimisation test bed involving th...

  13. Accelerated GPU based SPECT Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bert, Julien; Benoit, Didier; Bardiès, Manuel; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) modelling is widely used in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as it is a reliable technique to simulate very high quality scans. This technique provides very accurate modelling of the radiation transport and particle interactions in a heterogeneous medium. Various MC codes exist for nuclear medicine imaging simulations. Recently, new strategies exploiting the computing capabilities of graphical processing units (GPU) have been proposed. This work aims at evaluating the accuracy of such GPU implementation strategies in comparison to standard MC codes in the context of SPECT imaging. GATE was considered the reference MC toolkit and used to evaluate the performance of newly developed GPU Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation (GGEMS) modules for SPECT imaging. Radioisotopes with different photon energies were used with these various CPU and GPU Geant4-based MC codes in order to assess the best strategy for each configuration. Three different isotopes were considered: 99m Tc, 111In and 131I, using a low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimator, a medium energy general purpose (MEGP) collimator and a high energy general purpose (HEGP) collimator respectively. Point source, uniform source, cylindrical phantom and anthropomorphic phantom acquisitions were simulated using a model of the GE infinia II 3/8" gamma camera. Both simulation platforms yielded a similar system sensitivity and image statistical quality for the various combinations. The overall acceleration factor between GATE and GGEMS platform derived from the same cylindrical phantom acquisition was between 18 and 27 for the different radioisotopes. Besides, a full MC simulation using an anthropomorphic phantom showed the full potential of the GGEMS platform, with a resulting acceleration factor up to 71. The good agreement with reference codes and the acceleration factors obtained support the use of GPU implementation strategies for improving computational efficiency

  14. CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of whether you’re a fan of the "beautiful game", you’ve probably heard that the CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011 is the sporting event of the year for the CERN Football Club. This unmissable social, cultural and sporting event will be a chance for CERNois to mingle with external visitors. In the 2011 edition of this legendary tournament, which is over 45 years old, the principle of “fair play” is once again on display. Ten teams – 8 from CERN – are competing for the CFC title. The tournament concludes with a final on 7 July final. Along with a thrilling match, there will also be a host of festivities for the final, including an exhibition game, the final awards ceremony, surprise gifts, a barbeque, musical performances, and more! Make sure to highlight 7 July (after 18.00) on your agenda, and take advantage of what will surely be an unforgettable day! The final tournament matches have been in progress since April and are ...

  15. Control performance of a dedicated outdoor air system adopting liquid desiccant dehumidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid desiccant is energy efficient for dehumidification in air-conditioning systems. In this study, a novel dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) adopting lithium chloride solution as liquid desiccant is proposed to process supply air. The DOAS mainly consists of a membrane-based total heat exchanger, a liquid dehumidifier, a regenerator and a dry cooling coil. It can realize independent temperature and humidity controls for supply air. Control strategies for the supply air dehumidification and cooling process as well as the desiccant solution regeneration process in the DOAS are developed and verified. The control performances of the proposed dedicated outdoor air system are investigated at different operation conditions by simulation tests. The results show that the DOAS is more suitable for hot and humid climates. The effects of the total heat exchanger on the performance of the DOAS are also evaluated. It can improve the system energy performance by 19.9-34.8%.

  16. Control performance of a dedicated outdoor air system adopting liquid desiccant dehumidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Fu; Ge, Gaoming; Niu, Xiaofeng [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon (China)

    2011-01-15

    Liquid desiccant is energy efficient for dehumidification in air-conditioning systems. In this study, a novel dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) adopting lithium chloride solution as liquid desiccant is proposed to process supply air. The DOAS mainly consists of a membrane-based total heat exchanger, a liquid dehumidifier, a regenerator and a dry cooling coil. It can realize independent temperature and humidity controls for supply air. Control strategies for the supply air dehumidification and cooling process as well as the desiccant solution regeneration process in the DOAS are developed and verified. The control performances of the proposed dedicated outdoor air system are investigated at different operation conditions by simulation tests. The results show that the DOAS is more suitable for hot and humid climates. The effects of the total heat exchanger on the performance of the DOAS are also evaluated. It can improve the system energy performance by 19.9-34.8%. (author)

  17. Simulation-based Manufacturing System Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫东; 金烨; 范秀敏; 严隽琪

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, computer simulation appears to be very advantageous technique for researching the resource-constrained manufacturing system. This paper presents an object-oriented simulation modeling method, which combines the merits of traditional methods such as IDEF0 and Petri Net. In this paper, a four-layer-one-angel hierarchical modeling framework based on OOP is defined. And the modeling description of these layers is expounded, such as: hybrid production control modeling and human resource dispatch modeling. To validate the modeling method, a case study of an auto-product line in a motor manufacturing company has been carried out.

  18. Visual Rhetoric in Outdoor Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Seliger, Marja

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a research, the aim of which is to find out how graphic expressions and visual language can be used for persuasion. The research material consists of outdoor advertisements photographed in their actual exhibition places in a city environment. Outdoor advertising media, which are used to communicate visual messages from a sender to several addressees, participate in building the visual city culture and open manifold solutions in design. The visual language used in the resear...

  19. Set-up and calibration of an outdoor nozzle-type rainfall simulator for soil erosion studies at the Masse experimental station (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergni, Lorenzo; Todisco, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    This contribution describes the technical characteristics and the preliminary calibration of a rainfall simulator recently installed by the Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences (Perugia University) at the Masse experimental station located 20 km south of Perugia, in the region of Umbria (central Italy). The site includes some USLE plots of different length λ = 11 and 22 m and width w = 2, 4 and 8 m, oriented parallel to a 16 % slope and kept free of vegetation by frequent ploughing. Since 2008, the station enabled to collect data from more than 80 erosive events, that were mainly used to investigate the relationship between rainfall characteristics and soil loss. The relevant soil loss variability that characterizes erosive storm events with similar overall characteristics (duration and/or depth) can be explained by the different rainfall profile of erosive storms and by the different antecedent soil aggregate stability. To analyse in more detail these aspects, recently, the Masse experimental station has been equipped with a semi-portable rainfall simulator placed over two micro-plots of 1x1 m each, having the same topographic and pedologic conditions of the adjacent USLE plots. The rainfall simulator consists of four full-cone spray nozzles for each micro-plot, placed at the angles of a 0.18-m square, centred over the plot at a height of 2.7 m above the ground. The operating pressure is regulated by pressure regulating valves and checked by pressure gauges mounted in correspondence of each nozzle. An electronic control unit regulates the start and stop of the inlet solenoid valves. A range of rainfall intensities can be achieved, by activating different combinations of nozzles (15 different intensities) also during the same simulation trial. The particular design of the plots allows to collect separately the runoff volume deriving from the plots and the water volume fallen outside of the plot. In this way it is possible to derive, by

  20. A FEASIBILITY STUDY ON USING ViSP’S 3D MODEL-BASED TRACKER FOR UAV POSE ESTIMATION IN OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li-Chee-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel application of the Visual Servoing Platform’s (ViSP for small UAV pose estimation in outdoor environments. Given an initial approximation for the camera position and orientation, or camera pose, ViSP automatically establishes and continuously tracks corresponding features between an image sequence and a 3D wireframe model of the environment. As ViSP has been demonstrated to perform well in small and cluttered indoor environments, this paper explores the application of ViSP for UAV mapping of outdoor landscapes and tracking of large objects (i.e. building models. Our presented experiments demonstrate the data obtainable by the UAV, assess ViSP’s data processing strategies, and evaluate the performance of the tracker.

  1. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  2. Outdoor thermal environmental research of the mountainous city by GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The study of urban outdoor thermal environment was carried out in one of the mountainous cities by using geography information system(GIS) technique which is connected with predicting and evaluating models for the outdoor thermal environment, monitoring data and simulating data. A prediction and evaluation system were set up.A typical mountainous city, i. e. , Yunyang city in Chongqing in China, was taken as an example, its urbanization trend and population growth was predicted and evaluated. The heat island intensity and its trend were simulated, the temperature field, velocity field and the humidity field were analyzed. The results show that GIS is an effective tool to deal with the outdoor thermal environment, especially for the mountainous cities with special geographical particularities. GIS can be used in the environmental management and the city planning especially for the mountainous cities.

  3. Soil seed banks and their germination responses to cadmium and salinity stresses in coastal wetlands affected by reclamation and urbanization based on indoor and outdoor experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Junhong, E-mail: junhongbai@163.com; Huang, Laibin, E-mail: seahuanglaibin@gmail.com; Gao, Zhaoqin; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing; Zhao, Qingqing

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A higher germination rate of soil seed bank was observed in the indoor experiment. • The outdoor experiment showed larger number and destiny of germinated seedlings. • Urbanization had greater impacts on soil seed banks than wetland reclamation. • Soil seed banks for wetland restoration were more suitable in the reclaimed region. • Suitable salt or Cd levels could activate seedling emergence in the soil seed bank. - Abstract: Indoor and outdoor seedling emergence experiments were conducted to thoroughly investigate germination patterns as affected by reclamation and urbanization, the ecological characteristics of soil seed banks, and their relationships with environmental factors in both urbanized and reclaimed regions of the Pearl River Delta in coastal wetlands. The germination rate of the soil seed bank was higher in the indoor experiment compared with that in the outdoor experiment, whereas the number and destiny of the germinated seedlings were greater in the outdoor experiment. The species diversity and number, as well as the richness and evenness indices, were higher in the urbanized region compared with the reclaimed region. However, the dominance and Sørensen similarity indices were greater in the reclaimed region compared with those indices in the urbanized region. Higher salinity and Cadmium (Cd) levels could inhibit seed germination; however, their suitable ranges (i.e. [0–2000 mg kg{sup −1}] for salinity and [0–4.0 mg kg{sup −1}] for available Cd) can activate seedling emergence, and more seedlings germinated under the intersectional levels at 0.34 mg kg{sup −1} available Cd and 778.6 mg kg{sup −1} salinity. Seawater intrusion caused by the sea level rise will possibly result in the salt-tolerant community in this area due to increasing salinity.

  4. Soil seed banks and their germination responses to cadmium and salinity stresses in coastal wetlands affected by reclamation and urbanization based on indoor and outdoor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A higher germination rate of soil seed bank was observed in the indoor experiment. • The outdoor experiment showed larger number and destiny of germinated seedlings. • Urbanization had greater impacts on soil seed banks than wetland reclamation. • Soil seed banks for wetland restoration were more suitable in the reclaimed region. • Suitable salt or Cd levels could activate seedling emergence in the soil seed bank. - Abstract: Indoor and outdoor seedling emergence experiments were conducted to thoroughly investigate germination patterns as affected by reclamation and urbanization, the ecological characteristics of soil seed banks, and their relationships with environmental factors in both urbanized and reclaimed regions of the Pearl River Delta in coastal wetlands. The germination rate of the soil seed bank was higher in the indoor experiment compared with that in the outdoor experiment, whereas the number and destiny of the germinated seedlings were greater in the outdoor experiment. The species diversity and number, as well as the richness and evenness indices, were higher in the urbanized region compared with the reclaimed region. However, the dominance and Sørensen similarity indices were greater in the reclaimed region compared with those indices in the urbanized region. Higher salinity and Cadmium (Cd) levels could inhibit seed germination; however, their suitable ranges (i.e. [0–2000 mg kg−1] for salinity and [0–4.0 mg kg−1] for available Cd) can activate seedling emergence, and more seedlings germinated under the intersectional levels at 0.34 mg kg−1 available Cd and 778.6 mg kg−1 salinity. Seawater intrusion caused by the sea level rise will possibly result in the salt-tolerant community in this area due to increasing salinity

  5. Language Learning in Outdoor Environments: Perspectives of preschool staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Norling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Language environment is highlighted as an important area in the early childhood education sector. The term language environment refers to language-promoting aspects of education, such as preschool staff’s use of verbal language in interacting with the children. There is a lack of research about language learning in outdoor environments; thus children’s language learning is mostly based on the indoor physical environment. The aim of this study is therefore to explore, analyse, and describe how preschool staff perceive language learning in outdoor environments. The data consists of focus-group interviews with 165 preschool staff members, conducted in three cities in Sweden. The study is meaningful, thus results contribute knowledge regarding preschool staffs’ understandings of language learning in outdoor environments and develop insights to help preschool staff stimulate children’s language learning in outdoor environments.

  6. Simulation and case-based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Guralnick, David

    2008-01-01

    Abstract- This paper has its origin in the authors' reflection on years of practical experiences combined with literature readings in our preparation for a workshop on learn-by-doing simulation and case-based learning to be held at the ICELW 2008 conference (the International Conference on E-Learning...... they are applied in workplace related and e-learning contexts. In addition to the organizers, a small number of invited presenters will attend, giving demonstrations of their work within learn-by-doing simulation and cases-based learning, but still leaving ample of time for discussion among all participants....... in the Workplace). The purpose of this paper is to describe the two online learning methodologies and to raise questions for future discussion. In the workshop, the organizers and participants work with and discuss differences and similarities within the two pedagogical methodologies, focusing on how...

  7. The Short Term Effectiveness of an Outdoor Environmental Education on Environmental Awareness and Sensitivity of In-service Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Okur-Berberoglu, Emel; OZDILEK, Hasan Göksel; YALCIN-OZDILEK, Sukran

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Outdoor education is mostly mentioned in terms of environmental education. The aim of this research is to determine the short term effectiveness of an outdoor environmental education program on biodiversity awareness, environmental awareness and sensitivity to natural environment. The data is collected from an outdoor environmental education project which is financed by TUBITAK and its name is ‘Nature-based Outdoor Environmental Education in Canakkale and Suburbs,...

  8. Interactive physically-based sound simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, Nikunj

    The realization of interactive, immersive virtual worlds requires the ability to present a realistic audio experience that convincingly compliments their visual rendering. Physical simulation is a natural way to achieve such realism, enabling deeply immersive virtual worlds. However, physically-based sound simulation is very computationally expensive owing to the high-frequency, transient oscillations underlying audible sounds. The increasing computational power of desktop computers has served to reduce the gap between required and available computation, and it has become possible to bridge this gap further by using a combination of algorithmic improvements that exploit the physical, as well as perceptual properties of audible sounds. My thesis is a step in this direction. My dissertation concentrates on developing real-time techniques for both sub-problems of sound simulation: synthesis and propagation. Sound synthesis is concerned with generating the sounds produced by objects due to elastic surface vibrations upon interaction with the environment, such as collisions. I present novel techniques that exploit human auditory perception to simulate scenes with hundreds of sounding objects undergoing impact and rolling in real time. Sound propagation is the complementary problem of modeling the high-order scattering and diffraction of sound in an environment as it travels from source to listener. I discuss my work on a novel numerical acoustic simulator (ARD) that is hundred times faster and consumes ten times less memory than a high-accuracy finite-difference technique, allowing acoustic simulations on previously-intractable spaces, such as a cathedral, on a desktop computer. Lastly, I present my work on interactive sound propagation that leverages my ARD simulator to render the acoustics of arbitrary static scenes for multiple moving sources and listener in real time, while accounting for scene-dependent effects such as low-pass filtering and smooth attenuation

  9. Collaborative virtual experience based on reconfigurable simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Qonita M.; Kwon, Yong-Moo; Ko, Heedong

    2006-10-01

    Virtual Reality simulation enables immersive 3D experience of a Virtual Environment. A simulation-based Virtual Environment can be used to map real world phenomena onto virtual experience. With a reconfigurable simulation, users can reconfigure the parameters of the involved objects, so that they can see different effects from the different configurations. This concept is suitable for a classroom learning of physics law. This research studies the Virtual Reality simulation of Newton's physics law on rigid body type of objects. With network support, collaborative interaction is enabled so that people from different places can interact with the same set of objects in immersive Collaborative Virtual Environment. The taxonomy of the interaction in different levels of collaboration is described as: distinct objects and same object, in which there are same object - sequentially, same object - concurrently - same attribute, and same object - concurrently - distinct attributes. The case studies are the interaction of users in two cases: destroying and creating a set of arranged rigid bodies. In Virtual Domino, users can observe physics law while applying force to the domino blocks in order to destroy the arrangements. In Virtual Dollhouse, users can observe physics law while constructing a dollhouse using existing building blocks, under gravity effects.

  10. Physiological Based Simulator Fidelity Design Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Thomas; Hamel, Nancy; Postnikov, Alex; Hoke, Jaclyn; McLean, Angus L. M. Thom, III

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the role of flight simulation has reinforced assumptions in aviation that the degree of realism in a simulation system directly correlates to the training benefit, i.e., more fidelity is always better. The construct of fidelity has several dimensions, including physical fidelity, functional fidelity, and cognitive fidelity. Interaction of different fidelity dimensions has an impact on trainee immersion, presence, and transfer of training. This paper discusses research results of a recent study that investigated if physiological-based methods could be used to determine the required level of simulator fidelity. Pilots performed a relatively complex flight task consisting of mission task elements of various levels of difficulty in a fixed base flight simulator and a real fighter jet trainer aircraft. Flight runs were performed using one forward visual channel of 40 deg. field of view for the lowest level of fidelity, 120 deg. field of view for the middle level of fidelity, and unrestricted field of view and full dynamic acceleration in the real airplane. Neuro-cognitive and physiological measures were collected under these conditions using the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS) and nonlinear closed form models for workload prediction were generated based on these data for the various mission task elements. One finding of the work described herein is that simple heart rate is a relatively good predictor of cognitive workload, even for short tasks with dynamic changes in cognitive loading. Additionally, we found that models that used a wide range of physiological and neuro-cognitive measures can further boost the accuracy of the workload prediction.

  11. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  12. Collaborative Simulation Run-time Management Environment Based on HLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江云; 柴旭东; 王行仁

    2002-01-01

    The Collaborative Simulation Run-time Management Environment based on HLA (CSRME) mainly focuses on simulation problems for the system design of the complex distributed simulation. CSRME can integrate all the simulation tools and simulation applications that comply with the well-documented interface standards defined by CSRME. CSRME supports both the interoperability of different simulations and the integration of simulation tools, as well as provides simulation run-time management, simulation time management and simulation data management. Finally, the distributed command training system is analyzed and realized to validate the theories of CSRME.

  13. A large-area light-weight dye-sensitized solar cell based on all titanium substrates with an efficiency of 6.69% outdoors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jihuai; Xiao, Yaoming; Tang, Qunwei; Yue, Gentian; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang; Huang, Yunfang; Fan, Leqing; Lan, Zhang [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou (China); Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)

    2012-04-10

    Light-weight PEDOT-Pt/Ti mesh and Ti/TiO{sub 2} foil electrodes are prepared. Owing to the PEDOT-Pt/Ti photocathode's high transparency, good electrocatalytic activity, and low resistance; the Ti/TiO{sub 2} anode's large specific area and high conductivity, a light-weight backside illuminated large-area (100 cm{sup 2}) dye-sensitized solar cell achieves an energy conversion efficiency of 6.69% under an outdoors sunlight irradiation of 55 mW cm{sup -2}. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. An Exploration of Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences in Outdoor `Places' and Intentions for Teaching in the Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica; Patrick, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    This study explores pre-service teachers' past interactions with 'place' in outdoor settings and how these experiences contribute to their current perceptions of the importance of taking their own students into the outdoors. Specifically, the researchers were interested in investigating if current pre-service teachers are part of the 'nature-deficit disorder' generation described by Louv in his book, Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficit disorder (2005), as a generation of children growing up without direct experiences in nature. Study participants included 148 undergraduate pre-service elementary teachers enrolled in science teaching methods instructional courses at an urban college in the Northeastern United States and two suburban universities in the Southeastern United States. Participants wrote essay responses after reading Louv's Last Child in the Woods in which they were asked to relate the reading to their own past experiences and their ideas about elementary science education. Results indicate that a large majority of participants (97%) describe significant youth experiences in the outdoors, view nature as important in varying ways (89.9%), and express a desire to expose their own students to the outdoors (65.5%). Key findings are illustrated with direct quotations from the pre-service teachers' essay responses, as they write vividly of their interactions in outdoor places, referred to as 'place meanings'. Implications are presented for teacher educators working with pre-service teachers to build upon their outdoor experiences and prepare them for implementing nature-based instruction.

  15. Agent-based modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Operational Research (OR) deals with the use of advanced analytical methods to support better decision-making. It is multidisciplinary with strong links to management science, decision science, computer science and many application areas such as engineering, manufacturing, commerce and healthcare. In the study of emergent behaviour in complex adaptive systems, Agent-based Modelling & Simulation (ABMS) is being used in many different domains such as healthcare, energy, evacuation, commerce, manufacturing and defense. This collection of articles presents a convenient introduction to ABMS with pa

  16. Simulation-based training for thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine; Ringsted, Charlotte; Hansen, Henrik Jessen;

    2014-01-01

    differ in age or gender. All participants were able to complete the lobectomy. The performance of the black-box group was significantly faster during the test scenario than the virtual-reality group: 26.6 min (SD 6.7 min) versus 32.7 min (SD 7.5 min). No difference existed between the two groups when......BACKGROUND: Video-assisted thoracic surgery is gradually replacing conventional open thoracotomy as the method of choice for the treatment of early-stage non-small cell lung cancers, and thoracic surgical trainees must learn and master this technique. Simulation-based training could help trainees...

  17. SIMULATION OF SUBGRADE EMBANKMENT ON WEAK BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article provides: the question of the sustainability of the subgrade on a weak base is considered in the paper. It is proposed to use the method of jet grouting. Investigation of the possibility of a weak base has an effect on the overall deformation of the subgrade; the identification and optimization of the parameters of subgrade based on studies using numerical simulation. Methodology. The theoretical studies of the stress-strain state of the base and subgrade embankment by modeling in the software package LIRA have been conducted to achieve this goal. Findings. After making the necessary calculations perform building fields of a subsidence, borders cramped thickness, bed’s coefficients of Pasternak and Winkler. The diagrams construction of vertical stress performs at any point of load application. Also, using the software system may perform peer review subsidence, rolls railroad tracks in natural and consolidated basis. Originality. For weak soils is the most appropriate nonlinear model of the base with the existing areas of both elastic and limit equilibrium, mixed problem of the theory of elasticity and plasticity. Practical value. By increasing the load on the weak base as a result of the second track construction, adds embankment or increasing axial load when changing the rolling stock process of sedimentation and consolidation may continue again. Therefore, one of the feasible and promising options for the design and reconstruction of embankments on weak bases is to strengthen the bases with the help of jet grouting. With the expansion of the railway infrastructure, increasing speed and weight of the rolling stock is necessary to ensure the stability of the subgrade on weak bases. LIRA software package allows you to perform all the necessary calculations for the selection of a proper way of strengthening weak bases.

  18. Investigating the Impact on Student Learning and Outdoor Science Interest through Modular Serious Educational Games: A Design-Based Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Elizabeth Eason

    In an effort to get children back outdoors and exploring the natural environment, a Modular Serious Educational Game (mSEG), Red Wolf Caper, was created as part of a design-based research study. Red Wolf Caper uses a combination of an augmented reality (AR) game and a serious educational game (SEG) to capture the students' interest in the natural world around them. The game is set around a mystery in which red wolves in eastern North Carolina are being poisoned. The students are asked to portray the role of a wildlife biologist, botanist, or entomologist, whose job it is to determine who is poisoning the red wolves. MSEG are a new form of SEG that is divided into components or modules. Each module has to be completed before the player can move on to the next module. A module can take on any format, but must encompass the storyline of the game and end in an assessment. The study focused on three research questions. How would students improve the Red Wolf Caper mSEG? Do mSEG affect students' understanding in environmental education concepts, specifically, collecting, evaluating, and developing an explanation for data they collected in the game and knowledge of environmental systems and biological and social implications for the reintroduction of a species? Which role within the mSEG do the students choose and what is their reasoning behind choosing that particular role? The game was tested by 81 middle school students during six sessions in June 2010. The study participants played the game and participated in design sessions. In addition, they were given a 5-question pretest/ posttest, role selection survey, and Serious Educational Game Rubric (SEGR). They were asked to develop a hypothesis and provide evidence to support their hypothesis. Finally, they were asked to write a letter to a local in judge explaining the importance of the red wolf reintroduction project. Twenty-three students were selected to participate in interviews to determine how to improve the game

  19. Sea battle-filed simulation based on Vega

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing; CHEN Jie; GUO Mao-zu

    2009-01-01

    To study battle-field simulation methods based on Vega, a virtual battle-field simulated by an imaginary combat happened on the sea was designed. The simulation framework in the sea battle-filed included helicopter simulation, fire simulation, collision detection and detonation, and simulation of dynamic sea surface.The method to build the imulation environments and actions to them was discussed. And the simulation experiments were conducted. , It is indicated that the simulated sea battle-field based on Vega is feasible and helpful for forces and battle-field.

  20. Agent-Based Simulations for Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. Chris; Sholtes, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the most common approach used in project planning tools is the Critical Path Method (CPM). While this method was a great improvement over the basic Gantt chart technique being used at the time, it now suffers from three primary flaws: (1) task duration is an input, (2) productivity impacts are not considered , and (3) management corrective actions are not included. Today, computers have exceptional computational power to handle complex simulations of task e)(eculion and project management activities (e.g ., dynamically changing the number of resources assigned to a task when it is behind schedule). Through research under a Department of Defense contract, the author and the ViaSim team have developed a project simulation tool that enables more realistic cost and schedule estimates by using a resource-based model that literally turns the current duration-based CPM approach "on its head." The approach represents a fundamental paradigm shift in estimating projects, managing schedules, and reducing risk through innovative predictive techniques.

  1. An Agent-Based Monetary Production Simulation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    An Agent-Based Simulation Model Programmed in Objective Borland Pascal. Program and source code is downloadable......An Agent-Based Simulation Model Programmed in Objective Borland Pascal. Program and source code is downloadable...

  2. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  3. Universal Design and Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Helene Arbouet

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in the natural environment provides authentic and concrete opportunities for children to enhance development in all domains (Bailie, 2010). As children play and explore in nature they build gross motor development moving through the outdoors. Learning outside and in nature not only allows for learning across subject areas and…

  4. Outdoor Learning and Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Margaret; Dawson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A shared conference presentation describes two ways of bringing education for sustainable development into education. The first part concentrated on putting science into outdoor learning backed up by a series of mind-mapping activities. The second was about linking schools with their surrounding communities to develop ways of working together. An…

  5. Cooperative Education in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andy; Flemming, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Cooperative education is a structured experiential education strategy integrating classroom studies with work place learning. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how a cooperative education model can be included within an outdoor education undergraduate degree to develop reflective practitioners and to enhance graduate capabilities. Document…

  6. Multilayer Controller for Outdoor Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reske-Nielsen, Anders; Mejnertsen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Nils Axel;

    2006-01-01

    A full software and hardware solution has been designed, implemented and tested for control of a small agricultural automatic tractor. The objective was to realise a user-friendly, multi-layer controller architecture for an outdoor platform. The collaborative research work was done as a part of a...

  7. Outdoor Leadership Skills: A Program Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooter, Wynn; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Successful hiring, training, and pairing or grouping of staff requires administrators to consider the relationship between their programs' goals and the specific outdoor leadership skills of individual leaders. Authors have divided outdoor leadership skills into a three-category structure, and models of outdoor leadership have focused on skills…

  8. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  9. Outdoor recreation in forest policy and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra;

    2010-01-01

    The benefists of outdoor recreation and the need for recreation inventories and monitoring are described in various policy and legislation documents at the European level. The objective of this paper is to analyse how these recreational aspects are reflected at the national level in core forest...... indicates that a consistent forest recreation monitoring system, linked to sustainable forest management, as describes for example in the Helsinki process, should be better transferred into national policuy and legislation. Compareable data across Europe could then provide a sound base for making decisions...

  10. A cluster-based simulation of facet-based search

    OpenAIRE

    Urruty, T.; Hopfgartner, F.; Villa, R.; Gildea, N.; Jose, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The recent increase of online video has challenged the research in the field of video information retrieval. Video search engines are becoming more and more interactive, helping the user to easily find what he or she is looking for. In this poster, we present a new approach of using an iterative clustering algorithm on text and visual features to simulate users creating new facets in a facet-based interface. Our experimental results prove the usefulness of such an approach.

  11. Cycle-Based Algorithm Used to Accelerate VHDL Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勋; 刘明业

    2000-01-01

    Cycle-based algorithm has very high performance for the simula-tion of synchronous design, but it is confined to synchronous design and it is not as accurate as event-driven algorithm. In this paper, a revised cycle-based algorithm is proposed and implemented in VHDL simulator. Event-driven simulation engine and cycle-based simulation engine have been imbedded in the same simulation environ-ment and can be used to asynchronous design and synchronous design respectively. Thus the simulation performance is improved without losing the flexibility and ac-curacy of event-driven algorithm.

  12. A rainfall simulator based on multifractal generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrour, Nawal; mallet, Cecile; barthes, Laurent; chazottes, Aymeric

    2015-04-01

    illustrating the simulator's capabilities will be provided. They show that the simulated two-dimensional fields have coherent statistical properties in term of cumulative rain rate distribution but also in term of power spectrum and structure function with the observed ones at different spatial scales (1, 4, 16 km2) involving that scale features are well represented by the model. Keywords: precipitation, multifractal modeling, variogram, structure function, scale invariance, rain intermittency Akrour, N., Aymeric; C., Verrier, S., Barthes, L., Mallet, C.: 2013. Calibrating synthetic multifractal times series with observed data. International Precipitation Conference (IPC 11), Wageningen, The Netherlands http://www.wageningenur.nl/upload_mm/7/5/e/a72f004a-8e66-445c-bb0b-f489ed0ff0d4_Abstract%20book_TotaalLR-SEC.pdf Akrour, N., Aymeric; C., Verrier, S., Mallet, C., Barthes, L.: 2014: Simulation of yearly rainfall time series at micro-scale resolution with actual properties: intermittency, scale invariance, rainfall distribution, submitted to Water Resources Research (under revision) Schertzer, D., S. Lovejoy, 1987: Physically based rain and cloud modeling by anisotropic, multiplicative turbulent cascades. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 9692-9714 Schleiss, M., S. Chamoun, and A. Berne (2014), Stochastic simulation of intermittent rainfall using the concept of dry drift, Water Resources Research, 50 (3), 2329-2349

  13. Modeling and simulation of complex systems a framework for efficient agent-based modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Siegfried, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Robert Siegfried presents a framework for efficient agent-based modeling and simulation of complex systems. He compares different approaches for describing structure and dynamics of agent-based models in detail. Based on this evaluation the author introduces the "General Reference Model for Agent-based Modeling and Simulation" (GRAMS). Furthermore he presents parallel and distributed simulation approaches for execution of agent-based models -from small scale to very large scale. The author shows how agent-based models may be executed by different simulation engines that utilize underlying hard

  14. A study protocol to evaluate the relationship between outdoor air pollution and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selemane Ismael

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study protocol is designed to assess the relationship between outdoor air pollution and low birth weight and preterm births outcomes performing a semi-ecological analysis. Semi-ecological design studies are widely used to assess effects of air pollution in humans. In this type of analysis, health outcomes and covariates are measured in individuals and exposure assignments are usually based on air quality monitor stations. Therefore, estimating individual exposures are one of the major challenges when investigating these relationships with a semi-ecologic design. Methods/Design Semi-ecologic study consisting of a retrospective cohort study with ecologic assignment of exposure is applied. Health outcomes and covariates are collected at Primary Health Care Center. Data from pregnant registry, clinical record and specific questionnaire administered orally to the mothers of children born in period 2007-2010 in Portuguese Alentejo Litoral region, are collected by the research team. Outdoor air pollution data are collected with a lichen diversity biomonitoring program, and individual pregnancy exposures are assessed with spatial geostatistical simulation, which provides the basis for uncertainty analysis of individual exposures. Awareness of outdoor air pollution uncertainty will improve validity of individual exposures assignments for further statistical analysis with multivariate regression models. Discussion Exposure misclassification is an issue of concern in semi-ecological design. In this study, personal exposures are assigned to each pregnant using geocoded addresses data. A stochastic simulation method is applied to lichen diversity values index measured at biomonitoring survey locations, in order to assess spatial uncertainty of lichen diversity value index at each geocoded address. These methods assume a model for spatial autocorrelation of exposure and provide a distribution of exposures in each study location

  15. The Hidden Turmoil: Females Achieving Longevity in the Outdoor Learning Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle; Gray, Tonia

    2013-01-01

    Being a woman in the outdoor learning profession can bring distinctive challenges and roadblocks. Even more difficult is sustaining a life-long career, flourishing into a woman's 50s or 60s. Based on this premise, career longevity seems elusive for some women who aspire to work in the outdoors. This paper analyses the autobiographies of three…

  16. The Great Outdoors: Comparing Leader Development Programs at the U.S. Naval Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Wesley S.; Smith, David G.; Thomas, Joseph J.; Carlson, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares outdoor adventure-based leader development programs with a traditional non-outdoor program to test predictions about differential effects on leader development outcomes. Participants were drawn from the population of U.S. Naval Academy midshipmen involved in experiential leader development programs as a component of their…

  17. Evaluating heterogeneity in indoor and outdoor air pollution using land-use regression and constrained factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jonathan I; Clougherty, Jane E; Baxter, Lisa K; Houseman, E Andres; Paciorek, Christopher J

    2010-12-01

    multiple indicators of traffic using Massachusetts Highway Department (MHD) data and traffic counts collected outside the residences where the air monitoring was conducted. We used a standardized questionnaire to collect data on home characteristics and occupant behaviors. Additional housing information was collected through property tax records. Ambient concentrations of pollutants as well as meteorological data were collected from centrally located ambient monitors. We used GIS-based LUR models to explain spatial and temporal variability in residential outdoor concentrations of PM2.5, EC, and NO2. We subsequently derived latent-source factors for residential outdoor concentrations using confirmatory factor analysis constrained to nonnegative loadings. We developed LUR models to determine whether GIS covariates and other predictors explain factor variability and thereby support initial factor interpretations. To evaluate indoor concentrations, we developed physically interpretable regression models that explored the relationship between measured indoor and outdoor concentrations, relying on questionnaire data to characterize indoor sources and activities. Because outdoor pollutant concentrations measured directly outside of homes are unlikely to be available for most large epidemiologic studies, we developed regression models to explain indoor concentrations of PM2.5, EC, and NO2 as a function of other, more readily available data: GIS covariates, questionnaire data reflecting both sources and ventilation, and central site monitoring data. As we did for outdoor concentrations, we then derived latent-source factors for residential indoor concentrations and developed regression models explaining variability in these indoor latent-source factors. Finally, to provide insight about the effects of improved characterization of exposures for the results of subsequent epidemiologic investigations, we developed a simulation framework to quantitatively compare the implications of

  18. Evaluating heterogeneity in indoor and outdoor air pollution using land-use regression and constrained factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jonathan I; Clougherty, Jane E; Baxter, Lisa K; Houseman, E Andres; Paciorek, Christopher J

    2010-12-01

    multiple indicators of traffic using Massachusetts Highway Department (MHD) data and traffic counts collected outside the residences where the air monitoring was conducted. We used a standardized questionnaire to collect data on home characteristics and occupant behaviors. Additional housing information was collected through property tax records. Ambient concentrations of pollutants as well as meteorological data were collected from centrally located ambient monitors. We used GIS-based LUR models to explain spatial and temporal variability in residential outdoor concentrations of PM2.5, EC, and NO2. We subsequently derived latent-source factors for residential outdoor concentrations using confirmatory factor analysis constrained to nonnegative loadings. We developed LUR models to determine whether GIS covariates and other predictors explain factor variability and thereby support initial factor interpretations. To evaluate indoor concentrations, we developed physically interpretable regression models that explored the relationship between measured indoor and outdoor concentrations, relying on questionnaire data to characterize indoor sources and activities. Because outdoor pollutant concentrations measured directly outside of homes are unlikely to be available for most large epidemiologic studies, we developed regression models to explain indoor concentrations of PM2.5, EC, and NO2 as a function of other, more readily available data: GIS covariates, questionnaire data reflecting both sources and ventilation, and central site monitoring data. As we did for outdoor concentrations, we then derived latent-source factors for residential indoor concentrations and developed regression models explaining variability in these indoor latent-source factors. Finally, to provide insight about the effects of improved characterization of exposures for the results of subsequent epidemiologic investigations, we developed a simulation framework to quantitatively compare the implications of

  19. SIDH: A Game-Based Architecture for a Training Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    P. Backlund; Engström, H.; Gustavsson, M.; Johannesson, M.; Lebram, M.; E. Sjörs

    2009-01-01

    Game-based simulators, sometimes referred to as “lightweight” simulators, have benefits such as flexible technology and economic feasibility. In this article, we extend the notion of a game-based simulator by introducing multiple screen view and physical interaction. These features are expected to enhance immersion and fidelity. By utilizing these concepts we have constructed a training simulator for breathing apparatus entry. Game hardware and software have been used to produce the applicati...

  20. A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring pollution amounts for indoor and outdoor environments. Here, an effort has been made to modify low cost available pollution devices to work for indoor and outdoor pollution monitoring and a simple cost effective approach has been carried out. Indoor carbon monoxide gas level monitoring using cheap alarms sensor, supported by a car oxygen sensor for oxygen gas level monitoring. The same approach is used for outdoor gas pollution monitoring. A computer program has been designed to facilitate computer based monitoring process and logging of pollution data.

  1. Self-organized architecture for outdoor mobile robot navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Huan-cheng; ZHU Miao-liang

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposed a multi-agent based architecture for outdoor mobile robot navigation where event-driven control is used to handle the dynamically changing of the environment. With the support of a distributed communication infrastructure and an event-driven situation evaluation agent, the robot can initiate action adaptive to the dynamical changes in the environment through reorganize its internal architecture. Adaptiveness and feasibility of the proposed architecture is validated through navigation experiments on the robot in a variety of natural outdoor environments.

  2. Keystream Generator Based On Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad A. Abdulsalam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the design of keystream generator using heuristic techniques are reported. A simulated annealing algorithm for generating random keystream with large complexity is presented. Simulated annealing technique is adapted to locate these requirements. The definitions for some cryptographic properties are generalized, providing a measure suitable for use as an objective function in a simulated annealing algorithm, seeking randomness that satisfy both correlation immunity and the large linear complexity. Results are presented demonstrating the effectiveness of the method.

  3. Simulation-Based System Design Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The research objective is to develop, test, and implement effective and efficient simulation techniques for modeling, evaluating, and optimizing systems in order to...

  4. Health promoting outdoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stigsdotter, Anna Ulrika Karlsson; Ekholm, Ola; Schipperijn, Jasper;

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between green space and health, health-related quality of life and stress, respectively. METHODS: Data were derived from the 2005 Danish Health Interview Survey and are based on a region-stratified random sample of 21,832 adults. Data were collected via face......-to-face interviews followed by a self-administered questionnaire, including the SF-36, which measures eight dimensions of health and the Perceived Stress Scale, which measures self-reported stress. A total of 11,238 respondents completed the interview and returned the questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression...... analyses were performed to investigate the association between distance to green space and self-perceived stress. RESULTS: Danes living more than 1 km away from the nearest green space report poorer health and health-related quality of life, i.e. lower mean scores on all eight SF-36 dimensions of health...

  5. Relaxation Based Electrical Simulation for VLSI Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajkumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical circuit simulation was one of the first CAD tools developed for IC design. The conventional circuit simulators like SPICE and ASTAP were designed initially for the cost effective analysis of circuits containing a few hundred transistors or less. A number of approaches have been used to improve the performances of congenital circuit simulators for the analysis of large circuits. Thereafter relaxation methods was proposed to provide more accurate waveforms than standard circuit simulators with up to two orders of magnitude speed improvement for large circuits. In this paper we have tried to highlights recently used waveform and point relaxation techniques for simulation of VLSI circuits. We also propose a simple parallelization technique and experimentally demonstrate that we can solve digital circuits with tens of million transistors in a few hours.

  6. 短距离室外可见光数字传输系统研究%Study on the Outdoor Short-distance Digital Transmission Based on White LED Visible Light Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建余; 于立娟

    2013-01-01

    提出一种基于白光LED的短距离室外可见光数字传输系统,分析可见光室外通信信道特性及影响因素,采用恒流驱动电路实现亮度调节保证LED照度与通信稳定性,利用切换电路实现照明通信间切换,采用差分曼彻斯特编码来避免通信过程LED闪烁和保证光信号接收,并进行光路设计便于光路处理和干扰抑制.实验结果表明,系统实现了45 m室外可见光上无差错数字信号传输,工作稳定可靠且抗干扰能力强,为进一步研究室外可见光通信技术提供一定参考.%A novel short-distance digital transmission system based on white LED outdoor visible light communication is proposed.The characteristics of outdoor visible light communication channel and influence factors were analyzed in the paper.The constant current drive circuit were designed to ensure the illumination and communication stability of white LED.And the switch circuit to ensure switch between lighting and communication.The differential Manchester encoding was employed to avoid LED twinkle and guarantee the stability of signal receiving.The optical path design was adopted to optical processing and interference suppression.The measurement results shown that an error-free digital data transmission was achieved in the proposed system.And the system was not only stable and reliable, but also has high anti-interference ability, which also would have certain effective for further research on LED outdoor visible light communication.

  7. Family Learning Outdoors: Guided Participation on a Nature Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; McClain, Lucy R.

    2016-01-01

    This informal learning research project examined how guided participation processes support the use of cultural tools (such as scientific equipment) during a nature walk at one nature center. This paper analyzed family interactions outdoors using microethnographic methods. An informal learning framework based on guided participation and cultural…

  8. Model experiments related to outdoor propagation over an earth berm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1994-01-01

    A series of scale model experiments related to outdoor propagation over an earth berm is described. The measurements are performed with a triggered spark source. The results are compared with data from an existing calculation model based upon uniform diffraction theory. Comparisons are made...

  9. A generic testing framework for agent-based simulation models

    OpenAIRE

    Gürcan, Önder; Dikenelli, Oguz; Bernon, Carole

    2013-01-01

    International audience Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) had an increasing attention during the last decade. However, the weak validation and verification of agent-based simulation models makes ABMS hard to trust. There is no comprehensive tool set for verification and validation of agent-based simulation models, which demonstrates that inaccuracies exist and/or reveals the existing errors in the model. Moreover, on the practical side, many ABMS frameworks are in use. In this sen...

  10. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  11. CONCEPTUAL MODELLING FOR SIMULATION-BASED SERIOUS GAMING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Holkenborg, B.; Johansson, B; Jain, S; MontoyaTorres, J; Hugan, J; Yucesan, E

    2010-01-01

    In recent years several simulation-based serious games have been developed for mastering new business concepts in operations management. This indicates the high potential of simulation use for pedagogical purposes. Unfortunately, this potential is hardly reflected in simulation methodology. We consi

  12. Mosquito population dynamics from cellular automata-based simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafarina, Inna; Sadikin, Rifki; Nuraini, Nuning

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present an innovative model for simulating mosquito-vector population dynamics. The simulation consist of two stages: demography and dispersal dynamics. For demography simulation, we follow the existing model for modeling a mosquito life cycles. Moreover, we use cellular automata-based model for simulating dispersal of the vector. In simulation, each individual vector is able to move to other grid based on a random walk. Our model is also capable to represent immunity factor for each grid. We simulate the model to evaluate its correctness. Based on the simulations, we can conclude that our model is correct. However, our model need to be improved to find a realistic parameters to match real data.

  13. Simulation Parameters Settings Methodology Proposal Based on Leverage Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janošek, Michal; Kocian, Václav

    Simulation belongs to one of the most time consuming phases of complex system design. It is necessary to test our model with number of parameters of the entire simulation, control mechanism and components. We test various scenarios and strategies. In this article we would like to present the methodology proposal for simulation parameters settings based on leverage points' hierarchy developed by Donella H. Meadows to aid the simulation process.

  14. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) I

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreationrelated outdoor education research literature published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered by the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This article is divided into two parts, both published in this issue of the journal. Part one describes how the stocktake was conducted and reports on the research liter...

  15. Traffic and Driving Simulator Based on Architecture of Interactive Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Paz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an architecture for an interactive motion-based traffic simulation environment. In order to enhance modeling realism involving actual human beings, the proposed architecture integrates multiple types of simulation, including: (i motion-based driving simulation, (ii pedestrian simulation, (iii motorcycling and bicycling simulation, and (iv traffic flow simulation. The architecture has been designed to enable the simulation of the entire network; as a result, the actual driver, pedestrian, and bike rider can navigate anywhere in the system. In addition, the background traffic interacts with the actual human beings. This is accomplished by using a hybrid mesomicroscopic traffic flow simulation modeling approach. The mesoscopic traffic flow simulation model loads the results of a user equilibrium traffic assignment solution and propagates the corresponding traffic through the entire system. The microscopic traffic flow simulation model provides background traffic around the vicinities where actual human beings are navigating the system. The two traffic flow simulation models interact continuously to update system conditions based on the interactions between actual humans and the fully simulated entities. Implementation efforts are currently in progress and some preliminary tests of individual components have been conducted. The implementation of the proposed architecture faces significant challenges ranging from multiplatform and multilanguage integration to multievent communication and coordination.

  16. Simulation based virtual learning environment in medical genetics counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Bonde, Mads T; Wulff, Julie S G;

    2016-01-01

    in medicine, received a 2-h training session in a simulation based learning environment. The main outcomes were pre- to post- changes in knowledge, intrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy, together with post-intervention evaluation of the effect of the simulation on student understanding of everyday clinical...... that they would feel more confident counseling a patient after the simulation. CONCLUSIONS: The simulation based learning environment increased students' learning, intrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy (although the strength of these effects differed depending on their pre-test knowledge), and increased......BACKGROUND: Simulation based learning environments are designed to improve the quality of medical education by allowing students to interact with patients, diagnostic laboratory procedures, and patient data in a virtual environment. However, few studies have evaluated whether simulation based...

  17. Indoor-Outdoor Detection Using a Smart Phone Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Chang, Qiang; Li, Qun; Shi, Zesen; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In the era of mobile internet, Location Based Services (LBS) have developed dramatically. Seamless Indoor and Outdoor Navigation and Localization (SNAL) has attracted a lot of attention. No single positioning technology was capable of meeting the various positioning requirements in different environments. Selecting different positioning techniques for different environments is an alternative method. Detecting the users' current environment is crucial for this technique. In this paper, we proposed to detect the indoor/outdoor environment automatically without high energy consumption. The basic idea was simple: we applied a machine learning algorithm to classify the neighboring Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication cellular base station's signal strength in different environments, and identified the users' current context by signal pattern recognition. We tested the algorithm in four different environments. The results showed that the proposed algorithm was capable of identifying open outdoors, semi-outdoors, light indoors and deep indoors environments with 100% accuracy using the signal strength of four nearby GSM stations. The required hardware and signal are widely available in our daily lives, implying its high compatibility and availability. PMID:27669252

  18. KM QUEST: A collaborative Internet-based simulation game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemkuil, Henny; Jong, de Ton; Hoog, de Robert; Christoph, Noor

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the development of a collaborative Internet-based simulation game for learning to solve knowledge management problems is described. The simulation game builds on two starting points: first, on psychological and pedagogical developments in learning and instruction, which are based on

  19. Observer-based Satellite Attitude Control and Simulation Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子才; 马克茂

    2002-01-01

    Observer design method is applied to the realization of satellite attitude control law baaed on simplified control model. Exact mathematical model of the satellite attitude control system is also constructed, together with the observer-based control law, to conduct simulation research. The simulation results justify the effectiveness andfeasibility of the observer-based control method.

  20. Agent-based Simulation of the Maritime Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vaněk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multi-agent based simulation platform is introduced that focuses on legitimate and illegitimate aspects of maritime traffic, mainly on intercontinental transport through piracy afflicted areas. The extensible architecture presented here comprises several modules controlling the simulation and the life-cycle of the agents, analyzing the simulation output and visualizing the entire simulated domain. The simulation control module is initialized by various configuration scenarios to simulate various real-world situations, such as a pirate ambush, coordinated transit through a transport corridor, or coastal fishing and local traffic. The environmental model provides a rich set of inputs for agents that use the geo-spatial data and the vessel operational characteristics for their reasoning. The agent behavior model based on finite state machines together with planning algorithms allows complex expression of agent behavior, so the resulting simulation output can serve as a substitution for real world data from the maritime domain.

  1. Green Perspectives for Public Health: A Narrative Review on the Physiological Effects of Experiencing Outdoor Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological

  2. Green perspectives for public health: a narrative review on the physiological effects of experiencing outdoor nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Schönbauer, Regina; Cervinka, Renate

    2014-05-01

    Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological stress reactions, was

  3. Particle Based Image Segmentation with Simulated Annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, M.H.; Bekker, H.; Jalba, A.C.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Charged Particle Model (CPM) is a physically motivated deformable model for shape recovery and segmentation. It simulates a system of charged particles moving in an electric field generated from the input image, whose positions in the equilibrium state are used for curve or surface reconstructio

  4. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2001-01-01

    In the biological literature on animal behaviour, in addition to real experiments and field studies, also simulation experiments are a useful source of progress. Often specific mathematical modelling techniques are adopted and directly implemented in a programming language. Modelling more complex ag

  5. Simulation based analysis of laser beam brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Michael; Wiethop, Philipp; Schmid, Daniel; Schmidt, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Laser beam brazing is a well-established joining technology in car body manufacturing with main applications in the joining of divided tailgates and the joining of roof and side panels. A key advantage of laser brazed joints is the seam's visual quality which satisfies highest requirements. However, the laser beam brazing process is very complex and process dynamics are only partially understood. In order to gain deeper knowledge of the laser beam brazing process, to determine optimal process parameters and to test process variants, a transient three-dimensional simulation model of laser beam brazing is developed. This model takes into account energy input, heat transfer as well as fluid and wetting dynamics that lead to the formation of the brazing seam. A validation of the simulation model is performed by metallographic analysis and thermocouple measurements for different parameter sets of the brazing process. These results show that the multi-physical simulation model not only can be used to gain insight into the laser brazing process but also offers the possibility of process optimization in industrial applications. The model's capabilities in determining optimal process parameters are exemplarily shown for the laser power. Small deviations in the energy input can affect the brazing results significantly. Therefore, the simulation model is used to analyze the effect of the lateral laser beam position on the energy input and the resulting brazing seam.

  6. Smart sensor systems for outdoor intrusion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major improvement in outdoor perimeter security system probability of detection (PD) and reduction in false alarm rate (FAR) and nuisance alarm rate (NAR) may be obtained by analyzing the indications immediately preceding an event which might be interpreted as an intrusion. Existing systems go into alarm after crossing a threshold. Very slow changes, which accumulate until the threshold is reached, may be assessed falsely as an intrusion. A hierarchial program has begun at Stellar to develop a modular, expandable Smart Sensor system which may be interfaced to most types of sensor and alarm reporting systems. A major upgrade to the SSI Test Site is in progress so that intrusions may be simulated in a controlled and repeatable manner. A test platform is being constructed which will operate in conduction with a mobile instrumentation center with CCTVB, lighting control, weather and data monitoring and remote control of the test platform and intrusion simulators. Additional testing was contracted with an independent test facility to assess the effects of severe winter weather conditions

  7. Preview-based sampling for controlling gaseous simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ruoguan

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we describe an automated method for directing the control of a high resolution gaseous fluid simulation based on the results of a lower resolution preview simulation. Small variations in accuracy between low and high resolution grids can lead to divergent simulations, which is problematic for those wanting to achieve a desired behavior. Our goal is to provide a simple method for ensuring that the high resolution simulation matches key properties from the lower resolution simulation. We first let a user specify a fast, coarse simulation that will be used for guidance. Our automated method samples the data to be matched at various positions and scales in the simulation, or allows the user to identify key portions of the simulation to maintain. During the high resolution simulation, a matching process ensures that the properties sampled from the low resolution simulation are maintained. This matching process keeps the different resolution simulations aligned even for complex systems, and can ensure consistency of not only the velocity field, but also advected scalar values. Because the final simulation is naturally similar to the preview simulation, only minor controlling adjustments are needed, allowing a simpler control method than that used in prior keyframing approaches. Copyright © 2011 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  8. Being Confined within? Constructions of the Good Childhood and Outdoor Play in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Kernan, Margaret; Devine, Dympna

    2010-01-01

    This study is based on a study of the experience of the outdoors in early childhood education and care settings in Ireland. Central to the analyses are the inter-linkages drawn between constructions of a 'good' childhood, and children’s 'need' for outdoor play, as well as the contradictions which arise around competing discourses of safety and protection versus play and autonomy in the structuring of children’s everyday lives. The findings indicate that the outdoors is increasingly marginalis...

  9. The Outdoor MEDIA DOT: The Development and Inter-Rater Reliability of a Tool Designed to Measure Food and Beverage Outlets and Outdoor Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies of the food environment have collected primary data, and even fewer have reported reliability of the tool used. This study focused on the development of an innovative electronic data collection tool used to document outdoor food and beverage (FB) advertising and establishments near 43 middle and high schools in the Outdoor MEDIA Study. Tool development used GIS based mapping, an electronic data collection form on handheld devices, and an easily adaptable interface to efficiently c...

  10. Simulation Based Optimization for World Line Card Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan APAK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulation based decision support system is one of the commonly used tool to examine complex production systems. The simulation approach provides process modules which can be adjusted with certain parameters by using data relatively easily obtainable in production process. World Line Card production system simulation is developed to evaluate the optimality of existing production line via using discrete event simulation model with variaty of alternative proposals. The current production system is analysed by a simulation model emphasizing the bottlenecks and the poorly utilized production line. Our analysis identified some improvements and efficient solutions for the existing system.

  11. GIS-Based Simulation of Engineering Construction Schedule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing; ZHONG Denghua; HU Chengshun

    2005-01-01

    For its complexity, engineering construction schedule design is limited by various factors.Simulation-based engineering construction schedule takes critical path method (CPM) network as frame and calls complex cyclic operation network (CYCLONE) simulation model enclosed in advance for its simulation nodes. CYCLONE simulation model takes charge of simulating stochastic duration of activity and efficiency of resources, while CPM model performs project scheduling. This combination avoids the shortcomings of both models. Furthermore, geographic information system (GIS) technique is utilized to visualize the construction processes which are otherwise difficult to be understood by static results described. Application in practical project verifies the feasibility and advantage of the technique.

  12. Simulation of Screening Process Based on MATLAB/Simulink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ying-jie; DENG Hui-yong; LI Xia

    2006-01-01

    Screening is an important process in mineral industry. In this paper, a study has been made to simulate the screening process based on a high-performance MATLAB/Simulink software, with an example of simulating the sieving process of a vibrating screen. A simulation model of the sieving process with a vibrating screen (SMSPVS) was proposed, using correlative mathematical models and Simulink blocks. The results show that the simulation data was very close to the actual data, The minimum errors of size distribution of oversize and undersize are 0.65% and 0.20%, respectively. The sieving process can be accurately simulated by the SMSPVS.

  13. Does Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Really Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith C.

    2002-01-01

    Outdoor behavioral healthcare (OBH), using wilderness therapy and related outdoor programming, is an emerging treatment for adolescents with behavioral, psychological, and substance abuse disorders. A literature review examining OBH outcomes related to self-concept, interpersonal skills, substance abuse, criminal recidivism, and behavioral and…

  14. Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcombe, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

  15. Outdoor Acoustics as a General Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    due to natural and man-made obstacles. Various areas of application of outdoor sound are described, such as aircraft noise, road traffic noise and industrial noise. More unconventional applications such as outdoor sound reinforcement are also described. The choice of theoretical model must be adapted...

  16. Developing an Environmental Ethic in Outdoor Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Keith

    1986-01-01

    Argues that both short- and long-term outdoor education and wilderness programs should promote environmental awareness and the development of an environmental ethic. Outlines examples of approaches to integrating environmental goals and concepts into outdoor experiential education programs offered by Australian elementary and secondary schools and…

  17. Rugged Practices: Embodying Authenticity in Outdoor Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda-Cook, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    When people recreate outdoors, they value the quality of the experience. This study examines rhetorical practices that sustain or undermine perceived authentic outdoor recreation experiences. I conducted a rhetorical analysis of my fieldnotes gathered through participant observation and interview transcripts of online and in-person interviews. I…

  18. Basic illustrated knots for the outdoors

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Cliff Jacobson is one of North America's most respected outdoors writers and wilderness canoe guides. His experiences as a professional outfitter and canoeing consultant have resulted in more than a dozen top-selling books on camping, canoeing, navigation, and outdoor skills.

  19. Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

  20. Motion control simulation based on VR for humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaiqing; Tang, Haoxuan

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes the motion control simulation based on VR for humanoid robot aiming at walking and running. To insure that the motion rhythm of humanoid robot conforms to the motion laws of humans, the body geometrical model based on skeleton and its kinematics models based on the graph of time sequences are presented firstly. Then a control algorithm based on Jacobian matrix is proposed to generate the periodical walking and running. Finally, computer simulation experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the models and the algorithm. The simulation system developed makes us interactively regulate the motion direction and velocity for humanoid robot.

  1. Performance Analysis Based on Timing Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Dalsgaard; Kishinevsky, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Determining the cycle time and a critical cycle is a fundamental problem in the analysis of concurrent systems. We solve this problemusing timing simulation of an underlying Signal Graph (an extension of Marked Graphs). For a Signal Graph with n vertices and m arcs our algorithm has the polynomia...... time complexity O(b2m), where b is the number of vertices with initially marked in-arcs (typically b≪n). The algorithm has a clear semantic and a low descriptive complexity. We illustrate the use of the algorithm by applying it to performance analysis of asynchronous circuits.......Determining the cycle time and a critical cycle is a fundamental problem in the analysis of concurrent systems. We solve this problemusing timing simulation of an underlying Signal Graph (an extension of Marked Graphs). For a Signal Graph with n vertices and m arcs our algorithm has the polynomial...

  2. Revisiting Circular-Based Random Node Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla, Mouhamed; Shayan, Yousef R.; Baek, Junho

    2013-01-01

    In literature, a stochastic model for spreading nodes in a cellular cell is available. Despite its existence, the current method does not offer any versatility in dealing with sectored layers. Of course, this needed adaptability could be created synthetically through heuristic means. However, due to selective sampling, such practice dissolves the true randomness sought. Hence, in this paper, a universal exact scattering model is derived. Also, as an alternative to exhaustive simulation, a gen...

  3. Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongyi; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates.

  4. Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongyi; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates. PMID:26808718

  5. Do Army Helicopter Training Simulators Need Motion Bases?

    OpenAIRE

    McCauley, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    United States Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences This report reviews the arguments and the evidence regarding the need for simulator motion bases in training helicopter pilots. It discusses flight simulators, perceptual fidelity, history of motion bases, disturbance versus maneuver motion, human motion sensation, and reviews the empirical evidence for the training effectiveness of motion bases. The section on training effectiveness reviews research f...

  6. Validation of Geant4-based Radioactive Decay Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hauf, Steffen; Batič, Matej; Bell, Zane W; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Lang, Philipp M; Neff, Stephan; Pia, Maria Grazia; Weidenspointner, Georg; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive decays are of concern in a wide variety of applications using Monte-Carlo simulations. In order to properly estimate the quality of such simulations, knowledge of the accuracy of the decay simulation is required. We present a validation of the original Geant4 Radioactive Decay Module, which uses a per-decay sampling approach, and of an extended package for Geant4-based simulation of radioactive decays, which, in addition to being able to use a refactored per-decay sampling, is capable of using a statistical sampling approach. The validation is based on measurements of calibration isotope sources using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector; no calibration of the simulation is performed. For the considered validation experiment equivalent simulation accuracy can be achieved with per-decay and statistical sampling.

  7. Simulation-based design using wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R.; Amaratunga, Kevin S.

    1994-03-01

    The design of large-scale systems requires methods of analysis which have the flexibility to provide a fast interactive simulation capability, while retaining the ability to provide high-order solution accuracy when required. This suggests that a hierarchical solution procedure is required that allows us to trade off accuracy for solution speed in a rational manner. In this paper, we examine the properties of the biorthogonal wavelets recently constructed by Dahlke and Weinreich and show how they can be used to implement a highly efficient multiscale solution procedure for solving a certain class of one-dimensional problems.

  8. On the Current Situation and Measures of the DeveIopment of Outdoor Sports in Guangxi Based on the Sports Tourism Marketing ModeI%体育旅游营销模式下的广西户外运动发展现状与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建达; 蒋小翠

    2015-01-01

    Based on the experience of Guangxi outdoor sports events, this paper studies the status quo of outdoor sports in Guangxi by means of literature review, experts interviews, field survey and other research methods to help outdoor sports quickly integrate into the market, establish sports tourism marketing awareness, broaden the development approach of local outdoor sports characteristics, and construct a set of regional characteristics.It will provide references and lessons for development of culture, economy, society and sustainable P.E. development.%文章结合广西户外运动赛事运作的经验,用文献资料法、专家访谈法、实地调查法等研究方法对广西户外运动的现状进行研究,帮助户外运动迅速融入到市场,建立体育旅游的营销意识,拓宽当地户外运动特色项目的发展途径,建构一套有区域特色的户外运动赛事运作模式,为文化资源建设、经济建设、社会进步以及实现体育旅游的可持续发展提供参考和借鉴。

  9. DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF FIBER BRAGG GRATING BASED SENSORS

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMED M. SALEH; RIADH K. A. Al-ANI; ILHAM K. ONEES

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the temperature and strain sensing principle of FBG based sensors are design & simulated by using Optigrating software. Simulation tools provide valuable help in optimizing the design parameters.From the graphical simulations, it can be concluded that there is a linear relationship between the Bragg wavelength shift and the temperature as well as the strain change. Also different values of grating period due to increasing the value of shifted wavelength.

  10. Haptic Feedback for the GPU-based Surgical Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Mosegaard, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The GPU has proven to be a powerful processor to compute spring-mass based surgical simulations. It has not previously been shown however, how to effectively implement haptic interaction with a simulation running entirely on the GPU. This paper describes a method to calculate haptic feedback...... with limited performance cost. It allows easy balancing of the GPU workload between calculations of simulation, visualisation, and the haptic feedback....

  11. Cognitive Modeling for Agent-Based Simulation of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Puddy, Richard

    This paper extends previous work to develop cognitive modeling for agent-based simulation of child maltreatment (CM). The developed model is inspired from parental efficacy, parenting stress, and the theory of planned behavior. It provides an explanatory, process-oriented model of CM and incorporates causality relationship and feedback loops from different factors in the social ecology in order for simulating the dynamics of CM. We describe the model and present simulation results to demonstrate the features of this model.

  12. Nonstandard FDTD Simulation-Based Design of CROW Wavelength Splitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Okada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD algorithm has been used in simulation-based designs of many optical devices, but it fails to reproduce high-Q whispering gallery modes (WGMs. On the other hand, the nonstandard (NS FDTD algorithm can accurately compute WGMs and can be used to make simulation-based designs of WGM devices. Wavelength splitters using the coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs based on WGM couplings have recently attracted attention because they are potentially ultracompact. In this paper, we design a CROW wavelength splitter using NS FDTD simulations and demonstrate high interchannel extinction ratios of over 20 dB.

  13. Modelling of horn-type loudspeakers for outdoor sound reinforcement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    -type loudspeakers is made. The agreement between measured and calculated results is very good provided that a sufficient number of modes is included in the simulation. Simulation models of this kind represent one of the first steps towards a CAD tool for outdoor sound reinforcement systems....

  14. Simulation of Quantum Computation : A Deterministic Event-Based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Raedt, K. De; Raedt, H. De

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that locally connected networks of machines that have primitive learning capabilities can be used to perform a deterministic, event-based simulation of quantum computation. We present simulation results for basic quantum operations such as the Hadamard and the controlled-NOT gate, and

  15. Web-based Interactive Simulator for Rotating Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Vijayalaxmi

    1999-01-01

    Baroma (Balance of Rotating Machinery), the Web-based educational engineering interactive software for teaching/learning combines didactical and software ergonomical approaches. The software in tutorial form simulates a problem using Visual Interactive Simulation in graphic display, and animation is brought about through graphical user interface…

  16. IDEF method-based simulation model design and development framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Young Jeong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an IDEF method-based integrated framework for a business process simulation model to reduce the model development time by increasing the communication and knowledge reusability during a simulation project. In this framework, simulation requirements are collected by a function modeling method (IDEF0 and a process modeling method (IDEF3. Based on these requirements, a common data model is constructed using the IDEF1X method. From this reusable data model, multiple simulation models are automatically generated using a database-driven simulation model development approach. The framework is claimed to help both requirement collection and experimentation phases during a simulation project by improving system knowledge, model reusability, and maintainability through the systematic use of three descriptive IDEF methods and the features of the relational database technologies. A complex semiconductor fabrication case study was used as a testbed to evaluate and illustrate the concepts and the framework. Two different simulation software products were used to develop and control the semiconductor model from the same knowledge base. The case study empirically showed that this framework could help improve the simulation project processes by using IDEF-based descriptive models and the relational database technology. Authors also concluded that this framework could be easily applied to other analytical model generation by separating the logic from the data.

  17. Simulation of quantum computation : A deterministic event-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K; De Raedt, K; De Raedt, H

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that locally connected networks of machines that have primitive learning capabilities can be used to perform a deterministic, event-based simulation of quantum computation. We present simulation results for basic quantum operations such as the Hadamard and the controlled-NOT gate, and

  18. Conceptual modeling for simulation-based serious gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Durk-Jouke; Holkenborg, Bart; Robinson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    In recent years many simulation-based serious games have been developed for supporting (future) managers in operations management decision making. They illustrate the high potential of using discrete event simulation for pedagogical purposes. Unfortunately, this potential does not seem to go togethe

  19. The Gap of Current Agent Based Simulation Modeling Practices and Feasibility of a Generic Agent Based Simulation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yim Ling Loo; Alicia Y.C. Tang; Azhana Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Agent-based modeling had been revolving to be established approach in modeling simulation systems which are used to understand and predict certain real-life scenarios in specific domains. Past researches which are domain-specific caused repetitive building of new models from scratch and restrict replication and reuse because of limitation of models’ description. This paper presents a review of gaps between domain-specific agent-based simulation modeling and the recent practices of agent-based...

  20. Discrete Element Simulation of Asphalt Mastics Based on Burgers Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; FENG Shi-rong; HU Xia-guang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the viscoelastic performance of asphalt mastics, a micro-mechanical model for asphalt mastics was built by applying Burgers model to discrete element simulation and constructing Burgers contact model. Then the numerical simulation of creep tests was conducted, and results from the simulation were compared with the analytical solution for Burgers model. The comparision snowed that the two results agreed well with each other, suggesting that discrete element model based on Burgers model could be employed in the numerical simulation for asphalt mastics.

  1. Visual Simulation of Missile Attacking Battleplane Based on Vega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Huibing

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A visual simulation system of fragment warhead missile attacking F-16C ''Falcon'' battleplane based on simulation and virtual reality technology is put forward. Firstly, the overall design of visual simulation of missile attacking F16 battleplane is implemented, and all functions of each module are demonstrated in detailed. Then 3D models in virtual battle field are optimized by level of detail, texture mapping, billboard and instance technology. Finally, Vega scene driving program is developed, and the implementation of special effect, view transform, preview and collision detect are emphasized. The result of simulation provides reference for damage assessment of missile attacking F16 battleplane.

  2. Template-Based Geometric Simulation of Flexible Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Wells

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Specialised modelling and simulation methods implementing simplified physical models are valuable generators of insight. Template-based geometric simulation is a specialised method for modelling flexible framework structures made up of rigid units. We review the background, development and implementation of the method, and its applications to the study of framework materials such as zeolites and perovskites. The “flexibility window” property of zeolite frameworks is a particularly significant discovery made using geometric simulation. Software implementing geometric simulation of framework materials, “GASP”, is freely available to researchers.

  3. Validation of Geant4-based Radioactive Decay Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hauf, Steffen; Kuster, Markus; Batič, Matej; Bell, Zane W.; Dieter H.H. Hoffmann; Lang, Philipp M.; Neff, Stephan; Pia, Maria Grazia; Weidenspointner, Georg; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive decays are of concern in a wide variety of applications using Monte-Carlo simulations. In order to properly estimate the quality of such simulations, knowledge of the accuracy of the decay simulation is required. We present a validation of the original Geant4 Radioactive Decay Module, which uses a per-decay sampling approach, and of an extended package for Geant4-based simulation of radioactive decays, which, in addition to being able to use a refactored per-decay sampling, is cap...

  4. Simulation-based optimization parametric optimization techniques and reinforcement learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gosavi, Abhijit

    2003-01-01

    Simulation-Based Optimization: Parametric Optimization Techniques and Reinforcement Learning introduces the evolving area of simulation-based optimization. The book's objective is two-fold: (1) It examines the mathematical governing principles of simulation-based optimization, thereby providing the reader with the ability to model relevant real-life problems using these techniques. (2) It outlines the computational technology underlying these methods. Taken together these two aspects demonstrate that the mathematical and computational methods discussed in this book do work. Broadly speaking, the book has two parts: (1) parametric (static) optimization and (2) control (dynamic) optimization. Some of the book's special features are: *An accessible introduction to reinforcement learning and parametric-optimization techniques. *A step-by-step description of several algorithms of simulation-based optimization. *A clear and simple introduction to the methodology of neural networks. *A gentle introduction to converg...

  5. Analysis of Urban Design Strategies Based on the Outdoor Wind Environment and Thermal Comfort——A Case Study of Beijing Xidan Commercial District%基于室外风环境与热舒适度的城市设计改进策略——以北京西单商业街为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史源; 任超; 吴恩融

    2012-01-01

    Urban outdoor wind and thermal environment plays an important role in defining urban quality of life. In terms of commercial streets, wind environment and thermal comfort at the pedestrian level have direct impact on the commercial value of the street. Beijing Xidan Commercial District is chosen for the case study. By taking into consideration of local climate characteristics and corresponding urban design issues, the paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the urban outdoor wind and thermal comfort based on a numerical modeling simulation. Existing wind and thermal design problems are identified and corresponding urban design strategies are developed to solve the problems. The study result is expected to be shared by urban designers and the lessons learnt may help inform similar street design projects in high-density cities in China to achieve urban livability objectives.%城市室外风热环境对于城市生活品质起着不容忽视的作用,对于城市室外公共空间,如商业街,行人层高度风环境与热舒适度的优劣对其商业价值有着直接的影响.选取北京西单商业街为案例进行研究,基于北京夏季炎热高温冬季寒冷风强的地域气候特征,结合其数次城市设计环境改造,通过数值模拟手段,对北京西单商业街冬夏两季室外开放空间行人层风环境与热舒适度进行综合评价,针对现存导致室外风热环境恶化的城市设计问题提出改进措施,并总结提升城市户外风热环境品质的普适性城市设计策略.结果可从户外舒适度的角度提供同类型商业街区的城市设计参考,从而创造宜居的城市户外环境与空间.

  6. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  7. MAIA: a framework for developing agent-based social simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghorbani, Amineh; Dignum, Virginia; Bots, Pieter; Dijkema, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and motivate a conceptualization framework for agent-based social simulation, MAIA: Modelling Agent systems based on Institutional Analysis. The MAIA framework is based on Ostrom's Institutional Analysis and Development framework, and provides an extensive set of modelling

  8. Erosion of clay-based grouts in simulated rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a laboratory study on the erosion of clay-based grouts in a simulated rock fracture and in a simulated rock fracture network. The apparatus specially constructed for these experiments and the testing procedure are described. The testing results have shown that a partially eroded clay-based grout may still be effective in sealing rock fractures and that the addition of cement in a clay grout can minimize erosion

  9. Medical simulation-based education improves medicos' clinical skills

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhaoming; Liu, Qiaoyu; Wang, Hai

    2012-01-01

    Clinical skill is an essential part of clinical medicine and plays quite an important role in bridging medicos and physicians. Due to the realities in China, traditional medical education is facing many challenges. There are few opportunities for students to practice their clinical skills and their dexterities are generally at a low level. Medical simulation-based education is a new teaching modality and helps to improve medicos' clinical skills to a large degree. Medical simulation-based edu...

  10. An Agent Based Simulation Of Smart Metering Technology Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang,Tao; Nuttall, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Based on the classic behavioural theory ?the Theory of Planned Behaviour?, we develop an agent-based model to simulate the diffusion of smart metering technology in the electricity market. We simulate the emergent adoption of smart metering technology under different management strategies and economic regulations. Our research results show that in terms of boosting the take-off of smart meters in the electricity market, choosing the initial users on a random and geographically dispersed basis...

  11. CFOA-Based Lossless and Lossy Inductance Simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kaçar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Inductance simulator is a useful component in the circuit synthesis theory especially for analog signal processing applications such as filter, chaotic oscillator design, analog phase shifters and cancellation of parasitic element. In this study, new four inductance simulator topologies employing a single current feedback operational amplifier are presented. The presented topologies require few passive components. The first topology is intended for negative inductance simulation, the second topology is for lossy series inductance, the third one is for lossy parallel inductance and the fourth topology is for negative parallel (-R (-L (-C simulation. The performance of the proposed CFOA based inductance simulators is demonstrated on both a second-order low-pass filter and inductance cancellation circuit. PSPICE simulations are given to verify the theoretical analysis.

  12. Development of training simulator based on critical assemblies test bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When preparing critical mass experiment, multiplying system (MS) parts are assembled manually. This work is connected with maximum professional risk to personnel. Personnel training and keeping the skill of working experts is the important factor of nuclear safety maintenance. For this purpose authors develop a training simulator based on functioning critical assemblies test bench (CATB), allowing simulation of the MS assemblage using training mockups made of inert materials. The control program traces the current status of MS under simulation. A change in the assembly neutron physical parameters is mapped in readings of the regular devices. The simulator information support is provided by the computer database on physical characteristics of typical MS components The work in the training mode ensures complete simulation of real MS assemblage on the critical test bench. It makes it possible to elaborate the procedures related to CATB operation in a standard mode safely and effectively and simulate possible abnormal situations. (author)

  13. Runoff Simulation of Shitoukoumen Reservoir Basin Based on SWAT Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE; Miao; LI; Hong-yan; LIU; Tie-juan; RU; Shi-rong

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The study aimed to simulate the runoff of Shitoukoumen Reservoir basin by using SWAT model. [Method] Based on DEM elevation, land use type, soil type and hydrometeorological data, SWAT model, a distributed hydrological model was established to simulate the monthly runoff of Shitoukoumen Reservoir basin, and the years 2006 and 2010 were chosen as the calibration and validation period respectively. [Result] The simulation results indicated that SWAT model could be used to simulate the runoff of Shitoukoumen Reservoir basin, and the simulation effect was good. However, the response of the model to local rainstorm was not obvious, so that the actual runoff in June and July of 2010 was abnormally higher than the simulation value. [Conclusion] The research could provide theoretical references for the plan and management of water resources in Shitoukoumen Reservoir basin in future.

  14. Improving the performance of a filling line based on simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M.; Bartkowiak, T.

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes the method of improving performance of a filling line based on simulation. This study concerns a production line that is located in a manufacturing centre of a FMCG company. A discrete event simulation model was built using data provided by maintenance data acquisition system. Two types of failures were identified in the system and were approximated using continuous statistical distributions. The model was validated taking into consideration line performance measures. A brief Pareto analysis of line failures was conducted to identify potential areas of improvement. Two improvements scenarios were proposed and tested via simulation. The outcome of the simulations were the bases of financial analysis. NPV and ROI values were calculated taking into account depreciation, profits, losses, current CIT rate and inflation. A validated simulation model can be a useful tool in maintenance decision-making process.

  15. Design for the simulation of space based information network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Bin; Li Zitang; Wang Wei

    2006-01-01

    Ongoing research is described that is focused upon modelling the space base information network and simulating its behaviours: simulation of spaced based communications and networking project. Its objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a tool that can provide a performance evaluation of various constellation access techniques and routing policies. The architecture and design of the simulation system are explored. The algorithm of data routing and instrument scheduling in this project is described. Besides these, the key methodologies of simulating the inter-satellite link features in the data transmissions are also discussed. The performance of both instrument scheduling algorithm and routing schemes is evaluated and analyzed through extensive simulations under a typical scenario.

  16. GPS SATELLITE SIMULATOR SIGNAL ESTIMATION BASED ON ANN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Multi-channel Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite signal simulator is used to provide realistic test signals for GPS receivers and navigation systems. In this paper, signals arriving the antenna of GPS receiver are analyzed from the viewpoint of simulator design. The estimation methods are focused of which several signal parameters are difficult to determine directly according to existing experiential models due to various error factors. Based on the theory of Artificial Neural Network (ANN), an approach is proposed to simulate signal propagation delay,carrier phase, power, and other parameters using ANN. The architecture of the hardware-in-the-loop test system is given. The ANN training and validation process is described. Experimental results demonstrate that the ANN designed can statistically simulate sample data in high fidelity.Therefore the computation of signal state based on this ANN can meet the design requirement,and can be directly applied to the development of multi-channel GPS satellite signal simulator.

  17. An RTM based Distributed Simulation System for Guide Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Peihua

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the robot system integration and development for guide robot, a distributed simulation system was developed in this study using RTM (Robot Technology Middleware technology, which is an open software platform for robot systems. The RT (robot technology system of an adapter, a controller and the robot, together with other CORBA objects, was developed to connect the graphical programing interface with 3D simulator to set up an RTM based distributed simulation system. Simultaneously, the application of the distributed simulation system also confirms the controlling of the real robot utilizing the RT system. The proposed distributed simulation system based on RTM can obviously accelerate the software component development as well as the system integration for guide robot, which will certainly lower the cost of the development of new robot application systems.

  18. Simulator for beam-based LHC collimator alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Gianluca; Aßmann, Ralph; Redaelli, Stefano; Sammut, Nicholas

    2014-02-01

    In the CERN Large Hadron Collider, collimators need to be set up to form a multistage hierarchy to ensure efficient multiturn cleaning of halo particles. Automatic algorithms were introduced during the first run to reduce the beam time required for beam-based setup, improve the alignment accuracy, and reduce the risk of human errors. Simulating the alignment procedure would allow for off-line tests of alignment policies and algorithms. A simulator was developed based on a diffusion beam model to generate the characteristic beam loss signal spike and decay produced when a collimator jaw touches the beam, which is observed in a beam loss monitor (BLM). Empirical models derived from the available measurement data are used to simulate the steady-state beam loss and crosstalk between multiple BLMs. The simulator design is presented, together with simulation results and comparison to measurement data.

  19. A MARTe based simulator for the JET Vertical Stabilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellizio, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.bellizio@unina.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, University di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); De Tommasi, Gianmaria; Risoli, Nicola; Albanese, Raffaele [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, University di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Neto, Andre [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Inst. de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior, Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    Validation by means of simulation is a crucial step when developing real-time control systems. Modeling and simulation are an essential tool since the early design phase, when the control algorithms are designed and tested. This phase is commonly carried out in off-line environments such as Matlab and Simulink. A MARTe-based simulator has been recently developed to validate the new JET Vertical Stabilization (VS) system. MARTe is the multi-thread framework used at JET to deploy hard real-time control systems. This paper presents the software architecture of the MARTe-based simulator and it shows how this tool has been effectively used to evaluate the effects of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) on the VS system. By using the simulator it is possible to analyze different plasma configurations, extrapolating the limit of the new vertical amplifier in terms of the energy of the largest rejectable ELM.

  20. Spectral Efficiency Analysis for Multicarrier Based 4G Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Nuno; Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Frederiksen, Flemming Bjerge;

    In this paper, a spectral efficiency definition is proposed. Spectral efficiency for multicarrier based multiaccess techniques, such as OFDMA, MC-CDMA and OFDMA-CDM, is analyzed. Simulations for different indoor and outdoor scenarios are carried out. Based on the simulations, we have discussed ho...

  1. Simulation-based training in flexible fibreoptic intubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Philip M; Russell, Lene; Ringsted, Charlotte;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Flexible fibreoptic intubation (FOI) is a key element in difficult airway management. Training of FOI skills is an important part of the anaesthesiology curriculum. Simulation-based training has been shown to be effective when learning FOI, but the optimal structure of the training...... simulators. Procedures were subsequently trained on a manikin and assessed by an experienced anaesthesiologist. The experienced group was assessed in the same manner with no prior simulation-based training. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was the score of performance on testing FOI skills...

  2. Simulation-based learning: Just like the real thing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateef Fatimah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation is a technique for practice and learning that can be applied to many different disciplines and trainees. It is a technique (not a technology to replace and amplify real experiences with guided ones, often "immersive" in nature, that evoke or replicate substantial aspects of the real world in a fully interactive fashion. Simulation-based learning can be the way to develop health professionals′ knowledge, skills, and attitudes, whilst protecting patients from unnecessary risks. Simulation-based medical education can be a platform which provides a valuable tool in learning to mitigate ethical tensions and resolve practical dilemmas. Simulation-based training techniques, tools, and strategies can be applied in designing structured learning experiences, as well as be used as a measurement tool linked to targeted teamwork competencies and learning objectives. It has been widely applied in fields such aviation and the military. In medicine, simulation offers good scope for training of interdisciplinary medical teams. The realistic scenarios and equipment allows for retraining and practice till one can master the procedure or skill. An increasing number of health care institutions and medical schools are now turning to simulation-based learning. Teamwork training conducted in the simulated environment may offer an additive benefit to the traditional didactic instruction, enhance performance, and possibly also help reduce errors.

  3. Relationship Between Outdoor and Indoor Ozone Pollution Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xiaogang; LIU Junjie

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the changing rule of indoor ozone concentration and its influencing factors. A for-mula of indoor-outdoor concentration ratio(I/O ratio)was deduced based on the indoor ozone mass-balance equa-tion. The ozone I/O ratio in different kinds of buildings was studied. Results show that I/O ratio is much related to air-exchange rate, which is well compatible with the theoretical calculation results.

  4. Outdoor Advertising and Gender Differences : Factors Influencing Perception and Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Belinskaya, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    The thesis examines attitudes towards outdoor advertising, with strong emphasis on gender-based differences. The research intends to reveal the most influencing factors, including gender, format, different images and recall. Earlier researchers have argued that females are inclined to rate advertisements more positively than men. Five different, but interconnected studies, one content analysis and four surveys, were implicated in order to measure the responses to advertising. It is further su...

  5. Effective, Exemplary, Extraordinary? Towards an Understanding of "Extraordinary" Outdoor Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heidi; Penney, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The outdoor education literature commonly discusses what it means to be an effective outdoor leader and judgements about the effectiveness or quality of outdoor leadership and leaders are an everyday occurrence in outdoor leaders' professional lives. The basis upon which qualitative judgements are made about leaders and/or leadership and the…

  6. Outdoor Sports——The New Engine Driving Market Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fei

    2010-01-01

    @@ Hot summer not only hampers the pace of people's participation in outdoor sports,but also ignites the insiders' and more and more outdoor-sport lovers' enthusiasm.Asia Outdoor Trade Show,the world famous sister European Outdoor Show,celebrated its fifth birthday in Nanjing International Exhibition Center on July 28th.

  7. Performance simulation of a MRPC-based PET Imaging System

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, A

    2011-01-01

    The low cost and high resolution gas-based Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) opens a new possibility to find an efficient alternative detector for Time of Flight (TOF) based Positron Emission Tomography, where the sensitivity of the system depends largely on the time resolution of the detector. Suitable converters can be used to increase the efficiency of detection of photons from annihilation. In this work, we perform a detailed GEANT4 simulation to optimize the converter thickness thereby improving the efficiency of photon conversion. Also we have developed a Monte Carlo based simulation of MRPC response thereby obtaining the intrinsic time resolution of the detector, making it possible to simulate the final response of MRPC-based systems for PET imaging. The result of the cosmic ray test of a four-gap Bakelite-based MRPC operating in streamer mode is discussed.

  8. Investigating Output Accuracy for a Discrete Event Simulation Model and an Agent Based Simulation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mazlina Abdul; Siebers, Peer-Olaf

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate output accuracy for a Discrete Event Simulation (DES) model and Agent Based Simulation (ABS) model. The purpose of this investigation is to find out which of these simulation techniques is the best one for modelling human reactive behaviour in the retail sector. In order to study the output accuracy in both models, we have carried out a validation experiment in which we compared the results from our simulation models to the performance of a real system. Our experiment was carried out using a large UK department store as a case study. We had to determine an efficient implementation of management policy in the store's fitting room using DES and ABS. Overall, we have found that both simulation models were a good representation of the real system when modelling human reactive behaviour.

  9. Outdoor Propagation Models-Comparison Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Umesh Yadav

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of comparing different outdoor propagation models is to study the earlier introduced models in the present environment of RF technology and requirement. In the present era of telecom services coverage is not enough but we need to introduce cellular network with high quality parameters. In this comparison review we will focus on the type of terrain/ environment which will best suit the different outdoor propagations models

  10. Outdoor motor play: analysis, speculations, research paths

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Ceciliani; Alessandro Bortolotti

    2013-01-01

    In our rapidly changing contemporary society, it has become apparent that children spend significantly less time playing outdoors than their parents did. Therefore, considerable attention must be paid by professionals to engage this challenge, especially within early educational contexts. The goal of this study was to first explore the continual drive of play in educational growth and, second, the ways in which children play outdoors at school, in order to reap the developmental benefits of o...

  11. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Wang

    2014-01-01

    More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996). and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites). This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a reti...

  12. Tracking for Outdoor Mobile Augmented Reality: Further development of the Zion Augmented Reality Application

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Tor Egil Riegels

    2008-01-01

    This report deals with providing tracking to an outdoor mobile augmented reality system and the Zion Augmented Reality Application. ZionARA is meant to display a virtual recreation of a 13th century castle on the site it once stood through an augmented reality Head Mounted Display. Mobile outdoor augmented/mixed reality puts special demands on what kind of equipment is practical. After briefly evaluating the different existing tracking methods, a solution based on GPS and an augmented inertia...

  13. On Differences of Parent-child Outdoor Leisure and Tourism Behaviors Based on Children's Age%基于儿童年龄的亲子户外休闲及旅游行为差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘为潍; 乌恩

    2016-01-01

    This article innovatively divides children'age into six groups,and uses"outdoor leisure and travel"to represent all the outdoor recreation activities,splitting up into four dimensions by space and distance.Differ-ences of parent-child outdoor leisure and travel behaviors are explored to conclude the relationships between age groups and the four demensions.%文章创新性地将儿童年龄划分为6个组,并用"户外休闲及旅游"表示所有户外进行的休闲游憩活动,按照距离空间的关系分为四个维度,从中探究了亲子家庭的亲子户外休闲及旅游行为差异,得到各个维度间和各个年龄段之间的结论.

  14. Robust CCD photoelectric autocollimator for outdoor use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Gao; Zuoren Dong; Zhenglan Bian; Qing Ye; Zujie Fang; Ronghui Qu

    2011-01-01

    A robust charge-coupled device (CCD) photoelectric autocollimator for outdoor use is designed and demonstrated. The influence of outdoor conditions on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and imaging quality of the measuring system is experimentally analyzed. The pulse width modulation technology is applied to the automatic feedback control of the actively regulated illuminating light source of the measuring system to maximize SNR while avoiding image saturation. A Fourier phase shift method for subpixel estimation is adopted to achieve high-accuracy measurement in the presence of noises. Experimental results indicate that the technologies proposed here largely improve the measuring stability, dynamic range, and accuracy of the CCD photoelectric autocollimator used outdoors.%@@ A robust charge-coupled device(CCD)photoelectric autocollimator for outdoor use is designed and demonstrated.The influence of outdoor conditions on the signal-to-noise ratio(SNR)and imaging quality of the measuring system is experimentally analyzed.The pulse width modulation technology is applied to the automatic feedback control of the actively regulated illuminating light source of the measuring system to maximize SNR while avoiding image saturation.A Fourier phase shift method for subpixel estimation is adopted to achieve high-accuracy measurement in the presence of noises.Experimental results indicate that the technologies proposed here largely improve the measuring stability,dynamic range,and accuracy of the CCD photoelectric autocollimator used outdoors.

  15. 户外运动消费者行为的影响因素研究——以武汉市为例%Factors Influencing Consumers' Behaviors in Outdoor Sports——Based on Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文琪

    2012-01-01

    Through a questionnaire survey,literature,expert interviews,this paper investigates the influencing factors of the outdoor sports consumers in Wuhan city,with the aim of the analysis of the main factors that affect outdoor sports consumers' behaviors in Wuhan city,to promote outdoor sports industry development,and provide a theoretical basis for improving the outdoor level of consumption in Wuhan city.The results show that: Wuhan city represents low to medium outdoor consumption;and the ranking of outdoor sports consumer behavior factors in Wuhan city were: cost-effective goods,income,promotions,brand image,shopping environment,service attitude,location and traffic after sales service.%通过问卷调查法、文献法、专家访谈法,对武汉市户外运动消费者影响因素进行调查,其目的在于,有针对性地分析影响武汉市户外运动消费者行为的主要因素,为推动户外运动产业发展,对提高武汉市户外消费水平提供理论依据。研究结果表明:武汉市户外消费处于中低水平;影响武汉市户外运动消费者行为主要因素的排名依次为:商品性价比、经济收入、促销活动、品牌形象、购物环境、服务态度、地段与交通、售后服务。

  16. Transcending Competency Testing in Hospital-Based Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassche, Madeline; Wilson, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Simulation is a frequently used method for training students in health care professions and has recently gained acceptance in acute care hospital settings for use in educational programs and competency testing. Although hospital-based simulation is currently limited primarily to use in skills acquisition, expansion of the use of simulation via a modified Quality Health Outcomes Model to address systems factors such as the physical environment and human factors such as fatigue, reliance on memory, and reliance on vigilance could drive system-wide changes. Simulation is an expensive resource and should not be limited to use for education and competency testing. Well-developed, peer-reviewed simulations can be used for environmental factors, human factors, and interprofessional education to improve patients' outcomes and drive system-wide change for quality improvement initiatives. PMID:26909459

  17. Laguna Verde simulator: A new TRAC-RT based application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a partnership with GSE Systems, TECNATOM is developing a full scope training simulator for Laguna Verde Unit 2 (LV2). The simulator design is based upon the current 'state-of-the art technology' regarding the simulation platform, instructor station, visualization tools, advanced thermalhydraulics and neutronics models, I/O systems and automated model building technology. When completed, LV2 simulator will achieve a remarkable level of modeling fidelity by using TECNATOM's TRAC-RT advanced thermalhydraulic code for the reactor coolant and main steam systems, and NEMO neutronic model for the reactor core calculations. These models have been utilized up to date for the development or upgrading of nine NPP simulators in Spain and abroad, with more than 8000 hours of training sessions, and have developed an excellent reputation for its robustness and high fidelity. (author)

  18. Decision Manifold Approximation for Physics-Based Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jay Ming; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2016-01-01

    With the recent surge of success in big-data driven deep learning problems, many of these frameworks focus on the notion of architecture design and utilizing massive databases. However, in some scenarios massive sets of data may be difficult, and in some cases infeasible, to acquire. In this paper we discuss a trajectory-based framework that quickly learns the underlying decision manifold of binary simulation classifications while judiciously selecting exploratory target states to minimize the number of required simulations. Furthermore, we draw particular attention to the simulation prediction application idealized to the case where failures in simulations can be predicted and avoided, providing machine intelligence to novice analysts. We demonstrate this framework in various forms of simulations and discuss its efficacy.

  19. Simulation-based airway management training: application and looking forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Wei, Yu-Kui; Xue, Fu-Shan; Deng, Xiao-Ming; Zhi, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Within the airway management field, simulation has been used as a tool of training for over 40 years. Simulation training offers a chance of active involvement for the trainees. It can effectively enhance and upgrade the knowledge and skills of the trainees in airway management, and subsequently decrease medical errors and improve patients' outcomes and safety through a variety of airway management training modalities, such as common airway skills, difficult airway management strategies, and crisis management skills. To perform simulation-based airway management training effectively, not only are task trainers and high-fidelity simulators required but also instructors with rich experience in airway management simulation training and optimal curriculum design are essential. PMID:26671260

  20. A simulation-based reservoir management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voskanian, M.M. [California State Lands Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States); Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Coombs, S. [Pacific Operators Offshore, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Paul, R.G. [Minerals Management Service, Reston, VA (United States). Headquarters Office; Ershaghi, I. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    There are more than 5,200 independent oil and gas producers operating in the US today (based on current IPAA membership figures). These companies are playing an increasingly important role in production of hydrocarbons in California and elsewhere in the US. Pacific Operators Offshore, Inc., in a historic collaboration with its government royalty owners, the California State Lands Commission and the Minerals Management Service of the US Department of Interior, is attempting to redevelop the Carpinteria Offshore Field after two-and-a-half decades of production and partial abandonment by a previous operator. This paper will describe a project which focuses on the distribution of advanced reservoir management technologies (geological, petrophysical, and engineering) to independent producers like Pacific Operators Offshore, Inc. The evolving information highway, specifically the World Wide Web (WWW), serves as the distribution medium. The project to be described in this paper is an example of the implementation of a reservoir management tool which is supported by distributed databases, incorporates a shared computing environment, and integrates stochastic, geological, and engineering modeling.

  1. Agent-based analysis of organizations : formalization and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dignum, M.V.; Tick, C.

    2008-01-01

    Organizational effectiveness depends on many factors, including individual excellence, efficient structures, effective planning and capability to understand and match context requirements. We propose a way to model organizational performance based on a combination of formal models and agent-based simulation that supports the analysis of the congruence of different organizational structures to changing environments

  2. SIDH: A Game-Based Architecture for a Training Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Backlund

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Game-based simulators, sometimes referred to as “lightweight” simulators, have benefits such as flexible technology and economic feasibility. In this article, we extend the notion of a game-based simulator by introducing multiple screen view and physical interaction. These features are expected to enhance immersion and fidelity. By utilizing these concepts we have constructed a training simulator for breathing apparatus entry. Game hardware and software have been used to produce the application. More important, the application itself is deliberately designed to be a game. Indeed, one important design goal is to create an entertaining and motivating experience combined with learning goals in order to create a serious game. The system has been evaluated in cooperation with the Swedish Rescue Services Agency to see which architectural features contribute to perceived fidelity. The modes of visualization and interaction as well as level design contribute to the usefulness of the system.

  3. Outdoor robot : characteristics and calculation of the mathematical model

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Martínez, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the following project is to work on an outdoor robot. It has been designed to explore and work in open areas or indoor places as big pipes or caves. The main idea of the project is to develop the movements of the robot. For which the program MATLAB is used to simulate the trajectories. The robot can make some type of movements; they are evaluated acording to the characteristics and the restrictions of the robot. First all the components of the robot are analysed. Once fini...

  4. A Table-Based Random Sampling Simulation for Bioluminescence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As a popular simulation of photon propagation in turbid media, the main problem of Monte Carlo (MC method is its cumbersome computation. In this work a table-based random sampling simulation (TBRS is proposed. The key idea of TBRS is to simplify multisteps of scattering to a single-step process, through randomly table querying, thus greatly reducing the computing complexity of the conventional MC algorithm and expediting the computation. The TBRS simulation is a fast algorithm of the conventional MC simulation of photon propagation. It retained the merits of flexibility and accuracy of conventional MC method and adapted well to complex geometric media and various source shapes. Both MC simulations were conducted in a homogeneous medium in our work. Also, we present a reconstructing approach to estimate the position of the fluorescent source based on the trial-and-error theory as a validation of the TBRS algorithm. Good agreement is found between the conventional MC simulation and the TBRS simulation.

  5. Behaviour and Perception-based Pedestrian Evacuation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kretz, Tobias; Muehlberger, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This contribution reports on the research project SKRIBT and some of its results. An evacuation simulation based on VISSIM's pedestrian dynamics simulation was developed, that -- with high time resolution -- integrates results from studies on behavior in stress and crisis situations, results from CFD models for e.g. fire dynamics simulations, and considers visibility of signage and -- adding a psychological model -- its cognition. A crucial issue is the cognition of smoke or fire by the occupant and his / her resulting spontaneous or deliberate reaction to this episode.

  6. A Matlab—Based Simulation for Hybrid Electric Motorcycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵定国; 李永斌; 汪信尧; 江建中

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation and modeling package based on Matlab for a parallel hybrid electric motorcycle (HEM).The package consists of several main detailed models: internal combustion engine (ICE), motor, continuously variable transmission(CVT), battery, energy management system (EMS) etc. Each component is built as a library, and can be connected together accord-ing to the parallel HEM's topology. Simulation results, such as ICE power demand, motor power demand, battery instantaneous state-of-charge (SOC), pollution emissions etc. Are given and discussed. Lastly experimental data verify our simulation results.

  7. An Airport Pavement Traffic Simulation Based on CPN

    OpenAIRE

    Heng Hong-jun; Yang Jue

    2014-01-01

    According to the characteristics of airport pavement traffic, we discuss a method of building an airport pavement traffic model which is based on CPN theory and simulate a practical situation as well. The method overcomes the shortage of modelling with normal Petri Net theory, solves the difficult problems of airport pavement traffic such as complex traffic nets, frequent road changing, etc., refines the process of the model, and will be good for the model’s analysis and simulation.

  8. Simulating Organogenesis in COMSOL: Cell-based Signaling Models

    OpenAIRE

    Vollmer, Jannik; Menshykau, Denis; Iber, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Most models of biological pattern formation are simulated on continuous domains even though cells are discrete objects that provide internal boundaries to the diffusion of regulatory components. In our previous papers on simulating organogenesis in COMSOL (Germann et al COMSOL Conf Procedings 2011; Menshykau and Iber, COMSOL Conf Proceedings 2012) we discussed methods to efficiently solve signaling models on static and growing continuous domains. Here we discuss COMSOL-based methods to study ...

  9. Simulation-based learning: Just like the real thing

    OpenAIRE

    Lateef Fatimah

    2010-01-01

    Simulation is a technique for practice and learning that can be applied to many different disciplines and trainees. It is a technique (not a technology) to replace and amplify real experiences with guided ones, often "immersive" in nature, that evoke or replicate substantial aspects of the real world in a fully interactive fashion. Simulation-based learning can be the way to develop health professionals′ knowledge, skills, and attitudes, whilst protecting patients from unnecessary risk...

  10. Simulation-based optimisation of complex maintenance systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alrabghi, Abdullah Omar

    2015-01-01

    There is a potential as well as a growing interest amongst researchers to utilise simulation in optimising maintenance systems. The state of the art in simulation-based optimisation of maintenance was established by systematically classifying the published literature and outlining main trends in modelling and optimising maintenance systems. In general, approaches to optimise maintenance varied significantly in the literature. Overall, these studies highlight the need for a framework that unif...

  11. Geometric Distortion Analysis Using CAD/CAM Based Manufacturing Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Werke, Mats; Hedlind, Mikael; Nicolescu, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Machining of components may cause geometric distortions and thereby quality issues and increased costs. This paper presents an engineering approach of CAD/CAM based manufacturing simulation in order to be in control of geometric distortions after machining. The method utilises STEP AP209 for communication of CAD/CAM simulation data. The method improves the ability to optimise process parameters, geometry, and material, in order to fulfil the design requirements. The method supports concurrent...

  12. Simulating Evolutionary Games: A Python-Based Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Alan G. Isaac

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to agent-based simulation using the Python programming language. The core objective of the paper is to enable students, teachers, and researchers immediately to begin social-science simulation projects in a general purpose programming language. This objective is facilitated by design features of the Python programming language, which we very briefly discuss. The paper has a 'tutorial' component, in that it is enablement-focused and therefore strongly application-...

  13. Geo-based Mobility Control for Mobile Traffic Simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlström, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Most mobile traffic simulators of today depend on the user to supply the mobility behavior of the simulated UEs. This becomes a problem when certain wanted mobility characteristics are to be tested, since the user have to go trough a trial-and-error procedure to come up with the proper mobility behavior. This thesis presents two approaches to mobility control, where the aim is to control UE mobility based on certain mobility characteristics supplied by the end user. The first approach introdu...

  14. Simulation-based optimization for software dynamic testing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Mercedes; Tuya González, Pablo Javier; Crespo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Managing software development projects requires the coordination of different processes that may be performed by different teams, e.g., a development team and a separate testing team. This coordination aims at optimizing the tradeoff between cost, schedule and delivered quality. Simulation models are a powerful tool to explore what-if scenarios that help managers to achieve this trade-off and to fine-tune different project parameters. This paper presents a simulation model based on a multi-pa...

  15. Analyzing the ENRON Communication Network Using Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinako Matsuyama

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Agent-based modeling, simulation, and network analysis approaches are one of the emergent techniques among soft computing literature. This paper presents an agent-based model for analyzing the characteristics of peer-to-peer human communication networks. We focus on the process of the collapse of Enron Corporation, which is an interesting topic among the business management domain. The Enron email dataset is available for the analysis. Our approach consists of the four steps: First, macro-level characteristics of the Enron email dataset is analyzed from the viewpoints of social network theory: (i the degrees of the communication networks and contents information, and (ii the changes of network structures among the major events. Second, for the micro-level analysis, an agent-based simulator is implemented using the Enron email dataset. Third, both micro- and macro- level characteristics are calculated on the simulator to ground the model to the dataset. Finally, a different artificial society from the Enron email dataset is developed the simulator and we compare its characteristics of communication patterns with the result of the ones in the agent-based simulation with the Enron email dataset. The investigation suggests that the agent-based model is beneficial to uncover the characteristics of implicit communication mechanisms of the firm.

  16. Seasonal variation analysis of the outdoor performance of amorphous Si photovoltaic modules using the contour map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Y.; Fukushige, S.; Minemoto, T.; Takakura, H. [College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2009-03-15

    The effects of module temperature (T{sub mod}) and spectral irradiance distribution on the outdoor performance of amorphous Si (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules were investigated using contour maps. Compared to PV modules based on crystalline Si, such as single-crystalline Si (sc-Si) and multicrystalline Si, a-Si PV modules exhibit complex behavior with seasonal variation. In this study, we statistically analyzed the outdoor performance of a-Si and sc-Si PV modules. The influence of environmental factors on outdoor performance of a-Si PV modules was analyzed for two seasons, spring and autumn, in which the data periods had nearly the same average T{sub mod} and integrated irradiation. The outdoor performance of the a-Si PV module depends on both temperature history and light-induced degradation. (author)

  17. Simulation of devices based on carbon nanotubes and graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, I. I.; Labunov, V. A.; Kolomejtseva, N. V.; Romanova, I. A.

    2014-12-01

    The simulation results of different devices based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene are described in the paper. The combined numerical model of hybrid integrated structures including resonant tunneling diode and field-effect transistor (RTD-FET) is proposed. Simulation of RTD-FET based on CNT of different types (chirality) was realized with the use of the developed model. The technique of express simulation of nanoradio based on CNT of the type I (based on only single CNT) and of the type II (hybrid radio) is developed. Proposed models can be used for calculation of nanoradio characteristics such as: 1) resonant frequency of CNT; 2) oscillation amplitude of CNT; 3) CNT IV-characteristics depending on different factors. Results of device simulation based on single-wall and multi-wall CNT are given in the paper. IV-characteristics of nanoscale resonant tunneling structure based on graphene-on-SiC were calculated. As well as it was investigated the influence of different parameters on the electrical characteristic of graphene-based nanostructures.

  18. Daily indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2016-02-01

    The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme temperature events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor temperatures showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor temperatures. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of temperature and relative humidity.

  19. 基于改进Otsu的室外道路实时检测与跟踪算法%Real-time Detection and Tracking of Road Information for Outdoor Vision-based Robot Based on Improved Otsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆培源; 王建中; 罗涛

    2011-01-01

    The detection and tracking of road infornmtion, are the basis and prerequisite of environmental exploration anti autonomous navigation ],y mobile robot. In view of the complexity of the ouldoor working environment of the robot and the variety of the outdoor illumination conditions, a suitable and novel way of real-time detection and tracking for outdoor robot is presented. First, the video images obtained from CCD camera are preprocessed. Then the Region of Interest (ROI) is extracted and transformed into the HSV color space. The edge information of the road image is obtained from the ROI by using the improved Otsu algorithm. With the anti-jamming ability of the Hough transform, the regiom where robot can pass through is shown. Finally the weighted Mahalanobis distance discrimination method is used to track the passing area. Experiment results show that this algorithm enjoys a good performance in the detection and tracking of road information in outdoor environment in real-lime.%室外道路检测与跟踪是移动机器人完成室外环境探索和自主导航的基础和前提.针对室外机器人工作环境复杂、光照多变等特点,提出了一种适用于室外道路实时检测与跟踪的算法.首先将CCD摄像头获得的画面通过预处理,提取视频画面的感兴趣区域(ROI)并转化为HSV颜色空间下的图像,然后通过改进的自适应阈值分割法(Otsu)获得道路图像的边缘信息,采用抗干扰能力较强的霍夫(Hough)变换得出画面中的可通行区域,最后采用加权马氏距离判别法跟踪可通行区域.实验表明,该算法在室外环境下具有较好的道路识别跟踪能力和实时性.

  20. Agent Based Modelling and Simulation of Social Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Armano Srbljinovic; Ognjen Skunca

    2003-01-01

    The paper provides an introduction to agent-based modelling and simulation of social processes. Reader is introduced to the worldview underlying agent-based models, some basic terminology, basic properties of agent-based models, as well as to what one can and what cannot expect from such models, particularly when they are applied to social-scientific investigation. Special attention is given to the issues of validation. Classification-ACM-1998: J.4 [Computer Applications]; Social and behavior...

  1. Reprint of: Simulation Platform: a cloud-based online simulation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tadashi; Ikeno, Hidetoshi; Okumura, Yoshihiro; Satoh, Shunji; Kamiyama, Yoshimi; Hirata, Yutaka; Inagaki, Keiichiro; Ishihara, Akito; Kannon, Takayuki; Usui, Shiro

    2011-11-01

    For multi-scale and multi-modal neural modeling, it is needed to handle multiple neural models described at different levels seamlessly. Database technology will become more important for these studies, specifically for downloading and handling the neural models seamlessly and effortlessly. To date, conventional neuroinformatics databases have solely been designed to archive model files, but the databases should provide a chance for users to validate the models before downloading them. In this paper, we report our on-going project to develop a cloud-based web service for online simulation called "Simulation Platform". Simulation Platform is a cloud of virtual machines running GNU/Linux. On a virtual machine, various software including developer tools such as compilers and libraries, popular neural simulators such as GENESIS, NEURON and NEST, and scientific software such as Gnuplot, R and Octave, are pre-installed. When a user posts a request, a virtual machine is assigned to the user, and the simulation starts on that machine. The user remotely accesses to the machine through a web browser and carries out the simulation, without the need to install any software but a web browser on the user's own computer. Therefore, Simulation Platform is expected to eliminate impediments to handle multiple neural models that require multiple software.

  2. Reprint of: Simulation Platform: a cloud-based online simulation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tadashi; Ikeno, Hidetoshi; Okumura, Yoshihiro; Satoh, Shunji; Kamiyama, Yoshimi; Hirata, Yutaka; Inagaki, Keiichiro; Ishihara, Akito; Kannon, Takayuki; Usui, Shiro

    2011-11-01

    For multi-scale and multi-modal neural modeling, it is needed to handle multiple neural models described at different levels seamlessly. Database technology will become more important for these studies, specifically for downloading and handling the neural models seamlessly and effortlessly. To date, conventional neuroinformatics databases have solely been designed to archive model files, but the databases should provide a chance for users to validate the models before downloading them. In this paper, we report our on-going project to develop a cloud-based web service for online simulation called "Simulation Platform". Simulation Platform is a cloud of virtual machines running GNU/Linux. On a virtual machine, various software including developer tools such as compilers and libraries, popular neural simulators such as GENESIS, NEURON and NEST, and scientific software such as Gnuplot, R and Octave, are pre-installed. When a user posts a request, a virtual machine is assigned to the user, and the simulation starts on that machine. The user remotely accesses to the machine through a web browser and carries out the simulation, without the need to install any software but a web browser on the user's own computer. Therefore, Simulation Platform is expected to eliminate impediments to handle multiple neural models that require multiple software. PMID:21944492

  3. Biomolecular Simulation of Base Excision Repair and Protein Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straatsma, TP; McCammon, J A; Miller, John H; Smith, Paul E; Vorpagel, Erich R; Wong, Chung F; Zacharias, Martin W

    2006-03-03

    The goal of the Biomolecular Simulation of Base Excision Repair and Protein Signaling project is to enhance our understanding of the mechanism of human polymerase-β, one of the key enzymes in base excision repair (BER) and the cell-signaling enzymes cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. This work used molecular modeling and simulation studies to specifically focus on the • dynamics of DNA and damaged DNA • dynamics and energetics of base flipping in DNA • mechanism and fidelity of nucleotide insertion by BER enzyme human polymerase-β • mechanism and inhibitor design for cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. Molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations have been performed using the computer resources at the Molecular Science Computing Facility at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory.

  4. The Outdoor World: An Outdoor Science and Culture Program for Seneca Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobey, Daniel C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an outdoor summer science program for Seneca Indian children in grades 5-7 that featured weekly outdoor topics integrating science, traditional Native American/Seneca culture, and skills in reading and language arts. Daily activities included field trips, community guests, storytelling, and individual and group projects. (LP)

  5. Meshless thin-shell simulation based on global conformal parameterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaohu; Li, Xin; Bao, Yunfan; Gu, Xianfeng; Qin, Hong

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to the physically-based thin-shell simulation of point-sampled geometry via explicit, global conformal point-surface parameterization and meshless dynamics. The point-based global parameterization is founded upon the rigorous mathematics of Riemann surface theory and Hodge theory. The parameterization is globally conformal everywhere except for a minimum number of zero points. Within our parameterization framework, any well-sampled point surface is functionally equivalent to a manifold, enabling popular and powerful surface-based modeling and physically-based simulation tools to be readily adapted for point geometry processing and animation. In addition, we propose a meshless surface computational paradigm in which the partial differential equations (for dynamic physical simulation) can be applied and solved directly over point samples via Moving Least Squares (MLS) shape functions defined on the global parametric domain without explicit connectivity information. The global conformal parameterization provides a common domain to facilitate accurate meshless simulation and efficient discontinuity modeling for complex branching cracks. Through our experiments on thin-shell elastic deformation and fracture simulation, we demonstrate that our integrative method is very natural, and that it has great potential to further broaden the application scope of point-sampled geometry in graphics and relevant fields.

  6. Integrated Turbine-Based Combined Cycle Dynamic Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, Daniel A.; Gamble, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    A Turbine-Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) dynamic simulation model has been developed to demonstrate all modes of operation, including mode transition, for a turbine-based combined cycle propulsion system. The High Mach Transient Engine Cycle Code (HiTECC) is a highly integrated tool comprised of modules for modeling each of the TBCC systems whose interactions and controllability affect the TBCC propulsion system thrust and operability during its modes of operation. By structuring the simulation modeling tools around the major TBCC functional modes of operation (Dry Turbojet, Afterburning Turbojet, Transition, and Dual Mode Scramjet) the TBCC mode transition and all necessary intermediate events over its entire mission may be developed, modeled, and validated. The reported work details the use of the completed model to simulate a TBCC propulsion system as it accelerates from Mach 2.5, through mode transition, to Mach 7. The completion of this model and its subsequent use to simulate TBCC mode transition significantly extends the state-of-the-art for all TBCC modes of operation by providing a numerical simulation of the systems, interactions, and transient responses affecting the ability of the propulsion system to transition from turbine-based to ramjet/scramjet-based propulsion while maintaining constant thrust.

  7. Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gould, Derek A; Chalmers, Nicholas; Johnson, Sheena J;

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of the many limitations of traditional apprenticeship training is driving new approaches to learning medical procedural skills. Among simulation technologies and methods available today, computer-based systems are topical and bring the benefits of automated, repeatable, and reliable...... performance assessments. Human factors research is central to simulator model development that is relevant to real-world imaging-guided interventional tasks and to the credentialing programs in which it would be used....

  8. CONCEPTUAL MECHANICAL DESIGN METHOD BASED ON QUALITATIVE SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jianming; Yang Ping; Zou Bailong; Yang Chengsan

    2005-01-01

    A model for conceptual design of mechanical devices is studied based on qualitative simulation. In this model, the desired functions are expressed by state-transit-diagrams(ST-diagrams)and design space is represented by qualitative-state-curves(QS-curves). The first design idea, called seeds idea, is proposed by the designer and then is abstracted into QS-curves. The qualitative simulation is implemented based on the QS-curves. By changing the motion of acting parts, the connection of parts and the motion of driving part, new design ideas are generated. With this model, a series of new design ideas derived from the seeds idea can be achieved.

  9. FMS Scheduling Simulation Based on an Evolution Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A FMS (flexible manufacturing system) scheduling algorithm based on an evolution algorithm (EA) is developed by intensively analyzing and researching the scheduling method in this paper. Many factors related to FMS scheduling are considered sufficiently. New explanations for a common kind of the encoding model are given. The rationality of encoding model is ensured by designing a set ofnew encoding methods, while the simulation experiment is performed. The results show that a FMS scheduling optimum problem with multi-constraint conditions can be effectively solved by a FMS scheduling simulation model based on EA. Comparing this method with others, this algorithm has the advantage of good stability and quick convergence.

  10. 基于ARM9的野外探测设备设计%Design of Outdoors Exploring Device based on ARM9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵元苏

    2011-01-01

    为了让机器可以代替人类在危险地带工作,介绍了一种基于ARM9芯片(S3C2440),使用传感器、USB摄像头、无线网卡等外设,搭建出可被遥控的、能将采集到的视频数据通过无线网络传回的移动平台。嵌入式操作系统采用Linux,应用程序编程语言使用C语言。%To make machine working in dangerous area instead of human being, this papers based on ARM9 embedded chip assembled with peripheral equipment, such as sensor, USB camera, wireless adapter, and so on, builds a removable platform that could be remote and transmit video flow back to control center through the wireless Internet. The embedded operating system is Linux, and C language is used to program.

  11. Finite element based simulation of dry sliding wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegadekatte, V.; Huber, N.; Kraft, O.

    2005-01-01

    In order to predict wear and eventually the life-span of complex mechanical systems, several hundred thousand operating cycles have to be simulated. Therefore, a finite element (FE) post-processor is the optimum choice, considering the computational expense. A wear simulation approach based on Archard's wear law is implemented in an FE post-processor that works in association with a commercial FE package, ABAQUS, for solving the general deformable-deformable contact problem. Local wear is computed and then integrated over the sliding distance using the Euler integration scheme. The wear simulation tool works in a loop and performs a series of static FE-simulations with updated surface geometries to get a realistic contact pressure distribution on the contacting surfaces. It will be demonstrated that this efficient approach can simulate wear on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional surface topologies. The wear on both the interacting surfaces is computed using the contact pressure distribution from a two-dimensional or three-dimensional simulation, depending on the case. After every wear step the geometry is re-meshed to correct the deformed mesh due to wear, thus ensuring a fairly uniform mesh for further processing. The importance and suitability of such a wear simulation tool will be enunciated in this paper.

  12. A particle-based method for granular flow simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Yuanzhang

    2012-03-16

    We present a new particle-based method for granular flow simulation. In the method, a new elastic stress term, which is derived from a modified form of the Hooke\\'s law, is included in the momentum governing equation to handle the friction of granular materials. Viscosity force is also added to simulate the dynamic friction for the purpose of smoothing the velocity field and further maintaining the simulation stability. Benefiting from the Lagrangian nature of the SPH method, large flow deformation can be well handled easily and naturally. In addition, a signed distance field is also employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient for handling the flow of granular materials, and different kinds of granular behaviors can be well simulated by adjusting just one parameter. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. Engineering uses of physics-based ground motion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jack W.; Luco, Nicolas; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Graves, Robert W.; Maechling, Phillip J.; Olsen, Kim B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes validation methodologies focused on enabling ground motion simulations to be used with confidence in engineering applications such as seismic hazard analysis and dynmaic analysis of structural and geotechnical systems. Numberical simullation of ground motion from large erthquakes, utilizing physics-based models of earthquake rupture and wave propagation, is an area of active research in the earth science community. Refinement and validatoin of these models require collaboration between earthquake scientists and engineering users, and testing/rating methodolgies for simulated ground motions to be used with confidence in engineering applications. This paper provides an introduction to this field and an overview of current research activities being coordinated by the Souther California Earthquake Center (SCEC). These activities are related both to advancing the science and computational infrastructure needed to produce ground motion simulations, as well as to engineering validation procedures. Current research areas and anticipated future achievements are also discussed.

  14. Modeling and simulation of LHC beam-based collimator setup

    CERN Document Server

    Valentino, G; Assmann, R W; Burkart, F; Redaelli, S; Rossi, A; Lari, L

    2012-01-01

    In the 2011 Large Hadron Collider run, collimators were aligned for proton and heavy ion beams using a semiautomatic setup algorithm. The algorithm provided a reduction in the beam time required for setup, an elimination of beam dumps during setup and better reproducibility with respect to manual alignment. A collimator setup simulator was developed based on a Gaussian model of the beam distribution as well as a parametric model of the beam losses. A time-varying beam loss signal can be simulated for a given collimator movement into the beam. The simulation results and comparison to measurement data obtained during collimator setups and dedicated fills for beam halo scraping are presented. The simulator will then be used to develop a fully automatic collimator alignment algorithm.

  15. A future Outlook: Web based Simulation of Hydrodynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A. S.; Piasecki, M.

    2003-12-01

    Despite recent advances to present simulation results as 3D graphs or animation contours, the modeling user community still faces some shortcomings when trying to move around and analyze data. Typical problems include the lack of common platforms with standard vocabulary to exchange simulation results from different numerical models, insufficient descriptions about data (metadata), lack of robust search and retrieval tools for data, and difficulties to reuse simulation domain knowledge. This research demonstrates how to create a shared simulation domain in the WWW and run a number of models through multi-user interfaces. Firstly, meta-datasets have been developed to describe hydrodynamic model data based on geographic metadata standard (ISO 19115) that has been extended to satisfy the need of the hydrodynamic modeling community. The Extended Markup Language (XML) is used to publish this metadata by the Resource Description Framework (RDF). Specific domain ontology for Web Based Simulation (WBS) has been developed to explicitly define vocabulary for the knowledge based simulation system. Subsequently, this knowledge based system is converted into an object model using Meta Object Family (MOF). The knowledge based system acts as a Meta model for the object oriented system, which aids in reusing the domain knowledge. Specific simulation software has been developed based on the object oriented model. Finally, all model data is stored in an object relational database. Database back-ends help store, retrieve and query information efficiently. This research uses open source software and technology such as Java Servlet and JSP, Apache web server, Tomcat Servlet Engine, PostgresSQL databases, Protégé ontology editor, RDQL and RQL for querying RDF in semantic level, Jena Java API for RDF. Also, we use international standards such as the ISO 19115 metadata standard, and specifications such as XML, RDF, OWL, XMI, and UML. The final web based simulation product is deployed as

  16. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  17. Simulation of large-scale rule-based models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlavacek, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Monnie, Michael I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Colvin, Joshua [NON LANL; Faseder, James [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    Interactions of molecules, such as signaling proteins, with multiple binding sites and/or multiple sites of post-translational covalent modification can be modeled using reaction rules. Rules comprehensively, but implicitly, define the individual chemical species and reactions that molecular interactions can potentially generate. Although rules can be automatically processed to define a biochemical reaction network, the network implied by a set of rules is often too large to generate completely or to simulate using conventional procedures. To address this problem, we present DYNSTOC, a general-purpose tool for simulating rule-based models. DYNSTOC implements a null-event algorithm for simulating chemical reactions in a homogenous reaction compartment. The simulation method does not require that a reaction network be specified explicitly in advance, but rather takes advantage of the availability of the reaction rules in a rule-based specification of a network to determine if a randomly selected set of molecular components participates in a reaction during a time step. DYNSTOC reads reaction rules written in the BioNetGen language which is useful for modeling protein-protein interactions involved in signal transduction. The method of DYNSTOC is closely related to that of STOCHSIM. DYNSTOC differs from STOCHSIM by allowing for model specification in terms of BNGL, which extends the range of protein complexes that can be considered in a model. DYNSTOC enables the simulation of rule-based models that cannot be simulated by conventional methods. We demonstrate the ability of DYNSTOC to simulate models accounting for multisite phosphorylation and multivalent binding processes that are characterized by large numbers of reactions. DYNSTOC is free for non-commercial use. The C source code, supporting documentation and example input files are available at .

  18. Association between Outdoor Fungal Concentrations during Winter and Pulmonary Function in Children with and without Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Hantan, Degejirihu; Burioka, Naoto; Nakamoto, Sachiko; Sano, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Jumpei; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor fungi are important components of airborne particulate matter (PM). However, the associations between pulmonary function and outdoor fungi are less well known compared to other airborne PM constituents. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between outdoor fungi and pulmonary function in children. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) rates were measured daily in 339 schoolchildren (including 36 with asthma), aged 10 to 12, 2 to 27 February 2015. Airborne PM was collected on filters, using a high volume air sampler, each day during the study period. The daily concentration of outdoor fungi-associated PM was calculated using a culture-based method. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF values and daily concentrations of outdoor fungi, and the daily levels of suspended PM (SPM) and PM ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). An increase in the interquartile range (46.2 CFU/m3) for outdoor fungal concentration led to PEF changes of −1.18 L/min (95% confidence interval, −2.27 to −0.08) in all children, 1.22 L/min (−2.96 to 5.41) in children without asthma, and −1.44 L/min (−2.57 to −0.32) in children with asthma. Outdoor fungi showed a significant negative correlation with PM2.5 levels (r = −0.4, p = 0.04), but not with SPM (r = ‒0.3, p = 0.10) levels. Outdoor fungi may be associated with pulmonary dysfunction in children. Furthermore, children with asthma may show greater pulmonary dysfunction than those without asthma. PMID:27136569

  19. Association between Outdoor Fungal Concentrations during Winter and Pulmonary Function in Children with and without Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Watanabe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor fungi are important components of airborne particulate matter (PM. However, the associations between pulmonary function and outdoor fungi are less well known compared to other airborne PM constituents. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between outdoor fungi and pulmonary function in children. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF rates were measured daily in 339 schoolchildren (including 36 with asthma, aged 10 to 12, 2 to 27 February 2015. Airborne PM was collected on filters, using a high volume air sampler, each day during the study period. The daily concentration of outdoor fungi-associated PM was calculated using a culture-based method. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF values and daily concentrations of outdoor fungi, and the daily levels of suspended PM (SPM and PM ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5. An increase in the interquartile range (46.2 CFU/m3 for outdoor fungal concentration led to PEF changes of −1.18 L/min (95% confidence interval, −2.27 to −0.08 in all children, 1.22 L/min (−2.96 to 5.41 in children without asthma, and −1.44 L/min (−2.57 to −0.32 in children with asthma. Outdoor fungi showed a significant negative correlation with PM2.5 levels (r = −0.4, p = 0.04, but not with SPM (r = ‒0.3, p = 0.10 levels. Outdoor fungi may be associated with pulmonary dysfunction in children. Furthermore, children with asthma may show greater pulmonary dysfunction than those without asthma.

  20. Calculation of the Performance of Solar Cells With Spectral Down Shifters Using Realistic Outdoor Solar Spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Spectral down converters and shifters have been proposed as a good means to enhance the efficiency of underlying solar cells. In this paper, we focus on the simulation of the outdoor performance of solar cells with spectral down shifters, i.e., multicrystalline silicon solar cells with semiconductor

  1. Evaluation of Aromatic Oxidation Reactions in Seven Chemical Mechanisms with an Outdoor Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulations using seven chemical mechanisms are intercompared against O3, NOx and hydrocarbon data from photooxidation experiments conducted at the University of North Carolina outdoor smog chamber. The mechanisms include CB4–2002, CB05, CB05-TU, a CB05 vari...

  2. Space-based radar array system simulation and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, H. K.; Pflug, D. R.; Thompson, L. D.

    1981-08-01

    The present status of the space-based radar phased array lens simulator is discussed. Huge arrays of thin wire radiating elements on either side of a ground screen are modeled by the simulator. Also modeled are amplitude and phase adjust modules connecting radiating elements between arrays, feedline to radiator mismatch, and lens warping. A successive approximation method is employed. The first approximation is based on a plane wave expansion (infinite array) moment method especially suited to large array analysis. the first approximation results then facilitate higher approximation computations that account for effects of nonuniform periodicities (lens edge, lens section interfaces, failed modules, etc.). The programming to date is discussed via flow diagrams. An improved theory is presented in a consolidated development. The use of the simulator is illustrated by computing active impedances and radiating element current distributions for infinite planar arrays of straight and 'swept back' dipoles (arms inclined with respect to the array plane) with feedline scattering taken into account.

  3. Engineering-Based Thermal CFD Simulations on Massive Parallel Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Frisch, Jérôme

    2015-05-22

    The development of parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes is a challenging task that entails efficient parallelization concepts and strategies in order to achieve good scalability values when running those codes on modern supercomputers with several thousands to millions of cores. In this paper, we present a hierarchical data structure for massive parallel computations that supports the coupling of a Navier–Stokes-based fluid flow code with the Boussinesq approximation in order to address complex thermal scenarios for energy-related assessments. The newly designed data structure is specifically designed with the idea of interactive data exploration and visualization during runtime of the simulation code; a major shortcoming of traditional high-performance computing (HPC) simulation codes. We further show and discuss speed-up values obtained on one of Germany’s top-ranked supercomputers with up to 140,000 processes and present simulation results for different engineering-based thermal problems.

  4. Engineering-Based Thermal CFD Simulations on Massive Parallel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Frisch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD codes is a challenging task that entails efficient parallelization concepts and strategies in order to achieve good scalability values when running those codes on modern supercomputers with several thousands to millions of cores. In this paper, we present a hierarchical data structure for massive parallel computations that supports the coupling of a Navier–Stokes-based fluid flow code with the Boussinesq approximation in order to address complex thermal scenarios for energy-related assessments. The newly designed data structure is specifically designed with the idea of interactive data exploration and visualization during runtime of the simulation code; a major shortcoming of traditional high-performance computing (HPC simulation codes. We further show and discuss speed-up values obtained on one of Germany’s top-ranked supercomputers with up to 140,000 processes and present simulation results for different engineering-based thermal problems.

  5. The afforestation problem: a heuristic method based on simulated annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the afforestation problem, that is the location and design of new forest compartments to be planted in a given area. This optimization problem is solved by a two-step heuristic method based on simulated annealing. Tests and experiences with this method are also presented....

  6. Complete agent based simulation of mini-grids

    OpenAIRE

    González de Durana García, José María; Barambones Caramazana, Oscar; Kremers, Enrique; Viejo, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    EuroPES 2009 With eyes focused on simulation we review some of the main topics of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems (HRES). Then we describe an Agent Based model of a simple example of one of such systems, a micro-grid, oriented to designing a decentralized Supervisor Control. The model has been implemented using AnyLogic.

  7. Residents’ Lumbar Puncture Skills after Simulation-Based Education

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the Departments of Medicine and Neurology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL evaluated the effect of simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) on internal medicine residents’ lumbar puncture (LP) skills, assessed neurology residents’ acquired LP skills from traditional clinical education, and compared the results of SBML to traditional clinical education.

  8. Digital Simulation-Based Training: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Quesada-Pallarès, Carla; Knogler, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how design characteristics in digital simulation-based learning environments moderate self-efficacy and transfer of learning. Drawing on social cognitive theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, the meta-analysis psychometrically cumulated k?=?15 studies of 25 years of research with a total sample size of…

  9. Toward Developing Authentic Leadership: Team-Based Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a consensus that authentic leadership should be an essential component in educational leadership, no study to date has ever tried to find whether team-based simulations may promote authentic leadership. The purpose of this study was to identify whether principal trainees can develop authentic leadership through ethical decision…

  10. Engineering Agent-Based Social Simulations: An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Peer-Olaf Siebers; Paul Davidsson

    2015-01-01

    This special section on "Engineering Agent-Based Social Simulations" aims to represent the current state of the art in using Software Engineering (SE) methods in ABSS. It includes a mixture of theoretically oriented papers that describe frameworks, notations and methods adapted from SE and practice-oriented papers that demonstrate the application of SE methods in real world ABSS projects.

  11. Porting a Java-based Brain Simulation Software to C++

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    A currently available software solution to simulate neural development is Cx3D. However, this software is Java-based, and not ideal for high performance computing. This talk presents our step-by-step porting approach, that uses SWIG as a tool to interface C++ code from Java.

  12. Cost Effective Community Based Dementia Screening: A Markov Model Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Saito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Given the dementia epidemic and the increasing cost of healthcare, there is a need to assess the economic benefit of community based dementia screening programs. Materials and Methods. Markov model simulations were generated using data obtained from a community based dementia screening program over a one-year period. The models simulated yearly costs of caring for patients based on clinical transitions beginning in pre dementia and extending for 10 years. Results. A total of 93 individuals (74 female, 19 male were screened for dementia and 12 meeting clinical criteria for either mild cognitive impairment (n=7 or dementia (n=5 were identified. Assuming early therapeutic intervention beginning during the year of dementia detection, Markov model simulations demonstrated 9.8% reduction in cost of dementia care over a ten-year simulation period, primarily through increased duration in mild stages and reduced time in more costly moderate and severe stages. Discussion. Community based dementia screening can reduce healthcare costs associated with caring for demented individuals through earlier detection and treatment, resulting in proportionately reduced time in more costly advanced stages.

  13. Event-based Simulation Model for Quantum Optics Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.; Jaeger, G; Khrennikov, A; Schlosshauer, M; Weihs, G

    2011-01-01

    We present a corpuscular simulation model of optical phenomena that does not require the knowledge of the solution of a wave equation of the whole system and reproduces the results of Maxwell's theory by generating detection events one-by-one. The event-based corpuscular model gives a unified descri

  14. Three-dimensional Microstructure Simulation Model of Cement Based Materials,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, G.; Van Breugel, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-based numerical model for the simulation of the development of microstructure during cement hydration. Special emphasis is on the algorithm for characterizing the pores. This includes the porosity and the pore size distribution and the topological properties of the po

  15. Simulation-Based Evaluation of Learning Sequences for Instructional Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEneaney, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Instructional technologies critically depend on systematic design, and learning hierarchies are a commonly advocated tool for designing instructional sequences. But hierarchies routinely allow numerous sequences and choosing an optimal sequence remains an unsolved problem. This study explores a simulation-based approach to modeling learning…

  16. Outdoor ultraviolet exposure of children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weekday and weekend outdoor ultraviolet exposure of young people from primary and secondary schools in three geographically distinct regions of England was determined over a 3-month period in summer. Ultraviolet exposure was measured using personal film badges worn by each young person and time spent outdoors, in hourly intervals, assessed using exposure records. In each area a class of 9-10 year-old children from a primary school and a class of 14-15-year-old adolescents from a secondary school took part, giving a total of 180 subjects. We found that primary school children received higher outdoor ultraviolet exposure than young people in secondary schools, and geographical differences in exposure could not be accounted for solely by differences in ambient ultraviolet. There was little difference between the exposure of males and females. Children and adolescents did not behave as homogeneous groups with regard to exposure. (Author)

  17. Determining the energy performance of manually controlled solar shades: A stochastic model based co-simulation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Driving factor for adjustment of manually controlled solar shades was determined. • A stochastic model for manual solar shades was constructed using Markov method. • Co-simulation with Energyplus was carried out in BCVTB. • External shading even manually controlled should be used prior to LOW-E windows. • Previous studies on manual solar shades may overestimate energy savings. - Abstract: Solar shading devices play a significant role in reducing building energy consumption and maintaining a comfortable indoor condition. In this paper, a typical office building with internal roller shades in hot summer and cold winter zone was selected to determine the driving factor of control behavior of manual solar shades. Solar radiation was determined as the major factor in driving solar shading adjustment based on field measurements and logit analysis and then a stochastic model for manually adjusted solar shades was constructed by using Markov method. This model was used in BCVTB for further co-simulation with Energyplus to determine the impact of the control behavior of solar shades on energy performance. The results show that manually adjusted solar shades, whatever located inside or outside, have a relatively high energy saving performance than clear-pane windows while only external shades perform better than regularly used LOW-E windows. Simulation also indicates that using an ideal assumption of solar shade adjustment as most studies do in building simulation may lead to an overestimation of energy saving by about 16–30%. There is a need to improve occupants’ actions on shades to more effectively respond to outdoor conditions in order to lower energy consumption, and this improvement can be easily achieved by using simple strategies as a guide to control manual solar shades

  18. Nucleonica. Web-based software tools for simulation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present a description of the Nucleonica web-based portal for simulation and analysis for a wide range of commonly encountered nuclear science applications. Advantages of a web-based approach include availability wherever there is internet access, intuitive user-friendly interface, remote access to high-power computing resources, and continual maintenance, improvement, and addition of tools and techniques common to the nuclear science industry. A description of the nuclear data resources, and some applications is given.

  19. Container Terminal Operations Modeling through Multi agent based Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ayub, Yasir; Faruki, Usman

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aims to propose a multi-agent based hierarchical model for the operations of container terminals. We have divided our model into four key agents that are involved in each sub processes. The proposed agent allocation policies are recommended for different situations that may occur at a container terminal. A software prototype is developed which implements the hierarchical model. This web based application is used in order to simulate the various processes involved in the following ...

  20. Nucleonica: Web-based Software Tools for Simulations and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Magill, Joseph; DREHER Raymond; SOTI Zsolt; LASCHE George

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a description of a new web-based software portal for simulation and analysis for a wide range of commonly encountered nuclear science applications. Advantages of a web-based approach include availability wherever there is internet access, intuitive user-friendly interface, remote access to high-power computing resources, and continual maintenance, improvement, and addition of tools and techniques common to the nuclear science industry. A description of the nuclear data res...

  1. An Operationally Based Vision Assessment Simulator for Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archdeacon, John; Gaska, James; Timoner, Samson

    2012-01-01

    The Operational Based Vision Assessment (OBVA) simulator was designed and built by NASA and the United States Air Force (USAF) to provide the Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine (USAFSAM) with a scientific testing laboratory to study human vision and testing standards in an operationally relevant environment. This paper describes the general design objectives and implementation characteristics of the simulator visual system being created to meet these requirements. A key design objective for the OBVA research simulator is to develop a real-time computer image generator (IG) and display subsystem that can display and update at 120 frame s per second (design target), or at a minimum, 60 frames per second, with minimal transport delay using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology. There are three key parts of the OBVA simulator that are described in this paper: i) the real-time computer image generator, ii) the various COTS technology used to construct the simulator, and iii) the spherical dome display and real-time distortion correction subsystem. We describe the various issues, possible COTS solutions, and remaining problem areas identified by NASA and the USAF while designing and building the simulator for future vision research. We also describe the critically important relationship of the physical display components including distortion correction for the dome consistent with an objective of minimizing latency in the system. The performance of the automatic calibration system used in the dome is also described. Various recommendations for possible future implementations shall also be discussed.

  2. Simulation-based medical education in clinical skills laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaike, Masashi; Fukutomi, Miki; Nagamune, Masami; Fujimoto, Akiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ishida, Kazuko; Iwata, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical skills laboratories have been established in medical institutions as facilities for simulation-based medical education (SBME). SBME is believed to be superior to the traditional style of medical education from the viewpoint of the active and adult learning theories. SBME can provide a learning cycle of debriefing and feedback for learners as well as evaluation of procedures and competency. SBME offers both learners and patients a safe environment for practice and error. In a full-environment simulation, learners can obtain not only technical skills but also non-technical skills, such as leadership, team work, communication, situation awareness, decision-making, and awareness of personal limitations. SBME is also effective for integration of clinical medicine and basic medicine. In addition, technology-enhanced simulation training is associated with beneficial effects for outcomes of knowledge, skills, behaviors, and patient-related outcomes. To perform SBME, effectively, not only simulators including high-fidelity mannequin-type simulators or virtual-reality simulators but also full-time faculties and instructors as professionals of SBME are essential in a clinical skills laboratory for SBME. Clinical skills laboratory is expected to become an integrated medical education center to achieve continuing professional development, integrated learning of basic and clinical medicine, and citizens' participation and cooperation in medical education. PMID:22449990

  3. Low-Complexity Geometry-Based MIMO Channel Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph W. Ueberhuber

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of electromagnetic wave propagation in time-variant wideband multiple-input multiple-output mobile radio channels using a geometry-based channel model (GCM is computationally expensive. Due to multipath propagation, a large number of complex exponentials must be evaluated and summed up. We present a low-complexity algorithm for the implementation of a GCM on a hardware channel simulator. Our algorithm takes advantage of the limited numerical precision of the channel simulator by using a truncated subspace representation of the channel transfer function based on multidimensional discrete prolate spheroidal (DPS sequences. The DPS subspace representation offers two advantages. Firstly, only a small subspace dimension is required to achieve the numerical accuracy of the hardware channel simulator. Secondly, the computational complexity of the subspace representation is independent of the number of multipath components (MPCs. Moreover, we present an algorithm for the projection of each MPC onto the DPS subspace in 𝒪(1 operations. Thus the computational complexity of the DPS subspace algorithm compared to a conventional implementation is reduced by more than one order of magnitude on a hardware channel simulator with 14-bit precision.

  4. Risk Reduction and Training using Simulation Based Tools - 12180

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process Modeling and Simulation (M and S) has been used for many years in manufacturing and similar domains, as part of an industrial engineer's tool box. Traditionally, however, this technique has been employed in small, isolated projects where models were created from scratch, often making it time and cost prohibitive. Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS) has recognized the value of this predictive technique and what it offers in terms of risk reduction, cost avoidance and on-schedule performance of highly complex work. To facilitate implementation, NNS has been maturing a process and the software to rapidly deploy and reuse M and S based decision support tools in a variety of environments. Some examples of successful applications by NNS of this technique in the nuclear domain are a reactor refueling simulation based tool, a fuel handling facility simulation based tool and a tool for dynamic radiation exposure tracking. The next generation of M and S applications include expanding simulation based tools into immersive and interactive training. The applications discussed here take a tool box approach to creating simulation based decision support tools for maximum utility and return on investment. This approach involves creating a collection of simulation tools that can be used individually or integrated together for a larger application. The refueling simulation integrates with the fuel handling facility simulation to understand every aspect and dependency of the fuel handling evolutions. This approach translates nicely to other complex domains where real system experimentation is not feasible, such as nuclear fuel lifecycle and waste management. Similar concepts can also be applied to different types of simulation techniques. For example, a process simulation of liquid waste operations may be useful to streamline and plan operations, while a chemical model of the liquid waste composition is an important tool for making decisions with respect to waste disposition

  5. Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

  6. Knowledge – Based Reservoir Simulation – A Novel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Enamul Hossain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that reservoir simulation studies are very subjective and vary fromsimulator to simulator. While SPE benchmarking has helped accept differences inpredicting petroleum reservoir performance, there has been no scientific explanationbehind the variability that has frustrated many policy makers and operations managers andpuzzled scientists and engineers. In a recent book by the research group of R. Islam, anew approach is taken to add the Knowledge dimension to the problem. For the first time,reservoir simulation equations are shown to have embedded variability and multiplesolutions that are in line with physics rather than spurious mathematical solutions. Withthis clear description, a fresh perspective in reservoir simulation is presented. Unlike themajority of reservoir simulation approaches available today, the 'knowledge-based'approach does not stop at questioning the fundamentals of reservoir simulation but offerssolutions and demonstrates that proper reservoir simulation should be transparent andempower decision makers rather than creating a black box. Mathematical developments ofnew governing equations based on in-depth understanding of the factors that influencefluid flow in porous media under different flow conditions are introduced. Behavior of flowthrough matrix and fractured systems in the same reservoir, heterogeneity and fluid/rockproperties interactions, Darcy and non-Darcy flow are among the issues that are thoroughlyaddressed. For the first time, the fluid memory factor is introduced with a functionalform. The resulting governing equations are solved without linearization at any stage. Aseries of clearly superior mathematical and numerical techniques are also presented thatallow one to achieve this objective. Mathematical solutions that provide a basis forsystematic tracking of multiple solutions that are inherent to non-linear governingequations. This was possible because the new technique is capable of solving non

  7. Porting a Java-based Brain Simulation Software to C++

    OpenAIRE

    Breitwieser, Lukas Johannes; Bauer, Roman; Manca, Marco; Rademakers, Fons

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This report describes the process of porting the Java-based Brain Simulation Software Cortex3D (Cx3D) to C++. Cx3D was originally developed in Java, which is not ideal for high-performance computing. This is the first step towards the goal to create a software tonbsp;simulate richer and deeper structures of the brain. An iterative porting approach has beennbsp;chosen for this task. This means, that one Java class is translated at each iteration. Afternbsp;the C++ representation o...

  8. Simulation of Naval Guns' Breechblock System Dynamics Based on ADAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bo; Liu, Hui-Min; Liu, Kai

    In order to study the dynamical characteristics of the breechblock system during gun firing, a virtual prototype model was established based on ADAMS, in which motion and force transmission among mechanisms are realized by collision. By simulation, kinematics and dynamics properties of main components are obtained, and the relationships between the motion of breechblock and the position of breechblock opening plate are analyzed. According to the simulation results, the collision among the breechblock opening plate and the roller is discontinuous, which may make the breechblock system fail to hitch the breechblock reliably. And within allowable scope of the structure, the breechblock opening template should be installed near the upside as much as possible.

  9. Efisiensi Energi Jaringan Homogeneous Wcdma/3g Pada Lingkungan Outdoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linawati Linawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Telecommunication technology and applications have developed fast recently. Hence this development will take energy consumption significantly. Many studies have been done on energy efficiency on cellular network. The studies are more focused on energy usage of the base station, as the base station is the component of cellular station which takes the most energy consumption. Therefore this study analyzes energy efficiency on homogeneous network of WCDMA/3G for outdoor environment. Energy consumption of three macro base stations is compared with energy consumption of 12 micro base stations. This comparison analysis has been conducted on the same Area Spectral Efficiency (ASE. The results show that the macro base stations are more efficient for energy usage than the micro base stations. However based on ASE requirements, the micro base stations are more efficient than the macro base stations on both busy hours and non-busy hour.

  10. AUV-Based Plume Tracking: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awantha Jayasiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation study of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV navigation system operating in a GPS-denied environment. The AUV navigation method makes use of underwater transponder positioning and requires only one transponder. A multirate unscented Kalman filter is used to determine the AUV orientation and position by fusing high-rate sensor data and low-rate information. The paper also proposes a gradient-based, efficient, and adaptive novel algorithm for plume boundary tracking missions. The algorithm follows a centralized approach and it includes path optimization features based on gradient information. The proposed algorithm is implemented in simulation on the AUV-based navigation system and successful boundary tracking results are obtained.

  11. Manufacturing Resource Planning Technology Based on Genetic Programming Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shiwen; LIAO Wenhe; GUO Yu; LIU Jinshan; SU Yan

    2009-01-01

    Network-based manufacturing is a kind of distributed system, which enables manufacturers to finish production tasks as well as to grasp the opportunities in the market, even if manufacturing resources are insufficient. One of the main problems in network-based manufacturing is the allocation of resources and the assignment of tasks rationally, according to flexible resource distribution. The mapping rules and relations between production techniques and resources are proposed, followed by the definition of the resource unit. Ultimately, the genetic programming method for the optimization of the manufacturing system is put forward. A set of software for the optimization system of simulation process using genetic programming techniques has been developed, and the problems of manufacturing resource planning in network-based manufacturing are solved with the simulation of optimizing methods by genetic programming. The optimum proposal of hardware planning, selection of company and scheduling will be obtained in theory to help company managers in scientific decision-making.

  12. On the use of bioclimatic architecture principles in order to improve thermal comfort conditions in outdoor spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaitani, N.; Mihalakakou, G. [Department of Environment and Natural Resources Management, University of Ioannina, 30 100 Agrinion (Greece); Santamouris, M. [Laboratory of Meteorology, Department of Physics, Division of Applied Physics, University of Athens, University Campus, Build. PHYS-V, Athens, GR 15784 (Greece)

    2007-01-15

    The present paper describes a process for designing and applying several techniques based on bioclimatic architecture criteria and on passive cooling and energy conservation principles in order to improve the thermal comfort conditions in an outdoor space location located in the Great Athens area. For that reason, the thermal comfort conditions in 12 different outdoor space points in the experimented location have been calculated using two different thermal comfort bioclimatic indices developed to be used for outdoor spaces. The used indices were the following: (a) 'Comfa', which is based on estimating the energy budget of a person in an outdoor environment and (b) 'thermal sensation', based on the satisfaction or dissatisfaction sensation under the prevailing climatic conditions of the outdoor spaces. Calculations were performed during the summer period and two different scenarios of the constructed space parameters have been considered. The first scenario consists of a conventionally constructed space, while the second one includes various architectural improvements according to the bioclimatic design principles. The two bioclimatic indicators were used for calculating the outdoor thermal comfort conditions in the above-mentioned outdoor space locations for both scenarios and the effect of the bioclimatic design architectural improvements on the human thermal comfort sensation was presented and analysed. (author)

  13. Parental encouragement is positively associated with outdoor active play outside of school hours among 7-12 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrao, Thomas; Janssen, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical activity is important for children's physical, mental, and social well-being. Outdoor active play is an important yet unstudied domain of children's physical activity. The objective of this study was to determine if parental encouragement is associated with the frequency that children engage in outdoor active play outside of school hours. Methods. Participants consisted of 514 children aged 7-12 years and one of their parents. Parents completed a survey that included four questions that assessed how frequently they used verbal cues to encourage their child to play outdoors. Points were assigned to each response and averaged across the 4 questions, and based on this average participants were assigned to quintiles. The survey included seven questions that asked parents to assess how frequently their child played outdoors outside of school hours. Points were assigned to each response and summed to create an active outdoor play frequency score. General linear models assessed associations between parental encouragement and outdoor play while controlling for individual, family, and neighborhood covariates. Results. The mean outdoor active play frequency score increased significantly across quintiles of the parental encouragement score as follows: 6.0 (standard error = 0.7) in quintile 1, 9.8 (0.6) in quintile 2, 11.4 (0.6) in quintile 3, 16.2 (0.9) in quintile 4, and 23.3 (1.3) in quintile 5. After adjusting for covariates, the mean outdoor active play frequency score was almost three times higher in the highest parental encouragement quintile than in the lowest quintile (20.4 vs. 7.8). Conclusions. Parents use of verbal cues to encourage their children to play outdoors was independently associated with outdoor active play among 7-12 year olds. PMID:26644990

  14. SIMULATED ANNEALING BASED POLYNOMIAL TIME QOS ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR MANETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Lianggui; Feng Guangzeng

    2006-01-01

    Multi-constrained Quality-of-Service (QoS) routing is a big challenge for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) where the topology may change constantly. In this paper a novel QoS Routing Algorithm based on Simulated Annealing (SA_RA) is proposed. This algorithm first uses an energy function to translate multiple QoS weights into a single mixed metric and then seeks to find a feasible path by simulated annealing. The paper outlines simulated annealing algorithm and analyzes the problems met when we apply it to Qos Routing (QoSR) in MANETs. Theoretical analysis and experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective approximation algorithms showing better performance than the other pertinent algorithm in seeking the (approximate) optimal configuration within a period of polynomial time.

  15. A CUDA based parallel multi-phase oil reservoir simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaza, Ayham; Awotunde, Abeeb A.; Fairag, Faisal A.; Al-Mouhamed, Mayez A.

    2016-09-01

    Forward Reservoir Simulation (FRS) is a challenging process that models fluid flow and mass transfer in porous media to draw conclusions about the behavior of certain flow variables and well responses. Besides the operational cost associated with matrix assembly, FRS repeatedly solves huge and computationally expensive sparse, ill-conditioned and unsymmetrical linear system. Moreover, as the computation for practical reservoir dimensions lasts for long times, speeding up the process by taking advantage of parallel platforms is indispensable. By considering the state of art advances in massively parallel computing and the accompanying parallel architecture, this work aims primarily at developing a CUDA-based parallel simulator for oil reservoir. In addition to the initial reported 33 times speed gain compared to the serial version, running experiments showed that BiCGSTAB is a stable and fast solver which could be incorporated in such simulations instead of the more expensive, storage demanding and usually utilized GMRES.

  16. Particle-based simulations of self-motile suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hinz, Denis F; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Fried, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    A simple model for simulating flows of active suspensions is investigated. The approach is based on dissipative particle dynamics. While the model is potentially applicable to a wide range of self-propelled particle systems, the specific class of self-motile bacterial suspensions is considered as a modeling scenario. To mimic the rod-like geometry of a bacterium, two dissipative particle dynamics particles are connected by a stiff harmonic spring to form an aggregate dissipative particle dynamics molecule. Bacterial motility is modeled through a constant self-propulsion force applied along the axis of each such aggregate molecule. The model accounts for hydrodynamic interactions between self-propelled agents through the pairwise dissipative interactions conventional to dissipative particle dynamics. Numerical simulations are performed using a customized version of the open-source LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator) software package. Detailed studies of the influence of agent con...

  17. A Web-based Virtual Reality Simulation of Mounting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mounting machine is the most critical equipment in the SMT (Surface Mounted Technology, the production efficiency of which affects the entire assembly line's productivity dramatically, and can be the bottleneck of the assembly line if poorly designed. In order to enhance the VM(Virtual Manufacturing of mounting simulation for PCB(Printed Circuit Board circuit modular, the virtual reality simulation of web-based mounting machine is written in Java Applet as controlling core and VRML(Virtual Reality Modeling Language scenes as 3D displaying platform. This system is data driven and manufacturing oriented. System can dynamically generate 3D static mounting scene and interactively observe the dynamic process from all angles. Simulation results prove that the system has a high fidelity which brings good practical significance to manufacturing analysis and optimization for process design. It offers a new thought for establishing a practical PCB circuit modular VM system in unit production.

  18. A Simulation Base Investigation of High Latency Space Systems Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zu Qun; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul; Moore, Michael

    2017-01-01

    NASA's human space program has developed considerable experience with near Earth space operations. Although NASA has experience with deep space robotic missions, NASA has little substantive experience with human deep space operations. Even in the Apollo program, the missions lasted only a few weeks and the communication latencies were on the order of seconds. Human missions beyond the relatively close confines of the Earth-Moon system will involve missions with durations measured in months and communications latencies measured in minutes. To minimize crew risk and to maximize mission success, NASA needs to develop a better understanding of the implications of these types of mission durations and communication latencies on vehicle design, mission design and flight controller interaction with the crew. To begin to address these needs, NASA performed a study using a physics-based subsystem simulation to investigate the interactions between spacecraft crew and a ground-based mission control center for vehicle subsystem operations across long communication delays. The simulation, built with a subsystem modeling tool developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center, models the life support system of a Mars transit vehicle. The simulation contains models of the cabin atmosphere and pressure control system, electrical power system, drinking and waste water systems, internal and external thermal control systems, and crew metabolic functions. The simulation has three interfaces: 1) a real-time crew interface that can be use to monitor and control the vehicle subsystems; 2) a mission control center interface with data transport delays up to 15 minutes each way; 3) a real-time simulation test conductor interface that can be use to insert subsystem malfunctions and observe the interactions between the crew, ground, and simulated vehicle. The study was conducted at the 21st NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission between July 18th and Aug 3rd of year 2016. The NEEMO

  19. HSC simulations of coal based DR in ULCORED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, L.; Larsson, M. [Mefos Metallurgical Research Plant, Lulea (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    The ULCORED coal based concept is simulated based on the production of syngas using existing coal gasification technology. The shifter gives the option to produce CO{sub 2}-lean H{sub 2} from coal/biomass for in plant use. Large CO{sub 2} emissions arise on site from the use of natural gas in heating ovens and from the use of electricity in EAF melting. In the case of these coal based systems, production of 'excess gas' to be used as fuel gas in various processes will reduce the CO{sub 2} emission for the total site.

  20. An introduction to statistical computing a simulation-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Voss, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to sampling-based methods in statistical computing The use of computers in mathematics and statistics has opened up a wide range of techniques for studying otherwise intractable problems.  Sampling-based simulation techniques are now an invaluable tool for exploring statistical models.  This book gives a comprehensive introduction to the exciting area of sampling-based methods. An Introduction to Statistical Computing introduces the classical topics of random number generation and Monte Carlo methods.  It also includes some advanced met

  1. Design Optimization of Charger Based on PSPICE Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡程辉; 都东; 葛竞天; 张骅; 彭华良

    2003-01-01

    The design of a high-frequency switching mode charger (HFSMC) was optimized using a PSPICE simulation of the charging system including a valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery pack and the HFSMC. A high-frequency battery charging circuit model was developed to describe the battery dynamics when charging with DC current having high-frequency ripples. An IGBT circuit model, a high-frequency pulsed transformer coupling model and a silicon fast recovery diode model were also developed. Simulations were compared to laboratory measurements to verify the battery and system models. Simulation of the working states of an Fe-based nanocrystalline magnetic core used in the transformer shows that the transformer design can be optimized by adjusting the core gap and by employing an RC network. Further simulations show that the components in the output unit of the charger main circuit can also be optimized. Simulations also show that the battery dynamics including the inductance should be considered for design optimization of the HFSMC.

  2. A virtual reality based simulator for learning nasogastric tube placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kup-Sze; He, Xuejian; Chiang, Vico Chung-Lim; Deng, Zhaohong

    2015-02-01

    Nasogastric tube (NGT) placement is a common clinical procedure where a plastic tube is inserted into the stomach through the nostril for feeding or drainage. However, the placement is a blind process in which the tube may be mistakenly inserted into other locations, leading to unexpected complications or fatal incidents. The placement techniques are conventionally acquired by practising on unrealistic rubber mannequins or on humans. In this paper, a virtual reality based training simulation system is proposed to facilitate the training of NGT placement. It focuses on the simulation of tube insertion and the rendering of the feedback forces with a haptic device. A hybrid force model is developed to compute the forces analytically or numerically under different conditions, including the situations when the patient is swallowing or when the tube is buckled at the nostril. To ensure real-time interactive simulations, an offline simulation approach is adopted to obtain the relationship between the insertion depth and insertion force using a non-linear finite element method. The offline dataset is then used to generate real-time feedback forces by interpolation. The virtual training process is logged quantitatively with metrics that can be used for assessing objective performance and tracking progress. The system has been evaluated by nursing professionals. They found that the haptic feeling produced by the simulated forces is similar to their experience during real NGT insertion. The proposed system provides a new educational tool to enhance conventional training in NGT placement.

  3. Design of transient light signal simulator based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jing; Chen, Rong-li; Wang, Hong

    2014-11-01

    A design scheme of transient light signal simulator based on Field Programmable gate Array (FPGA) was proposed in this paper. Based on the characteristics of transient light signals and measured feature points of optical intensity signals, a fitted curve was created in MATLAB. And then the wave data was stored in a programmed memory chip AT29C1024 by using SUPERPRO programmer. The control logic was realized inside one EP3C16 FPGA chip. Data readout, data stream cache and a constant current buck regulator for powering high-brightness LEDs were all controlled by FPGA. A 12-Bit multiplying CMOS digital-to-analog converter (DAC) DAC7545 and an amplifier OPA277 were used to convert digital signals to voltage signals. A voltage-controlled current source constituted by a NPN transistor and an operational amplifier controlled LED array diming to achieve simulation of transient light signal. LM3405A, 1A Constant Current Buck Regulator for Powering LEDs, was used to simulate strong background signal in space. Experimental results showed that the scheme as a transient light signal simulator can satisfy the requests of the design stably.

  4. Simulation of convoy of unmanned vehicles using agent based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sharad; Singh, Harpreet; Gerhart, G. R.

    2007-10-01

    There has been an increasing interest of unmanned vehicles keeping the importance of defense and security. A few models for a convoy of unmanned vehicle exist in literature. The objective of this paper is to exploit agent based modeling technique for a convoy of unmanned vehicles where each vehicle is an agent. Using this approach, the convoy of vehicles reaches a specified goal from a starting point. Each agent is associated with number of sensors. The agents make intelligent decisions based on sensor inputs and at the same time maintaining their group capability and behavior. The simulation is done for a battlefield environment from a single starting point to a single goal. This approach can be extended for multiple starting points to reach multiple goals. The simulation gives the time taken by the convoy to reach a goal from its initial position. In the battlefield environment, commanders make various tactical decisions depending upon the location of an enemy outpost, minefields, number of soldiers in platoons, and barriers. The simulation can help the commander to make effective decisions depending on battlefield, convoy and obstacles to reach a particular goal. The paper describes the proposed approach and gives the simulation results. The paper also gives problems for future research in this area.

  5. Mathematical model development of heat and mass exchange processes in the outdoor swimming pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Shaptala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Currently exploitation of outdoor swimming pools is often not cost-effective and, despite of their relevance, such pools are closed in large quantities. At this time there is no the whole mathematical model which would allow assessing qualitatively the effect of energy-saving measures. The aim of this work is to develop a mathematical model of heat and mass exchange processes for calculating basic heat and mass losses that occur during its exploitation. Methodology. The method for determination of heat and mass loses based on the theory of similarity criteria equations is used. Findings. The main types of heat and mass losses of outdoor pool were analyzed. The most significant types were allocated and mathematically described. Namely: by evaporation of water from the surface of the pool, by natural and forced convection, by radiation to the environment, heat consumption for water heating. Originality. The mathematical model of heat and mass exchange process of the outdoor swimming pool was developed, which allows calculating the basic heat and mass loses that occur during its exploitation. Practical value. The method of determining heat and mass loses of outdoor swimming pool as a software system was developed and implemented. It is based on the mathematical model proposed by the authors. This method can be used for the conceptual design of energy-efficient structures of outdoor pools, to assess their use of energy-intensive and selecting the optimum energy-saving measures. A further step in research in this area is the experimental validation of the method of calculation of heat losses in outdoor swimming pools with its use as an example the pool of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan. The outdoor pool, with water heating- up from the boiler room of the university, is operated year-round.

  6. Estimation of indoor and outdoor ratios of selected volatile organic compounds in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Szyszkowicz, Mieczyslaw; Jovic, Branka; Cakmak, Sabit; Austin, Claire C.; Zhu, Jiping

    2016-09-01

    Indoor air and outdoor air concentration (I/O) ratio can be used to identify the origins of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). I/O ratios of 25 VOCs in Canada were estimated based on the data collected in various areas in Canada between September 2009 and December 2011. The indoor VOC data were extracted from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Outdoor VOC data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) Network. The sampling locations covered nine areas in six provinces in Canada. Indoor air concentrations were found higher than outdoor air for all studied VOCs, except for carbon tetrachloride. Two different approaches were employed to estimate the I/O ratios; both approaches produced similar I/O values. The I/O ratios obtained from this study were similar to two other Canadian studies where indoor air and outdoor air of individual dwellings were measured. However, the I/O ratios found in Canada were higher than those in European cities and in two large USA cities, possibly due to the fact that the outdoor air concentrations recorded in the Canadian studies were lower. Possible source origins identified for the studied VOCs based on their I/O ratios were similar to those reported by others. In general, chlorinated hydrocarbons, short-chain (C5, C6) n-alkanes and benzene had significant outdoor sources, while long-chain (C10sbnd C12) n-alkanes, terpenes, naphthalene and styrene had significant indoor sources. The remaining VOCs had mixed indoor and outdoor sources.

  7. Building Social Capital through Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beames, Simon; Atencio, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, the body of literature surrounding the subject of social capital has witnessed steady growth. While sociologists have extensively discussed how social capital can be created and sustained within local communities and national contexts, there is little evidence of the social capital discourse within the outdoor education…

  8. Indoorising the outdoors: Lifestyle sports revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salome, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early nineties, lifestyle sports such as surfing, snowboarding and skydiving are on a large scale offered in artificial sport environments. In snow domes, on artificial white water courses, in climbing halls and in wind tunnels, these alternative outdoor sports are accessible for a broad a

  9. Outdoor Lighting Networks: Market, Technologies and Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Wang, J.; Chen, R.; Jiang , D.; Yang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Providing the right amount of light where and when it is needed is an opportunity to transform today’s cities into smart and livable urban spaces. New technologies are being introduced, such are adaptivecontrols and outdoor lighting networks, which can deliver energy andcost savings through adaptive

  10. Outdoor Education Expands Small School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, James; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes how the Violet Hill, Arkansas K-12 school district developed a new curriculum through outdoor education. Describes how the district's alternative energy agricultural complex (including a windmill, solar greenhouse, and farm plots, and gardens) will be incorporated into the curriculum via math, business, science, agriculture, economics,…

  11. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  12. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  13. Split-second recognition: what makes outdoor advertising work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Meurs; M. Aristoff

    2009-01-01

    CBS Outdoor used a tachistoscope to determine how long it takes to recognize the brand/product advertised in 187 outdoor posters in the Netherlands. Additionally, CBS Outdoor measured the creative appeal of these advertisements. Using 80 content and format variables, an explanatory model was develop

  14. Provoking Dialogue: A Short History of Outdoor Education in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, James

    2011-01-01

    History helps educators more clearly describe the role of outdoor education in improving society by fostering awareness of human-nature interconnections. Five branches have shaped outdoor education in Ontario: (1) agricultural education; (2) environmental education; (3) outdoor adventure education; (4) ecological education; and (5) climate change…

  15. Creating and Enriching Quality and Safe Outdoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Can teachers of young children create stimulating and enriching outdoor environments that are also safe? This article highlights early childhood outdoor safety standards and presents a framework for creating quality and SAFE™ outdoor environments in early childhood programs that support children's interest and best practice. The outdoor…

  16. Long-range high-speed visible light communication system over 100-m outdoor transmission utilizing receiver diversity technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiguang; Huang, Xingxing; Shi, Jianyang; Wang, Yuan-quan; Chi, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) has no doubt become a promising candidate for future wireless communications due to the increasing trends in the usage of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In addition to indoor high-speed wireless access and positioning applications, VLC usage in outdoor scenarios, such as vehicle networks and intelligent transportation systems, are also attracting significant interest. However, the complex outdoor environment and ambient noise are the key challenges for long-range high-speed VLC outdoor applications. To improve system performance and transmission distance, we propose to use receiver diversity technology in an outdoor VLC system. Maximal ratio combining-based receiver diversity technology is utilized in two receivers to achieve the maximal signal-to-noise ratio. A 400-Mb/s VLC transmission using a phosphor-based white LED and a 1-Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing VLC transmission using a red-green-blue LED are both successfully achieved over a 100-m outdoor distance with the bit error rate below the 7% forward error correction limit of 3.8×10-3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate at 100-m outdoor VLC transmission ever achieved. The experimental results clearly prove the benefit and feasibility of receiver diversity technology for long-range high-speed outdoor VLC systems.

  17. Simulation-based education and performance assessments for pediatric surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsness, Katherine

    2014-08-01

    Education in the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for a surgeon to perform at an expert level in the operating room, and beyond, must address all potential cognitive and technical performance gaps, professionalism and personal behaviors, and effective team communication. Educational strategies should also seek to replicate the stressors and distractions that might occur during a high-risk operation or critical care event. Finally, education cannot remain fixed in an apprenticeship model of "See one, do one, teach one," whereby patients are exposed to the risk of harm inherent to any learning curve. The majority of these educational goals can be achieved with the addition of simulation-based education (SBE) as a valuable adjunct to traditional training methods. This article will review relevant principles of SBE, explore currently available simulation-based educational tools for pediatric surgeons, and finally make projections for the future of SBE and performance assessments for pediatric surgeons.

  18. Return Migration After Brain Drain: An Agent Based Simulation Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Biondo, A E; Rapisarda, A

    2012-01-01

    The Brain Drain phenomenon is particularly heterogeneous and is characterized by peculiar specifications. It influences the economic fundamentals of both the country of origin and the host one in terms of human capital accumulation. Here, the brain drain is considered from a microeconomic perspective: more precisely we focus on the individual rational decision to return, referring it to the social capital owned by the worker. The presented model, restricted to the case of academic personnel, compares utility levels to justify agent's migration conduct and to simulate several scenarios with a NetLogo agent based model. In particular, we developed a simulation framework based on two fundamental individual features, i.e. risk aversion and initial expectation, which characterize the dynamics of different agents according to the random evolution of their personal social networks. Our main result is that, according to the value of risk aversion and initial expectation, the probability of return migration depends on...

  19. Disaster Rescue Simulation based on Complex Adaptive Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Disaster rescue is one of the key measures of disaster reduction. The rescue process is a complex process with the characteristics of large scale, complicate structure, non-linear. It is hard to describe and analyze them with traditional methods. Based on complex adaptive theory, this paper analyzes the complex adaptation of the rescue process from seven features: aggregation, nonlinearity, mobility, diversity, tagging, internal model and building block. With the support of Repast platform, an agent-based model including rescue agents and victim agents was proposed. Moreover, two simulations with different parameters are employed to examine the feasibility of the model. As a result, the proposed model has been shown that it is efficient in dealing with the disaster rescue simulation and can provide the reference for making decisions.

  20. SPH-based simulation of multi-material asteroid collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Maindl, Thomas I; Speith, Roland; Süli, Áron; Forgács-Dajka, Emese; Dvorak, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    We give a brief introduction to smoothed particle hydrodynamics methods for continuum mechanics. Specifically, we present our 3D SPH code to simulate and analyze collisions of asteroids consisting of two types of material: basaltic rock and ice. We consider effects like brittle failure, fragmentation, and merging in different impact scenarios. After validating our code against previously published results we present first collision results based on measured values for the Weibull flaw distribution parameters of basalt.

  1. Neural-Based Models of Semiconductor Devices for SPICE Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Hanene B. Hammouda; Mongia Mhiri; Zièd Gafsi; Kamel Besbes

    2008-01-01

    The paper addresses a simple and fast new approach to implement Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) models for the MOS transistor into SPICE. The proposed approach involves two steps, the modeling phase of the device by NN providing its input/output patterns, and the SPICE implementation process of the resulting model. Using the Taylor series expansion, a neural based small-signal model is derived. The reliability of our approach is validated through simulations of some circuits in DC and small-...

  2. Potential application of particle based simulations in reservoir security management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to model the movement progress in case of risks such as dam collapse and coastal inundation, particle-based simulation methods, including the discrete-element method and smoothed particle hydrodynamics, which have specific advantages in modeling complex three-dimensional environmental fluid and particulate flows, are adopted as an effective way to illustrate environmental applications possibly happening in the real world. The theory of these methods and their relative advantages compared with tradi...

  3. Simulation-based medical education in clinical skills laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Akaike, Masashi; Fukutomi, Miki; Nagamune, Masami; Fujimoto, Akiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ishida, Kazuko; Iwata, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical skills laboratories have been established in medical institutions as facilities for simulation-based medical education (SBME). SBME is believed to be superior to the traditional style of medical education from the viewpoint of the active and adult learning theories. SBME can provide a learning cycle of debriefing and feedback for learners as well as evaluation of procedures and competency. SBME offers both learners and patients a safe environment for practice and error. In a full-env...

  4. SAJaS: Enabling JADE-based simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Lopes Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Multi-agent systems (MAS) are widely acknowledged as an appropriate modelling paradigm for distributed and decentralized systems, where a (potentially large) number of agents interact in non-trivial ways. Such interactions are often modelled defining high-level interaction protocols. Open MAS typically benefit from a number of infrastructural components that enable agents to discover their peers at run-time. On the other hand, multi-agent-based simulations (MABS) focus on applying MAS to mode...

  5. CONSTRUCTION COST INTEGRATED CONTROL BASED ON COMPUTER SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Construction cost control is a complex system engineering. Thetraditional controlling method cannot dynamically control in advance the construction cost because of its hysteresis. This paper proposes a computer simulation based construction cost integrated control method, which combines the cost with PERT systematically, so that the construction cost can be predicted and optimized systematically and effectively. The new method overcomes the hysteresis of the traditional systems, and is a distinct improvement over them in effect and practicality.

  6. Parallel PDE-Based Simulations Using the Common Component Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexity of parallel PDE-based simulations continues to increase as multimodel, multiphysics, and multi-institutional projects become widespread. A goal of component based software engineering in such large-scale simulations is to help manage this complexity by enabling better interoperability among various codes that have been independently developed by different groups. The Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum is defining a component architecture specification to address the challenges of high-performance scientific computing. In addition, several execution frameworks, supporting infrastructure, and general purpose components are being developed. Furthermore, this group is collaborating with others in the high-performance computing community to design suites of domain-specific component interface specifications and underlying implementations. This chapter discusses recent work on leveraging these CCA efforts in parallel PDE-based simulations involving accelerator design, climate modeling, combustion, and accidental fires and explosions. We explain how component technology helps to address the different challenges posed by each of these applications, and we highlight how component interfaces built on existing parallel toolkits facilitate the reuse of software for parallel mesh manipulation, discretization, linear algebra, integration, optimization, and parallel data redistribution. We also present performance data to demonstrate the suitability of this approach, and we discuss strategies for applying component technologies to both new and existing applications

  7. COEL: A Cloud-based Reaction Network Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eBanda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical Reaction Networks (CRNs are a formalism to describe the macroscopic behavior of chemical systems. We introduce COEL, a web- and cloud-based CRN simulation framework that does not require a local installation, runs simulations on a large computational grid, provides reliable database storage, and offers a visually pleasing and intuitive user interface. We present an overview of the underlying software, the technologies, and the main architectural approaches employed. Some of COEL's key features include ODE-based simulations of CRNs and multicompartment reaction networks with rich interaction options, a built-in plotting engine, automatic DNA-strand displacement transformation and visualization, SBML/Octave/Matlab export, and a built-in genetic-algorithm-based optimization toolbox for rate constants.COEL is an open-source project hosted on GitHub (http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.46544, which allows interested research groups to deploy it on their own sever. Regular users can simply use the web instance at no cost at http://coel-sim.org. The framework is ideally suited for a collaborative use in both research and education.

  8. A simulation approach to a virtual base defense operating center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmer, Keith; Gaughan, Chris

    2010-04-01

    The TRADOC Maneuver Support Center of Excellence (MSCoE) is the Army proponent for protection and in turn, has the mission to support fixed site protection issues. To this end, the Maneuver Support Battle Lab (MSBL) developed a Virtual Base Defense Operating Center (VBDOC) capability that was initiated in support of the Force Protection Joint Experiment (FPJE) to examine data fusion enhancements and improvements to the Common Operating Picture (COP) display. Furthermore BDOC Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTPs), and Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) capabilities were examined in order to optimize manpower, reduce exposure of friendly personnel, and improve force protection. The Modeling and Simulation (M&S) architecture was especially important due to the cost of providing realistic environments, such as Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear (CBRN) hazards, and the availability of soldiers for experimentation. The VBDOC simulation architecture contains a force-on-force simulation, a CBRN simulation, a desktop UGV Advanced Concepts Research Tool (ACRT) and a sensor controller using the Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) protocol. This simulation architecture stimulated actual Command and Control (C2) systems including the Joint Battlespace Command and Control System (JBC2S) and the Joint Warning and Reporting Network (JWARN). These C2 systems, along with video feeds from various sensors and unmanned vehicles, were used by Battle Captains and staffs for situational awareness of the battlefield while conducting the experiment. The VBDOC capability offers a controlled environment to study fixed site protection issues, such as future Concept of Operation (CONOP)/TTP/SOP development and refinement, examining emerging concepts, and assessing specific technology capabilities.

  9. [Simulation of TDLAS direct absorption based on HITRAN database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ru-birn; He, Shu-kai; Li, Xin-tian; Wang, Xian-zhong

    2015-01-01

    Simulating of the direct absorption TDLAS spectrum can help to comprehend the process of the absorbing and understand the influence on the absorption signal with each physical parameter. Firstly, the basic theory and algorithm of direct absorption TDLAS is studied and analyzed thoroughly, through giving the expressions and calculating steps of parameters based on Lambert-Beer's law, such as line intensity, absorption cross sections, concentration, line shape and gas total partition functions. The process of direct absorption TDLAS is simulated using MATLAB programs based on HITRAN spectra database, with which the absorptions under a certain temperature, pressure, concentration and other conditions were calculated, Water vapor is selected as the target gas, the absorptions of which under every line shapes were simulated. The results were compared with that of the commercial simulation software, Hitran-PC, which showed that, the deviation under Lorentz line shape is less than 0. 5%, and that under Gauss line shape is less than 2. 5%, while under Voigt line shape it is less than 1%. It verified that the algorithm and results of this work are correct and accurate. The absorption of H2O in v2 + v3 band under different pressure and temperature is also simulated. In low pressure range, the Doppler broadening dominant, so the line width changes little with varied.pressure, while the line peak increases with rising pressure. In high pressure range, the collision broadening dominant, so the line width changes wider with increasing pressure, while the line peak approaches to a constant value with rising pressure. And finally, the temperature correction curve in atmosphere detection is also given. The results of this work offer the reference and instruction for the application of TDLAS direct absorption. PMID:25993843

  10. A Movement-Assisted Deployment of Collaborating Autonomous Sensors for Indoor and Outdoor Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz, Ewa; Sikora, Andrzej; Marks, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Using mobile robots or unmanned vehicles to assist optimal wireless sensors deployment in a working space can significantly enhance the capability to investigate unknown environments. This paper addresses the issues of the application of numerical optimization and computer simulation techniques to on-line calculation of a wireless sensor network topology for monitoring and tracking purposes. We focus on the design of a self-organizing and collaborative mobile network that enables a continuous data transmission to the data sink (base station) and automatically adapts its behavior to changes in the environment to achieve a common goal. The pre-defined and self-configuring approaches to the mobile-based deployment of sensors are compared and discussed. A family of novel algorithms for the optimal placement of mobile wireless devices for permanent monitoring of indoor and outdoor dynamic environments is described. They employ a network connectivity-maintaining mobility model utilizing the concept of the virtual potential function for calculating the motion trajectories of platforms carrying sensors. Their quality and utility have been justified through simulation experiments and are discussed in the final part of the paper. PMID:27649186

  11. A Movement-Assisted Deployment of Collaborating Autonomous Sensors for Indoor and Outdoor Environment Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz, Ewa; Sikora, Andrzej; Marks, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Using mobile robots or unmanned vehicles to assist optimal wireless sensors deployment in a working space can significantly enhance the capability to investigate unknown environments. This paper addresses the issues of the application of numerical optimization and computer simulation techniques to on-line calculation of a wireless sensor network topology for monitoring and tracking purposes. We focus on the design of a self-organizing and collaborative mobile network that enables a continuous data transmission to the data sink (base station) and automatically adapts its behavior to changes in the environment to achieve a common goal. The pre-defined and self-configuring approaches to the mobile-based deployment of sensors are compared and discussed. A family of novel algorithms for the optimal placement of mobile wireless devices for permanent monitoring of indoor and outdoor dynamic environments is described. They employ a network connectivity-maintaining mobility model utilizing the concept of the virtual potential function for calculating the motion trajectories of platforms carrying sensors. Their quality and utility have been justified through simulation experiments and are discussed in the final part of the paper. PMID:27649186

  12. A Movement-Assisted Deployment of Collaborating Autonomous Sensors for Indoor and Outdoor Environment Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz, Ewa; Sikora, Andrzej; Marks, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Using mobile robots or unmanned vehicles to assist optimal wireless sensors deployment in a working space can significantly enhance the capability to investigate unknown environments. This paper addresses the issues of the application of numerical optimization and computer simulation techniques to on-line calculation of a wireless sensor network topology for monitoring and tracking purposes. We focus on the design of a self-organizing and collaborative mobile network that enables a continuous data transmission to the data sink (base station) and automatically adapts its behavior to changes in the environment to achieve a common goal. The pre-defined and self-configuring approaches to the mobile-based deployment of sensors are compared and discussed. A family of novel algorithms for the optimal placement of mobile wireless devices for permanent monitoring of indoor and outdoor dynamic environments is described. They employ a network connectivity-maintaining mobility model utilizing the concept of the virtual potential function for calculating the motion trajectories of platforms carrying sensors. Their quality and utility have been justified through simulation experiments and are discussed in the final part of the paper.

  13. A Movement-Assisted Deployment of Collaborating Autonomous Sensors for Indoor and Outdoor Environment Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using mobile robots or unmanned vehicles to assist optimal wireless sensors deployment in a working space can significantly enhance the capability to investigate unknown environments. This paper addresses the issues of the application of numerical optimization and computer simulation techniques to on-line calculation of a wireless sensor network topology for monitoring and tracking purposes. We focus on the design of a self-organizing and collaborative mobile network that enables a continuous data transmission to the data sink (base station and automatically adapts its behavior to changes in the environment to achieve a common goal. The pre-defined and self-configuring approaches to the mobile-based deployment of sensors are compared and discussed. A family of novel algorithms for the optimal placement of mobile wireless devices for permanent monitoring of indoor and outdoor dynamic environments is described. They employ a network connectivity-maintaining mobility model utilizing the concept of the virtual potential function for calculating the motion trajectories of platforms carrying sensors. Their quality and utility have been justified through simulation experiments and are discussed in the final part of the paper.

  14. Ship electric propulsion simulator based on networking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huayao; Huang, Xuewu; Chen, Jutao; Lu, Binquan

    2006-11-01

    According the new ship building tense, a novel electric propulsion simulator (EPS) had been developed in Marine Simulation Center of SMU. The architecture, software function and FCS network technology of EPS and integrated power system (IPS) were described. In allusion to the POD propeller in ship, a special physical model was built. The POD power was supplied from the simulative 6.6 kV Medium Voltage Main Switchboard, its control could be realized in local or remote mode. Through LAN, the simulated feature information of EPS will pass to the physical POD model, which would reflect the real thruster working status in different sea conditions. The software includes vessel-propeller math module, thruster control system, distribution and emergency integrated management, double closed loop control system, vessel static water resistance and dynamic software; instructor main control software. The monitor and control system is realized by real time data collection system and CAN bus technology. During the construction, most devices such as monitor panels and intelligent meters, are developed in lab which were based on embedded microcomputer system with CAN interface to link the network. They had also successfully used in practice and would be suitable for the future demands of digitalization ship.

  15. Particle-based simulations of self-motile suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Denis F.; Panchenko, Alexander; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Fried, Eliot

    2015-11-01

    A simple model for simulating flows of active suspensions is investigated. The approach is based on dissipative particle dynamics. While the model is potentially applicable to a wide range of self-propelled particle systems, the specific class of self-motile bacterial suspensions is considered as a modeling scenario. To mimic the rod-like geometry of a bacterium, two dissipative particle dynamics particles are connected by a stiff harmonic spring to form an aggregate dissipative particle dynamics molecule. Bacterial motility is modeled through a constant self-propulsion force applied along the axis of each such aggregate molecule. The model accounts for hydrodynamic interactions between self-propelled agents through the pairwise dissipative interactions conventional to dissipative particle dynamics. Numerical simulations are performed using a customized version of the open-source software package LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator) software package. Detailed studies of the influence of agent concentration, pairwise dissipative interactions, and Stokes friction on the statistics of the system are provided. The simulations are used to explore the influence of hydrodynamic interactions in active suspensions. For high agent concentrations in combination with dominating pairwise dissipative forces, strongly correlated motion patterns and a fluid-like spectral distributions of kinetic energy are found. In contrast, systems dominated by Stokes friction exhibit weaker spatial correlations of the velocity field. These results indicate that hydrodynamic interactions may play an important role in the formation of spatially extended structures in active suspensions.

  16. Exploring Discretization Error in Simulation-Based Aerodynamic Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the level of discretization error in simulation-based aerodynamic databases and introduces strategies for error control. Simulations are performed using a parallel, multi-level Euler solver on embedded-boundary Cartesian meshes. Discretization errors in user-selected outputs are estimated using the method of adjoint-weighted residuals and we use adaptive mesh refinement to reduce these errors to specified tolerances. Using this framework, we examine the behavior of discretization error throughout a token database computed for a NACA 0012 airfoil consisting of 120 cases. We compare the cost and accuracy of two approaches for aerodynamic database generation. In the first approach, mesh adaptation is used to compute all cases in the database to a prescribed level of accuracy. The second approach conducts all simulations using the same computational mesh without adaptation. We quantitatively assess the error landscape and computational costs in both databases. This investigation highlights sensitivities of the database under a variety of conditions. The presence of transonic shocks or the stiffness in the governing equations near the incompressible limit are shown to dramatically increase discretization error requiring additional mesh resolution to control. Results show that such pathologies lead to error levels that vary by over factor of 40 when using a fixed mesh throughout the database. Alternatively, controlling this sensitivity through mesh adaptation leads to mesh sizes which span two orders of magnitude. We propose strategies to minimize simulation cost in sensitive regions and discuss the role of error-estimation in database quality.

  17. Physically-based, Hydrologic Simulations Driven by Three Precipitation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintalapudi, S.; Sharif, H. O.; Yeggina, S.; El Hassan, A.

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluates the model-simulated stream discharge over the Guadalupe River basin in central Texas driven by three precipitation products: the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority (GBRA) rain gauge network, the Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) Stage ΙΙΙ precipitation product, and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) 3B42 product. Focus will be on results from the Upper Guadalupe River sub-basin. This sub-basin is more prone to flooding due to its geological properties (thin soils, exposed bedrock, and sparse vegetation) and the impact of Balcones Escarpment on the moisture coming from the Gulf of Mexico. The physically based, distributed-parameter Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) hydrologic model was used to simulate the June-2002 flooding event. Simulations driven by NEXRAD Stage ΙΙΙ 15 - min precipitation yielded better results with low RMSE (88.3%), high NSE (0.6), high R2 (0.73), low RSR (0.63) and low PBIAS (-17.3%) compared to simulations driven by the other products.

  18. Occupant Time Period of Thermal Adaption to Change of Outdoor Air Temperature in Naturally Ventilated Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    liu, weiwei; Wargocki, Pawel; Xiong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The present work proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption of occupants in naturally ventilated building, based on the relationship between their neutral temperatures and running mean outdoor air temperature. Based on the data of the field investigation, the subjects’ time pe...... with the value of the subjects in this study. The comparison shows that the occupants in China had a shorter time period of thermal adaption than European occupants, which means that Chinese occupants can adapt to a new outdoor climate condition faster....... period of thermal adaption was obtained with the proposed method. The result revealed that the subjects needed to take 4.25 days to fully adapt to a step-change in outdoor air temperature. The time period of thermal adaption for the occupants in five European countries was also calculated and compared...

  19. Modified Palmer Drought Severity Index Based on Distributed Hydrological Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denghua Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought monitoring at large scale is essential for fighting against drought. Aiming at the limitation of acquiring long-time serial soil moisture and actual evapotranspiration for Palmer drought severity index (PDSI, the paper modified the PDSI based on distributed hydrological model on subbasin level in Luanhe river basin, North China. The water balance was simulated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. Calibration and validation results showed good agreement between simulated and measured discharges, and the SWAT model can be used to predict hydrological processes in the study area. Then the simulation results of main hydrologic components were used to establish PDSI. The verification of the drought indices showed that the modified PDSI based on SWAT model and Palmer drought severity index could better describe the characteristics of regional drought evolution in the Luanhe river basin. High drought frequency areas were mainly distributed in the grassland regions of upstream located in the eastern part of Inner Mongolia plateau, and the drought area had a significant upward trend form 1973 to 2010. Compared with the traditional Palmer drought severity index, the modified PDSI could reflect the spatial heterogeneity of regional drought and improve the physical mechanism of PDSI. The drought monitoring method can provide technical support for comprehensive understanding of drought and effective preventing and relieving of drought disasters.

  20. The relationship of student achievement to learning elementary science outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Steve Anthony

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teaching elementary science outdoors and student achievement on science standards. The study also considered student attitudes toward learning outdoors in the schoolyard and their achievement on a science standard appropriate for teaching outdoors. The seminal work in the field (Louv, 2005) created the phrase "nature deficit disorder" to describe the condition of children that spend little time outdoors learning from and playing in nature. Five fourth grade classes took part in outdoor instruction on particular standards after taking an attitudinal survey on learning outdoors and a pretest on the science content. Both measures were repeated after outdoor instruction. The hypotheses of the study were that students receiving outdoor instruction demonstrate improved science achievement and that student attitudes towards learning science outdoors has a significant impact on student achievement related to a science standard. The results of the study indicate a gain in student achievement followed the outdoor science lessons, allowing the research to accept the hypothesis as valid. However, the study found that student attitude toward learning science outdoors was not a significant factor in predicting gains in student achievement.

  1. A finite mass based method for Vlasov-Poisson simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David; Young, Christopher

    2014-10-01

    A method for the numerical simulation of plasma dynamics using discrete particles is introduced. The shape function kinetics (SFK) method is based on decomposing the mass into discrete particles using shape functions of compact support. The particle positions and shape evolve in response to internal velocity spread and external forces. Remapping is necessary in order to maintain accuracy and two strategies for remapping the particles are discussed. Numerical simulations of standard test problems illustrate the advantages of the method which include very low noise compared to the standard particle-in-cell technique, inherent positivity, large dynamic range, and ease of implementation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. C. V. Young acknowledges the support of the DOE NNSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship under Contract DE-FC52-08NA28752.

  2. Hierarchy-Based Team Software Process Simulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the characteristic of Team Software Process (TSP), it adopts a hierarchy-based model combined discrete event model with system dynamics model. This model represents TSP as form of two levels, the inner level embodies the continuity of the software process, the outer embodies the software development process by phases, and the structure and principle of the model is explained in detail, then formalization description of the model is offered. At last, an example is presented to demonstrate the simulation process and result. This model can simulate team software process from various angles, supervise and predict the software process. Also it can make the management of software development become more scientific and improve the quality of software.

  3. Some Results on Ethnic Conflicts Based on Evolutionary Game Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Jun; Wu, Hongrun; Liu, Yuhang; Tong, Xiaonian; Zheng, Bojin

    2014-01-01

    The force of the ethnic separatism, essentially origining from negative effect of ethnic identity, is damaging the stability and harmony of multiethnic countries. In order to eliminate the foundation of the ethnic separatism and set up a harmonious ethnic relationship, some scholars have proposed a viewpoint: ethnic harmony could be promoted by popularizing civic identity. However, this viewpoint is discussed only from a philosophical prospective and still lack supports of scientific evidences. Because ethic group and ethnic identity are products of evolution and ethnic identity is the parochialism strategy under the perspective of game theory, this paper proposes an evolutionary game simulation model to study the relationship between civic identity and ethnic conflict based on evolutionary game theory. The simulation results indicate that: 1) the ratio of individuals with civic identity has a positive association with the frequency of ethnic conflicts; 2) ethnic conflict will not die out by killing all ethni...

  4. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi; Fukagawa, Kenta;

    2014-01-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relations......The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows...... the relationship between the physiological and psychological responses of humans and the enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature (ETFe). Subjective experiments were conducted in an outdoor environment. Subjects were exposed to the thermal environment in a standing posture. Air temperature...

  5. Agent-Based Approaches for Behavioural Modelling in Military Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Chaudhary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral modeling of combat entities in military simulations by creating synthetic agents in order to satisfy various battle scenarios is an important problem. The conventional modeling tools are not always sufficient to handle complex situations requiring adaptation. To deal with this Agent-Based Modeling (ABM is employed, as the agents exhibit autonomous behavior by adapting and varying their behavior during the course of the simulation whilst achieving the goals. Synthetic agents created by means of Computer Generated Force (CGF is a relatively recent approach to model behavior of combat entities for a more realistic training and effective military planning. CGFs, are also sometimes referred to as Semi- Automated Forces (SAF and enables to create high-fidelity simulations. Agents are used to control and augment the behavior of CGF entities, hence converting them into Intelligent CGF (ICGF. The intelligent agents can be modeled to exhibit cognitive abilities. For this review paper, extensive papers on stateof-the-art in agent-based modeling approaches and applications were surveyed. The paper assimilates issues involved in ABM with CGF as an important component of it. It reviews modeling aspects with respect to the interrelationship between ABM and CGF, which is required to carry out behavioral modeling. Important CGFs have been examined and a list with their significant features is given. Another issue that has been reviewed is that how the synthetic agents having different capabilities are implemented at different battle levels. Brief mention of state-of-the-art integrated cognitive architectures and a list of significant cognitive applications based on them with their features is given. At the same time, the maturity of ABM in agent-based applications has also been considered.

  6. Analysis of manufacturing based on object oriented discrete event simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Borgen

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes SIMMEK, a computer-based tool for performing analysis of manufacturing systems, developed at the Production Engineering Laboratory, NTH-SINTEF. Its main use will be in analysis of job shop type of manufacturing. But certain facilities make it suitable for FMS as well as a production line manufacturing. This type of simulation is very useful in analysis of any types of changes that occur in a manufacturing system. These changes may be investments in new machines or equipment, a change in layout, a change in product mix, use of late shifts, etc. The effects these changes have on for instance the throughput, the amount of VIP, the costs or the net profit, can be analysed. And this can be done before the changes are made, and without disturbing the real system. Simulation takes into consideration, unlike other tools for analysis of manufacturing systems, uncertainty in arrival rates, process and operation times, and machine availability. It also shows the interaction effects a job which is late in one machine, has on the remaining machines in its route through the layout. It is these effects that cause every production plan not to be fulfilled completely. SIMMEK is based on discrete event simulation, and the modeling environment is object oriented. The object oriented models are transformed by an object linker into data structures executable by the simulation kernel. The processes of the entity objects, i.e. the products, are broken down to events and put into an event list. The user friendly graphical modeling environment makes it possible for end users to build models in a quick and reliable way, using terms from manufacturing. Various tests and a check of model logic are helpful functions when testing validity of the models. Integration with software packages, with business graphics and statistical functions, is convenient in the result presentation phase.

  7. Agent-based modeling: Methods and techniques for simulating human systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bonabeau, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Agent-based modeling is a powerful simulation modeling technique that has seen a number of applications in the last few years, including applications to real-world business problems. After the basic principles of agent-based simulation are briefly introduced, its four areas of application are discussed by using real-world applications: flow simulation, organizational simulation, market simulation, and diffusion simulation. For each category, one or several business applications are described ...

  8. Indoor radon concentration and outdoor/indoor pressure difference correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current approach to the radon issue, the radon risk for people living in a building is estimated based on the average indoor radon concentration. Short-term measurements as usually applied fail to reflect the wide range of radon variations arising from ventilation, radon supply and, in particular, human activities in the building. For this reason, efforts are made to find a new approach to the assessment of the quality of a building as a radon barrier, independent of the weather conditions and residential habits. A simple model of radon volume activity entering the building at a constant rate and simultaneously ventilated at a constant rate is applicable to this task. The rate of radon ingress can be regarded as a parameter making it possible to quantify the leakage of structures provided the barrier against the radon in a soil gas. The ventilation rate, on the other hand, characterizes the leakage of the whole building envelope at a given outdoor/indoor pressure difference. A unique measuring technique called the blower door exists whereby a defined pressure difference between the indoor and outdoor atmosphere can be established. Under such conditions both the ventilation rate and the rate of radon ingress can be measured and expressed as a function of the pressure difference. An analysis of the model of a room with a constant ventilation and constant radon supply is presented and the relationship between radon supply and ventilation rate can be assumed. Some experimental results show how the model can be utilized. The real indoor-outdoor air pressure differences, the indoor-soil air pressure differences, and some effects of different ventilation regimes are given. Other experiments, which have been done by using the blower door method, illustrate the possible effects and some restrictions for a routine application are discussed

  9. Cultivating lived-body consciousness: Enhancing cognition and emotion through outdoor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorburn Malcolm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Through using school-based outdoor learning as the research context, the paper analyses the connections between bodily experiences and the embodied mind. Recent theorizing in outdoor learning, in reflecting phenomenology and Deweyian influences, has teased out how the relationships between the self, others and nature (environment can be extended to include embodied experiences. This would, it is argued, add something extra to either the intrinsic pursuit of enjoying practical experiences or the instrumental quest for subject knowledge gains via cognitive- informed analytical cycles of action and reflection. While generally sympathetic to this critique, we consider there is a cognitive and emotional need for embodied experiences to demonstrate that they can be suitably contemplative as well. Through drawing upon Tiberius (2008 naturalist-informed theorizing, the paper reviews the part bodily experiences in outdoor learning can play in cultivating stable values and in developing reasoning practices that provide insights into how personal responsibility can be exercised in relation to how we live. Through referencing the Scottish policy context, the paper exemplifies how learning outdoors can flourish on the basis of a joint body-mind focus; where pupils review their relations with others and nature, as well as valuing times when they are absorbed in experiences which fully engage their personal interests, skills and capacities. To enhance the prospects of these learning gains occurring we provide a self-check set of questions for teachers to review to as part of appraisal of learning and teaching outdoors

  10. Metrology for fire experiments in outdoor conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Silvani, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Natural fires can be considered as scale-dependant, non-linear processes of mass, momentum and heat transport, resulting from a turbulent reactive and radiative fluid medium flowing over a complex medium, the vegetal fuel. In natural outdoor conditions, the experimental study of natural fires at real scale needs the development of an original metrology, one able to capture the large range of time and length scales involved in its dynamic nature and also able to resist the thermal, mechanical and chemical aggression of flames on devices. Robust, accurate and poorly intrusive tools must be carefully set-up and used for gaining very fluctuating data over long periods. These signals also need the development of original post-processing tools that take into account the non-steady nature of their stochastic components. Metrology for Fire Experiments in Outdoor Conditions closely analyzes these features, and also describes measurements techniques, the thermal insulation of fragile electronic systems, data acquisitio...

  11. Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, M.

    2011-04-01

    An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This presentation documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

  12. Outdoor autonomous navigation using monocular vision

    OpenAIRE

    Royer, Eric; Bom, Jonathan; Dhome, Michel; Thuilot, Benoît; Lhuillier, Maxime; Marmoiton, Francois

    2005-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, a complete system for outdoor robot navigation is presented. It uses only monocular vision. The robot is first guided on a path by a human. During this learning step, the robot records a video sequence. From this sequence, a three dimensional map of the trajectory and the environment is built. When this map has been computed, the robot is able to follow the same trajectory by itself. Experimental results carried out with an urban electric vehicle are sho...

  13. List-Based Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shi-hua; Lin, Juan; Zhang, Ze-jun; Zhong, Yi-wen

    2016-01-01

    Simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is a popular intelligent optimization algorithm which has been successfully applied in many fields. Parameters' setting is a key factor for its performance, but it is also a tedious work. To simplify parameters setting, we present a list-based simulated annealing (LBSA) algorithm to solve traveling salesman problem (TSP). LBSA algorithm uses a novel list-based cooling schedule to control the decrease of temperature. Specifically, a list of temperatures is created first, and then the maximum temperature in list is used by Metropolis acceptance criterion to decide whether to accept a candidate solution. The temperature list is adapted iteratively according to the topology of the solution space of the problem. The effectiveness and the parameter sensitivity of the list-based cooling schedule are illustrated through benchmark TSP problems. The LBSA algorithm, whose performance is robust on a wide range of parameter values, shows competitive performance compared with some other state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:27034650

  14. Numerical simulation on development of a SAW based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten, S. T.; Hashim, U.; Sudin, A.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Liu, W. W.; Foo, K. L.; Voon, C. H.; Wee, F. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Salleh, N. H. M.; Nazwa, T.

    2016-07-01

    Surface acoustic waves can be generated at the free surface of an elastic solid. For this property, surface acoustic based devices were initially developed for the telecommunication purpose such as signal filters and resonators. The acoustic energy is strongly confined on the surface of the surface acoustic waves (SAW) based devices and consequent their ultra-sensitivity to the surface perturbation. This has made SAW permits the highly sensitive detection of utterly diminutive charges on the surface. Hence, SAW based devices have been modified to be sensors for the mass loading effect on its surface and this is perfectly for biosensor development. There have been a lot of complicated theoretical models for the SAW devices development since 1960 as signal filters and resonators such as from delta function model, equivalent circuit model, to the current SAW models such as coupling-of-modes (COM) model, P-matrix model and Computer Simulation Technology Studio Suite (CST). However, these models are more tailored for the telecommunication application purposes and very complex. Thus, this paper presents the finite element analysis (FEA) modeling, COMSOL Multiphysics which is used to study the mass loading effect on SAW which will be used as biosensor. This study managed to simulate the mass loading sensitivity of 8.71×107 kHz/g mm-2.

  15. [Dust particles and metals in outdoor and indoor air of Upper Silesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górny, R L; Jedrzejczak, A; Pastuszka, J S

    1995-01-01

    physical nature of particles caused by the air filtration and absorption during migration of ambient air into the indoor environment. On the base of comparison of the heavy metals concentrations of fine and coarse fraction and their indoor/outdoor ratio in five selected towns in Upper Silesia it can be said that the level of heavy metals in indoor aerosol is lower than in outdoor (except Pb and Cd) what suggest that migration of ambient air into the homes is a major process which give indoor air contamination of heavy metals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  16. Evaluation of Cooling Solutions for Outdoor Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wankhede, Mahendra; Goswami, A; Mahajan, S D

    2008-01-01

    The thermal management of an outdoor electronic enclosure can be quite challenging due to the additional thermal load from the sun and the requirement of having an air-sealed enclosure. It is essential to consider the effect of solar heating loads in the design process; otherwise, it can shorten the life expectancy of the electronic product or lead to catastrophic failure. In this paper we analyze and compare the effectiveness of different cooling techniques used for outdoor electronics. Various cooling techniques were compared like special coatings and paints on the outer surface, radiation shields, double-walled vented enclosures, fans for internal air circulation and air-to-air heat exchangers. A highly simplified, typical outdoor system was selected for this study measuring approximately 300x300x400 mm (WxLxH). Solar radiation was incident on 3 sides of the enclosure. There were 8 equally spaced PCBs inside the enclosure dissipating 12.5W each uniformly (100 watts total). A computational fluid dynamics (C...

  17. Feasible Human-Spine Motion Simulators Based on Parallel Manipulators

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Si-Jun; Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Ming-Yang

    2008-01-01

    Considering the characteristics of a human spine including nearly isotropic kinematical performance, fast speed, available under both active and passive modes and reachable workspace, three 3R2T 5-DoF fully-symmetrical parallel manipulators with base-actuator, including 5-RRR(RR), 5-(RRR)RR, 5-(RRR)(RR) are adopted as feasible human spine motion simulators. To decrease machining difficulty and guarantee the machining precision, 5RRR(RR) is designed and manufactured as the prototype of spine m...

  18. Agent-based simulation of electricity markets. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensfuss, F.; Ragwitz, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Genoese, M.; Moest, D. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion

    2007-07-01

    Liberalisation, climate policy and promotion of renewable energy are challenges to players of the electricity sector in many countries. Policy makers have to con-sider issues like market power, bounded rationality of players and the appear-ance of fluctuating energy sources in order to provide adequate legislation. Fur-thermore the interactions between markets and environmental policy instru-ments become an issue of increasing importance. A promising approach for the scientific analysis of these developments is the field of agent-based simulation. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the current work applying this methodology to the analysis of electricity markets. (orig.)

  19. Microcomputer-based monitoring of cardiovascular functions in simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvanainen, K.; Länsimies, E.; Tikkanen, P.; Hartikainen, J.; Kärki, T.; Lyyra, T.; Mäntysaari, M.

    A microcomputer-based system for non-invasive monitoring of cardiovascular system in simulated microgravity is described. The system evaluates automatically, accurately and interactively heart beat intervals, beat-to-beat non-invasive finger arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, mean and pulse pressure) using a Finapres device and beat-to-beat changes of thoracic blood volume using impedance changes. In addition, beat-to-beat evaluation of cardiac mechanical function including left ventricular ejection time, diastolic time, systolic time intervals, left ventricular ejection fraction estimate and several other contractility parameters, left ventricular volume, stroke volume and cardiac output estimates are performed with high degree of automaticity.

  20. Validation of Ultrafilter Performance Model Based on Systematic Simulant Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of limited availability of test data with actual Hanford tank waste samples, a method was developed to estimate expected filtration performance based on physical characterization data for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. A test with simulated waste was analyzed to demonstrate that filtration of this class of waste is consistent with a concentration polarization model. Subsequently, filtration data from actual waste samples were analyzed to demonstrate that centrifuged solids concentrations provide a reasonable estimate of the limiting concentration for filtration.

  1. Neural-Based Models of Semiconductor Devices for SPICE Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanene B. Hammouda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses a simple and fast new approach to implement Artificial Neural Networks (ANN models for the MOS transistor into SPICE. The proposed approach involves two steps, the modeling phase of the device by NN providing its input/output patterns, and the SPICE implementation process of the resulting model. Using the Taylor series expansion, a neural based small-signal model is derived. The reliability of our approach is validated through simulations of some circuits in DC and small-signal analyses.

  2. Simulations of Micropumps Based on Tilted Flexible Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Matthew; Elabbasi, Nagi; Demirel, Melik

    2015-11-01

    Pumping liquids at low Reynolds numbers is challenging because of the principle of reversibility. We report here a class of microfluidic pump designs based on tilted flexible structures that combines the concepts of cilia (flexible elastic elements) and rectifiers (e.g., Tesla valves, check valves). We demonstrate proof-of-concept with 2D and 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations in COMSOL Multiphysics®of micropumps consisting of a source for oscillatory fluidic motion, e.g. a piston, and a channel lined with tilted flexible rods or sheets to provide rectification. When flow is against the rod tilt direction, the rods bend backward, narrowing the channel and increasing flow resistance; when flow is in the direction of rod tilt, the rods bend forward, widening the channel and decreasing flow resistance. The 2D and 3D simulations involve moving meshes whose quality is maintained by prescribing the mesh displacement on guide surfaces positioned on either side of each flexible structure. The prescribed displacement depends on structure bending and maintains mesh quality even for large deformations. Simulations demonstrate effective pumping even at Reynolds numbers as low as 0.001. Because rod rigidity may be specified independently of Reynolds number, in principle, rod rigidity may be reduced to enable pumping at arbitrarily low Reynolds numbers.

  3. Agent-based modeling to simulate the dengue spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chengbin; Tao, Haiyan; Ye, Zhiwei

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel method ABM in simulating the unique process for the dengue spread. Dengue is an acute infectious disease with a long history of over 200 years. Unlike the diseases that can be transmitted directly from person to person, dengue spreads through a must vector of mosquitoes. There is still no any special effective medicine and vaccine for dengue up till now. The best way to prevent dengue spread is to take precautions beforehand. Thus, it is crucial to detect and study the dynamic process of dengue spread that closely relates to human-environment interactions where Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) effectively works. The model attempts to simulate the dengue spread in a more realistic way in the bottom-up way, and to overcome the limitation of ABM, namely overlooking the influence of geographic and environmental factors. Considering the influence of environment, Aedes aegypti ecology and other epidemiological characteristics of dengue spread, ABM can be regarded as a useful way to simulate the whole process so as to disclose the essence of the evolution of dengue spread.

  4. High viscosity fluid simulation using particle-based method

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Yuanzhang

    2011-03-01

    We present a new particle-based method for high viscosity fluid simulation. In the method, a new elastic stress term, which is derived from a modified form of the Hooke\\'s law, is included in the traditional Navier-Stokes equation to simulate the movements of the high viscosity fluids. Benefiting from the Lagrangian nature of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method, large flow deformation can be well handled easily and naturally. In addition, in order to eliminate the particle deficiency problem near the boundary, ghost particles are employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. Compared with Finite Element Methods with complicated and time-consuming remeshing operations, our method is much more straightforward to implement. Moreover, our method doesn\\'t need to store and compare to an initial rest state. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient to handle the movements of highly viscous flows, and a large variety of different kinds of fluid behaviors can be well simulated by adjusting just one parameter. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. The numerical simulation based on CFD of hydraulic turbine pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X. H.; Kong, F. Y.; Liu, Y. Y.; Zhao, R. J.; Hu, Q. L.

    2016-05-01

    As the functions of hydraulic turbine pump including self-adjusting and compensation with each other, it is far-reaching to analyze its internal flow by the numerical simulation based on CFD, mainly including the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump.The three-dimensional models of hydraulic turbine pump are made by Pro/Engineer software;the internal flow fields in hydraulic turbine and pump are simulated numerically by CFX ANSYS software. According to the results of the numerical simulation in design condition, the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump are analyzed respectively .The findings show that the static pressure decreases systematically and the pressure gradient is obvious in flow area of hydraulic turbine; the static pressure increases gradually in pump. The flow trace is regular in suction chamber and flume without spiral trace. However, there are irregular traces in the turbine runner channels which contrary to that in flow area of impeller. Most of traces in the flow area of draft tube are spiral.

  6. Agent-based simulation of alternative classroom evacuation scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runjiao Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing number of emergency accidents occurring around students, evacuation issues have become significantly important for both school officials and architects. Simply following construction codes cannot ensure that a building׳s layout is suitable for evacuation behaviors; therefore, to discover the suitable planning schemes, we have introduced an agent-based simulation model via Netlogo to investigate the interrelationships between evacuation efficiency and classroom layouts. Before conducting modeling experiments, both the simulation structure and the sensitivity to its parameter settings are examined by validation research and sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, to demonstrate the importance of conducting fire drills with students, two different types of behavior rules are designed to reflect the distinctive characteristics of students evacuating without instructions and students evacuating in good order. The general comparison results show us that the classroom layout with two exits shortens students׳ evacuation time, and the premeditated behavior rules, meaning that students who follow preset instructions to arrange their activities, not only escape faster but also have some advantages in ensuring their safety during the evacuation process. Moreover, at the end of this paper, several methods of improving this simulation model are proposed for more complex research in the future.

  7. An event-based hydrologic simulation model for bioretention systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Poirier, A; Filion, Y; Champagne, P

    2015-01-01

    Bioretention systems are designed to treat stormwater and provide attenuated drainage between storms. Bioretention has shown great potential at reducing the volume and improving the quality of stormwater. This study introduces the bioretention hydrologic model (BHM), a one-dimensional model that simulates the hydrologic response of a bioretention system over the duration of a storm event. BHM is based on the RECARGA model, but has been adapted for improved accuracy and integration of pollutant transport models. BHM contains four completely-mixed layers and accounts for evapotranspiration, overflow, exfiltration to native soils and underdrain discharge. Model results were evaluated against field data collected over 10 storm events. Simulated flows were particularly sensitive to antecedent water content and drainage parameters of bioretention soils, which were calibrated through an optimisation algorithm. Temporal disparity was observed between simulated and measured flows, which was attributed to preferential flow paths formed within the soil matrix of the field system. Modelling results suggest that soil water storage is the most important short-term hydrologic process in bioretention, with exfiltration having the potential to be significant in native soils with sufficient permeability. PMID:26524443

  8. Spatial Resilience of Outdoor Domestic Space in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Felicio Veríssimo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the people of Mozambique have faced oppression and social spatial segregation and responded in a way that has reinforced rather than dismantled their traditional values. Since pre-colonial times, the population’s strategy for escaping from environmental and foreign political disruption has been to reinvent tradition, based on the principles of resilience, resistance and self-reliance. The development of decentralised human settlements, involving the appropriation of land for domestic space and the self-organisation of neighbourhoods, were strategies to protect communities from adversity and secure collective self-reliance. Following Mozambique’s conversion to globalization, the post-colonial ‘cement city’ is now the core of neo-liberalism, as a node of the global economy, where foreign donors and international market economy control national political economy, exacerbating the premise of the negation of self-sufficiency that continues to evolve resiliently at its margins. The adoption of a neo-liberal model of development during the 1990s, completely bypasses the realities of Mozambican society. This paper argues that the strategy of self-production of space regarding the household/Outdoor Domestic Space unit, which existed previously as a resistance strategy, first of all against colonialism and secondly, against the statist definition of socialism, thirdly, has become a successful strategy for survival, as the building block of the decentralised Agrocity, in the face of a global economy which totally neglects both the people and the land. Outdoor Domestic Space is a multifaceted space that refers to the external space surrounding the built house and which, in the case of Mozambique, is where daily life takes place, involving strong social, ecological and productive functions. Under successive periods of political economy oppression and environmental adversity, the Outdoor Domestic Space has been adapted and refined to

  9. A contribution to the thermal and aero-dynamical modelling of the urban micro-climate. Analysis of the water and vegetation impact on the comfort conditions in outdoor spaces; Contribution a la modelisation thermo-aeraulique du microclimat urbain. Caracterisation de l'impact de l'eau et de la vegetation sur les conditions de confort en espaces exterieurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinet, J.

    2000-11-01

    In summer, temperatures in cities may rise, thereby inducing the so-called 'urban heat island' and tremendous consequences on outdoor comfort, health risks, pollutant emission and energy consumption. Replacing vegetation and moist surfaces by concrete or asphalt may enhance these problems. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to quantify the impact of vegetation and water on urban micro-climate and comfort through numerical modelling; In the first part, a scientific literature review considers various topics applied to our problem such as urban micro-climate, simulations, urbanism, urban forestry and outdoor thermal comfort. This information is relevant to define and interpret further numerical modelling. Numerical simulations based on the coupling of the SOLENE. thermal program and the N3S CFD code are proposed to model wind flow, air and surface temperatures. The theoretical principles, hypothesis and coupling methodology are presented here. This set of numerical tools is combined in order to help urban or landscape planners, architects and engineers, to analyse the impacts of different projects on micro-climate and on outdoor thermal comfort, under hot summer conditions. To illustrate this approach, an open space in Montpellier (southern France) called the 'Place du Millenaire' and designed by Ricardo Bofill is studied, considering various cases (no vegetation, actual vegetation and vegetation in 30 years). The comparative results demonstrate improvements of urban form, micro-climate and outdoor thermal comfort. (author)

  10. A Simulation-Based LED Design Project in Photonics Instruction Based on Industry-University Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S. -H.; Chen, M. -L.; Kuo, Y. -K.; Shen, Y. -C.

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing industrial demand for light-emitting diode (LED) design professionals, based on industry-university collaboration in Taiwan, this paper develops a novel instructional approach: a simulation-based learning course with peer assessment to develop students' professional skills in LED design as required by industry as well as…

  11. The Effects of a Concept Map-Based Support Tool on Simulation-Based Inquiry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemans, Mieke G.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton

    2013-01-01

    Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations, while dynamic color coding of the concepts displayed…

  12. The effects of a concept map-based support tool on simulation-based inquiry learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagemans, M.G.; Meij, van der H.; Jong, de T.

    2013-01-01

    Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations, whil

  13. Research and application of an intelligent recloser controller installed on outdoor rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖力清; 陈燕辉; 凌玉华; 杨欣荣

    2002-01-01

    A new type of intelligent recolser controller installed on the outdoor rod is developed, which is mainly composed of microcontroller of Intel 87C196KC-20 and CPLD devices. This controller integrates all the functions of measuring, controlling, protection, fault diagnosis, communication, remote-controlled operation and self-power devices with infra-red remote control devices as a unit. The controller applies the distributed structure, field concentration line and intelligent technology to seal up the synthetic servomechanisms such as the microcomputer-based protection and measuring devices in the second stage of the mini out-door transformer substation, which are distributed on the outdoor circuit switches on the spot and formed as a whole. Therefore, this technology can transform a large number of ordinary homemade SF6 circuit beaker and vacuum circuit breaker into intelligent circuit recloser, thus replacing the expensive imported automatic circuit recolser.

  14. Outdoor advertising and urban landscape in Bucharest – a reality between planning and economics practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Suditu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of urban public space presumes, among other aspects, a balance between quantity, distribution and placement of the outdoor advertising. In Romania, despite existice of legislation regarding the placement of outdoor advertising, there is no correlation with any urban planning legislation, so far. The lack of legislative and operational correlation had as effect for the past two decades an excessive and uncontrolled invasion of outdoor advertising, especially in central urban areas. Based on an interdisciplinary approach, the study focuses on a protected built area, with historical monuments, in which the normative elements are explained through their territorial effects, meaning the impact on the quality of public spaces, of the conservation of heritage, the enhancement of urban landscape, the road safety etc.

  15. Validation techniques of agent based modelling for geospatial simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, M.; Ahmadi, G.

    2014-10-01

    One of the most interesting aspects of modelling and simulation study is to describe the real world phenomena that have specific properties; especially those that are in large scales and have dynamic and complex behaviours. Studying these phenomena in the laboratory is costly and in most cases it is impossible. Therefore, Miniaturization of world phenomena in the framework of a model in order to simulate the real phenomena is a reasonable and scientific approach to understand the world. Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) is a new modelling method comprising of multiple interacting agent. They have been used in the different areas; for instance, geographic information system (GIS), biology, economics, social science and computer science. The emergence of ABM toolkits in GIS software libraries (e.g. ESRI's ArcGIS, OpenMap, GeoTools, etc) for geospatial modelling is an indication of the growing interest of users to use of special capabilities of ABMS. Since ABMS is inherently similar to human cognition, therefore it could be built easily and applicable to wide range applications than a traditional simulation. But a key challenge about ABMS is difficulty in their validation and verification. Because of frequent emergence patterns, strong dynamics in the system and the complex nature of ABMS, it is hard to validate and verify ABMS by conventional validation methods. Therefore, attempt to find appropriate validation techniques for ABM seems to be necessary. In this paper, after reviewing on Principles and Concepts of ABM for and its applications, the validation techniques and challenges of ABM validation are discussed.

  16. A fault and seismicity based composite simulation in northern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Yıkılmaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We generate synthetic catalogs of seismicity in northern California using a composite simulation. The basis of the simulation is the fault based "Virtual California" (VC earthquake simulator. Back-slip velocities and mean recurrence intervals are specified on model strike-slip faults. A catalog of characteristic earthquakes is generated for a period of 100 000 yr. These earthquakes are predominantly in the range M = 6 to M = 8, but do not follow Gutenberg-Richter (GR scaling at lower magnitudes. In order to model seismicity on unmapped faults we introduce background seismicity which occurs randomly in time with GR scaling and is spatially associated with the VC model faults. These earthquakes fill in the GR scaling down to M = 4 (the smallest earthquakes modeled. The rate of background seismicity is constrained by the observed rate of occurrence of M > 4 earthquakes in northern California. These earthquakes are then used to drive the BASS (branching aftershock sequence model of aftershock occurrence. The BASS model is the self-similar limit of the ETAS (epidemic type aftershock sequence model. Families of aftershocks are generated following each Virtual California and background main shock. In the simulations the rate of occurrence of aftershocks is essentially equal to the rate of occurrence of main shocks in the magnitude range 4 < M < 7. We generate frequency-magnitude and recurrence interval statistics both regionally and fault specific. We compare our modeled rates of seismicity and spatial variability with observations.

  17. On-site calibration method for outdoor binocular stereo vision sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Yin, Yang; Wu, Qun; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-11-01

    Using existing calibration methods for binocular stereo vision sensors (BSVS), it is very difficult to extract target characteristic points in outdoor environments under complex light conditions. To solve the problem, an online calibration method for BSVS based a double parallel cylindrical target and a line laser projector is proposed in this paper. The intrinsic parameters of two cameras are calibrated offline. Laser strips on the double parallel cylindrical target are mediated to calibrate the configuration parameters of BSVS. The proposed method only requires images of laser strips on the target and is suitable for the calibration of BSVS in outdoor environments. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through physical experiments.

  18. Agent-based simulation of building evacuation using a grid graph-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L.; Lin, H.; Hu, M.; Che, W.

    2014-02-01

    Shifting from macroscope models to microscope models, the agent-based approach has been widely used to model crowd evacuation as more attentions are paid on individualized behaviour. Since indoor evacuation behaviour is closely related to spatial features of the building, effective representation of indoor space is essential for the simulation of building evacuation. The traditional cell-based representation has limitations in reflecting spatial structure and is not suitable for topology analysis. Aiming at incorporating powerful topology analysis functions of GIS to facilitate agent-based simulation of building evacuation, we used a grid graph-based model in this study to represent the indoor space. Such model allows us to establish an evacuation network at a micro level. Potential escape routes from each node thus could be analysed through GIS functions of network analysis considering both the spatial structure and route capacity. This would better support agent-based modelling of evacuees' behaviour including route choice and local movements. As a case study, we conducted a simulation of emergency evacuation from the second floor of an official building using Agent Analyst as the simulation platform. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, as well as the potential of GIS in visualizing and analysing simulation results.

  19. Agent-based simulation of building evacuation using a grid graph-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifting from macroscope models to microscope models, the agent-based approach has been widely used to model crowd evacuation as more attentions are paid on individualized behaviour. Since indoor evacuation behaviour is closely related to spatial features of the building, effective representation of indoor space is essential for the simulation of building evacuation. The traditional cell-based representation has limitations in reflecting spatial structure and is not suitable for topology analysis. Aiming at incorporating powerful topology analysis functions of GIS to facilitate agent-based simulation of building evacuation, we used a grid graph-based model in this study to represent the indoor space. Such model allows us to establish an evacuation network at a micro level. Potential escape routes from each node thus could be analysed through GIS functions of network analysis considering both the spatial structure and route capacity. This would better support agent-based modelling of evacuees' behaviour including route choice and local movements. As a case study, we conducted a simulation of emergency evacuation from the second floor of an official building using Agent Analyst as the simulation platform. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, as well as the potential of GIS in visualizing and analysing simulation results

  20. Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ngada, N M

    2015-01-01

    The complexity and cost of building and running high-power electrical systems make the use of simulations unavoidable. The simulations available today provide great understanding about how systems really operate. This paper helps the reader to gain an insight into simulation in the field of power converters for particle accelerators. Starting with the definition and basic principles of simulation, two simulation types, as well as their leading tools, are presented: analog and numerical simulations. Some practical applications of each simulation type are also considered. The final conclusion then summarizes the main important items to keep in mind before opting for a simulation tool or before performing a simulation.

  1. Neutron Source Facility Training Simulator Based on EPICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Soo; Wei, Thomas Y.; Vilim, Richard B.; Grelle, Austin L.; Dworzanski, Pawel L.; Gohar, Yousry

    2015-01-01

    A plant operator training simulator is developed for training the plant operators as well as for design verification of plant control system (PCS) and plant protection system (PPS) for the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology Neutron Source Facility. The simulator provides the operator interface for the whole plant including the sub-critical assembly coolant loop, target coolant loop, secondary coolant loop, and other facility systems. The operator interface is implemented based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which is a comprehensive software development platform for distributed control systems. Since its development at Argonne National Laboratory, it has been widely adopted in the experimental physics community, e.g. for control of accelerator facilities. This work is the first implementation for a nuclear facility. The main parts of the operator interface are the plant control panel and plant protection panel. The development involved implementation of process variable database, sequence logic, and graphical user interface (GUI) for the PCS and PPS utilizing EPICS and related software tools, e.g. sequencer for sequence logic, and control system studio (CSS-BOY) for graphical use interface. For functional verification of the PCS and PPS, a plant model is interfaced, which is a physics-based model of the facility coolant loops implemented as a numerical computer code. The training simulator is tested and demonstrated its effectiveness in various plant operation sequences, e.g. start-up, shut-down, maintenance, and refueling. It was also tested for verification of the plant protection system under various trip conditions.

  2. Simulating Observer in Supervisory Control- A Domain-based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Babamir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An Observer in the supervisory control observes responses of a discrete system to events of its environment and reports an unsafe/ critical situation if the response is undesired. An undesired response from the system indicates the system response does not adhere to users’ requirements of the system. Therefore, events and conditions of the system environment and user’s requirements of the system are basic elements to observer in determining correctness of the system response. However, the noteworthy matter is that the events, conditions, and requirements should be defined based on data of problem domain because discrete data are primary ingredients of the environment in discrete systems and they are used by system users as a gauge to express their requirements playing a vital role in safety-critical systems, such as medical and avionic ones. A large quantity of methods has already been proposed to model and simulate supervisory control of discrete systems however, a systematic method relying on data of problem domain is missing. Having extracted events, conditions, and user’s requirements from data of problem domain, a Petri-Net automaton is constructed for identifying violation of user’s requirements. The net constitutes the core of the observer and it is used to identify undesired responses of the system. In the third step, run-time simulation of the observer is suggested using multithreading mechanism and Task Parallel Library (TPL technology of Microsoft. Finally, a case study of a discrete concurrent system is proposed, the method applied and simulation results are analyzed based on the system implementation on a multi-core computer.

  3. SWIFT: task-based hydrodynamics and gravity for cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Gonnet, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Simulations of galaxy formation follow the gravitational and hydrodynamical interactions between gas, stars and dark matter through cosmic time. The huge dynamic range of such calculations severely limits strong scaling behaviour of the community codes in use, with load-imbalance, cache inefficiencies and poor vectorisation limiting performance. The new swift code exploits task-based parallelism designed for many-core compute nodes interacting via MPI using asynchronous communication to improve speed and scaling. A graph-based domain decomposition schedules interdependent tasks over available resources. Strong scaling tests on realistic particle distributions yield excellent parallel efficiency, and efficient cache usage provides a large speed-up compared to current codes even on a single core. SWIFT is designed to be easy to use by shielding the astronomer from computational details such as the construction of the tasks or MPI communication. The techniques and algorithms used in SWIFT may benefit other compu...

  4. RELIABLE VALIDATION BASED ON OPTICAL FLOW VISUALIZATION FOR CFD SIMULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜宗林

    2003-01-01

    A reliable validation based on the optical flow visualization for numerical simula-tions of complex flowfields is addressed in this paper. Several test cases, including two-dimensional,axisymmetric and three-dimensional flowfields, were presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the validation and gain credibility of numerical solutions of complex flowfields. In the validation, imagesof these flowfields were constructed from numerical results based on the principle of the optical flowvisualization, and compared directly with experimental interferograms. Because both experimental and numerical results axe of identical physical representation, the agreement between them can be evaluatedeffectively by examining flow structures as well as checking discrepancies in density. The study shows that the reliable validation can be achieved by using the direct comparison between numerical and experiment results without any loss of accuracy in either of them.

  5. Using Agent Based Modeling (ABM) to Develop Cultural Interaction Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Nick; Jones, Phillip N.

    2012-01-01

    Today, most cultural training is based on or built around "cultural engagements" or discrete interactions between the individual learner and one or more cultural "others". Often, success in the engagement is the end or the objective. In reality, these interactions usually involve secondary and tertiary effects with potentially wide ranging consequences. The concern is that learning culture within a strict engagement context might lead to "checklist" cultural thinking that will not empower learners to understand the full consequence of their actions. We propose the use of agent based modeling (ABM) to collect, store, and, simulating the effects of social networks, promulgate engagement effects over time, distance, and consequence. The ABM development allows for rapid modification to re-create any number of population types, extending the applicability of the model to any requirement for social modeling.

  6. Tutorial on agent-based modeling and simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macal, C. M.; North, M. J.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2005-01-01

    Agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) is a new approach to modeling systems comprised of autonomous, interacting agents. ABMS promises to have far-reaching effects on the way that businesses use computers to support decision-making and researchers use electronic laboratories to support their research. Some have gone so far as to contend that ABMS is a third way of doing science besides deductive and inductive reasoning. Computational advances have made possible a growing number of agent-based applications in a variety of fields. Applications range from modeling agent behavior in the stock market and supply chains, to predicting the spread of epidemics and the threat of bio-warfare, from modeling consumer behavior to understanding the fall of ancient civilizations, to name a few. This tutorial describes the theoretical and practical foundations of ABMS, identifies toolkits and methods for developing ABMS models, and provides some thoughts on the relationship between ABMS and traditional modeling techniques.

  7. RELIABLE VALIDATION BASED ON OPTICAL FLOW VISUALIZATION FOR CFD SIMULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜宗林

    2003-01-01

    A reliable validation based on the optical flow visualization for numerical simulations of complex flowfields is addressed in this paper.Several test cases,including two-dimensional,axisymmetric and three-dimensional flowfields,were presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the validation and gain credibility of numerical solutions of complex flowfields.In the validation,images of these flowfields were constructed from numerical results based on the principle of the optical flow visualization,and compared directly with experimental interferograms.Because both experimental and numerical results are of identical physical representation,the agreement between them can be evaluated effectively by examining flow structures as well as checking discrepancies in density.The study shows that the reliable validation can be achieved by using the direct comparison between numerical and experiment results without any loss of accuracy in either of them.

  8. A simulation based case study for control of DSTATCOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Niranjan; Akella, A K

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) for power quality improvements in terms of harmonics and power factor correction in a three-phase four-wire distribution system. The DSTATCOM is implemented with PWM current controlled six-leg voltage source converter (VSC) and the switching patterns are generated through a novel synchronous reference frame controller (SRFC). The insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) based VSC is supported by a capacitor and is controlled for the required compensation of the load current. The DSTATCOM is connected to the power system feeding nonlinear loads. Nonlinear loads include either current-source type or voltage-source type. Harmonic spectrum of the source current is compared in between without DSTATCOM and with DSTATCOM by considering both types of nonlinear loads. The SRFC based DSTATCOM system is validated through extensive simulation for diode-rectifier and unbalanced R-L loads with a case study. PMID:24656282

  9. Memoryless cooperative graph search based on the simulated annealing algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Jian; Yan Gang-Feng; Fan Zhen

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the problem of reaching a globally optimal segment for a graph-like environment with a single or a group of autonomous mobile agents. Firstly, two efficient simulated-annealing-like algorithms are given for a single agent to solve the problem in a partially known environment and an unknown environment, respectively. It shows that under both proposed control strategies, the agent will eventually converge to a globally optimal segment with probability 1Secondly, we use multi-agent searching to simultaneously reduce the computation complexity and accelerate convergence based on the algorithms we have given for a single agent. By exploiting graph partition, a gossip consensus method based scheme is presented to update the key parameter-radius of the graph, ensuring that the agents spend much less time finding a globally optimal segment.

  10. Simulations of SiPM based scintillation detector for PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is a future project at GSI which will extend hadron physics studies up to the charm meson region using antiproton beams together with a state-of-the-art PANDA (acronym for antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt) detector. The physics aim, in a broader sense, is to address the fundamental problems of hadron physics and aspects of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) at low energies. The proposed work in India will consist of several parts: (i) development of a SiPM based scintillation tile hodoscope for TOF information, (ii) development of a luminosity detector (silicon strip detector), and (iii) simulation studies of these detectors design as well as physics case studies. The present paper reports the initial simulation studies that have been started at Nuclear Physics Division (NPD), BARC, on the silicon photomultiplier(SiPM) based fast scintillation detector (SciTil). The hardware development activities on this SciTil detector, that are also going on in parallel at NPD, has been reported in an another contribution to this proceedings

  11. Simulation-based learning: From theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCaporale-Ryan, Lauren N; Dadiz, Rita; Peyre, Sarah E

    2016-06-01

    Comments on the article, "Stimulating Reflective Practice Using Collaborative Reflective Training in Breaking Bad News Simulations," by Kim, Hernandez, Lavery, and Denmark (see record 2016-18380-001). Kim et al. are applauded for engaging and supporting the development of simulation-based education, and for their efforts to create an interprofessional learning environment. However, we hope further work on alternate methods of debriefing leverage the already inherent activation of learners that builds on previous experience, fosters reflection and builds skills. What is needed is the transference of learning theories into our educational research efforts that measure the effectiveness, validation, and reliability of behavior based performance change. The majority of breaking bad news (BBN) curricula limit program evaluations to reports of learner satisfaction, confidence and self-efficacy, rather than determining the successful translation of effective and humanistic interpersonal skills into long-term clinical practice (Rosenbaum et al., 2004). Research is needed to investigate how educational programs affect provider-patient-family interaction, and ultimately patient and family understanding, to better inform our teaching BBN skills. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27270248

  12. Physics-Based Haptic Simulation of Bone Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabtafti, M; Moghaddam, M; Nahvi, A; Mahvash, M; Richardson, B; Shirinzadeh, B

    2011-01-01

    We present a physics-based training simulator for bone machining. Based on experimental studies, the energy required to remove a unit volume of bone is a constant for every particular bone material. We use this physical principle to obtain the forces required to remove bone material with a milling tool rotating at high speed. The rotating blades of the tool are modeled as a set of small cutting elements. The force of interaction between a cutting element and bone is calculated from the energy required to remove a bone chip with an estimated thickness and known material stiffness. The total force acting on the cutter at a particular instant is obtained by integrating the differential forces over all cutting elements engaged. A voxel representation is used to represent the virtual bone and removed chips for calculating forces of machining. We use voxels that carry bone material properties to represent the volumetric haptic body and to apply underlying physical changes during machining. Experimental results of machining samples of a real bone confirm the force model. A real-time haptic implementation of the method in a dental training simulator is described.

  13. Enhancing food engineering education with interactive web-based simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Koulouris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional deductive approach in teaching any engineering topic, teachers would first expose students to the derivation of the equations that govern the behavior of a physical system and then demonstrate the use of equations through a limited number of textbook examples. This methodology, however, is rarely adequate to unmask the cause-effect and quantitative relationships between the system variables that the equations embody. Web-based simulation, which is the integration of simulation and internet technologies, has the potential to enhance the learning experience by offering an interactive and easily accessible platform for quick and effortless experimentation with physical phenomena.This paper presents the design and development of a web-based platform for teaching basic food engineering phenomena to food technology students. The platform contains a variety of modules (“virtual experiments” covering the topics of mass and energy balances, fluid mechanics and heat transfer. In this paper, the design and development of three modules for mass balances and heat transfer is presented. Each webpage representing an educational module has the following features: visualization of the studied phenomenon through graphs, charts or videos, computation through a mathematical model and experimentation.  The student is allowed to edit key parameters of the phenomenon and observe the effect of these changes on the outputs. Experimentation can be done in a free or guided fashion with a set of prefabricated examples that students can run and self-test their knowledge by answering multiple-choice questions.

  14. Simulation Based Studies in Software Engineering: A Matter of Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Bernard Nicolau de França

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the possible lack of validity when compared with other science areas, Simulation-Based Studies (SBS in Software Engineering (SE have supported the achievement of some results in the field. However, as it happens with any other sort of experimental study, it is important to identify and deal with threats to validity aiming at increasing their strength and reinforcing results confidence. OBJECTIVE: To identify potential threats to SBS validity in SE and suggest ways to mitigate them. METHOD: To apply qualitative analysis in a dataset resulted from the aggregation of data from a quasi-systematic literature review combined with ad-hoc surveyed information regarding other science areas. RESULTS: The analysis of data extracted from 15 technical papers allowed the identification and classification of 28 different threats to validity concerned with SBS in SE according Cook and Campbell’s categories. Besides, 12 verification and validation procedures applicable to SBS were also analyzed and organized due to their ability to detect these threats to validity. These results were used to make available an improved set of guidelines regarding the planning and reporting of SBS in SE. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation based studies add different threats to validity when compared with traditional studies. They are not well observed and therefore, it is not easy to identify and mitigate all of them without explicit guidance, as the one depicted in this paper.

  15. High-throughput TVD-based simulation of tracer flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattenbarger, R.C.; Aziz, K.; Orr, F.M. Jr. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    High-throughput, total-variation-diminishing based, numerical techniques for simulating tracer flow are developed. High-throughput (HT) timestepping enables explicit differencing techniques to use timesteps that are larger than allowed by normal stability constraints. Total-variation-diminishing (TVD) based techniques are a means of controlling the solution oscillations associated with high-order differencing schemes. The concept of `upstream stability` is introduced to help combine HT timestepping with TVD-based differencing. Additionally, an improved HT timestepping algorithm for solving physically dispersive flow problems is developed. Numerical experiments indicate that HT timestepping is most beneficial for solving highly convective flows that have both a physical Peclet number and a diffusion-only numerical Peclet number greater than one. Experiments comparing standard and alternating direction TVD-based techniques with both the Superbee (SB) and third-order based (L3) limiters indicate that the TVD-SB scheme is the most accurate for purely convective problems. For physically dispersive problems, the TVD-SB scheme may be too compressive and the TVD-L3 is recommended. The alternating direction TVD scheme is the least sensitive to timestepping and the most sensitive to grid-orientation.

  16. Outdoor Air Quality Level Inference via Surveillance Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a universal problem confronted by many developing countries. Because there are very few air quality monitoring stations in cities, it is difficult for people to know the exact air quality level anytime and anywhere. Fortunately, large amount of surveillance cameras have been deployed in the cities and can capture image densely and conveniently in the cities. In this case, this provides the possibility to utilize surveillance cameras as sensors to obtain data and predict the air quality level. To this end, we present a novel air quality level inference approach based on outdoor images. Firstly, we explore several features extracted from images as the robust representation for air quality prediction. Then, to effectively fuse these heterogeneous and complementary features, we adopt multikernel learning to learn an adaptive classifier for air quality level inference. In addition, to facilitate the research, we construct an Outdoor Air Quality Image Set (OAQIS dataset, which contains high quality registered and calibrated images with rich labels, that is, concentration of particles mass (PM, weather, temperature, humidity, and wind. Extensive experiments on the OAQIS dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Geometric and Colour Data Fusion for Outdoor 3D Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chacón

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the generation of accurate, dense and coloured 3D models of outdoor scenarios from scanners. This is a challenging research field in which several problems still remain unsolved. In particular, the process of 3D model creation in outdoor scenes may be inefficient if the scene is digitalized under unsuitable technical (specific scanner on-board camera and environmental (rain, dampness, changing illumination conditions. We address our research towards the integration of images and range data to produce photorealistic models. Our proposal is based on decoupling the colour integration and geometry reconstruction stages, making them independent and controlled processes. This issue is approached from two different viewpoints. On the one hand, given a complete model (geometry plus texture, we propose a method to modify the original texture provided by the scanner on-board camera with the colour information extracted from external images taken at given moments and under specific environmental conditions. On the other hand, we propose an algorithm to directly assign external images onto the complete geometric model, thus avoiding tedious on-line calibration processes. We present the work conducted on two large Roman archaeological sites dating from the first century A.D., namely, the Theatre of Segobriga and the Fori Porticus of Emerita Augusta, both in Spain. The results obtained demonstrate that our approach could be useful in the digitalization and 3D modelling fields.

  18. Activity-based simulation using DEVS:increasing performance by an activity model in parallel DEVS simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin CHEN; Lao-bing ZHANG; Xiao-cheng LIU; Hans VANGHELUWE

    2014-01-01

    Improving simulation performance using activity tracking has attracted attention in the modeling field in recent years. The reference to activity has been successfully used to predict and promote the simulation performance. Tracking activity, how-ever, uses only the inherent performance information contained in the models. To extend activity prediction in modeling, we propose the activity enhanced modeling with an activity meta-model at the meta-level. The meta-model provides a set of interfaces to model activity in a specific domain. The activity model transformation in subsequence is devised to deal with the simulation difference due to the heterogeneous activity model. Finally, the resource-aware simulation framework is implemented to integrate the activity models in activity-based simulation. The case study shows the improvement brought on by activity-based simulation using discrete event system specification (DEVS).

  19. Monte Carlo-based simulation of dynamic jaws tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Original TomoTherapy systems may involve a trade-off between conformity and treatment speed, the user being limited to three slice widths (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 cm). This could be overcome by allowing the jaws to define arbitrary fields, including very small slice widths (<1 cm), which are challenging for a beam model. The aim of this work was to incorporate the dynamic jaws feature into a Monte Carlo (MC) model called TomoPen, based on the MC code PENELOPE, previously validated for the original TomoTherapy system. Methods: To keep the general structure of TomoPen and its efficiency, the simulation strategy introduces several techniques: (1) weight modifiers to account for any jaw settings using only the 5 cm phase-space file; (2) a simplified MC based model called FastStatic to compute the modifiers faster than pure MC; (3) actual simulation of dynamic jaws. Weight modifiers computed with both FastStatic and pure MC were compared. Dynamic jaws simulations were compared with the convolution/superposition (C/S) of TomoTherapy in the ''cheese'' phantom for a plan with two targets longitudinally separated by a gap of 3 cm. Optimization was performed in two modes: asymmetric jaws-constant couch speed (''running start stop,'' RSS) and symmetric jaws-variable couch speed (''symmetric running start stop,'' SRSS). Measurements with EDR2 films were also performed for RSS for the formal validation of TomoPen with dynamic jaws. Results: Weight modifiers computed with FastStatic were equivalent to pure MC within statistical uncertainties (0.5% for three standard deviations). Excellent agreement was achieved between TomoPen and C/S for both asymmetric jaw opening/constant couch speed and symmetric jaw opening/variable couch speed, with deviations well within 2%/2 mm. For RSS procedure, agreement between C/S and measurements was within 2%/2 mm for 95% of the points and 3%/3 mm for 98% of the points, where dose is greater than 30% of the prescription dose (gamma analysis

  20. Improvement of outdoor thermal comfort for a residential development in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souradeep Gupta, Prashant Anand, Shashwat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With more urbanization in an island country of limited land area like Singapore, Urban heat island (UHI is becoming a widely recognized phenomenon which is causing outdoor thermal discomfort to pedestrians and also causes high energy consumption by buildings. For a prospective residential development in Singapore, computational fluid dynamics simulation and temperature mapping have been conducted to highlight the urban parameters that should be considered to mitigate the adverse effects of UHI effect. Simulation shows higher day time and night time temperature at zones with exposed wall surfaces and pavements due to high sky view factor and higher storage of heat. Creation of more openness on ground and planting trees in such exposed spaces shows reduction in maximum temperature during day by about 2.2 ºC with increase in wind velocity as well. Improvement of outdoor thermal comfort from warm to neutral has been obtained with improved orientation of buildings and introduction of urban greenery.

  1. Basic Therapeutic Communication: Theoretical and Practical Information for Outdoor Adventure Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Smith, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    Uses the scenario of a women's adventure therapy trip to illustrate theoretical and practical information about "basic" therapeutic communication skills with participants in outdoor adventure settings. Discusses gender-based language style (women's "tentative" language), issues of physical and emotional safety, a philosophical rationale for…

  2. Restorative green outdoor environments at acute care hospitals - case studies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Shukor, Shureen Faris Binti

    The PhD thesis is based on research which was conducted between 2009 and 2012. It deals with green outdoor environments (GOEs) at acute care hospitals in the capital region of Denmark. The aim of this PhD study is to gain deeper knowledge about the design and use of GOEs which supports mental...

  3. Simulation-based decision support for evaluating operational plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe simulation-based decision support techniques for evaluation of operational plans within effects-based planning. Using a decision support tool, developers of operational plans are able to evaluate thousands of alternative plans against possible courses of events and decide which of these plans are capable of achieving a desired end state. The objective of this study is to examine the potential of a decision support system that helps operational analysts understand the consequences of numerous alternative plans through simulation and evaluation. Operational plans are described in the effects-based approach to operations concept as a set of actions and effects. For each action, we examine several different alternative ways to perform the action. We use a representation where a plan consists of several actions that should be performed. Each action may be performed in one of several different alternative ways. Together these action alternatives make up all possible plan instances, which are represented as a tree of action alternatives that may be searched for the most effective sequence of alternative actions. As a test case, we use an expeditionary operation with a plan of 43 actions and several alternatives for these actions, as well as a scenario of 40 group actors. Decision support for planners is provided by several methods that analyze the impact of a plan on the 40 actors, e.g., by visualizing time series of plan performance. Detailed decision support for finding the most influential actions of a plan is presented by using sensitivity analysis and regression tree analysis. Finally, a decision maker may use the tool to determine the boundaries of an operation that it must not move beyond without risk of drastic failure. The significant contribution of this study is the presentation of an integrated approach for evaluation of operational plans.

  4. Feature-Based Statistical Analysis of Combustion Simulation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J; Krishnamoorthy, V; Liu, S; Grout, R; Hawkes, E; Chen, J; Pascucci, V; Bremer, P T

    2011-11-18

    We present a new framework for feature-based statistical analysis of large-scale scientific data and demonstrate its effectiveness by analyzing features from Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent combustion. Turbulent flows are ubiquitous and account for transport and mixing processes in combustion, astrophysics, fusion, and climate modeling among other disciplines. They are also characterized by coherent structure or organized motion, i.e. nonlocal entities whose geometrical features can directly impact molecular mixing and reactive processes. While traditional multi-point statistics provide correlative information, they lack nonlocal structural information, and hence, fail to provide mechanistic causality information between organized fluid motion and mixing and reactive processes. Hence, it is of great interest to capture and track flow features and their statistics together with their correlation with relevant scalar quantities, e.g. temperature or species concentrations. In our approach we encode the set of all possible flow features by pre-computing merge trees augmented with attributes, such as statistical moments of various scalar fields, e.g. temperature, as well as length-scales computed via spectral analysis. The computation is performed in an efficient streaming manner in a pre-processing step and results in a collection of meta-data that is orders of magnitude smaller than the original simulation data. This meta-data is sufficient to support a fully flexible and interactive analysis of the features, allowing for arbitrary thresholds, providing per-feature statistics, and creating various global diagnostics such as Cumulative Density Functions (CDFs), histograms, or time-series. We combine the analysis with a rendering of the features in a linked-view browser that enables scientists to interactively explore, visualize, and analyze the equivalent of one terabyte of simulation data. We highlight the utility of this new framework for combustion

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from the grassy outdoor run of organic broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Meda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O, methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2 fluxes over the grassy outdoor run of organically grown broilers were monitored using static chambers over two production batches in contrasted seasons. Measured N2O and CH4 fluxes were extremely variable in time and space for both batches, with fluxes ranging from a small uptake by soil to large emissions peaks, the latter of which always occurred in the chambers located closest to the broiler house. In general, fluxes decreased with increasing distance to the broiler house, demonstrating that the foraging of broilers and the amount of excreted nutrients (carbon, nitrogen largely control the spatial variability of emissions. Spatial integration by kriging methods was carried out to provide representative fluxes on the outdoor run for each measurement day. Mechanistic relationships between plot-scale estimates and environmental conditions (soil temperature and water content were calibrated in order to fill gaps between measurement days. Flux integration over the year 2010 showed that around 3 ± 1 kg N2O-N ha−1 were emitted on the outdoor run, equivalent to 0.9% of outdoor N excretion and substantially lower than the IPCC default emission factor of 2%. By contrast, the outdoor run was found to be a net CH4 sink of about −0.56 kg CH4-C ha−1, though this sink compensated less than 1.5% (in CO2 equivalents of N2O emissions. The net greenhouse gas (GHG budget of the outdoor run is explored, based on measured GHG fluxes and short-term (1.5 yr variations in soil organic carbon.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from the grassy outdoor run of organic broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Meda

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O, methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2 fluxes over the grassy outdoor run of organically grown broilers were monitored using static chambers over two production batches in contrasted seasons. Measured N2O and CH4 fluxes were extremely variable in time and space for both batches, with fluxes ranging from a small uptake by soil to large emissions peaks, the latter of which always occurred in the chambers located closest to the broiler house. In general, fluxes decreased with increasing distance to the broiler house, demonstrating that the foraging of broilers and the amount of excreted nutrients (carbon, nitrogen largely control the spatial variability of emissions. Spatial integration by kriging methods was carried out to provide representative fluxes on the outdoor run for each measurement day. Mechanistic relationships between plot-scale estimates and environmental conditions (soil temperature and water content were calibrated in order to fill gaps between measurement days. Flux integration over the year 2010 showed that around 3 ± 1 kg N2O-N ha−1 were emitted on the outdoor run, equivalent to 0.9 % of outdoor N excretion and substantially lower than the IPCC default emission factor of 2 %. By contrast, the outdoor run was found to be a net CH4 sink of about −0.56 kg CH4-C ha−1, though this sink compensated less than 1.5 % (in CO2 equivalents of N2O emissions. The net greenhouse gas (GHG budget of the outdoor run is explored, based on measured GHG fluxes and short-term (1.5 yr variations in soil organic carbon.

  7. THE EFFECTS OF OUTDOOR ADVERTISEMENTS ON CONSUMERS: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Gulmez; Sukran Karaca; Olgun Kitapci

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence ratio of outdoor advertisements on survey participants (consumers) who are living in Sivas city and to measure the effects on participants' purchasing behavior. The research also attempted to specify the different characteristics of outdoor advertisements in comparison to other advertising instruments. The other research aims are to designate the status of outdoor advertisements among the advertisement instruments which are thought to h...

  8. Promoting Social Skills through Outdoor Education and Assessing Its’ Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Taib Harun; Norlena Salamuddin

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor education is a holistic form of education which aids in overall wellbeing of adolescence, including academic, physical, emotional, social and psychology well being. The aim of this study was to see whether outdoor education promotes social skills and assess its effects on participants. Research sample comprised of 671 adolescence attending a five-day residential outdoor education program. Kolb’s Cycle of Learning through Experience is used as the theoretical framework while the resear...

  9. Simulation-based reactor control design methodology for CANDU 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattan, M.K.; MacBeth, M.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Chan, W.F.; Lam, K.Y. [Cassiopeia Technologies Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    The next generation of CANDU nuclear power plant being designed by AECL is the 900 MWe CANDU 9 station. This design is based upon the Darlington CANDU nuclear power plant located in Ontario which is among the world leading nuclear power stations for highest capacity factor with the lowest operation, maintenance and administration costs in North America. Canadian-designed CANDU pressurized heavy water nuclear reactors have traditionally been world leaders in electrical power generation capacity performance. This paper introduces the CANDU 9 design initiative to use plant simulation during the design stage of the plant distributed control system (DCS), plant display system (PDS) and the control centre panels. This paper also introduces some details of the CANDU 9 DCS reactor regulating system (RRS) control application, a typical DCS partition configuration, and the interfacing of some of the software design processes that are being followed from conceptual design to final integrated design validation. A description is given of the reactor model developed specifically for use in the simulator. The CANDU 9 reactor model is a synthesis of 14 micro point-kinetic reactor models to facilitate 14 liquid zone controllers for bulk power error control, as well as zone flux tilt control. (author)

  10. Design, modeling and simulation of MEMS-based silicon Microneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, F.; Ahmed, S.

    2013-06-01

    The advancement in semiconductor process engineering and nano-scale fabrication technology has made it convenient to transport specific biological fluid into or out of human skin with minimum discomfort. Fluid transdermal delivery systems such as Microneedle arrays are one such emerging and exciting Micro-Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) application which could lead to a total painless fluid delivery into skin with controllability and desirable yield. In this study, we aimed to revisit the problem with modeling, design and simulations carried out for MEMS based silicon hollow out of plane microneedle arrays for biomedical applications particularly for transdermal drug delivery. An approximate 200 μm length of microneedle with 40 μm diameter of lumen has been successfully shown formed by isotropic and anisotropic etching techniques using MEMS Pro design tool. These microneedles are arranged in size of 2 × 4 matrix array with center to center spacing of 750 μm. Furthermore, comparisons for fluid flow characteristics through these microneedle channels have been modeled with and without the contribution of the gravitational forces using mathematical models derived from Bernoulli Equation. Physical Process simulations have also been performed on TCAD SILVACO to optimize the design of these microneedles aligned with the standard Si-Fabrication lines.

  11. Design and Simulation of an Electrothermal Actuator Based Rotational Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Sterling; Dallas, Tim

    2008-10-01

    As a participant in the Micro and Nano Device Engineering (MANDE) Research Experience for Undergraduates program at Texas Tech University, I learned how MEMS devices operate and the limits of their operation. Using specialized AutoCAD-based design software and the ANSYS simulation program, I learned the MEMS fabrication process used at Sandia National Labs, the design limitations of this process, the abilities and drawbacks of micro devices, and finally, I redesigned a MEMS device called the Chevron Torsional Ratcheting Actuator (CTRA). Motion is achieved through electrothermal actuation. The chevron (bent-beam) actuators cause a ratcheting motion on top of a hub-less gear so that as voltage is applied the CTRA spins. The voltage applied needs to be pulsed and the frequency of the pulses determine the angular frequency of the device. The main objective was to design electromechanical structures capable of transforming the electrical signals into mechanical motion without overheating. The design was optimized using finite element analysis in ANSYS allowing multi-physics simulations of our model system.

  12. Turbulent Simulations of Divertor Detachment Based On BOUT + + Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Xu, Xueqiao; Xia, Tianyang; Ye, Minyou

    2015-11-01

    China Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor is under conceptual design, acting as a bridge between ITER and DEMO. The detached divertor operation offers great promise for a reduction of heat flux onto divertor target plates for acceptable erosion. Therefore, a density scan is performed via an increase of D2 gas puffing rates in the range of 0 . 0 ~ 5 . 0 ×1023s-1 by using the B2-Eirene/SOLPS 5.0 code package to study the heat flux control and impurity screening property. As the density increases, it shows a gradually change of the divertor operation status, from low-recycling regime to high-recycling regime and finally to detachment. Significant radiation loss inside the confined plasma in the divertor region during detachment leads to strong parallel density and temperature gradients. Based on the SOLPS simulations, BOUT + + simulations will be presented to investigate the stability and turbulent transport under divertor plasma detachment, particularly the strong parallel gradient driven instabilities and enhanced plasma turbulence to spread heat flux over larger surface areas. The correlation between outer mid-plane and divertor turbulence and the related transport will be analyzed. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675075.

  13. Patient-centered appointment scheduling using agent-based simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkcan, Ayten; Toscos, Tammy; Doebbeling, Brad N

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced access and continuity are key components of patient-centered care. Existing studies show that several interventions such as providing same day appointments, walk-in services, after-hours care, and group appointments, have been used to redesign the healthcare systems for improved access to primary care. However, an intervention focusing on a single component of care delivery (i.e. improving access to acute care) might have a negative impact other components of the system (i.e. reduced continuity of care for chronic patients). Therefore, primary care clinics should consider implementing multiple interventions tailored for their patient population needs. We collected rapid ethnography and observations to better understand clinic workflow and key constraints. We then developed an agent-based simulation model that includes all access modalities (appointments, walk-ins, and after-hours access), incorporate resources and key constraints and determine the best appointment scheduling method that improves access and continuity of care. This paper demonstrates the value of simulation models to test a variety of alternative strategies to improve access to care through scheduling. PMID:25954423

  14. Simulated Annealing-Based Krill Herd Algorithm for Global Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Ge Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Gandomi and Alavi proposed a novel swarm intelligent method, called krill herd (KH, for global optimization. To enhance the performance of the KH method, in this paper, a new improved meta-heuristic simulated annealing-based krill herd (SKH method is proposed for optimization tasks. A new krill selecting (KS operator is used to refine krill behavior when updating krill’s position so as to enhance its reliability and robustness dealing with optimization problems. The introduced KS operator involves greedy strategy and accepting few not-so-good solutions with a low probability originally used in simulated annealing (SA. In addition, a kind of elitism scheme is used to save the best individuals in the population in the process of the krill updating. The merits of these improvements are verified by fourteen standard benchmarking functions and experimental results show that, in most cases, the performance of this improved meta-heuristic SKH method is superior to, or at least highly competitive with, the standard KH and other optimization methods.

  15. Theory-based transport simulation of tokamaks: density scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a sizeable amount of work in the past few years using theoretically based flux-surface-average transport models to simulate various types of experimental tokamak data. Here we report two such studies, concentrating on the response of the plasma to variation of the line averaged electron density. The first study reported here uses a transport model described by Ghanem et al. to examine the response of global energy confinement time in ohmically heated discharges. The second study reported here uses a closely related and more recent transport model described by Bateman to examine the response of temperature profiles to changes in line-average density in neutral-beam-heated discharges. Work on developing a common theoretical model for these and other scaling experiments is in progress. (author) 5 refs., 2 figs

  16. Simulation-based biagnostics and control for nuclar power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced simulation-based diagnostics and control guidance systems for the identification and management of off-normal transient events in nuclear power plants is currently under investigation. To date a great deal of progress has been made in effectively and efficiently combining information obtained through fuzzy pattern recognition and macroscopic mass and energy inventory analysis for use in multiple failure diagnostics. Work has also begun on the unique problem of diagnostics and surveillance methodologies for advanced passively-safe reactors systems utilizing both statistical and fuzzy information. Plans are also being formulated for the development of deterministic optimal control algorithms combined with Monte Carlo incremental learning algorithms to be used for the flexible and efficient control of reactor transients.

  17. Method of Batik Simulation Based on Interpolation Subdivisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Lv

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to realized Batik Renderings, we presented an algorithm for creating ice crack effects as found in Batik wax painting and Batik techniques. This method is based on Interpolation Subdivisions algorithm, which can produce crackle effects similar to the natural texture generated in the batik handcraft. In this method, the natural distribution of ice crack is created by Random distribution function, and then the creating of ice crack is controlled by Interpolation Subdivisions algorithm and the modified DLA algorithm, and the detail is associated with those parameters: The number of growth point, noise, direction, attenuation and so on. Then we blend Batik vector graphics with the ice crack and Mix Color between them, finally, such post processing realizes the visual effect. The simulation results show that this method can create different forms of ice crack effects, and this method can be used in dyeing industry.

  18. Design and simulation of a standing wave oscillator based PLL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei ZHANG; You-de HU; Li-rong ZHENG

    2016-01-01

    A standing wave oscillator (SWO) is a perfect clock source which can be used to produce a high frequency clock signal with a low skew and high reliability. However, it is difficult to tune the SWO in a wide range of frequencies. We introduce a frequency tunable SWO which uses an inversion mode metal-oxide-semiconductor (IMOS) field-effect transistor as a varactor, and give the simulation results of the frequency tuning range and power dissipation. Based on the frequency tunable SWO, a new phase locked loop (PLL) architecture is presented. This PLL can be used not only as a clock source, but also as a clock distribution network to provide high quality clock signals. The PLL achieves an approximately 50% frequency tuning range when designed in Global Foundry 65 nm 1P9M complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, and can be used directly in a high performance multi-core microprocessor.

  19. Simulation-based biagnostics and control for nuclar power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced simulation-based diagnostics and control guidance systems for the identification and management of off-normal transient events in nuclear power plants is currently under investigation. To date a great deal of progress has been made in effectively and efficiently combining information obtained through fuzzy pattern recognition and macroscopic mass and energy inventory analysis for use in multiple failure diagnostics. Work has also begun on the unique problem of diagnostics and surveillance methodologies for advanced passively-safe reactors systems utilizing both statistical and fuzzy information. Plans are also being formulated for the development of deterministic optimal control algorithms combined with Monte Carlo incremental learning algorithms to be used for the flexible and efficient control of reactor transients

  20. Quantum-based Atomistic Simulation of Transition Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, J A; Benedict, L X; Glosli, J N; Hood, R Q; Orlikowski, D A; Patel, M V; Soderlind, P; Streitz, F H; Tang, M; Yang, L H

    2005-08-29

    First-principles generalized pseudopotential theory (GPT) provides a fundamental basis for transferable multi-ion interatomic potentials in d-electron transition metals within density-functional quantum mechanics. In mid-period bcc metals, where multi-ion angular forces are important to structural properties, simplified model GPT or MGPT potentials have been developed based on canonical d bands to allow analytic forms and large-scale atomistic simulations. Robust, advanced-generation MGPT potentials have now been obtained for Ta and Mo and successfully applied to a wide range of structural, thermodynamic, defect and mechanical properties at both ambient and extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. Recent algorithm improvements have also led to a more general matrix representation of MGPT beyond canonical bands allowing increased accuracy and extension to f-electron actinide metals, an order of magnitude increase in computational speed, and the current development of temperature-dependent potentials.

  1. Simulation-based algorithms for Markov decision processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Hyeong Soo; Fu, Michael C; Marcus, Steven I

    2013-01-01

    Markov decision process (MDP) models are widely used for modeling sequential decision-making problems that arise in engineering, economics, computer science, and the social sciences.  Many real-world problems modeled by MDPs have huge state and/or action spaces, giving an opening to the curse of dimensionality and so making practical solution of the resulting models intractable.  In other cases, the system of interest is too complex to allow explicit specification of some of the MDP model parameters, but simulation samples are readily available (e.g., for random transitions and costs). For these settings, various sampling and population-based algorithms have been developed to overcome the difficulties of computing an optimal solution in terms of a policy and/or value function.  Specific approaches include adaptive sampling, evolutionary policy iteration, evolutionary random policy search, and model reference adaptive search. This substantially enlarged new edition reflects the latest developments in novel ...

  2. Optimization-based Fluid Simulation on Unstructured Meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Bridson, Robert; Erleben, Kenny;

    We present a novel approach to fluid simulation, allowing us to take into account the surface energy in a pre- cise manner. This new approach combines a novel, topology-adaptive approach to deformable interface track- ing, called the deformable simplicial complexes method (DSC) with an optimization......-based, linear finite element method for solving the incompressible Euler equations. The deformable simplicial complexes track the surface of the fluid: the fluid-air interface is represented explicitly as a piecewise linear surface which is a subset of tetra- hedralization of the space, such that the interface...... can be also represented implicitly as a set of faces separating tetrahedra marked as inside from the ones marked as outside. This representation introduces insignificant and con- trollable numerical diffusion, allows robust topological adaptivity and provides both a volumetric finite element mesh...

  3. Capacity Analysis for Parallel Runway through Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel runway is the mainstream structure of China hub airport, runway is often the bottleneck of an airport, and the evaluation of its capacity is of great importance to airport management. This study outlines a model, multiagent architecture, implementation approach, and software prototype of a simulation system for evaluating runway capacity. Agent Unified Modeling Language (AUML is applied to illustrate the inbound and departing procedure of planes and design the agent-based model. The model is evaluated experimentally, and the quality is studied in comparison with models, created by SIMMOD and Arena. The results seem to be highly efficient, so the method can be applied to parallel runway capacity evaluation and the model propose favorable flexibility and extensibility.

  4. Solid formation in piperazine rate-based simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Thomsen, Kaj; von Solms, Nicolas;

    2014-01-01

    of view but also from a modeling perspective. The present work develops a rate-based model for CO2 absorption and desorption modeling for gas-liquid-solid systems and it is demonstrated for the piperazine CO2 capture process. This model is an extension of the DTU CAPCO2 model to precipitating systems...... species since the piperazine is deactivated when present as solid. It is assumed that solid-gas reactions are slow compared to normal liquid side reactions. In the current work, the formation of solids is described in an equilibrium approach, assuming instantaneous formation of hydrates such as PZ·6H2O......, PZ·½H2O, and anhydrous PZ. The simulation of a 100t/hr post-combustion capture plant outlines that 5 % solid reduces the CO2 capture rate with 13%. Therefore, it demonstrates that an accurate description of the precipitation phenomenon is essential for realistic and accurate modeling....

  5. Numerical simulation of base flow with hot base bleed for two jet models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-jie YU; Yong-gang YU; Bin NI

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the benefits of base bleed in base flow field, the base flow with hot base bleed for two jet models is studied. Two-dimensional axisymmetric NaviereStokes equations are computed by using a finite volume scheme. The base flow of a cylinder afterbody with base bleed is simulated. The simulation results are validated with the experimental data, and the experimental results are well reproduced. On this basis, the base flow fields with base bleed for a circular jet model and an annulus jet model are investigated by selecting the injection temperature from 830 K to 2200 K. The results show that the base pressure of the annular jet model is higher than that of the circular jet model with the changes of the injection parameter and the injection temperature. For the circular jet model, the hot gases are concentrated in the vicinity of the base. For the annular jet model, the bleed gases flow into the shear layer directly so that the hot gases are concentrated in the shear layer. The latter temperature distribution is better for the increase of base pressure.

  6. Real-time retrieval for case-based reasoning in interactive multiagent-based simulations

    CERN Document Server

    De Loor, Pierre; Pierre, Chevaillier; 10.1016/j.eswa.2010.10.048

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the principles and results about case-based reasoning adapted to real- time interactive simulations, more precisely concerning retrieval mechanisms. The article begins by introducing the constraints involved in interactive multiagent-based simulations. The second section pre- sents a framework stemming from case-based reasoning by autonomous agents. Each agent uses a case base of local situations and, from this base, it can choose an action in order to interact with other auton- omous agents or users' avatars. We illustrate this framework with an example dedicated to the study of dynamic situations in football. We then go on to address the difficulties of conducting such simulations in real-time and propose a model for case and for case base. Using generic agents and adequate case base structure associated with a dedicated recall algorithm, we improve retrieval performance under time pressure compared to classic CBR techniques. We present some results relating to the perfor...

  7. OPTIMIZATION METHOD FOR VIRTUAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT BASED ON SIMULATION METAMODEL AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Jun; Fan Xiumin; Ma Dengzhe; Jin Ye

    2003-01-01

    Virtual product development (VPD) is essentially based on simulation. Due to computational inefficiency, traditional engineering simulation software and optimization methods are inadequate to analyze optimization problems in VPD. Optimization method based on simulation metamodel for virtual product development is proposed to satisfy the needs of complex optimal designs driven by VPD. This method extends the current design of experiments (DOE) by various metamodeling technologies. Simulation metamodels are built to approximate detailed simulation codes, so as to provide link between optimization and simulation, or serve as a bridge for simulation software integration among different domains. An example of optimal design for composite material structure is used to demonstrate the newly introduced method.

  8. Agent-based modeling and simulation Part 3 : desktop ABMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macal, C. M.; North, M. J.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-01-01

    Agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) is a new approach to modeling systems comprised of autonomous, interacting agents. ABMS promises to have far-reaching effects on the way that businesses use computers to support decision-making and researchers use electronic laboratories to support their research. Some have gone so far as to contend that ABMS 'is a third way of doing science,' in addition to traditional deductive and inductive reasoning (Axelrod 1997b). Computational advances have made possible a growing number of agent-based models across a variety of application domains. Applications range from modeling agent behavior in the stock market, supply chains, and consumer markets, to predicting the spread of epidemics, the threat of bio-warfare, and the factors responsible for the fall of ancient civilizations. This tutorial describes the theoretical and practical foundations of ABMS, identifies toolkits and methods for developing agent models, and illustrates the development of a simple agent-based model of shopper behavior using spreadsheets.

  9. Airworthiness Compliance Verification Method Based on Simulation of Complex System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Haojun; LIU Dongliang; XUE Yuan; ZHOU Li; MIN Guilong

    2012-01-01

    A study is conducted on a new airworthiness compliance verification method based on pilot-aircraft-environment complex system simulation.Verification scenarios are established by “block diagram” method based on airworthiness criteria..A pilot-aircraft-environment complex model is set up and a virtual flight testing method based on connection of MATLAB/Simulink and Flightgear is proposed.Special researches are conducted on the modeling of pilot manipulation stochastic parameters and manipulation in critical situation.Unfavorable flight factors of certain scenario are analyzed,and reliability modeling of important system is researched.A distribution function of small probability event and the theory on risk probability measurement are studied.Nonlinear function is used to depict the relationship between the cumulative probability and the extremum of the critical parameter.A synthetic evaluation model is set up,modified genetic algorithm (MGA) is applied to ascertaining the distribution parameter in the model,and amore reasonable result is obtained.A clause about vehicle control functions (VCFs) verification in MIL-HDBK-516B is selected as an example to validate the practicability of the method.

  10. Renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Due to the renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting, traffic will be limited to one way along “Route Gregory” from the E entrance (France) up to “Route Fermi” just before the water tower between 12th and 23rd July 2010. Disruption can also be expected in the car parks “Les Erables” and “Les Tilleuls” close to building 30 and also the car park in front of building 377, between 19th and 30th July 2010. Thanks for your understanding. SEM Group

  11. Detection of indoor and outdoor stairs

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrabadi, S.; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; du Buf, J. M. H.

    2013-01-01

    There are a few applications in which stairs must be detected, for example for aiding blind persons during navigation and for autonomous robots which must rely on vision. . In this paper we present a very simple algorithm for detecting stairs, both in indoor and outdoor environments, when the camera is at a distance of approximately five meters from the stairs. The problem is hard to solve due to different factors like lighting, different constructions, materials and view angles. How...

  12. Fundamental Science-Based Simulation of Nuclear Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-10-04

    This report presents a hierarchical multiscale modeling scheme based on two-way information exchange. To account for all essential phenomena in waste forms over geological time scales, the models have to span length scales from nanometer to kilometer and time scales from picoseconds to millenia. A single model cannot cover this wide range and a multi-scale approach that integrates a number of different at-scale models is called for. The approach outlined here involves integration of quantum mechanical calculations, classical molecular dynamics simulations, kinetic Monte Carlo and phase field methods at the mesoscale, and continuum models. The ultimate aim is to provide science-based input in the form of constitutive equations to integrated codes. The atomistic component of this scheme is demonstrated in the promising waste form xenotime. Density functional theory calculations have yielded valuable information about defect formation energies. This data can be used to develop interatomic potentials for molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage. Potentials developed in the present work show a good match for the equilibrium lattice constants, elastic constants and thermal expansion of xenotime. In novel waste forms, such as xenotime, a considerable amount of data needed to validate the models is not available. Integration of multiscale modeling with experimental work is essential to generate missing data needed to validate the modeling scheme and the individual models. Density functional theory can also be used to fill knowledge gaps. Key challenges lie in the areas of uncertainty quantification, verification and validation, which must be performed at each level of the multiscale model and across scales. The approach used to exchange information between different levels must also be rigorously validated. The outlook for multiscale modeling of wasteforms is quite promising.

  13. Web-based Interactive Landform Simulation Model - Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W.; Pelletier, J. D.; Duffin, K.; Ormand, C. J.; Hung, W.; Iverson, E. A.; Shernoff, D.; Zhai, X.; Chowdary, A.

    2013-12-01

    Earth science educators need interactive tools to engage and enable students to better understand how Earth systems work over geologic time scales. The evolution of landforms is ripe for interactive, inquiry-based learning exercises because landforms exist all around us. The Web-based Interactive Landform Simulation Model - Grand Canyon (WILSIM-GC, http://serc.carleton.edu/landform/) is a continuation and upgrade of the simple cellular automata (CA) rule-based model (WILSIM-CA, http://www.niu.edu/landform/) that can be accessed from anywhere with an Internet connection. Major improvements in WILSIM-GC include adopting a physically based model and the latest Java technology. The physically based model is incorporated to illustrate the fluvial processes involved in land-sculpting pertaining to the development and evolution of one of the most famous landforms on Earth: the Grand Canyon. It is hoped that this focus on a famous and specific landscape will attract greater student interest and provide opportunities for students to learn not only how different processes interact to form the landform we observe today, but also how models and data are used together to enhance our understanding of the processes involved. The latest development in Java technology (such as Java OpenGL for access to ubiquitous fast graphics hardware, Trusted Applet for file input and output, and multithreaded ability to take advantage of modern multi-core CPUs) are incorporated into building WILSIM-GC and active, standards-aligned curricula materials guided by educational psychology theory on science learning will be developed to accompany the model. This project is funded NSF-TUES program.

  14. A Simulated Multiagent-Based Architecture for Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onashoga S. Adebukola

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a Multiagent-based architecture for Intrusion Detection System (MIDS is proposed to overcome the shortcoming of current Mobile Agent-based Intrusion Detection System. MIDS is divided into three major phases namely: Data gathering, Detection and the Response phases. The data gathering stage involves data collection based on the features in the distributed system and profiling. The data collection components are distributed on both host and network. Closed Pattern Mining (CPM algorithm is introduced for profiling users’ activities in network database. The CPM algorithm is built on the concept of Frequent Pattern-growth algorithm by mining a prefix-tree called CPM-tree, which contains only the closed itemsets and its associated support count. According to the administrator’s specified thresholds, CPM-tree maintains only closed patterns online and incrementally outputs the current closed frequent pattern of users’ activities in real time. MIDS makes use of mobile and static agents to carry out the functions of intrusion detection. Each of these agents is built with rule-based reasoning to autonomously detect intrusions. Java 1.1.8 is chosen as the implementation language and IBM’s Java based mobile agent framework, Aglet 1.0.3 as the platform for running the mobile and static agents. In order to test the robustness of the system, a real-time simulation is carried out on University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (UNAAB network dataset and the results showed an accuracy of 99.94%, False Positive Rate (FPR of 0.13% and False Negative Rate (FNR of 0.04%. This shows an improved performance of MIDS when compared with other known MA-IDSs.

  15. Games for Traffic Education: An Experimental Study of a Game-Based Driving Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, Per; Engstrom, Henrik; Johannesson, Mikael; Lebram, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on the construction and evaluation of a game-based driving simulator using a real car as a joystick. The simulator is constructed from off-the-shelf hardware and the simulation runs on open-source software. The feasibility of the simulator as a learning tool has been experimentally evaluated. Results are…

  16. Operational characteristic analysis of conduction cooling HTS SMES for Real Time Digital Simulator based power quality enhancement simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A. R.; Kim, G. H.; Kim, K. M.; Kim, D. W.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.; Kim, S. H.; Sim, K.; Sohn, M. H.; Seong, K. C.

    2010-11-01

    This paper analyzes the operational characteristics of conduction cooling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) through a real hardware based simulation. To analyze the operational characteristics, the authors manufactured a small-scale toroidal-type SMES and implemented a Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) based power quality enhancement simulation. The method can consider not only electrical characteristics such as inductance and current but also temperature characteristic by using the real SMES system. In order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, a voltage sag compensation simulation has been implemented using the RTDS connected with the High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) model coil and DC/DC converter system, and the simulation results are discussed in detail.

  17. Projected impacts to the production of outdoor recreation opportunities across US state park systems due to the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A technical efficiency model identifies where state park systems can be improved. • The technical efficiency model is joined with output of CC policy simulations. • Shifts in operating expenditure under the CC mitigation policy are estimated. • Results reveal substantial variability across states. • Increasing technical efficiency is the best solution to adapt to CC policy impacts. - Abstract: Numerous empirical and simulation-based studies have documented or estimated variable impacts to the economic growth of nation states due to the adoption of domestic climate change mitigation policies. However, few studies have been able to empirically link projected changes in economic growth to the provision of public goods and services. In this research, we couple projected changes in economic growth to US states brought about by the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy with a longitudinal panel dataset detailing the production of outdoor recreation opportunities on lands managed in the public interest. Joining empirical data and simulation-based estimates allow us to better understand how the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy would affect the provision of public goods in the future. We first employ a technical efficiency model and metrics to provide decision makers with evidence of specific areas where operational efficiencies within the nation's state park systems can be improved. We then augment the empirical analysis with simulation-based changes in gross state product (GSP) to estimate changes to the states’ ability to provide outdoor recreation opportunities from 2014 to 2020; the results reveal substantial variability across states. Finally, we explore two potential solutions (increasing GSP or increasing technical efficiency) for addressing the negative impacts on the states’ park systems operating budgets brought about by the adoption of a domestic climate change mitigation policy; the

  18. Simulation-based Discovery of Cyclic Peptide Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Pestana, Luis A.

    Today, there is a growing need for environmentally friendly synthetic membranes with selective transport capabilities to address some of society's most pressing issues, such as carbon dioxide pollution, or access to clean water. While conventional membranes cannot stand up to the challenge, thin nanocomposite membranes, where vertically aligned subnanometer pores (e.g. nanotubes) are embedded in a thin polymeric film, promise to overcome some of the current limitations, namely, achieving a monodisperse distribution of subnanometer size pores, vertical pore alignment across the membrane thickness, and tunability of the pore surface chemistry. Self-assembled cyclic peptide nanotubes (CPNs), are particularly promising as selective nanopores because the pore size can be controlled at the subnanometer level, exhibit high chemical design flexibility, and display remarkable mechanical stability. In addition, when conjugated with polymer chains, the cyclic peptides can co-assemble in block copolymer domains to form nanoporous thin films. CPNs are thus well positioned to tackle persistent challenges in molecular separation applications. However, our poor understanding of the physics underlying their remarkable properties prevents the rational design and implementation of CPNs in technologically relevant membranes. In this dissertation, we use a simulation-based approach, in particular molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to investigate the critical knowledge gaps hindering the implementation of CPNs. Computational mechanical tests show that, despite the weak nature of the stabilizing hydrogen bonds and the small cross section, CPNs display a Young's modulus of approximately 20 GPa and a maximum strength of around 1 GPa, placing them among the strongest proteinaceous materials known. Simulations of the self-assembly process reveal that CPNs grow by self-similar coarsening, contrary to other low-dimensional peptide systems, such as amyloids, that are believed to grow through

  19. Multiscale dynamics based on kinetic simulation of collisionless magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Keizo; Takamoto, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a natural energy converter which allows explosive energy release of the magnetic field energy into plasma kinetic energy. The reconnection processes inherently involve multi-scale process. The breaking of the field lines takes place predominantly in a small region called the diffusion region formed near the x-line, while the fast plasma jets resulting from reconnection extend to a distance far beyond the ion kinetic scales from the x-line. There has been a significant gap in understanding of macro-scale and micro-scale processes. The macro-scale model of reconnection has been developed using the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, while the micro-scale processes around the x-line have been based on kinetic equations including the ion and electron inertia. The problem is that these two kinds of model have significant discrepancies. It has been believed without any guarantee that the microscopic model near the x-line would connect to the macroscopic model far downstream of the x-line. In order to bridge the gap between the macro and micro-scale processes, we have performed large-scale particle-in-cell simulations with the adaptive mesh refinement. The simulation results suggest that the microscopic processes around the x-line do not connect to the previous MHD model even in the region far downstream of the x-line. The slow mode shocks and the associated plasma acceleration do not appear at the exhaust boundary of kinetic reconnection. Instead, the ions are accelerated due to the Speiser motion in the current layer extending to a distance beyond the kinetic scales. The different acceleration mechanisms between the ions and electrons lead to the Hall current system in broad area of the exhaust. Therefore, the previous MHD model could be inappropriate for collisionless magnetic reconnection. Ref. K. Fujimoto & M. Takamoto, Phys. Plasmas, 23, 012903 (2016).

  20. Action prediction based on anticipatory brain potentials during simulated driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliliardali, Zahra; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Gheorghe, Lucian Andrei; Millán, José del R.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The ability of an automobile to infer the driver’s upcoming actions directly from neural signals could enrich the interaction of the car with its driver. Intelligent vehicles fitted with an on-board brain-computer interface able to decode the driver’s intentions can use this information to improve the driving experience. In this study we investigate the neural signatures of anticipation of specific actions, namely braking and accelerating. Approach. We investigated anticipatory slow cortical potentials in electroencephalogram recorded from 18 healthy participants in a driving simulator using a variant of the contingent negative variation (CNV) paradigm with Go and No-go conditions: count-down numbers followed by ‘Start’/‘Stop’ cue. We report decoding performance before the action onset using a quadratic discriminant analysis classifier based on temporal features. Main results. (i) Despite the visual and driving related cognitive distractions, we show the presence of anticipatory event related potentials locked to the stimuli onset similar to the widely reported CNV signal (with an average peak value of -8 μV at electrode Cz). (ii) We demonstrate the discrimination between cases requiring to perform an action upon imperative subsequent stimulus (Go condition, e.g. a ‘Red’ traffic light) versus events that do not require such action (No-go condition; e.g. a ‘Yellow’ light); with an average single trial classification performance of 0.83 ± 0.13 for braking and 0.79 ± 0.12 for accelerating (area under the curve). (iii) We show that the centro-medial anticipatory potentials are observed as early as 320 ± 200 ms before the action with a detection rate of 0.77 ± 0.12 in offline analysis. Significance. We show for the first time the feasibility of predicting the driver’s intention through decoding anticipatory related potentials during simulated car driving with high recognition rates.

  1. Education in and for the Outdoors. Report of the National Conference on Outdoor Education (Kellogg Gull Lake Biological Station, Hickory Corners, Michigan, May 2-4, 1962).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The two board aspects of outdoor education considered in this document are education in the outdoors, using the natural environment as a laboratory for learning, and education for the outdoors, with a focus on teaching skills and appreciations for outdoor recreation. Conference procedures, keynote addresses, current practices, contributions to…

  2. Outdoor Portable System for Quantified Analysis of Human Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Hessas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study, is to collect gait by the wearable sensors attached to the person’s body, then we propose a homemade system called Digit Eye Jockey. This system gathers a mechanical structure and an electronic device based on potentiometers for measuring spatiotemporal parameters and joints angles in the sagittal plane for hip and knee and in both sagittal and transverse planes for the ankle. The responses are very linear and the relative error is less than 5%. This instrument is a robust and light tool to assess the instantaneous spatiotemporal and articular parameters during gait, over a great number of steps, on any type of ground and even outdoors.

  3. Numerical simulation and combination optimization of aluminum holding furnace linings based on simulated annealing☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jimin Wang; Shen Lan; Tao Chen; Wenke Li; Huaqiang Chu

    2015-01-01

    To reduce heat loss and save cost, a combination decision model of reverb aluminum holding furnace linings in aluminum casting industry was established based on economic thickness method, and was resolved using sim-ulated annealing. Meanwhile, a three-dimensional mathematical model of aluminum holding furnace linings was developed and integrated with user-defined heat load distribution regime model. The optimal combination was as follows:side wal with 80 mm alumino-silicate fiber felts, 232 mm diatomite brick and 116 mm chamotte brick;top wall with 50 mm clay castables, 110 mm alumino-silicate fiber felts and 200 mm refractory concrete;and bottom wal with 232 mm high-alumina brick, 60 mm clay castables and 68 mm diatomite brick. Lining tem-perature from high to low was successively bottom wal , side wal , and top wall. Lining temperature gradient in increasing order of magnitude was refractory layer and insulation layer. It was indicated that the results of com-bination optimization of aluminum holding furnace linings were valid and feasible, and its thermo-physical mechanism and cost characteristics were reasonably revealed.

  4. Simulation Based Performance Comparison Of Various Routing Protocols In MANET Using Network Simulation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.K.Thangadurai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming a network temporarily without any centralized administration of the mobile networks. Each node in MANET moves arbitrarily making the multi-hop network topology to change randomly at unpredictable times. Two nodes in such a network can communicate in a bidirectional manner if and only if the distance between them is at most the minimum of their transmission ranges. When a node wants to communicate with a node outside its transmission range, a multi-hop routing strategy is used which involves some intermediate nodes? Because of the movements of nodes, there is a constant possibility of topology change in MANET. There are several familiar routing protocols like DSDV, AODV, DSR, etc., Which have been proposed for providing communication among all the nodes in the network? This paper presents a performance comparison of proactive and reactive protocols AODV, DSDV and DSR based on metrics such as throughput, packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay by using the NS-2 simulator.

  5. Use of Assisted Photogrammetry for Indoor and Outdoor Navigation Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliari, D.; Cazzaniga, N. E.; Pinto, L.

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, devices and applications that require navigation solutions are continuously growing. For instance, consider the increasing demand of mapping information or the development of applications based on users' location. In some case it could be sufficient an approximate solution (e.g. at room level), but in the large amount of cases a better solution is required. The navigation problem has been solved from a long time using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). However, it can be unless in obstructed areas, such as in urban areas or inside buildings. An interesting low cost solution is photogrammetry, assisted using additional information to scale the photogrammetric problem and recovering a solution also in critical situation for image-based methods (e.g. poor textured surfaces). In this paper, the use of assisted photogrammetry has been tested for both outdoor and indoor scenarios. Outdoor navigation problem has been faced developing a positioning system with Ground Control Points extracted from urban maps as constrain and tie points automatically extracted from the images acquired during the survey. The proposed approach has been tested under different scenarios, recovering the followed trajectory with an accuracy of 0.20 m. For indoor navigation a solution has been thought to integrate the data delivered by Microsoft Kinect, by identifying interesting features on the RGB images and re-projecting them on the point clouds generated from the delivered depth maps. Then, these points have been used to estimate the rotation matrix between subsequent point clouds and, consequently, to recover the trajectory with few centimeters of error.

  6. Effects of a Green Space Layout on the Outdoor Thermal Environment at the Neighborhood Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming Lai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to address the existing urban design needs and computer-aided thermal engineering and explore the optimal green space layout to obtain an acceptable thermal environment at the neighborhood scale through a series of building energy and computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The building-energy analysis software eQUEST and weather database TMY2 were adopted to analyze the electric energy consumed by air conditioners and the analysis results were incorporated to derive the heat dissipated from air conditioners. Then, the PHOENICS CFD software was used to analyze how the green space layout influences outdoor thermal environment based on the heat dissipated from air conditioners and the solar heat reemitted from the built surfaces. The results show that a green space located in the center of this investigated area and at the far side of the downstream of a summer monsoon is the recommended layout. The layouts, with green space in the center, can decrease the highest temperature by 0.36 °C.

  7. Fancy a Career Doing Therapy in the Outdoors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Chris

    2003-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, no outdoor practitioner is working as a professional therapist and little formal training in outdoor therapy exists. Practice of this type requires supervision and professional accreditation. Interested undergraduates should check social work, probation, mental health, educational psychology, or occupational therapy…

  8. Integration of Risk Management Techniques into Outdoor Adventure Program Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Eric V.

    This paper is designed to acquaint the outdoor professional with the risk management decision making process required for the operation and management of outdoor adventure activities. The document examines the programming implications of fear in adventure activities; the risk management process in adventure programming; a definition of an…

  9. An Educational Tool for Outdoor Education and Environmental Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Klas; Ohman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest an outdoor education model that respects the need to critically discuss the general belief in a causal relationship between experiences of nature, environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavioural change, but that at the same time respects the legitimate claims on the part of outdoor education practice for…

  10. The Implementation of Mobile Learning in Outdoor Education: Application of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  11. Managing Fear in the Outdoor Experiential Education Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Outlines components of fear in outdoor adventure activities. Reports ratings by 311 Outward Bound students of 23 common fears in the outdoors. Discusses techniques of fear reduction therapy: systematic desensitization, flooding, modeling of coping methods by instructors, and rehearsal of adaptive behaviors. Contains 16 references. (SV)

  12. Outdoor Education Is More than Meets the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortill, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Any activity that involves learning, whether it is for therapeutic purposes, traditional education, or outdoor education, is experiential education. In particular, outdoor educators allow participants to experiment with their behaviour in the form of play, for the most part out-of-doors. Many in the industry refer to play as adventure. Those who…

  13. Reconnecting Children through Outdoor Education. COEO Research Document: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrea; Linney, Grant

    2007-01-01

    Outdoor and Experiential Education (OEE) is a vital learning methodology for today's children and young people. Its provision of safe, educator-framed and hands-on experiences in outdoor settings provides unique, vital and lasting benefits in terms of education for curriculum and community, education for character, education for wellbeing and…

  14. Bringing Outdoor Challenge Education Inside the Business Communication Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFrene, Debbie D.; Sharbrough, William; Clipson, Tim; McCall, Miles

    1999-01-01

    Describes present-day outdoor challenge education and briefly notes its history. Argues that it provides a framework for organizations to improve teamwork, problem solving, risk-taking, self-esteem, and interpersonal communication. Describes how advantages of outdoor education can be maintained when a program goes indoors. Notes advantages of…

  15. Market segmentation of goods for sports and outdoor activities

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bratyhina; Irina Toimenceva

    2013-01-01

    Article is devoted to questions to market segmentation of goods for sports and outdoor activities. Authors allocate the main segments of consumers of goods for sports and outdoor activities, carry out market segmentation on types of goods and services, and as segmentation on the competing organizations.

  16. Rain and Romanticism: The Environment in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education provides an opportunity to engage with natural environments in ways that are distinct from other physical education teacher education (PETE) courses. This research examines how pre-service teachers (PSTs) within a PETE degree experienced "environment" on an outdoor education camp. Using self-study methodology and…

  17. The Future of Outdoor Recreation. What the Trends Tell Us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Gina

    1986-01-01

    The author looked at trend data presented at the 1985 National Outdoor Recreation Trends Symposium and synthesized the results to offer insights into the future of outdoor recreation. Discussed are social, activity, private sector recreational, economic, tourism, and policy trends. (MT)

  18. Outdoor Adventure & Eating Disorders: A Personal Perspective to Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kaye

    1999-01-01

    A female outdoor educator who had recovered from anorexia nervosa reflects on the boundaries between her personal and professional identity as she anticipates taking on a research role in adventure-therapy programs. Gender issues in outdoor education are discussed in relation to women's body image and eating disorders. (SV)

  19. Market segmentation of goods for sports and outdoor activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bratyhina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to questions to market segmentation of goods for sports and outdoor activities. Authors allocate the main segments of consumers of goods for sports and outdoor activities, carry out market segmentation on types of goods and services, and as segmentation on the competing organizations.

  20. Tenuous Affair: Environmental and Outdoor Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David; Straker, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between outdoor education and environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone many changes since formal education began in early colonial times. Discussion draws from qualitative doctoral research undertaken by the authors that investigated education for sustainability in outdoor education and how meaning is ascribed…