WorldWideScience

Sample records for based outdoor simulation

  1. Breeding for Welfare in outdoor pig production : simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gourdine, J.L.; Greef, de K.H.; Rydhmer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the societal and market attention, to our knowledge, there is no breeding program for outdoor pig production in which improvement in animal welfare is emphasized. In this study, a dam-line selected for an outdoor production system was simulated. The purpose was to investigate the

  2. BRIDGING OUTDOOR AND INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL SIMULATION FOR ASSESSING AND AIDING SUSTAINABLE URBAN NEIGHBOURHOOD DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhi Peng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban dwellers in cities located in hot-arid or hothumid regions have greater needs to live in between outdoor and indoor environments. The sustainability of urban building design in these regions cannot be fully assessed by indoor environmental simulation not taking into account the microclimatic factors of the surrounding urban neighbourhood. We find that the current suites of outdoor and indoor simulation software do not connect with each other to give us a holistic understanding of both outdoor and indoor simulation results. This paper reports on our current development of a methodological framework for bridging the current gap between outdoor and indoor environmental simulation. Our objective is that assessment of sustainability at an urban neighbourhood level can be carried out more holistically, and hence achieving more valid environmental simulations from an urban  dwelling point of view. The outdoor-indoor coupling methodology is currently modelled on a digital work flow among three key software platforms: (1 ENVImet for urban neighbourhood outdoor simulation, (2 Ecotect for building indoor simulation, (3 uCampus for combined outdoor-indoor 3D visualisation modelling of an entire urban neighbourhood including its individual buildings. A case study of a new neighbourhood development proposed for New Cairo is presented to demonstrate how indoor environmental simulation can be grounded on outdoor environmental simulation of the urban neighbourhood. Graphical outputs from this outdoorindoor coupling approach to neighbourhood simulation can be further brought together onto a Web-based 3D virtual reality modelling platform to enable wider accessibility.

  3. Modelling and simulation of concrete leaching under outdoor exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiopu, Nicoleta; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia; Jayr, Emmanuel; Mehu, Jacques; Moszkowicz, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a demand regarding the assessment of release of dangerous substances from construction products was raised by European Commission which has issued the Mandate M/366 addressed to CEN. This action is in relation with the Essential Requirement No. 3 'Hygiene, Health and Environment' of the Construction Products Directive (89/106/EC). The potential hazard for environment and health may arise in different life cycle stages of a construction product. During the service life stage, the release of substances due to contact with the rain water is the main potential hazard source, as a consequence of the leaching phenomenon. The objective of this paper is to present the development of a coupled chemical-transport model for the case of a concrete based construction product, i.e. concrete paving slabs, exposed to rain water under outdoor exposure conditions. The development of the model is based on an iterative process of comparing the experimental results with the simulated results up to an acceptable fit. The experiments were conducted at laboratory scale (equilibrium and dynamic leaching tests) and field scale. The product was exposed for one year in two types of leaching scenarios under outdoor conditions, 'runoff' and 'stagnation', and the element release was monitored. The model was calibrated using the experimental data obtained at laboratory scale and validated against measured field data, by taking into account the specific rain water balance and the atmospheric CO 2 uptake as input parameters. The numerical tool used in order to model and simulate the leaching behaviour was PHREEQC, coupled with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) thermodynamic data base. The simulation results are satisfying and the paper demonstrates the feasibility of the modelling approach for the leaching behaviour assessment of concrete type construction materials

  4. A multiple-fan active control wind tunnel for outdoor wind speed and direction simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Ying; Meng, Qing-Hao; Luo, Bing; Zeng, Ming

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a new type of active controlled multiple-fan wind tunnel. The wind tunnel consists of swivel plates and arrays of direct current fans, and the rotation speed of each fan and the shaft angle of each swivel plate can be controlled independently for simulating different kinds of outdoor wind fields. To measure the similarity between the simulated wind field and the outdoor wind field, wind speed and direction time series of two kinds of wind fields are recorded by nine two-dimensional ultrasonic anemometers, and then statistical properties of the wind signals in different time scales are analyzed based on the empirical mode decomposition. In addition, the complexity of wind speed and direction time series is also investigated using multiscale entropy and multivariate multiscale entropy. Results suggest that the simulated wind field in the multiple-fan wind tunnel has a high degree of similarity with the outdoor wind field.

  5. School-Based Experiential Outdoor Education: A Neglected Necessity

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Joan K.; Williams, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    In this research study, we hear the voices of middle school students, preservice teachers, and practicing middle school teachers in support of school-based experiential outdoor education. The benefits of engaging youth in memorably relevant learning, immersing them in physically active, field-based education, and providing them with authentic,…

  6. The latest trends in nature-based outdoor recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell

    2008-01-01

    Considerable interest in better understanding current trends in nature-based outdoor recreation followed publication of Richard Louv’s book, Last Child in the Woods, and a recent paper by Oliver R.W. Pergams and Patricia A. Zaradic titled “Evidence for a Fundamental and Pervasive Shift away from Nature-Based Recreation.”

  7. Simulation of the outdoor energy efficiency of an autonomous solar kit based on meteorological data for a site in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzaki, Mohammed Moustafa, E-mail: bouzaki-physique1@yahoo.fr; Chadel, Meriem [University of Tlemcen URMER, 13000 (Algeria); Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France); Benyoucef, Boumediene [University of Tlemcen URMER, 13000 (Algeria); Petit, Pierre; Aillerie, Michel, E-mail: aillerie@metz.supelec.fr [Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France)

    2016-07-25

    This contribution analyzes the energy provided by a solar kit dedicated to autonomous usage and installed in Central Europe (Longitude 6.10°; Latitude 49.21° and Altitude 160 m) by using the simulation software PVSYST. We focused the analysis on the effect of temperature and solar irradiation on the I-V characteristic of a commercial PV panel. We also consider in this study the influence of charging and discharging the battery on the generator efficiency. Meteorological data are integrated into the simulation software. As expected, the solar kit provides an energy varying all along the year with a minimum in December. In the proposed approach, we consider this minimum as the lowest acceptable energy level to satisfy the use. Thus for the other months, a lost in the available renewable energy exists if no storage system is associated.

  8. Safety Cultures in Water-Based Outdoor Activities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren; Arvidsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the study Safe in Nature (Tryg i naturen) in which the aim was to analyze and discuss risk and safety related to outdoor recreation in the coastal regions of Denmark. A cultural perspective is applied to risk management and the safety cultures related to three selected...... water-based outdoor activities: small boat fishing, sea kayaking, and kite surfing. The theoretical framework used was cultural analysis and the methodological approach was mixed methods using case studies with survey and qualitative interviews. The study indicates that safety is a complex matter...... and that safety culture can be understood as the sum and interaction among six categories. The safety culture is closely related to the activity and differs widely among activities. We suggest a broad perspective be taken on risk management wherein risk and safety can be managed at different levels. Small boat...

  9. Is outdoor vector control needed for malaria elimination? An individual-based modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Müller, Günter C; Marshall, John M; Arheart, Kristopher L; Qualls, Whitney A; Hlaing, WayWay M; Schlein, Yosef; Traore, Sekou F; Doumbia, Seydou; Beier, John C

    2017-07-03

    Residual malaria transmission has been reported in many areas even with adequate indoor vector control coverage, such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). The increased insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes has resulted in reduced efficacy of the widely used indoor tools and has been linked with an increase in outdoor malaria transmission. There are considerations of incorporating outdoor interventions into integrated vector management (IVM) to achieve malaria elimination; however, more information on the combination of tools for effective control is needed to determine their utilization. A spatial individual-based model was modified to simulate the environment and malaria transmission activities in a hypothetical, isolated African village setting. LLINs and outdoor attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) stations were used as examples of indoor and outdoor interventions, respectively. Different interventions and lengths of efficacy periods were tested. Simulations continued for 420 days, and each simulation scenario was repeated 50 times. Mosquito populations, entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs), probabilities of local mosquito extinction, and proportion of time when the annual EIR was reduced below one were compared between different intervention types and efficacy periods. In the village setting with clustered houses, the combinational intervention of 50% LLINs plus outdoor ATSBs significantly reduced mosquito population and EIR in short term, increased the probability of local mosquito extinction, and increased the time when annual EIR is less than one per person compared to 50% LLINs alone; outdoor ATSBs alone significantly reduced mosquito population in short term, increased the probability of mosquito extinction, and increased the time when annual EIR is less than one compared to 50% LLINs alone, but there was no significant difference in EIR in short term between 50% LLINs and outdoor ATSBs. In the village setting with dispersed houses, the

  10. Simulation of global warming effect on outdoor thermal comfort conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshan, G.R.; Ranjbar, F. [Univ. of Tehran (IR). Dept. of Physical Geography; Orosa, J.A. [Univ. of A Coruna (Spain). Dept. of Energy

    2010-07-01

    In the coming decades, global warming and increase in temperature, in different regions of the world, may change indoor and outdoor thermal comfort conditions and human health. The aim of this research was to study the effects of global warming on thermal comfort conditions in indoor ambiences in Iran. To study the increase in temperature, model for assessment of greenhouse-gas induced climate change scenario generator compound model has been used together with four scenarios and to estimate thermal comfort conditions, adaptive model of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers has been used. In this study, Iran was divided into 30 zones, outdoor conditions were obtained using meteorological data of 80 climatological stations and changes in neutral comfort conditions in 2025, 2050, 2075 and 2100 were predicted. In accordance with each scenario, findings from this study showed that temperature in the 30 zones will increase by 2100 to between 3.4 C and 5.6 C. In the coming decades and in the 30 studied zones, neutral comfort temperature will increase and be higher and more intense in the central and desert zones of Iran. The low increase in this temperature will be connected to the coastal areas of the Caspian and Oman Sea in southeast Iran. This increase in temperature will be followed by a change in thermal comfort and indoor energy consumption from 8.6 % to 13.1 % in air conditioning systems. As a result, passive methods as thermal inertia are proposed as a possible solution.

  11. Application of computational fluid dynamics in building performance simulation for the outdoor environment: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E.; Stathopoulos, T.; Carmeliet, J.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the application of CFD in building performance simulation for the outdoor environment, focused on four topics: (1) pedestrian wind environment around buildings, (2) wind-driven rain on building facades, (3) convective heat transfer coefficients at exterior building

  12. Development of an Outdoor Temperature-Based Control Algorithm for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tang, Yihuan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Smart ventilation systems use controls to ventilate more during those periods that provide either an energy or IAQ advantage (or both) and less during periods that provide a dis advantage. Using detailed building simulations, this study addresses one of the simplest and lowest cost types of smart controllers —outdoor temperature- based control. If the outdoor temperature falls below a certain cut- off, the fan is simply turned off. T he main principle of smart ventilation used in this study is to shift ventilation from time periods with large indoor -outdoor temperature differences, to periods where these differences are smaller, and their energy impacts are expected to be less. Energy and IAQ performance are assessed relative to a base case of a continuously operated ventilation fan sized to comply with ASHRAE 62.2-2013 whole house ventilation requirements. In order to satisfy 62.2-2013, annual pollutant exposure must be equivalent between the temperature controlled and continuous fan cases. This requires ventilation to be greater than 62.2 requirements when the ventilation system operates. This is achieved by increasing the mechanical ventilation system air flow rates.

  13. Radiological dispersal device outdoor simulation test: Cesium chloride particle characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Don, E-mail: lee.sangdon@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Snyder, Emily G.; Willis, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Fischer, Robert; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Viani, Brian [Simbol Mining Corp., Pleasanton, CA 94566 (United States); Drake, John [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); MacKinney, John [U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Particles were generated from the detonation of simulated radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) using non-radioactive CsCl powder and explosive C4. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles were characterized. Two RDD simulation tests were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: one of the simulated RDDs was positioned 1 m above a steel plate and the other was partially buried in soil. Particles were collected with filters at a distance of 150 m from the origin of the RDD device, and particle mass concentrations were monitored to identify the particle plume intensity using real time particle samplers. Particles collected on filters were analyzed via computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (CCSEM/EDX) to determine their size distribution, morphology, and chemical constituents. This analysis showed that particles generated by the detonation of explosives can be associated with other materials (e.g., soil) that are in close proximity to the RDD device and that the morphology and chemical makeup of the particles change depending on the interactions of the RDD device with the surrounding materials.

  14. Radiological dispersal device outdoor simulation test: Cesium chloride particle characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don; Snyder, Emily G.; Willis, Robert; Fischer, Robert; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Sutton, Mark; Viani, Brian; Drake, John; MacKinney, John

    2010-01-01

    Particles were generated from the detonation of simulated radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) using non-radioactive CsCl powder and explosive C4. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles were characterized. Two RDD simulation tests were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: one of the simulated RDDs was positioned 1 m above a steel plate and the other was partially buried in soil. Particles were collected with filters at a distance of 150 m from the origin of the RDD device, and particle mass concentrations were monitored to identify the particle plume intensity using real time particle samplers. Particles collected on filters were analyzed via computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (CCSEM/EDX) to determine their size distribution, morphology, and chemical constituents. This analysis showed that particles generated by the detonation of explosives can be associated with other materials (e.g., soil) that are in close proximity to the RDD device and that the morphology and chemical makeup of the particles change depending on the interactions of the RDD device with the surrounding materials.

  15. Parameter extraction and estimation based on the PV panel outdoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental data obtained are validated and compared with the estimated results obtained through simulation based on the manufacture's data sheet. The simulation is based on the Newton-Raphson iterative method in MATLAB environment. This approach aids the computation of the PV module's parameters at any ...

  16. Entering the Fray: The Role of Outdoor Education in Providing Nature-Based Experiences that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Robbie

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on different bodies of knowledge in order to review the potential role of outdoor education in providing nature-based experiences that might contribute to sustainable living. A pragmatic perspective is adopted to critique what outdoor education is, and then what it might be. Phenomenology is used to challenge the belief that…

  17. A constraints-based approach to the acquisition of expertise in outdoor adventure sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, Keith; Brymer, Eric; Seifert, Ludovic; Orth, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    A constraints-based framework enables a new understanding of expertise in outdoor adventure sports by considering performer-environment couplings through emergent and self-organizing behaviours in relation to interacting constraints. Expert adventure athletes, conceptualized as complex, dynamical

  18. Comparisons between physics-based, engineering, and statistical learning models for outdoor sound propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Carl R; Reznicek, Nathan J; Wilson, D Keith; Pettit, Chris L; Nykaza, Edward T

    2016-05-01

    Many outdoor sound propagation models exist, ranging from highly complex physics-based simulations to simplified engineering calculations, and more recently, highly flexible statistical learning methods. Several engineering and statistical learning models are evaluated by using a particular physics-based model, namely, a Crank-Nicholson parabolic equation (CNPE), as a benchmark. Narrowband transmission loss values predicted with the CNPE, based upon a simulated data set of meteorological, boundary, and source conditions, act as simulated observations. In the simulated data set sound propagation conditions span from downward refracting to upward refracting, for acoustically hard and soft boundaries, and low frequencies. Engineering models used in the comparisons include the ISO 9613-2 method, Harmonoise, and Nord2000 propagation models. Statistical learning methods used in the comparisons include bagged decision tree regression, random forest regression, boosting regression, and artificial neural network models. Computed skill scores are relative to sound propagation in a homogeneous atmosphere over a rigid ground. Overall skill scores for the engineering noise models are 0.6%, -7.1%, and 83.8% for the ISO 9613-2, Harmonoise, and Nord2000 models, respectively. Overall skill scores for the statistical learning models are 99.5%, 99.5%, 99.6%, and 99.6% for bagged decision tree, random forest, boosting, and artificial neural network regression models, respectively.

  19. Parametric Design of Outdoor Broadcasting Studio Based on Schema Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly demonstrates that the schema is an important way for the architect to cognize architecture form logic. It connects schema to algorithm of parametric design in order to seek the “algorithm schema” generation in parametric design of architecture. Meanwhile, this paper discusses the generative process and methods of the “algorithm schema” in parametric design of architecture by describing a case of outdoor broadcasting studio of Hunan Economic Radio. It also reveals the importance of “algorithm schema” for the cognition and architectural form logic generation.

  20. Estimating Outdoor Illumination Conditions Based on Detection of Dynamic Shadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus B.; Lal, Brajesh Behari

    2013-01-01

    into the image stream to achieve realistic Augmented Reality where the shading and the shadowing of virtual objects is consistent with the real scene. Other techniques require the presence of a known object, a light probe, in the scene for estimating illumination. The technique proposed here works in general......The paper proposes a technique for estimation outdoor illumination conditions in terms of sun and sky radiances directly from pixel values of dynamic shadows detected in video sequences produved by a commercial stereo camera. The technique is applied to the rendering of virtual object...

  1. The laboratory environmental algae pond simulator (LEAPS) photobioreactor: Validation using outdoor pond cultures of Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, M.; Williams, P.; Edmundson, S.; Chen, P.; Kruk, R.; Cullinan, V.; Crowe, B.; Lundquist, T.

    2017-09-01

    A bench-scale photobioreactor system, termed Laboratory Environmental Algae Pond Simulator (LEAPS), was designed and constructed to simulate outdoor pond cultivation for a wide range of geographical locations and seasons. The LEAPS consists of six well-mixed glass column photobioreactors sparged with CO2-enriched air to maintain a set-point pH, illuminated from above by a programmable multicolor LED lighting (0 to 2,500 µmol/m2-sec), and submerged in a temperature controlled water-bath (-2 °C to >60 °C). Measured incident light intensities and water temperatures deviated from the respective light and temperature set-points on average only 2.3% and 0.9%, demonstrating accurate simulation of light and temperature conditions measured in outdoor ponds. In order to determine whether microalgae strains cultured in the LEAPS exhibit the same linear phase biomass productivity as in outdoor ponds, Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina were cultured in the LEAPS bioreactors using light and temperature scripts measured previously in the respective outdoor pond studies. For Chlorella sorokiniana, the summer season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was 6.6% and 11.3% lower than in the respective outdoor ponds in Rimrock, Arizona, and Delhi, California; however, these differences were not statistically significant. For Nannochloropsis salina, the winter season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was statistically significantly higher (15.2%) during the 27 day experimental period than in the respective outdoor ponds in Tucson, Arizona. However, when considering only the first 14 days, the LEAPS biomass productivity was only 9.2% higher than in the outdoor ponds, a difference shown to be not statistically significant. Potential reasons for the positive or negative divergence in LEAPS performance, relative to outdoor ponds, are discussed. To demonstrate the utility of the LEAPS in predicting productivity, two other strains – Scenedesmus obliquus and Stichococcus minor

  2. The effect of a school-based outdoor education program on Visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of an education programme developed based on the school-based outdoor education approach on the academic achievement of visual arts teachers, as well as their self-efficacy beliefs for using museums and the natural environment. The aim is likewise to explore the ...

  3. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  4. Laser-based pedestrian tracking in outdoor environments by multiple mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-29

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures.

  5. Case-Based Teaching of Fatal Incidents in Outdoor Education Teacher Preparation Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Chris; Brookes, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the use of case-based approaches to fatal incidents in outdoor education (OE) with a view to fatality prevention. Fatalities are rare in OE and therefore it is nearly impossible for teachers to learn how to avoid fatalities from their own past experiences. It is, however, possible to learn from the mistakes of others through…

  6. Seamless Indoor/Outdoor Positioning Handover for Location-Based Services in Streamspin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Wind, Rico; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    the delivery of truly ubiquitous location-based services by integrating GPS and Wi-Fi location fingerprinting. The paper puts focus on key aspects of the seamless handover between outdoor to indoor positioning. Several different handover solutions are presented,and their applicability is evaluated with respect...

  7. Location Based Services for Outdoor Ecological Learning System: Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Feng, Ruei-Ting; Li, Kun Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper aimed to demonstrate how location-based services were implemented in ubiquitous outdoor ecological learning system. In an elementary school in northern Taiwan, two fifth grade classes on an ecology project were randomly selected: The experimental group could access the ecological learning system on hand-held devices while the control…

  8. Outdoor experiential-based training: motivational and environmental influences affecting outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa (Birdie) High; Alan R. Graefe

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to go beyond the examination of the single construct of team building by measuring the impact of motivational and environmental factors on the effectiveness of an outdoor-based training (OBT) intervention. The study assessed the self-perceptions of trainee attitudes and attributes that influenced the constructs of motivation to learn,...

  9. Measurements of MIMO Indoor Channels at 1800 MHz with Multiple Indoor and Outdoor Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaldén Niklas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes several configurations for multiple base stations in indoor MIMO systems and compares their performance. The results are based on channel measurements realized with a MIMO testbed. The receiver was moved along several routes and floors on an office building. Both outdoor and indoor locations are considered for the transmitters or base stations, which allow the analysis of not only indoor but also outdoor-to-indoor environment. The use of 2 base stations with different system level combinations of the two is analyzed. We show that the configuration with base station selection provides almost as good performance as a full water-filling scheme when the 2 base stations are placed at different locations. Also the spatial correlation properties for the different configurations are analyzed and the importance of considering path loss when evaluating capacity is highlighted.

  10. Relationship Between Air Quality and Outdoor Exercise Behavior in China: a Novel Mobile-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Zhu, Li; Xu, Yaping; Lyu, Jiaying; Imm, Kellie; Yang, Lin

    2017-08-01

    Based on data collected from an exercise app, the study aims to provide empirical evidence on the relationship between air quality and patterns of outdoor exercise in China. Objective outdoor exercise data spanning 160 days were collected from 153 users of an exercise app, Tulipsport in China. Each exercise mode (running, biking, and walking, respectively) was organized into five air quality categories based on Air Quality Index (AQI): excellent, good, mild pollution, moderate pollution, and serious pollution. Key parameters of each app user were calculated and analyzed: the total number of exercise bouts, the average duration, and the average distance of each exercise mode in each air quality category. Multivariate analyses of variance indicate that the users were less likely to participate in outdoor running, biking, and walking (F = 24.16, p air pollution increased. However, there is no difference in terms of average distance and duration of exercise across different air pollution categories. People's participation in outdoor exercise is impeded by air pollution severity, but they stick to their exercise routines once exercise is initiated. Although people should protect themselves from health damages caused by exercising under pollution, the decreases in physical activity associated with air pollution may also pose an indirect risk to public health. The interactive relationship between air quality, exercise, and health warrants more empirical and interdisciplinary explorations.

  11. Nature-based outdoor recreation trends and wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; Carter Betz; Gary T. Green

    2008-01-01

    Wilderness and other public land management agencies, both federal and state, have been feeling a pinch. It seems this pinch may partly be in response to a growing perception, or perhaps misperception,that nature-based, especially wildland recreation, is on the decline. This perception has been getting a lot of media attention of late. Some of us who have done research...

  12. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Alexandre; Monahan, Frank J; Moloney, Aidan P; Earley, Bernadette; Black, Alistair D; Campion, Deirdre P; Englishby, Tanya; Reilly, Petrina; O'Doherty, John; Sweeney, Torres

    2010-03-31

    Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P outdoor animals (P outdoor animals with elevated levels of serum pepsinogen (P outdoor animals in comparison to the indoor animals. Lower levels of copper and iodine were measured in the outdoor animals in comparison to indoor animals (P < 0.001). Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.

  13. Learned Compact Local Feature Descriptor for Tls-Based Geodetic Monitoring of Natural Outdoor Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojcic, Z.; Zhou, C.; Wieser, A.

    2018-05-01

    The advantages of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for geodetic monitoring of man-made and natural objects are not yet fully exploited. Herein we address one of the open challenges by proposing feature-based methods for identification of corresponding points in point clouds of two or more epochs. We propose a learned compact feature descriptor tailored for point clouds of natural outdoor scenes obtained using TLS. We evaluate our method both on a benchmark data set and on a specially acquired outdoor dataset resembling a simplified monitoring scenario where we successfully estimate 3D displacement vectors of a rock that has been displaced between the scans. We show that the proposed descriptor has the capacity to generalize to unseen data and achieves state-of-the-art performance while being time efficient at the matching step due the low dimension.

  14. INFORMATION SYSTEM SALES OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS-BASED ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutedi Sutedi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ornamental plants have fairly high commercial value and much sought after by various circles. The prospect is in the business of ornamental plants can be said very brilliant and profitable. Where is in the business of ornamental plants can bring about advantages not the least. The business struggled with ornamental plants can have very favorable prospects for the long term. There are an awful lot of various kinds of ornamental plants that we can choose to use as ornaments to beautify residential home. The ornamental plants can be used as indoor ornamental plants placed in homes or can also be used as outdoor ornamental plants grown in the garden. Ornamental plants while more popular community-wide information system for ornamental plant however is currently designed specifically and not many people who know the information on price and specs or type of indoor and outdoor ornamental plants so that the need for sales information system of indoor and outdoor ornamental plants-based online. With the sales information system of Indoor and Outdoor ornamental plants-based online is expected to facilitate the customers, business processes that occur in the company's units, unit – units that exist within the system a functioning production units as the unit working on/produce ornamental plants. With the utilization of the system marketing media, promoting, finding new customers, the sales process, recapitulation payment of ornamental plants, control the conditions of stock products, development and delivery of products to customers including convincing the product gets to the customer

  15. Laser-Based and Ultra-Portable Gas Sensor for Indoor and Outdoor Formaldehyde (HCHO) Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutter, J. D.; Allen, N.; Paul, J.; Thiebaud, J.; So, S.; Scherer, J. J.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    While used as a key tracer of oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, formaldehyde (HCHO) is also a known human carcinogen and is listed and regulated by the United States EPA as a hazardous air pollutant. Combustion processes and photochemical oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the major outdoor sources of HCHO, and building materials and household products are ubiquitous sources of indoor HCHO. Due to the ease with which humans can be exposed to HCHO, it is imperative to monitor levels of both indoor and outdoor HCHO exposure in both short and long-term studies.High-quality direct and indirect methods of quantifying HCHO mixing ratios exist, but instrument size and user-friendliness can make them cumbersome or impractical for certain types of indoor and long-term outdoor measurements. In this study, we present urban HCHO measurements by using a new, commercially-available, ppbv-level accurate HCHO gas sensor (Aeris Technologies' MIRA Pico VOC Laser-Based Gas Analyzer) that is highly portable (29 cm x 20 cm x 10 cm), lightweight (3 kg), easy-to-use, and has low power (15 W) consumption. Using an ultra-compact multipass cell, an absorption path length of 13 m is achieved, resulting in a sensor capable of achieving ppbv/s sensitivity levels with no significant spectral interferences.To demonstrate the utility of the gas sensor for emissions measurements, a GPS was attached to the sensor's housing in order to map mobile HCHO measurements in real-time around the Boston, Massachusetts, metro area. Furthermore, the sensor was placed in residential and industrial environments to show its usefulness for indoor and outdoor pollution measurements. Lastly, we show the feasibility of using the HCHO sensor (or a network of them) in long-term monitoring stations for hazardous air pollutants.

  16. Using infrared HOG-based pedestrian detection for outdoor autonomous searching UAV with embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yanhua; Mei, Yanying; Chu, Hongyu; Chang, Zhiyuan; He, Yuxuan; Zhan, Huayi

    2018-04-01

    Pedestrian detection (PD) is an important application domain in computer vision and pattern recognition. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have become a major field of research in recent years. In this paper, an algorithm for a robust pedestrian detection method based on the combination of the infrared HOG (IR-HOG) feature and SVM is proposed for highly complex outdoor scenarios on the basis of airborne IR image sequences from UAV. The basic flow of our application operation is as follows. Firstly, the thermal infrared imager (TAU2-336), which was installed on our Outdoor Autonomous Searching (OAS) UAV, is used for taking pictures of the designated outdoor area. Secondly, image sequences collecting and processing were accomplished by using high-performance embedded system with Samsung ODROID-XU4 and Ubuntu as the core and operating system respectively, and IR-HOG features were extracted. Finally, the SVM is used to train the pedestrian classifier. Experiment show that, our method shows promising results under complex conditions including strong noise corruption, partial occlusion etc.

  17. Low VHF Channel Measurements and Simulations in Indoor and Outdoor Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Transactions on. 2002;50(5):591-599. 22. Nerguizian C, Despins C, Affes S, Djadel M. Radio-channel characterization of an underground mine at 2.4 ghz...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. viii 1. Introduction Reliable wireless communication is of paramount importance for many important civilian and military...report, we study near-ground, wireless channel modeling in the lower VHF band for indoor and indoor/outdoor scenarios, drawing from extensive propagation

  18. Preliminary simulation research of driver behaviour in response to outdoor advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    Targosiński Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Advertisements placed near roads can pose a hazard to road safety because they attract the driver’s attention. Many attempts to describe and reduce this impact have been done. However, existing regulations treat this problem differently in different countries which demonstrates the significant difficulties in defining and investigating the impact factors of advertisements on driver behaviour. Pilot studies have been done using the eye-tracker and vehicle simulator. Based on the analysis of dr...

  19. The frequency of outdoor play for preschool age children cared for at home-based child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Zhou, Chuan; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2012-01-01

    Given that more than 34% of U.S. children are cared for in home-based child care settings and outdoor play is associated with physical activity and other health benefits, we sought to characterize the outdoor play frequency of preschoolers cared for at home-based child care settings and factors associated with outdoor play. Cross-sectional study of 1900 preschoolers (representing approximately 862,800 children) cared for in home-based child care settings (including relative and nonrelative care) using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. Only 50% of home-based child care providers reported taking the child outside to walk or play at least once/day. More than one-third of all children did not go outside to play daily with either their parent(s) or home-based child care provider. There were increased odds of going outside daily for children cared for by nonrelatives in the child's home compared with care from a relative. Children with ≥3 regular playmates had greater odds of being taken outdoors by either the parents or child care provider. We did not find statistically significant associations between other child level (age, sex, screen-time), family level (highest education in household, mother's race, employment, exercise frequency), and child care level (hours in care, provider's educational attainment, perception of neighborhood safety) factors and frequency of outdoor play. At a national level, the frequency of outdoor play for preschoolers cared for in home-based child care settings is suboptimal. Further study and efforts to increase outdoor playtime for children in home-based child care settings are needed. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Outdoor altitude stabilization of QuadRotor based on type-2 fuzzy and fuzzy PID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, H.; Yusuf, Y. G.; Kristanto, C.; Haryanto, L.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a design of altitude stabilization of QuadRotor based on type-2 fuzzy and fuzzy PID. This practical design is implemented outdoor. Barometric and sonar sensor were used in this experiment as an input for the controller YoHe. The throttle signal as a control input was provided by the controller to leveling QuadRotor in particular altitude and known well as altitude stabilization. The parameter of type-2 fuzzy and fuzzy PID was tuned in several heights to get the best control parameter for any height. Type-2 fuzzy produced better result than fuzzy PID but had a slow response in the beginning.

  1. Exposure assessment of mobile phone base station radiation in an outdoor environment using sequential surrogate modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Rainfall Intensity Effects on 1–13 GHz UWB-Based 5G System for Outdoor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Suryana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a research contribution on tropical outdoor channel characterization in 1–13 GHz band for 5G systems. This 1–13 GHz ultra-wideband (UWB channel characterization is formulated with rain intensity as the most important variable, from 20 mm/h to 200 mm/h. Tropical rain will cause pulse broadening and distorts the transmitted symbols, so the probability of symbol errors will increase. In this research, the bit error rate (BER performance evaluation is done using both matched filtering or correlator-based receivers. At no rain conditions, BER 10−6 will be attained at signal to noise ratio (SNR 5 dB, but at rainfall intensity 200 mm/h, the BER will fall to 10−2 for matched filter and 5×10-2 for correlator-based receivers. For improving the BER performance, an adaptive nonlinear phase equalizer is proposed which adopts multiple allpass biquad infinite impulse response (IIR filters combined with low-order finite impulse response (FIR filter to mitigate the nonlinearity phase and differential attenuation of magnitude responses due to antenna and tropical outdoor UWB channel effects. Our simulation results show that the proposed equalizer has worked successfully with BER 10−6 on the rain rate that is exceeded for 0.01% of the time (R0.01 rain intensity or 99.99% availability. In addition, at rainfall rate 120 mm/h, the proposed nonlinear phase equalizer can give 9 dB signal improvement.

  3. Outdoor Illegal Construction Identification Algorithm Based on 3D Point Cloud Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Lu; Guo, Baolong

    2018-03-01

    Recently, various illegal constructions occur significantly in our surroundings, which seriously restrict the orderly development of urban modernization. The 3D point cloud data technology is used to identify the illegal buildings, which could address the problem above effectively. This paper proposes an outdoor illegal construction identification algorithm based on 3D point cloud segmentation. Initially, in order to save memory space and reduce processing time, a lossless point cloud compression method based on minimum spanning tree is proposed. Then, a ground point removing method based on the multi-scale filtering is introduced to increase accuracy. Finally, building clusters on the ground can be obtained using a region growing method, as a result, the illegal construction can be marked. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified using a publicly data set collected from the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS).

  4. Preliminary simulation research of driver behaviour in response to outdoor advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Targosiński Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertisements placed near roads can pose a hazard to road safety because they attract the driver’s attention. Many attempts to describe and reduce this impact have been done. However, existing regulations treat this problem differently in different countries which demonstrates the significant difficulties in defining and investigating the impact factors of advertisements on driver behaviour. Pilot studies have been done using the eye-tracker and vehicle simulator. Based on the analysis of driver perception in a programmed and repeatable environment an attempt was made to select key factors influencing their attention in terms of the content of advertisements, the size and location in relation to the road and the personality of drivers.

  5. Evaluating design-based formative assessment practices in outdoor science teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmeyer, Rikke; Stevenson, Matthew Peter; Bentsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Research in formative assessment often pays close attention to the strategies which can be used by teachers. However, less emphasis in the literature seems to have been paid to study the application of formative assessment designs in practice. In this paper, we argue...... that a formative assessment design that we call Eva-Mapping, which is developed on the principles of design-based research, can be a productive starting point for disseminating and further developing formative assessment practices in outdoor science teaching. Sample, design and methods: We conducted an evaluation...... of the design, based on video-elicited focus group interviews with two groups of experienced science teachers. Both groups consisted of teachers who taught science outside the classroom on a regular basis. These groups watched identical video sequences which were recorded during lessons in which teachers...

  6. Is outdoor work associated with elevated rates of cerebrovascular disease mortality? A cohort study based on iron-ore mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björ, Ove; Jonsson, Håkan; Damber, Lena; Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr

    2016-01-01

    A cohort study that examined iron ore mining found negative associations between cumulative working time employed underground and several outcomes, including mortality of cerebrovascular diseases. In this cohort study, and using the same group of miners, we examined whether work in an outdoor environment could explain elevated cerebrovascular disease rates. This study was based on a Swedish iron ore mining cohort consisting of 13,000 workers. Poisson regression models were used to generate smoothed estimates of standardized mortality ratios and adjusted rate ratios, both models by cumulative exposure time in outdoor work. The adjusted rate ratio between employment classified as outdoor work ≥25 years and outdoor work 0-4 years was 1.62 (95 % CI 1.07-2.42). The subgroup underground work ≥15 years deviated most in occurrence of cerebrovascular disease mortality compared with the external reference population: SMR (0.70 (95 % CI 0.56-0.85)). Employment in outdoor environments was associated with elevated rates of cerebrovascular disease mortality. In contrast, work in tempered underground employment was associated with a protecting effect.

  7. Outdoor Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  8. Outdoor Education and Mobile Learning: An Autobiographical Narrative Using Application-Based Information and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeff, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Although mobile learning using smartphones and applications or apps have the potential to inform and educate individuals in an outdoor environment, users may find that connectivity issues and basic knowledge of outdoor environments, including both physical and emotional, could be limited by what this technology provided. This study provided my…

  9. Place-Based Curriculum Making: Devising a Synthesis between Primary Geography and Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor learning provides children with an opportunity to experience the interdisciplinary nature of the real world through interactions with each other and the planet. Geographical enquiry involves exploring the outdoors in an investigative capacity. Space, place and sustainability are three core concepts in primary geography, although…

  10. Developing a Mobile Learning Management System for Outdoors Nature Science Activities Based on 5E Learning Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ah-Fur; Lai, Horng-Yih; Chuang, Wei-Hsiang; Wu, Zih-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Traditional outdoor learning activities such as inquiry-based learning in nature science encounter many dilemmas. Due to prompt development of mobile computing and widespread of mobile devices, mobile learning becomes a big trend on education. The main purpose of this study is to develop a mobile-learning management system for overcoming the…

  11. Aerosol transport simulations in indoor and outdoor environments using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landazuri, Andrea C.

    This dissertation focuses on aerosol transport modeling in occupational environments and mining sites in Arizona using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The impacts of human exposure in both environments are explored with the emphasis on turbulence, wind speed, wind direction and particle sizes. Final emissions simulations involved the digitalization process of available elevation contour plots of one of the mining sites to account for realistic topographical features. The digital elevation map (DEM) of one of the sites was imported to COMSOL MULTIPHYSICSRTM for subsequent turbulence and particle simulations. Simulation results that include realistic topography show considerable deviations of wind direction. Inter-element correlation results using metal and metalloid size resolved concentration data using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) under given wind speeds and directions provided guidance on groups of metals that coexist throughout mining activities. Groups between Fe-Mg, Cr-Fe, Al-Sc, Sc-Fe, and Mg-Al are strongly correlated for unrestricted wind directions and speeds, suggesting that the source may be of soil origin (e.g. ore and tailings); also, groups of elements where Cu is present, in the coarse fraction range, may come from mechanical action mining activities and saltation phenomenon. Besides, MOUDI data under low wind speeds (Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used as a source apportionment tool to identify areas that have an effect over specific sampling points and susceptible regions under certain meteorological conditions, and these conclusions can be supported with inter-element correlation matrices and lead isotope analysis, especially since there is limited access to the mining sites. Additional results concluded that grid adaption is a powerful tool that allows to refine specific regions that require lots of detail and therefore better resolve flow detail, provides higher number of locations with monotonic convergence than the

  12. The effect of a school-based outdoor education program on Visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outdoor education in teaching and learning is being increasingly used as an ... development of the students' problem-solving and higher order thinking ...... Figure 6 Teacher profiles aiming at achieving more effective visual arts education with ...

  13. Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerts, Sam, E-mail: sam.aerts@intec.ugent.be; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-10-15

    In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information—inside hotspots or in search of them—based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2 dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96. -- Highlights: • We present an

  14. Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information—inside hotspots or in search of them—based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km 2 . In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2 dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96. -- Highlights: • We present an

  15. Evaluating Outdoor Water Use Demand under Changing Climatic and Demographic Conditions: An Agent-based Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanta, L.; Berglund, E. Z.; Soh, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Outdoor water-use for landscape and irrigation constitutes a significant end-use in total residential water demand. In periods of water shortages, utilities may reduce garden demands by implementing irrigation system audits, rebate programs, local ordinances, and voluntary or mandatory water-use restrictions. Because utilities do not typically record outdoor and indoor water-uses separately, the effects of policies for reducing garden demands cannot be readily calculated. The volume of water required to meet garden demands depends on the housing density, lawn size, type of vegetation, climatic conditions, efficiency of garden irrigation systems, and consumer water-use behaviors. Many existing outdoor demand estimation methods are deterministic and do not include consumer responses to conservation campaigns. In addition, mandatory restrictions may have a substantial impact on reducing outdoor demands, but the effectiveness of mandatory restrictions depends on the timing and the frequency of restrictions, in addition to the distribution of housing density and consumer types within a community. This research investigates a garden end-use model by coupling an agent-based modeling approach and a mechanistic-stochastic water demand model to create a methodology for estimating garden demand and evaluating demand reduction policies. The garden demand model is developed for two water utilities, using a diverse data sets, including residential customer billing records, outdoor conservation programs, frequency and type of mandatory water-use restrictions, lot size distribution, population growth, and climatic data. A set of garden irrigation parameter values, which are based on the efficiency of irrigation systems and irrigation habits of consumers, are determined for a set of conservation ordinances and restrictions. The model parameters are then validated using customer water usage data from the participating water utilities. A sensitivity analysis is conducted for garden

  16. Evaluation of outdoor human thermal sensation of local climate zones based on long-term database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, János; Skarbit, Nóra; Gál, Tamás

    2018-02-01

    This study gives a comprehensive picture on the diurnal and seasonal general outdoor human thermal sensation levels in different urban quarters based on long-term (almost 3 years) data series from urban and rural areas of Szeged, Hungary. It is supplemented with a case study dealing with an extreme heat wave period which is more and more frequent in the last decades in the study area. The intra-urban comparison is based on a thermal aspect classification of the surface, namely, the local climate zone (LCZ) system, on an urban meteorological station network and on the utilization of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) comfort index with categories calibrated to the local population. The selected stations represent sunlit areas well inside the LCZ areas. The results show that the seasonal and annual average magnitudes of the thermal load exerted by LCZs in the afternoon and evening follow their LCZ numbers. It is perfectly in line with the LCZ concept originally concentrating only on air temperature ( T air) differences between the zones. Our results justified the subdivision of urban areas into LCZs and give significant support to the application possibilities of the LCZ concept as a broader term covering different thermal phenomena.

  17. Thin-Film LSCs Based on PMMA Nanohybrid Coatings: Device Optimization and Outdoor Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. El-Bashir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the design optimization of thin-film luminescent solar concentrators (TLSCs based on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA/silica nanohybrid films doped with coumarin dyestuffs specialized in coloring plastics. Two designs of TLSCs had been prepared and characterized. The first consists of a transparent nanohybrid layer coated on a fluorescent PMMA substrate. The second design is the ordinary configuration in which fluorescent nanohybrid layer is coated on a transparent PMMA substrate. The investigation of the spectral properties and efficiency parameters recommended the best solar energy conversion efficiency for the second design. The outdoor performance of optimized TLSC was also evaluated under clear sky conditions of Riyadh city, and the hourly values of the optical efficiency, ηopt, were calculated for one year. The best performance was achieved in summer since the short circuit current for PV cell was doubled after being attached to TLSC and the value of ηopt reached 40% which is higher than other values recorded before due to the abundant solar energy potential in the Arabian Peninsula.

  18. Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information-inside hotspots or in search of them-based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km2. In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Is outdoor work associated with elevated rates of cerebrovascular disease mortality? : a cohort study based on iron-ore mining

    OpenAIRE

    Björ, Ove; Jonsson, Håkan; Damber, Lena; Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A cohort study that examined iron ore mining found negative associations between cumulative working time employed underground and several outcomes, including mortality of cerebrovascular diseases. In this cohort study, and using the same group of miners, we examined whether work in an outdoor environment could explain elevated cerebrovascular disease rates. METHODS: This study was based on a Swedish iron ore mining cohort consisting of 13,000 workers. Poisson regression models wer...

  20. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly Petrina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. Results A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P P P P P P P Conclusion Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.

  1. Outdoor recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Bowker; Ashley Askew; H. Ken Cordell; John C. Bergstrom

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsBy 2060, the number of southern adults participating in each of 10 different popular outdoor recreation activities is projected to increase. Depending on future demographic, economic, land use, and population changes, the activity demonstrating the least growth in participants is hunting (8–25 percent). The activity projected to...

  2. Influence of outdoor running fatigue and medial tibial stress syndrome on accelerometer-based loading and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Kurt H; Seerden, Stefan; Venter, Rachel; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2018-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common overuse running injury with pathomechanics likely to be exaggerated by fatigue. Wearable accelerometry provides a novel alternative to assess biomechanical parameters continuously while running in more ecologically valid settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of outdoor running fatigue and MTSS on both dynamic loading and dynamic stability derived from trunk and tibial accelerometery. Runners with (n=14) and without (n=16) history of MTSS performed an outdoor fatigue run of 3200m. Accelerometer-based measures averaged per lap included dynamic loading of the trunk and tibia (i.e. axial peak positive acceleration, signal power magnitude, and shock attenuation) as well as dynamic trunk stability (i.e. tri-axial root mean square ratio, step and stride regularity, and sample entropy). Regression coefficients from generalised estimating equations were used to evaluate group by fatigue interactions. No evidence could be found for dynamic loading being higher with fatigue in runners with MTSS history (all measures p>0.05). One significant group by running fatigue interaction effect was detected for dynamic stability. Specifically, in MTSS only, decreases mediolateral sample entropy i.e. loss of complexity was associated with running fatigue (prunning state. We suggest that a practical outdoor running fatigue protocol that concurrently captures trunk accelerometry-based movement complexity warrants further prospective investigation as an in-situ screening tool for MTSS individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamic simulation and thermo-economic analysis of a PhotoVoltaic/Thermal collector heating system for an indoor–outdoor swimming pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonomano, Annamaria; De Luca, Giuseppina; Figaj, Rafal Damian; Vanoli, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A PV/T heating system for indoor–outdoor swimming pools is proposed. • A comparison among some thermal pool models available in literature is carried out. • Dynamic simulations of the thermal behavior of the swimming-pools are performed. • PV/T thermal energy is used to heat the swimming pool and for DHW production. • Energy and economic parametric analyses of the proposed system are presented. - Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of an innovative renewable energy plant serving an existing indoor/outdoor swimming pool located in Naples. The proposed solar hybrid system is designed in order to balance the remarkable energy demand of the swimming pool facility and to ensure suitable comfort conditions for swimmers. With the aim to accomplish such goals, the dynamic thermal behavior of the swimming pool was analyzed as a function of the thermo-hygrometric conditions of the indoor space and on the meteorological conditions of the pool site. In order to properly design and size the proposed renewable energy system, different thermal pool loss formulations for the calculation of the swimming pool thermal balance, in indoor and outdoor regimes, are adopted. The solar hybrid system consists of a water cooled photovoltaic/thermal collectors plant (PV/T), designed to meet a part of the facility demands of electricity and heat. Electricity is completely utilized by the facility, while the produced thermal energy is primarily used to meet the pool thermal demand and secondarily for sanitary hot water scopes. In order to carry out dynamic simulations and sensitivity analyses, the system performance is designed and dynamically simulated in TRNSYS environment. The developed simulation model enables the calculation of both the indoor and outdoor swimming pool thermal losses and the overall energy and economic system performance. Such results are obtained as a function of the thermo-hygrometric conditions of the environment, of the occupants and the

  4. Can we establish relationship between outdoor air ventilation and health based on the published epidemiological data?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrer, Paolo; Wargocki, Pawel; Fanetti, Annaclara

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate exposure control is prerogative for reducing the burden of disease (BOD) due to inadequate air quality indoors (IAQ). Ventilation with outdoor air is one of the available exposure control methods and is widespread. It is often assumed that this method will bring tangible effects...... exposures at various levels of ventilation were no characterized. It was observed that available data have many limitations, such as insufficient statistical power, incomplete data on the strength of pollution sources, diversity and variability of ventilation rates, at which effects have been seen...... exposures affecting health. It is concluded, that currently available epidemiological data do not provide sound basis for outdoor air ventilation requirements that can be universally applicable in different public and residential buildings to protect against health risks. They show minimum rates at which...

  5. Committed dose assessment based on background outdoor gamma exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luevano G, S.; Perez T, A.; Pinedo A, C.; Renteria V, M.; Carrillo F, J.; Montero C, M. E.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on populations health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the committed dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, annual effective dose, and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected along the Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Muller counter. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 n Gy h -1 . Results indicated that lifetime effective dose to inhabitants of Chihuahua City is in average of 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of activity concentrations in soil were 51.8, 73.1, and 1096.5 Bq kg -1 , of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of 232 Th, 226 Ra, and 40 K is to north, to north-center, and to south of city, respectively. In conclusion, natural background gamma dose received by inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to geological characteristics of the zone. (Author)

  6. Committed dose assessment based on background outdoor gamma exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luevano G, S.; Perez T, A.; Pinedo A, C.; Renteria V, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecologia, Perif. Francisco R. Almada Km 1, 31415 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Carrillo F, J.; Montero C, M. E., E-mail: mrenteria@uach.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31136 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on populations health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the committed dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, annual effective dose, and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected along the Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Muller counter. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 n Gy h{sup -1}. Results indicated that lifetime effective dose to inhabitants of Chihuahua City is in average of 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of activity concentrations in soil were 51.8, 73.1, and 1096.5 Bq kg{sup -1}, of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K is to north, to north-center, and to south of city, respectively. In conclusion, natural background gamma dose received by inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to geological characteristics of the zone. (Author)

  7. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luevano-Gurrola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  8. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-09-30

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population's health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h(-1). At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h(-1). Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg(-1), for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  9. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-01-01

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize. PMID:26437425

  10. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  11. Simulation-based surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evgeniou, Evgenios; Loizou, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The reduction in time for training at the workplace has created a challenge for the traditional apprenticeship model of training. Simulation offers the opportunity for repeated practice in a safe and controlled environment, focusing on trainees and tailored to their needs. Recent technological advances have led to the development of various simulators, which have already been introduced in surgical training. The complexity and fidelity of the available simulators vary, therefore depending on our recourses we should select the appropriate simulator for the task or skill we want to teach. Educational theory informs us about the importance of context in professional learning. Simulation should therefore recreate the clinical environment and its complexity. Contemporary approaches to simulation have introduced novel ideas for teaching teamwork, communication skills and professionalism. In order for simulation-based training to be successful, simulators have to be validated appropriately and integrated in a training curriculum. Within a surgical curriculum, trainees should have protected time for simulation-based training, under appropriate supervision. Simulation-based surgical education should allow the appropriate practice of technical skills without ignoring the clinical context and must strike an adequate balance between the simulation environment and simulators. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. The application of One Health concept to an outdoor problem-based learning activity for veterinary students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Tengku Rinalfi Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The One Health (OH approach, which seeks to bring together human and animal health, is particularly suited to the effective management of zoonotic diseases across both sectors. To overcome professional silos, OH needs to be taught at the undergraduate level. Here, we describe a problem-based learning activity using the OH approach that was conducted outdoors for 3rd-year veterinary students in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A total of 118 students, divided into two groups, completed the activity which spanned 1½ days at a deer park adjacent to a wilderness area. Students were asked to evaluate the activity using an online survey that had quantitative and qualitative components. Results: Response rate was 69.5%. The activity was rated excellent by 69.5% and good by 30.4%. Levels of satisfaction were high on a range of criteria. 97.5% of students intended to take action in their studies as a result of what they had learned. Conclusions: Delivery of an outdoor problem-based learning activity using OH approach was very successful in terms of participation, knowledge delivery and understanding, and the willingness of students to integrate OH into their future practice. For the improvement of future programs, the involvement of other disciplines (such as Medical, Biology, Biotechnology, Biomedical, and Public Health is being considered.

  13. Rescuing ethanol photosynthetic production of cyanobacteria in non-sterilized outdoor cultivations with a bicarbonate-based pH-rising strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi; Luan, Guodong; Tan, Xiaoming; Zhang, Haocui; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-01-01

    Ethanol photosynthetic production based on cyanobacteria cell factories utilizing CO 2 and solar energy provides an attractive solution for sustainable production of green fuels. However, the scaling up processes of cyanobacteria cell factories were usually threatened or even devastated by biocontaminations, which restricted biomass or products accumulations of cyanobacteria cells. Thus it is of great significance to develop reliable biocontamination-controlling strategies for promoting ethanol photosynthetic production in large scales. The scaling up process of a previously developed Synechocystis strain Syn-HZ24 for ethanol synthesis was severely inhibited and devastated by a specific contaminant, Pannonibacter phragmitetus , which overcame the growths of cyanobacteria cells and completely consumed the ethanol accumulation in the cultivation systems. Physiological analysis revealed that growths and ethanol-consuming activities of the contaminant were sensitive to alkaline conditions, while ethanol-synthesizing cyanobacteria strain Syn-HZ24 could tolerate alkaline pH conditions as high as 11.0, indicating that pH-increasing strategy might be a feasible approach for rescuing ethanol photosynthetic production in outdoor cultivation systems. Thus, we designed and evaluated a Bicarbonate-based Integrated Carbon Capture System (BICCS) derived pH-rising strategy to rescue the ethanol photosynthetic production in non-sterilized conditions. In lab scale artificially simulated systems, pH values of BG11 culture medium were maintained around 11.0 by 180 mM NaHCO 3 and air steam, under which the infection of Pannonibacter phragmitetus was significantly restricted, recovering ethanol production of Syn-HZ24 by about 80%. As for outdoor cultivations, ethanol photosynthetic production of Syn-HZ24 was also successfully rescued by the BICCS-derived pH-rising strategy, obtaining a final ethanol concentration of 0.9 g/L after 10 days cultivation. In this work, a novel product

  14. Predicting compliance with an information-based residential outdoor water conservation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Adam C.; Kyle, Gerard T.; Kaiser, Ronald A.

    2016-05-01

    Residential water conservation initiatives often involve some form of education or persuasion intended to change the attitudes and behaviors of residential consumers. However, the ability of these instruments to change attitudes toward conservation and their efficacy in affecting water use remains poorly understood. In this investigation the authors examine consumer attitudes toward complying with a persuasive water conservation program, the extent to which those attitudes predict compliance, and the influence of environmental contextual factors on outdoor water use. Results indicate that the persuasive program was successful in developing positive attitudes toward compliance, and that those attitudes predict water use. However, attitudinal variables explain a relatively small proportion of the variance in objectively measured water use behavior. Recommendations for policy are made stressing the importance of understanding both the effects of attitudes and environmental contextual factors in behavior change initiatives in the municipal water sector.

  15. Integrated algorithms for RFID-based multi-sensor indoor/outdoor positioning solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mi.; Retscher, G.; Zhang, K.

    2011-12-01

    Position information is very important as people need it almost everywhere all the time. However, it is a challenging task to provide precise positions indoor/outdoor seamlessly. Outdoor positioning has been widely studied and accurate positions can usually be achieved by well developed GPS techniques but these techniques are difficult to be used indoors since GPS signal reception is limited. The alternative techniques that can be used for indoor positioning include, to name a few, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), bluetooth and Ultra Wideband (UWB) etc.. However, all of these have limitations. The main objectives of this paper are to investigate and develop algorithms for a low-cost and portable indoor personal positioning system using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and its integration with other positioning systems. An RFID system consists of three components, namely a control unit, an interrogator and a transponder that transmits data and communicates with the reader. An RFID tag can be incorporated into a product, animal or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. In general, for RFID positioning in urban and indoor environments three different methods can be used, including cellular positioning, trilateration and location fingerprinting. In addition, the integration of RFID with other technologies is also discussed in this paper. A typical combination is to integrate RFID with relative positioning technologies such as MEMS INS to bridge the gaps between RFID tags for continuous positioning applications. Experiments are shown to demonstrate the improvements of integrating multiple sensors with RFID which can be employed successfully for personal positioning.

  16. Some Outdoor Educators' Experiences of Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Terry

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenological study presented in this paper attempts to determine, from outdoor educators, what it meant for them to be teaching outdoor education in Victorian secondary schools during 2004. In 1999, Lugg and Martin surveyed Victorian secondary schools to determine the types of outdoor education programs being run, the objectives of those…

  17. The Effect of a School-Based Outdoor Education Program on Visual Arts Teachers' Success and Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursen, Cigdem; Islek, Didem

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of an education programme developed based on the school-based outdoor education approach on the academic achievement of visual arts teachers, as well as their self-efficacy beliefs for using museums and the natural environment. The aim is likewise to explore the views of the teachers on the…

  18. A systemic examination of the introduction of an outdoor learning-based science curriculum to students, their teacher, and the school principal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunker, Molly Louis

    The outdoor environment has been under-utilized as a legitimate setting for learning within the formal school context, resulting in few examples of curriculum materials that integrate the indoors and outdoors. This systemic problem is explored holistically through investigation of key sets of players in the school system. The overarching research question is "What is the role and value of integrated outdoor learning experiences within the school system?" I developed an eight-week Earth systems science unit grounded in research-based design principles. One teacher enacted the unit with 111 sixth graders, whose learning gains and perspectives of the role and value of integrated outdoor learning experiences were explored using a mixed-methods approach in a pre-post study design, including individual interviews, and instruments regarding students' perspectives of the outdoor component of the curricular enactment. I conducted six interviews with the participating teacher and one interview with the school principal, to explore their perspectives of the role of outdoor learning experiences, and their personal roles in the unit. The main finding from this study was that the outdoor component of the curriculum enhanced coherence---connectedness across science concepts, activities, and learning environments. Higher ability students were more aware of connections than lower ability students. Field experiences were seen as a tool for learning, and all students achieved substantial learning gains. The teacher viewed the role of the outdoor experiences as a way to engage students, and promote connections across the unit through firsthand and relevant experiences. The school principal viewed his role as supporting teachers in their practice and encouraging risk-taking and creativity in instructional approaches. This study is a valuable contribution to the field as it (1) identifies outdoor learning experiences as one way to enhance intraunit coherence, and (2) highlights

  19. Using narrative-based design scaffolds within a mobile learning environment to support learning outdoors with young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, Brian J.

    This study aims to advance learning outdoors with mobile devices. As part of the ongoing Tree Investigators design-based research study, this research investigated a mobile application to support observation, identification, and explanation of the tree life cycle within an authentic, outdoor setting. Recognizing the scientific and conceptual complexity of this topic for young children, the design incorporated technological and design scaffolds within a narrative-based learning environment. In an effort to support learning, 14 participants (aged 5-9) were guided through the mobile app on tree life cycles by a comic-strip pedagogical agent, "Nutty the Squirrel", as they looked to explore and understand through guided observational practices and artifact creation tasks. In comparison to previous iterations of this DBR study, the overall patterns of talk found in this study were similar, with perceptual and conceptual talk being the first and second most frequently coded categories, respectively. However, this study coded considerably more instances of affective talk. This finding of the higher frequency of affective talk could possibly be explained by the relatively younger age of this iteration's participants, in conjunction with the introduced pedagogical agent, who elicited playfulness and delight from the children. The results also indicated a significant improvement when comparing the pretest results (mean score of .86) with the posttest results (mean score of 4.07, out of 5). Learners were not only able to recall the phases of a tree life cycle, but list them in the correct order. The comparison reports a significant increase, showing evidence of increased knowledge and appropriation of scientific vocabulary. The finding suggests the narrative was effective in structuring the complex material into a story for sense making. Future research with narratives should consider a design to promote learner agency through more interactions with the pedagogical agent and a

  20. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... often reported using green areas to “drink beer with friends” and “do sunbathing”. The third paper reflects on the different national approaches towards ethnic minorities’ access to natural areas, in four example-countries Germany, Denmark, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. This was done through....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  1. Simulation Package based on Placet

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, T E; Leros, Nicolas; Schulte, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    The program PLACET is used to simulate transverse and longitudinal beam effects in the main linac, the drive-beam accelerator and the drive-beam decelerators of CLIC, as well as in the linac of CTF3. It provides different models of accelerating and decelerating structures, linear optics and thin multipoles. Several methods of beam-based alignment, including emittance tuning bumps and feedback, and different failure modes can be simulated. An interface to the beam-beam simulation code GUINEA-PIG exists. Currently, interfaces to MAD and TRANSPORT are under development and an extension to transfer lines and bunch compressors is also being made. In the future, the simulations will need to be performed by many users, which requires a simplified user interface. The paper describes the status of PLACET and plans for the futur

  2. Outdoors classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska-Markowska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Why should students be trapped within the four walls of the classroom when there are a lot of ideas to have lessons led in the different way? I am not a fan of having lessons at school. For many students it is also boring to stay only at school, too. So I decided to organize workshops and trips to Universities or outdoors. I created KMO ( Discoverer's Club for Teenagers) at my school where students gave me some ideas and we started to make them real. I teach at school where students don't like science. I try hard to change their point of view about it. That's why I started to take parts in different competitions with my students. Last year we measured noise everywhere by the use of applications on a tablet to convince them that noise is very harmful for our body and us. We examined that the most harmful noises were at school's breaks, near the motorways and in the households. We also proved that acoustic screens, which were near the motorways, didn't protect us from noise. We measured that 30 meters from the screens the noise is the same as the motorway. We won the main prize for these measurements. We also got awards for calculating the costs of a car supplied by powered by a solar panel. We measured everything by computer. This year we decided to write an essay about trees and weather. We went to the forest and found the cut trees because we wanted to read the age of tree from the stump. I hadn't known earlier that we could read the weather from the tree's grain. We examined a lot of trees and we can tell that trees are good carriers of information about weather and natural disasters. I started studies safety education and I have a lot of ideas how to get my students interested in this subject that is similar to P.E., physics and chemistry, too. I hope that I will use my abilities from European Space Education Resource Office and GIFT workshop. I plan to use satellite and space to teach my students how they can check information about terrorism, floods or other

  3. Computer Based Modelling and Simulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 3. Computer Based Modelling and Simulation - Modelling Deterministic Systems. N K Srinivasan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 46-54. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Modeling emission rates and exposures from outdoor cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus; Princevac, Marko; Weltman, Robert; Ghasemian, Masoud; Arora, Narendra K.; Bond, Tami

    2017-09-01

    Approximately 3 billion individuals rely on solid fuels for cooking globally. For a large portion of these - an estimated 533 million - cooking is outdoors, where emissions from cookstoves pose a health risk to both cooks and other household and village members. Models that estimate emissions rates from stoves in indoor environments that would meet WHO air quality guidelines (AQG), explicitly don't account for outdoor cooking. The objectives of this paper are to link health based exposure guidelines with emissions from outdoor cookstoves, using a Monte Carlo simulation of cooking times from Haryana India coupled with inverse Gaussian dispersion models. Mean emission rates for outdoor cooking that would result in incremental increases in personal exposure equivalent to the WHO AQG during a 24-h period were 126 ± 13 mg/min for cooking while squatting and 99 ± 10 mg/min while standing. Emission rates modeled for outdoor cooking are substantially higher than emission rates for indoor cooking to meet AQG, because the models estimate impact of emissions on personal exposure concentrations rather than microenvironment concentrations, and because the smoke disperses more readily outdoors compared to indoor environments. As a result, many more stoves including the best performing solid-fuel biomass stoves would meet AQG when cooking outdoors, but may also result in substantial localized neighborhood pollution depending on housing density. Inclusion of the neighborhood impact of pollution should be addressed more formally both in guidelines on emissions rates from stoves that would be protective of health, and also in wider health impact evaluation efforts and burden of disease estimates. Emissions guidelines should better represent the different contexts in which stoves are being used, especially because in these contexts the best performing solid fuel stoves have the potential to provide significant benefits.

  5. Inversion based on computational simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.; Saquib, S.S.

    1998-01-01

    A standard approach to solving inversion problems that involve many parameters uses gradient-based optimization to find the parameters that best match the data. The authors discuss enabling techniques that facilitate application of this approach to large-scale computational simulations, which are the only way to investigate many complex physical phenomena. Such simulations may not seem to lend themselves to calculation of the gradient with respect to numerous parameters. However, adjoint differentiation allows one to efficiently compute the gradient of an objective function with respect to all the variables of a simulation. When combined with advanced gradient-based optimization algorithms, adjoint differentiation permits one to solve very large problems of optimization or parameter estimation. These techniques will be illustrated through the simulation of the time-dependent diffusion of infrared light through tissue, which has been used to perform optical tomography. The techniques discussed have a wide range of applicability to modeling including the optimization of models to achieve a desired design goal

  6. Simulation of sound waves using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for fluid flow: Benchmark cases for outdoor sound propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.; Lohman, W.J.A.; Zhou, H.

    2016-01-01

    Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases:

  7. Development of outdoor luminescence imaging for drone-based PV array inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Riedel, Nicholas; Thorsteinsson, Sune

    2017-01-01

    This work has the goal to examined experimentally PV module imaging methods under natural light conditions, that will be used in a fast, accurate and automatic drone-based inspection system for PV power plants.......This work has the goal to examined experimentally PV module imaging methods under natural light conditions, that will be used in a fast, accurate and automatic drone-based inspection system for PV power plants....

  8. Remembering the Roots of Place Meanings for Place-Based Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Garrett

    2011-01-01

    Place-based education seeks to connect learners to local environments through a variety of strategies that increase environmental awareness and connectedness to particular parts of the world. The concept of place meanings encompasses the subjective ways people construct meaning through their experiences with an array of settings. Place meanings…

  9. UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

  10. Simulation of Sound Waves Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for Fluid Flow: Benchmark Cases for Outdoor Sound Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomons, Erik M; Lohman, Walter J A; Zhou, Han

    2016-01-01

    Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases: free-field propagation, propagation over porous and non-porous ground, propagation over a noise barrier, and propagation in an atmosphere with wind. LBM results are compared with solutions of the equations of acoustics. It is found that the LBM works well for sound waves, but dissipation of sound waves with the LBM is generally much larger than real dissipation of sound waves in air. To circumvent this problem it is proposed here to use the LBM for assessing the excess sound level, i.e. the difference between the sound level and the free-field sound level. The effect of dissipation on the excess sound level is much smaller than the effect on the sound level, so the LBM can be used to estimate the excess sound level for a non-dissipative atmosphere, which is a useful quantity in atmospheric acoustics. To reduce dissipation in an LBM simulation two approaches are considered: i) reduction of the kinematic viscosity and ii) reduction of the lattice spacing.

  11. Outdoor air dominates burden of disease from indoor exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänninen, O.; Asikainen, A.; Carrer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin.......Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin....

  12. Development and characterization of silica and titania based nano structured materials for the removal of indoor and outdoor air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, Thelge Manindu Nirasha

    photocatalytic activity. In contrast, our xerogel system shows comparatively high visible light photocatalytic activity for the titania based system, showing the importance of non-localized nature of photocatalysis. The Cobalt doped silica system shows interesting dark catalytic activity towards acetaldehyde and several other pollutants. Thus, in summary, based on the different activities we observed during our studies these materials could be successfully used to improve the quality of both indoor and outdoor air.

  13. Delivering an evidence-based outdoor journey intervention to people with stroke: Barriers and enablers experienced by community rehabilitation teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middleton Sandy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transferring knowledge from research into practice can be challenging, partly because the process involves a change in attitudes, roles and behaviour by individuals and teams. Helping teams to identify then target potential barriers may aid the knowledge transfer process. The aim of this study was to identify barriers and enablers, as perceived by allied health professionals, to delivering an evidence-based (Level 1 outdoor journey intervention for people with stroke. Methods A qualitative design and semi-structured interviews were used. Allied health professionals (n = 13 from two community rehabilitation teams were interviewed, before and after receiving feedback from a medical record audit and attending a training workshop. Interviews allowed participants to identify potential and actual barriers, as well as enablers to delivering the intervention. Qualitative data were analysed using theoretical domains described by Michie and colleagues. Results Two barriers to delivery of the intervention were the social influence of people with stroke and their family, and professionals' beliefs about their capabilities. Other barriers included professionals' knowledge and skills, their role identity, availability of resources, whether professionals remembered to provide the intervention, and how they felt about delivering the intervention. Enablers to delivering the intervention included a belief that they could deliver the intervention, a willingness to expand and share professional roles, procedures that reminded them what to do, and feeling good about helping people with stroke to participate. Conclusions This study represents one step in the quality improvement process. The interviews encouraged reflection by staff. We obtained valuable data which have been used to plan behaviour change interventions addressing identified barriers. Our methods may assist other researchers who need to design similar behaviour change interventions.

  14. Taking the New Curriculum Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    A review of research on outdoor learning by Rickinson "et al." (2004) highlights the demonstrable educational benefits and provides a source of support, justification and an evidence base for educators looking to undertake more learning outside the classroom. Bird (2004) also reviewed the widely reported health benefits of outdoor…

  15. Outdoor Education in Senior Schooling: Clarifying the Body of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Australia has a state-based educational system. In some of these states, outdoor education exists as part of the formal accredited secondary school curriculum. In this paper I analyse the content of these senior secondary school outdoor courses as a means to help delineate and describe the body of knowledge of outdoor education. I suggest outdoor…

  16. EFFECT OF PRE-COOLING ON REPEAT-SPRINT PERFORMANCE IN SEASONALLY ACCLIMATISED MALES DURING AN OUTDOOR SIMULATED TEAM-SPORT PROTOCOL IN WARM CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly J. Brade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Whether precooling is beneficial for exercise performance in warm climates when heat acclimatised is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of precooling on repeat-sprint performance during a simulated team-sport circuit performed outdoors in warm, dry field conditions in seasonally acclimatised males (n = 10. They performed two trials, one with precooling (PC; ice slushy and cooling jacket and another without (CONT. Trials began with a 30-min baseline/cooling period followed by an 80 min repeat-sprint protocol, comprising 4 x 20-min quarters, with 2 x 5-min quarter breaks and a 10-min half-time recovery/cooling period. A clear and substantial (negative; PC slower effect was recorded for first quarter circuit time. Clear and trivial effects were recorded for overall circuit time, third and fourth quarter sprint times and fourth quarter best sprint time, otherwise unclear and trivial effects were recorded for remaining performance variables. Core temperature was moderately lower (Cohen's d=0.67; 90% CL=-1.27, 0.23 in PC at the end of the precooling period and quarter 1. No differences were found for mean skin temperature, heart rate, thermal sensation, or rating of perceived exertion, however, moderate Cohen's d effect sizes suggested a greater sweat loss in PC compared with CONT. In conclusion, repeat- sprint performance was neither clearly nor substantially improved in seasonally acclimatised players by using a combination of internal and external cooling methods prior to and during exercise performed in the field in warm, dry conditions. Of practical importance, precooling appears unnecessary for repeat-sprint performance if athletes are seasonally acclimatised or artificially acclimated to heat, as it provides no additional benefit

  17. Development of a measurement approach to assess time children participate in organized sport, active travel, outdoor active play, and curriculum-based physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, Michael M; Janssen, Ian

    2018-03-22

    Children participate in four main types of physical activity: organized sport, active travel, outdoor active play, and curriculum-based physical activity. The objective of this study was to develop a valid approach that can be used to concurrently measure time spent in each of these types of physical activity. Two samples (sample 1: n = 50; sample 2: n = 83) of children aged 10-13 wore an accelerometer and a GPS watch continuously over 7 days. They also completed a log where they recorded the start and end times of organized sport sessions. Sample 1 also completed an outdoor time log where they recorded the times they went outdoors and a description of the outdoor activity. Sample 2 also completed a curriculum log where they recorded times they participated in physical activity (e.g., physical education) during class time. We describe the development of a measurement approach that can be used to concurrently assess the time children spend participating in specific types of physical activity. The approach uses a combination of data from accelerometers, GPS, and activity logs and relies on merging and then processing these data using several manual (e.g., data checks and cleaning) and automated (e.g., algorithms) procedures. In the new measurement approach time spent in organized sport is estimated using the activity log. Time spent in active travel is estimated using an existing algorithm that uses GPS data. Time spent in outdoor active play is estimated using an algorithm (with a sensitivity and specificity of 85%) that was developed using data collected in sample 1 and which uses all of the data sources. Time spent in curriculum-based physical activity is estimated using an algorithm (with a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 92%) that was developed using data collected in sample 2 and which uses accelerometer data collected during class time. There was evidence of excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability of the estimates for all of these types of

  18. Effects of an outdoor bicycle-based intervention in healthy rural Indian men with normal and low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, C; Mogensen, P; Thomas, N

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity and low birth weight (LBW) may lead to an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The extent to which LBW individuals may benefit from physical exercise training when compared with those with normal birth weight (NBW) controls is uncertain. We assessed the impact...... of an outdoor exercise intervention on body composition, insulin secretion and action in young men born with LBW and NBW in rural India. A total of 61 LBW and 56 NBW healthy young men were recruited into the study. The individuals were instructed to perform outdoor bicycle exercise training for 45 min every day...... with LBW in rural India benefit metabolically from exercise training to an extent comparable with NBW controls....

  19. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  20. RELAP5 based engineering simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, T.R.; Laats, E.T.; Burtt, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The INEL Engineering Simulation Center was established in 1988 to provide a modern, flexible, state-of-the-art simulation facility. This facility and two of the major projects which are part of the simulation center, the Advance Test Reactor (ATR) engineering simulator project and the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) advanced reactor control system, have been the subject of several papers in the past few years. Two components of the ATR engineering simulator project, RELAP5 and the Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA), have recently been improved significantly. This paper will present an overview of the INEL Engineering Simulation Center, and discuss the RELAP5/MOD3 and NPA/MOD1 codes, specifically how they are being used at the INEL Engineering Simulation Center. It will provide an update on the modifications to these two codes and their application to the ATR engineering simulator project, as well as, a discussion on the reactor system representation, control system modeling, two phase flow and heat transfer modeling. It will also discuss how these two codes are providing desktop, stand-alone reactor simulation. 12 refs., 2 figs

  1. RELAP5 based engineering simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, T.R.; Laats, E.T.; Burtt, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The INEL Engineering Simulation Center was established in 1988 to provide a modern, flexible, state-of-the-art simulation facility. This facility and two of the major projects which are part of the simulation center, the Advance Test Reactor (ATR) engineering simulator project and the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) advanced reactor control system, have been the subject of several papers in the past few years. Two components of the ATR engineering simulator project, RELAP5 and the Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA), have recently been improved significantly. This paper presents an overview of the INEL Engineering Simulation Center, and discusses the RELAP5/MOD3 and NPA/MOD1 codes, specifically how they are being used at the INEL Engineering Simulation Center. It provides an update on the modifications to these two codes and their application to the ATR engineering simulator project, as well as, a discussion on the reactor system representation, control system modeling, two phase flow and heat transfer modeling. It will also discuss how these two codes are providing desktop, stand-alone reactor simulation

  2. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy as a tool to investigate silane-based coatings for the protection of outdoor bronze: The role of alloying elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, G.; Balbo, A.; Esvan, J.; Monticelli, C.; Avila, J.; Robbiola, L.; Bernardi, E.; Bignozzi, M. C.; Asensio, M. C.; Martini, C.; Chiavari, C.

    2018-03-01

    Application of a protective coating is the most widely used conservation treatment for outdoor bronzes (cast Cu-Sn-Zn-Pb-Sb alloys). However, improving coating protectiveness requires detailed knowledge of the coating/substrate chemical bonding. This is particularly the case for 3-mercapto-propyl-trimethoxy-silane (PropS-SH) applied on bronze, exhibiting a good protective behaviour in outdoor simulated conditions. The present work deals with X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM + FIB (Focused Ion Beam)) characterization of a thin PropS-SH film on bronze. In particular, in order to better understand the influence of alloying elements on coating performance, PropS-SH was studied first on pure Cu and Sn substrates then on bronzes with increasing alloy additions: Cu8Sn as well as a quinary Cu-Sn-Zn-Pb-Sb bronze. Moreover, considering the real application of this coating on historical bronze substrates, previously artificially aged ("patinated") bronze samples were prepared and a comparison between bare and "patinated" quinary bronzes was performed. In the case of coated quinary bronze, the free surface of samples was analysed by High Resolution Photoelectron Spectroscopy using Synchrotron Radiation (HR-SRPES) at ANTARES (Synchrotron SOLEIL), which offers a higher energy and lateral resolution. By compiling complementary spectroscopic and imaging information, a deeper insight into the interactions between the protective coating and the bronze substrate was achieved.

  3. Simulating Real-World Exposures during Emergency Events: Studying Effects of Indoor and Outdoor Releases in the Urban Dispersion Project in Upper Manhattan, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A prospective personal exposure study, involving indoor and outdoor releases, was conducted in upper Midtown Manhattan in New York City as part of the Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) focusing on atmospheric dispersion of chemicals in complex urban settings. The UDP experiments inv...

  4. BlueDetect: An iBeacon-Enabled Scheme for Accurate and Energy-Efficient Indoor-Outdoor Detection and Seamless Location-Based Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The location and contextual status (indoor or outdoor is fundamental and critical information for upper-layer applications, such as activity recognition and location-based services (LBS for individuals. In addition, optimizations of building management systems (BMS, such as the pre-cooling or heating process of the air-conditioning system according to the human traffic entering or exiting a building, can utilize the information, as well. The emerging mobile devices, which are equipped with various sensors, become a feasible and flexible platform to perform indoor-outdoor (IO detection. However, power-hungry sensors, such as GPS and WiFi, should be used with caution due to the constrained battery storage on mobile device. We propose BlueDetect: an accurate, fast response and energy-efficient scheme for IO detection and seamless LBS running on the mobile device based on the emerging low-power iBeacon technology. By leveraging the on-broad Bluetooth module and our proposed algorithms, BlueDetect provides a precise IO detection service that can turn on/off on-board power-hungry sensors smartly and automatically, optimize their performances and reduce the power consumption of mobile devices simultaneously. Moreover, seamless positioning and navigation services can be realized by it, especially in a semi-outdoor environment, which cannot be achieved by GPS or an indoor positioning system (IPS easily. We prototype BlueDetect on Android mobile devices and evaluate its performance comprehensively. The experimental results have validated the superiority of BlueDetect in terms of IO detection accuracy, localization accuracy and energy consumption.

  5. BlueDetect: An iBeacon-Enabled Scheme for Accurate and Energy-Efficient Indoor-Outdoor Detection and Seamless Location-Based Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Han; Jiang, Hao; Luo, Yiwen; Zhu, Jianjie; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Xie, Lihua

    2016-02-22

    The location and contextual status (indoor or outdoor) is fundamental and critical information for upper-layer applications, such as activity recognition and location-based services (LBS) for individuals. In addition, optimizations of building management systems (BMS), such as the pre-cooling or heating process of the air-conditioning system according to the human traffic entering or exiting a building, can utilize the information, as well. The emerging mobile devices, which are equipped with various sensors, become a feasible and flexible platform to perform indoor-outdoor (IO) detection. However, power-hungry sensors, such as GPS and WiFi, should be used with caution due to the constrained battery storage on mobile device. We propose BlueDetect: an accurate, fast response and energy-efficient scheme for IO detection and seamless LBS running on the mobile device based on the emerging low-power iBeacon technology. By leveraging the on-broad Bluetooth module and our proposed algorithms, BlueDetect provides a precise IO detection service that can turn on/off on-board power-hungry sensors smartly and automatically, optimize their performances and reduce the power consumption of mobile devices simultaneously. Moreover, seamless positioning and navigation services can be realized by it, especially in a semi-outdoor environment, which cannot be achieved by GPS or an indoor positioning system (IPS) easily. We prototype BlueDetect on Android mobile devices and evaluate its performance comprehensively. The experimental results have validated the superiority of BlueDetect in terms of IO detection accuracy, localization accuracy and energy consumption.

  6. Simulation-based medical teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmohsen H Al-Elq

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important steps in curriculum development is the introduction of simulation- based medical teaching and learning. Simulation is a generic term that refers to an artificial representation of a real world process to achieve educational goals through experiential learning. Simulation based medical education is defined as any educational activity that utilizes simulation aides to replicate clinical scenarios. Although medical simulation is relatively new, simulation has been used for a long time in other high risk professions such as aviation. Medical simulation allows the acquisition of clinical skills through deliberate practice rather than an apprentice style of learning. Simulation tools serve as an alternative to real patients. A trainee can make mistakes and learn from them without the fear of harming the patient. There are different types and classification of simulators and their cost vary according to the degree of their resemblance to the reality, or ′fidelity′. Simulation- based learning is expensive. However, it is cost-effective if utilized properly. Medical simulation has been found to enhance clinical competence at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. It has also been found to have many advantages that can improve patient safety and reduce health care costs through the improvement of the medical provider′s competencies. The objective of this narrative review article is to highlight the importance of simulation as a new teaching method in undergraduate and postgraduate education.

  7. PARENTS ATTITUDE ABOUT OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Martinović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire-based survey was conducted on a sample of 238 parents whose children attend the third and fourth grades in two Belgrade elementary schools: “Oslobodioci Beograda” and “Borislav Pekic”. The aim of this study was to deter¬mi¬ne the incidence of outdoor activities and the attitude of the third and fourth graders’ parents towards it. Statistical data processing was based on the use of the –R, and every question represented a random variable. The analysis of the collected data has proved the presence of outdoor activities among these pupils and their positive attitude towards camping out, as well as a positive attitude of their parents.

  8. Component-based framework for subsurface simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, B J; Fang, Yilin; Hammond, Glenn; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya

    2007-01-01

    Simulations in the subsurface environment represent a broad range of phenomena covering an equally broad range of scales. Developing modelling capabilities that can integrate models representing different phenomena acting at different scales present formidable challenges both from the algorithmic and computer science perspective. This paper will describe the development of an integrated framework that will be used to combine different models into a single simulation. Initial work has focused on creating two frameworks, one for performing smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of fluid systems, the other for performing grid-based continuum simulations of reactive subsurface flow. The SPH framework is based on a parallel code developed for doing pore scale simulations, the continuum grid-based framework is based on the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) code developed at PNNL Future work will focus on combining the frameworks together to perform multiscale, multiphysics simulations of reactive subsurface flow

  9. Changes in Sunlight and Outdoor Thermal Environment Conditions Based on the Layout Plan of Flat Type Apartment Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukjin Jung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic growths lead to population increases in large cities. This has brought about the growing necessity for apartment housing which has resulted in higher density populations living in high-rise apartment complexes. Therefore, the urban microclimate is aggravated due to the increasing ratio of artificial coverage and substandard daylight availability. To achieve a comfortable living environment and improve urban microclimates, a process considering the daylight availability and the outdoor thermal environment is required when designing apartment housing complexes. This study selected a total of 27 valid cases using an orthogonal array, L27(313 design of experiments (DOE. As a result of significance probability obtained in DOE analysis, the design factors that have an effect on the outdoor thermal environment and daylight availability were found to be building coverage ratio, distance between buildings, and azimuth. The rankings of the effect of design factors were shown to be in the order of azimuth > building coverage ratio > distance between buildings > floor area ratio > width/depth ratio. The surface temperature of the whole building decreased by 0.3 °C and Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT decreased by 1.1 °C as a result of applying the greenery coverage ratio to apartment complexes. Heat Island Potential (HIP also showed a decrease of 5.4 °C (at noon.

  10. D Reconstruction of Cultural Tourism Attractions from Indoor to Outdoor Based on Portable Four-Camera Stereo Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Z.; Li, C.; Zhong, S.; Liu, B.; Jiang, H.; Wen, X.

    2015-05-01

    Building the fine 3D model from outdoor to indoor is becoming a necessity for protecting the cultural tourism resources. However, the existing 3D modelling technologies mainly focus on outdoor areas. Actually, a 3D model should contain detailed descriptions of both its appearance and its internal structure, including architectural components. In this paper, a portable four-camera stereo photographic measurement system is developed, which can provide a professional solution for fast 3D data acquisition, processing, integration, reconstruction and visualization. Given a specific scene or object, it can directly collect physical geometric information such as positions, sizes and shapes of an object or a scene, as well as physical property information such as the materials and textures. On the basis of the information, 3D model can be automatically constructed. The system has been applied to the indooroutdoor seamless modelling of distinctive architecture existing in two typical cultural tourism zones, that is, Tibetan and Qiang ethnic minority villages in Sichuan Jiuzhaigou Scenic Area and Tujia ethnic minority villages in Hubei Shennongjia Nature Reserve, providing a new method and platform for protection of minority cultural characteristics, 3D reconstruction and cultural tourism.

  11. Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  12. Outdoor radon variation in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, Elena; Simion, Florin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The results of a long-term survey (1992 - 2006) of the variations of outdoor radon concentrations in semi-natural location from Romania are reported in the present paper. Measurements, covering between two and four sessions of the day (morning, afternoon, evening and night), were performed on a daily bases by 37 Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Stations from National Environmental Radioactivity Survey Network. The method used was based on indirect determination of outdoor radon from aerosol samples collected on glass micro-fibre filters by drawing the air through the filters. The sampling was performed in a fixed place at a height of 2 m above the ground surface. Total beta counting of aerosol samples collected was performed immediately and after 20 hours. Values recorded during the years of continuous measurement indicated the presence of several patterns in the long-term variation of outdoor radon concentration: diurnal, seasonal and annual variation. For diurnal variation, outdoor radon concentration shows a maximum values in the night (early hours) and minimum values by day (in the afternoon). On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. Late autumn - beginning of winter maximum and an early spring minimum are characteristic for seasonal patterns. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.33 in winter compared with 3.0 in the summer months. The variations of outdoor radon levels showed little correlation with the uranium concentration of the ground and were attributed to changes in soil moisture content. In dry seasons, because of the low precipitation, the soil was drying out in the summer allowing fractures to develop and radon to migrate easily through the ground. Depending on micro-climatic and geological conditions, outdoor radon average concentrations in different regions of Romania are from 1200 mBq/mc to 13065 mBq/mc. The smallest

  13. Outdoor thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2011-06-01

    A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces.

  14. A heterogeneous graph-based recommendation simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeonchan, Ahn [Seoul National University; Sungchan, Park [Seoul National University; Lee, Matt Sangkeun [ORNL; Sang-goo, Lee [Seoul National University

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous graph-based recommendation frameworks have flexibility in that they can incorporate various recommendation algorithms and various kinds of information to produce better results. In this demonstration, we present a heterogeneous graph-based recommendation simulator which enables participants to experience the flexibility of a heterogeneous graph-based recommendation method. With our system, participants can simulate various recommendation semantics by expressing the semantics via meaningful paths like User Movie User Movie. The simulator then returns the recommendation results on the fly based on the user-customized semantics using a fast Monte Carlo algorithm.

  15. Simulation and Non-Simulation Based Human Reliability Analysis Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Shirley, Rachel Elizabeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway develops approaches to estimating and managing safety margins. RISMC simulations pair deterministic plant physics models with probabilistic risk models. As human interactions are an essential element of plant risk, it is necessary to integrate human actions into the RISMC risk model. In this report, we review simulation-based and non-simulation-based human reliability assessment (HRA) methods. Chapter 2 surveys non-simulation-based HRA methods. Conventional HRA methods target static Probabilistic Risk Assessments for Level 1 events. These methods would require significant modification for use in dynamic simulation of Level 2 and Level 3 events. Chapter 3 is a review of human performance models. A variety of methods and models simulate dynamic human performance; however, most of these human performance models were developed outside the risk domain and have not been used for HRA. The exception is the ADS-IDAC model, which can be thought of as a virtual operator program. This model is resource-intensive but provides a detailed model of every operator action in a given scenario, along with models of numerous factors that can influence operator performance. Finally, Chapter 4 reviews the treatment of timing of operator actions in HRA methods. This chapter is an example of one of the critical gaps between existing HRA methods and the needs of dynamic HRA. This report summarizes the foundational information needed to develop a feasible approach to modeling human interactions in the RISMC simulations.

  16. A Compact Energy Harvesting System for Outdoor Wireless Sensor Nodes Based on a Low-Cost In Situ Photovoltaic Panel Characterization-Modelling Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, Diego; Medrano, Nicolás; Calvo, Belén; Martínez, Pedro A

    2017-08-04

    This paper presents a low-cost high-efficiency solar energy harvesting system to power outdoor wireless sensor nodes. It is based on a Voltage Open Circuit (VOC) algorithm that estimates the open-circuit voltage by means of a multilayer perceptron neural network model trained using local experimental characterization data, which are acquired through a novel low cost characterization system incorporated into the deployed node. Both units-characterization and modelling-are controlled by the same low-cost microcontroller, providing a complete solution which can be understood as a virtual pilot cell, with identical characteristics to those of the specific small solar cell installed on the sensor node, that besides allows an easy adaptation to changes in the actual environmental conditions, panel aging, etc. Experimental comparison to a classical pilot panel based VOC algorithm show better efficiency under the same tested conditions.

  17. Scenario-based table top simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Edwards, Kasper; Nielsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study developed and tested a scenario-based table top simulation method in a user-driven innovation setting. A team of researchers worked together with a user group of five medical staff members from the existing clinic. Table top simulations of a new clinic were carried out in a simple model...

  18. Simulation-based certification for cataract surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Kjaerbo, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the EyeSi(™) simulator in regard to assessing competence in cataract surgery. The primary objective was to explore all simulator metrics to establish a proficiency-based test with solid evidence. The secondary objective was to evaluate whether the skill assessment was specific...

  19. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  20. Water simulation for cell based sandbox games

    OpenAIRE

    Lundell, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis work presents a new algorithm for simulating fluid based on the Navier-Stokes equations. The algorithm is designed for cell based sandbox games where interactivity and performance are the main priorities. The algorithm enforces mass conservation conservatively instead of enforcing a divergence free velocity field. A global scale pressure model that simulates hydrostatic pressure is used where the pressure propagates between neighboring cells. A prefix sum algorithm is used to only...

  1. Computer Based Modelling and Simulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE. Computer Based ... universities, and later did system analysis, ... sonal computers (PC) and low cost software packages and tools. They can serve as useful learning experience through student projects. Models are .... Let us consider a numerical example: to calculate the velocity of a trainer aircraft ...

  2. The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

  3. Turismo Activo y Outdoor Training: Metodología. (Adventure Sport Tourism and Outdoor Training: Methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gómez Encinas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUno de los aspectos más atractivos que tiene el outdoor training es su supuesta capacidad para conseguir que los aprendizajes obtenidos a través de sus actividades sean transferidos a otros ámbitos de la vida personal y profesional de sus participantes. En este sentido, la clave está en la metodología empleada. Este artículo profundiza en las fases que estructuran el proceso formativo del outdoor training describiendo: 1 las bases folosóficas que lo apoyan y que están expresadas en la teoría de la “educación a través de la experiencia” y 2 las diferentes fases que estructuran el proceso de formación de un outdoor, haciendo una descripción en profundidad de cada una de ellas: a Pre-Outdoor (Análisis y valoración de las necesidades, diseño de la actividad y reunión previa a la actividad, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflexión y transferencia, y d Seguimiento posterior.AbstractOne of the most attractive aspects that has the outdoor training is their supposed capacity to get that the learnings obtained through their activities are transferred to other environments of the personal life and their participants' professional. In this sense, the key is in the used methodology. This article deepens in the phases that structure the formative process of the outdoor training describing: 1 the philosophy´s bases that support this process and that are expressed in the theory of experiential education, and 2 the different phases that structure the process of formation of an outdoor, making a description in depth of each one of them: to Pre-Outdoor (Analysis and valuation of the necessities, design of the activity and previous meeting to the activity, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflection and transfer, and d Later Pursuit.

  4. Mapping of Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Victor G.

    Mapping symbols adopted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources are presented with their explanations. In an effort to provide standardization and familiarity teachers and other school people involved in an outdoor education program are encouraged to utilize the same symbols in constructing maps. (DK)

  5. Innovation and Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beames, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Within our fast-paced, fluid society, it is arguable that outdoor education needs to be innovative to play a useful role in young people's overall educational enterprise. A critical view, however, would suggest that we must beware of accepting technological innovation for its own sake. Innovations (or improvements) in education can take the form…

  6. Outdoor Education and Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, José M.; Brewer, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students have limited opportunities to learn science in an outdoor setting at school. Some suggest this is partially due to a lack of teacher efficacy teaching in an outdoor setting. Yet the research literature indicates that outdoor learning experiences develop positive environmental attitudes and can positively affect science…

  7. Simulation-based medical education in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopreiato, Joseph O; Sawyer, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    The use of simulation-based medical education (SBME) in pediatrics has grown rapidly over the past 2 decades and is expected to continue to grow. Similar to other instructional formats used in medical education, SBME is an instructional methodology that facilitates learning. Successful use of SBME in pediatrics requires attention to basic educational principles, including the incorporation of clear learning objectives. To facilitate learning during simulation the psychological safety of the participants must be ensured, and when done correctly, SBME is a powerful tool to enhance patient safety in pediatrics. Here we provide an overview of SBME in pediatrics and review key topics in the field. We first review the tools of the trade and examine various types of simulators used in pediatric SBME, including human patient simulators, task trainers, standardized patients, and virtual reality simulation. Then we explore several uses of simulation that have been shown to lead to effective learning, including curriculum integration, feedback and debriefing, deliberate practice, mastery learning, and range of difficulty and clinical variation. Examples of how these practices have been successfully used in pediatrics are provided. Finally, we discuss the future of pediatric SBME. As a community, pediatric simulation educators and researchers have been a leading force in the advancement of simulation in medicine. As the use of SBME in pediatrics expands, we hope this perspective will serve as a guide for those interested in improving the state of pediatric SBME. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Computational steering of GEM based detector simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheharyar, Ali; Bouhali, Othmane

    2017-10-01

    Gas based detector R&D relies heavily on full simulation of detectors and their optimization before final prototypes can be built and tested. These simulations in particular those with complex scenarios such as those involving high detector voltages or gas with larger gains are computationally intensive may take several days or weeks to complete. These long-running simulations usually run on the high-performance computers in batch mode. If the results lead to unexpected behavior, then the simulation might be rerun with different parameters. However, the simulations (or jobs) may have to wait in a queue until they get a chance to run again because the supercomputer is a shared resource that maintains a queue of other user programs as well and executes them as time and priorities permit. It may result in inefficient resource utilization and increase in the turnaround time for the scientific experiment. To overcome this issue, the monitoring of the behavior of a simulation, while it is running (or live), is essential. In this work, we employ the computational steering technique by coupling the detector simulations with a visualization package named VisIt to enable the exploration of the live data as it is produced by the simulation.

  9. Simulation-Based Training for Thoracoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjurström, Johanna Margareta; Konge, Lars; Lehnert, Per

    2013-01-01

    An increasing proportion of thoracic procedures are performed using video-assisted thoracic surgery. This minimally invasive technique places special demands on the surgeons. Using simulation-based training on artificial models or animals has been proposed to overcome the initial part of the lear......An increasing proportion of thoracic procedures are performed using video-assisted thoracic surgery. This minimally invasive technique places special demands on the surgeons. Using simulation-based training on artificial models or animals has been proposed to overcome the initial part...... of the learning curve. This study aimed to investigate the effect of simulation-based training and to compare self-guided and educator-guided training....

  10. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-06-01

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants and they are typically used without venting. The objective of this study is to quantify pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. A mass balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes and the "exposure concentrations" experienced by individual occupants. The model was applied to estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for one week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs, NO{sub 2} and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of CO and NO{sub 2} were obtained from available databases. Ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use were inferred from household characteristics. Proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods were also explored. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying less than 10%. The simulation model estimates that in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods, 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3000, and 20 ppb for NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based

  11. Hockey lines for simulation-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topps, David; Ellaway, Rachel; Kupsh, Christine

    2015-06-01

    Simulation-based health professional education is often limited in accommodating large numbers of students. Most organisations do not have enough simulation suites or staff to support growing demands. We needed to find ways to make simulation sessions more accommodating for larger groups of learners, so that more than a few individuals could be active in a simulation scenario at any one time. Moreover, we needed to make the experience meaningful for all participating learners. We used the metaphor of (ice) hockey lines and substitution 'on the fly' to effectively double the numbers of learners that can be actively engaged at once. Team players must communicate clearly, and observe keenly, so that currently playing members understand what is happening from moment to moment and incoming substitutes can take over their roles seamlessly. Most organisations do not have enough simulation suites or staff to support growing demands We found that this hockey lines approach to simulation-based team scenarios will raise learners' levels of engagement, reinforce good crew resource management (CRM) practices, enhance closed-loop communication, and help learners to understand their cognitive biases and limitations when working in high-pressure situations. During our continuing refinement of the hockey-lines approach, we developed a number of variations on the basic activity model, with various benefits and applications. Both students and teachers have been enthusiastically positive about this approach when it was introduced at our various courses and participating institutions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Image based SAR product simulation for analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domik, G.; Leberl, F.

    1987-01-01

    SAR product simulation serves to predict SAR image gray values for various flight paths. Input typically consists of a digital elevation model and backscatter curves. A new method is described of product simulation that employs also a real SAR input image for image simulation. This can be denoted as 'image-based simulation'. Different methods to perform this SAR prediction are presented and advantages and disadvantages discussed. Ascending and descending orbit images from NASA's SIR-B experiment were used for verification of the concept: input images from ascending orbits were converted into images from a descending orbit; the results are compared to the available real imagery to verify that the prediction technique produces meaningful image data.

  13. Simulation-based Testing of Control Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozmen, Ozgur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutaro, James J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sanyal, Jibonananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olama, Mohammed M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-10

    It is impossible to adequately test complex software by examining its operation in a physical prototype of the system monitored. Adequate test coverage can require millions of test cases, and the cost of equipment prototypes combined with the real-time constraints of testing with them makes it infeasible to sample more than a small number of these tests. Model based testing seeks to avoid this problem by allowing for large numbers of relatively inexpensive virtual prototypes that operate in simulation time at a speed limited only by the available computing resources. In this report, we describe how a computer system emulator can be used as part of a model based testing environment; specifically, we show that a complete software stack including operating system and application software - can be deployed within a simulated environment, and that these simulations can proceed as fast as possible. To illustrate this approach to model based testing, we describe how it is being used to test several building control systems that act to coordinate air conditioning loads for the purpose of reducing peak demand. These tests involve the use of ADEVS (A Discrete Event System Simulator) and QEMU (Quick Emulator) to host the operational software within the simulation, and a building model developed with the MODELICA programming language using Buildings Library and packaged as an FMU (Functional Mock-up Unit) that serves as the virtual test environment.

  14. Automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using track before detect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Birkemark, Christian M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due...

  15. Bridging the gap: simulations meet knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary W.; Morrison, Clayton T.; Westbrook, David L.; Cohen, Paul R.

    2003-09-01

    Tapir and Krill are declarative languages for specifying actions and agents, respectively, that can be executed in simulation. As such, they bridge the gap between strictly declarative knowledge bases and strictly executable code. Tapir and Krill components can be combined to produce models of activity which can answer questions about mechanisms and processes using conventional inference methods and simulation. Tapir was used in DARPA's Rapid Knowledge Formation (RKF) project to construct models of military tactics from the Army Field Manual FM3-90. These were then used to build Courses of Actions (COAs) which could be critiqued by declarative reasoning or via Monte Carlo simulation. Tapir and Krill can be read and written by non-knowledge engineers making it an excellent vehicle for Subject Matter Experts to build and critique knowledge bases.

  16. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Jonker (Catholijn); J. Treur

    1998-01-01

    textabstract In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for

  17. Simulation-based summative assessments in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Peter; Grantcharov, Teodor P; Sweet, Robert M; Korndorffer, James R; Pedowitz, Robert A; Roberts, Patricia L; Sachdeva, Ajit K

    2016-09-01

    The American College of Surgeons-Accredited Education Institutes (ACS-AEI) Consortium aims to enhance patient safety and advance surgical education through the use of cutting-edge simulation-based training and assessment methods. The annual ACS-AEI Consortium meeting provides a forum to discuss the latest simulation-based training and assessment methods and includes special panel presentations on key topics. During the 8th annual Consortium, there was a panel presentation on simulation-based summative assessments, during which experiences from across surgical disciplines were presented. The formal presentations were followed by a robust discussion between the conference attendees and the panelists. This report summarizes the panelists' presentations and their ensuing discussion with attendees. The focus of this report is on the basis for and advances in simulation-based summative assessments, the current practices employed across various surgical disciplines, and future directions that may be pursued by the ACS-AEI Consortium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Agent Based Modelling for Social Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, S.K.; Ubink, E.M.; Vecht, B. van der; Langley, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    This document is the result of an exploratory project looking into the status of, and opportunities for Agent Based Modelling (ABM) at TNO. The project focussed on ABM applications containing social interactions and human factors, which we termed ABM for social simulation (ABM4SS). During the course

  19. 2D PIM Simulation Based on COMSOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xinbo; Cui, Wanzhao; Wang, Jingyu

    2011-01-01

    Passive intermodulation (PIM) is a problematic type of nonlinear distortion en- countered in many communication systems. To analyze the PIM distortion resulting from ma- terial nonlinearity, a 2D PIM simulation method based on COMSOL is proposed in this paper. As an example, a rectangular wavegui...

  20. Subject related teaching in udeskole (outdoor school)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Karen Seierøe

    Subject related teaching in udeskole In this symposium, subject related teaching on a regular basis in the outdoors, known as udeskole will be described and discussed. Based on recent and ongoing research and development, the education taking the place of teaching into account of the learning...... will identify the necessity of doing research into the field, as 18,4% of all Danish schools is shown to have one or more classes working with udeskole (Barfod et al, 2016). Secondly, the subject related teaching in the outdoors will be exemplified by four research projects. First, the subject ‘Danish...... teaching in the outdoors will be supplemented with recent research upon barriers for using external learning environments ‘the open school’ in Skive Muncipiality. Closing the seminar will be a presentation of the national Danish Network UdeskoleNet and its application. Sources: Barfod, K., Ejbye-Ernst, N...

  1. Confirmation of the Conditional Outdoor Leadership Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Tim; Priest, Simon

    1991-01-01

    Responses of 75 expert outdoor leaders from Canada and the United States concerning leadership in 12 hypothetical backpacking scenarios provided partial support for a theory that predicted probability of leadership style (democratic, autocratic, or abdicratic) based on favorability of conditions, task orientation, and relationship orientation.…

  2. Indoor versus outdoor time in preschoolers at child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Saelens, Brian E; Zhou, Chuan; Kerr, Jacqueline; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2013-01-01

    Being outdoors may have health benefits including being more physically active. Understanding the relationship between outdoor time and health is hampered by the difficulty of measuring outdoor time. To examine the accuracy and validity of light-sensor and GPS methods for quantifying outdoor time among those aged 3-5 years at child care. A total of 45 children (mean age 4.5 years, 64% boys) from five child care centers wore portable accelerometers with built-in light sensors and a separate GPS device around their waists during child care, providing 80,648 episodes (15 seconds each) for analysis. Direct observation (gold standard) of children being outdoors versus indoors was conducted for 2 days at each center. GPS signal-to-noise ratios, processed through the Personal Activity and Location Measurement System were used to define indoor versus outdoor locations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to determine thresholds for defining being indoors versus outdoors. Data were collected in Fall 2011, analyzed in 2012. Mean observed outdoor time was 63 [±44; range: 18-152] minutes/day. Mean light-sensor levels were significantly higher outdoors. The area under the ROC curve for location based on light sensor for all weather conditions was 0.82 (range: 0.70 on partly cloudy days to 0.97 on sunny days); for GPS, it was 0.89. The light sensor had a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 86%. GPS had a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 88%. A light sensor and a GPS device both distinguish indoor from outdoor time for preschoolers with moderate to high levels of accuracy. These devices can increase the feasibility and lower the cost of measuring outdoor time in studies of preschool children. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of simulation-based medical education and advantages and disadvantages of in situ simulation versus off-site simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    that choice of setting for simulations does not seem to influence individual and team learning. Department-based local simulation, such as simulation in-house and especially in situ simulation, leads to gains in organisational learning. The overall objectives of simulation-based education and factors......BACKGROUND: Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has traditionally been conducted as off-site simulation in simulation centres. Some hospital departments also provide off-site simulation using in-house training room(s) set up for simulation away from the clinical setting, and these activities...... simulations. DISCUSSION: Non-randomised studies argue that in situ simulation is more effective for educational purposes than other types of simulation settings. Conversely, the few comparison studies that exist, either randomised or retrospective, show that choice of setting does not seem to influence...

  4. A web-based virtual lighting simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papamichael, Konstantinos; Lai, Judy; Fuller, Daniel; Tariq, Tara

    2002-05-06

    This paper is about a web-based ''virtual lighting simulator,'' which is intended to allow architects and lighting designers to quickly assess the effect of key parameters on the daylighting and lighting performance in various space types. The virtual lighting simulator consists of a web-based interface that allows navigation through a large database of images and data, which were generated through parametric lighting simulations. At its current form, the virtual lighting simulator has two main modules, one for daylighting and one for electric lighting. The daylighting module includes images and data for a small office space, varying most key daylighting parameters, such as window size and orientation, glazing type, surface reflectance, sky conditions, time of the year, etc. The electric lighting module includes images and data for five space types (classroom, small office, large open office, warehouse and small retail), varying key lighting parameters, such as the electric lighting system, surface reflectance, dimming/switching, etc. The computed images include perspectives and plans and are displayed in various formats to support qualitative as well as quantitative assessment. The quantitative information is in the form of iso-contour lines superimposed on the images, as well as false color images and statistical information on work plane illuminance. The qualitative information includes images that are adjusted to account for the sensitivity and adaptation of the human eye. The paper also includes a section on the major technical issues and their resolution.

  5. Physics-Based Simulations of Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kasey William

    Earthquakes and tsunamis are some of the most damaging natural disasters that we face. Just two recent events, the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami and the 2011 Haiti earthquake, claimed more than 400,000 lives. Despite their catastrophic impacts on society, our ability to predict these natural disasters is still very limited. The main challenge in studying the earthquake cycle is the non-linear and multi-scale properties of fault networks. Earthquakes are governed by physics across many orders of magnitude of spatial and temporal scales; from the scale of tectonic plates and their evolution over millions of years, down to the scale of rock fracturing over milliseconds to minutes at the sub-centimeter scale during an earthquake. Despite these challenges, there are useful patterns in earthquake occurrence. One such pattern, the frequency-magnitude relation, relates the number of large earthquakes to small earthquakes and forms the basis for assessing earthquake hazard. However the utility of these relations is proportional to the length of our earthquake records, and typical records span at most a few hundred years. Utilizing physics based interactions and techniques from statistical physics, earthquake simulations provide rich earthquake catalogs allowing us to measure otherwise unobservable statistics. In this dissertation I will discuss five applications of physics-based simulations of natural hazards, utilizing an earthquake simulator called Virtual Quake. The first is an overview of computing earthquake probabilities from simulations, focusing on the California fault system. The second uses simulations to help guide satellite-based earthquake monitoring methods. The third presents a new friction model for Virtual Quake and describes how we tune simulations to match reality. The fourth describes the process of turning Virtual Quake into an open source research tool. This section then focuses on a resulting collaboration using Virtual Quake for a detailed

  6. Simulation and case-based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Guralnick, David

    2008-01-01

    Abstract- This paper has its origin in the authors' reflection on years of practical experiences combined with literature readings in our preparation for a workshop on learn-by-doing simulation and case-based learning to be held at the ICELW 2008 conference (the International Conference on E-Learning...... in the Workplace). The purpose of this paper is to describe the two online learning methodologies and to raise questions for future discussion. In the workshop, the organizers and participants work with and discuss differences and similarities within the two pedagogical methodologies, focusing on how...... they are applied in workplace related and e-learning contexts. In addition to the organizers, a small number of invited presenters will attend, giving demonstrations of their work within learn-by-doing simulation and cases-based learning, but still leaving ample of time for discussion among all participants....

  7. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Design of simulation-based medical education and advantages and disadvantages of in situ simulation versus off-site simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorensen, J.L.; Ostergaard, D.; Leblanc, V.; Ottesen, B.; Konge, L.; Dieckmann, P.; Vleuten, C. van der

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has traditionally been conducted as off-site simulation in simulation centres. Some hospital departments also provide off-site simulation using in-house training room(s) set up for simulation away from the clinical setting, and these activities

  9. Agent Based Modelling for Social Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, S.K.; Ubink, E.M.; Vecht, B. van der; Langley, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    This document is the result of an exploratory project looking into the status of, and opportunities for Agent Based Modelling (ABM) at TNO. The project focussed on ABM applications containing social interactions and human factors, which we termed ABM for social simulation (ABM4SS). During the course of this project two workshops were organized. At these workshops, a wide range of experts, both ABM experts and domain experts, worked on several potential applications of ABM. The results and ins...

  10. Interactive physically-based sound simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, Nikunj

    The realization of interactive, immersive virtual worlds requires the ability to present a realistic audio experience that convincingly compliments their visual rendering. Physical simulation is a natural way to achieve such realism, enabling deeply immersive virtual worlds. However, physically-based sound simulation is very computationally expensive owing to the high-frequency, transient oscillations underlying audible sounds. The increasing computational power of desktop computers has served to reduce the gap between required and available computation, and it has become possible to bridge this gap further by using a combination of algorithmic improvements that exploit the physical, as well as perceptual properties of audible sounds. My thesis is a step in this direction. My dissertation concentrates on developing real-time techniques for both sub-problems of sound simulation: synthesis and propagation. Sound synthesis is concerned with generating the sounds produced by objects due to elastic surface vibrations upon interaction with the environment, such as collisions. I present novel techniques that exploit human auditory perception to simulate scenes with hundreds of sounding objects undergoing impact and rolling in real time. Sound propagation is the complementary problem of modeling the high-order scattering and diffraction of sound in an environment as it travels from source to listener. I discuss my work on a novel numerical acoustic simulator (ARD) that is hundred times faster and consumes ten times less memory than a high-accuracy finite-difference technique, allowing acoustic simulations on previously-intractable spaces, such as a cathedral, on a desktop computer. Lastly, I present my work on interactive sound propagation that leverages my ARD simulator to render the acoustics of arbitrary static scenes for multiple moving sources and listener in real time, while accounting for scene-dependent effects such as low-pass filtering and smooth attenuation

  11. Physiological Based Simulator Fidelity Design Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Thomas; Hamel, Nancy; Postnikov, Alex; Hoke, Jaclyn; McLean, Angus L. M. Thom, III

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the role of flight simulation has reinforced assumptions in aviation that the degree of realism in a simulation system directly correlates to the training benefit, i.e., more fidelity is always better. The construct of fidelity has several dimensions, including physical fidelity, functional fidelity, and cognitive fidelity. Interaction of different fidelity dimensions has an impact on trainee immersion, presence, and transfer of training. This paper discusses research results of a recent study that investigated if physiological-based methods could be used to determine the required level of simulator fidelity. Pilots performed a relatively complex flight task consisting of mission task elements of various levels of difficulty in a fixed base flight simulator and a real fighter jet trainer aircraft. Flight runs were performed using one forward visual channel of 40 deg. field of view for the lowest level of fidelity, 120 deg. field of view for the middle level of fidelity, and unrestricted field of view and full dynamic acceleration in the real airplane. Neuro-cognitive and physiological measures were collected under these conditions using the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS) and nonlinear closed form models for workload prediction were generated based on these data for the various mission task elements. One finding of the work described herein is that simple heart rate is a relatively good predictor of cognitive workload, even for short tasks with dynamic changes in cognitive loading. Additionally, we found that models that used a wide range of physiological and neuro-cognitive measures can further boost the accuracy of the workload prediction.

  12. Simulation-based instruction of technical skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Douglas M.; Munro, Allen

    1991-01-01

    A rapid intelligent tutoring development system (RAPIDS) was developed to facilitate the production of interactive, real-time graphical device models for use in instructing the operation and maintenance of complex systems. The tools allowed subject matter experts to produce device models by creating instances of previously defined objects and positioning them in the emerging device model. These simulation authoring functions, as well as those associated with demonstrating procedures and functional effects on the completed model, required no previous programming experience or use of frame-based instructional languages. Three large simulations were developed in RAPIDS, each involving more than a dozen screen-sized sections. Seven small, single-view applications were developed to explore the range of applicability. Three workshops were conducted to train others in the use of the authoring tools. Participants learned to employ the authoring tools in three to four days and were able to produce small working device models on the fifth day.

  13. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  14. Outdoor Education: Definition and Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Phyllis

    Because outdoor education programs occur in every geographic location, are sponsored by all levels of educational institutions, state and local government agencies, and private entrepreneurs, and have no nationally standardized curriculum or measures of competency or knowledge, outdoor education may best be defines as "education in, about, and for…

  15. Optimizing a Water Simulation based on Wavefront Parameter Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Martin

    2017-01-01

    DICE, a Swedish game company, wanted a more realistic water simulation. Currently, most large scale water simulations used in games are based upon ocean simulation technology. These techniques falter when used in other scenarios, such as coastlines. In order to produce a more realistic simulation, a new one was created based upon the water simulation technique "Wavefront Parameter Interpolation". This technique involves a rather extensive preprocess that enables ocean simulations to have inte...

  16. Enhancing community capacity to support physical activity: the development of a community-based indoor-outdoor walking program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley-Jacome, Mary; Gallant, Mary P; Fisher, Brian D; Gotcsik, Frances S; Strogatz, David S

    2010-04-01

    The University at Albany Prevention Research Center, guided by a needs assessment in two underserved communities (one urban, one rural), initiated a pilot project that opened a public school for community walking in a rural setting. This study examined a 9-week program for potential barriers, benefits, influential factors, and the physical activity levels of program participants. Evaluation was based on daily logs, pedometer diaries, participant surveys, and focus groups. Results indicated that rural schools provide a useful resource for residents and increase participants' physical activity levels. A more comprehensive rural community walking program has been implemented as a result of these findings.

  17. A model for evaluating dispersed outdoor recreation use estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley J. Zarnoch; Donald B. K. English; Susan M. Kocis

    2004-01-01

    An outdoor recreation use simulator (ORUS) has been developed to simulate dispersed recreation survey data similar to that collected by the National Visitor Use Monitoring (NVUM) Project's survey of the national forests of the U.S.A. Statistical distributions are used to represent the various behaviors of recreationists during their visit to a dispersed area. The...

  18. Outdoor schools: Limits and dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Smetáčková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor school is a stable element of Czech educational system. However,many changes have occurred during the last twenty years in the purposes of outdoorschools and in their organization. The article presents various school statistics andresults of research which included questionnaire survey in elementary schools in Pragueand a case study of two classes. The study found that the outdoor school programmesare getting shorter, budgets for outdoor schools are reduced, and prices of outdoorschool programmes for parents are increasing. Because of high prices, almost 20 % ofpupils cannot attend outdoor schools. Nevertheless, according to teachers, pupils andparents, the main purpose of outdoor school programmes is to create a better socialclimate in peer groups. Because of high rates of absence, this goal is partly invalid.Another purpose should be that teachers and children get to know each other better.This goal is invalid as well because many schools hire commercial agencies which limitsthe time that pupils and teachers spend together.

  19. Nuclear Power Reactor simulator - based training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, S.A.S.

    2009-01-01

    nuclear power stations will continue playing a major role as an energy source for electric generation and heat production in the world. in this paper, a nuclear power reactor simulator- based training program will be presented . this program is designed to aid in training of the reactor operators about the principles of operation of the plant. also it could help the researchers and the designers to analyze and to estimate the performance of the nuclear reactors and facilitate further studies for selection of the proper controller and its optimization process as it is difficult and time consuming to do all experiments in the real nuclear environment.this program is written in MATLAB code as MATLAB software provides sophisticated tools comparable to those in other software such as visual basic for the creation of graphical user interface (GUI). moreover MATLAB is available for all major operating systems. the used SIMULINK reactor model for the nuclear reactor can be used to model different types by adopting appropriate parameters. the model of each component of the reactor is based on physical laws rather than the use of look up tables or curve fitting.this simulation based training program will improve acquisition and retention knowledge also trainee will learn faster and will have better attitude

  20. Simulation-based disassembly systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, Martin; Herrmann, Christoph; Hesselbach, Juergen

    2004-02-01

    Recycling of Waste of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is a matter of actual concern, driven by economic, ecological and legislative reasons. Here, disassembly as the first step of the treatment process plays a key role. To achieve sustainable progress in WEEE disassembly, the key is not to limit analysis and planning to merely disassembly processes in a narrow sense, but to consider entire disassembly plants including additional aspects such as internal logistics, storage, sorting etc. as well. In this regard, the paper presents ways of designing, dimensioning, structuring and modeling different disassembly systems. Goal is to achieve efficient and economic disassembly systems that allow recycling processes complying with legal requirements. Moreover, advantages of applying simulation software tools that are widespread and successfully utilized in conventional industry sectors are addressed. They support systematic disassembly planning by means of simulation experiments including consecutive efficiency evaluation. Consequently, anticipatory recycling planning considering various scenarios is enabled and decisions about which types of disassembly systems evidence appropriateness for specific circumstances such as product spectrum, throughput, disassembly depth etc. is supported. Furthermore, integration of simulation based disassembly planning in a holistic concept with configuration of interfaces and data utilization including cost aspects is described.

  1. Simulation-based optimization of thermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaluria, Yogesh

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the design and optimization of thermal systems on the basis of the mathematical and numerical modeling of the system. Many complexities are often encountered in practical thermal processes and systems, making the modeling challenging and involved. These include property variations, complicated regions, combined transport mechanisms, chemical reactions, and intricate boundary conditions. The paper briefly presents approaches that may be used to accurately simulate these systems. Validation of the numerical model is a particularly critical aspect and is discussed. It is important to couple the modeling with the system performance, design, control and optimization. This aspect, which has often been ignored in the literature, is considered in this paper. Design of thermal systems based on concurrent simulation and experimentation is also discussed in terms of dynamic data-driven optimization methods. Optimization of the system and of the operating conditions is needed to minimize costs and improve product quality and system performance. Different optimization strategies that are currently used for thermal systems are outlined, focusing on new and emerging strategies. Of particular interest is multi-objective optimization, since most thermal systems involve several important objective functions, such as heat transfer rate and pressure in electronic cooling systems. A few practical thermal systems are considered in greater detail to illustrate these approaches and to present typical simulation, design and optimization results

  2. Feasibility of increasing childhood outdoor play and decreasing television viewing through a family-based intervention in WIC, New York State, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Kirsten K; Edmunds, Lynn S; Wyker, Brett A; Young, Laurie M; Sarfoh, Vanessa S; Sekhobo, Jackson P

    2011-05-01

    Active Families is a program developed to increase outdoor play and decrease television viewing among preschool-aged children enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Our objective was to assess its feasibility and efficacy. We implemented Active Families in a large WIC clinic in New York State for 1 year. To this end, we incorporated into WIC nutrition counseling sessions a community resource guide with maps showing recreational venues. Outcome measures were children's television viewing and time playing outdoors and parents' behaviors (television viewing, physical activity), self-efficacy to influence children's behaviors, and parenting practices specific to television viewing. We used a nonpaired pretest and posttest design to evaluate the intervention, drawing on comparison data from 3 matched WIC agencies. Compared with the children at baseline, the children at follow-up were more likely to watch television less than 2 hours per day and play outdoors for at least 60 minutes per day. Additionally, parents reported higher self-efficacy to limit children's television viewing and were more likely to meet physical activity recommendations and watch television less than 2 hours per day. Results suggest that it is feasible to foster increased outdoor play and reduced television viewing among WIC-enrolled children by incorporating a community resource guide into WIC nutrition counseling sessions. Future research should test the intervention with a stronger evaluation design in multiple settings, with more diverse WIC populations, and by using more objective outcome measures of child behaviors.

  3. SIMULATION OF SUBGRADE EMBANKMENT ON WEAK BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article provides: the question of the sustainability of the subgrade on a weak base is considered in the paper. It is proposed to use the method of jet grouting. Investigation of the possibility of a weak base has an effect on the overall deformation of the subgrade; the identification and optimization of the parameters of subgrade based on studies using numerical simulation. Methodology. The theoretical studies of the stress-strain state of the base and subgrade embankment by modeling in the software package LIRA have been conducted to achieve this goal. Findings. After making the necessary calculations perform building fields of a subsidence, borders cramped thickness, bed’s coefficients of Pasternak and Winkler. The diagrams construction of vertical stress performs at any point of load application. Also, using the software system may perform peer review subsidence, rolls railroad tracks in natural and consolidated basis. Originality. For weak soils is the most appropriate nonlinear model of the base with the existing areas of both elastic and limit equilibrium, mixed problem of the theory of elasticity and plasticity. Practical value. By increasing the load on the weak base as a result of the second track construction, adds embankment or increasing axial load when changing the rolling stock process of sedimentation and consolidation may continue again. Therefore, one of the feasible and promising options for the design and reconstruction of embankments on weak bases is to strengthen the bases with the help of jet grouting. With the expansion of the railway infrastructure, increasing speed and weight of the rolling stock is necessary to ensure the stability of the subgrade on weak bases. LIRA software package allows you to perform all the necessary calculations for the selection of a proper way of strengthening weak bases.

  4. Agent-Based Simulations for Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. Chris; Sholtes, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the most common approach used in project planning tools is the Critical Path Method (CPM). While this method was a great improvement over the basic Gantt chart technique being used at the time, it now suffers from three primary flaws: (1) task duration is an input, (2) productivity impacts are not considered , and (3) management corrective actions are not included. Today, computers have exceptional computational power to handle complex simulations of task e)(eculion and project management activities (e.g ., dynamically changing the number of resources assigned to a task when it is behind schedule). Through research under a Department of Defense contract, the author and the ViaSim team have developed a project simulation tool that enables more realistic cost and schedule estimates by using a resource-based model that literally turns the current duration-based CPM approach "on its head." The approach represents a fundamental paradigm shift in estimating projects, managing schedules, and reducing risk through innovative predictive techniques.

  5. Design of simulation-based medical education and advantages and disadvantages of in situ simulation versus off-site simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki; Ottesen, Bent; Konge, Lars; Dieckmann, Peter; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2017-01-21

    Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has traditionally been conducted as off-site simulation in simulation centres. Some hospital departments also provide off-site simulation using in-house training room(s) set up for simulation away from the clinical setting, and these activities are called in-house training. In-house training facilities can be part of hospital departments and resemble to some extent simulation centres but often have less technical equipment. In situ simulation, introduced over the past decade, mainly comprises of team-based activities and occurs in patient care units with healthcare professionals in their own working environment. Thus, this intentional blend of simulation and real working environments means that in situ simulation brings simulation to the real working environment and provides training where people work. In situ simulation can be either announced or unannounced, the latter also known as a drill. This article presents and discusses the design of SBME and the advantage and disadvantage of the different simulation settings, such as training in simulation-centres, in-house simulations in hospital departments, announced or unannounced in situ simulations. Non-randomised studies argue that in situ simulation is more effective for educational purposes than other types of simulation settings. Conversely, the few comparison studies that exist, either randomised or retrospective, show that choice of setting does not seem to influence individual or team learning. However, hospital department-based simulations, such as in-house simulation and in situ simulation, lead to a gain in organisational learning. To our knowledge no studies have compared announced and unannounced in situ simulation. The literature suggests some improved organisational learning from unannounced in situ simulation; however, unannounced in situ simulation was also found to be challenging to plan and conduct, and more stressful among participants. The importance of

  6. Set-up and calibration of an outdoor nozzle-type rainfall simulator for soil erosion studies at the Masse experimental station (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergni, Lorenzo; Todisco, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    This contribution describes the technical characteristics and the preliminary calibration of a rainfall simulator recently installed by the Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences (Perugia University) at the Masse experimental station located 20 km south of Perugia, in the region of Umbria (central Italy). The site includes some USLE plots of different length λ = 11 and 22 m and width w = 2, 4 and 8 m, oriented parallel to a 16 % slope and kept free of vegetation by frequent ploughing. Since 2008, the station enabled to collect data from more than 80 erosive events, that were mainly used to investigate the relationship between rainfall characteristics and soil loss. The relevant soil loss variability that characterizes erosive storm events with similar overall characteristics (duration and/or depth) can be explained by the different rainfall profile of erosive storms and by the different antecedent soil aggregate stability. To analyse in more detail these aspects, recently, the Masse experimental station has been equipped with a semi-portable rainfall simulator placed over two micro-plots of 1x1 m each, having the same topographic and pedologic conditions of the adjacent USLE plots. The rainfall simulator consists of four full-cone spray nozzles for each micro-plot, placed at the angles of a 0.18-m square, centred over the plot at a height of 2.7 m above the ground. The operating pressure is regulated by pressure regulating valves and checked by pressure gauges mounted in correspondence of each nozzle. An electronic control unit regulates the start and stop of the inlet solenoid valves. A range of rainfall intensities can be achieved, by activating different combinations of nozzles (15 different intensities) also during the same simulation trial. The particular design of the plots allows to collect separately the runoff volume deriving from the plots and the water volume fallen outside of the plot. In this way it is possible to derive, by

  7. An Agent-Based Monetary Production Simulation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    An Agent-Based Simulation Model Programmed in Objective Borland Pascal. Program and source code is downloadable......An Agent-Based Simulation Model Programmed in Objective Borland Pascal. Program and source code is downloadable...

  8. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    Article made available with the permission of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education. This is part two of an article on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreation-related outdoor education research published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This part covers resources for outdoor recreation-related outdoor education, ...

  9. Designing solar thermal experiments based on simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huleihil, Mahmoud; Mazor, Gedalya

    2013-01-01

    In this study three different models to describe the temperature distribution inside a cylindrical solid body subjected to high solar irradiation were examined, beginning with the simpler approach, which is the single dimension lump system (time), progressing through the two-dimensional distributed system approach (time and vertical direction), and ending with the three-dimensional distributed system approach with azimuthally symmetry (time, vertical direction, and radial direction). The three models were introduced and solved analytically and numerically. The importance of the models and their solution was addressed. The simulations based on them might be considered as a powerful tool in designing experiments, as they make it possible to estimate the different effects of the parameters involved in these models

  10. Simulation based engineering in solid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, J S

    2017-01-01

    This book begins with a brief historical perspective of the advent of rotating machinery in 20th century Solid Mechanics and the development of the discipline of the Strength of Materials. High Performance Computing (HPC) and Simulation Based Engineering Science (SBES) have gradually replaced the conventional approach in Design bringing science directly into engineering without approximations. A recap of the required mathematical principles is given. The science of deformation, strain and stress at a point under the application of external traction loads is next presented. Only one-dimensional structures classified as Bars (axial loads), Rods (twisting loads) and Beams (bending loads) are considered in this book. The principal stresses and strains and von Mises stress and strain that used in design of structures are next presented. Lagrangian solution was used to derive the governing differential equations consistent with assumed deformation field and solution for deformations, strains and stresses were obtai...

  11. Definition: Conservation Education, Environmental Education, Outdoor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970

    Conservation education, outdoor education, and environmental education all have as a common goal the understanding and appreciation of the natural world. Outdoor education is a method of teaching wherein established disciplines, topics, and concepts which can best be taught outdoors are taught outdoors. Conservation education is the study of man's…

  12. The Cost of Becoming an Outdoor Instructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashel, Chris

    This article describes instructor criteria in three outdoor organizations: Outward Bound (OB), the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS), and the Wilderness Education Association (WEA). Common requirements for outdoor leadership programs are outdoor experience and skills, advanced first aid, CPR, and a minimum age requirement. Traditionally…

  13. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.27 Section 3.27... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities unless...

  14. Marketingová komunikace Outdoor Training Clubu

    OpenAIRE

    Soukeníková, Karla

    2017-01-01

    Title: Outdoor Training Club's Marketing Communication Goals: The aim of the thesis is to evaluate current club's marketing communication and come up with the suggestions of how to improve marketing communication, which would be benefit for the club and it helps acquire new potential customers. Methods: Electronic and written questionnaire, informal semi-structured interviews, document analysis. Results: Based on research and interview with the owner, I found that the current marketing commun...

  15. Slam estimation in dynamic outdoor environments

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zheyuan; Hu, Zhencheng; Uchimura, Keiichi; コ, シンテイ; ウチムラ, ケイイチ; 胡, 振程; 内村, 圭一

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes and compares three different approaches to estimate simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) in dynamic outdoor environments. SLAM has been intensively researched in recent years in the field of robotics and intelligent vehicles, many approaches have been proposed including occupancy grid mapping method (Bayesian, Dempster-Shafer and Fuzzy Logic), Localization estimation method (edge or point features based direct scan matching techniques, probabilistic likelihood, EK...

  16. Simulation-based education for transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Shanna; Rioux-Masse, Benjamin; Oancea, Cristina; Cohn, Claudia; Harmon, James; Konia, Mojca

    2015-04-01

    The administration of blood products is frequently determined by physicians without subspecialty training in transfusion medicine (TM). Education in TM is necessary for appropriate utilization of resources and maintaining patient safety. Our institution developed an efficient simulation-based TM course with the goal of identifying key topics that could be individualized to learners of all levels in various environments while also allowing for practice in an environment where the patient is not placed at risk. A 2.5-hour simulation-based educational activity was designed and taught to undergraduate medical students rotating through anesthesiology and TM elective rotations and to all Clinical Anesthesia Year 1 (CA-1) residents. Content and process evaluation of the activity consisted of multiple-choice tests and course evaluations. Seventy medical students and seven CA-1 residents were enrolled in the course. There was no significant difference on pretest results between medical students and CA-1 residents. The posttest results for both medical students and CA-1 residents were significantly higher than pretest results. The results of the posttest between medical students and CA-1 residents were not significantly different. The TM knowledge gap is not a trivial problem as transfusion of blood products is associated with significant risks. Innovative educational techniques are needed to address the ongoing challenges with knowledge acquisition and retention in already full curricula. Our institution developed a feasible and effective way to integrate TM into the curriculum. Educational activities, such as this, might be a way to improve the safety of transfusions. © 2014 AABB.

  17. CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of whether you’re a fan of the "beautiful game", you’ve probably heard that the CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011 is the sporting event of the year for the CERN Football Club. This unmissable social, cultural and sporting event will be a chance for CERNois to mingle with external visitors. In the 2011 edition of this legendary tournament, which is over 45 years old, the principle of “fair play” is once again on display. Ten teams – 8 from CERN – are competing for the CFC title. The tournament concludes with a final on 7 July final. Along with a thrilling match, there will also be a host of festivities for the final, including an exhibition game, the final awards ceremony, surprise gifts, a barbeque, musical performances, and more! Make sure to highlight 7 July (after 18.00) on your agenda, and take advantage of what will surely be an unforgettable day! The final tournament matches have been in progress since April and are ...

  18. Soil seed banks and their germination responses to cadmium and salinity stresses in coastal wetlands affected by reclamation and urbanization based on indoor and outdoor experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Junhong, E-mail: junhongbai@163.com; Huang, Laibin, E-mail: seahuanglaibin@gmail.com; Gao, Zhaoqin; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing; Zhao, Qingqing

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A higher germination rate of soil seed bank was observed in the indoor experiment. • The outdoor experiment showed larger number and destiny of germinated seedlings. • Urbanization had greater impacts on soil seed banks than wetland reclamation. • Soil seed banks for wetland restoration were more suitable in the reclaimed region. • Suitable salt or Cd levels could activate seedling emergence in the soil seed bank. - Abstract: Indoor and outdoor seedling emergence experiments were conducted to thoroughly investigate germination patterns as affected by reclamation and urbanization, the ecological characteristics of soil seed banks, and their relationships with environmental factors in both urbanized and reclaimed regions of the Pearl River Delta in coastal wetlands. The germination rate of the soil seed bank was higher in the indoor experiment compared with that in the outdoor experiment, whereas the number and destiny of the germinated seedlings were greater in the outdoor experiment. The species diversity and number, as well as the richness and evenness indices, were higher in the urbanized region compared with the reclaimed region. However, the dominance and Sørensen similarity indices were greater in the reclaimed region compared with those indices in the urbanized region. Higher salinity and Cadmium (Cd) levels could inhibit seed germination; however, their suitable ranges (i.e. [0–2000 mg kg{sup −1}] for salinity and [0–4.0 mg kg{sup −1}] for available Cd) can activate seedling emergence, and more seedlings germinated under the intersectional levels at 0.34 mg kg{sup −1} available Cd and 778.6 mg kg{sup −1} salinity. Seawater intrusion caused by the sea level rise will possibly result in the salt-tolerant community in this area due to increasing salinity.

  19. Soil seed banks and their germination responses to cadmium and salinity stresses in coastal wetlands affected by reclamation and urbanization based on indoor and outdoor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Gao, Zhaoqin; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing; Zhao, Qingqing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A higher germination rate of soil seed bank was observed in the indoor experiment. • The outdoor experiment showed larger number and destiny of germinated seedlings. • Urbanization had greater impacts on soil seed banks than wetland reclamation. • Soil seed banks for wetland restoration were more suitable in the reclaimed region. • Suitable salt or Cd levels could activate seedling emergence in the soil seed bank. - Abstract: Indoor and outdoor seedling emergence experiments were conducted to thoroughly investigate germination patterns as affected by reclamation and urbanization, the ecological characteristics of soil seed banks, and their relationships with environmental factors in both urbanized and reclaimed regions of the Pearl River Delta in coastal wetlands. The germination rate of the soil seed bank was higher in the indoor experiment compared with that in the outdoor experiment, whereas the number and destiny of the germinated seedlings were greater in the outdoor experiment. The species diversity and number, as well as the richness and evenness indices, were higher in the urbanized region compared with the reclaimed region. However, the dominance and Sørensen similarity indices were greater in the reclaimed region compared with those indices in the urbanized region. Higher salinity and Cadmium (Cd) levels could inhibit seed germination; however, their suitable ranges (i.e. [0–2000 mg kg −1 ] for salinity and [0–4.0 mg kg −1 ] for available Cd) can activate seedling emergence, and more seedlings germinated under the intersectional levels at 0.34 mg kg −1 available Cd and 778.6 mg kg −1 salinity. Seawater intrusion caused by the sea level rise will possibly result in the salt-tolerant community in this area due to increasing salinity

  20. Soil seed banks and their germination responses to cadmium and salinity stresses in coastal wetlands affected by reclamation and urbanization based on indoor and outdoor experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Gao, Zhaoqin; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing; Zhao, Qingqing

    2014-09-15

    Indoor and outdoor seedling emergence experiments were conducted to thoroughly investigate germination patterns as affected by reclamation and urbanization, the ecological characteristics of soil seed banks, and their relationships with environmental factors in both urbanized and reclaimed regions of the Pearl River Delta in coastal wetlands. The germination rate of the soil seed bank was higher in the indoor experiment compared with that in the outdoor experiment, whereas the number and destiny of the germinated seedlings were greater in the outdoor experiment. The species diversity and number, as well as the richness and evenness indices, were higher in the urbanized region compared with the reclaimed region. However, the dominance and Sørensen similarity indices were greater in the reclaimed region compared with those indices in the urbanized region. Higher salinity and Cadmium (Cd) levels could inhibit seed germination; however, their suitable ranges (i.e. [0-2,000 mg kg(-1)] for salinity and [0-4.0 mg kg(-1)] for available Cd) can activate seedling emergence, and more seedlings germinated under the intersectional levels at 0.34 mg kg(-1) available Cd and 778.6 mg kg(-1) salinity. Seawater intrusion caused by the sea level rise will possibly result in the salt-tolerant community in this area due to increasing salinity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhancing integrated indoor/outdoor mobility in a smart campus

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Sospedra, Joaquín; Avariento, Joan; Rambla Risueño, David; Montoliu Colás, Raúl; Casteleyn, Sven; Benedito Bordonau, Mauri; Gould Carlson, Michael; Huerta Guijarro, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    A Smart City relies on six key factors: Smart Governance, Smart People, Smart Economy, Smart Environment, Smart Living and Smart Mobility. This paper focuses on Smart Mobility by improving one of its key components: positioning. We developed and deployed a novel indoor positioning system (IPS) that is combined with an outdoor positioning system to support seamless indoor and outdoor navigation and wayfinding. The positioning system is implemented as a service in our broader cartography-based ...

  2. [Outdoor activity and myopia among 681 primary students in urban and rural regions of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yin; Liu, Lijuan; Xu, Liang; Lü, Yanyun; Tang, Ping; Feng, Yi

    2014-01-21

    To explore the association between outdoor activity and myopia among 681 primary students from Beijing. School-based, cross-sectional investigation. Eye examination includes the visual acuity test, auto-refractor, slit lamp, ocular biometry and non-mydriatic fundus camera. Questionnaire includes regular items, near work, outdoor activity and social-economic status. The mean time spent outdoors was 1.6 ± 0.8 hours daily. Time spent on outdoor sports and outdoor leisure were 0.7 ± 0.1 hours daily, 1.0 ± 0.8 hours daily, respectively. Mean time of outdoor activity in urban was 1.1 ± 0.4 hours daily, compared with 2.2 ± 0.8 hours daily in rural (P = 0.000). In grade-1, total time spent outdoors is significantly different between myopia and non-myopia (1.4 ± 0.6 vs 1.8 ± 0.8 hours daily, P = 0.000), similar to outdoor leisure (0.8 ± 0.6 vs 1.1 ± 0.9 hours daily, P = 0.000). The same trend was also found in grade-4. The mean time spent outdoors was 1.6 ± 0.8 hours daily. Myopia spent a lower outdoor activity compared with non-myopia. More outdoor activity, e.g., in schools, may potentially be helpful to reduce the high prevalence of myopia in the young generation.

  3. Modeling and simulation of complex systems a framework for efficient agent-based modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Siegfried, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Robert Siegfried presents a framework for efficient agent-based modeling and simulation of complex systems. He compares different approaches for describing structure and dynamics of agent-based models in detail. Based on this evaluation the author introduces the "General Reference Model for Agent-based Modeling and Simulation" (GRAMS). Furthermore he presents parallel and distributed simulation approaches for execution of agent-based models -from small scale to very large scale. The author shows how agent-based models may be executed by different simulation engines that utilize underlying hard

  4. Multibus-based parallel processor for simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrady, E. P.; Wang, C.-H.

    1983-01-01

    A Multibus-based parallel processor simulation system is described. The system is intended to serve as a vehicle for gaining hands-on experience, testing system and application software, and evaluating parallel processor performance during development of a larger system based on the horizontal/vertical-bus interprocessor communication mechanism. The prototype system consists of up to seven Intel iSBC 86/12A single-board computers which serve as processing elements, a multiple transmission controller (MTC) designed to support system operation, and an Intel Model 225 Microcomputer Development System which serves as the user interface and input/output processor. All components are interconnected by a Multibus/IEEE 796 bus. An important characteristic of the system is that it provides a mechanism for a processing element to broadcast data to other selected processing elements. This parallel transfer capability is provided through the design of the MTC and a minor modification to the iSBC 86/12A board. The operation of the MTC, the basic hardware-level operation of the system, and pertinent details about the iSBC 86/12A and the Multibus are described.

  5. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  6. Agent Programming Languages and Logics in Agent-Based Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John

    2018-01-01

    and social behavior, and work on verification. Agent-based simulation is an approach for simulation that also uses the notion of agents. Although agent programming languages and logics are much less used in agent-based simulation, there are successful examples with agents designed according to the BDI...

  7. Language Learning in Outdoor Environments: Perspectives of preschool staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Norling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Language environment is highlighted as an important area in the early childhood education sector. The term language environment refers to language-promoting aspects of education, such as preschool staff’s use of verbal language in interacting with the children. There is a lack of research about language learning in outdoor environments; thus children’s language learning is mostly based on the indoor physical environment. The aim of this study is therefore to explore, analyse, and describe how preschool staff perceive language learning in outdoor environments. The data consists of focus-group interviews with 165 preschool staff members, conducted in three cities in Sweden. The study is meaningful, thus results contribute knowledge regarding preschool staffs’ understandings of language learning in outdoor environments and develop insights to help preschool staff stimulate children’s language learning in outdoor environments.

  8. Computer-Based Simulation Games in Public Administration Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kutergina Evgeniia

    2017-01-01

    Computer simulation, an active learning technique, is now one of the advanced pedagogical technologies. Th e use of simulation games in the educational process allows students to gain a firsthand understanding of the processes of real life. Public- administration, public-policy and political-science courses increasingly adopt simulation games in universities worldwide. Besides person-to-person simulation games, there are computer-based simulations in public-administration education. Currently...

  9. Simulation-Based System Design Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The research objective is to develop, test, and implement effective and efficient simulation techniques for modeling, evaluating, and optimizing systems in order to...

  10. Simulation-Based Testing of Distributed Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rutherford, Matthew J; Carzaniga, Antonio; Wolf, Alexander L

    2006-01-01

    .... Typically written using an imperative programming language, these simulations capture basic algorithmic functionality at the same time as they focus attention on properties critical to distribution...

  11. Simulation-based training for colonoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Louise; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Nerup, Nikolaj

    2015-01-01

    in colonoscopy before practicing on patients. Twenty-five physicians (10 consultants with endoscopic experience and 15 fellows with very little endoscopic experience) were tested on 2 different simulator models: a virtual-reality simulator and a physical model. Tests were repeated twice on each simulator model...... on both the models (P virtual-reality and the physical model, respectively. The established pass/fail standards failed one of the consultants (virtual-reality simulator) and allowed one fellow to pass (physical model). The 2 tested...

  12. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition, Set IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throgmorton, Larry, Ed.; And Others

    Eight games are included in the 24 activities in the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set IV. There are also simulations, crafts, biological techniques, and organism investigations focusing on animal and plant life in the forest, desert, and snow. Designed for small groups of children ages 10 to 15 from schools and…

  13. The simulation of CAMAC system based on Windows API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lei; Song Yushou; Xi Yinyin; Yan Qiang; Liu Huilan; Li Taosheng

    2012-01-01

    Based on Windows API, a kind of design method to simulate the CAMAC System, which is commonly used in nuclear physics experiments, is developed. Using C++ object-oriented programming, the simulation is carried out in the environment of Visual Studio 2010 and the interfaces, the data-way, the control commands and the modules are simulated with the functions either user-defined or from Windows API. Applying this method, the amplifier plug AMP575A produced by ORTEC is simulated and performance experiments are studied for this simulation module. The results indicate that the simulation module can fulfill the function of pole-zero adjustment, which means this method is competent for the simulation of CAMAC System. Compared with the simulation based on LabVIEW, this way is more flexible and closer to the bottom of the system. All the works above have found a path to making the virtual instrument platform based on CAMAC system. (authors)

  14. Community-Based Policies and Support for Free Drinking Water Access in Outdoor Areas and Building Standards in U.S. Municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Wilking, Cara; Cradock, Angie

    2018-04-01

    We examined community-level characteristics associated with free drinking water access policies in U.S. municipalities using data from a nationally representative survey of city managers/officials from 2,029 local governments in 2014. Outcomes were 4 free drinking water access policies. Explanatory measures were population size, rural/urban status, census region, poverty prevalence, education, and racial/ethnic composition. We used multivariable logistic regression to test differences and presented only significant findings. Many (56.3%) local governments had at least one community plan with a written objective to provide free drinking water in outdoor areas; municipalities in the Northeast and South regions and municipalities with ≤ 50% of non-Hispanic whites were less likely and municipalities with larger population size were more likely to have a plan. About 59% had polices/budget provisions for free drinking water in parks/outdoor recreation areas; municipalities in the Northeast and South regions were less likely and municipalities with larger population size were more likely to have it. Only 9.3% provided development incentives for placing drinking fountains in outdoor, publicly accessible areas; municipalities with larger population size were more likely to have it. Only 7.7% had a municipal plumbing code with a drinking fountain standard that differed from the statewide plumbing code; municipalities with a lower proportion of non-Hispanic whites were more likely to have it. In conclusion, over half of municipalities had written plans or a provision for providing free drinking water in parks, but providing development incentives or having a local plumbing code provision were rare.

  15. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  16. Research trends in outdoor pig production — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Suk Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system. In contrast to the indoor confinement system, outdoor production system uses pasture-based units and/or deep-bedded hoop structures that promote animal welfare and environmental sustainability with a lower capital investment. In accord with the growing concern for animal and environmental welfare and food safety by the consumers, small farmers practicing an outdoor production system are seeing increased opportunities for marketing their products in the pork niche market. Unlike the general belief that the reproductive and growth performance measures of the outdoor sows and piglets are poorer in comparison with the animals reared indoors, studies showed that there was no significant difference in the performance measures, and some traits were even better in outdoor animals. Improved reproductive and production traits can increase the sustainability of outdoor farming. Present study reviewed the recent studies comparing the performance measures, meat quality and health of indoor and outdoor animals, as well as the efforts to improve the outdoor production system through changes in management such as hut types and breed of animals.

  17. Research trends in outdoor pig production — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Suk; Min, Byungrok; Oh, Sang-Hyon

    2017-01-01

    Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system. In contrast to the indoor confinement system, outdoor production system uses pasture-based units and/or deep-bedded hoop structures that promote animal welfare and environmental sustainability with a lower capital investment. In accord with the growing concern for animal and environmental welfare and food safety by the consumers, small farmers practicing an outdoor production system are seeing increased opportunities for marketing their products in the pork niche market. Unlike the general belief that the reproductive and growth performance measures of the outdoor sows and piglets are poorer in comparison with the animals reared indoors, studies showed that there was no significant difference in the performance measures, and some traits were even better in outdoor animals. Improved reproductive and production traits can increase the sustainability of outdoor farming. Present study reviewed the recent studies comparing the performance measures, meat quality and health of indoor and outdoor animals, as well as the efforts to improve the outdoor production system through changes in management such as hut types and breed of animals. PMID:28728401

  18. Competency-Based Training and Simulation: Making a "Valid" Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureldin, Yasser A; Lee, Jason Y; McDougall, Elspeth M; Sweet, Robert M

    2018-02-01

    The use of simulation as an assessment tool is much more controversial than is its utility as an educational tool. However, without valid simulation-based assessment tools, the ability to objectively assess technical skill competencies in a competency-based medical education framework will remain challenging. The current literature in urologic simulation-based training and assessment uses a definition and framework of validity that is now outdated. This is probably due to the absence of awareness rather than an absence of comprehension. The following review article provides the urologic community an updated taxonomy on validity theory as it relates to simulation-based training and assessments and translates our simulation literature to date into this framework. While the old taxonomy considered validity as distinct subcategories and focused on the simulator itself, the modern taxonomy, for which we translate the literature evidence, considers validity as a unitary construct with a focus on interpretation of simulator data/scores.

  19. Built environment, parents' perception, and children's vigorous outdoor play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Grize, Leticia; Mäder, Urs; Ruch, Nicole; Sennhauser, Felix H; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the combined effects and relative importance of socio-cultural factors as well as parents' subjectively perceived and objectively assessed environment on time children spent vigorously playing outdoors. Cross-sectional study conducted in Berne, Biel-Bienne, and Payerne (Switzerland) during the school year 2004/2005. Included 1345 parental questionnaires from children out of three age groups (6/7, 9/10, and 13/14 years). A total of 1081 (80%) provided a home address, which could be linked to environmental data using a geographic information system (GIS). GIS-derived main street density in a buffer of 100 m around the home was inversely associated with time playing outdoors in adolescents and younger children, but only in more urbanized areas. In addition and independently of GIS-based main street density, parental concern about traffic safety was associated with less time playing outdoors in primary school children. Girls, adolescents, and children from the French speaking part of the country spent less time playing outdoors. A non-Swiss nationality and having younger siblings increased time playing vigorously outdoors in adolescents. In addition to socio-cultural factors, parents' perceptions and objectively measured environmental factors were significantly associated with the time spent vigorously playing outdoors. These associations differed by age group. Copyright (c) 2010 The Institute For Cancer Prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Simulation-based assessment for construction helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James; Yang, James; Lei, Zhipeng; Liang, Daan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a concerted effort for greater job safety in all industries. Personnel protective equipment (PPE) has been developed to help mitigate the risk of injury to humans that might be exposed to hazardous situations. The human head is the most vulnerable to impact as a moderate magnitude can cause serious injury or death. That is why industries have required the use of an industrial hard hat or helmet. There have only been a few articles published to date that are focused on the risk of head injury when wearing an industrial helmet. A full understanding of the effectiveness of construction helmets on reducing injury is lacking. This paper presents a simulation-based method to determine the threshold at which a human will sustain injury when wearing a construction helmet and assesses the risk of injury for wearers of construction helmets or hard hats. Advanced finite element, or FE, models were developed to study the impact on construction helmets. The FE model consists of two parts: the helmet and the human models. The human model consists of a brain, enclosed by a skull and an outer layer of skin. The level and probability of injury to the head was determined using both the head injury criterion (HIC) and tolerance limits set by Deck and Willinger. The HIC has been widely used to assess the likelihood of head injury in vehicles. The tolerance levels proposed by Deck and Willinger are more suited for finite element models but lack wide-scale validation. Different cases of impact were studied using LSTC's LS-DYNA.

  1. An Agent-Based Simulation Model for Organizational Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruan, Sui; Gokhale, Swapna S; Pattipati, Krishna R

    2006-01-01

    In many fields, including engineering, management, and organizational science, simulation-based computational organization theory has been used to gain insight into the degree of match ("congruence...

  2. An Example-Based Brain MRI Simulation Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Roy, Snehashis; Jog, Amod; Pham, Dzung L

    2015-02-21

    The simulation of magnetic resonance (MR) images plays an important role in the validation of image analysis algorithms such as image segmentation, due to lack of sufficient ground truth in real MR images. Previous work on MRI simulation has focused on explicitly modeling the MR image formation process. However, because of the overwhelming complexity of MR acquisition these simulations must involve simplifications and approximations that can result in visually unrealistic simulated images. In this work, we describe an example-based simulation framework, which uses an "atlas" consisting of an MR image and its anatomical models derived from the hard segmentation. The relationships between the MR image intensities and its anatomical models are learned using a patch-based regression that implicitly models the physics of the MR image formation. Given the anatomical models of a new brain, a new MR image can be simulated using the learned regression. This approach has been extended to also simulate intensity inhomogeneity artifacts based on the statistical model of training data. Results show that the example based MRI simulation method is capable of simulating different image contrasts and is robust to different choices of atlas. The simulated images resemble real MR images more than simulations produced by a physics-based model.

  3. Injury and illness in college outdoor education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Flavio G; Greenwald, Peter W; Holton, Mark

    2010-12-01

    Many colleges offer outdoor education courses such as rock climbing, kayaking, and mountain biking. Since these sports may be perceived as dangerous, we describe the prevalence of injuries and illnesses in a large, university-based outdoor education program. We also compare composite incident rates from this outdoor program to those of traditional college sports. Cohort of college students participating in either Cornell Outdoor Education (COE) or National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports and comparison of incident rates. COE data were prospectively collected in the field; and NCAA data were prospectively collected through the Association's Injury Surveillance System. By definition, a COE injury or illness required follow-up care, prescription medication, or limited course participation. Similarly, a NCAA injury limited further practice or play. Incident rates were calculated as injuries and illnesses per 1000 participant-days (COE) or injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (NCAA). Included COE courses during 2002-2007 totaled 74 005 participant-days. There were 111 injuries and illnesses, rate = 1.50/1000 participant-days (95% CI 1.24-1.81). The NCAA reported 32 646 899 athlete-exposures during 1988-2004 and 181 476 injuries, rate = 5.56/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI 5.53-5.58). Compared to COE, the relative risk of injury in NCAA sports was 3.7 (95% CI 3.1-4.5) overall and 3.3 (95% CI 2.8-4.0) after excluding the high-contact sports of football, ice hockey, and wrestling. For COE, mountain biking had the highest incident rate (7.5/1000), which was significantly lower than game injury rates in NCAA football and soccer. The most common injuries for both NCAA and COE were soft-tissue injuries such as sprains and strains. Outdoor education at this university-sponsored program was at least as safe as traditional college sports. Overall, college students were less likely to be injured while participating in COE courses than while participating in NCAA sports

  4. Simulation-based training for thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine; Ringsted, Charlotte; Hansen, Henrik Jessen

    2014-01-01

    overcome the first part of the learning curve, but no virtual-reality simulators for thoracoscopy are commercially available. This study aimed to investigate whether training on a laparoscopic simulator enables trainees to perform a thoracoscopic lobectomy. METHODS: Twenty-eight surgical residents were...... randomized to either virtual-reality training on a nephrectomy module or traditional black-box simulator training. After a retention period they performed a thoracoscopic lobectomy on a porcine model and their performance was scored using a previously validated assessment tool. RESULTS: The groups did...... not differ in age or gender. All participants were able to complete the lobectomy. The performance of the black-box group was significantly faster during the test scenario than the virtual-reality group: 26.6 min (SD 6.7 min) versus 32.7 min (SD 7.5 min). No difference existed between the two groups when...

  5. Research on Integration of Indoor and Outdoor Positioning in Professional Athletic Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available GNSS is widely used in professional athletic training as an outdoor location based services, and the indoor positioning technology has gradually flourished in the gymnasium. To keep up with the demand for athletic training in indoor and outdoor environment, integration of indoor and outdoor positioning technology can achieve a seamless indoor/outdoor position solution. The proposed method uses GPS/BEIDOU with IMU-MEMS technology for outdoor positioning and UWB with IMU-MEMS technology for indoor positioning to provide high precision positioning services. The experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve meter level position accuracy in outdoor environment and centimeter level position accuracy in indoor environment, it can provide precise and real-time positioning service for effective athletic training aid.

  6. Formal education in outdoor studies: introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Regional cultural perspectives involve outdoor studies in different ways in formal curricula. This section focuses on Western Europe, particularly the UK and Scandinavia, although also has a more international reach in Backman’s consideration of the training of teachers and in place-responsive teaching as described by Mannion and Lynch. ‘Outdoor studies’ is not seen in curricula per se but under various more specialised aspects such as outdoor play, outdoor learning, environmental education, ...

  7. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J

    In the biological literature on animal behaviour, in addition to real experiments and field studies, also simulation experiments are a useful source of progress. Often specific mathematical modelling techniques are adopted and directly implemented in a programming language. Modelling more complex

  8. Simulation based analysis of laser beam brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Michael; Wiethop, Philipp; Schmid, Daniel; Schmidt, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Laser beam brazing is a well-established joining technology in car body manufacturing with main applications in the joining of divided tailgates and the joining of roof and side panels. A key advantage of laser brazed joints is the seam's visual quality which satisfies highest requirements. However, the laser beam brazing process is very complex and process dynamics are only partially understood. In order to gain deeper knowledge of the laser beam brazing process, to determine optimal process parameters and to test process variants, a transient three-dimensional simulation model of laser beam brazing is developed. This model takes into account energy input, heat transfer as well as fluid and wetting dynamics that lead to the formation of the brazing seam. A validation of the simulation model is performed by metallographic analysis and thermocouple measurements for different parameter sets of the brazing process. These results show that the multi-physical simulation model not only can be used to gain insight into the laser brazing process but also offers the possibility of process optimization in industrial applications. The model's capabilities in determining optimal process parameters are exemplarily shown for the laser power. Small deviations in the energy input can affect the brazing results significantly. Therefore, the simulation model is used to analyze the effect of the lateral laser beam position on the energy input and the resulting brazing seam.

  9. Agent-based Simulation of the Maritime Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vaněk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multi-agent based simulation platform is introduced that focuses on legitimate and illegitimate aspects of maritime traffic, mainly on intercontinental transport through piracy afflicted areas. The extensible architecture presented here comprises several modules controlling the simulation and the life-cycle of the agents, analyzing the simulation output and visualizing the entire simulated domain. The simulation control module is initialized by various configuration scenarios to simulate various real-world situations, such as a pirate ambush, coordinated transit through a transport corridor, or coastal fishing and local traffic. The environmental model provides a rich set of inputs for agents that use the geo-spatial data and the vessel operational characteristics for their reasoning. The agent behavior model based on finite state machines together with planning algorithms allows complex expression of agent behavior, so the resulting simulation output can serve as a substitution for real world data from the maritime domain.

  10. Budget Time: A Gender-Based Negotiation Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkacs, Linda L.; Barkacs, Craig B.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a gender-based negotiation simulation designed to make participants aware of gender-based stereotypes and their effect on negotiation outcomes. In this simulation, the current research on gender issues is animated via three role sheets: (a) Vice president (VP), (b) advantaged department head, and (c) disadvantaged department…

  11. PCISIM - A Simulation Tool for PCI Bus Based Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    1999-01-01

    This document describes a PCI bus simulator for use in evaluating the feasibility of system designs based on this bus.......This document describes a PCI bus simulator for use in evaluating the feasibility of system designs based on this bus....

  12. Fear of moving outdoors and development of outdoor walking difficulty in older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation.......To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation....

  13. Outdoor Education for Bereaved Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    For many outdoor education providers, bereaved children and young people at first appear to be a new target audience. A new target audience naturally raises questions of programme planning and can give the provider a pressurised need to succeed: "Do I as the organiser have to develop a whole new programme?", "May I be required to provide some form…

  14. Signature Pedagogies in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    The new National health and physical education curriculum in Australia includes outdoor education activities as a viable way to achieve intended learning outcomes. However, most health and physical education teacher education courses do not provide a strong focus on the theories, skills and pedagogies that are unique to the effective use of…

  15. Multilayer Controller for Outdoor Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reske-Nielsen, Anders; Mejnertsen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2006-01-01

    A full software and hardware solution has been designed, implemented and tested for control of a small agricultural automatic tractor. The objective was to realise a user-friendly, multi-layer controller architecture for an outdoor platform. The collaborative research work was done as a part of a...

  16. Expanding & strengthening outdoor recreation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter S. Hopkins

    1971-01-01

    Though the Forest Service has pioneered in outdoor recreation research, the funding for recreation research has been inadequate. Specific needs for research are outlined. There is a need to define recreation and recreation research in terms that busy legislators can understand.

  17. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  18. Benchmarking Outdoor Expeditionary Program Risk Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerts-Brandsma, Lisa; Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In 2003, the University of Utah and the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) completed a study that developed a risk management taxonomy in the outdoor adventure industry and assessed how different outdoor expeditionary programs (OEPs) managed risk (Szolosi, Sibthorp, Paisley, & Gookin, 2003). By unifying the language around risk, the…

  19. Hinterbrand Lodge Outdoor Education Center. Program Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.

    Describing Department of Defense Dependents Schools Europe (DODDSEUR) use of Hinterbrand Lodge Outdoor Education Center, this document is directed to sponsors wishing to take groups to Hinterbrand for one or more of the five program options (outdoor education week, teacher weekend, school-designed outdoor education program, administrative faculty…

  20. Outdoor Leadership Skills: A Program Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooter, Wynn; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Successful hiring, training, and pairing or grouping of staff requires administrators to consider the relationship between their programs' goals and the specific outdoor leadership skills of individual leaders. Authors have divided outdoor leadership skills into a three-category structure, and models of outdoor leadership have focused on skills…

  1. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.52 Section 3.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... outdoors when the atmospheric temperature falls below 40 °F. (d) Protection from predators. Outdoor housing...

  2. Preview-based sampling for controlling gaseous simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ruoguan

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we describe an automated method for directing the control of a high resolution gaseous fluid simulation based on the results of a lower resolution preview simulation. Small variations in accuracy between low and high resolution grids can lead to divergent simulations, which is problematic for those wanting to achieve a desired behavior. Our goal is to provide a simple method for ensuring that the high resolution simulation matches key properties from the lower resolution simulation. We first let a user specify a fast, coarse simulation that will be used for guidance. Our automated method samples the data to be matched at various positions and scales in the simulation, or allows the user to identify key portions of the simulation to maintain. During the high resolution simulation, a matching process ensures that the properties sampled from the low resolution simulation are maintained. This matching process keeps the different resolution simulations aligned even for complex systems, and can ensure consistency of not only the velocity field, but also advected scalar values. Because the final simulation is naturally similar to the preview simulation, only minor controlling adjustments are needed, allowing a simpler control method than that used in prior keyframing approaches. Copyright © 2011 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  3. Determining procedures for simulation-based training in radiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayahangan, Leizl Joy; Nielsen, Kristina Rue; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    , and basic abdominal ultrasound. CONCLUSION: A needs assessment identified and prioritized 13 technical procedures to include in a simulation-based curriculum. The list may be used as guide for development of training programs. KEY POINTS: • Simulation-based training can supplement training on patients......OBJECTIVES: New training modalities such as simulation are widely accepted in radiology; however, development of effective simulation-based training programs is challenging. They are often unstructured and based on convenience or coincidence. The study objective was to perform a nationwide needs...... assessment to identify and prioritize technical procedures that should be included in a simulation-based curriculum. METHODS: A needs assessment using the Delphi method was completed among 91 key leaders in radiology. Round 1 identified technical procedures that radiologists should learn. Round 2 explored...

  4. Simulation Based Optimization for World Line Card Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan APAK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulation based decision support system is one of the commonly used tool to examine complex production systems. The simulation approach provides process modules which can be adjusted with certain parameters by using data relatively easily obtainable in production process. World Line Card production system simulation is developed to evaluate the optimality of existing production line via using discrete event simulation model with variaty of alternative proposals. The current production system is analysed by a simulation model emphasizing the bottlenecks and the poorly utilized production line. Our analysis identified some improvements and efficient solutions for the existing system.

  5. Developing a Theory-Based Simulation Educator Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christine M; Sievers, Lisa D; Kellgren, Molly; Manning, Sara J; Rojas, Deborah E; Gamblian, Vivian C

    2015-01-01

    The NLN Leadership Development Program for Simulation Educators 2014 faculty development group identified a lack of a common language/terminology to outline the progression of expertise of simulation educators. The group analyzed Benner's novice-to-expert model and applied its levels of experience to simulation educator growth. It established common operational categories of faculty development and used them to organize resources that support progression toward expertise. The resulting theory-based Simulator Educator Toolkit outlines levels of ability and provides quality resources to meet the diverse needs of simulation educators and team members.

  6. Simulation-based training in echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Monodeep; Patel, Rajendrakumar; German, Charles; Kharod, Anant; Mohamed, Ahmed; Dod, Harvinder S; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Nanda, Navin C

    2016-10-01

    The knowledge gained from echocardiography is paramount for the clinician in diagnosing, interpreting, and treating various forms of disease. While cardiologists traditionally have undergone training in this imaging modality during their fellowship, many other specialties are beginning to show interest as well, including intensive care, anesthesia, and primary care trainees, in both transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography. Advances in technology have led to the development of simulation programs accessible to trainees to help gain proficiency in the nuances of obtaining quality images, in a low stress, pressure free environment, often with a functioning ultrasound probe and mannequin that can mimic many of the pathologies seen in living patients. Although there are various training simulation programs each with their own benefits and drawbacks, it is clear that these programs are a powerful tool in educating the trainee and likely will lead to improved patient outcomes. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyi Li

    Full Text Available Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates.

  8. Traffic simulation based ship collision probability modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlandt, Floris, E-mail: floris.goerlandt@tkk.f [Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Marine Technology, P.O. Box 15300, FI-00076 AALTO, Espoo (Finland); Kujala, Pentti [Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Marine Technology, P.O. Box 15300, FI-00076 AALTO, Espoo (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    Maritime traffic poses various risks in terms of human, environmental and economic loss. In a risk analysis of ship collisions, it is important to get a reasonable estimate for the probability of such accidents and the consequences they lead to. In this paper, a method is proposed to assess the probability of vessels colliding with each other. The method is capable of determining the expected number of accidents, the locations where and the time when they are most likely to occur, while providing input for models concerned with the expected consequences. At the basis of the collision detection algorithm lays an extensive time domain micro-simulation of vessel traffic in the given area. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is applied to obtain a meaningful prediction of the relevant factors of the collision events. Data obtained through the Automatic Identification System is analyzed in detail to obtain realistic input data for the traffic simulation: traffic routes, the number of vessels on each route, the ship departure times, main dimensions and sailing speed. The results obtained by the proposed method for the studied case of the Gulf of Finland are presented, showing reasonable agreement with registered accident and near-miss data.

  9. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) I

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    Article made available with the permission of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education. This article reports on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreationrelated outdoor education research literature published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered by the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This article is divided into two parts, both published in this issue of th...

  10. A Computer-Based Simulation of an Acid-Base Titration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boblick, John M.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews the advantages of computer simulated environments for experiments, referring in particular to acid-base titrations. Includes pre-lab instructions and a sample computer printout of a student's use of an acid-base simulation. Ten references. (PR)

  11. UAV Flight Control Based on RTX System Simulation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Duan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes RTX and Matlab UAV flight control system simulation platform based on the advantages and disadvantages of Windows and real-time system RTX. In the simulation platform, we set the RTW toolbox configuration and modify grt_main.c in order to make simulation platform endowed with online parameter adjustment, fault injection. Meanwhile, we develop the interface of the system simulation platform by CVI, thus it makes effective and has good prospects in application. In order to improve the real-time performance of simulation system, the current computer of real-time simulation mostly use real-time operating system to solve simulation model, as well as dual- framework containing in Host and target machine. The system is complex, high cost, and generally used for the control and half of practical system simulation. For the control system designers, they expect to design control law at a computer with Windows-based environment and conduct real-time simulation. This paper proposes simulation platform for UAV flight control system based on RTX and Matlab for this demand.

  12. A study protocol to evaluate the relationship between outdoor air pollution and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selemane Ismael

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study protocol is designed to assess the relationship between outdoor air pollution and low birth weight and preterm births outcomes performing a semi-ecological analysis. Semi-ecological design studies are widely used to assess effects of air pollution in humans. In this type of analysis, health outcomes and covariates are measured in individuals and exposure assignments are usually based on air quality monitor stations. Therefore, estimating individual exposures are one of the major challenges when investigating these relationships with a semi-ecologic design. Methods/Design Semi-ecologic study consisting of a retrospective cohort study with ecologic assignment of exposure is applied. Health outcomes and covariates are collected at Primary Health Care Center. Data from pregnant registry, clinical record and specific questionnaire administered orally to the mothers of children born in period 2007-2010 in Portuguese Alentejo Litoral region, are collected by the research team. Outdoor air pollution data are collected with a lichen diversity biomonitoring program, and individual pregnancy exposures are assessed with spatial geostatistical simulation, which provides the basis for uncertainty analysis of individual exposures. Awareness of outdoor air pollution uncertainty will improve validity of individual exposures assignments for further statistical analysis with multivariate regression models. Discussion Exposure misclassification is an issue of concern in semi-ecological design. In this study, personal exposures are assigned to each pregnant using geocoded addresses data. A stochastic simulation method is applied to lichen diversity values index measured at biomonitoring survey locations, in order to assess spatial uncertainty of lichen diversity value index at each geocoded address. These methods assume a model for spatial autocorrelation of exposure and provide a distribution of exposures in each study location

  13. A study protocol to evaluate the relationship between outdoor air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pereira, Maria J; Soares, Amílcar; Branquinho, Cristina; Augusto, Sofia; Llop, Esteve; Fonseca, Susana; Nave, Joaquim G; Tavares, António B; Dias, Carlos M; Silva, Ana; Selemane, Ismael; de Toro, Joaquin; Santos, Mário J; Santos, Fernanda

    2010-10-15

    The present study protocol is designed to assess the relationship between outdoor air pollution and low birth weight and preterm births outcomes performing a semi-ecological analysis. Semi-ecological design studies are widely used to assess effects of air pollution in humans. In this type of analysis, health outcomes and covariates are measured in individuals and exposure assignments are usually based on air quality monitor stations. Therefore, estimating individual exposures are one of the major challenges when investigating these relationships with a semi-ecologic design. Semi-ecologic study consisting of a retrospective cohort study with ecologic assignment of exposure is applied. Health outcomes and covariates are collected at Primary Health Care Center. Data from pregnant registry, clinical record and specific questionnaire administered orally to the mothers of children born in period 2007-2010 in Portuguese Alentejo Litoral region, are collected by the research team. Outdoor air pollution data are collected with a lichen diversity biomonitoring program, and individual pregnancy exposures are assessed with spatial geostatistical simulation, which provides the basis for uncertainty analysis of individual exposures. Awareness of outdoor air pollution uncertainty will improve validity of individual exposures assignments for further statistical analysis with multivariate regression models. Exposure misclassification is an issue of concern in semi-ecological design. In this study, personal exposures are assigned to each pregnant using geocoded addresses data. A stochastic simulation method is applied to lichen diversity values index measured at biomonitoring survey locations, in order to assess spatial uncertainty of lichen diversity value index at each geocoded address. These methods assume a model for spatial autocorrelation of exposure and provide a distribution of exposures in each study location. We believe that variability of simulated exposure values at

  14. Simulation-Based Internal Models for Safer Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Blum

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the potential of mobile robots with simulation-based internal models for safety in highly dynamic environments. We propose a robot with a simulation of itself, other dynamic actors and its environment, inside itself. Operating in real time, this simulation-based internal model is able to look ahead and predict the consequences of both the robot’s own actions and those of the other dynamic actors in its vicinity. Hence, the robot continuously modifies its own actions in order to actively maintain its own safety while also achieving its goal. Inspired by the problem of how mobile robots could move quickly and safely through crowds of moving humans, we present experimental results which compare the performance of our internal simulation-based controller with a purely reactive approach as a proof-of-concept study for the practical use of simulation-based internal models.

  15. Automated numerical simulation of biological pattern formation based on visual feedback simulation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingzhu; Xu, Hui; Zeng, Xingjuan; Zhao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    There are various fantastic biological phenomena in biological pattern formation. Mathematical modeling using reaction-diffusion partial differential equation systems is employed to study the mechanism of pattern formation. However, model parameter selection is both difficult and time consuming. In this paper, a visual feedback simulation framework is proposed to calculate the parameters of a mathematical model automatically based on the basic principle of feedback control. In the simulation framework, the simulation results are visualized, and the image features are extracted as the system feedback. Then, the unknown model parameters are obtained by comparing the image features of the simulation image and the target biological pattern. Considering two typical applications, the visual feedback simulation framework is applied to fulfill pattern formation simulations for vascular mesenchymal cells and lung development. In the simulation framework, the spot, stripe, labyrinthine patterns of vascular mesenchymal cells, the normal branching pattern and the branching pattern lacking side branching for lung branching are obtained in a finite number of iterations. The simulation results indicate that it is easy to achieve the simulation targets, especially when the simulation patterns are sensitive to the model parameters. Moreover, this simulation framework can expand to other types of biological pattern formation.

  16. CUDA-based real time surgery simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youquan; De, Suvranu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a general software platform that enables real time surgery simulation on the newly available compute unified device architecture (CUDA)from NVIDIA. CUDA-enabled GPUs harness the power of 128 processors which allow data parallel computations. Compared to the previous GPGPU, it is significantly more flexible with a C language interface. We report implementation of both collision detection and consequent deformation computation algorithms. Our test results indicate that the CUDA enables a twenty times speedup for collision detection and about fifteen times speedup for deformation computation on an Intel Core 2 Quad 2.66 GHz machine with GeForce 8800 GTX.

  17. Temperament Is Associated With Outdoor Free Play in Young Children: A TARGet Kids! Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Julia R; Maguire, Jonathon L; Carsley, Sarah; Abdullah, Kawsari; Chen, Yang; Perrin, Eliana M; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    Outdoor free play is important for preschoolers' physical activity, health, and development. Certain temperamental characteristics are associated with obesity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviors in preschoolers, but the relationship between temperament and outdoor play has not been examined. This study examined whether there is an association between temperament and outdoor play in young children. Healthy children aged 1 to 5 years recruited to The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!), a community-based primary care research network, from July 2008 to September 2013 were included. Parent-reported child temperament was assessed using the Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. Outdoor free play and other potential confounding variables were assessed through validated questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between temperament and outdoor play, adjusted for potential confounders. There were 3393 children with data on outdoor play. The association between negative affectivity and outdoor play was moderated by sex; in boys, for every 1-point increase in negative affectivity score, mean outdoor play decreased by 4.7 minutes per day. There was no significant association in girls. Surgency was associated with outdoor play; for every 1-point increase in surgency/extraversion, outdoor play increased by 4.6 minutes per day. Young children's temperamental characteristics were associated with their participation in outdoor free play. Consideration of temperament could enhance interventions and strategies to increase outdoor play in young children. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between children's early temperament and physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Trends in land and water available for outdoor recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd C. Irland; Thomas Rumpf

    1980-01-01

    A data base for assessing the availability of land for outdoor recreation does not exist. Information on related issues such as vandalism, easements, and land posting is scanty. Construction of a data base for assessing land availability should be a high priority for USFS and HCRS, and for SCORP's and the RPA and RCA assessments.

  19. Haptic Feedback for the GPU-based Surgical Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Mosegaard, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The GPU has proven to be a powerful processor to compute spring-mass based surgical simulations. It has not previously been shown however, how to effectively implement haptic interaction with a simulation running entirely on the GPU. This paper describes a method to calculate haptic feedback...... with limited performance cost. It allows easy balancing of the GPU workload between calculations of simulation, visualisation, and the haptic feedback....

  20. Cognitive Modeling for Agent-Based Simulation of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Puddy, Richard

    This paper extends previous work to develop cognitive modeling for agent-based simulation of child maltreatment (CM). The developed model is inspired from parental efficacy, parenting stress, and the theory of planned behavior. It provides an explanatory, process-oriented model of CM and incorporates causality relationship and feedback loops from different factors in the social ecology in order for simulating the dynamics of CM. We describe the model and present simulation results to demonstrate the features of this model.

  1. Particle Swarm Optimization for Outdoor Lighting Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Castillo-Martinez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor lighting is an essential service for modern life. However, the high influence of this type of facility on energy consumption makes it necessary to take extra care in the design phase. Therefore, this manuscript describes an algorithm to help light designers to get, in an easy way, the best configuration parameters and to improve energy efficiency, while ensuring a minimum level of overall uniformity. To make this possible, we used a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. These algorithms are well established, and are simple and effective to solve optimization problems. To take into account the most influential parameters on lighting and energy efficiency, 500 simulations were performed using DIALux software (4.10.0.2, DIAL, Ludenscheid, Germany. Next, the relation between these parameters was studied using to data mining software. Subsequently, we conducted two experiments for setting parameters that enabled the best configuration algorithm in order to improve efficiency in the proposed process optimization.

  2. Cavitation-based hydro-fracturing simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Ren, Fei; Cox, Thomas S.

    2016-11-22

    An apparatus 300 for simulating a pulsed pressure induced cavitation technique (PPCT) from a pressurized working fluid (F) provides laboratory research and development for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), oil, and gas wells. A pump 304 is configured to deliver a pressurized working fluid (F) to a control valve 306, which produces a pulsed pressure wave in a test chamber 308. The pulsed pressure wave parameters are defined by the pump 304 pressure and control valve 306 cycle rate. When a working fluid (F) and a rock specimen 312 are included in the apparatus, the pulsed pressure wave causes cavitation to occur at the surface of the specimen 312, thus initiating an extensive network of fracturing surfaces and micro fissures, which are examined by researchers.

  3. Immersive Simulation in Constructivist-Based Classroom E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHaney, Roger; Reiter, Lauren; Reychav, Iris

    2018-01-01

    This article describes the development of a simulation-based online course combining sound pedagogy, educational technology, and real world expertise to provide university students with an immersive experience in storage management systems. The course developed in this example does more than use a simulation, the entire course is delivered using a…

  4. Simulating individual-based models of epidemics in hierarchical networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quax, R.; Bader, D.A.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Current mathematical modeling methods for the spreading of infectious diseases are too simplified and do not scale well. We present the Simulator of Epidemic Evolution in Complex Networks (SEECN), an efficient simulator of detailed individual-based models by parameterizing separate dynamics

  5. Simulation-based modeling of building complexes construction management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelev, Aleksandr; Severova, Galina; Potashova, Irina

    2018-03-01

    The study reported here examines the experience in the development and implementation of business simulation games based on network planning and management of high-rise construction. Appropriate network models of different types and levels of detail have been developed; a simulation model including 51 blocks (11 stages combined in 4 units) is proposed.

  6. Modeling ground-based timber harvesting systems using computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux

    2001-01-01

    Modeling ground-based timber harvesting systems with an object-oriented methodology was investigated. Object-oriented modeling and design promote a better understanding of requirements, cleaner designs, and better maintainability of the harvesting simulation system. The model developed simulates chainsaw felling, drive-to-tree feller-buncher, swing-to-tree single-grip...

  7. Simulation of quantum computation : A deterministic event-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K; De Raedt, K; De Raedt, H

    We demonstrate that locally connected networks of machines that have primitive learning capabilities can be used to perform a deterministic, event-based simulation of quantum computation. We present simulation results for basic quantum operations such as the Hadamard and the controlled-NOT gate, and

  8. Simulation of Quantum Computation : A Deterministic Event-Based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Raedt, K. De; Raedt, H. De

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that locally connected networks of machines that have primitive learning capabilities can be used to perform a deterministic, event-based simulation of quantum computation. We present simulation results for basic quantum operations such as the Hadamard and the controlled-NOT gate, and

  9. Web-based Interactive Simulator for Rotating Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Vijayalaxmi

    1999-01-01

    Baroma (Balance of Rotating Machinery), the Web-based educational engineering interactive software for teaching/learning combines didactical and software ergonomical approaches. The software in tutorial form simulates a problem using Visual Interactive Simulation in graphic display, and animation is brought about through graphical user interface…

  10. Conceptual modeling for simulation-based serious gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Holkenborg, Bart; Robinson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    In recent years many simulation-based serious games have been developed for supporting (future) managers in operations management decision making. They illustrate the high potential of using discrete event simulation for pedagogical purposes. Unfortunately, this potential does not seem to go

  11. Airway management in a bronchoscopic simulator based setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeser, Karin; Konge, Lars; Kristensen, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several simulation-based possibilities for training flexible optical intubation have been developed, ranging from non-anatomical phantoms to high-fidelity virtual reality simulators. These teaching devices might also be used to assess the competence of trainees before allowing them...

  12. Simulation-Based Medical Education: An Ethical Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Amitai; Wolpe, Paul Root; Small, Stephen D.; Glick, Shimon

    2003-01-01

    Describes simulation-based learning in medical education and presents four these that make a framework for simulations: (1) best standards of care and training; (2) error management and patient safety; (3) patient autonomy; and (4) social justice and resource allocation. (SLD)

  13. Innovative Outdoor Fieldwork Pedagogies in the Higher Education Sector: Optimising the Use of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Glyn J.; Munge, Brendon

    2017-01-01

    Outdoor fieldwork has been a long-standing pedagogy in the higher education sector, across a range of disciplines. Based on a review of the literature, this paper explores the use of outdoor fieldwork in the 21st century university with particular reference to the way technology contributes to student learning. Research has indicated that…

  14. Re-Placing Outdoor Education: Diversity, Inclusion, and the Microadventures of the Everyday

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jay W.

    2018-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on sustainability and place-based education, along with a heightened sense of awareness of diversity and inclusion issues in outdoor education, the time has come to critically examine the long-held trip and expedition construct within the outdoor education field. This paper will explore the theoretical influences of…

  15. The Potential of Humor as a Trigger for Emotional Engagement in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Colin; Deed, Craig; Lugg, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the relevance of humor to student engagement in outdoor education. A sociocultural framework is applied to this examination, based on a view of learning as constructed, cognitive, embodied, and affective. A set of affordances of outdoor education as a contextually situated learning activity is identified along with related…

  16. FK concentrator outdoor measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Sanz, Maikel; Vilaplana, J., J.; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Mohedano,, Rubén; Zamora Herranz, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Mendes Lopes, Joao

    2013-01-01

    The FK is a two-stage optical concentrator for CPV, composed by a Fresnel lens working as POE and a refractive element working as SOE. Both elements perform Köhler integration, for uniform irradiance purposes. The FK has demonstrated that compares very well with other Fresnel-based concentrator optics. Recent on-sun measurements carried out on an FK mono-module prototype have already shown outstanding results, achieving electrical efficiencies over 34%. Further optimization of optical design ...

  17. Design-Based Comparison of Spine Surgery Simulators: Optimizing Educational Features of Surgical Simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Won Hyung A; Mostafa, Ahmed E; Dharampal, Navjit; Sharlin, Ehud; Kopp, Gail; Jacobs, W Bradley; Hurlbert, R John; Chan, Sonny; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2017-10-01

    Simulation-based education has made its entry into surgical residency training, particularly as an adjunct to hands-on clinical experience. However, one of the ongoing challenges to wide adoption is the capacity of simulators to incorporate educational features required for effective learning. The aim of this study was to identify strengths and limitations of spine simulators to characterize design elements that are essential in enhancing resident education. We performed a mixed qualitative and quantitative cohort study with a focused survey and interviews of stakeholders in spine surgery pertaining to their experiences on 3 spine simulators. Ten participants were recruited spanning all levels of training and expertise until qualitative analysis reached saturation of themes. Participants were asked to perform lumbar pedicle screw insertion on 3 simulators. Afterward, a 10-item survey was administrated and a focused interview was conducted to explore topics pertaining to the design features of the simulators. Overall impressions of the simulators were positive with regards to their educational benefit, but our qualitative analysis revealed differing strengths and limitations. Main design strengths of the computer-based simulators were incorporation of procedural guidance and provision of performance feedback. The synthetic model excelled in achieving more realistic haptic feedback and incorporating use of actual surgical tools. Stakeholders from trainees to experts acknowledge the growing role of simulation-based education in spine surgery. However, different simulation modalities have varying design elements that augment learning in distinct ways. Characterization of these design characteristics will allow for standardization of simulation curricula in spinal surgery, optimizing educational benefit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Computer-Based Simulation Games in Public Administration Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutergina Evgeniia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulation, an active learning technique, is now one of the advanced pedagogical technologies. Th e use of simulation games in the educational process allows students to gain a firsthand understanding of the processes of real life. Public- administration, public-policy and political-science courses increasingly adopt simulation games in universities worldwide. Besides person-to-person simulation games, there are computer-based simulations in public-administration education. Currently in Russia the use of computer-based simulation games in Master of Public Administration (MPA curricula is quite limited. Th is paper focuses on computer- based simulation games for students of MPA programmes. Our aim was to analyze outcomes of implementing such games in MPA curricula. We have done so by (1 developing three computer-based simulation games about allocating public finances, (2 testing the games in the learning process, and (3 conducting a posttest examination to evaluate the effect of simulation games on students’ knowledge of municipal finances. Th is study was conducted in the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE and in the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA during the period of September to December 2015, in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Two groups of students were randomly selected in each university and then randomly allocated either to the experimental or the control group. In control groups (n=12 in HSE, n=13 in RANEPA students had traditional lectures. In experimental groups (n=12 in HSE, n=13 in RANEPA students played three simulation games apart from traditional lectures. Th is exploratory research shows that the use of computer-based simulation games in MPA curricula can improve students’ outcomes by 38 %. In general, the experimental groups had better performances on the post-test examination (Figure 2. Students in the HSE experimental group had 27.5 % better

  19. a Simulation-As Framework Facilitating Webgis Based Installation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z.; Chang, Z. Y.; Fei, Y. F.

    2017-09-01

    Installation Planning is constrained by both natural and social conditions, especially for spatially sparse but functionally connected facilities. Simulation is important for proper deploy in space and configuration in function of facilities to make them a cohesive and supportive system to meet users' operation needs. Based on requirement analysis, we propose a framework to combine GIS and Agent simulation to overcome the shortness in temporal analysis and task simulation of traditional GIS. In this framework, Agent based simulation runs as a service on the server, exposes basic simulation functions, such as scenario configuration, simulation control, and simulation data retrieval to installation planners. At the same time, the simulation service is able to utilize various kinds of geoprocessing services in Agents' process logic to make sophisticated spatial inferences and analysis. This simulation-as-a-service framework has many potential benefits, such as easy-to-use, on-demand, shared understanding, and boosted performances. At the end, we present a preliminary implement of this concept using ArcGIS javascript api 4.0 and ArcGIS for server, showing how trip planning and driving can be carried out by agents.

  20. Knowledge-based simulation using object-oriented programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoran, Karen M.

    1993-01-01

    Simulations have become a powerful mechanism for understanding and modeling complex phenomena. Their results have had substantial impact on a broad range of decisions in the military, government, and industry. Because of this, new techniques are continually being explored and developed to make them even more useful, understandable, extendable, and efficient. One such area of research is the application of the knowledge-based methods of artificial intelligence (AI) to the computer simulation field. The goal of knowledge-based simulation is to facilitate building simulations of greatly increased power and comprehensibility by making use of deeper knowledge about the behavior of the simulated world. One technique for representing and manipulating knowledge that has been enhanced by the AI community is object-oriented programming. Using this technique, the entities of a discrete-event simulation can be viewed as objects in an object-oriented formulation. Knowledge can be factual (i.e., attributes of an entity) or behavioral (i.e., how the entity is to behave in certain circumstances). Rome Laboratory's Advanced Simulation Environment (RASE) was developed as a research vehicle to provide an enhanced simulation development environment for building more intelligent, interactive, flexible, and realistic simulations. This capability will support current and future battle management research and provide a test of the object-oriented paradigm for use in large scale military applications.

  1. Implementing effective simulation-based education to improve ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Implementing effective simulation-based education to improve maternal ... by IDRC, including the contributions IDRC is making towards Canada's maternal child ... OECD's Development Co-Operation Report highlights critical role of data to ...

  2. Simulation-based optimization parametric optimization techniques and reinforcement learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gosavi, Abhijit

    2003-01-01

    Simulation-Based Optimization: Parametric Optimization Techniques and Reinforcement Learning introduces the evolving area of simulation-based optimization. The book's objective is two-fold: (1) It examines the mathematical governing principles of simulation-based optimization, thereby providing the reader with the ability to model relevant real-life problems using these techniques. (2) It outlines the computational technology underlying these methods. Taken together these two aspects demonstrate that the mathematical and computational methods discussed in this book do work. Broadly speaking, the book has two parts: (1) parametric (static) optimization and (2) control (dynamic) optimization. Some of the book's special features are: *An accessible introduction to reinforcement learning and parametric-optimization techniques. *A step-by-step description of several algorithms of simulation-based optimization. *A clear and simple introduction to the methodology of neural networks. *A gentle introduction to converg...

  3. Use of agent based simulation for traffic safety assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an agent based Computational Building Simulation (CBS) tool, termed KRONOS that is being used to work on advanced research questions such as traffic safety assessment and user behaviour in buildings...

  4. Rapid Development of Scenario-Based Simulations and Tutoring Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammed, John L; Sorensen, Barbara; Ong, James C; Li, Jian

    2005-01-01

    .... Scenario-based training, in which trainees practice handling specific situations using faithful simulations of the equipment they will use on the job has proven to be an extremely effective method...

  5. CFOA-Based Lossless and Lossy Inductance Simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kaçar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Inductance simulator is a useful component in the circuit synthesis theory especially for analog signal processing applications such as filter, chaotic oscillator design, analog phase shifters and cancellation of parasitic element. In this study, new four inductance simulator topologies employing a single current feedback operational amplifier are presented. The presented topologies require few passive components. The first topology is intended for negative inductance simulation, the second topology is for lossy series inductance, the third one is for lossy parallel inductance and the fourth topology is for negative parallel (-R (-L (-C simulation. The performance of the proposed CFOA based inductance simulators is demonstrated on both a second-order low-pass filter and inductance cancellation circuit. PSPICE simulations are given to verify the theoretical analysis.

  6. Development of training simulator based on critical assemblies test bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narozhnyi, A.T.; Vorontsov, S.V.; Golubeva, O.A.; Dyudyaev, A.M.; Il'in, V.I.; Kuvshinov, M.I.; Panin, A.V.; Peshekhonov, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    When preparing critical mass experiment, multiplying system (MS) parts are assembled manually. This work is connected with maximum professional risk to personnel. Personnel training and keeping the skill of working experts is the important factor of nuclear safety maintenance. For this purpose authors develop a training simulator based on functioning critical assemblies test bench (CATB), allowing simulation of the MS assemblage using training mockups made of inert materials. The control program traces the current status of MS under simulation. A change in the assembly neutron physical parameters is mapped in readings of the regular devices. The simulator information support is provided by the computer database on physical characteristics of typical MS components The work in the training mode ensures complete simulation of real MS assemblage on the critical test bench. It makes it possible to elaborate the procedures related to CATB operation in a standard mode safely and effectively and simulate possible abnormal situations. (author)

  7. Virtual rounds: simulation-based education in procedural medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, David W.; Meglan, Dwight A.; Ferrell, Margaret; Dawson, Steven L.

    1999-07-01

    Computer-based simulation is a goal for training physicians in specialties where traditional training puts patients at risk. Intuitively, interactive simulation of anatomy, pathology, and therapeutic actions should lead to shortening of the learning curve for novice or inexperienced physicians. Effective transfer of knowledge acquired in simulators must be shown for such devices to be widely accepted in the medical community. We have developed an Interventional Cardiology Training Simulator which incorporates real-time graphic interactivity coupled with haptic response, and an embedded curriculum permitting rehearsal, hypertext links, personal archiving and instructor review and testing capabilities. This linking of purely technical simulation with educational content creates a more robust educational purpose for procedural simulators.

  8. Simulator for beam-based LHC collimator alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Gianluca; Aßmann, Ralph; Redaelli, Stefano; Sammut, Nicholas

    2014-02-01

    In the CERN Large Hadron Collider, collimators need to be set up to form a multistage hierarchy to ensure efficient multiturn cleaning of halo particles. Automatic algorithms were introduced during the first run to reduce the beam time required for beam-based setup, improve the alignment accuracy, and reduce the risk of human errors. Simulating the alignment procedure would allow for off-line tests of alignment policies and algorithms. A simulator was developed based on a diffusion beam model to generate the characteristic beam loss signal spike and decay produced when a collimator jaw touches the beam, which is observed in a beam loss monitor (BLM). Empirical models derived from the available measurement data are used to simulate the steady-state beam loss and crosstalk between multiple BLMs. The simulator design is presented, together with simulation results and comparison to measurement data.

  9. A MARTe based simulator for the JET Vertical Stabilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellizio, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.bellizio@unina.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, University di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); De Tommasi, Gianmaria; Risoli, Nicola; Albanese, Raffaele [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, University di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Neto, Andre [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Inst. de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior, Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    Validation by means of simulation is a crucial step when developing real-time control systems. Modeling and simulation are an essential tool since the early design phase, when the control algorithms are designed and tested. This phase is commonly carried out in off-line environments such as Matlab and Simulink. A MARTe-based simulator has been recently developed to validate the new JET Vertical Stabilization (VS) system. MARTe is the multi-thread framework used at JET to deploy hard real-time control systems. This paper presents the software architecture of the MARTe-based simulator and it shows how this tool has been effectively used to evaluate the effects of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) on the VS system. By using the simulator it is possible to analyze different plasma configurations, extrapolating the limit of the new vertical amplifier in terms of the energy of the largest rejectable ELM.

  10. Improving the performance of a filling line based on simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M.; Bartkowiak, T.

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes the method of improving performance of a filling line based on simulation. This study concerns a production line that is located in a manufacturing centre of a FMCG company. A discrete event simulation model was built using data provided by maintenance data acquisition system. Two types of failures were identified in the system and were approximated using continuous statistical distributions. The model was validated taking into consideration line performance measures. A brief Pareto analysis of line failures was conducted to identify potential areas of improvement. Two improvements scenarios were proposed and tested via simulation. The outcome of the simulations were the bases of financial analysis. NPV and ROI values were calculated taking into account depreciation, profits, losses, current CIT rate and inflation. A validated simulation model can be a useful tool in maintenance decision-making process.

  11. Health promoting outdoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stigsdotter, Anna Ulrika Karlsson; Ekholm, Ola; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between green space and health, health-related quality of life and stress, respectively. METHODS: Data were derived from the 2005 Danish Health Interview Survey and are based on a region-stratified random sample of 21,832 adults. Data were collected via face......-to-face interviews followed by a self-administered questionnaire, including the SF-36, which measures eight dimensions of health and the Perceived Stress Scale, which measures self-reported stress. A total of 11,238 respondents completed the interview and returned the questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression...... analyses were performed to investigate the association between distance to green space and self-perceived stress. RESULTS: Danes living more than 1 km away from the nearest green space report poorer health and health-related quality of life, i.e. lower mean scores on all eight SF-36 dimensions of health...

  12. Agent-based simulation in entrepreneurship research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.-J.S.; Chandra, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Agent-based modeling (ABM) has wide applications in natural and social sciences yet it has not been widely applied in entrepreneurship research. We discuss the nature of ABM, its position among conventional methodologies and then offer a roadmap for developing, testing and extending theories of

  13. Simulation-based learning: Just like the real thing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateef Fatimah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation is a technique for practice and learning that can be applied to many different disciplines and trainees. It is a technique (not a technology to replace and amplify real experiences with guided ones, often "immersive" in nature, that evoke or replicate substantial aspects of the real world in a fully interactive fashion. Simulation-based learning can be the way to develop health professionals′ knowledge, skills, and attitudes, whilst protecting patients from unnecessary risks. Simulation-based medical education can be a platform which provides a valuable tool in learning to mitigate ethical tensions and resolve practical dilemmas. Simulation-based training techniques, tools, and strategies can be applied in designing structured learning experiences, as well as be used as a measurement tool linked to targeted teamwork competencies and learning objectives. It has been widely applied in fields such aviation and the military. In medicine, simulation offers good scope for training of interdisciplinary medical teams. The realistic scenarios and equipment allows for retraining and practice till one can master the procedure or skill. An increasing number of health care institutions and medical schools are now turning to simulation-based learning. Teamwork training conducted in the simulated environment may offer an additive benefit to the traditional didactic instruction, enhance performance, and possibly also help reduce errors.

  14. Simulation-based learning: Just like the real thing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateef, Fatimah

    2010-10-01

    Simulation is a technique for practice and learning that can be applied to many different disciplines and trainees. It is a technique (not a technology) to replace and amplify real experiences with guided ones, often "immersive" in nature, that evoke or replicate substantial aspects of the real world in a fully interactive fashion. Simulation-based learning can be the way to develop health professionals' knowledge, skills, and attitudes, whilst protecting patients from unnecessary risks. Simulation-based medical education can be a platform which provides a valuable tool in learning to mitigate ethical tensions and resolve practical dilemmas. Simulation-based training techniques, tools, and strategies can be applied in designing structured learning experiences, as well as be used as a measurement tool linked to targeted teamwork competencies and learning objectives. It has been widely applied in fields such aviation and the military. In medicine, simulation offers good scope for training of interdisciplinary medical teams. The realistic scenarios and equipment allows for retraining and practice till one can master the procedure or skill. An increasing number of health care institutions and medical schools are now turning to simulation-based learning. Teamwork training conducted in the simulated environment may offer an additive benefit to the traditional didactic instruction, enhance performance, and possibly also help reduce errors.

  15. Cyber-Based Turbulent Combustion Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    in flow-field structures between the laminar and turbulent counter-flowing fuel injection is clearly illustrated in figure 1. As a consequence , it...flame thickness by comparing with benchmark of AFRL/RZ ( UNICORN ) suppressing the oscillatory numerical behavior. These improvements in numerical...fraction with the benchmark results of AFRL/RZ. This validating base is generated by the UNICORN program on the finest mesh available and the local

  16. A Socio-Environmental Case for Skill in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the crisis of sustainability, this paper revisits understandings of human--environment relations established through skill-based outdoor activities that are used commonly among adventure recreation, education, and tourism. Reconsidering a predominant focus on risk and a persistent tension between technical and environmental…

  17. Why Play Outside? Problematising Outdoor Play as a Biopedagogical Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel B.; Barrett, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Although outdoor play has been widely recognised for the many benefits it affords children, some have rationalised the need for it based on goals related to physical health. More specifically, these instrumental goals have been closely related to obesity, overweight, and/or physical (in)activity. Adhering to obesity discourses and the notion of a…

  18. Model experiments related to outdoor propagation over an earth berm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1994-01-01

    A series of scale model experiments related to outdoor propagation over an earth berm is described. The measurements are performed with a triggered spark source. The results are compared with data from an existing calculation model based upon uniform diffraction theory. Comparisons are made...

  19. Applying a novel extra-low temperature dedicated outdoor air system in office buildings for energy efficiency and thermal comfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Han; Lee, W.L.; Jia, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel dedicated outdoor air system was proposed and investigated. • The proposed system adopts extra-low temperature outdoor air for space cooling. • The extra-low temperature air was generated by a multi-stage direct expansion coil. • Heat pipe was added to the proposed system to recover the waste cooling energy. • Energy and exergy analysis as well as thermal comfort analysis were conducted. - Abstract: A novel dedicated outdoor air system consisting of a multi-stage direct expansion coil and a zero-energy heat pipe to generate extra-low temperature outdoor air to avoid moisture-related problems was proposed in this study. The proposed system’s performance in achieving the desirable air conditions and better energy efficiency objectives is compared with a conventional direct expansion system for air-conditioning of a typical office building in Hong Kong based on simulation investigations. The simulations were carried out using equipment performance data of a pilot study, and realistic building and system characteristics. It was found that the proposed system, as compared to the conventional system, could reduce the annual indoor discomfort hours by 69.4%. An energy and exergy analysis was also conducted. It was revealed that the proposed system could reduce the annual air-conditioning energy use by 15.6% and the system exergy loss rate by 13.6%. The associated overall exergy efficiency was also found 18.6% higher. The findings of this study confirm that the proposed system is better than the conventional system in terms of both energy and exergy efficiency and the desirable air conditions.

  20. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  1. Colour based sorting station with Matlab simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design process and manufacturing elements of a colour-based sorting station. The system is comprised of a gravitational storage, which also contains the colour sensor. Parts are extracted using a linear pneumatic motor and are fed onto an electrically driven conveyor belt. Extraction of the parts is done at 4 points, using two pneumatic motors and a geared DC motor, while the 4th position is at the end of the belt. The mechanical parts of the system are manufactured using 3D printer technology, allowing for easy modification and adaption to the geometry of different parts. The paper shows all of the stages needed to design, optimize, test and implement the proposed solution. System optimization was performed using a graphical Matlab interface which also allows for sorting algorithm optimization.

  2. Outdoor Acoustics as a General Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    A tutorial paper exploring the characteristics of sound outdoors. Outdoor acoustics is contrasted to room acoustics. A number of important aspects of outdoor acoustics are exemplified and theoretical approaches are outlined. These are influence of ground impedance, influence of weather, screening...... to the application in question. In this way results providing a certain level of accuracy are obtained using methods which are balanced with the accuracy of the input data. Advanced measurement techniques are looked into and suggestions for future research are made...

  3. Mobile Phones and Outdoor Advertising: Measurable Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Quercia, Daniele; Di Lorenzo, Giusy; Calabrese, Francesco; Ratti, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Television and newspapers sit at the top of many agency marketing plans, while outdoor advertising stays at the bottom. The reason for this is that it’s difficult to account for who views a billboard, so there is no way of consistently determining the effectiveness of outdoor advertising. As a result, agencies do not consider the medium and allocate their money elsewhere. To change this situation, one needs to create new credible audience measurements for the outdoor marketing industry. He...

  4. Module-based Simulation System for efficient development of nuclear simulation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Wakabayashi, Jiro

    1990-01-01

    Module-based Simulation System (MSS) has been developed to realize a new software environment enabling versatile dynamic simulation of a complex nuclear power plant system flexibly. Described in the paper are (i) fundamental methods utilized in MMS and its software systemization, (ii) development of human interface system to help users in generating integrated simulation programs automatically, and (iii) development of an intelligent user support system for helping users in the two phases of automatical semantic diagnosis and consultation to automatic input data setup for the MSS-generated programs. (author)

  5. Tsunami Early Warning via a Physics-Based Simulation Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. M.; Rundle, J. B.; Donnellan, A.; Ward, S. N.; Komjathy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Through independent efforts, physics-based simulations of earthquakes, tsunamis, and atmospheric signatures of these phenomenon have been developed. With the goal of producing tsunami forecasts and early warning tools for at-risk regions, we join these three spheres to create a simulation pipeline. The Virtual Quake simulator can produce thousands of years of synthetic seismicity on large, complex fault geometries, as well as the expected surface displacement in tsunamigenic regions. These displacements are used as initial conditions for tsunami simulators, such as Tsunami Squares, to produce catalogs of potential tsunami scenarios with probabilities. Finally, these tsunami scenarios can act as input for simulations of associated ionospheric total electron content, signals which can be detected by GNSS satellites for purposes of early warning in the event of a real tsunami. We present the most recent developments in this project.

  6. Laguna Verde simulator: A new TRAC-RT based application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Cases, J.J.; Tanarro Onrubia, A.

    2006-01-01

    In a partnership with GSE Systems, TECNATOM is developing a full scope training simulator for Laguna Verde Unit 2 (LV2). The simulator design is based upon the current 'state-of-the art technology' regarding the simulation platform, instructor station, visualization tools, advanced thermalhydraulics and neutronics models, I/O systems and automated model building technology. When completed, LV2 simulator will achieve a remarkable level of modeling fidelity by using TECNATOM's TRAC-RT advanced thermalhydraulic code for the reactor coolant and main steam systems, and NEMO neutronic model for the reactor core calculations. These models have been utilized up to date for the development or upgrading of nine NPP simulators in Spain and abroad, with more than 8000 hours of training sessions, and have developed an excellent reputation for its robustness and high fidelity. (author)

  7. Definitions of Outdoor Recreation and Other Associated Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Maurice L.

    This document defines terms related to outdoor recreation: (1) outdoor recreation includes activities that occur outdoors in an urban and man-made environment as well as those activities traditionally associated with the natural environment; (2) outdoor education is education in, about, and for the outdoors; (3) environmental education is an…

  8. SIDH: A Game-Based Architecture for a Training Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Backlund

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Game-based simulators, sometimes referred to as “lightweight” simulators, have benefits such as flexible technology and economic feasibility. In this article, we extend the notion of a game-based simulator by introducing multiple screen view and physical interaction. These features are expected to enhance immersion and fidelity. By utilizing these concepts we have constructed a training simulator for breathing apparatus entry. Game hardware and software have been used to produce the application. More important, the application itself is deliberately designed to be a game. Indeed, one important design goal is to create an entertaining and motivating experience combined with learning goals in order to create a serious game. The system has been evaluated in cooperation with the Swedish Rescue Services Agency to see which architectural features contribute to perceived fidelity. The modes of visualization and interaction as well as level design contribute to the usefulness of the system.

  9. A Table-Based Random Sampling Simulation for Bioluminescence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As a popular simulation of photon propagation in turbid media, the main problem of Monte Carlo (MC method is its cumbersome computation. In this work a table-based random sampling simulation (TBRS is proposed. The key idea of TBRS is to simplify multisteps of scattering to a single-step process, through randomly table querying, thus greatly reducing the computing complexity of the conventional MC algorithm and expediting the computation. The TBRS simulation is a fast algorithm of the conventional MC simulation of photon propagation. It retained the merits of flexibility and accuracy of conventional MC method and adapted well to complex geometric media and various source shapes. Both MC simulations were conducted in a homogeneous medium in our work. Also, we present a reconstructing approach to estimate the position of the fluorescent source based on the trial-and-error theory as a validation of the TBRS algorithm. Good agreement is found between the conventional MC simulation and the TBRS simulation.

  10. An FPGA-Based Massively Parallel Neuromorphic Cortex Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Runchun M; Thakur, Chetan S; van Schaik, André

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a massively parallel and scalable neuromorphic cortex simulator designed for simulating large and structurally connected spiking neural networks, such as complex models of various areas of the cortex. The main novelty of this work is the abstraction of a neuromorphic architecture into clusters represented by minicolumns and hypercolumns, analogously to the fundamental structural units observed in neurobiology. Without this approach, simulating large-scale fully connected networks needs prohibitively large memory to store look-up tables for point-to-point connections. Instead, we use a novel architecture, based on the structural connectivity in the neocortex, such that all the required parameters and connections can be stored in on-chip memory. The cortex simulator can be easily reconfigured for simulating different neural networks without any change in hardware structure by programming the memory. A hierarchical communication scheme allows one neuron to have a fan-out of up to 200 k neurons. As a proof-of-concept, an implementation on one Altera Stratix V FPGA was able to simulate 20 million to 2.6 billion leaky-integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons in real time. We verified the system by emulating a simplified auditory cortex (with 100 million neurons). This cortex simulator achieved a low power dissipation of 1.62 μW per neuron. With the advent of commercially available FPGA boards, our system offers an accessible and scalable tool for the design, real-time simulation, and analysis of large-scale spiking neural networks.

  11. A review of computer-based simulators for ultrasound training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Tobias; Rieger, Andreas; Navab, Nassir; Friess, Helmut; Martignoni, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Computer-based simulators for ultrasound training are a topic of recent interest. During the last 15 years, many different systems and methods have been proposed. This article provides an overview and classification of systems in this domain and a discussion of their advantages. Systems are classified and discussed according to the image simulation method, user interactions and medical applications. Computer simulation of ultrasound has one key advantage over traditional training. It enables novel training concepts, for example, through advanced visualization, case databases, and automatically generated feedback. Qualitative evaluations have mainly shown positive learning effects. However, few quantitative evaluations have been performed and long-term effects have to be examined.

  12. Modeling and simulation for micro DC motor based on simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hanxin; Lei, Qiao; Chen, Wenxiang

    2017-09-01

    The micro DC motor has a large market demand but there is a lack of theoretical research for it. Through detailed analysis of the commutation process of micro DC motor commutator, based on micro DC motor electromagnetic torque equation and mechanical torque equation, with the help of Simulink toolkit, a triangle connection micro DC motor simulation model is established. By using the model, a sample micro DC motor are simulated, and an experimental measurements has been carried on the sample micro DC motor. It is found that the simulation results are consistent with theoretical analysis and experimental results.

  13. Discrete simulation system based on artificial intelligence methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futo, I; Szeredi, J

    1982-01-01

    A discrete event simulation system based on the AI language Prolog is presented. The system called t-Prolog extends the traditional possibilities of simulation languages toward automatic problem solving by using backtrack in time and automatic model modification depending on logical deductions. As t-Prolog is an interactive tool, the user has the possibility to interrupt the simulation run to modify the model or to force it to return to a previous state for trying possible alternatives. It admits the construction of goal-oriented or goal-seeking models with variable structure. Models are defined in a restricted version of the first order predicate calculus using Horn clauses. 21 references.

  14. Quantification of Outdoor Mobility by Use of Accelerometer-Measured Physical Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Taraldsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hip fractures in older persons are associated with both low levels of daily physical activity and loss of outdoor mobility. The aim was to investigate if accelerometer-based measures of physical behaviour can be used to determine if people undertake outdoor walking and to provide reference values for physical behaviour outcomes related to outdoor mobility. Older persons (n=245, ≥70 years, one year after hip fracture, participated. Six objective measures of physical behaviour collected by an activity monitor were compared with self-reported outdoor mobility assessed with the Nottingham Extended ADL scale. All measures of time and length in upright periods were significantly lower in participants who reported not walking outdoors (p<0.001. A set of cut-off points for the different physical behaviour variables was generated. Maximum length of upright events discriminated best between groups, with 31 minutes as a threshold to determine if a person is more likely to report that they walk outdoors (sensitivity: 0.805, specificity: 0.704, and AUC: 0.871 or 41 minutes or more to determine if a person is more likely to report outdoor walking on their own (AUC: 0.891. Physical behaviour variables from activity monitoring can provide information about patterns of physical behaviour related to outdoor activity performance.

  15. Wind flow simulation over flat terrain using CFD based software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Peter; Terziev, Angel; Genovski, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Velocity distribution recognition over definite place (terrain) is very important because due to that the zones with high energy potential could be defined (the fields with high velocities). This is a precondition for optimal wind turbine generators micro-sitting. In current work a simulation of the open flow over the flat terrain using the CFD based software is reviewed. The simulations are made of a real fluid flow in order to be defined the velocity fields over the terrain

  16. Quadcopter Attitude and Thrust Simulation Based on Simulink Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrowednes Kuantama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation of quadcopter axes relative to reference line direction of motion will result in attitude and every movement is controlled regulated by each rotor’s thrust. Mathematical equation based on Euler formula and 3D simulation using Matlab/Simulink software platform are used to model quadcopter movement. Change of attitude, position and thrust of each rotor can be seen through this simulation movement.

  17. Microprocessor-based simulator of surface ECG signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MartInez, A E; Rossi, E; Siri, L Nicola

    2007-01-01

    In this work, a simulator of surface electrocardiogram recorded signals (ECG) is presented. The device, based on a microcontroller and commanded by a personal computer, produces an analog signal resembling actual ECGs, not only in time course and voltage levels, but also in source impedance. The simulator is a useful tool for electrocardiograph calibration and monitoring, to incorporate as well in educational tasks and in clinical environments for early detection of faulty behaviour

  18. Enriching Triangle Mesh Animations with Physically Based Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yijing; Xu, Hongyi; Barbic, Jernej

    2017-10-01

    We present a system to combine arbitrary triangle mesh animations with physically based Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation, enabling control over the combination both in space and time. The input is a triangle mesh animation obtained using any method, such as keyframed animation, character rigging, 3D scanning, or geometric shape modeling. The input may be non-physical, crude or even incomplete. The user provides weights, specified using a minimal user interface, for how much physically based simulation should be allowed to modify the animation in any region of the model, and in time. Our system then computes a physically-based animation that is constrained to the input animation to the amount prescribed by these weights. This permits smoothly turning physics on and off over space and time, making it possible for the output to strictly follow the input, to evolve purely based on physically based simulation, and anything in between. Achieving such results requires a careful combination of several system components. We propose and analyze these components, including proper automatic creation of simulation meshes (even for non-manifold and self-colliding undeformed triangle meshes), converting triangle mesh animations into animations of the simulation mesh, and resolving collisions and self-collisions while following the input.

  19. Green perspectives for public health: a narrative review on the physiological effects of experiencing outdoor nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Schönbauer, Regina; Cervinka, Renate

    2014-05-19

    Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological stress reactions, was

  20. Green Perspectives for Public Health: A Narrative Review on the Physiological Effects of Experiencing Outdoor Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological

  1. Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gould, Derek A; Chalmers, Nicholas; Johnson, Sheena J

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of the many limitations of traditional apprenticeship training is driving new approaches to learning medical procedural skills. Among simulation technologies and methods available today, computer-based systems are topical and bring the benefits of automated, repeatable, and reliable p...... performance assessments. Human factors research is central to simulator model development that is relevant to real-world imaging-guided interventional tasks and to the credentialing programs in which it would be used....

  2. Indoor-Outdoor Detection Using a Smart Phone Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Chang, Qiang; Li, Qun; Shi, Zesen; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-22

    In the era of mobile internet, Location Based Services (LBS) have developed dramatically. Seamless Indoor and Outdoor Navigation and Localization (SNAL) has attracted a lot of attention. No single positioning technology was capable of meeting the various positioning requirements in different environments. Selecting different positioning techniques for different environments is an alternative method. Detecting the users' current environment is crucial for this technique. In this paper, we proposed to detect the indoor/outdoor environment automatically without high energy consumption. The basic idea was simple: we applied a machine learning algorithm to classify the neighboring Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication cellular base station's signal strength in different environments, and identified the users' current context by signal pattern recognition. We tested the algorithm in four different environments. The results showed that the proposed algorithm was capable of identifying open outdoors, semi-outdoors, light indoors and deep indoors environments with 100% accuracy using the signal strength of four nearby GSM stations. The required hardware and signal are widely available in our daily lives, implying its high compatibility and availability.

  3. Indoor-Outdoor Detection Using a Smart Phone Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the era of mobile internet, Location Based Services (LBS have developed dramatically. Seamless Indoor and Outdoor Navigation and Localization (SNAL has attracted a lot of attention. No single positioning technology was capable of meeting the various positioning requirements in different environments. Selecting different positioning techniques for different environments is an alternative method. Detecting the users’ current environment is crucial for this technique. In this paper, we proposed to detect the indoor/outdoor environment automatically without high energy consumption. The basic idea was simple: we applied a machine learning algorithm to classify the neighboring Global System for Mobile (GSM communication cellular base station’s signal strength in different environments, and identified the users’ current context by signal pattern recognition. We tested the algorithm in four different environments. The results showed that the proposed algorithm was capable of identifying open outdoors, semi-outdoors, light indoors and deep indoors environments with 100% accuracy using the signal strength of four nearby GSM stations. The required hardware and signal are widely available in our daily lives, implying its high compatibility and availability.

  4. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN IPS TERPADU BERBASIS OUTDOOR LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugraheni Rachmawati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPelaksanaan kegiatan pembelajaran tematik di SD kota Semarang belum optimal. Sebagian besar guru belum menyusun dan menggunakan perangkat pembelaja- ran IPS Terpadu berbasis outdoor learning. Tujuan penelitian ini mengembangkan, mengkaji keefektifan dan kepraktisan perangkat pembelajaran. Penelitian ini meru- pakan penelitian pengembangan yang dimodifikasi dari penelitian Borg and Gall. Subjek penelitian adalah siswa kelas 3 SD N Jatingaleh 01-02 Kota Semarang ta- hun pelajaran 2012/2013. Spesifikasi produk yang dikembangkan adalah perangkat pembelajaran IPS terpadu berbasis outdoor learning berupa silabus, RPP, media CD Interaktif, LKS dan alat evaluasi meliputi test kognitif, lembar observasi aktivi- tas serta angket respons siswa dan guru. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif dan Pretest- Posttest Control Group Design. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran tergolong valid. Keefektifan perangkat dilihat dari aktivitas dan hasil belajar siswa. Aktivitas siswa tergolong sangat tinggi. Hasil belajar kog- nitif siswa setelah mengikuti pembelajaran IPS Terpadu berbasis Outdoor Learning mengalami peningkatan yang signifikan serta mencapai ketuntasan belajar. Rata- rata hasil belajar kognitif siswa secara signifikan lebih besar daripada kelompok siswa yang mengikuti pembelajaran in door. Saran, hendaknya dapat dikembangkan lagi keefektifanya sehingga dapat lebih menggali kemampuan siswa, tidak hanya dalam segi kognitif dan afektif tetapi juga psikomotor. AbstractImplementation of thematic learning activities in elementary school of Semarang is not opti- mal. Most of the teachers do not prepare and use integrated social science learning tools based on outdoor learning. This research is aimed to develop the tools and to review the effectiveness and practicality of integrated social science learning based on outdoor learning. This is a research and development study modified from the research developed by Borg and

  5. Smart sensor systems for outdoor intrusion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A major improvement in outdoor perimeter security system probability of detection (PD) and reduction in false alarm rate (FAR) and nuisance alarm rate (NAR) may be obtained by analyzing the indications immediately preceding an event which might be interpreted as an intrusion. Existing systems go into alarm after crossing a threshold. Very slow changes, which accumulate until the threshold is reached, may be assessed falsely as an intrusion. A hierarchial program has begun at Stellar to develop a modular, expandable Smart Sensor system which may be interfaced to most types of sensor and alarm reporting systems. A major upgrade to the SSI Test Site is in progress so that intrusions may be simulated in a controlled and repeatable manner. A test platform is being constructed which will operate in conduction with a mobile instrumentation center with CCTVB, lighting control, weather and data monitoring and remote control of the test platform and intrusion simulators. Additional testing was contracted with an independent test facility to assess the effects of severe winter weather conditions

  6. A java based simulator with user interface to simulate ventilated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehle P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention, which despite its use on a routine basis, poses the risk of inflicting further damage to the lung tissue if ventilator settings are chosen inappropriately. Medical decision support systems may help to prevent such injuries while providing the optimal settings to reach a defined clinical goal. In order to develop and verify decision support algorithms, a test bench simulating a patient’s behaviour is needed. We propose a Java based system that allows simulation of respiratory mechanics, gas exchange and cardiovascular dynamics of a mechanically ventilated patient. The implemented models are allowed to interact and are interchangeable enabling the simulation of various clinical scenarios. Model simulations are running in real-time and show physiologically plausible results.

  7. Virtual reality based surgery simulation for endoscopic gynaecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, G; Bajka, M; Brechbühler, C; Dual, J; Enzler, R; Haller, U; Hug, J; Hutter, R; Ironmonger, N; Kauer, M; Meier, V; Niederer, P; Rhomberg, A; Schmid, P; Schweitzer, G; Thaler, M; Vuskovic, V; Tröster, G

    1999-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) based surgical simulator systems offer very elegant possibilities to both enrich and enhance traditional education in endoscopic surgery. However, while a wide range of VR simulator systems have been proposed and realized in the past few years, most of these systems are far from able to provide a reasonably realistic surgical environment. We explore the basic approaches to the current limits of realism and ultimately seek to extend these based on our description and analysis of the most important components of a VR-based endoscopic simulator. The feasibility of the proposed techniques is demonstrated on a first modular prototype system implementing the basic algorithms for VR-training in gynaecologic laparoscopy.

  8. Performance simulation of a MRPC-based PET imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Banerjee, A.; Biswas, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Das, G.; Saha, S.

    2014-10-01

    The less expensive and high resolution Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) opens up a new possibility to find an efficient alternative detector for the Time of Flight (TOF) based Positron Emission Tomography, where the sensitivity of the system depends largely on the time resolution of the detector. In a layered structure, suitable converters can be used to increase the photon detection efficiency. In this work, we perform a detailed GEANT4 simulation to optimize the converter thickness towards improving the efficiency of photon conversion. A Monte Carlo based procedure has been developed to simulate the time resolution of the MRPC-based system, making it possible to simulate its response for PET imaging application. The results of the test of a six-gap MRPC, operating in avalanche mode, with 22Na source have been discussed.

  9. High-rise Buildings versus Outdoor Thermal Environment in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-sha Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief description of the over quick urbanization sinceChongqing, one of the biggest cities in China, has been a municipality directly under theCentral Government in 1997, excessive development and exceeding increase of high-risebuildings because of its special geographical position which finally leads to the worseningof the urban outdoor thermal environment. Then, this paper makes a bright balance to thefield measurement and simulated results of the wind speed field, temperature field of onemultifunctional high-rise building in Chongqing university located in the city center, andthe contrasted results validate the correctness of CFD in the outdoor thermal environmentalsimulation, expose the disadvantages of high-rise buildings on the aspects of blocking thewind field, decreasing wind speed which results in accumulation of the air-conditioningheat revolving around and periscian region where sunshine can not rip into. Finally, inorder to improve the urban outdoor thermal environment near the high-rise buildingsespecially for the angle of natural ventilation, this paper simulates the wind environment indifferent architectural compositions and architectural layouts by CFD, and the simulatedresults show that freestyle and tower buildings which can guarantee the wind speed andtake the air-conditioning heat away are much suitable and reasonable for the specialChongqing geography. These conclusions can also be used as a reference in othermountain cities, especially for the one with a great number of populations.

  10. Development of intelligent interface for simulation execution by module-based simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Mizutani, Naoki; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Wakabayashi, Jiro

    1988-01-01

    An intelligent user support for the two phases of simulation execution was newly developed for Module-based Simulation System (MSS). The MSS has been in development as a flexible simulation environment to improve software productivity in complex, large-scale dynamic simulation of nuclear power plant. The AI programing by Smalltalk-80 was applied to materialize the two user-interface programs for (i) semantic diagnosis of the simulation program generated automatically by MSS, and (ii) consultation system by which user can set up consistent numerical input data files necessary for executing a MSS-generated program. Frame theory was utilized in those interface programs to represent the four knowledge bases, which are (i) usage information on module library in MSS and MSS-generated program, and (ii) expertise knowledge on nuclear power plant analysis such as material properties and reactor system configuration. Capabilities of those interface programs were confirmed by some example practice on LMFBR reactor dynamic calculation, and it was demonstrated that the knowledge-based systemization was effective to improve software work environment. (author)

  11. Cost analysis of simulated base-catalyzed biodiesel production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasić, Marija B.; Stamenković, Olivera S.; Veljković, Vlada B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two semi-continuous biodiesel production processes from sunflower oil are simulated. • Simulations were based on the kinetics of base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. • The total energy consumption was influenced by the kinetic model. • Heterogeneous base-catalyzed process is a preferable industrial technology. - Abstract: The simulation and economic feasibility evaluation of semi-continuous biodiesel production from sunflower oil were based on the kinetics of homogeneously (Process I) and heterogeneously (Process II) base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. The annual plant’s capacity was determined to be 8356 tonnes of biodiesel. The total energy consumption was influenced by the unit model describing the methanolysis reaction kinetics. The energy consumption of the Process II was more than 2.5 times lower than that of the Process I. Also, the simulation showed the Process I had more and larger process equipment units, compared with the Process II. Based on lower total capital investment costs and biodiesel selling price, the Process II was economically more feasible than the Process I. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using variable sunflower oil and biodiesel prices. Using a biodiesel selling price of 0.990 $/kg, Processes I and II were shown to be economically profitable if the sunflower oil price was 0.525 $/kg and 0.696 $/kg, respectively

  12. Research of Simulation in Character Animation Based on Physics Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer 3D character animation essentially is a product, which is combined with computer graphics and robotics, physics, mathematics, and the arts. It is based on computer hardware and graphics algorithms and related sciences rapidly developed new technologies. At present, the mainstream character animation technology is based on the artificial production of key technologies and capture frames based on the motion capture device technology. 3D character animation is widely used not only in the production of film, animation, and other commercial areas but also in virtual reality, computer-aided education, flight simulation, engineering simulation, military simulation, and other fields. In this paper, we try to study physics based character animation to solve these problems such as poor real-time interaction that appears in the character, low utilization rate, and complex production. The paper deeply studied the kinematics, dynamics technology, and production technology based on the motion data. At the same time, it analyzed ODE, PhysX, Bullet, and other variety of mainstream physics engines and studied OBB hierarchy bounding box tree, AABB hierarchical tree, and other collision detection algorithms. Finally, character animation based on ODE is implemented, which is simulation of the motion and collision process of a tricycle.

  13. Optimization Model for Web Based Multimodal Interactive Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halic, Tansel; Ahn, Woojin; De, Suvranu

    2015-07-15

    This paper presents a technique for optimizing the performance of web based multimodal interactive simulations. For such applications where visual quality and the performance of simulations directly influence user experience, overloading of hardware resources may result in unsatisfactory reduction in the quality of the simulation and user satisfaction. However, optimization of simulation performance on individual hardware platforms is not practical. Hence, we present a mixed integer programming model to optimize the performance of graphical rendering and simulation performance while satisfying application specific constraints. Our approach includes three distinct phases: identification, optimization and update . In the identification phase, the computing and rendering capabilities of the client device are evaluated using an exploratory proxy code. This data is utilized in conjunction with user specified design requirements in the optimization phase to ensure best possible computational resource allocation. The optimum solution is used for rendering (e.g. texture size, canvas resolution) and simulation parameters (e.g. simulation domain) in the update phase. Test results are presented on multiple hardware platforms with diverse computing and graphics capabilities to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  14. Knowledge Based Cloud FE Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Du; Yuan, Xi; Gao, Haoxiang; Wang, Ailing; Liu, Jun; El Fakir, Omer; Politis, Denis J; Wang, Liliang; Lin, Jianguo

    2016-12-13

    The use of Finite Element (FE) simulation software to adequately predict the outcome of sheet metal forming processes is crucial to enhancing the efficiency and lowering the development time of such processes, whilst reducing costs involved in trial-and-error prototyping. Recent focus on the substitution of steel components with aluminum alloy alternatives in the automotive and aerospace sectors has increased the need to simulate the forming behavior of such alloys for ever more complex component geometries. However these alloys, and in particular their high strength variants, exhibit limited formability at room temperature, and high temperature manufacturing technologies have been developed to form them. Consequently, advanced constitutive models are required to reflect the associated temperature and strain rate effects. Simulating such behavior is computationally very expensive using conventional FE simulation techniques. This paper presents a novel Knowledge Based Cloud FE (KBC-FE) simulation technique that combines advanced material and friction models with conventional FE simulations in an efficient manner thus enhancing the capability of commercial simulation software packages. The application of these methods is demonstrated through two example case studies, namely: the prediction of a material's forming limit under hot stamping conditions, and the tool life prediction under multi-cycle loading conditions.

  15. The transesophageal echocardiography simulator based on computed tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piórkowski, Adam; Kempny, Aleksander

    2013-02-01

    Simulators are a new tool in education in many fields, including medicine, where they greatly improve familiarity with medical procedures, reduce costs, and, importantly, cause no harm to patients. This is so in the case of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), in which the use of a simulator facilitates spatial orientation and helps in case studies. The aim of the project described in this paper is to simulate an examination by TEE. This research makes use of available computed tomography data to simulate the corresponding echocardiographic view. This paper describes the essential characteristics that distinguish these two modalities and the key principles of the wave phenomena that should be considered in the simulation process, taking into account the conditions specific to the echocardiography. The construction of the CT2TEE (Web-based TEE simulator) is also presented. The considerations include ray-tracing and ray-casting techniques in the context of ultrasound beam and artifact simulation. An important aspect of the interaction with the user is raised.

  16. [Simulation-based robot-assisted surgical training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolontarev, K B; Govorov, A V; Rasner, P I; Sheptunov, S A; Prilepskaya, E A; Maltsev, E G; Pushkar, D Yu

    2015-12-01

    Since the first use of robotic surgical system in 2000, the robot-assisted technology has gained wide popularity throughout the world. Robot-assisted surgical training is a complex issue that requires significant efforts from students and teacher. During the last two decades, simulation-based training had received active development due to wide-spread occurrence and popularization of laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgical techniques. We performed a systematic review to identify the currently available simulators for robot-assisted surgery. We searched the Medline and Pubmed, English sources of literature data, using the following key words and phrases: "robotics", "robotic surgery", "computer assisted surgery", "simulation", "computer simulation", "virtual reality", "surgical training", and "surgical education". There were identified 565 publications, which meet the key words and phrases; 19 publications were selected for the final analysis. It was established that simulation-based training is the most promising teaching tool that can be used in the training of the next generation robotic surgeons. Today the use of simulators to train surgeons is validated. Price of devices is an obvious barrier for inclusion in the program for training of robotic surgeons, but the lack of this tool will result in a sharp increase in the duration of specialists training.

  17. Modelling and simulation-based acquisition decision support: present & future

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Naidoo1_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 24551 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Naidoo1_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Modelling & Simulation...-Based Acquisition Decision Support: Present & Future Shahen Naidoo Abstract The Ground Based Air Defence System (GBADS) Programme, of the South African Army has been applying modelling and simulation (M&S) to provide acquisition decision and doctrine...

  18. Medical simulation-based education improves medicos' clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoming; Liu, Qiaoyu; Wang, Hai

    2013-03-01

    Clinical skill is an essential part of clinical medicine and plays quite an important role in bridging medicos and physicians. Due to the realities in China, traditional medical education is facing many challenges. There are few opportunities for students to practice their clinical skills and their dexterities are generally at a low level. Medical simulation-based education is a new teaching modality and helps to improve medicos' clinical skills to a large degree. Medical simulation-based education has many significant advantages and will be further developed and applied.

  19. Hemispherical reflectance model for passive images in an outdoor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Charles C; Thai, Bea; Yamaoka, Neil; Aboutalib, Omar

    2015-05-01

    We present a hemispherical reflectance model for simulating passive images in an outdoor environment where illumination is provided by natural sources such as the sun and the clouds. While the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) accurately produces radiance from any objects after the illumination, using the BRDF in calculating radiance requires double integration. Replacing the BRDF by hemispherical reflectance under the natural sources transforms the double integration into a multiplication. This reduces both storage space and computation time. We present the formalism for the radiance of the scene using hemispherical reflectance instead of BRDF. This enables us to generate passive images in an outdoor environment taking advantage of the computational and storage efficiencies. We show some examples for illustration.

  20. A particle-based method for granular flow simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Yuanzhang; Bao, Kai; Zhu, Jian; Wu, Enhua

    2012-01-01

    We present a new particle-based method for granular flow simulation. In the method, a new elastic stress term, which is derived from a modified form of the Hooke's law, is included in the momentum governing equation to handle the friction of granular materials. Viscosity force is also added to simulate the dynamic friction for the purpose of smoothing the velocity field and further maintaining the simulation stability. Benefiting from the Lagrangian nature of the SPH method, large flow deformation can be well handled easily and naturally. In addition, a signed distance field is also employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient for handling the flow of granular materials, and different kinds of granular behaviors can be well simulated by adjusting just one parameter. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Engineering uses of physics-based ground motion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jack W.; Luco, Nicolas; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Graves, Robert W.; Maechling, Phillip J.; Olsen, Kim B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes validation methodologies focused on enabling ground motion simulations to be used with confidence in engineering applications such as seismic hazard analysis and dynmaic analysis of structural and geotechnical systems. Numberical simullation of ground motion from large erthquakes, utilizing physics-based models of earthquake rupture and wave propagation, is an area of active research in the earth science community. Refinement and validatoin of these models require collaboration between earthquake scientists and engineering users, and testing/rating methodolgies for simulated ground motions to be used with confidence in engineering applications. This paper provides an introduction to this field and an overview of current research activities being coordinated by the Souther California Earthquake Center (SCEC). These activities are related both to advancing the science and computational infrastructure needed to produce ground motion simulations, as well as to engineering validation procedures. Current research areas and anticipated future achievements are also discussed.

  2. A particle-based method for granular flow simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Yuanzhang

    2012-03-16

    We present a new particle-based method for granular flow simulation. In the method, a new elastic stress term, which is derived from a modified form of the Hooke\\'s law, is included in the momentum governing equation to handle the friction of granular materials. Viscosity force is also added to simulate the dynamic friction for the purpose of smoothing the velocity field and further maintaining the simulation stability. Benefiting from the Lagrangian nature of the SPH method, large flow deformation can be well handled easily and naturally. In addition, a signed distance field is also employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient for handling the flow of granular materials, and different kinds of granular behaviors can be well simulated by adjusting just one parameter. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  3. United States of America: outdoor recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.Ken Cordell; G.Theodore Green; V.R. Leeworthy; R. Stephens; M.J. Fly; Carter J. Betz

    2005-01-01

    the first nationwide survey of outdoor recreation in the USA was conducted in 1960 for the outdoor recreation resources review commission (ORRC, 1962; Cordell et al., 1996). since that time, seven additional national surveys have been conducted, in 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1983, 1995, and 2000/01 - summary details are presented in Table 16.1.

  4. Planning School Grounds for Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cheryl; Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This publication covers the planning and design of school grounds for outdoor learning in new and existing K-12 facilities. Curriculum development as well as athletic field planning and maintenance are not covered although some references on these topics are provided. It discusses the different types of outdoor learning environments that can be…

  5. The "F" Word: Feminism in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tonia

    2016-01-01

    Women have embarked on outdoor careers believing the profession to be a level playing field and one that offers occupational alternatives to traditional sporting activities and educational opportunities. This paper seeks to provide a critical analysis of the pockets of bias associated with the status of women in outdoor education (OE),…

  6. Monitoring Outdoor Alcohol Advertising in Developing Countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses on the placement, channels, size and content of outdoor alcohol advertising practices (N=807) in relation to existing regulations are given. For example, in Gambia, the country with the most stringent alcohol marketing regulations of all countries studied, outdoor alcohol advertisements are on average smaller and ...

  7. Een toekomst voor outdoor fitness in Nederland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, Hiske

    De eerste kennismaking met outdoor fitness was in het Fuxing Park in Shanghai, een park waar jong en oud samen komen om te sporten (outdoor fitness, dans en tai-chi) of om ontspannen hun vrije dag door te brengen. een unieke ervaring die verwarring en allerlei vragen tot gevolg had. waarom komen

  8. 77 FR 33597 - Great Outdoors Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Outdoors Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation America's natural... launch the America's Great Outdoors Initiative. Building on input from tens of thousands of people across... engine of growth. As part of our National Travel and Tourism Strategy, my Administration is working to...

  9. Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcombe, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

  10. Simulation-based MDP verification for leading-edge masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bo; Syrel, Oleg; Pomerantsev, Michael; Hagiwara, Kazuyuki; Pearman, Ryan; Pang, Leo; Fujimara, Aki

    2017-07-01

    For IC design starts below the 20nm technology node, the assist features on photomasks shrink well below 60nm and the printed patterns of those features on masks written by VSB eBeam writers start to show a large deviation from the mask designs. Traditional geometry-based fracturing starts to show large errors for those small features. As a result, other mask data preparation (MDP) methods have become available and adopted, such as rule-based Mask Process Correction (MPC), model-based MPC and eventually model-based MDP. The new MDP methods may place shot edges slightly differently from target to compensate for mask process effects, so that the final patterns on a mask are much closer to the design (which can be viewed as the ideal mask), especially for those assist features. Such an alteration generally produces better masks that are closer to the intended mask design. Traditional XOR-based MDP verification cannot detect problems caused by eBeam effects. Much like model-based OPC verification which became a necessity for OPC a decade ago, we see the same trend in MDP today. Simulation-based MDP verification solution requires a GPU-accelerated computational geometry engine with simulation capabilities. To have a meaningful simulation-based mask check, a good mask process model is needed. The TrueModel® system is a field tested physical mask model developed by D2S. The GPU-accelerated D2S Computational Design Platform (CDP) is used to run simulation-based mask check, as well as model-based MDP. In addition to simulation-based checks such as mask EPE or dose margin, geometry-based rules are also available to detect quality issues such as slivers or CD splits. Dose margin related hotspots can also be detected by setting a correct detection threshold. In this paper, we will demonstrate GPU-acceleration for geometry processing, and give examples of mask check results and performance data. GPU-acceleration is necessary to make simulation-based mask MDP verification

  11. Spectral Efficiency Analysis for Multicarrier Based 4G Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Nuno; Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Frederiksen, Flemming Bjerge

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a spectral efficiency definition is proposed. Spectral efficiency for multicarrier based multiaccess techniques, such as OFDMA, MC-CDMA and OFDMA-CDM, is analyzed. Simulations for different indoor and outdoor scenarios are carried out. Based on the simulations, we have discussed ho...

  12. Modelling of horn-type loudspeakers for outdoor sound reinforcement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    -type loudspeakers is made. The agreement between measured and calculated results is very good provided that a sufficient number of modes is included in the simulation. Simulation models of this kind represent one of the first steps towards a CAD tool for outdoor sound reinforcement systems....

  13. Remote collaboration system based on large scale simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Sugahara, Akihiro; Li, J.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Large scale simulation using super-computer, which generally requires long CPU time and produces large amount of data, has been extensively studied as a third pillar in various advanced science fields in parallel to theory and experiment. Such a simulation is expected to lead new scientific discoveries through elucidation of various complex phenomena, which are hardly identified only by conventional theoretical and experimental approaches. In order to assist such large simulation studies for which many collaborators working at geographically different places participate and contribute, we have developed a unique remote collaboration system, referred to as SIMON (simulation monitoring system), which is based on client-server system control introducing an idea of up-date processing, contrary to that of widely used post-processing. As a key ingredient, we have developed a trigger method, which transmits various requests for the up-date processing from the simulation (client) running on a super-computer to a workstation (server). Namely, the simulation running on a super-computer actively controls the timing of up-date processing. The server that has received the requests from the ongoing simulation such as data transfer, data analyses, and visualizations, etc. starts operations according to the requests during the simulation. The server makes the latest results available to web browsers, so that the collaborators can monitor the results at any place and time in the world. By applying the system to a specific simulation project of laser-matter interaction, we have confirmed that the system works well and plays an important role as a collaboration platform on which many collaborators work with one another

  14. Radon concentration in outdoor occupational environments in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, T.; Ueda, S.; Hisamatsu, S.; Sakurai, N.; Inaba, J.

    2004-01-01

    The 222 Rn concentration in outdoor workplaces were measured in Aomori Prefecture, Japan as a part of a program on measurement of natural radiation background dose to people in the prefecture where Japan's first nuclear fuel cycling facilities are now under construction. 222 Rn concentrations were measured in 116 outdoor workplaces by passive Rn detectors for 10 months, which represented agricultural, forestry, fishery and construction/transportation workplaces. The 222 Rn concentrations in outdoor workplaces were generally lower than those in indoor environments. The dose to workers was estimated by using the results of the passive detectors as well as diurnal variation of 222 Rn and equilibrium factor measured with active-type detectors. The average dose from 222 Rn and its progenies to people in Aomori Prefecture was estimated as 0.39 mSv x y -1 based on the obtained results and results in indoor environments. The contribution of 222 Rn in outdoor workplaces to the total dose was 3.3% because of low occupancy ratio. (author)

  15. Radon parameters in outdoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porstendoerfer, J.; Zock, Ch.; Wendt, J.; Reineking, A.

    2002-01-01

    For dose estimation by inhalation of the short lived radon progeny in outdoor air, the equilibrium factor (F), the unattached fraction (f p ), and the activity size distribution of the radon progeny were measured. Besides the radon parameter the meteorological parameter like temperature, wind speed, and rainfall intensity were registered. The measurements were carried out continuously for several weeks to find out the variation with time (day/night) and for different weather conditions. The radon gas, the unattached and aerosol-attached radon progenies were measured with an monitor developed for continuous measurements in outdoor air with low activity concentrations. For the determination of the activity size distribution a low pressure online alpha cascade impactor was used. The measured values of the equilibrium factor varied between 0.5-0.8 depending on weather conditions and time of the day. For high pressure weather conditions a diurnal variation of the F-factor was obtained. A lower average value (F=0.25) was registered during rainy days. The obtained f p -values varied between 0.04 and 0.12. They were higher than expected. The measured activity size distribution of the radon progeny averaged over a measurement period of three weeks can be approximated by a sum of three log-normal distributions. The greatest activity fraction is adsorbed on aerosol particles in the accumulation size range (100-1000 nm) with activity median diameters and geometric standard deviation values between 250-450 nm and 1.5-3.0, respectively. The activity median diameter of this accumulation mode in outdoor air was significantly greater than in indoor air (150-250 nm). An influence of the weather conditions on the activity of the accumulation particles was not significant. In contrast to the results of measurements in houses a small but significant fraction of the radon progeny (average value: 2%) is attached on coarse particles (>1000 nm). This fraction varied between 0-10%. 20

  16. Simulation based virtual learning environment in medical genetics counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Bonde, Mads T.; Wulff, Julie S. G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Simulation based learning environments are designed to improve the quality of medical education by allowing students to interact with patients, diagnostic laboratory procedures, and patient data in a virtual environment. However, few studies have evaluated whether simulation based...... the perceived relevance of medical educational activities. The results suggest that simulations can help future generations of doctors transfer new understanding of disease mechanisms gained in virtual laboratory settings into everyday clinical practice....... learning environments increase students' knowledge, intrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy, and help them generalize from laboratory analyses to clinical practice and health decision-making. METHODS: An entire class of 300 University of Copenhagen first-year undergraduate students, most with a major...

  17. Simulation-based medical education: time for a pedagogical shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaniti, Kaarthigeyan; Campbell, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of medical education at all levels is to prepare physicians with the knowledge and comprehensive skills, required to deliver safe and effective patient care. The traditional 'apprentice' learning model in medical education is undergoing a pedagogical shift to a 'simulation-based' learning model. Experiential learning, deliberate practice and the ability to provide immediate feedback are the primary advantages of simulation-based medical education. It is an effective way to develop new skills, identify knowledge gaps, reduce medical errors, and maintain infrequently used clinical skills even among experienced clinical teams, with the overall goal of improving patient care. Although simulation cannot replace clinical exposure as a form of experiential learning, it promotes learning without compromising patient safety. This new paradigm shift is revolutionizing medical education in the Western world. It is time that the developing countries embrace this new pedagogical shift.

  18. Comparison of GPU-Based Numerous Particles Simulation and Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Wook; Jun, Chul Woong; Sohn, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Jae Wook

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of numerous grains interacting with each other can be easily observed. In this study, this dynamic behavior was analyzed based on the contact between numerous grains. The discrete element method was used for analyzing the dynamic behavior of each particle and the neighboring-cell algorithm was employed for detecting their contact. The Hertzian and tangential sliding friction contact models were used for calculating the contact force acting between the particles. A GPU-based parallel program was developed for conducting the computer simulation and calculating the numerous contacts. The dam break experiment was performed to verify the simulation results. The reliability of the program was verified by comparing the results of the simulation with those of the experiment

  19. Simulation Based Data Reconciliation for Monitoring Power Plant Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Jun; Heo, Gyun Young

    2010-01-01

    Power plant efficiency is analyzed by using measured values, mass/energy balance principles, and several correlations. Since the measured values can have uncertainty depending on the accuracy of instrumentation, the results of plant efficiency should definitely have uncertainty. The certainty may occur due to either the randomness or the malfunctions of a process. In order to improve the accuracy of efficiency analysis, the data reconciliation (DR) is expected as a good candidate because the mathematical algorithm of the DR is based on the first principles such as mass and energy balance considering the uncertainty of instrumentation. It should be noted that the mass and energy balance model for analyzing power plant efficiency is equivalent to a steady-state simulation of a plant system. Therefore the DR for efficiency analysis necessitates the simulation which can deal with the uncertainty of instrumentation. This study will propose the algorithm of the simulation based DR which is applicable to power plant efficiency monitoring

  20. Engineering-Based Thermal CFD Simulations on Massive Parallel Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Frisch, Jérôme

    2015-05-22

    The development of parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes is a challenging task that entails efficient parallelization concepts and strategies in order to achieve good scalability values when running those codes on modern supercomputers with several thousands to millions of cores. In this paper, we present a hierarchical data structure for massive parallel computations that supports the coupling of a Navier–Stokes-based fluid flow code with the Boussinesq approximation in order to address complex thermal scenarios for energy-related assessments. The newly designed data structure is specifically designed with the idea of interactive data exploration and visualization during runtime of the simulation code; a major shortcoming of traditional high-performance computing (HPC) simulation codes. We further show and discuss speed-up values obtained on one of Germany’s top-ranked supercomputers with up to 140,000 processes and present simulation results for different engineering-based thermal problems.

  1. Digital Simulation-Based Training: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Quesada-Pallarès, Carla; Knogler, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how design characteristics in digital simulation-based learning environments moderate self-efficacy and transfer of learning. Drawing on social cognitive theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, the meta-analysis psychometrically cumulated k?=?15 studies of 25 years of research with a total sample size of…

  2. Event-based Simulation Model for Quantum Optics Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.; Jaeger, G; Khrennikov, A; Schlosshauer, M; Weihs, G

    2011-01-01

    We present a corpuscular simulation model of optical phenomena that does not require the knowledge of the solution of a wave equation of the whole system and reproduces the results of Maxwell's theory by generating detection events one-by-one. The event-based corpuscular model gives a unified

  3. Porting a Java-based Brain Simulation Software to C++

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    A currently available software solution to simulate neural development is Cx3D. However, this software is Java-based, and not ideal for high performance computing. This talk presents our step-by-step porting approach, that uses SWIG as a tool to interface C++ code from Java.

  4. gemcWeb: A Cloud Based Nuclear Physics Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelon, Sam

    2017-09-01

    gemcWeb allows users to run nuclear physics simulations from the web. Being completely device agnostic, scientists can run simulations from anywhere with an Internet connection. Having a full user system, gemcWeb allows users to revisit and revise their projects, and share configurations and results with collaborators. gemcWeb is based on simulation software gemc, which is based on standard GEant4. gemcWeb requires no C++, gemc, or GEant4 knowledge. Using a simple but powerful GUI allows users to configure their project from geometries and configurations stored on the deployment server. Simulations are then run on the server, with results being posted to the user, and then securely stored. Python based and open-source, the main version of gemcWeb is hosted internally at Jefferson National Labratory and used by the CLAS12 and Electron-Ion Collider Project groups. However, as the software is open-source, and hosted as a GitHub repository, an instance can be deployed on the open web, or any institution's intra-net. An instance can be configured to host experiments specific to an institution, and the code base can be modified by any individual or group. Special thanks to: Maurizio Ungaro, PhD., creator of gemc; Markus Diefenthaler, PhD., advisor; and Kyungseon Joo, PhD., advisor.

  5. Simulating an elastic bipedal robot based on musculoskeletal modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bortoletto, Roberto; Sartori, Massimo; He, Fuben; Pagello, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Many of the processes involved into the synthesis of human motion have much in common with problems found in robotics research. This paper describes the modeling and the simulation of a novel bipedal robot based on series elastic actuators [1]. The robot model takes in- spiration from the human

  6. Cost Effective Community Based Dementia Screening: A Markov Model Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Saito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Given the dementia epidemic and the increasing cost of healthcare, there is a need to assess the economic benefit of community based dementia screening programs. Materials and Methods. Markov model simulations were generated using data obtained from a community based dementia screening program over a one-year period. The models simulated yearly costs of caring for patients based on clinical transitions beginning in pre dementia and extending for 10 years. Results. A total of 93 individuals (74 female, 19 male were screened for dementia and 12 meeting clinical criteria for either mild cognitive impairment (n=7 or dementia (n=5 were identified. Assuming early therapeutic intervention beginning during the year of dementia detection, Markov model simulations demonstrated 9.8% reduction in cost of dementia care over a ten-year simulation period, primarily through increased duration in mild stages and reduced time in more costly moderate and severe stages. Discussion. Community based dementia screening can reduce healthcare costs associated with caring for demented individuals through earlier detection and treatment, resulting in proportionately reduced time in more costly advanced stages.

  7. Design Heuristics for Authentic Simulation-Based Learning Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Muriel; Gonçalves, Celso; Balacheff, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Simulation games are games for learning based on a reference in the real world. We propose a model for authenticity in this context as a result of a compromise among learning, playing and realism. In the health game used to apply this model, students interact with characters in the game through phone messages, mail messages, SMS and video.…

  8. Identifying content for simulation-based curricula in urology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayahangan, Leizl Joy; Hansen, Rikke Bolling; Lindorff-Larsen, Karen Gilboe

    2017-01-01

    to identify technical procedures in urology that should be included in a simulation-based curriculum for residency training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A national needs assessment was performed using the Delphi method involving 56 experts with significant roles in the education of urologists. Round 1 identified...

  9. The afforestation problem: a heuristic method based on simulated annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the afforestation problem, that is the location and design of new forest compartments to be planted in a given area. This optimization problem is solved by a two-step heuristic method based on simulated annealing. Tests and experiences with this method are also presented....

  10. Solution of partial differential equations by agent-based simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, Miklos N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this short note is to demonstrate that partial differential equations can be quickly solved by agent-based simulation with high accuracy. There is no need for the solution of large systems of algebraic equations. This method is especially useful for quick determination of potential distributions and demonstration purposes in teaching electromagnetism. (letters and comments)

  11. Toward Developing Authentic Leadership: Team-Based Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a consensus that authentic leadership should be an essential component in educational leadership, no study to date has ever tried to find whether team-based simulations may promote authentic leadership. The purpose of this study was to identify whether principal trainees can develop authentic leadership through ethical decision…

  12. Students' Emotions in Simulation-Based Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskitalo, Tuulikki; Ruokamo, Heli

    2017-01-01

    Medical education is emotionally charged for many reasons, especially the fact that simulation-based learning is designed to generate emotional experiences. However, there are very few studies that concentrate on learning and emotions, despite widespread interest in the topic, especially within healthcare education. The aim of this research is to…

  13. Fast spot-based multiscale simulations of granular drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Wong, Yee Lok; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2009-05-22

    We develop a multiscale simulation method for dense granular drainage, based on the recently proposed spot model, where the particle packing flows by local collective displacements in response to diffusing"spots'" of interstitial free volume. By comparing with discrete-element method (DEM) simulations of 55,000 spheres in a rectangular silo, we show that the spot simulation is able to approximately capture many features of drainage, such as packing statistics, particle mixing, and flow profiles. The spot simulation runs two to three orders of magnitude faster than DEM, making it an appropriate method for real-time control or optimization. We demonstrateextensions for modeling particle heaping and avalanching at the free surface, and for simulating the boundary layers of slower flow near walls. We show that the spot simulations are robust and flexible, by demonstrating that they can be used in both event-driven and fixed timestep approaches, and showing that the elastic relaxation step used in the model can be applied much less frequently and still create good results.

  14. An electromechanical based deformable model for soft tissue simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yongmin; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2009-11-01

    Soft tissue deformation is of great importance to surgery simulation. Although a significant amount of research efforts have been dedicated to simulating the behaviours of soft tissues, modelling of soft tissue deformation is still a challenging problem. This paper presents a new deformable model for simulation of soft tissue deformation from the electromechanical viewpoint of soft tissues. Soft tissue deformation is formulated as a reaction-diffusion process coupled with a mechanical load. The mechanical load applied to a soft tissue to cause a deformation is incorporated into the reaction-diffusion system, and consequently distributed among mass points of the soft tissue. Reaction-diffusion of mechanical load and non-rigid mechanics of motion are combined to govern the simulation dynamics of soft tissue deformation. An improved reaction-diffusion model is developed to describe the distribution of the mechanical load in soft tissues. A three-layer artificial cellular neural network is constructed to solve the reaction-diffusion model for real-time simulation of soft tissue deformation. A gradient based method is established to derive internal forces from the distribution of the mechanical load. Integration with a haptic device has also been achieved to simulate soft tissue deformation with haptic feedback. The proposed methodology does not only predict the typical behaviours of living tissues, but it also accepts both local and large-range deformations. It also accommodates isotropic, anisotropic and inhomogeneous deformations by simple modification of diffusion coefficients.

  15. Simulation-based medical education in clinical skills laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaike, Masashi; Fukutomi, Miki; Nagamune, Masami; Fujimoto, Akiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ishida, Kazuko; Iwata, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical skills laboratories have been established in medical institutions as facilities for simulation-based medical education (SBME). SBME is believed to be superior to the traditional style of medical education from the viewpoint of the active and adult learning theories. SBME can provide a learning cycle of debriefing and feedback for learners as well as evaluation of procedures and competency. SBME offers both learners and patients a safe environment for practice and error. In a full-environment simulation, learners can obtain not only technical skills but also non-technical skills, such as leadership, team work, communication, situation awareness, decision-making, and awareness of personal limitations. SBME is also effective for integration of clinical medicine and basic medicine. In addition, technology-enhanced simulation training is associated with beneficial effects for outcomes of knowledge, skills, behaviors, and patient-related outcomes. To perform SBME, effectively, not only simulators including high-fidelity mannequin-type simulators or virtual-reality simulators but also full-time faculties and instructors as professionals of SBME are essential in a clinical skills laboratory for SBME. Clinical skills laboratory is expected to become an integrated medical education center to achieve continuing professional development, integrated learning of basic and clinical medicine, and citizens' participation and cooperation in medical education.

  16. Dynamic Garment Simulation based on Hybrid Bounding Volume Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Dongyong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the computing speed and efficiency problem of existing dynamic clothing simulation, this paper presents a dynamic garment simulation based on a hybrid bounding volume hierarchy. It firstly uses MCASG graph theory to do the primary segmentation for a given three-dimensional human body model. And then it applies K-means cluster to do the secondary segmentation to collect the human body’s upper arms, lower arms, upper legs, lower legs, trunk, hip and woman’s chest as the elementary units of dynamic clothing simulation. According to different shapes of these elementary units, it chooses the closest and most efficient hybrid bounding box to specify these units, such as cylinder bounding box and elliptic cylinder bounding box. During the process of constructing these bounding boxes, it uses the least squares method and slices of the human body to get the related parameters. This approach makes it possible to use the least amount of bounding boxes to create close collision detection regions for the appearance of the human body. A spring-mass model based on a triangular mesh of the clothing model is finally constructed for dynamic simulation. The simulation result shows the feasibility and superiority of the method described.

  17. Team play in surgical education: a simulation-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Mollie; Hemmert, Keith; Nguyen, Andrew H; Combs, Ronnie; Annamalai, Alagappan; Miller, George; Pachter, H Leon; Turner, James; Rifkind, Kenneth; Cohen, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Simulation-based training provides a low-stress learning environment where real-life emergencies can be practiced. Simulation can improve surgical education and patient care in crisis situations through a team approach emphasizing interpersonal and communication skills. This study assessed the effects of simulation-based training in the context of trauma resuscitation in teams of trainees. In a New York State-certified level I trauma center, trauma alerts were assessed by a standardized video review process. Simulation training was provided in various trauma situations followed by a debriefing period. The outcomes measured included the number of healthcare workers involved in the resuscitation, the percentage of healthcare workers in role position, time to intubation, time to intubation from paralysis, time to obtain first imaging study, time to leave trauma bay for computed tomography scan or the operating room, presence of team leader, and presence of spinal stabilization. Thirty cases were video analyzed presimulation and postsimulation training. The two data sets were compared via a 1-sided t test for significance (p role positions increased from 57.8% to 83.6% (p = 0.46). The time to intubation from paralysis decreased from 3.9 to 2.8 minutes (p team leader increased from 64% to 90% (p team interaction and educational competencies. Providing simulation training as a tool for surgical education may enhance patient care. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Current concepts in simulation-based trauma education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Robert A; Ali, Jameel

    2008-11-01

    The use of simulation-based technology in trauma education has focused on providing a safe and effective alternative to the more traditional methods that are used to teach technical skills and critical concepts in trauma resuscitation. Trauma team training using simulation-based technology is also being used to develop skills in leadership, team-information sharing, communication, and decision-making. The integration of simulators into medical student curriculum, residency training, and continuing medical education has been strongly recommended by the American College of Surgeons as an innovative means of enhancing patient safety, reducing medical errors, and performing a systematic evaluation of various competencies. Advanced human patient simulators are increasingly being used in trauma as an evaluation tool to assess clinical performance and to teach and reinforce essential knowledge, skills, and abilities. A number of specialty simulators in trauma and critical care have also been designed to meet these educational objectives. Ongoing educational research is still needed to validate long-term retention of knowledge and skills, provide reliable methods to evaluate teaching effectiveness and performance, and to demonstrate improvement in patient safety and overall quality of care.

  19. An FPGA-Based Massively Parallel Neuromorphic Cortex Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runchun M. Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a massively parallel and scalable neuromorphic cortex simulator designed for simulating large and structurally connected spiking neural networks, such as complex models of various areas of the cortex. The main novelty of this work is the abstraction of a neuromorphic architecture into clusters represented by minicolumns and hypercolumns, analogously to the fundamental structural units observed in neurobiology. Without this approach, simulating large-scale fully connected networks needs prohibitively large memory to store look-up tables for point-to-point connections. Instead, we use a novel architecture, based on the structural connectivity in the neocortex, such that all the required parameters and connections can be stored in on-chip memory. The cortex simulator can be easily reconfigured for simulating different neural networks without any change in hardware structure by programming the memory. A hierarchical communication scheme allows one neuron to have a fan-out of up to 200 k neurons. As a proof-of-concept, an implementation on one Altera Stratix V FPGA was able to simulate 20 million to 2.6 billion leaky-integrate-and-fire (LIF neurons in real time. We verified the system by emulating a simplified auditory cortex (with 100 million neurons. This cortex simulator achieved a low power dissipation of 1.62 μW per neuron. With the advent of commercially available FPGA boards, our system offers an accessible and scalable tool for the design, real-time simulation, and analysis of large-scale spiking neural networks.

  20. Nucleonica. Web-based software tools for simulation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magill, J.; Dreher, R.; Soti, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The authors present a description of the Nucleonica web-based portal for simulation and analysis for a wide range of commonly encountered nuclear science applications. Advantages of a web-based approach include availability wherever there is internet access, intuitive user-friendly interface, remote access to high-power computing resources, and continual maintenance, improvement, and addition of tools and techniques common to the nuclear science industry. A description of the nuclear data resources, and some applications is given.

  1. Clinical use of sensory gardens and outdoor environments in norwegian nursing homes: a cross-sectional e-mail survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Kirkevold, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Gardens and outdoor environments offer multiple therapeutic possibilities for the residents in nursing homes. Web-based questionnaires were sent to 488 nursing home leaders and 121 leaders responded. The clinical impressions of the leaders and staff regarding the benefits of sensory gardens (SGs) to the residents were consistent with previous research. SGs facilitated taking residents outdoors, offered convenient topics for communication and facilitated social privacy for relatives. For improved clinical use of SGs and outdoor environments, systematic assessment of residents' interests, performance and experiences when outdoors, implementation of seasonal clinical programmes and educational programmes for leaders and staff are recommended.

  2. Time Spent Outdoors, Depressive Symptoms, and Variation by Race and Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-09-01

    Numerous studies have explored neighborhood environmental correlates of mental illnesses, presuming that the time individuals spend in their environment can confer benefit or harm based on environmental characteristics. However, few population-based studies have directly examined the relationship between time spent outdoors and mental health, and little work has been done to explore how experiences differ by race and ethnicity. Though some have proposed "doses of outdoor time" to improve health, the absence of information about the benefits conferred by particular "doses," and expected baseline levels of outdoor time, are needed to inform the development of recommendations and interventions. This study examined the relationship between time spent outdoors and depression among a population-based sample of American adults, characterized current levels of time spent outdoors by race and ethnicity, and examined how the relationship between time spent outdoors and depression varies by race and ethnicity. Descriptive statistics and survey regression models were used to examine data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2009-2012. Findings provide evidence that time spent outdoors is associated with fewer depressive symptoms, but this benefit may not be equally distributed by race and ethnicity. Descriptive analyses also reveal differences in time spent outdoors among different racial and ethnic groups. Study findings support the notion that increasing time spent outdoors may result in mental health benefits. However, this study questions whether that benefit is experienced equally among different groups, particularly given differences in occupational experiences and environmental characteristics of neighborhoods. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance. Performance evaluation examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The Japan Society of Civil Engineers has updated performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance in June 2005. Based on experimental and analytical considerations, analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings have been incorporated in new recommendations. This document shows outdoor civil structures earthquake resistance and endurance performance evaluation examples based on revised recommendations. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Objective Method for Selecting Outdoor Reporting Conditions for Photovoltaic Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maish, A.

    1999-01-01

    Outdoor performance of photovoltaic modules and systems depends on prevailing conditions at the time of measurement. Outdoor test conditions must be relevant to device performance and readily attainable. Flat-plate, nonconcentrator PV device performance is reported with respect to fixed conditions referred to as Standard Reporting Conditions (SRC) of 1 kW/m plane of array total irradiance, 25 C device temperature, and a reference spectral distribution at air mass 1.5 under certain atmospheric conditions. We report a method of analyzing historical meteorological and irradiance data to determine the range of outdoor environmental parameters and solar irradiance components that affect solar collector performance when the SRC 1 kW/m total irradiance value occurs outdoors. We used data from the 30 year U.S. National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) , restricting irradiance conditions to within +/- 25 W/m of 1 kW/m on a solar tracking flat-plate collector. The distributions of environmental parameter values under these conditions are non-Gaussian and site dependent. Therefore the median, as opposed to the mean, of the observed distributions is chosen to represent appropriate outdoor reporting conditions. We found the average medians for the direct beam component (834 W/m), ambient temperature (24.4 C), total column water vapor (1.4 cm), and air mass (1.43) are near commonly used SRC values. Average median wind speed (4.4 m/s) and broadband aerosol optical depth (0.08) were significantly different from commonly used values

  5. Towards an entropy-based detached-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Yan, Chao; Li, XinLiang; Kong, WeiXuan

    2013-10-01

    A concept of entropy increment ratio ( s¯) is introduced for compressible turbulence simulation through a series of direct numerical simulations (DNS). s¯ represents the dissipation rate per unit mechanical energy with the benefit of independence of freestream Mach numbers. Based on this feature, we construct the shielding function f s to describe the boundary layer region and propose an entropy-based detached-eddy simulation method (SDES). This approach follows the spirit of delayed detached-eddy simulation (DDES) proposed by Spalart et al. in 2005, but it exhibits much better behavior after their performances are compared in the following flows, namely, pure attached flow with thick boundary layer (a supersonic flat-plate flow with high Reynolds number), fully separated flow (the supersonic base flow), and separated-reattached flow (the supersonic cavity-ramp flow). The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) resolved region is reliably preserved and the modeled stress depletion (MSD) phenomenon which is inherent in DES and DDES is partly alleviated. Moreover, this new hybrid strategy is simple and general, making it applicable to other models related to the boundary layer predictions.

  6. [Does simulator-based team training improve patient safety?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentzsch, H; Urban, B; Sandmeyer, B; Hammer, T; Strohm, P C; Lazarovici, M

    2013-10-01

    Patient safety became paramount in medicine as well as in emergency medicine after it was recognized that preventable, adverse events significantly contributed to morbidity and mortality during hospital stay. The underlying errors cannot usually be explained by medical technical inadequacies only but are more due to difficulties in the transition of theoretical knowledge into tasks under the conditions of clinical reality. Crew Resource Management and Human Factors which determine safety and efficiency of humans in complex situations are suitable to control such sources of error. Simulation significantly improved safety in high reliability organizations, such as the aerospace industry.Thus, simulator-based team training has also been proposed for medical areas. As such training is consuming in cost, time and human resources, the question of the cost-benefit ratio obviously arises. This review outlines the effects of simulator-based team training on patient safety. Such course formats are not only capable of creating awareness and improvements in safety culture but also improve technical team performance and emphasize team performance as a clinical competence. A few studies even indicated improvement of patient-centered outcome, such as a reduced rate of adverse events but further studies are required in this respect. In summary, simulator-based team training should be accepted as a suitable strategy to improve patient safety.

  7. Simulation-based interpersonal communication skills training for neurosurgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnof, Sagi; Hadani, Moshe; Ziv, Amitai; Berkenstadt, Haim

    2013-09-01

    Communication skills are an important component of the neurosurgery residency training program. We developed a simulation-based training module for neurosurgery residents in which medical, communication and ethical dilemmas are presented by role-playing actors. To assess the first national simulation-based communication skills training for neurosurgical residents. Eight scenarios covering different aspects of neurosurgery were developed by our team: (1) obtaining informed consent for an elective surgery, (2) discharge of a patient following elective surgery, (3) dealing with an unsatisfied patient, (4) delivering news of intraoperative complications, (5) delivering news of a brain tumor to parents of a 5 year old boy, (6) delivering news of brain death to a family member, (7) obtaining informed consent for urgent surgery from the grandfather of a 7 year old boy with an epidural hematoma, and (8) dealing with a case of child abuse. Fifteen neurosurgery residents from all major medical centers in Israel participated in the training. The session was recorded on video and was followed by videotaped debriefing by a senior neurosurgeon and communication expert and by feedback questionnaires. All trainees participated in two scenarios and observed another two. Participants largely agreed that the actors simulating patients represented real patients and family members and that the videotaped debriefing contributed to the teaching of professional skills. Simulation-based communication skill training is effective, and together with thorough debriefing is an excellent learning and practical method for imparting communication skills to neurosurgery residents. Such simulation-based training will ultimately be part of the national residency program.

  8. Simulation-based training in brain death determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Benjamin J; Robinson, Jennifer D; Kappus, Liana; Sudikoff, Stephanie N; Greer, David M

    2014-12-01

    Despite straightforward guidelines on brain death determination by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN), substantial practice variability exists internationally, between states, and among institutions. We created a simulation-based training course on proper determination based on the AAN practice parameters to address and assess knowledge and practice gaps at our institution. Our intervention consisted of a didactic course and a simulation exercise, and was bookended by before and after multiple-choice tests. The 40-min didactic course, including a video demonstration, covered all aspects of the brain death examination. Simulation sessions utilized a SimMan 3G manikin and involved a complete examination, including an apnea test. Possible confounders and signs incompatible with brain death were embedded throughout. Facilitators evaluated performance with a 26-point checklist based on the most recent AAN guidelines. A senior neurologist conducted all aspects of the course, including the didactic session, simulation, and debriefing session. Ninety physicians from multiple specialties have participated in the didactic session, 38 of whom have completed the simulation. Pre-test scores were poor (41.4 %), with attendings scoring higher than residents (46.6 vs. 40.4 %, p = 0.07), and neurologists and neurosurgeons significantly outperforming other specialists (53.9 vs. 38.9 %, p = 0.003). Post-test scores (73.3 %) were notably higher than pre-test scores (45.4 %). Participant feedback has been uniformly positive. Baseline knowledge of brain death determination among providers was low but improved greatly after the course. Our intervention represents an effective model that can be replicated at other institutions to train clinicians in the determination of brain death according to evidence-based guidelines.

  9. AUV-Based Plume Tracking: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awantha Jayasiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation study of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV navigation system operating in a GPS-denied environment. The AUV navigation method makes use of underwater transponder positioning and requires only one transponder. A multirate unscented Kalman filter is used to determine the AUV orientation and position by fusing high-rate sensor data and low-rate information. The paper also proposes a gradient-based, efficient, and adaptive novel algorithm for plume boundary tracking missions. The algorithm follows a centralized approach and it includes path optimization features based on gradient information. The proposed algorithm is implemented in simulation on the AUV-based navigation system and successful boundary tracking results are obtained.

  10. Simulation-based Strategies for Smart Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Leobner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Demand Response can be seen as one effective way to harmonize demand and supply in order to achieve high self-coverage of energy consumption by means of renewable energy sources. This paper presents two different simulation-based concepts to integrate demand-response strategies into energy management systems in the customer domain of the Smart Grid. The first approach is a Model Predictive Control of the heating and cooling system of a low-energy office building. The second concept aims at industrial Demand Side Management by integrating energy use optimization into industrial automation systems. Both approaches are targeted at day-ahead planning. Furthermore, insights gained into the implications of the concepts onto the design of the model, simulation and optimization will be discussed. While both approaches share a similar architecture, different modelling and simulation approaches were required by the use cases.

  11. Man-machine interfaces analysis system based on computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Gao Zuying; Zhou Zhiwei; Zhao Bingquan

    2004-01-01

    The paper depicts a software assessment system, Dynamic Interaction Analysis Support (DIAS), based on computer simulation technology for man-machine interfaces (MMI) of a control room. It employs a computer to simulate the operation procedures of operations on man-machine interfaces in a control room, provides quantified assessment, and at the same time carries out analysis on operational error rate of operators by means of techniques for human error rate prediction. The problems of placing man-machine interfaces in a control room and of arranging instruments can be detected from simulation results. DIAS system can provide good technical supports to the design and improvement of man-machine interfaces of the main control room of a nuclear power plant

  12. Formalizing Knowledge in Multi-Scale Agent-Based Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Endre; Sluka, James P; Glazier, James A

    2016-10-01

    Multi-scale, agent-based simulations of cellular and tissue biology are increasingly common. These simulations combine and integrate a range of components from different domains. Simulations continuously create, destroy and reorganize constituent elements causing their interactions to dynamically change. For example, the multi-cellular tissue development process coordinates molecular, cellular and tissue scale objects with biochemical, biomechanical, spatial and behavioral processes to form a dynamic network. Different domain specific languages can describe these components in isolation, but cannot describe their interactions. No current programming language is designed to represent in human readable and reusable form the domain specific knowledge contained in these components and interactions. We present a new hybrid programming language paradigm that naturally expresses the complex multi-scale objects and dynamic interactions in a unified way and allows domain knowledge to be captured, searched, formalized, extracted and reused.

  13. A Simulation Base Investigation of High Latency Space Systems Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zu Qun; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul; Moore, Michael

    2017-01-01

    NASA's human space program has developed considerable experience with near Earth space operations. Although NASA has experience with deep space robotic missions, NASA has little substantive experience with human deep space operations. Even in the Apollo program, the missions lasted only a few weeks and the communication latencies were on the order of seconds. Human missions beyond the relatively close confines of the Earth-Moon system will involve missions with durations measured in months and communications latencies measured in minutes. To minimize crew risk and to maximize mission success, NASA needs to develop a better understanding of the implications of these types of mission durations and communication latencies on vehicle design, mission design and flight controller interaction with the crew. To begin to address these needs, NASA performed a study using a physics-based subsystem simulation to investigate the interactions between spacecraft crew and a ground-based mission control center for vehicle subsystem operations across long communication delays. The simulation, built with a subsystem modeling tool developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center, models the life support system of a Mars transit vehicle. The simulation contains models of the cabin atmosphere and pressure control system, electrical power system, drinking and waste water systems, internal and external thermal control systems, and crew metabolic functions. The simulation has three interfaces: 1) a real-time crew interface that can be use to monitor and control the vehicle subsystems; 2) a mission control center interface with data transport delays up to 15 minutes each way; 3) a real-time simulation test conductor interface that can be use to insert subsystem malfunctions and observe the interactions between the crew, ground, and simulated vehicle. The study was conducted at the 21st NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission between July 18th and Aug 3rd of year 2016. The NEEMO

  14. Determining the energy performance of manually controlled solar shades: A stochastic model based co-simulation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Driving factor for adjustment of manually controlled solar shades was determined. • A stochastic model for manual solar shades was constructed using Markov method. • Co-simulation with Energyplus was carried out in BCVTB. • External shading even manually controlled should be used prior to LOW-E windows. • Previous studies on manual solar shades may overestimate energy savings. - Abstract: Solar shading devices play a significant role in reducing building energy consumption and maintaining a comfortable indoor condition. In this paper, a typical office building with internal roller shades in hot summer and cold winter zone was selected to determine the driving factor of control behavior of manual solar shades. Solar radiation was determined as the major factor in driving solar shading adjustment based on field measurements and logit analysis and then a stochastic model for manually adjusted solar shades was constructed by using Markov method. This model was used in BCVTB for further co-simulation with Energyplus to determine the impact of the control behavior of solar shades on energy performance. The results show that manually adjusted solar shades, whatever located inside or outside, have a relatively high energy saving performance than clear-pane windows while only external shades perform better than regularly used LOW-E windows. Simulation also indicates that using an ideal assumption of solar shade adjustment as most studies do in building simulation may lead to an overestimation of energy saving by about 16–30%. There is a need to improve occupants’ actions on shades to more effectively respond to outdoor conditions in order to lower energy consumption, and this improvement can be easily achieved by using simple strategies as a guide to control manual solar shades

  15. Exploring Mechanisms for Effective Technology-Enhanced Simulation-based Education in Wilderness Medicine: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Ralph; Aitken, Deborah; Humphries, Christopher

    2015-12-17

     Technology-enhanced simulation is well-established in healthcare teaching curricula, including those regarding wilderness medicine. Compellingly, the evidence base for the value of this educational modality to improve learner competencies and patient outcomes are increasing.  The aim was to systematically review the characteristics of technology-enhanced simulation presented in the wilderness medicine literature to date. Then, the secondary aim was to explore how this technology has been used and if the use of this technology has been associated with improved learner or patient outcomes.  EMBASE and MEDLINE were systematically searched from 1946 to 2014, for articles on the provision of technology-enhanced simulation to teach wilderness medicine. Working independently, the team evaluated the information on the criteria of learners, setting, instructional design, content, and outcomes.  From a pool of 37 articles, 11 publications were eligible for systematic review. The majority of learners in the included publications were medical students, settings included both indoors and outdoors, and the main focus clinical content was initial trauma management with some including leadership skills. The most prevalent instructional design components were clinical variation and cognitive interactivity, with learner satisfaction as the main outcome.  The results confirm that the current provision of wilderness medicine utilizing technology-enhanced simulation is aligned with instructional design characteristics that have been used to achieve effective learning. Future research should aim to demonstrate the translation of learning into the clinical field to produce improved learner outcomes and create improved patient outcomes.

  16. Simulation-based ureteroscopy training: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunckhorst, Oliver; Aydin, Abdullatif; Abboudi, Hamid; Sahai, Arun; Khan, Muhammad Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Simulation is a common adjunct to operative training and various modalities exist for ureteroscopy. This systematic review aims the following: (1) to identify available ureteroscopy simulators, (2) to explore evidence for their effectiveness using characteristic criterion, and (3) to provide recommendations for simulation-based ureteroscopy training. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis statement guidelines were used. A literature search was performed using the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. In total, 20 articles concerning ureteroscopy simulators were included. Overall, 3 high-fidelity bench models are available. The Uro-Scopic Trainer has demonstrated face, construct, and concurrent validity, whereas the Scope Trainer has undergone content, construct, and predictive validation. The adult ureteroscopy trainer has demonstrated face, content, and construct validity. The URO Mentor is the only available ureteroscopy virtual-reality system; 10 studies were identified demonstrating its face, content, construct, concurrent, and predictive validity. The Uro-Scopic Trainer, the Scope Trainer, and the URO Mentor have demonstrated high educational impact. A noncommercially available, low-fidelity model has demonstrated effectiveness comparable to its high-fidelity counterpart at 185 times lesser than the price of the Uro-Scopic Trainer. The use of porcine models has also been described in 3 studies but require further study. Valid models are available for simulation-based ureteroscopy training. However, there is a lack of many high-level studies conducted, and further investigation is required in this area. Furthermore, current research focuses on the technical skills acquisition with little research conducted on nontechnical skills acquisition within ureteroscopy. The next step for ureteroscopy training is a formalized and validated curriculum, incorporating simulation, training models, development of nontechnical skills

  17. GPU based numerical simulation of core shooting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-zhong Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Core shooting process is the most widely used technique to make sand cores and it plays an important role in the quality of sand cores. Although numerical simulation can hopefully optimize the core shooting process, research on numerical simulation of the core shooting process is very limited. Based on a two-fluid model (TFM and a kinetic-friction constitutive correlation, a program for 3D numerical simulation of the core shooting process has been developed and achieved good agreements with in-situ experiments. To match the needs of engineering applications, a graphics processing unit (GPU has also been used to improve the calculation efficiency. The parallel algorithm based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA platform can significantly decrease computing time by multi-threaded GPU. In this work, the program accelerated by CUDA parallelization method was developed and the accuracy of the calculations was ensured by comparing with in-situ experimental results photographed by a high-speed camera. The design and optimization of the parallel algorithm were discussed. The simulation result of a sand core test-piece indicated the improvement of the calculation efficiency by GPU. The developed program has also been validated by in-situ experiments with a transparent core-box, a high-speed camera, and a pressure measuring system. The computing time of the parallel program was reduced by nearly 95% while the simulation result was still quite consistent with experimental data. The GPU parallelization method can successfully solve the problem of low computational efficiency of the 3D sand shooting simulation program, and thus the developed GPU program is appropriate for engineering applications.

  18. Outdoor recreation in forest policy and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    in the field of outdoor recreation, and reveal similarities, differences, gaps and future needs. Among the main findings is a contradiction between the expressed political importance of outdoor recreation at the national level, and the absence of binding commitments for action. The majority of the countries...... surveyed recognise and express outdoor recreation in some form of political and/or legislative way. However, recreation monitoring or measurements are rarely mentioned in relevant policies or acts at the national, regional or local level, perhaps due to a l ack of political will or resources. The analysis...

  19. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  20. A virtual reality based simulator for learning nasogastric tube placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kup-Sze; He, Xuejian; Chiang, Vico Chung-Lim; Deng, Zhaohong

    2015-02-01

    Nasogastric tube (NGT) placement is a common clinical procedure where a plastic tube is inserted into the stomach through the nostril for feeding or drainage. However, the placement is a blind process in which the tube may be mistakenly inserted into other locations, leading to unexpected complications or fatal incidents. The placement techniques are conventionally acquired by practising on unrealistic rubber mannequins or on humans. In this paper, a virtual reality based training simulation system is proposed to facilitate the training of NGT placement. It focuses on the simulation of tube insertion and the rendering of the feedback forces with a haptic device. A hybrid force model is developed to compute the forces analytically or numerically under different conditions, including the situations when the patient is swallowing or when the tube is buckled at the nostril. To ensure real-time interactive simulations, an offline simulation approach is adopted to obtain the relationship between the insertion depth and insertion force using a non-linear finite element method. The offline dataset is then used to generate real-time feedback forces by interpolation. The virtual training process is logged quantitatively with metrics that can be used for assessing objective performance and tracking progress. The system has been evaluated by nursing professionals. They found that the haptic feeling produced by the simulated forces is similar to their experience during real NGT insertion. The proposed system provides a new educational tool to enhance conventional training in NGT placement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An introduction to statistical computing a simulation-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Voss, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to sampling-based methods in statistical computing The use of computers in mathematics and statistics has opened up a wide range of techniques for studying otherwise intractable problems.  Sampling-based simulation techniques are now an invaluable tool for exploring statistical models.  This book gives a comprehensive introduction to the exciting area of sampling-based methods. An Introduction to Statistical Computing introduces the classical topics of random number generation and Monte Carlo methods.  It also includes some advanced met

  2. Simulation-Based Abdominal Ultrasound Training – A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mia L.; Ewertsen, Caroline; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    of Science, and the Cochrane Library was searched. Articles were divided into three categories based on study design (randomized controlled trials, before-and-after studies and descriptive studies) and assessed for level of evidence using the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (OCEBM) system......PURPOSE: The aim is to provide a complete overview of the different simulation-based training options for abdominal ultrasound and to explore the evidence of their effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines and Medline, Embase, Web...

  3. Pengembangan Model Outdoor Learning melalui Project Berbasis Local Wisdom dalam Pembelajaran Fisika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah kurnia Putri Damayanti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1 menghasilkan model outdoor learning melalui project berbasis local wisdom yang layak digunakan dalam pembelajaran fisika, (2 mengetahui keefektifan penggunaan model outdoor learning melalui project berbasis local wisdom. Penelitian pengembangan ini menggunakan metode pengembangan R & D (Research dan Development. Pada tahap Development, peneliti mengadopsi model 4D, yaitu Define, Design, Develop, dan Disseminate. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa model outdoor learning melalui project berbasis local wisdom yang dikembangkan layak digunakan dari segi produk pendukung pembelajaran yang memenuhi kriteria sangat tinggi menurut para ahli, praktis menurut guru dan peserta didik. Lembar observasi yang memenuhi kriteria valid dan reliabel berdasarkan hasil ICC dan tes hasil belajar yang memenuhi kriteria valid dan reliabel berdasarkan hasil Quest. Selain itu, model outdoor learning melalui project berbasis local wisdom lebih efektif digunakan dalam pembelajaran fisika dilihat dari hasil analisis multivariate dan GLMMDs yang memperoleh nilai signifikansi 0,000 dan MD yang tinggi.   AbstractThis research was aimed to: (1 produce outdoor learning via project based suitable local wisdom model used in physics learning, (2 know the effectiveness in using outdoor learning via project based local wisdom model. This developing research used a R & D method (Research and Development. On Development step, the researcher adopted 4D model, they were Define, Design, Develop, dan Dissemination. The results showed that the developed outdoor learning via project based local wisdom model was suitable to be used in terms of learning support product that was in very high category according expert, practical according teacher and students. In addition the observation sheet was in valid criteria and reliabel based on ICC and the learning outcome test was in valid criteria and reliabel based on Quest. Besides, outdoor learning via

  4. An Individual-based Probabilistic Model for Fish Stock Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Buti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We define an individual-based probabilistic model of a sole (Solea solea behaviour. The individual model is given in terms of an Extended Probabilistic Discrete Timed Automaton (EPDTA, a new formalism that is introduced in the paper and that is shown to be interpretable as a Markov decision process. A given EPDTA model can be probabilistically model-checked by giving a suitable translation into syntax accepted by existing model-checkers. In order to simulate the dynamics of a given population of soles in different environmental scenarios, an agent-based simulation environment is defined in which each agent implements the behaviour of the given EPDTA model. By varying the probabilities and the characteristic functions embedded in the EPDTA model it is possible to represent different scenarios and to tune the model itself by comparing the results of the simulations with real data about the sole stock in the North Adriatic sea, available from the recent project SoleMon. The simulator is presented and made available for its adaptation to other species.

  5. Outdoor stocking density in free-range laying hens: effects on behaviour and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Downing, J A; Lee, C

    2017-06-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing within Australia and research is needed to determine optimal outdoor stocking densities. Six small (n=150 hens) experimental flocks of ISA Brown laying hens were housed with access to ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities with two pen replicates per density: 2000 hens/ha, 10 000 hens/ha or 20 000 hens/ha. Birds were provided daily range access from 21 to 36 weeks of age and the range usage of 50% of hens was tracked using radio-frequency identification technology. Throughout the study, basic external health assessments following a modified version of the Welfare Quality® protocol showed most birds were in visibly good condition (although keel damage was increasingly present with age) with few differences between stocking densities. Toenail length at 36 weeks of age was negatively correlated with hours spent ranging for all pens of birds (all r⩾-0.23, P⩽0.04). At 23 weeks of age, there were no differences between outdoor stocking densities in albumen corticosterone concentrations (P=0.44). At 35 weeks of age, density effects were significant (Prange and indoors showed more dust bathing and foraging (scratching followed by ground-pecking) was performed outdoors, but more resting indoors (all Prange but the most resting outdoors, with hens from the 20 000 hens/ha densities showing the least amount of resting outdoors (all Pfree-range system management practices.

  6. The effect of future outdoor air pollution on human health and the contribution of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Lamarque, J.; Shindell, D.; Collins, W.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Faluvegi, G. S.; Folberth, G.; Horowitz, L. W.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R.; Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Bergmann, D. J.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Cionni, I.; Doherty, R. M.; Eyring, V.; Josse, B.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Plummer, D.; Righi, M.; Stevenson, D. S.; Strode, S. A.; Szopa, S.; Zeng, G.

    2013-12-01

    At present, exposure to outdoor air pollution from ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) causes over 2 million deaths per year, due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. Future ambient concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 will be affected by both air pollutant emissions and climate change. Here we estimate the potential impact of future outdoor air pollution on premature human mortality, and isolate the contribution of future climate change due to its effect on air quality. We use modeled present-day (2000) and future global ozone and PM2.5 concentrations from simulations with an ensemble of chemistry-climate models from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). Future air pollution was modeled for global greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions in the four IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios, for 2030, 2050 and 2100. All model outputs are regridded to a common 0.5°x0.5° horizontal resolution. Future premature mortality is estimated for each RCP scenario and year based on changes in concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 relative to 2000. Using a health impact function, changes in concentrations for each RCP scenario are combined with future population and cause-specific baseline mortality rates as projected by a single independent scenario in which the global incidence of cardiopulmonary diseases is expected to increase. The effect of climate change is isolated by considering the difference between air pollutant concentrations from simulations with 2000 emissions and a future year climate and simulations with 2000 emissions and climate. Uncertainties in the results reflect the uncertainty in the concentration-response function and that associated with variability among models. Few previous studies have quantified the effects of future climate change on global human health via changes in air quality, and this is the first such study to use an ensemble of global models.

  7. ECOLITERACY SISWA SD DALAM KEGIATAN PENGELOLAAN SAMPAH MELALUI GROUP INVESTIGATION BERBASIS OUTDOOR STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Karlina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to improve the student’s ecoliteracy in waste managing activities on social studies trough group investigation based outdoor study. This research is Classroom Action Research toward fourth graders have been held on two cycles. The conclusion of this research is student’s ecoliteracy cognitive aspect increases is 20%, application aspect increases is 49,6%, and attitude aspect increases is 19,4% after the two cycle action with group investigation based outdoor study. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan peningkatan ecoliteracy siswa dalam kegiatan pengelolaan sampah dalam pembelajaran IPS melalui group investigation berbasis outdoor study. Penelitian ini menerapkan jenis Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK terhadap siswa kelas IV SD yang dilaksanakan dalam dua siklus. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan adanya peningkatan ecoliteracy siswa dari aspek pengetahuan sebesar 20%, aspek aplikasi sebesar 49,6%, dan aspek sikap sebesar 19,4% setelah mengikuti dua siklus pembelajaran dengan group investigation berbasis outdoor study.

  8. Fostering Trust in Outdoor Leaders: The Role of Personal Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This study examined trust development between participants of outdoor education programs and outdoor leaders. Participants were college students enrolled in outdoor education courses. Using a factorial survey design, the technical ability, interpersonal ability, benevolence, integrity, and gender of an outdoor leader was displayed randomly in a…

  9. Towards Consensus on the Nature of Outdoor Education. Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Peter; Loynes, Chris

    1997-01-01

    At a European conference in Finland, various outdoor education organizations drafted a statement of intent for the newly created European Institute for Outdoor Adventure Education. Their common view of outdoor education is that it strives to stimulate personal and social development experientially through some experience of the outdoors. Discusses…

  10. Outdoor Advertising and Gender Differences : Factors Influencing Perception and Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Belinskaya, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    The thesis examines attitudes towards outdoor advertising, with strong emphasis on gender-based differences. The research intends to reveal the most influencing factors, including gender, format, different images and recall. Earlier researchers have argued that females are inclined to rate advertisements more positively than men. Five different, but interconnected studies, one content analysis and four surveys, were implicated in order to measure the responses to advertising. It is further su...

  11. Challenges and advantages of using GPS data in outdoor advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Hecker, Dirk; Körner, Christine; May, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of companies use mobility data in their day-to-day business. Especially in the area of outdoor advertising, GPS devices have been successfully applied in order to measure poster performance in recent years. Based on personal mobility traces, the quality and precision of performance measures has increased significantly. However, the usage of GPS technology poses several challenges when applied to critical business processes. We will present several challenges and solutions whi...

  12. The Experience of Outdoor Education at Operation Purple (registered trademark) Camp: Findings from a Sample of Youth Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    curiosity about nature, improved outdoor skills. In a study of a conservation education camp offered through a zoo education department, Kruse and...Card (2004) found that campers’ conservation knowledge, attitude, and behavior (such as recycling , improving habitats, and encouraging others...outdoor school were more likely to engage in positive environmental behaviors (such as recycling or closing the refrigerator door, based on parent

  13. Being Confined within? Constructions of the Good Childhood and Outdoor Play in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Margaret; Devine, Dympna

    2010-01-01

    This study is based on a study of the experience of the outdoors in early childhood education and care settings in Ireland. Central to the analyses are the inter-linkages drawn between constructions of a "good" childhood, and children's "need" for outdoor play, as well as the contradictions which arise around competing…

  14. Simulating classroom lessons : an agent-based attempt

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Fred; Brooks, Roger John

    2018-01-01

    This is an interim report on a project to construct an agent-based simulation that reproduces some of the interactions between students and their teacher in classroom lessons. In a pilot study, the activities of 67 students and 7 teachers during 40 lessons were recorded using a data collection instrument that currently captures 17 student states and 15 teacher states. These data enabled various conceptual models to be explored, providing empirical values and distributions for the model parame...

  15. Invariance and universality in social agent-based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi-Revilla, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    Agent-based simulation models have a promising future in the social sciences, from political science to anthropology, economics, and sociology. To realize their full scientific potential, however, these models must address a set of key problems, such as the number of interacting agents and their geometry, network topology, time calibration, phenomenological calibration, structural stability, power laws, and other substantive and methodological issues. This paper discusses and highlights these problems and outlines some solutions. PMID:12011412

  16. Designing and simulating a nitinol-based micro ejector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesid Mora Sierra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes pico-droplet ejector design and simulation. The actuation system was based on two interconnected nitinol membranes’ shape memory effect. Ejected volume was 12pL and it operated at 30°C to 64°C. Ejecting excitation voltage was 12V and the ejecting energy required by actuator operation was 26µJ per drop. These pico-liter ejectors could have applications in making, lubricating and cooling integrated circuits.

  17. Enhancing food engineering education with interactive web-based simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandros Koulouris; Georgios Aroutidis; Dimitrios Vardalis; Petros Giannoulis; Paraskevi Karakosta

    2015-01-01

    In the traditional deductive approach in teaching any engineering topic, teachers would first expose students to the derivation of the equations that govern the behavior of a physical system and then demonstrate the use of equations through a limited number of textbook examples. This methodology, however, is rarely adequate to unmask the cause-effect and quantitative relationships between the system variables that the equations embody. Web-based simulation, which is the integration of simulat...

  18. Beam-based Feedback Simulations for the NLC Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Extensive beam-based feedback systems are planned as an integral part of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) control system. Wakefield effects are a significant influence on the feedback design, imposing both architectural and algorithmic constraints. Studies are in progress to assure the optimal selection of devices and to refine and confirm the algorithms for the system design. The authors show the results of initial simulations, along with evaluations of system response for various conditions of ground motion and other operational disturbances

  19. A Bacterial-Based Algorithm to Simulate Complex Adaptative Systems

    OpenAIRE

    González Rodríguez, Diego; Hernández Carrión, José Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Paper presented at the 13th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior which took place at Castellón, Spain in 2014, July 22-25. Bacteria have demonstrated an amazing capacity to overcome envi-ronmental changes by collective adaptation through genetic exchanges. Using a distributed communication system and sharing individual strategies, bacteria propagate mutations as innovations that allow them to survive in different envi-ronments. In this paper we present an agent-based...

  20. Simulation based optimization on automated fibre placement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shi

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a software simulation (Autodesk TruPlan & TruFiber) based method is proposed to optimize the automate fibre placement (AFP) process. Different types of manufacturability analysis are introduced to predict potential defects. Advanced fibre path generation algorithms are compared with respect to geometrically different parts. Major manufacturing data have been taken into consideration prior to the tool paths generation to achieve high success rate of manufacturing.

  1. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  2. Concept of operator support system based on cognitive simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou, Kunihide; Takano, Kenichi

    1999-01-01

    Hazardous technologies such chemical plants, nuclear power plants, etc. have introduced multi-layered defenses to prevent accidents. One of those defenses is experienced operators in control rooms. Once an abnormal condition occurs, they are the front line people to cope with it. Therefore, operators' quick recognition of the plant conditions and fast decision making on responses are quite important for trouble shooting. In order to help operators to deal with abnormalities in process plants, lots of efforts had been done to develop operator support systems since early 1980s (IAEA, 1993). However, the boom in developing operator support systems has slumped due to the limitations of knowledge engineering, artificial knowledge, etc (Yamamoto, 1998). The limitations had also biased the focus of the system development to abnormality detection, root cause diagnosis, etc (Hajek, Hashemi, Sharma and Chandrasekaran, 1986). Information or guidance about future plant behavior and strategies/tactics to deal with abnormal events are important and helpful for operators but researches and development of those systems made a belated start. Before developing these kinds of system, it is essential to understand how operators deal with abnormalities. CRIEPI has been conducting a project to develop a computer system that simulates behavior of operators dealing with abnormal operating conditions in a nuclear power plant. This project had two stages. In the first stage, the authors developed a prototype system that simulates behavior of a team facing abnormal events in a very simplified power plant (Sasou, Takano and Yoshimura, 1995). In the second stage, the authors applied the simulation technique developed in the first stage to construct a system to simulate a team's behavior in a nuclear power plant. This paper briefly summarizes the simulation system developed in the second stage, main mechanism for the simulation and the concept of an operator support system based on this

  3. Simulation-based artifact correction (SBAC) for metrological computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Joscha; Leinweber, Carsten; Sawall, Stefan; Stoschus, Henning; Ballach, Frederic; Müller, Tobias; Hammer, Michael; Christoph, Ralf; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2017-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a valuable tool for the metrolocical assessment of industrial components. However, the application of CT to the investigation of highly attenuating objects or multi-material components is often restricted by the presence of CT artifacts caused by beam hardening, x-ray scatter, off-focal radiation, partial volume effects or the cone-beam reconstruction itself. In order to overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an approach to calculate a correction term that compensates for the contribution of artifacts and thus enables an appropriate assessment of these components using CT. Therefore, we make use of computer simulations of the CT measurement process. Based on an appropriate model of the object, e.g. an initial reconstruction or a CAD model, two simulations are carried out. One simulation considers all physical effects that cause artifacts using dedicated analytic methods as well as Monte Carlo-based models. The other one represents an ideal CT measurement i.e. a measurement in parallel beam geometry with a monochromatic, point-like x-ray source and no x-ray scattering. Thus, the difference between these simulations is an estimate for the present artifacts and can be used to correct the acquired projection data or the corresponding CT reconstruction, respectively. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated using simulated as well as measured data of single and multi-material components. Our approach yields CT reconstructions that are nearly free of artifacts and thereby clearly outperforms commonly used artifact reduction algorithms in terms of image quality. A comparison against tactile reference measurements demonstrates the ability of the proposed approach to increase the accuracy of the metrological assessment significantly.

  4. Parallel PDE-Based Simulations Using the Common Component Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInnes, Lois C.; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert; Benson, Steven J.; Bernholdt, David E.; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Diachin, Lori; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Kohl, James A.; Larson, J. Walter; Lefantzi, Sophia; Nieplocha, Jarek; Norris, Boyana; Parker, Steven G.; Ray, Jaideep; Zhou, Shujia

    2006-01-01

    The complexity of parallel PDE-based simulations continues to increase as multimodel, multiphysics, and multi-institutional projects become widespread. A goal of component based software engineering in such large-scale simulations is to help manage this complexity by enabling better interoperability among various codes that have been independently developed by different groups. The Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum is defining a component architecture specification to address the challenges of high-performance scientific computing. In addition, several execution frameworks, supporting infrastructure, and general purpose components are being developed. Furthermore, this group is collaborating with others in the high-performance computing community to design suites of domain-specific component interface specifications and underlying implementations. This chapter discusses recent work on leveraging these CCA efforts in parallel PDE-based simulations involving accelerator design, climate modeling, combustion, and accidental fires and explosions. We explain how component technology helps to address the different challenges posed by each of these applications, and we highlight how component interfaces built on existing parallel toolkits facilitate the reuse of software for parallel mesh manipulation, discretization, linear algebra, integration, optimization, and parallel data redistribution. We also present performance data to demonstrate the suitability of this approach, and we discuss strategies for applying component technologies to both new and existing applications

  5. COEL: A Cloud-based Reaction Network Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eBanda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical Reaction Networks (CRNs are a formalism to describe the macroscopic behavior of chemical systems. We introduce COEL, a web- and cloud-based CRN simulation framework that does not require a local installation, runs simulations on a large computational grid, provides reliable database storage, and offers a visually pleasing and intuitive user interface. We present an overview of the underlying software, the technologies, and the main architectural approaches employed. Some of COEL's key features include ODE-based simulations of CRNs and multicompartment reaction networks with rich interaction options, a built-in plotting engine, automatic DNA-strand displacement transformation and visualization, SBML/Octave/Matlab export, and a built-in genetic-algorithm-based optimization toolbox for rate constants.COEL is an open-source project hosted on GitHub (http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.46544, which allows interested research groups to deploy it on their own sever. Regular users can simply use the web instance at no cost at http://coel-sim.org. The framework is ideally suited for a collaborative use in both research and education.

  6. The little book of maths outdoors

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This is a unique book that supports the current thinking behind outdoor learning. It features over 40 ideas for outdoor activities that support mathematics in the early years and the specific areas of learning in the revised EYFS. All the ideas are tried and tested by Terry and this book will prove to be popular in the early years and well into Key stage 1.

  7. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critic...

  8. Online Tracking of Outdoor Lighting Variations for Augmented Reality with Moving Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Liu , Yanli; Granier , Xavier

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In augmented reality, one of key tasks to achieve a convincing visual appearance consistency between virtual objects and video scenes is to have a coherent illumination along the whole sequence. As outdoor illumination is largely dependent on the weather, the lighting condition may change from frame to frame. In this paper, we propose a full image-based approach for online tracking of outdoor illumination variations from videos captured with moving cameras. Our key ide...

  9. Tracking for Outdoor Mobile Augmented Reality: Further development of the Zion Augmented Reality Application

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Tor Egil Riegels

    2008-01-01

    This report deals with providing tracking to an outdoor mobile augmented reality system and the Zion Augmented Reality Application. ZionARA is meant to display a virtual recreation of a 13th century castle on the site it once stood through an augmented reality Head Mounted Display. Mobile outdoor augmented/mixed reality puts special demands on what kind of equipment is practical. After briefly evaluating the different existing tracking methods, a solution based on GPS and an augmented inertia...

  10. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  11. A Rules-Based Simulation of Bacterial Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikel-Stites, Maxwell; Staples, Anne

    2015-11-01

    In sufficiently dense bacterial populations (>40% bacteria by volume), unusual collective swimming behaviors have been consistently observed, resembling von Karman vortex streets. The source of these collective swimming behavior has yet to be fully determined, and as of yet, no research has been conducted that would define whether or not this behavior is derived predominantly from the properties of the surrounding media, or if it is an emergent behavior as a result of the ``rules'' governing the behavior of individual bacteria. The goal of this research is to ascertain whether or not it is possible to design a simulation that can replicate the qualitative behavior of the densely packed bacterial populations using only behavioral rules to govern the actions of each bacteria, with the physical properties of the media being neglected. The results of the simulation will address whether or not it is possible for the system's overall behavior to be driven exclusively by these rule-based dynamics. In order to examine this, the behavioral simulation was written in MATLAB on a fixed grid, and updated sequentially with the bacterial behavior, including randomized tumbling, gathering and perceptual sub-functions. If the simulation is successful, it will serve as confirmation that it is possible to generate these qualitatively vortex-like behaviors without specific physical media (that the phenomena arises in emergent fashion from behavioral rules), or as evidence that the observed behavior requires some specific set of physical parameters.

  12. The Contribution of Outdoor Recreation and Outdoor Education to the Economy of Scotland: Case Studies and Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and education contribute substantially to the Scottish economy. Outdoor recreation generates considerable tourism income, much of it in rural areas, and also extends the traditional tourist season. Outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas. In addition, "therapeutic" outdoor programs…

  13. Outdoor education in New Zealand: a comparative and cultural perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren

    2009-01-01

    relationships linked to identity. Masculine values are dominant and outdoor education in New Zealand can generally be understood as a reproduction of political ideas and values in society. Friluftsliv in Denmark is traditionally closely linked to similar traditions in Sweden and Norway (Tordsson, 1993). However......  This presentation takes general view of understanding outdoor education in New Zealand.  This is seen from an outsider's perspective and is compared with "friluftsliv" in Denmark and the Nordic countries. Analysing and understanding one's culture is never easy, and the main challenge is to focus...... on and question everyday phenomena which seem natural and that reproduce one's own perspective. Cultural analysis and the analysis of social configurations together with a comparative cultural perspective form the research approach.  . The presentation is based on a comparative and qualitative case study (Ragin...

  14. Pose tracking for augmented reality applications in outdoor archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Georges; Asmar, Daniel; Elhajj, Imad; Al-Harithy, Howayda

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, agencies around the world have invested huge amounts of effort toward digitizing many aspects of the world's cultural heritage. Of particular importance is the digitization of outdoor archaeological sites. In the spirit of valorization of this digital information, many groups have developed virtual or augmented reality (AR) computer applications themed around a particular archaeological object. The problem of pose tracking in outdoor AR applications is addressed. Different positional systems are analyzed, resulting in the selection of a monocular camera-based user tracker. The limitations that challenge this technique from map generation, scale, anchoring, to lighting conditions are analyzed and systematically addressed. Finally, as a case study, our pose tracking system is implemented within an AR experience in the Byblos Roman theater in Lebanon.

  15. Simulation-based seismic loss estimation of seaport transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ung Jin Na; Shinozuka, Masanobu

    2009-01-01

    Seaport transportation system is one of the major lifeline systems in modern society and its reliable operation is crucial for the well-being of the public. However, past experiences showed that earthquake damage to port components can severely disrupt terminal operation, and thus negatively impact on the regional economy. The main purpose of this study is to provide a methodology for estimating the effects of the earthquake on the performance of the operation system of a container terminal in seaports. To evaluate the economic loss of damaged system, an analytical framework is developed by integrating simulation models for terminal operation and fragility curves of port components in the context of seismic risk analysis. For this purpose, computerized simulation model is developed and verified with actual terminal operation records. Based on the analytical procedure to assess the seismic performance of the terminal, system fragility curves are also developed. This simulation-based loss estimation methodology can be used not only for estimating the seismically induced revenue loss but also serve as a decision-making tool to select specific seismic retrofit technique on the basis of benefit-cost analysis

  16. Flat Knitting Loop Deformation Simulation Based on Interlacing Point Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Gaoming

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to create realistic loop primitives suitable for the faster CAD of the flat-knitted fabric, we have performed research on the model of the loop as well as the variation of the loop surface. This paper proposes an interlacing point-based model for the loop center curve, and uses the cubic Bezier curve to fit the central curve of the regular loop, elongated loop, transfer loop, and irregular deformed loop. In this way, a general model for the central curve of the deformed loop is obtained. The obtained model is then utilized to perform texture mapping, texture interpolation, and brightness processing, simulating a clearly structured and lifelike deformed loop. The computer program LOOP is developed by using the algorithm. The deformed loop is simulated with different yarns, and the deformed loop is applied to design of a cable stitch, demonstrating feasibility of the proposed algorithm. This paper provides a loop primitive simulation method characterized by lifelikeness, yarn material variability, and deformation flexibility, and facilitates the loop-based fast computer-aided design (CAD of the knitted fabric.

  17. Some computer simulations based on the linear relative risk model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1991-10-01

    This report presents the results of computer simulations designed to evaluate and compare the performance of the likelihood ratio statistic and the score statistic for making inferences about the linear relative risk mode. The work was motivated by data on workers exposed to low doses of radiation, and the report includes illustration of several procedures for obtaining confidence limits for the excess relative risk coefficient based on data from three studies of nuclear workers. The computer simulations indicate that with small sample sizes and highly skewed dose distributions, asymptotic approximations to the score statistic or to the likelihood ratio statistic may not be adequate. For testing the null hypothesis that the excess relative risk is equal to zero, the asymptotic approximation to the likelihood ratio statistic was adequate, but use of the asymptotic approximation to the score statistic rejected the null hypothesis too often. Frequently the likelihood was maximized at the lower constraint, and when this occurred, the asymptotic approximations for the likelihood ratio and score statistics did not perform well in obtaining upper confidence limits. The score statistic and likelihood ratio statistics were found to perform comparably in terms of power and width of the confidence limits. It is recommended that with modest sample sizes, confidence limits be obtained using computer simulations based on the score statistic. Although nuclear worker studies are emphasized in this report, its results are relevant for any study investigating linear dose-response functions with highly skewed exposure distributions. 22 refs., 14 tabs

  18. A sEMG model with experimentally based simulation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Katherine A; Shimada, Hiroshima; Kumar, Dinesh K; Arjunan, Sridhar P

    2010-01-01

    A differential, time-invariant, surface electromyogram (sEMG) model has been implemented. While it is based on existing EMG models, the novelty of this implementation is that it assigns more accurate distributions of variables to create realistic motor unit (MU) characteristics. Variables such as muscle fibre conduction velocity, jitter (the change in the interpulse interval between subsequent action potential firings) and motor unit size have been considered to follow normal distributions about an experimentally obtained mean. In addition, motor unit firing frequencies have been considered to have non-linear and type based distributions that are in accordance with experimental results. Motor unit recruitment thresholds have been considered to be related to the MU type. The model has been used to simulate single channel differential sEMG signals from voluntary, isometric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle. The model has been experimentally verified by conducting experiments on three subjects. Comparison between simulated signals and experimental recordings shows that the Root Mean Square (RMS) increases linearly with force in both cases. The simulated signals also show similar values and rates of change of RMS to the experimental signals.

  19. Research on facial expression simulation based on depth image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Sha-sha; Duan, Jin; Zhao, Yi-wu; Xiao, Bo; Wang, Hao

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, face expression simulation is widely used in film and television special effects, human-computer interaction and many other fields. Facial expression is captured by the device of Kinect camera .The method of AAM algorithm based on statistical information is employed to detect and track faces. The 2D regression algorithm is applied to align the feature points. Among them, facial feature points are detected automatically and 3D cartoon model feature points are signed artificially. The aligned feature points are mapped by keyframe techniques. In order to improve the animation effect, Non-feature points are interpolated based on empirical models. Under the constraint of Bézier curves we finish the mapping and interpolation. Thus the feature points on the cartoon face model can be driven if the facial expression varies. In this way the purpose of cartoon face expression simulation in real-time is came ture. The experiment result shows that the method proposed in this text can accurately simulate the facial expression. Finally, our method is compared with the previous method. Actual data prove that the implementation efficiency is greatly improved by our method.

  20. Airway management education: simulation based training versus non-simulation based training-A systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanxia; Pan, Chuxiong; Li, Tianzuo; Gan, Tong J

    2017-02-01

    Simulation-based training (SBT) has become a standard for medical education. However, the efficacy of simulation based training in airway management education remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate all published evidence comparing the effectiveness of SBT for airway management versus non-simulation based training (NSBT) on learner and patient outcomes. Systematic review with meta-analyses were used. Data were derived from PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to May 2016. Published comparative trials that evaluated the effect of SBT on airway management training in compared with NSBT were considered. The effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for outcomes measures. Seventeen eligible studies were included. SBT was associated with improved behavior performance [standardized mean difference (SMD):0.30, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.54] in comparison with NSBT. However, the benefits of SBT were not seen in time-skill (SMD:-0.13, 95% CI: -0.82 to 0.52), written examination score (SMD: 0.39, 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.86) and success rate of procedure completion on patients [relative risk (RR): 1.26, 95% CI: 0.96 to 1.66]. SBT may be not superior to NSBT on airway management training.

  1. Simulating the Performance of Ground-Based Optical Asteroid Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric J.; Shelly, Frank C.; Gibbs, Alex R.; Grauer, Albert D.; Hill, Richard E.; Johnson, Jess A.; Kowalski, Richard A.; Larson, Stephen M.

    2014-11-01

    We are developing a set of asteroid survey simulation tools in order to estimate the capability of existing and planned ground-based optical surveys, and to test a variety of possible survey cadences and strategies. The survey simulator is composed of several layers, including a model population of solar system objects and an orbital integrator, a site-specific atmospheric model (including inputs for seeing, haze and seasonal cloud cover), a model telescope (with a complete optical path to estimate throughput), a model camera (including FOV, pixel scale, and focal plane fill factor) and model source extraction and moving object detection layers with tunable detection requirements. We have also developed a flexible survey cadence planning tool to automatically generate nightly survey plans. Inputs to the cadence planner include camera properties (FOV, readout time), telescope limits (horizon, declination, hour angle, lunar and zenithal avoidance), preferred and restricted survey regions in RA/Dec, ecliptic, and Galactic coordinate systems, and recent coverage by other asteroid surveys. Simulated surveys are created for a subset of current and previous NEO surveys (LINEAR, Pan-STARRS and the three Catalina Sky Survey telescopes), and compared against the actual performance of these surveys in order to validate the model’s performance. The simulator tracks objects within the FOV of any pointing that were not discovered (e.g. too few observations, too trailed, focal plane array gaps, too fast or slow), thus dividing the population into “discoverable” and “discovered” subsets, to inform possible survey design changes. Ongoing and future work includes generating a realistic “known” subset of the model NEO population, running multiple independent simulated surveys in coordinated and uncoordinated modes, and testing various cadences to find optimal strategies for detecting NEO sub-populations. These tools can also assist in quantifying the efficiency of novel

  2. A cultural and comparative perspective on outdoor education in New Zealand and friluftsliv in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The paper is based on a comparative and qualitative case study of friluftsliv in Denmark and outdoor education in New Zealand. Cultural analysis with a comparative cultural perspective informed the research approach. Configurational analysis was used as an important supplement to focus on cultural...... functionalism and personal relationships linked to identity. Outdoor education in New Zealand can generally be understood as a reproduction of political ideas and values in western liberal societies. Friluftsliv in Denmark exhibits complexity of forms and settings within outdoor education, with simple life...... patterns linked to bodily movement. It is argued that outdoor education in New Zealand is focused on action, risk and challenge, with personal development as the central pedagogical goal. There seems to be a general search for effectiveness and a special relationship to land and nature with both...

  3. DEVELOPING STUDENTS’ ABILITY OF MATHEMATICAL CONNECTION THROUGH USING OUTDOOR MATHEMATICS LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Haji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of this study is to determine the achievement and improvement of students’ mathematical connectionability through using outdoor mathematics learning. 64 students from the fifth grade of Primary School at SDN 65 and SDN 67 Bengkulu City were taken as the sample of this study. While the method of the research used in this research is experiment with quasi-experimental designs non-equivalent control group. The results of the study are as follows: (1 There is an increasing ability found in mathematical connection of students whom taught by using outdoors mathematics learning is 0,53; (2 Based on statical computation that achievement of students’ ability of mathematical connection is taught by using outdoor mathematics learning score is 71,25. It is higher than the students score 66,25 which were taught by using the conventional learning. So as to improve students’ mathematical connection, teachers are suggested to use the outdoors mathematics learning

  4. The Past and Future Trends of Heat Stress Based On Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index in Outdoor Environment of Tehran City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi Mohraz, Majid; Ghahri, Asghar; Karimi, Mehrdad; Golbabaei, Farideh

    2016-06-01

    The workers who are working in the open and warm environments are at risk of health effects of climate and heat changes. It is expected that the risk is increase with global warming. This study aimed to investigate the changes of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index in the past and to predict their trend of future changes in Tehran, capital of Iran. The meteorological data recorded in Tehran, Iran during the statistical period between 1961 and 2009 were obtained from the Iran Meteorological Organization and based on them, WBGT index was calculated and processed using Man-Kendall correlation test. The results of Man-Kendall correlation test showed that the trend of changes of annual mean WBGT during the statistical period under study (1961-2009) has been significantly increasing. In addition, the result of proposed predictive model estimated that an increase of about 1.55 degree in WBGT index will be seen over 40 years from 2009 to 2050 in Tehran. Climate change in Tehran has had an effect on person's exposure to heat stresses consistent with global warming.

  5. Simulation based virtual learning environment in medical genetics counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Bonde, Mads T; Wulff, Julie S G

    2016-01-01

    learning environments increase students' knowledge, intrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy, and help them generalize from laboratory analyses to clinical practice and health decision-making. METHODS: An entire class of 300 University of Copenhagen first-year undergraduate students, most with a major...... in medicine, received a 2-h training session in a simulation based learning environment. The main outcomes were pre- to post- changes in knowledge, intrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy, together with post-intervention evaluation of the effect of the simulation on student understanding of everyday clinical...... practice were demonstrated. RESULTS: Knowledge (Cohen's d = 0.73), intrinsic motivation (d = 0.24), and self-efficacy (d = 0.46) significantly increased from the pre- to post-test. Low knowledge students showed the greatest increases in knowledge (d = 3.35) and self-efficacy (d = 0.61), but a non...

  6. Ergonomics and simulation-based approach in improving facility layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Jocelyn D.

    2018-02-01

    The use of the simulation-based technique in facility layout has been a choice in the industry due to its convenience and efficient generation of results. Nevertheless, the solutions generated are not capable of addressing delays due to worker's health and safety which significantly impact overall operational efficiency. It is, therefore, critical to incorporate ergonomics in facility design. In this study, workstation analysis was incorporated into Promodel simulation to improve the facility layout of a garment manufacturing. To test the effectiveness of the method, existing and improved facility designs were measured using comprehensive risk level, efficiency, and productivity. Results indicated that the improved facility layout generated a decrease in comprehensive risk level and rapid upper limb assessment score; an increase of 78% in efficiency and 194% increase in productivity compared to existing design and thus proved that the approach is effective in attaining overall facility design improvement.

  7. A web-based repository of surgical simulator projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskovský, Peter; Harders, Matthias; Székely, Gábor

    2006-01-01

    The use of computer-based surgical simulators for training of prospective surgeons has been a topic of research for more than a decade. As a result, a large number of academic projects have been carried out, and a growing number of commercial products are available on the market. Keeping track of all these endeavors for established groups as well as for newly started projects can be quite arduous. Gathering information on existing methods, already traveled research paths, and problems encountered is a time consuming task. To alleviate this situation, we have established a modifiable online repository of existing projects. It contains detailed information about a large number of simulator projects gathered from web pages, papers and personal communication. The database is modifiable (with password protected sections) and also allows for a simple statistical analysis of the collected data. For further information, the surgical repository web page can be found at www.virtualsurgery.vision.ee.ethz.ch.

  8. Model-based microwave image reconstruction: simulations and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocan, Razvan; Jiang Huabei

    2004-01-01

    We describe an integrated microwave imaging system that can provide spatial maps of dielectric properties of heterogeneous media with tomographically collected data. The hardware system (800-1200 MHz) was built based on a lock-in amplifier with 16 fixed antennas. The reconstruction algorithm was implemented using a Newton iterative method with combined Marquardt-Tikhonov regularizations. System performance was evaluated using heterogeneous media mimicking human breast tissue. Finite element method coupled with the Bayliss and Turkel radiation boundary conditions were applied to compute the electric field distribution in the heterogeneous media of interest. The results show that inclusions embedded in a 76-diameter background medium can be quantitatively reconstructed from both simulated and experimental data. Quantitative analysis of the microwave images obtained suggests that an inclusion of 14 mm in diameter is the smallest object that can be fully characterized presently using experimental data, while objects as small as 10 mm in diameter can be quantitatively resolved with simulated data

  9. Internet Based Simulations of Debris Dispersion of Shuttle Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2004-01-01

    The debris dispersion model (which dispersion model?) is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models are useful in understanding the complexity of launch and range operations. Modeling and simulation in this area mainly focuses on orbital dynamics and range safety concepts, including destruct limits, telemetry and tracking, and population risk. Particle explosion modeling is the process of simulating an explosion by breaking the rocket into many pieces. The particles are scattered throughout their motion using the laws of physics eventually coming to rest. The size of the foot print explains the type of explosion and distribution of the particles. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations of the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable modeling behaviors of Shuttle launches.

  10. A pedagogical model for simulation-based learning in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulikki Keskitalo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design a pedagogical model for a simulation-based learning environment (SBLE in healthcare. Currently, simulation and virtual reality are a major focus in healthcare education. However, when and how these learning environments should be applied is not well-known. The present study tries to fill that gap. We pose the following research question: What kind of pedagogical model supports and facilitates students’ meaningful learning in SBLEs? The study used design-based research (DBR and case study approaches. We report the results from our second case study and how the pedagogical model was developed based on the lessons learned. The study involved nine facilitators and 25 students. Data were collected and analysed using mixed methods. The main result of this study is the refined pedagogical model. The model is based on the socio-cultural theory of learning and characteristics of meaningful learning as well as previous pedagogical models. The model will provide a more holistic and meaningful approach to teaching and learning in SBLEs. However, the model requires evidence and further development.

  11. Simulating the operation of photosensor-based lighting controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, Charles; Papamichael, Konstantinos; Lai, Judy; Revzan, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    Energy savings from the use of daylighting in commercial buildings are realized through implementation of photoelectric lighting controls that dim electric lights when sufficient daylight is available to provide adequate workplane illumination. The dimming level of electric lighting is based on the signal of a photosensor. Current simulation approaches for such systems are based on the questionable assumption that the signal of the photosensor is proportional to the task illuminance. This paper presents a method that simulates the performance of photosensor controls considering the acceptance angle, angular sensitivity, placement of the photosensor within a space, and color correction filter. The method is based on the multiplication of two fisheye images: one generated from the angular sensitivity of the photosensor and the other from a 180- or 360-degree fisheye image of the space as ''seen'' by the photosensor. The paper includes a detailed description of the method and its implementation, example applications, and validation results based on comparison with measurements in an actual office space

  12. Analysis of manufacturing based on object oriented discrete event simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Borgen

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes SIMMEK, a computer-based tool for performing analysis of manufacturing systems, developed at the Production Engineering Laboratory, NTH-SINTEF. Its main use will be in analysis of job shop type of manufacturing. But certain facilities make it suitable for FMS as well as a production line manufacturing. This type of simulation is very useful in analysis of any types of changes that occur in a manufacturing system. These changes may be investments in new machines or equipment, a change in layout, a change in product mix, use of late shifts, etc. The effects these changes have on for instance the throughput, the amount of VIP, the costs or the net profit, can be analysed. And this can be done before the changes are made, and without disturbing the real system. Simulation takes into consideration, unlike other tools for analysis of manufacturing systems, uncertainty in arrival rates, process and operation times, and machine availability. It also shows the interaction effects a job which is late in one machine, has on the remaining machines in its route through the layout. It is these effects that cause every production plan not to be fulfilled completely. SIMMEK is based on discrete event simulation, and the modeling environment is object oriented. The object oriented models are transformed by an object linker into data structures executable by the simulation kernel. The processes of the entity objects, i.e. the products, are broken down to events and put into an event list. The user friendly graphical modeling environment makes it possible for end users to build models in a quick and reliable way, using terms from manufacturing. Various tests and a check of model logic are helpful functions when testing validity of the models. Integration with software packages, with business graphics and statistical functions, is convenient in the result presentation phase.

  13. Pump-stopping water hammer simulation based on RELAP5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, W S; Jiang, J; Li, D D; Lan, G; Zhao, Z

    2013-01-01

    RELAP5 was originally designed to analyze complex thermal-hydraulic interactions that occur during either postulated large or small loss-of-coolant accidents in PWRs. However, as development continued, the code was expanded to include many of the transient scenarios that might occur in thermal-hydraulic systems. The fast deceleration of the liquid results in high pressure surges, thus the kinetic energy is transformed into the potential energy, which leads to the temporary pressure increase. This phenomenon is called water hammer. Generally water hammer can occur in any thermal-hydraulic systems and it is extremely dangerous for the system when the pressure surges become considerably high. If this happens and when the pressure exceeds the critical pressure that the pipe or the fittings along the pipeline can burden, it will result in the failure of the whole pipeline integrity. The purpose of this article is to introduce the RELAP5 to the simulation and analysis of water hammer situations. Based on the knowledge of the RELAP5 code manuals and some relative documents, the authors utilize RELAP5 to set up an example of water-supply system via an impeller pump to simulate the phenomena of the pump-stopping water hammer. By the simulation of the sample case and the subsequent analysis of the results that the code has provided, we can have a better understand of the knowledge of water hammer as well as the quality of the RELAP5 code when it's used in the water-hammer fields. In the meantime, By comparing the results of the RELAP5 based model with that of other fluid-transient analysis software say, PIPENET. The authors make some conclusions about the peculiarity of RELAP5 when transplanted into water-hammer research and offer several modelling tips when use the code to simulate a water-hammer related case

  14. Pump-stopping water hammer simulation based on RELAP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, W. S.; Jiang, J.; Li, D. D.; Lan, G.; Zhao, Z.

    2013-12-01

    RELAP5 was originally designed to analyze complex thermal-hydraulic interactions that occur during either postulated large or small loss-of-coolant accidents in PWRs. However, as development continued, the code was expanded to include many of the transient scenarios that might occur in thermal-hydraulic systems. The fast deceleration of the liquid results in high pressure surges, thus the kinetic energy is transformed into the potential energy, which leads to the temporary pressure increase. This phenomenon is called water hammer. Generally water hammer can occur in any thermal-hydraulic systems and it is extremely dangerous for the system when the pressure surges become considerably high. If this happens and when the pressure exceeds the critical pressure that the pipe or the fittings along the pipeline can burden, it will result in the failure of the whole pipeline integrity. The purpose of this article is to introduce the RELAP5 to the simulation and analysis of water hammer situations. Based on the knowledge of the RELAP5 code manuals and some relative documents, the authors utilize RELAP5 to set up an example of water-supply system via an impeller pump to simulate the phenomena of the pump-stopping water hammer. By the simulation of the sample case and the subsequent analysis of the results that the code has provided, we can have a better understand of the knowledge of water hammer as well as the quality of the RELAP5 code when it's used in the water-hammer fields. In the meantime, By comparing the results of the RELAP5 based model with that of other fluid-transient analysis software say, PIPENET. The authors make some conclusions about the peculiarity of RELAP5 when transplanted into water-hammer research and offer several modelling tips when use the code to simulate a water-hammer related case.

  15. Application potential of Agent Based Simulation and Discrete Event Simulation in Enterprise integration modelling concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Eric DOSSOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} This paper aims to present the dilemma of simulation tool selection. Authors discuss the examples of methodologies of enterprises architectures (CIMOSA and GRAI where agent approach is used to solve planning and managing problems. Actually simulation is widely used and practically only one tool which can enable verification of complex systems. Many companies face the problem, which simulation tool is appropriate to use for verification. Selected tools based on ABS and DES are presented. Some tools combining DES and ABS approaches are described. Authors give some recommendation on selection process.

  16. Application potential of Agent Based Simulation and Discrete Event Simulation in Enterprise integration modelling concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel PAWLEWSKI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} This paper aims to present the dilemma of simulation tool selection. Authors discuss the examples of methodologies of enterprises architectures (CIMOSA and GRAI where agent approach is used to solve planning and managing problems. Actually simulation is widely used and practically only one tool which can enable verification of complex systems. Many companies face the problem, which simulation tool is appropriate to use for verification. Selected tools based on ABS and DES are presented. Some tools combining DES and ABS approaches are described. Authors give some recommendation on selection process.

  17. Simulation based medical education; teaching normal delivery on intermediate fidelity simulator to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nighat; Baig, Lubna; Shah, Nusrat; Hussain, Riffat; Aly, Syed Moyn

    2017-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness of medium fidelity simulator in teaching normal vaginal delivery to medical students. The quasi-experimental study was conducted at the professional development centre of the Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, from June to December 2015, and comprised medical students. Third-year medical students were included. They were divided into two groups. Group A was taught normal delivery through traditional PowerPoint and group B through simulator. The instruments used for assessing knowledge were pre-test and post-test, for skills of labour/delivery checklist of performance was used, and perception forms were filled to evaluate workshops/learning environment by students. Of the 76 participants, there were 36(47.4%) in group A and 40(52.6%) in group B. The overall mean age of the participants was 20.86±0.76 years in group B and 20.60±0.95 years in group A (p=0.19). The mean grade point average of the participants was 2.89±0.47 in group A and 2.87±0.48 in group B (p=0.81).Group B performed much better in skill of delivery having a mean score of 8.91±3.20compared to group A which had mean of 5.67±1.84 (pSimulation-based skill learning showed significantly better results.

  18. Simulating non-holonomic constraints within the LCP-based simulation framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2006-01-01

    be incorporated directly, and derive formalism for how the non-holonomic contact constraints can be modelled as a combination of non-holonomic equality constraints and ordinary contacts constraints. For each of these three we are able to guarantee solvability, when using Lemke's algorithm. A number of examples......In this paper, we will extend the linear complementarity problem-based rigid-body simulation framework with non-holonomic constraints. We consider three different types of such, namely equality, inequality and contact constraints. We show how non-holonomic equality and inequality constraints can...... are included to demonstrate the non-holonomic constraints. Udgivelsesdato: Marts...

  19. Simulation Learning: PC-Screen Based (PCSB) versus High Fidelity Simulation (HFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    1.00 (0.00) Score Change (mean change and sd) Assemble Equipment (Yes/No) 1. Water soluble lubricant 2. Suction equipment 3. Selecting correct...0.92 (0.25) 0.64 (0.31) 0.86 (0.22) 0.98 (0.07) Mean score change and sd Procedural Steps (Yes/No) 1. Lubricate tube with water -soluble...w., Johnson, C., Hsu, E. and  Wasser , T. (2006). Using innovative  simulation modalities for civilian based, chemical, biological, radiological

  20. Daily indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jennifer L; Dockery, Douglas W

    2016-02-01

    The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme temperature events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor temperatures showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor temperatures. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of temperature and relative humidity.

  1. A LIDAR-Based Tree Canopy Characterization under Simulated Uneven Road Condition: Advance in Tree Orchard Canopy Profile Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In real outdoor canopy profile detection, the accuracy of a LIDAR scanner to measure canopy structure is affected by a potentially uneven road condition. The level of error associated with attitude angles from undulations in the ground surface can be reduced by developing appropriate correction algorithm. This paper proposes an offline attitude angle offset correction algorithm based on a 3D affine coordinate transformation. The validity of the correction algorithm is verified by conducting an indoor experiment. The experiment was conducted on an especially designed canopy profile measurement platform. During the experiment, an artificial tree and a tree-shaped carved board were continuously scanned at constant laser scanner travel speed and detection distances under simulated bumpy road conditions. Acquired LIDAR laser scanner raw data was processed offline by exceptionally developed MATLAB program. The obtained results before and after correction method show that the single attitude angle offset correction method is able to correct the distorted data points in tree-shaped carved board profile measurement, with a relative error of 5%, while the compound attitude angle offset correction method is effective to reduce the error associated with compound attitude angle deviation from the ideal scanner pose, with relative error of 7%.

  2. Acidity constants from DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulpizi, Marialore; Sprik, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we review our recently developed method for the calculation of acidity constants from density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The method is based on a half reaction scheme in which protons are formally transferred from solution to the gas phase. The corresponding deprotonation free energies are computed from the vertical energy gaps for insertion or removal of protons. Combined to full proton transfer reactions, the deprotonation energies can be used to estimate relative acidity constants and also the Broensted pK a when the deprotonation free energy of a hydronium ion is used as a reference. We verified the method by investigating a series of organic and inorganic acids and bases spanning a wide range of pK a values (20 units). The thermochemical corrections for the biasing potentials assisting and directing the insertion are discussed in some detail.

  3. Discrete Event System Based Pyroprocessing Modeling and Simulation: Oxide Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. J.; Ko, W. I.; Choi, S. Y.; Kim, S. K.; Hur, J. M.; Choi, E. Y.; Im, H. S.; Park, K. I.; Kim, I. T.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic changes according to the batch operation cannot be predicted in an equilibrium material flow. This study began to build a dynamic material balance model based on the previously developed pyroprocessing flowsheet. As a mid- and long-term research, an integrated pyroprocessing simulator is being developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to cope with a review on the technical feasibility, safeguards assessment, conceptual design of facility, and economic feasibility evaluation. The most fundamental thing in such a simulator development is to establish the dynamic material flow framework. This study focused on the operation modeling of pyroprocessing to implement a dynamic material flow. As a case study, oxide reduction was investigated in terms of a dynamic material flow. DES based modeling was applied to build a pyroprocessing operation model. A dynamic material flow as the basic framework for an integrated pyroprocessing was successfully implemented through ExtendSim's internal database and item blocks. Complex operation logic behavior was verified, for example, an oxide reduction process in terms of dynamic material flow. Compared to the equilibrium material flow, a model-based dynamic material flow provides such detailed information that a careful analysis of every batch is necessary to confirm the dynamic material balance results. With the default scenario of oxide reduction, the batch mass balance was verified in comparison with a one-year equilibrium mass balance. This study is still under progress with a mid-and long-term goal, the development of a multi-purpose pyroprocessing simulator that is able to cope with safeguards assessment, economic feasibility, technical evaluation, conceptual design, and support of licensing for a future pyroprocessing facility

  4. List-Based Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-hua Zhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulated annealing (SA algorithm is a popular intelligent optimization algorithm which has been successfully applied in many fields. Parameters’ setting is a key factor for its performance, but it is also a tedious work. To simplify parameters setting, we present a list-based simulated annealing (LBSA algorithm to solve traveling salesman problem (TSP. LBSA algorithm uses a novel list-based cooling schedule to control the decrease of temperature. Specifically, a list of temperatures is created first, and then the maximum temperature in list is used by Metropolis acceptance criterion to decide whether to accept a candidate solution. The temperature list is adapted iteratively according to the topology of the solution space of the problem. The effectiveness and the parameter sensitivity of the list-based cooling schedule are illustrated through benchmark TSP problems. The LBSA algorithm, whose performance is robust on a wide range of parameter values, shows competitive performance compared with some other state-of-the-art algorithms.

  5. Simulation-based planning for theater air warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popken, Douglas A.; Cox, Louis A., Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Planning for Theatre Air Warfare can be represented as a hierarchy of decisions. At the top level, surviving airframes must be assigned to roles (e.g., Air Defense, Counter Air, Close Air Support, and AAF Suppression) in each time period in response to changing enemy air defense capabilities, remaining targets, and roles of opposing aircraft. At the middle level, aircraft are allocated to specific targets to support their assigned roles. At the lowest level, routing and engagement decisions are made for individual missions. The decisions at each level form a set of time-sequenced Courses of Action taken by opposing forces. This paper introduces a set of simulation-based optimization heuristics operating within this planning hierarchy to optimize allocations of aircraft. The algorithms estimate distributions for stochastic outcomes of the pairs of Red/Blue decisions. Rather than using traditional stochastic dynamic programming to determine optimal strategies, we use an innovative combination of heuristics, simulation-optimization, and mathematical programming. Blue decisions are guided by a stochastic hill-climbing search algorithm while Red decisions are found by optimizing over a continuous representation of the decision space. Stochastic outcomes are then provided by fast, Lanchester-type attrition simulations. This paper summarizes preliminary results from top and middle level models.

  6. GOCE gravity field simulation based on actual mission scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pail, R.; Goiginger, H.; Mayrhofer, R.; Höck, E.; Schuh, W.-D.; Brockmann, J. M.; Krasbutter, I.; Fecher, T.; Gruber, T.

    2009-04-01

    In the framework of the ESA-funded project "GOCE High-level Processing Facility", an operational hardware and software system for the scientific processing (Level 1B to Level 2) of GOCE data has been set up by the European GOCE Gravity Consortium EGG-C. One key component of this software system is the processing of a spherical harmonic Earth's gravity field model and the corresponding full variance-covariance matrix from the precise GOCE orbit and calibrated and corrected satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG) data. In the framework of the time-wise approach a combination of several processing strategies for the optimum exploitation of the information content of the GOCE data has been set up: The Quick-Look Gravity Field Analysis is applied to derive a fast diagnosis of the GOCE system performance and to monitor the quality of the input data. In the Core Solver processing a rigorous high-precision solution of the very large normal equation systems is derived by applying parallel processing techniques on a PC cluster. Before the availability of real GOCE data, by means of a realistic numerical case study, which is based on the actual GOCE orbit and mission scenario and simulation data stemming from the most recent ESA end-to-end simulation, the expected GOCE gravity field performance is evaluated. Results from this simulation as well as recently developed features of the software system are presented. Additionally some aspects on data combination with complementary data sources are addressed.

  7. PPLN-waveguide-based polarization entangled QKD simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariano, John; Djordjevic, Ivan B.

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a comprehensive simulator to study the polarization entangled quantum key distribution (QKD) system, which takes various imperfections into account. We assume that a type-II SPDC source using a PPLN-based nonlinear optical waveguide is used to generate entangled photon pairs and implements the BB84 protocol, using two mutually unbiased basis with two orthogonal polarizations in each basis. The entangled photon pairs are then simulated to be transmitted to both parties; Alice and Bob, through the optical channel, imperfect optical elements and onto the imperfect detector. It is assumed that Eve has no control over the detectors, and can only gain information from the public channel and the intercept resend attack. The secure key rate (SKR) is calculated using an upper bound and by using actual code rates of LDPC codes implementable in FPGA hardware. After the verification of the simulation results, such as the pair generation rate and the number of error due to multiple pairs, for the ideal scenario, available in the literature, we then introduce various imperfections. Then, the results are compared to previously reported experimental results where a BBO nonlinear crystal is used, and the improvements in SKRs are determined for when a PPLN-waveguide is used instead.

  8. Simulations of Micropumps Based on Tilted Flexible Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Matthew; Elabbasi, Nagi; Demirel, Melik

    2015-11-01

    Pumping liquids at low Reynolds numbers is challenging because of the principle of reversibility. We report here a class of microfluidic pump designs based on tilted flexible structures that combines the concepts of cilia (flexible elastic elements) and rectifiers (e.g., Tesla valves, check valves). We demonstrate proof-of-concept with 2D and 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations in COMSOL Multiphysics®of micropumps consisting of a source for oscillatory fluidic motion, e.g. a piston, and a channel lined with tilted flexible rods or sheets to provide rectification. When flow is against the rod tilt direction, the rods bend backward, narrowing the channel and increasing flow resistance; when flow is in the direction of rod tilt, the rods bend forward, widening the channel and decreasing flow resistance. The 2D and 3D simulations involve moving meshes whose quality is maintained by prescribing the mesh displacement on guide surfaces positioned on either side of each flexible structure. The prescribed displacement depends on structure bending and maintains mesh quality even for large deformations. Simulations demonstrate effective pumping even at Reynolds numbers as low as 0.001. Because rod rigidity may be specified independently of Reynolds number, in principle, rod rigidity may be reduced to enable pumping at arbitrarily low Reynolds numbers.

  9. High viscosity fluid simulation using particle-based method

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Yuanzhang

    2011-03-01

    We present a new particle-based method for high viscosity fluid simulation. In the method, a new elastic stress term, which is derived from a modified form of the Hooke\\'s law, is included in the traditional Navier-Stokes equation to simulate the movements of the high viscosity fluids. Benefiting from the Lagrangian nature of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method, large flow deformation can be well handled easily and naturally. In addition, in order to eliminate the particle deficiency problem near the boundary, ghost particles are employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. Compared with Finite Element Methods with complicated and time-consuming remeshing operations, our method is much more straightforward to implement. Moreover, our method doesn\\'t need to store and compare to an initial rest state. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient to handle the movements of highly viscous flows, and a large variety of different kinds of fluid behaviors can be well simulated by adjusting just one parameter. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. Emergency Evacuation of Hazardous Chemical Accidents Based on Diffusion Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Hua Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent rapid development of information technology, such as sensing technology, communications technology, and database, allows us to use simulation experiments for analyzing serious accidents caused by hazardous chemicals. Due to the toxicity and diffusion of hazardous chemicals, these accidents often lead to not only severe consequences and economic losses, but also traffic jams at the same time. Emergency evacuation after hazardous chemical accidents is an effective means to reduce the loss of life and property and to smoothly resume the transport network as soon as possible. This paper considers the dynamic changes of the hazardous chemicals’ concentration after their leakage and simulates the diffusion process. Based on the characteristics of emergency evacuation of hazardous chemical accidents, we build a mixed-integer programming model and design a heuristic algorithm using network optimization and diffusion simulation (hereafter NODS. We then verify the validity and feasibility of the algorithm using Jinan, China, as a computational example. In the end, we compare the results from different scenarios to explore the key factors affecting the effectiveness of the evacuation process.

  11. A SIMULATION OF CONTRACT FARMING USING AGENT BASED MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanita Handayati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to simulate the effects of contract farming and farmer commitment to contract farming on supply chain performance by using agent based modeling as a methodology. Supply chain performance is represented by profits and service levels. The simulation results indicate that farmers should pay attention to customer requirements and plan their agricultural activities in order to fulfill these requirements. Contract farming helps farmers deal with demand and price uncertainties. We also find that farmer commitment is crucial to fulfilling contract requirements. This study contributes to this field from a conceptual as well as a practical point of view. From the conceptual point of view, our simulation results show that different levels of farmer commitment have an impact on farmer performance when implementing contract farming. From a practical point of view, the uncertainty faced by farmers and the market can be managed by implementing cultivation and harvesting scheduling, information sharing, and collective learning as ways of committing to contract farming.

  12. Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ngada, Narcisse

    2015-06-15

    The complexity and cost of building and running high-power electrical systems make the use of simulations unavoidable. The simulations available today provide great understanding about how systems really operate. This paper helps the reader to gain an insight into simulation in the field of power converters for particle accelerators. Starting with the definition and basic principles of simulation, two simulation types, as well as their leading tools, are presented: analog and numerical simulations. Some practical applications of each simulation type are also considered. The final conclusion then summarizes the main important items to keep in mind before opting for a simulation tool or before performing a simulation.

  13. Fuzzy-based simulation of real color blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinmi; dos Santos, Wellington P

    2010-01-01

    About 8% of men are affected by color blindness. That population is at a disadvantage since they cannot perceive a substantial amount of the visual information. This work presents two computational tools developed to assist color blind people. The first one tests color blindness and assess its severity. The second tool is based on Fuzzy Logic, and implements a method proposed to simulate real red and green color blindness in order to generate synthetic cases of color vision disturbance in a statistically significant amount. Our purpose is to develop correction tools and obtain a deeper understanding of the accessibility problems faced by people with chromatic visual impairment.

  14. Bayou Choctaw Well Integrity Grading Component Based on Geomechanical Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geotechnology & Engineering Dept.

    2016-09-08

    This letter report provides a Bayou Choctaw (BC) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) well grading system based on the geomechanical simulation. The analyses described in this letter were used to evaluate the caverns’ geomechanical effect on wellbore integrity, which is an important component in the well integrity grading system recently developed by Roberts et al. [2015]. Using these analyses, the wellbores for caverns BC-17 and 20 are expected to be significantly impacted by cavern geomechanics, BC-18 and 19 are expected to be medium impacted; and the other caverns are expected to be less impacted.

  15. Agent-based simulation of electricity markets. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensfuss, F.; Ragwitz, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Genoese, M.; Moest, D. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion

    2007-07-01

    Liberalisation, climate policy and promotion of renewable energy are challenges to players of the electricity sector in many countries. Policy makers have to con-sider issues like market power, bounded rationality of players and the appear-ance of fluctuating energy sources in order to provide adequate legislation. Fur-thermore the interactions between markets and environmental policy instru-ments become an issue of increasing importance. A promising approach for the scientific analysis of these developments is the field of agent-based simulation. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the current work applying this methodology to the analysis of electricity markets. (orig.)

  16. Preview-based sampling for controlling gaseous simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ruoguan; Melek, Zeki; Keyser, John

    2011-01-01

    to maintain. During the high resolution simulation, a matching process ensures that the properties sampled from the low resolution simulation are maintained. This matching process keeps the different resolution simulations aligned even for complex systems

  17. Simulation based mask defect repair verification and disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Eric; Zhao, Shirley; Zhang, Skin; Qian, Sandy; Cheng, Guojie; Vikram, Abhishek; Li, Ling; Chen, Ye; Hsiang, Chingyun; Zhang, Gary; Su, Bo

    2009-10-01

    As the industry moves towards sub-65nm technology nodes, the mask inspection, with increased sensitivity and shrinking critical defect size, catches more and more nuisance and false defects. Increased defect counts pose great challenges in the post inspection defect classification and disposition: which defect is real defect, and among the real defects, which defect should be repaired and how to verify the post-repair defects. In this paper, we address the challenges in mask defect verification and disposition, in particular, in post repair defect verification by an efficient methodology, using SEM mask defect images, and optical inspection mask defects images (only for verification of phase and transmission related defects). We will demonstrate the flow using programmed mask defects in sub-65nm technology node design. In total 20 types of defects were designed including defects found in typical real circuit environments with 30 different sizes designed for each type. The SEM image was taken for each programmed defect after the test mask was made. Selected defects were repaired and SEM images from the test mask were taken again. Wafers were printed with the test mask before and after repair as defect printability references. A software tool SMDD-Simulation based Mask Defect Disposition-has been used in this study. The software is used to extract edges from the mask SEM images and convert them into polygons to save in GDSII format. Then, the converted polygons from the SEM images were filled with the correct tone to form mask patterns and were merged back into the original GDSII design file. This merge is for the purpose of contour simulation-since normally the SEM images cover only small area (~1 μm) and accurate simulation requires including larger area of optical proximity effect. With lithography process model, the resist contour of area of interest (AOI-the area surrounding a mask defect) can be simulated. If such complicated model is not available, a simple

  18. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  19. Validation techniques of agent based modelling for geospatial simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Darvishi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting aspects of modelling and simulation study is to describe the real world phenomena that have specific properties; especially those that are in large scales and have dynamic and complex behaviours. Studying these phenomena in the laboratory is costly and in most cases it is impossible. Therefore, Miniaturization of world phenomena in the framework of a model in order to simulate the real phenomena is a reasonable and scientific approach to understand the world. Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS is a new modelling method comprising of multiple interacting agent. They have been used in the different areas; for instance, geographic information system (GIS, biology, economics, social science and computer science. The emergence of ABM toolkits in GIS software libraries (e.g. ESRI’s ArcGIS, OpenMap, GeoTools, etc for geospatial modelling is an indication of the growing interest of users to use of special capabilities of ABMS. Since ABMS is inherently similar to human cognition, therefore it could be built easily and applicable to wide range applications than a traditional simulation. But a key challenge about ABMS is difficulty in their validation and verification. Because of frequent emergence patterns, strong dynamics in the system and the complex nature of ABMS, it is hard to validate and verify ABMS by conventional validation methods. Therefore, attempt to find appropriate validation techniques for ABM seems to be necessary. In this paper, after reviewing on Principles and Concepts of ABM for and its applications, the validation techniques and challenges of ABM validation are discussed.

  20. A particle based simulation model for glacier dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Åström

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A particle-based computer simulation model was developed for investigating the dynamics of glaciers. In the model, large ice bodies are made of discrete elastic particles which are bound together by massless elastic beams. These beams can break, which induces brittle behaviour. At loads below fracture, beams may also break and reform with small probabilities to incorporate slowly deforming viscous behaviour in the model. This model has the advantage that it can simulate important physical processes such as ice calving and fracturing in a more realistic way than traditional continuum models. For benchmarking purposes the deformation of an ice block on a slip-free surface was compared to that of a similar block simulated with a Finite Element full-Stokes continuum model. Two simulations were performed: (1 calving of an ice block partially supported in water, similar to a grounded marine glacier terminus, and (2 fracturing of an ice block on an inclined plane of varying basal friction, which could represent transition to fast flow or surging. Despite several approximations, including restriction to two-dimensions and simplified water-ice interaction, the model was able to reproduce the size distributions of the debris observed in calving, which may be approximated by universal scaling laws. On a moderate slope, a large ice block was stable and quiescent as long as there was enough of friction against the substrate. For a critical length of frictional contact, global sliding began, and the model block disintegrated in a manner suggestive of a surging glacier. In this case the fragment size distribution produced was typical of a grinding process.

  1. Validation techniques of agent based modelling for geospatial simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, M.; Ahmadi, G.

    2014-10-01

    One of the most interesting aspects of modelling and simulation study is to describe the real world phenomena that have specific properties; especially those that are in large scales and have dynamic and complex behaviours. Studying these phenomena in the laboratory is costly and in most cases it is impossible. Therefore, Miniaturization of world phenomena in the framework of a model in order to simulate the real phenomena is a reasonable and scientific approach to understand the world. Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) is a new modelling method comprising of multiple interacting agent. They have been used in the different areas; for instance, geographic information system (GIS), biology, economics, social science and computer science. The emergence of ABM toolkits in GIS software libraries (e.g. ESRI's ArcGIS, OpenMap, GeoTools, etc) for geospatial modelling is an indication of the growing interest of users to use of special capabilities of ABMS. Since ABMS is inherently similar to human cognition, therefore it could be built easily and applicable to wide range applications than a traditional simulation. But a key challenge about ABMS is difficulty in their validation and verification. Because of frequent emergence patterns, strong dynamics in the system and the complex nature of ABMS, it is hard to validate and verify ABMS by conventional validation methods. Therefore, attempt to find appropriate validation techniques for ABM seems to be necessary. In this paper, after reviewing on Principles and Concepts of ABM for and its applications, the validation techniques and challenges of ABM validation are discussed.

  2. Internet-based system for simulation-based medical planning for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Brooke N; Draney, Mary T; Ku, Joy P; Taylor, Charles A

    2003-06-01

    Current practice in vascular surgery utilizes only diagnostic and empirical data to plan treatments, which does not enable quantitative a priori prediction of the outcomes of interventions. We have previously described simulation-based medical planning methods to model blood flow in arteries and plan medical treatments based on physiologic models. An important consideration for the design of these patient-specific modeling systems is the accessibility to physicians with modest computational resources. We describe a simulation-based medical planning environment developed for the World Wide Web (WWW) using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) and the Java programming language.

  3. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  4. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  5. A Simulation-Based LED Design Project in Photonics Instruction Based on Industry-University Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S. -H.; Chen, M. -L.; Kuo, Y. -K.; Shen, Y. -C.

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing industrial demand for light-emitting diode (LED) design professionals, based on industry-university collaboration in Taiwan, this paper develops a novel instructional approach: a simulation-based learning course with peer assessment to develop students' professional skills in LED design as required by industry as well as…

  6. The effects of a concept map-based support tool on simulation-based inquiry learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagemans, M.G.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations,

  7. The Effects of a Concept Map-Based Support Tool on Simulation-Based Inquiry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemans, Mieke G.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton

    2013-01-01

    Students often need support to optimize their learning in inquiry learning environments. In 2 studies, we investigated the effects of adding concept-map-based support to a simulation-based inquiry environment on kinematics. The concept map displayed the main domain concepts and their relations, while dynamic color coding of the concepts displayed…

  8. Development and validation of the attitudes toward outdoor play scales for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten; Bizub, Jessica; Szabo, Aniko; Heller, Beth; Kistner, Amy; Shawgo, Erin; Zetts, Corey

    2015-05-01

    The natural world has long been associated with health and described as a therapeutic landscape, and a growing body of research demonstrates the benefits of interacting with nature for mental and physical health. However, concern is growing that children have lost connection to the natural world and spend less time outdoors, despite the known health benefits of doing so. It is likely that healthy behaviors related to engagement with nature are mediated by beliefs about the value and safety of play in nature. While the literature abounds with qualitative examinations of children's attitudes toward outdoor play, there exist few instruments to quantitatively measure these attitudes. Informed by health behavior change theories, we describe the development and validation of the Attitudes toward Outdoor Play (ATOP) scales. As part of a community-academic partnership project called More Than a Pretty Place, the development of the ATOP scales unfolded in stages: (1) item generation based on a comprehensive literature review and consensus among the project team, (2) interviews with environmental educators, (3) initial pilot testing, (4) scale refinement, (5) administration during 2012 and 2013 to a sample of school children ages 9-13 (n = 362) in Milwaukee, WI, USA, and (6) quantitative psychometric evaluation. Two distinct scales emerged: ATOP-benefits (alpha = 0.79) and ATOP-fears (alpha = 0.79). Validity analyses found that both scales correlated as expected with measures of engagement in outdoor play, parental support for outdoor play, and sedentary behaviors. The ATOP scales are reliable and valid instruments for measuring attitudes toward outdoor play that may mediate children's outdoor activity in natural settings. The ATOP scales could be useful for evaluating the effects of programming, such as environmental education programming, on improving children's attitudes toward the benefits of nature and reducing their fears, and may predict more distal outcomes

  9. Association between Outdoor Fungal Concentrations during Winter and Pulmonary Function in Children with and without Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Watanabe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor fungi are important components of airborne particulate matter (PM. However, the associations between pulmonary function and outdoor fungi are less well known compared to other airborne PM constituents. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between outdoor fungi and pulmonary function in children. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF rates were measured daily in 339 schoolchildren (including 36 with asthma, aged 10 to 12, 2 to 27 February 2015. Airborne PM was collected on filters, using a high volume air sampler, each day during the study period. The daily concentration of outdoor fungi-associated PM was calculated using a culture-based method. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF values and daily concentrations of outdoor fungi, and the daily levels of suspended PM (SPM and PM ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5. An increase in the interquartile range (46.2 CFU/m3 for outdoor fungal concentration led to PEF changes of −1.18 L/min (95% confidence interval, −2.27 to −0.08 in all children, 1.22 L/min (−2.96 to 5.41 in children without asthma, and −1.44 L/min (−2.57 to −0.32 in children with asthma. Outdoor fungi showed a significant negative correlation with PM2.5 levels (r = −0.4, p = 0.04, but not with SPM (r = ‒0.3, p = 0.10 levels. Outdoor fungi may be associated with pulmonary dysfunction in children. Furthermore, children with asthma may show greater pulmonary dysfunction than those without asthma.

  10. Mock ECHO: A Simulation-Based Medical Education Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Rebecca C; Katzman, Joanna G; Comerci, George D; Shelley, Brian M; Duhigg, Daniel; Olivas, Cynthia; Arnold, Thomas; Kalishman, Summers; Monnette, Rebecca; Arora, Sanjeev

    2018-04-16

    This study was designed to develop a deeper understanding of the learning and social processes that take place during the simulation-based medical education for practicing providers as part of the Project ECHO® model, known as Mock ECHO training. The ECHO model is utilized to expand access to care of common and complex diseases by supporting the education of primary care providers with an interprofessional team of specialists via videoconferencing networks. Mock ECHO trainings are conducted through a train the trainer model targeted at leaders replicating the ECHO model at their organizations. Trainers conduct simulated teleECHO clinics while participants gain skills to improve communication and self-efficacy. Three focus groups, conducted between May 2015 and January 2016 with a total of 26 participants, were deductively analyzed to identify common themes related to simulation-based medical education and interdisciplinary education. Principal themes generated from the analysis included (a) the role of empathy in community development, (b) the value of training tools as guides for learning, (c) Mock ECHO design components to optimize learning, (d) the role of interdisciplinary education to build community and improve care delivery, (e) improving care integration through collaboration, and (f) development of soft skills to facilitate learning. Mock ECHO trainings offer clinicians the freedom to learn in a noncritical environment while emphasizing real-time multidirectional feedback and encouraging knowledge and skill transfer. The success of the ECHO model depends on training interprofessional healthcare providers in behaviors needed to lead a teleECHO clinic and to collaborate in the educational process. While building a community of practice, Mock ECHO provides a safe opportunity for a diverse group of clinician experts to practice learned skills and receive feedback from coparticipants and facilitators.

  11. Simulation research of acousto optic modulator drive based on Multisim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiqian; Guo, Yangkuan; Zhu, Lianqing; Na, Yunxiao; Zhang, Yinmin; Liu, Qianzhe

    2013-10-01

    The acousto optic modulator drive is mainly made with 2 amplitude shift keying (2ASK)circuit, pre-amplifier circuit and power operational amplifier circuit, and the simulation of the acousto optic modulator drive is realized. Firstly, the acousto optic modulator drive works as follows.The modulation function is realized by the analoged switch circuit, and the on-off of the analoged switch chip (CD4066) are controlled by the pulse signal generated by the electronic conversion circuit. The voltage amplification of the modulated signal is achieved by two reverse proportional operation implements voltage amplifier circuit, and the circuit is mainly made with the AD8001 chip. Then the amplified signal is transfered into a two-stage power operational amplifier circuit of class C which is mainly made with the chip of MRF158. Secondly, both of the simulating structures and the union debugging based on the designed system are realized by Multisim. Finally, obtaining the modulation signal of 150(MHz) frequency and 5(μs) pulse width illustrates that a 2ASk modulation of the 150 (MHz)carrier signal and the 20(kHz) modulation signal is achieved. Besides, as the frequency of input signal and amplitude of voltage change, the output power of the power operational amplifier circuit also changes, and the conclusion is drawn that the output power increases when the frequency of input signal decreases and the amplitude of voltage increases. The component selection of the drive's PCB design, the performance parameter and of the actual circuit and the debugging of the actual circuit are based on the simulation results.

  12. Simulation and characterization of silicon nanopillar-based nanoparticle sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Merzsch, Stephan; Huang, Kai; Stranz, Andrej; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2013-05-01

    Nanopillar-based structures hold promise as highly sensitive resonant mass sensors for a new generation of aerosol nanoparticle (NP) detecting devices because of their very small masses. In this work, the possible use of a silicon nanopillar (SiNPL) array as a nanoparticle sensor is investigated. The sensor structures are created and simulated using a finite element modeling (FEM) tool of COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3 to study the resonant characteristics and the sensitivity of the SiNPL for femtogram NP mass detection. Instead of using 2D plate models or simple single 3D cylindrical pillar models, FEM is performed with SiNPLs in 3D structures based on the real geometry of experimental SiNPL arrays employing a piezoelectric stack for resonant excitation. In order to achieve an optimal structure and investigate the etching effect on the fabricated resonators, SiNPLs with different designs of meshes, sidewall profiles, lengths, and diameters are simulated and analyzed. To validate the FEM results, fabricated SiNPLs with a high aspect ratio of ~60 are employed and characterized in resonant frequency measurements. SiNPLs are mounted onto a piezoactuator inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) chamber which can excite SiNPLs into lateral vibration. The measured resonant frequencies of the SiNPLs with diameters about 650 nm and heights about 40 μm range from 434.63 kHz to 458.21 kHz, which agree well with those simulated by FEM. Furthermore, the deflection of a SiNPL can be enhanced by increasing the applied piezoactuator voltage. By depositing different NPs (i.e., carbon, TiO2, SiO2, Ag, and Au NPs) on the SiNPLs, the decrease of the resonant frequency is clearly shown confirming their potential to be used as airborne NP mass sensor with femtogram resolution level.

  13. Modeling indoor air pollution of outdoor origin in homes of SAPALDIA subjects in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Phuleria, Harish C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-09-01

    Given the shrinking spatial contrasts in outdoor air pollution in Switzerland and the trends toward tightly insulated buildings, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) needs to understand to what extent outdoor air pollution remains a determinant for residential indoor exposure. The objectives of this paper are to identify determining factors for indoor air pollution concentrations of particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particles in the size range from 15 to 300nm, black smoke measured as light absorbance of PM (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to develop predictive indoor models for SAPALDIA. Multivariable regression models were developed based on indoor and outdoor measurements among homes of selected SAPALDIA participants in three urban (Basel, Geneva, Lugano) and one rural region (Wald ZH) in Switzerland, various home characteristics and reported indoor sources such as cooking. Outdoor levels of air pollutants were important predictors for indoor air pollutants, except for the coarse particle fraction. The fractions of outdoor concentrations infiltrating indoors were between 30% and 66%, the highest one was observed for PMabsorbance. A modifying effect of open windows was found for NO2 and the ultrafine particle number concentration. Cooking was associated with increased particle and NO2 levels. This study shows that outdoor air pollution remains an important determinant of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biologically based modelling and simulation of carcinogenesis at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Noriyuki B.

    2003-01-01

    The process of the carcinogenesis is studied by computer simulation. In general, we need a large number of experimental samples to detect mutations at low doses, but in practice it is difficult to get such a large number of data. To satisfy the requirements of the situation at low doses, it is good to study the process of carcinogenesis using biologically based mathematical model. We have mainly studied it by using as known as 'multi-stage model'; the model seems to get complicated, as we adopt the recent new findings of molecular biological experiments. Moreover, the basic idea of the multi-stage model is based on the epidemiologic data of log-log variation of cancer incidence with age, it seems to be difficult to compare with experimental data of irradiated cell culture system, which has been increasing in recent years. Taking above into consideration, we concluded that we had better make new model with following features: 1) a unit of the target system is a cell, 2) the new information of the molecular biology can be easily introduced, 3) having spatial coordinates for checking a colony formation or tumorigenesis. In this presentation, we will show the detail of the model and some simulation results about the carcinogenesis. (author)

  15. Simulation Based Studies in Software Engineering: A Matter of Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Bernard Nicolau de França

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the possible lack of validity when compared with other science areas, Simulation-Based Studies (SBS in Software Engineering (SE have supported the achievement of some results in the field. However, as it happens with any other sort of experimental study, it is important to identify and deal with threats to validity aiming at increasing their strength and reinforcing results confidence. OBJECTIVE: To identify potential threats to SBS validity in SE and suggest ways to mitigate them. METHOD: To apply qualitative analysis in a dataset resulted from the aggregation of data from a quasi-systematic literature review combined with ad-hoc surveyed information regarding other science areas. RESULTS: The analysis of data extracted from 15 technical papers allowed the identification and classification of 28 different threats to validity concerned with SBS in SE according Cook and Campbell’s categories. Besides, 12 verification and validation procedures applicable to SBS were also analyzed and organized due to their ability to detect these threats to validity. These results were used to make available an improved set of guidelines regarding the planning and reporting of SBS in SE. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation based studies add different threats to validity when compared with traditional studies. They are not well observed and therefore, it is not easy to identify and mitigate all of them without explicit guidance, as the one depicted in this paper.

  16. Analyst-to-Analyst Variability in Simulation-Based Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glickman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Vicente J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes findings from the culminating experiment of the LDRD project entitled, "Analyst-to-Analyst Variability in Simulation-Based Prediction". For this experiment, volunteer participants solving a given test problem in engineering and statistics were interviewed at different points in their solution process. These interviews are used to trace differing solutions to differing solution processes, and differing processes to differences in reasoning, assumptions, and judgments. The issue that the experiment was designed to illuminate -- our paucity of understanding of the ways in which humans themselves have an impact on predictions derived from complex computational simulations -- is a challenging and open one. Although solution of the test problem by analyst participants in this experiment has taken much more time than originally anticipated, and is continuing past the end of this LDRD, this project has provided a rare opportunity to explore analyst-to-analyst variability in significant depth, from which we derive evidence-based insights to guide further explorations in this important area.

  17. Urban flood simulation based on the SWMM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available China is the nation with the fastest urbanization in the past decades which has caused serious urban flooding. Flood forecasting is regarded as one of the important flood mitigation methods, and is widely used in catchment flood mitigation, but is not widely used in urban flooding mitigation. This paper, employing the SWMM model, one of the widely used urban flood planning and management models, simulates the urban flooding of Dongguan City in the rapidly urbanized southern China. SWMM is first set up based on the DEM, digital map and underground pipeline network, then parameters are derived based on the properties of the subcatchment and the storm sewer conduits; the parameter sensitivity analysis shows the parameter robustness. The simulated results show that with the 1-year return period precipitation, the studied area will have no flooding, but for the 2-, 5-, 10- and 20-year return period precipitation, the studied area will be inundated. The results show the SWMM model is promising for urban flood forecasting, but as it has no surface runoff routing, the urban flooding could not be forecast precisely.

  18. Simulation of SOFCs based power generation system using Aspen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pianko-Oprych Paulina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a thermodynamic Aspen simulation model for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, SOFCs, based power generation system. In the first step, a steady-state SOFCs system model was developed. The model includes the electrochemistry and the diffusion phenomena. The electrochemical model gives good agreement with experimental data in a wide operating range. Then, a parametric study has been conducted to estimate effects of the oxygen to carbon ratio, O/C, on reformer temperature, fuel cell temperature, fuel utilization, overall fuel cell performance, and the results are discussed in this paper. In the second step, a dynamic analysis of SOFCs characteristic has been developed. The aim of dynamic modelling was to find the response of the system against the fuel utilization and the O/C ratio variations. From the simulations, it was concluded that both developed models in the steady and dynamic state were reasonably accurate and can be used for system level optimization studies of the SOFC based power generation system.

  19. Enhancing food engineering education with interactive web-based simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Koulouris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional deductive approach in teaching any engineering topic, teachers would first expose students to the derivation of the equations that govern the behavior of a physical system and then demonstrate the use of equations through a limited number of textbook examples. This methodology, however, is rarely adequate to unmask the cause-effect and quantitative relationships between the system variables that the equations embody. Web-based simulation, which is the integration of simulation and internet technologies, has the potential to enhance the learning experience by offering an interactive and easily accessible platform for quick and effortless experimentation with physical phenomena.This paper presents the design and development of a web-based platform for teaching basic food engineering phenomena to food technology students. The platform contains a variety of modules (“virtual experiments” covering the topics of mass and energy balances, fluid mechanics and heat transfer. In this paper, the design and development of three modules for mass balances and heat transfer is presented. Each webpage representing an educational module has the following features: visualization of the studied phenomenon through graphs, charts or videos, computation through a mathematical model and experimentation.  The student is allowed to edit key parameters of the phenomenon and observe the effect of these changes on the outputs. Experimentation can be done in a free or guided fashion with a set of prefabricated examples that students can run and self-test their knowledge by answering multiple-choice questions.

  20. Advancing Simulation-Based Education in Pain Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Naileshni; Nielsen, Alison A; Copenhaver, David J; Sheth, Samir J; Li, Chin-Shang; Fishman, Scott M

    2018-02-27

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has recently implemented milestones and competencies as a framework for training fellows in Pain Medicine, but individual programs are left to create educational platforms and assessment tools that meet ACGME standards. In this article, we discuss the concept of milestone-based competencies and the inherent challenges for implementation in pain medicine. We consider simulation-based education (SBE) as a potential tool for the field to meet ACGME goals through advancing novel learning opportunities, engaging in clinically relevant scenarios, and mastering technical and nontechnical skills. The sparse literature on SBE in pain medicine is highlighted, and we describe our pilot experience, which exemplifies a nascent effort that encountered early difficulties in implementing and refining an SBE program. The many complexities in offering a sophisticated simulated pain curriculum that is valid, reliable, feasible, and acceptable to learners and teachers may only be overcome with coordinated and collaborative efforts among pain medicine training programs and governing institutions.

  1. Memoryless cooperative graph search based on the simulated annealing algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Jian; Yan Gang-Feng; Fan Zhen

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the problem of reaching a globally optimal segment for a graph-like environment with a single or a group of autonomous mobile agents. Firstly, two efficient simulated-annealing-like algorithms are given for a single agent to solve the problem in a partially known environment and an unknown environment, respectively. It shows that under both proposed control strategies, the agent will eventually converge to a globally optimal segment with probability 1. Secondly, we use multi-agent searching to simultaneously reduce the computation complexity and accelerate convergence based on the algorithms we have given for a single agent. By exploiting graph partition, a gossip-consensus method based scheme is presented to update the key parameter—radius of the graph, ensuring that the agents spend much less time finding a globally optimal segment. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  2. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relations......The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows...

  3. Outdoor ultraviolet exposure of children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffey, B.L.; Gibson, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    The weekday and weekend outdoor ultraviolet exposure of young people from primary and secondary schools in three geographically distinct regions of England was determined over a 3-month period in summer. Ultraviolet exposure was measured using personal film badges worn by each young person and time spent outdoors, in hourly intervals, assessed using exposure records. In each area a class of 9-10 year-old children from a primary school and a class of 14-15-year-old adolescents from a secondary school took part, giving a total of 180 subjects. We found that primary school children received higher outdoor ultraviolet exposure than young people in secondary schools, and geographical differences in exposure could not be accounted for solely by differences in ambient ultraviolet. There was little difference between the exposure of males and females. Children and adolescents did not behave as homogeneous groups with regard to exposure. (Author)

  4. Radiometric monitoring outdoor municipality Pocinhos-PB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinalli Araujo Costa, Michelle; Araujo dos Santos Junior, Jose; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton

    2015-01-01

    Studies on human exposure to terrestrial radionuclides are important for human health. Therefore, this investigation presents aimed at making radiometric dosimetry Pocinhos municipality in the state of Paraiba. Monitoring was performed in 50 points in urban and rural areas Pocinhos. The estimated external effective dose rate in outdoor environments was obtained in triplicate using a portable gamma spectrometer, to 1.0 m away from the Earth's surface and time set acquisition in terms of environmental radiation levels. The values of these dose rates outdoor environments ranging from 0.53 to 3.94 mSv.y -1 . the arithmetic mean was 0.79 mSv.y -1 , which exceeds the value 0.07 mSv.y -1 corresponding to the global average in outdoor environments. In the city, found a higher radioactivity in rural areas that were uninhabited at the time of the survey. (Author)

  5. Monte Carlo-based simulation of dynamic jaws tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterpin, E.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Q.; Lu, W.; Mackie, T. R.; Vynckier, S. [Department of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 54 Avenue Hippocrate, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States); 21 Century Oncology., 1240 D' onofrio, Madison, Wisconsin 53719 (United States); TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 and Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Universite Catholique de Louvain, St-Luc University Hospital, 10 Avenue Hippocrate, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Original TomoTherapy systems may involve a trade-off between conformity and treatment speed, the user being limited to three slice widths (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 cm). This could be overcome by allowing the jaws to define arbitrary fields, including very small slice widths (<1 cm), which are challenging for a beam model. The aim of this work was to incorporate the dynamic jaws feature into a Monte Carlo (MC) model called TomoPen, based on the MC code PENELOPE, previously validated for the original TomoTherapy system. Methods: To keep the general structure of TomoPen and its efficiency, the simulation strategy introduces several techniques: (1) weight modifiers to account for any jaw settings using only the 5 cm phase-space file; (2) a simplified MC based model called FastStatic to compute the modifiers faster than pure MC; (3) actual simulation of dynamic jaws. Weight modifiers computed with both FastStatic and pure MC were compared. Dynamic jaws simulations were compared with the convolution/superposition (C/S) of TomoTherapy in the ''cheese'' phantom for a plan with two targets longitudinally separated by a gap of 3 cm. Optimization was performed in two modes: asymmetric jaws-constant couch speed (''running start stop,'' RSS) and symmetric jaws-variable couch speed (''symmetric running start stop,'' SRSS). Measurements with EDR2 films were also performed for RSS for the formal validation of TomoPen with dynamic jaws. Results: Weight modifiers computed with FastStatic were equivalent to pure MC within statistical uncertainties (0.5% for three standard deviations). Excellent agreement was achieved between TomoPen and C/S for both asymmetric jaw opening/constant couch speed and symmetric jaw opening/variable couch speed, with deviations well within 2%/2 mm. For RSS procedure, agreement between C/S and measurements was within 2%/2 mm for 95% of the points and 3%/3 mm for 98% of the points, where dose is

  6. Monte Carlo-based simulation of dynamic jaws tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpin, E.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Q.; Lu, W.; Mackie, T. R.; Vynckier, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Original TomoTherapy systems may involve a trade-off between conformity and treatment speed, the user being limited to three slice widths (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 cm). This could be overcome by allowing the jaws to define arbitrary fields, including very small slice widths (<1 cm), which are challenging for a beam model. The aim of this work was to incorporate the dynamic jaws feature into a Monte Carlo (MC) model called TomoPen, based on the MC code PENELOPE, previously validated for the original TomoTherapy system. Methods: To keep the general structure of TomoPen and its efficiency, the simulation strategy introduces several techniques: (1) weight modifiers to account for any jaw settings using only the 5 cm phase-space file; (2) a simplified MC based model called FastStatic to compute the modifiers faster than pure MC; (3) actual simulation of dynamic jaws. Weight modifiers computed with both FastStatic and pure MC were compared. Dynamic jaws simulations were compared with the convolution/superposition (C/S) of TomoTherapy in the ''cheese'' phantom for a plan with two targets longitudinally separated by a gap of 3 cm. Optimization was performed in two modes: asymmetric jaws-constant couch speed (''running start stop,'' RSS) and symmetric jaws-variable couch speed (''symmetric running start stop,'' SRSS). Measurements with EDR2 films were also performed for RSS for the formal validation of TomoPen with dynamic jaws. Results: Weight modifiers computed with FastStatic were equivalent to pure MC within statistical uncertainties (0.5% for three standard deviations). Excellent agreement was achieved between TomoPen and C/S for both asymmetric jaw opening/constant couch speed and symmetric jaw opening/variable couch speed, with deviations well within 2%/2 mm. For RSS procedure, agreement between C/S and measurements was within 2%/2 mm for 95% of the points and 3%/3 mm for 98% of the points, where dose is greater than 30% of the prescription dose (gamma analysis

  7. Live defibrillation in simulation-based medical education--a survey of simulation center practices and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turban, Joseph W; Peters, Deborah P; Berg, Benjamin W

    2010-02-01

    Resuscitation from cardiac arrhythmia, requiring cardioversion/defibrillation is a common simulation training scenario. Use of live defibrillation enhances simulation fidelity but is not without risk. This survey was conducted to describe the prevalence of live defibrillation use during training scenarios in healthcare simulation centers, and when used, if safety training was required before using live defibrillation. A convenience sample of attendees at the 7th annual International Meeting on Simulation in Healthcare (January 2007) was surveyed using a closed-ended 23-item survey instrument. Survey domains included responder and simulation center demographics, simulation center defibrillation safety policies, and attitudes toward defibrillation practices in simulation training environments. Fifty-seven individuals representing 39 simulation centers returned surveys, 29 of which were in the United States. Live defibrillation was used in 35 of the 39 centers (90%). A defibrillation safety training policy was in effect at 14 of 39 centers (36%). Formal training before using live defibrillation was considered necessary by 48 of 55 responders (87%). Forty-eight of 54 responders (89%) strongly agreed or agreed with the statement, "I feel using live defibrillation plays an important role in simulation-based education." Although most responders consider use of live defibrillation important and believe formal defibrillator safety training should be conducted before use, only about one third of the centers had a training policy in effect. It remains to be determined whether safety training before the use of live defibrillation during simulation-based education increases user safety.

  8. Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed

  9. Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

  10. Continuous measurements of outdoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Ueno, K.; Komura, K.; Kato, I.; Jin Yihe

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied and developed an electrostatic 222 Rn monitor and have measured continuously outdoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations at Nagoya University since 1985. Four 222 Rn monitors were newly constructed to measure outdoor 222 Rn concentrations at other locations. The 222 Rn concentrations at Nagoya and Kasugai show a clear diurnal variation in autumn, and a seasonal pattern of a spring-summer minimum and a autumn-winter maximum. The results at Toki are the same pattern as that at Nagoya except spring. The concentrations at Kanazawa show a slight seasonal variation. A clear diurnal variation is observed in summer. (4 figs.)

  11. Economic Impact of Intelligent Dynamic Control in Urban Outdoor Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Wojnicki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and compares the possible energy savings in various approaches to outdoor lighting modernization. Several solutions implementable using currently-available systems are presented and discussed. An innovative approach using real-time sensor data is also presented in detail, along with its formal background, based on Artificial Intelligence methods (rule-based systems and graph transformations. The efficiency of all approaches has been estimated and compared using real-life data recorded at an urban setting. The article also presents other aspects which influence the efficiency and feasibility of intelligent lighting projects, including design quality, design workload and conformance to standards.

  12. Fear of moving outdoors and development of outdoor walking difficulty in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Iwarsson, Susanne; Törmäkangas, Timo; Leinonen, Raija; Heikkinen, Eino; Rantanen, Taina

    2009-04-01

    To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation. Observational prospective cohort study and cross-sectional analyses. Community and research center. Seven hundred twenty-seven community-living people aged 75 to 81 were interviewed at baseline, of whom 314 took part in a 3.5-year follow-up. Fear of moving outdoors and its potential individual and environmental correlates were assessed at baseline. Perceived difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km were assessed twice a year over a 3.5-year period. At baseline, 65% of the women and 29% of the men reported fear of moving outdoors. Poor socioeconomic status; musculoskeletal diseases; slow walking speed; and the presence of poor street conditions, hills in the nearby environment, and noisy traffic correlated with fear of moving outdoors. At the first 6-month follow-up, participants with fear of moving outdoors had more than four times the adjusted risk (odds ratio (OR)=4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.92-11.00) of developing difficulties in walking 0.5 km and a three times greater adjusted risk (OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.49-6.46) for developing difficulty in walking 2 km compared with those without fear. The difference in the prevalence of walking difficulties remained statistically significant over the 3.5-year follow-up (P=.02 and P=.009, respectively). Fear of moving outdoors is common in older adults and increases the risk of developing self-reported difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km. Knowledge about individual and environmental factors underlying fear of moving outdoors and finding ways to alleviate fear of moving outdoors are important for community planning and prevention of disability.

  13. Simulation-based decision support for evaluating operational plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe simulation-based decision support techniques for evaluation of operational plans within effects-based planning. Using a decision support tool, developers of operational plans are able to evaluate thousands of alternative plans against possible courses of events and decide which of these plans are capable of achieving a desired end state. The objective of this study is to examine the potential of a decision support system that helps operational analysts understand the consequences of numerous alternative plans through simulation and evaluation. Operational plans are described in the effects-based approach to operations concept as a set of actions and effects. For each action, we examine several different alternative ways to perform the action. We use a representation where a plan consists of several actions that should be performed. Each action may be performed in one of several different alternative ways. Together these action alternatives make up all possible plan instances, which are represented as a tree of action alternatives that may be searched for the most effective sequence of alternative actions. As a test case, we use an expeditionary operation with a plan of 43 actions and several alternatives for these actions, as well as a scenario of 40 group actors. Decision support for planners is provided by several methods that analyze the impact of a plan on the 40 actors, e.g., by visualizing time series of plan performance. Detailed decision support for finding the most influential actions of a plan is presented by using sensitivity analysis and regression tree analysis. Finally, a decision maker may use the tool to determine the boundaries of an operation that it must not move beyond without risk of drastic failure. The significant contribution of this study is the presentation of an integrated approach for evaluation of operational plans.

  14. A Coupled Simulation Architecture for Agent-Based/Geohydrological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxa-Rozen, M.

    2016-12-01

    The quantitative modelling of social-ecological systems can provide useful insights into the interplay between social and environmental processes, and their impact on emergent system dynamics. However, such models should acknowledge the complexity and uncertainty of both of the underlying subsystems. For instance, the agent-based models which are increasingly popular for groundwater management studies can be made more useful by directly accounting for the hydrological processes which drive environmental outcomes. Conversely, conventional environmental models can benefit from an agent-based depiction of the feedbacks and heuristics which influence the decisions of groundwater users. From this perspective, this work describes a Python-based software architecture which couples the popular NetLogo agent-based platform with the MODFLOW/SEAWAT geohydrological modelling environment. This approach enables users to implement agent-based models in NetLogo's user-friendly platform, while benefiting from the full capabilities of MODFLOW/SEAWAT packages or reusing existing geohydrological models. The software architecture is based on the pyNetLogo connector, which provides an interface between the NetLogo agent-based modelling software and the Python programming language. This functionality is then extended and combined with Python's object-oriented features, to design a simulation architecture which couples NetLogo with MODFLOW/SEAWAT through the FloPy library (Bakker et al., 2016). The Python programming language also provides access to a range of external packages which can be used for testing and analysing the coupled models, which is illustrated for an application of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES).

  15. A simulator-based nuclear reactor emergency response training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Edward; Bereznai, George; Shaw, John; Chaput, Joseph; Lafortune, Jean-Francois

    Training offsite emergency response personnel basic awareness of onsite control room operations during nuclear power plant emergency conditions was the primary objective of a week-long workshop conducted on a CANDU® virtual nuclear reactor simulator available at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Canada. The workshop was designed to examine both normal and abnormal reactor operating conditions, and to observe the conditions in the control room that may have impact on the subsequent offsite emergency response. The workshop was attended by participants from a number of countries encompassing diverse job functions related to nuclear emergency response. Objectives of the workshop were to provide opportunities for participants to act in the roles of control room personnel under different reactor operating scenarios, providing a unique experience for participants to interact with the simulator in real-time, and providing increased awareness of control room operations during accident conditions. The ability to "pause" the simulator during exercises allowed the instructors to evaluate and critique the performance of participants, and to provide context with respect to potential offsite emergency actions. Feedback from the participants highlighted (i) advantages of observing and participating "hands-on" with operational exercises, (ii) their general unfamiliarity with control room operational procedures and arrangements prior to the workshop, (iii) awareness of the vast quantity of detailed control room procedures for both normal and transient conditions, and (iv) appreciation of the increased workload for the operators in the control room during a transient from normal operations. Based upon participant feedback, it was determined that the objectives of the training had been met, and that future workshops should be conducted.

  16. Feature-Based Statistical Analysis of Combustion Simulation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J; Krishnamoorthy, V; Liu, S; Grout, R; Hawkes, E; Chen, J; Pascucci, V; Bremer, P T

    2011-11-18

    We present a new framework for feature-based statistical analysis of large-scale scientific data and demonstrate its effectiveness by analyzing features from Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent combustion. Turbulent flows are ubiquitous and account for transport and mixing processes in combustion, astrophysics, fusion, and climate modeling among other disciplines. They are also characterized by coherent structure or organized motion, i.e. nonlocal entities whose geometrical features can directly impact molecular mixing and reactive processes. While traditional multi-point statistics provide correlative information, they lack nonlocal structural information, and hence, fail to provide mechanistic causality information between organized fluid motion and mixing and reactive processes. Hence, it is of great interest to capture and track flow features and their statistics together with their correlation with relevant scalar quantities, e.g. temperature or species concentrations. In our approach we encode the set of all possible flow features by pre-computing merge trees augmented with attributes, such as statistical moments of various scalar fields, e.g. temperature, as well as length-scales computed via spectral analysis. The computation is performed in an efficient streaming manner in a pre-processing step and results in a collection of meta-data that is orders of magnitude smaller than the original simulation data. This meta-data is sufficient to support a fully flexible and interactive analysis of the features, allowing for arbitrary thresholds, providing per-feature statistics, and creating various global diagnostics such as Cumulative Density Functions (CDFs), histograms, or time-series. We combine the analysis with a rendering of the features in a linked-view browser that enables scientists to interactively explore, visualize, and analyze the equivalent of one terabyte of simulation data. We highlight the utility of this new framework for combustion

  17. Simulation training: a systematic review of simulation in arthroscopy and proposal of a new competency-based training framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Charison; Khajuria, Ankur; Gupte, Chinmay

    2014-01-01

    Traditional orthopaedic training has followed an apprenticeship model whereby trainees enhance their skills by operating under guidance. However the introduction of limitations on training hours and shorter training programmes mean that alternative training strategies are required. To perform a literature review on simulation training in arthroscopy and devise a framework that structures different simulation techniques that could be used in arthroscopic training. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Databases were performed. Search terms included "virtual reality OR simulator OR simulation" and "arthroscopy OR arthroscopic". 14 studies evaluating simulators in knee, shoulder and hip arthroplasty were included. The majority of the studies demonstrated construct and transference validity but only one showed concurrent validity. More studies are required to assess its potential as a training and assessment tool, skills transference between simulators and to determine the extent of skills decay from prolonged delays in training. We also devised a "ladder of arthroscopic simulation" that provides a competency-based framework to implement different simulation strategies. The incorporation of simulation into an orthopaedic curriculum will depend on a coordinated approach between many bodies. But the successful integration of simulators in other areas of surgery supports a possible role for simulation in advancing orthopaedic education. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Agent-based simulation of electricity markets : a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensfuss, F.; Genoese, M.; Genoese, M.; Most, D.

    2007-01-01

    The electricity sector in Europe and North America is undergoing considerable changes as a result of deregulation, issues related to climate change, and the integration of renewable resources within the electricity grid. This article reviewed agent-based simulation methods of analyzing electricity markets. The paper provided an analysis of research currently being conducted on electricity market designs and examined methods of modelling agent decisions. Methods of coupling long term and short term decisions were also reviewed. Issues related to single and multiple market analysis methods were discussed, as well as different approaches to integrating agent-based models with models of other commodities. The integration of transmission constraints within agent-based models was also discussed, and methods of measuring market efficiency were evaluated. Other topics examined in the paper included approaches to integrating investment decisions, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) trading, and renewable support schemes. It was concluded that agent-based models serve as a test bed for the electricity sector, and will help to provide insights for future policy decisions. 74 refs., 6 figs

  19. Efisiensi Energi Jaringan Homogeneous Wcdma/3g Pada Lingkungan Outdoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linawati Linawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Telecommunication technology and applications have developed fast recently. Hence this development will take energy consumption significantly. Many studies have been done on energy efficiency on cellular network. The studies are more focused on energy usage of the base station, as the base station is the component of cellular station which takes the most energy consumption. Therefore this study analyzes energy efficiency on homogeneous network of WCDMA/3G for outdoor environment. Energy consumption of three macro base stations is compared with energy consumption of 12 micro base stations. This comparison analysis has been conducted on the same Area Spectral Efficiency (ASE. The results show that the macro base stations are more efficient for energy usage than the micro base stations. However based on ASE requirements, the micro base stations are more efficient than the macro base stations on both busy hours and non-busy hour.

  20. Design, modeling and simulation of MEMS-based silicon Microneedles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, F; Ahmed, S

    2013-01-01

    The advancement in semiconductor process engineering and nano-scale fabrication technology has made it convenient to transport specific biological fluid into or out of human skin with minimum discomfort. Fluid transdermal delivery systems such as Microneedle arrays are one such emerging and exciting Micro-Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) application which could lead to a total painless fluid delivery into skin with controllability and desirable yield. In this study, we aimed to revisit the problem with modeling, design and simulations carried out for MEMS based silicon hollow out of plane microneedle arrays for biomedical applications particularly for transdermal drug delivery. An approximate 200 μm length of microneedle with 40 μm diameter of lumen has been successfully shown formed by isotropic and anisotropic etching techniques using MEMS Pro design tool. These microneedles are arranged in size of 2 × 4 matrix array with center to center spacing of 750 μm. Furthermore, comparisons for fluid flow characteristics through these microneedle channels have been modeled with and without the contribution of the gravitational forces using mathematical models derived from Bernoulli Equation. Physical Process simulations have also been performed on TCAD SILVACO to optimize the design of these microneedles aligned with the standard Si-Fabrication lines.