WorldWideScience

Sample records for based nonlinear interaction

  1. An Agent Interaction Based Method for Nonlinear Process Plan Scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qinglu; WU Bo; GUO Guang

    2006-01-01

    This article puts forward a scheduling method for nonlinear process plan shop floor. Task allocation and load balance are realized by bidding mechanism. Though the agent interaction process, the execution of tasks is determined and the coherence of manufacturing decision is verified. The employment of heuristic index can help to optimize the system performance.

  2. Interaction-based nonlinear quantum metrology with a cold atomic ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript we present an experimental and theoretical investigation of quantum-noise-limited measurement by nonlinear interferometry, or from another perspective, quantum-noise-limited interaction-based measurement. The experimental work is performed using a polarization-based quantum interface between propagating light pulses and cold rubidium-87 atoms trapped in an optical dipole trap. We first review the theory of quantum metrology and estimation theory, and we describe theor...

  3. Interaction model between capsule robot and intestine based on nonlinear viscoelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Hao; Tan, Renjia; Li, Hongyi

    2014-03-01

    Active capsule endoscope could also be called capsule robot, has been developed from laboratory research to clinical application. However, the system still has defects, such as poor controllability and failing to realize automatic checks. The imperfection of the interaction model between capsule robot and intestine is one of the dominating reasons causing the above problems. A model is hoped to be established for the control method of the capsule robot in this article. It is established based on nonlinear viscoelasticity. The interaction force of the model consists of environmental resistance, viscous resistance and Coulomb friction. The parameters of the model are identified by experimental investigation. Different methods are used in the experiment to obtain different values of the same parameter at different velocities. The model is proved to be valid by experimental verification. The achievement in this article is the attempted perfection of an interaction model. It is hoped that the model can optimize the control method of the capsule robot in the future.

  4. Interaction nonlinearity in asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed, Arash; Bhasin, Amit; Liechti, Kenneth M.

    2012-05-01

    Asphalt mixtures are complex composites that comprise aggregate, asphalt binder, and air. Several research studies have shown that the mechanical behavior of the asphalt mixture is strongly influenced by the matrix, i.e. the asphalt binder. Characterization and a thorough understanding of the binder behavior is the first and crucial step towards developing an accurate constitutive model for the composite. Accurate constitutive models for the constituent materials are critical to ensure accurate performance predictions at a material and structural level using micromechanics. This paper presents the findings from a systematic investigation into the nature of the linear and nonlinear response of asphalt binders subjected to different types of loading using the Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR). Laboratory test data show that a compressive normal force is generated in an axially constrained specimen subjected to torsional shear. This paper investigates the source of this normal force and demonstrates that the asphalt binder can dilate when subjected to shear loads. This paper also presents the findings from a study conducted to investigate the source of the nonlinearity in the asphalt binder. Test results demonstrate that the application of cyclic shear loads results in the development of a normal force and a concomitant reduction in the dynamic shear modulus. This form of nonlinear response is referred to as an "interaction nonlinearity". A combination of experimental and analytical tools is used to demonstrate and verify the presence of this interaction nonlinearity in asphalt binders. The findings from this study highlight the importance of modeling the mechanical behavior of asphalt binders based on the overall stress state of the material.

  5. Nonlinear phase interaction between nonstationary signals: a comparison study of methods based on Hilbert-Huang and Fourier transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Men-Tzung; Novak, Vera; Peng, C-K; Liu, Yanhui; Hu, Kun

    2009-06-01

    Phase interactions among signals of physical and physiological systems can provide useful information about the underlying control mechanisms of the systems. Physical and biological recordings are often noisy and exhibit nonstationarities that can affect the estimation of phase interactions. We systematically studied effects of nonstationarities on two phase analyses including (i) the widely used transfer function analysis (TFA) that is based on Fourier decomposition and (ii) the recently proposed multimodal pressure flow (MMPF) analysis that is based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT)-an advanced nonlinear decomposition algorithm. We considered three types of nonstationarities that are often presented in physical and physiological signals: (i) missing segments of data, (ii) linear and step-function trends embedded in data, and (iii) multiple chaotic oscillatory components at different frequencies in data. By generating two coupled oscillatory signals with an assigned phase shift, we quantify the change in the estimated phase shift after imposing artificial nonstationarities into the oscillatory signals. We found that all three types of nonstationarities affect the performances of the Fourier-based and the HHT-based phase analyses, introducing bias and random errors in the estimation of the phase shift between two oscillatory signals. We also provided examples of nonstationarities in real physiological data (cerebral blood flow and blood pressure) and showed how nonstationarities can complicate result interpretation. Furthermore, we propose certain strategies that can be implemented in the TFA and the MMPF methods to reduce the effects of nonstationarities, thus improving the performances of the two methods.

  6. Nonlinear Interaction of Waves in Geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, L. A.

    2009-05-01

    Progress of 1990s - 2000s in studying vibroacoustic nonlinearities in geomaterials is largely related to experiments in resonance samples of rock and soils. It is now a common knowledge that many such materials are very strongly nonlinear, and they are characterized by hysteresis in the dependence between the stress and strain tensors, as well as by nonlinear relaxation ("slow time"). Elastic wave propagation in such media has many peculiarities; for example, third harmonic amplitude is a quadratic (not cubic as in classical solids) function of the main harmonic amplitude, and average wave velocity is linearly (not quadratically as usual) dependent on amplitude. The mechanisms of these peculiarities are related to complex structure of a material typically consisting of two phases: a hard matrix and relatively soft inclusions such as microcracks and grain contacts. Although most informative experimental results have been obtained in rock in the form of resonant bars, few theoretical models are yet available to describe and calculate waves interacting in such samples. In this presentation, a brief overview of structural vibroacoustic nonlinearities in rock is given first. Then, a simple but rather general approach to the description of wave interaction in solid resonators is developed based on accounting for resonance nonlinear perturbations which are cumulating from period to period. In particular, the similarity and the differences between traveling waves and counter-propagating waves are analyzed for materials with different stress-strain dependences. These data can be used for solving an inverse problem, i.e. characterizing nonlinear properties of a geomaterial by its measured vibroacoustic parameters. References: 1. L. Ostrovsky and P. Johnson, Riv. Nuovo Chimento, v. 24, 1-46, 2007 (a review); 2. L. Ostrovsky, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., v. 116, 3348-3353, 2004.

  7. Interactive optomechanical coupling with nonlinear polaritonic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bobrovska, N; Liew, T C H; Kyriienko, O

    2016-01-01

    We study a system of interacting matter quasiparticles strongly coupled to photons inside an optomechanical cavity. The resulting normal modes of the system are represented by hybrid polaritonic quasiparticles, which acquire effective nonlinearity. Its strength is influenced by the presence of the mechanical mode and depends on the resonance frequency of the cavity. This leads to an interactive type of optomechanical coupling, being distinct from the previously studied dispersive and dissipative couplings in optomechanical systems. The emergent interactive coupling is shown to generate effective optical nonlinearity terms of high order, being quartic in the polariton number. We consider particular systems of exciton-polaritons and dipolaritons, and show that the induced effective optical nonlinearity due to the interactive coupling can exceed in magnitude the strength of Kerr nonlinear terms, such as those arising from polariton-polariton interactions. As applications, we show that the higher order terms give...

  8. Nonlinear science an interactive Mathematica notebook

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, David K; Tanury, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    This interactive Mathematica(TM) notebook provides a ready-made tool by which users can undertake their own mathematical experiments and explore the behavior of non-linear systems, from chaos in low-dimensional maps and coupled ordinary differential equations to solitons and coherent structures in nonlinear partial differential equations and "intrisic localized modes" and "discrete breathers" in extended lattice systems.

  9. Simulation of 3D parachute fluid-structure interaction based on nonlinear finite element method and preconditioning finite volume method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yuxin; Xia Jian

    2014-01-01

    A fluid–structure interaction method combining a nonlinear finite element algorithm with a preconditioning finite volume method is proposed in this paper to simulate parachute tran-sient dynamics. This method uses a three-dimensional membrane–cable fabric model to represent a parachute system at a highly folded configuration. The large shape change during parachute infla-tion is computed by the nonlinear Newton–Raphson iteration and the linear system equation is solved by the generalized minimal residual (GMRES) method. A membrane wrinkling algorithm is also utilized to evaluate the special uniaxial tension state of membrane elements on the parachute canopy. In order to avoid large time expenses during structural nonlinear iteration, the implicit Hil-ber–Hughes–Taylor (HHT) time integration method is employed. For the fluid dynamic simula-tions, the Roe and HLLC (Harten–Lax–van Leer contact) scheme has been modified and extended to compute flow problems at all speeds. The lower–upper symmetric Gauss–Seidel (LU-SGS) approximate factorization is applied to accelerate the numerical convergence speed. Finally, the test model of a highly folded C-9 parachute is simulated at a prescribed speed and the results show similar characteristics compared with experimental results and previous literature.

  10. Simulation of 3D parachute fluid–structure interaction based on nonlinear finite element method and preconditioning finite volume method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yuxin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A fluid–structure interaction method combining a nonlinear finite element algorithm with a preconditioning finite volume method is proposed in this paper to simulate parachute transient dynamics. This method uses a three-dimensional membrane–cable fabric model to represent a parachute system at a highly folded configuration. The large shape change during parachute inflation is computed by the nonlinear Newton–Raphson iteration and the linear system equation is solved by the generalized minimal residual (GMRES method. A membrane wrinkling algorithm is also utilized to evaluate the special uniaxial tension state of membrane elements on the parachute canopy. In order to avoid large time expenses during structural nonlinear iteration, the implicit Hilber–Hughes–Taylor (HHT time integration method is employed. For the fluid dynamic simulations, the Roe and HLLC (Harten–Lax–van Leer contact scheme has been modified and extended to compute flow problems at all speeds. The lower–upper symmetric Gauss–Seidel (LU-SGS approximate factorization is applied to accelerate the numerical convergence speed. Finally, the test model of a highly folded C-9 parachute is simulated at a prescribed speed and the results show similar characteristics compared with experimental results and previous literature.

  11. Colloquium: Nonlinear Collective Interactions in Dense Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, P K

    2010-01-01

    The current understanding of some important collective processes in dense quantum plasmas is presented. After reviewing the basic properties of dense quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons, we present model equations (e.g. the quantum hydrodynamic and effective nonlinear Schr\\"odinger-Poisson equations) that describe collective nonlinear phenomena at nanoscales. The effects of the electron degeneracy arise due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle for overlapping electron wave functions that result in a nonlinear quantum electron pressure and tunneling/diffusion of electrons through a nonlinear quantum Bohm potential. Since degenerate electrons have $1/2-$spin due to their Fermionic nature, there also appear a spin electron current and a spin force acting on the electrons due to the Bohr magnetization. The present nonlinear equations do not include strong electron correlations and electron-exchange interactions. The quantum effects caused by the electron degeneracy produce n...

  12. Soil-structure interaction including nonlinear soil

    OpenAIRE

    Gicev, Vlado

    2008-01-01

    There are two types of models of soil-structure system depending upon the rigidity of foundation: models with rigid and models with flexible foundation. Main features of the soil-structure interaction phenomenon: -wave scattering, -radiation damping, -reduction of the system frequencies. In this presentation, the influence of interaction on the development of nonlinear zones in the soil is studied.

  13. Nonlinear wave interactions in quantum magnetoplasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, P K; Marklund, M; Stenflo, L

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear interactions involving electrostatic upper-hybrid (UH), ion-cyclotron (IC), lower-hybrid (LH), and Alfven waves in quantum magnetoplasmas are considered. For this purpose, the quantum hydrodynamical equations are used to derive the governing equations for nonlinearly coupled UH, IC, LH, and Alfven waves. The equations are then Fourier analyzed to obtain nonlinear dispersion relations, which admit both decay and modulational instabilities of the UH waves at quantum scales. The growth rates of the instabilities are presented. They can be useful in applications of our work to diagnostics in laboratory and astrophysical settings.

  14. Nonlinear Light-Matter Interactions in Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kevin Patrick

    Metamaterials possess extraordinary linear optical properties never observed in natural materials such as a negative refractive index, enabling exciting applications such as super resolution imaging and cloaking. In this thesis, we explore the equally extraordinary nonlinear properties of metamaterials. Nonlinear optics, the study of light-matter interactions where the optical fields are strong enough to change material properties, has fundamental importance to physics, chemistry, and material science as a non-destructive probe of material properties and has important technological applications such as entangled photon generation and frequency conversion. Due to their ability to manipulate both linear and nonlinear light matter interactions through sub-wavelength structuring, metamaterials are a promising direction for both fundamental and applied nonlinear optics research. We perform the first experiments on nonlinear propagation in bulk zero and negative index optical metamaterials and demonstrate that a zero index material can phase match four wave mixing processes in ways not possible in finite index materials. In addition, we demonstrate the ability of nonlinear scattering theory to describe the geometry dependence of second and third harmonic generation in plasmonic nanostructures. As an application of nonlinear metamaterials, we propose a phase matching technique called "resonant phase matching" to increase the gain and bandwidth of Josephson junction traveling wave parametric amplifiers. With collaborators, we demonstrate a best in class amplifier for superconducting qubit readout--over 20 dB gain with near quantum limited noise performance with a bandwidth and dynamic range an order of magnitude larger than alternative devices. In conclusion, we have demonstrated several ways in which nonlinear metamaterials surpass their natural counterparts. We look forward to the future of the field where nonlinear and quantum metamaterials will enable further new

  15. A Physics-driven Neural Networks-based Simulation System (PhyNNeSS) for multimodal interactive virtual environments involving nonlinear deformable objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Suvranu; Deo, Dhannanjay; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Arikatla, Venkata S

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND: While an update rate of 30 Hz is considered adequate for real time graphics, a much higher update rate of about 1 kHz is necessary for haptics. Physics-based modeling of deformable objects, especially when large nonlinear deformations and complex nonlinear material properties are involved, at these very high rates is one of the most challenging tasks in the development of real time simulation systems. While some specialized solutions exist, there is no general solution for arbitrary nonlinearities. METHODS: In this work we present PhyNNeSS - a Physics-driven Neural Networks-based Simulation System - to address this long-standing technical challenge. The first step is an off-line pre-computation step in which a database is generated by applying carefully prescribed displacements to each node of the finite element models of the deformable objects. In the next step, the data is condensed into a set of coefficients describing neurons of a Radial Basis Function network (RBFN). During real-time computation, these neural networks are used to reconstruct the deformation fields as well as the interaction forces. RESULTS: We present realistic simulation examples from interactive surgical simulation with real time force feedback. As an example, we have developed a deformable human stomach model and a Penrose-drain model used in the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) training tool box. CONCLUSIONS: A unique computational modeling system has been developed that is capable of simulating the response of nonlinear deformable objects in real time. The method distinguishes itself from previous efforts in that a systematic physics-based pre-computational step allows training of neural networks which may be used in real time simulations. We show, through careful error analysis, that the scheme is scalable, with the accuracy being controlled by the number of neurons used in the simulation. PhyNNeSS has been integrated into SoFMIS (Software Framework for Multimodal

  16. Tunable Resonators for Nonlinear Modal Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah

    2016-10-04

    Understanding the various mechanisms of nonlinear mode coupling in micro and nano resonators has become an imminent necessity for their successful implementation in practical applications. However, consistent, repeatable, and flexible experimental procedures to produce nonlinear mode coupling are lacking, and hence research into well-controlled experimental conditions is crucial. Here, we demonstrate well-controlled and repeatable experiments to study nonlinear mode coupling among micro and nano beam resonators. Such experimental approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures to help study their nonlinear interactions and exploit them for higher sensitive and less noisy responses. Using electrothermal tuning and electrostatic excitation, we demonstrate three different kinds of nonlinear interactions among the first and third bending modes of vibrations of slightly curved beams (arches): two-one internal resonance, three-one internal resonance, and mode veering (near crossing). The experimental procedure is repeatable, highly flexible, do not require special or precise fabrication, and is conducted in air and at room temperature. This approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures, which come naturally curved due to fabrication imperfections, such as CNTs, and hence lays the foundation to deeply investigate the nonlinear mode coupling in these structures in a consistent way.

  17. Tunable Resonators for Nonlinear Modal Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramini, Abdallah H.; Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the various mechanisms of nonlinear mode coupling in micro and nano resonators has become an imminent necessity for their successful implementation in practical applications. However, consistent, repeatable, and flexible experimental procedures to produce nonlinear mode coupling are lacking, and hence research into well-controlled experimental conditions is crucial. Here, we demonstrate well-controlled and repeatable experiments to study nonlinear mode coupling among micro and nano beam resonators. Such experimental approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures to help study their nonlinear interactions and exploit them for higher sensitive and less noisy responses. Using electrothermal tuning and electrostatic excitation, we demonstrate three different kinds of nonlinear interactions among the first and third bending modes of vibrations of slightly curved beams (arches): two-one internal resonance, three-one internal resonance, and mode veering (near crossing). The experimental procedure is repeatable, highly flexible, do not require special or precise fabrication, and is conducted in air and at room temperature. This approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures, which come naturally curved due to fabrication imperfections, such as CNTs, and hence lays the foundation to deeply investigate the nonlinear mode coupling in these structures in a consistent way.

  18. Nonlinear waves in strongly interacting relativistic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Fogaça, D A; Filho, L G Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    During the past decades the study of strongly interacting fluids experienced a tremendous progress. In the relativistic heavy ion accelerators, specially the RHIC and LHC colliders, it became possible to study not only fluids made of hadronic matter but also fluids of quarks and gluons. Part of the physics program of these machines is the observation of waves in this strongly interacting medium. From the theoretical point of view, these waves are often treated with li-nearized hydrodynamics. In this text we review the attempts to go beyond linearization. We show how to use the Reductive Perturbation Method to expand the equations of (ideal and viscous) relativistic hydrodynamics to obtain nonlinear wave equations. These nonlinear wave equations govern the evolution of energy density perturbations (in hot quark gluon plasma) or baryon density perturbations (in cold quark gluon plasma and nuclear matter). Different nonlinear wave equations, such as the breaking wave, Korteweg-de Vries and Burgers equations, are...

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of interacting populations

    CERN Document Server

    Bazykin, Alexander D

    1998-01-01

    This book contains a systematic study of ecological communities of two or three interacting populations. Starting from the Lotka-Volterra system, various regulating factors are considered, such as rates of birth and death, predation and competition. The different factors can have a stabilizing or a destabilizing effect on the community, and their interplay leads to increasingly complicated behavior. Studying and understanding this path to greater dynamical complexity of ecological systems constitutes the backbone of this book. On the mathematical side, the tool of choice is the qualitative the

  20. Nonlinear phase interaction between nonstationary signals: A comparison study of methods based on Hilbert-Huang and Fourier transforms

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Phase interactions among signals of physical and physiological systems can provide useful information about the underlying control mechanisms of the systems. Physical and biological recordings are often noisy and exhibit nonstationarities that can affect the estimation of phase interactions. We systematically studied effects of nonstationarities on two phase analyses including (i) the widely used transfer function analysis (TFA) that is based on Fourier decomposition and (ii) the recently pro...

  1. Nonlinear interactions for massive spin-2 fields

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt-May, Angnis

    2016-01-01

    We give a basic introduction to ghost-free nonlinear theories involving massive spin-2 fields, focussing on bimetric theory. After motivating the construction of such models from field theoretical considerations, we review the linear theories for massive and massless spin-2 fluctuations propagating on maximally symmetric backgrounds. The structure of general nonlinear spin-2 interactions is explained before we specialise to the ghost-free case. We review the maximally symmetric solutions of bimetric theory, its mass spectrum and the parameter limit which brings the theory close to general relativity. Finally we discuss applications of bimetric theory to cosmology with particular emphasis on the role of the general relativity limit.

  2. Non-Linear Dynamics and Fundamental Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Khanna, Faqir

    2006-01-01

    The book is directed to researchers and graduate students pursuing an advanced degree. It provides details of techniques directed towards solving problems in non-linear dynamics and chos that are, in general, not amenable to a perturbative treatment. The consideration of fundamental interactions is a prime example where non-perturbative techniques are needed. Extension of these techniques to finite temperature problems is considered. At present these ideas are primarily used in a perturbative context. However, non-perturbative techniques have been considered in some specific cases. Experts in the field on non-linear dynamics and chaos and fundamental interactions elaborate the techniques and provide a critical look at the present status and explore future directions that may be fruitful. The text of the main talks will be very useful to young graduate students who are starting their studies in these areas.

  3. Non-Linear Interactive Stories in Computer Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø, Olav; Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Kocka, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    The paper introduces non-linear interactive stories (NOLIST) as a means to generate varied and interesting stories for computer games automatically. We give a compact representation of a NOLIST based on the specification of atomic stories, and show how to build an object-oriented Bayesian network...

  4. Nonlinear lepton-photon interactions in external background fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akal, Ibrahim [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2016-02-09

    Nonlinear phenomena of lepton-photon interactions in external backgrounds with a generalised periodic plane-wave geometry are studied. We discuss nonlinear Compton scattering in head-on lepton-photon collisions extended properly to beyond the soft-photon regime. In addition, our results are applied to stimulated lepton-antilepton pair production in photon collisions with unrestricted energies. Derivations are considered semi-classically based on unperturbed fermionic Volkov representations encoding the full interaction with the background field. Closed expressions for total probabilities considering S-matrix elements have been derived. The general formula is applied to Compton scattering by an electron propagating in an external laser-like background. We obtain additive contributions in the extended unconstrained result which turns out to be stringently required in the highly nonlinear regime. A detailed comparison of contributing harmonics is discussed for various field parameters.

  5. Interactions between nonlinear spur gear dynamics and surface wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huali; Kahraman, Ahmet

    2007-11-01

    In this study, two different dynamic models, a finite elements-based deformable-body model and a simplified discrete model, and a surface wear model are combined to study the interaction between gear surface wear and gear dynamic response. The proposed dynamic gear wear model includes the influence of worn surface profiles on dynamic tooth forces and transmission error as well as the influence of dynamic tooth forces on wear profiles. This paper first introduces the nonlinear dynamic models that include gear backlash and time-varying gear mesh stiffness, and a wear model separately. It presents a comparison to experiments for validation of the dynamic models. The dynamic models are combined with the wear model to study the interaction of surface wear and dynamic behavior in both linear and nonlinear response regimes. At the end, several sets of simulation results are used to demonstrate the two-way relationship between nonlinear gear dynamics and surface wear.

  6. Nonlinear Electromagnetic Interactions in Energetic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M A; Moore, D S

    2016-01-01

    We study the scattering of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic energetic materials. Nonlinear light-matter interactions in molecular crystals result in frequency-conversion and polarization changes. Applied electromagnetic fields of moderate intensity can induce these nonlinear effects without triggering chemical decomposition, offering a mechanism for non-ionizing identification of explosives. We use molecular dynamics simulations to compute such two-dimensional Raman spectra in the terahertz range for planar slabs made of PETN and ammonium nitrate. We discuss third-harmonic generation and polarization-conversion processes in such materials. These observed far-field spectral features of the reflected or transmitted light may serve as an alternative tool for stand-off explosive detection.

  7. Nonlinear interactions between gravity waves and tides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao; XU JiYao; MA RuiPing

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we present the nonlinear interactions between gravity waves (GWs) and tides by using the 2D numerical model for the nonlinear propagation of GWs in the compressible atmosphere. During the propagation in the tidal background, GWs become instable in three regions, that is z = 75-85 km, z =90-110 km and z= 115-130 km. The vertical wavelength firstly varies gradually from the initial 12 km to 27 km. Then the newly generated longer waves are gradually compressed. The longer and shorter waves occur in the regions where GWs propagate in the reverse and the same direction of the horizontal mean wind respectively. In addition, GWs can propagate above the main breaking region (90-110 km). During GWs propagation, not only the mean wind is accelerated, but also the amplitude of tide is amplified. Especially, after GWs become instable, this amplified effect to the tidal amplitude is much obvious.

  8. Nonlinear interactions between gravity waves and tides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we present the nonlinear interactions between gravity waves (GWs) and tides by using the 2D numerical model for the nonlinear propagation of GWs in the compressible atmosphere. During the propagation in the tidal background, GWs become instable in three regions, that is z = 75―85 km, z = 90―110 km and z = 115―130 km. The vertical wavelength firstly varies gradually from the initial 12 km to 27 km. Then the newly generated longer waves are gradually compressed. The longer and shorter waves occur in the regions where GWs propagate in the reverse and the same direction of the hori-zontal mean wind respectively. In addition, GWs can propagate above the main breaking region (90—110 km). During GWs propagation, not only the mean wind is accelerated, but also the amplitude of tide is amplified. Especially, after GWs become instable, this amplified effect to the tidal amplitude is much obvious.

  9. Nonlinear wave-wave interactions and wedge waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ray Q.Lin; Will Perrie

    2005-01-01

    A tetrad mechanism for exciting long waves,for example edge waves,is described based on nonlinear resonant wave-wave interactions.In this mechanism,resonant interactions pass energy to an edge wave,from the three participating gravity waves.The estimated action flux into the edge wave can be orders of magnitude greater than the transfer fluxes derived from other competing mechanisms,such as triad interactions.Moreover,the numerical results show that the actual transfer rates into the edge wave from the three participating gravity waves are two-to three- orders of magnitude greater than bottom friction.

  10. Nonlinear shallow ocean-wave soliton interactions on flat beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablowitz, Mark J; Baldwin, Douglas E

    2012-09-01

    Ocean waves are complex and often turbulent. While most ocean-wave interactions are essentially linear, sometimes two or more waves interact in a nonlinear way. For example, two or more waves can interact and yield waves that are much taller than the sum of the original wave heights. Most of these shallow-water nonlinear interactions look like an X or a Y or two connected Ys; at other times, several lines appear on each side of the interaction region. It was thought that such nonlinear interactions are rare events: they are not. Here we report that such nonlinear interactions occur every day, close to low tide, on two flat beaches that are about 2000 km apart. These interactions are closely related to the analytic, soliton solutions of a widely studied multidimensional nonlinear wave equation. On a much larger scale, tsunami waves can merge in similar ways.

  11. Anomalous interaction of nonlocal solitons in media with competing nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B. K.; Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate properties of individual bright spatial solitons and their interaction in nonlocal media with competing focusing and defocusing nonlinearities. We consider the general case with both nonlinear responses characterized by different strengths and degrees of nonlocality. We...... and interaction of solitons using numerical simulations of the full model of beam propagation. The numerical simulations fully confirm our analytical results....

  12. Dark Spatial Soliton Interaction in Nonlinear Kerr Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuchuanWANG; QinliangFAN

    1998-01-01

    The dark spatial soliton interaction in nonlinear Kerr medium has been studied in this paper.The problem has been solved by the use of the slowly varying envelope approximation in solving coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations.The perturbation nature of dark spatial soliton interaction has been described and some of their key properties has been discussed as well in the paper.

  13. Nonlinear optical interactions in silicon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyken, B.; Leo, F.; Clemmen, S.; Dave, U.; Van Laer, R.; Ideguchi, T.; Zhao, H.; Liu, X.; Safioui, J.; Coen, S.; Gorza, S. P.; Selvaraja, S. K.; Massar, S.; Osgood, R. M.; Verheyen, P.; Van Campenhout, J.; Baets, R.; Green, W. M. J.; Roelkens, G.

    2017-03-01

    The strong nonlinear response of silicon photonic nanowire waveguides allows for the integration of nonlinear optical functions on a chip. However, the detrimental nonlinear optical absorption in silicon at telecom wavelengths limits the efficiency of many such experiments. In this review, several approaches are proposed and demonstrated to overcome this fundamental issue. By using the proposed methods, we demonstrate amongst others supercontinuum generation, frequency comb generation, a parametric optical amplifier, and a parametric optical oscillator.

  14. Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard Jensen, J.

    1996-08-01

    This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating uni-directional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analyzed numerically mode of vibration seems to be most effective for high mean fluid speed, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with the same fluid speed but with smaller magnitude of pipe vibrations. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analyzed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement with theoretical predictions. (au) 16 refs.

  15. Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    1997-01-01

    This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating unidirectional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness...... of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analysed numerically and by the use of a perturbation method (multiple scales). Exciting the pipe in the fundamental mode of vibration seems to be most effective for transferring energy from the shaker to the fluid......, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with pipe vibrations of smaller amplitude. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analysed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement...

  16. Femtosecond nonlinear polarization evolution based on cascade quadratic nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Ilday, F O; Beckwitt, K; Wise, F W

    2000-09-15

    We experimentally demonstrate that one can exploit nonlinear phase shifts produced in type I phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation to produce intensity-dependent polarization evolution with 100-fs pulses. An amplitude modulator based on nonlinear polarization rotation provides passive amplitude-modulation depth of up to ~50%. Applications of the amplitude and phase modulations to mode locking of femtosecond bulk and fiber lasers are promising and are discussed.

  17. Stiripentol kinetics in epilepsy: nonlinearity and interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R H; Loiseau, P; Guyot, M; Blehaut, H M; Tor, J; Moreland, T A

    1984-11-01

    Stiripentol kinetics during oral therapy were assessed in six patients with epilepsy who were receiving other antiepileptic drugs. Steady-state levels at 600, 1200, and 2400 mg/day increased in a nonlinear fashion, indicating Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Oral clearance of stiripentol at 600 mg/day was 41.5 +/- 23.4 l/day/kg (mean +/- SD), greater than that at 1200 mg/day (20.3 +/- 8.8 l/day/kg; P less than 0.05) or 2400 mg/day (8.5 +/- 3.8 l/day/kg; P less than 0.01). The apparent in vivo Michaelis-Menten parameters were determined from three mean steady-state concentrations. The average velocity of conversion of stiripentol to its metabolites (Vm), Michaelis constant (Km), and the ratio Vm/Km were 49.3 +/- 13.1 mg/day/kg, 1.35 +/- 1.08 mg/l, and 50.2 +/- 27.5 l/day/kg. Stiripentol reduced the elimination clearances of concomitant antiepileptic drugs. Phenytoin clearance was reduced in all five subjects who received this drug, from a mean control of 29.5 +/- 13.4 l/day to 18.5 +/- 4.6 l/day at a stiripentol dose of 1200 mg/day (P = 0.05) and to 6.48 +/- 2.59 l/day at 2400 mg/day (P less than 0.01). Stiripentol reduced the clearance of carbamazepine in one subject from a control value of 209 l/day to 128 l/day (1200 mg/day) and 61 l/day (2400 mg/day). Stiripentol reduced phenobarbital clearance in two subjects from 3.8 and 5.1 l/day to 2.3 and 3.4 l/day (2400 mg/day). The Michaelis-Menten kinetics of stiripentol, as well as its interactions with other antiepileptic drugs, have important implications in the designing of controlled clinical trials.

  18. High-order finite difference solution for 3D nonlinear wave-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter;

    2010-01-01

    This contribution presents our recent progress on developing an efficient fully-nonlinear potential flow model for simulating 3D wave-wave and wave-structure interaction over arbitrary depths (i.e. in coastal and offshore environment). The model is based on a high-order finite difference scheme...... OceanWave3D presented in [1, 2]. A nonlinear decomposition of the solution into incident and scattered fields is used to increase the efficiency of the wave-structure interaction problem resolution. Application of the method to the diffraction of nonlinear waves around a fixed, bottom mounted circular...

  19. Nonlinear interaction of meta-atoms through optical coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slobozhanyuk, A. P.; Kapitanova, P. V.; Filonov, D. S.; Belov, P. A. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO), St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Powell, D. A. [Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Shadrivov, I. V.; Kivshar, Yu. S. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO), St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Lapine, M., E-mail: mlapine@physics.usyd.edu.au [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO), St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Centre for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); McPhedran, R. C. [Centre for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2014-01-06

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a multi-frequency nonlinear coupling mechanism between split-ring resonators. We engineer the coupling between two microwave resonators through optical interaction, whilst suppressing the direct electromagnetic coupling. This allows for a power-dependent interaction between the otherwise independent resonators, opening interesting opportunities to address applications in signal processing, filtering, directional coupling, and electromagnetic compatibility.

  20. Seismic base isolation by nonlinear mode localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [University of Illinois, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Urbana, IL (United States); Washington University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, St. Louis, MO (United States); McFarland, D.M. [University of Illinois, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Urbana, IL (United States); Vakakis, A.F. [National Technical University of Athens, Division of Mechanics (Greece); Bergman, L.A. [University of Illinois, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, the performance of a nonlinear base-isolation system, comprised of a nonlinearly sprung subfoundation tuned in a 1:1 internal resonance to a flexible mode of the linear primary structure to be isolated, is examined. The application of nonlinear localization to seismic isolation distinguishes this study from other base-isolation studies in the literature. Under the condition of third-order smooth stiffness nonlinearity, it is shown that a localized nonlinear normal mode (NNM) is induced in the system, which confines energy to the subfoundation and away from the primary or main structure. This is followed by a numerical analysis wherein the smooth nonlinearity is replaced by clearance nonlinearity, and the system is excited by ground motions representing near-field seismic events. The performance of the nonlinear system is compared with that of the corresponding linear system through simulation, and the sensitivity of the isolation system to several design parameters is analyzed. These simulations confirm the existence of the localized NNM, and show that the introduction of simple clearance nonlinearity significantly reduces the seismic energy transmitted to the main structure, resulting in significant attenuation in the response. (orig.)

  1. Inference of a nonlinear stochastic model of the cardiorespiratory interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Smelyanskiy, V N; Stefanovska, A; McClintock, P V E

    2005-01-01

    A new technique is introduced to reconstruct a nonlinear stochastic model of the cardiorespiratory interaction. Its inferential framework uses a set of polynomial basis functions representing the nonlinear force governing the system oscillations. The strength and direction of coupling, and the noise intensity are simultaneously inferred from a univariate blood pressure signal, monitored in a clinical environment. The technique does not require extensive global optimization and it is applicable to a wide range of complex dynamical systems subject to noise.

  2. The Nonlinear Interaction Process in the Wave Assimilation Model and Its Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永增; 纪永刚; 袁业立

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a composite interaction formula based on the discrete-interactionoperator of wave-wave nonlinear interaction for deriving its adjoint source function in the wave assimilation model. Assimilation experiments were performed using the significant wave heights observed by the TOPES/POSEIDON satellite, and the gradient distribution in the physical space wasalso analyzed preliminarily.

  3. Kinetic equation for nonlinear resonant wave-particle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Neishtadt, A. I.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Mourenas, D.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the nonlinear resonant wave-particle interactions including the effects of particle (phase) trapping, detrapping, and scattering by high-amplitude coherent waves. After deriving the relationship between probability of trapping and velocity of particle drift induced by nonlinear scattering (phase bunching), we substitute this relation and other characteristic equations of wave-particle interaction into a kinetic equation for the particle distribution function. The final equation has the form of a Fokker-Planck equation with peculiar advection and collision terms. This equation fully describes the evolution of particle momentum distribution due to particle diffusion, nonlinear drift, and fast transport in phase-space via trapping. Solutions of the obtained kinetic equation are compared with results of test particle simulations.

  4. Entanglement swapping and teleportation based on cavity QED method using the nonlinear atom-field interaction: Cavities with a hybrid of coherent and number states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakniat, R.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Zandi, M. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we outline a scheme for entanglement swapping based on the concept of cavity QED. The atom-field entangled state in our study is produced in the nonlinear regime. In this scheme, the exploited cavities are prepared in a hybrid entangled state (a combination of coherent and number states) and the swapping process is investigated using two different methods, i.e., detecting and Bell-state measurement methods through the cavity QED. Then, we make use of the atom-field entangled state obtained by detecting method to show that how the atom-atom entanglement as well as atomic and field states teleportation can be achieved with complete fidelity.

  5. Nonlinear PI Control with Adaptive Interaction Algorithm for Multivariable Wastewater Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Samsudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater treatment plant (WWTP is highly known with the nonlinearity of the control parameters, thus it is difficult to be controlled. In this paper, the enhancement of nonlinear PI controller (ENon-PI to compensate the nonlinearity of the activated sludge WWTP is proposed. The ENon-PI controller is designed by cascading a sector-bounded nonlinear gain to linear PI controller. The rate variation of the nonlinear gain kn is automatically updated based on adaptive interaction algorithm. Initiative to simplify the ENon-PI control structure by adapting kn has been proved by significant improvement under various dynamic influents. More than 30% of integral square error and 14% of integral absolute error are reduced compared to benchmark PI for DO control and nitrate in nitrogen removal control. Better average effluent qualities, less number of effluent violations, and lower aeration energy consumption resulted.

  6. Nonlinear interaction of waves in boundary-layer flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Bozatli, A. N.

    1979-01-01

    First-order nonlinear interactions of Tollmien-Schlichting waves of different frequencies and initial amplitudes in boundary-layer flows are analyzed by using the method of multiple scales. For the case of two waves, a strong nonlinear interaction exists if one of the frequencies w2 is twice the other frequency w1. Numerical results for flow past a flat plate show that this interaction mechanism is strongly destabilizing even in regions where either the fundamental or its harmonic is damped in the absence of the interaction. For the case of three waves, a strong nonlinear interaction exists when w3 = w2- w1. This combination resonance causes the amplitude of the wave with the difference frequency w3 to multiply many times in magnitude in a short distance even if it is damped in the absence of the interaction. The initial amplitudes play a dominant role in determining the changes in the amplitudes of the waves in both of these mechanisms.

  7. An explicit MOT-TDVIE scheme for analyzing electromagnetic field interactions on nonlinear scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2015-02-01

    An explicit marching on-in-time (MOT) based time domain electric field volume integral equation (TDVIE) solver for characterizing electromagnetic wave interactions on scatterers with nonlinear material properties is proposed. Discretization of the unknown electric field intensity and flux density is carried out by half and full Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson basis functions, respectively. Coupled system of spatially discretized TDVIE and the nonlinear constitutive relation between the field intensity and the flux density is integrated in time to compute the samples of the unknowns. An explicit PE(CE)m scheme is used for this purpose. Explicitness allows for \\'easy\\' incorporation of the nonlinearity as a function only to be evaluated on the right hand side of the coupled system of equations. A numerical example that demonstrates the applicability of the proposed MOT scheme to analyzing electromagnetic interactions on Kerr-nonlinear scatterers is presented. © 2015 IEEE.

  8. Nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic field with quantum plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Latyshev, A V

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of nonlinear interaction of transversal electromagnetic field with quantum collisionless plasma is carried out. Formulas for calculation electric current in quantum collisionless plasma at any temperature are deduced. It has appeared, that the nonlinearity account leads to occurrence of the longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. This second current is orthogonal to the known transversal classical current, received at the classical linear analysis. The case of degenerate electronic plasma is considered. It is shown, that for degenerate plasmas the electric current is calculated under the formula, not containing quadratures.

  9. Nonlinear interaction of two waves in boundary-layer flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Bozatli, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    First-order nonlinear interactions of Tollmien-Schlichting waves of different frequencies and initial amplitudes in boundary-layer flows are analyzed using the method of multiple scales. Numerical results for flow past a flat plate show that the spatial detuning wipes out resonant interactions unless the initial amplitudes are very large. Thus, a wave having a moderate amplitude has little influence on its subharmonic although it has a strong influence on its second harmonic. Moreover, two waves having moderate amplitudes have a strong influence on their difference frequency. The results show that the difference frequency can be very unstable when generated by the nonlinear interaction, even though it may be stable when introduced by itself in the boundary layer.

  10. Nonlinear interactions isolated through scale synthesis in experimental wall turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Subrahmanyam; McKeon, Beverley

    2016-07-01

    An experimental investigation of nonlinear scale interactions in a forced turbulent boundary layer is presented here. A dynamic wall perturbation mechanism was used to externally force two distinct large-scale synthetic modes with well-defined spatial and temporal wave numbers in a fully turbulent flow. The focus is on characterizing the nonlinear flow response at triadically consistent wave numbers that arises from the direct interactions of the two synthetic modes. These experimental results isolate triadic scale interactions in wall turbulence in a unique fashion, and provide the ability to explore the dynamics of scale coupling in a systematic and detailed manner. The ideas advanced here are intended to contribute towards modeling efforts of high-Reynolds-number wall turbulence.

  11. Generalized Ghost Dark Energy with Non-Linear Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrahimi, E; Mehrabi, A; Movahed, S M S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate ghost dark energy model in the presence of non-linear interaction between dark energy and dark matter. The functional form of dark energy density in the generalized ghost dark energy (GGDE) model is $\\rho_D\\equiv f(H, H^2)$ with coefficient of $H^2$ represented by $\\zeta$ and the model contains three free parameters as $\\Omega_D, \\zeta$ and $b^2$ (the coupling coefficient of interactions). We propose three kinds of non-linear interaction terms and discuss the behavior of equation of state, deceleration and dark energy density parameters of the model. We also find the squared sound speed and search for signs of stability of the model. To compare the interacting GGDE model with observational data sets, we use more recent observational outcomes, namely SNIa, gamma-ray bursts, baryonic acoustic oscillation and the most relevant CMB parameters including, the position of acoustic peaks, shift parameters and redshift to recombination. For GGDE with the first non-linear interaction, the j...

  12. Photonics linear and nonlinear interactions of laser light and matter

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, R

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the fundamental properties and the description of single photons and light beams, experimentally and theoretically. It explains the essentials of linear interactions and most nonlinear interactions between light and matter in both the transparent and absorbing cases. It also provides a basic understanding of modern quantum optics and lasers, as well as the principles of nonlinear optical spectroscopy. It is self-consistent and enriched by a large number of calculated illustrations, examples, and descriptive tables. Graduate students in physics and electrical engineering, as well as other sciences, will find this book a thorough introduction to the field, while for lecturers and scientists it is a rich source of useful information and a ready-to-hand reference. The new edition has been thoroughly expanded and revised in all sections

  13. Impact of nonlinear effective interactions on GFT quantum gravity condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Pithis, Andreas G A; Tomov, Petar

    2016-01-01

    We present the numerical analysis of effectively interacting Group Field Theory (GFT) models in the context of the GFT quantum gravity condensate analogue of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for real Bose-Einstein condensates including combinatorially local interaction terms. Thus we go beyond the usually considered construction for free models. More precisely, considering such interactions in a weak regime, we find solutions for which the expectation value of the number operator N is finite, as in the free case. When tuning the interaction to the strongly nonlinear regime, however, we obtain solutions for which N grows and eventually blows up, which is reminiscent of what one observes for real Bose-Einstein condensates, where a strong interaction regime can only be realized at high density. This behaviour suggests the breakdown of the Bogoliubov ansatz for quantum gravity condensates and the need for non-Fock representations to describe the system when the condensate constituents are strongly correlated. Furthe...

  14. Interaction-induced effects in the nonlinear coherent response of quantum-well excitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Schätz, A.; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner;

    1999-01-01

    Interaction-induced processes are studied using the third-order nonlinear polarization created in polarization-dependent four-wave-mixing experiments (FWM) on a ZnSe single quantum well. We discuss their influence by a comparison of the experimental FWM with calculations based on extended optical...

  15. Nonlinear Interaction of Transversal Modes in a CO2 Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Ruiz, Ricardo; Mindlin, G. B.; Perez-Garcia, C.; Tredicce, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    We show the possibility of achieving experimentally a Takens-Bogdanov bifurcation for the nonlinear interaction of two transverse modes ($l = \\pm 1$) in a $CO_2$ laser. The system has a basic O(2) symmetry which is perturbed by some symmetry-breaking effects that still preserve the $Z_2$ symmetry. The pattern dynamics near this codimension two bifurcation under such symmetries is described. This dynamics changes drastically when the laser properties are modified.

  16. Nonlinear oscillations in coriolis based gyroscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Kristiansen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we model and analyze nonlinear oscillations which are known to exist in some Coriolis based gyroscopes due to large amplitude excitation in the drive loop. A detailed derivation of a dynamic model for a cylinder gyroscope which includes geometric nonlinearities is given, and energy transfer between the system's modes are analyzed using perturbation theory and by proposing a simplified model. The model is also simulated, and the results are shown to give an accurate description of the experimental results. This work is done in order to gain a better understanding of the gyroscope's dynamics, and is intended to be a starting point for designing nonlinear observers and vibration controllers for the gyroscope in order to increase the performance.

  17. Nonlinear effects in the torsional adjustment of interacting DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornyshev, A. A.; Wynveen, A.

    2004-04-01

    DNA molecules in solution, having negatively charged phosphates and countercations readsorbed on its surface, possess a distinct charge separation motif to interact electrostatically. If their double-helical structure were ideal, duplexes in parallel juxtaposition could choose azimuthal alignment providing attraction, or at least a reduction of repulsion, between them. But duplexes are not perfect staircases and the distortions of their helical structure correlate with their base pair texts. If the patterns of distortions on the opposing molecules are uncorrelated, the mismatch will accumulate as a random walk and attraction vanishes. Based on this idea, a model of recognition of homologous sequences has been proposed [A. A. Kornyshev and S. Leikin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3666 (2001)]. But DNA has torsional elasticity. How will this help to relax a mismatch between the charge distributions on two nonhomologous DNA’s? In the same work, the solution of this problem has been mapped onto a frustrated sine Gordon equation in a nonlocal random field (where the latter represents a pattern of twist angle distortions on the opposing molecules), but the results had been obtained in the limit of torsionally rigid molecules. In the present paper, by solving this equation numerically, we find a strongly nonlinear relaxation mechanism which utilizes static kink-soliton modes triggered by the “random field.” In the range of parameters where the solitons do not emerge, we find good agreement with the results of a variational study [A. G. Cherstvy, A. A. Kornyshev, and S. Leikin, J. Phys. Chem. B (to be published)]. We reproduce the first-order transitions in the interaxial separation dependence, but detect also second-order or weak first-order transitions for shorter duplexes. The recognition energy between two nonhomologous DNA sequences is calculated as a function of interaxial separation and the length of juxtaposition. The soliton-caused kinky length dependence is

  18. Nonlinear effects in the torsional adjustment of interacting DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornyshev, A A; Wynveen, A

    2004-04-01

    DNA molecules in solution, having negatively charged phosphates and countercations readsorbed on its surface, possess a distinct charge separation motif to interact electrostatically. If their double-helical structure were ideal, duplexes in parallel juxtaposition could choose azimuthal alignment providing attraction, or at least a reduction of repulsion, between them. But duplexes are not perfect staircases and the distortions of their helical structure correlate with their base pair texts. If the patterns of distortions on the opposing molecules are uncorrelated, the mismatch will accumulate as a random walk and attraction vanishes. Based on this idea, a model of recognition of homologous sequences has been proposed [A. A. Kornyshev and S. Leikin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3666 (2001)]. But DNA has torsional elasticity. How will this help to relax a mismatch between the charge distributions on two nonhomologous DNA's? In the same work, the solution of this problem has been mapped onto a frustrated sine Gordon equation in a nonlocal random field (where the latter represents a pattern of twist angle distortions on the opposing molecules), but the results had been obtained in the limit of torsionally rigid molecules. In the present paper, by solving this equation numerically, we find a strongly nonlinear relaxation mechanism which utilizes static kink-soliton modes triggered by the "random field." In the range of parameters where the solitons do not emerge, we find good agreement with the results of a variational study [A. G. Cherstvy, A. A. Kornyshev, and S. Leikin, J. Phys. Chem. B (to be published)]. We reproduce the first-order transitions in the interaxial separation dependence, but detect also second-order or weak first-order transitions for shorter duplexes. The recognition energy between two nonhomologous DNA sequences is calculated as a function of interaxial separation and the length of juxtaposition. The soliton-caused kinky length dependence is discussed in

  19. Nonlinear processes in the strong wave-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegoraro, Francesco; Califano, Francesco; Attico, Nicola; Bulanov, Sergei

    2000-10-01

    Nonlinear interactions in hot laboratory and/or astrophysical plasmas are a very efficient mechanism able to transfer the energy from the large to the small spatial scales of the system. As a result, kinetic processes are excited and play a key role in the plasma dynamics since the typical fluid dissipative length scales (where the nonlinear cascade is stopped) are (much) smaller then the kinetic length scales. Then, the key point is the role of the kinetic effects in the global plasma dynamics, i.e. whether the kinetic effects remains confined to the small scales of the system or whether there is a significant feedback on the large scales. Here we will address this problem by discussing the nonlinear kinetic evolution of the electromagnetic beam plasma instability where phase space vortices, as well as large scale vortex like magnetic structures in the physical space, are generated by wave - particle interactions. The role and influence of kinetic effects on the large scale plasma dynamics will be also discussed by addressing the problem of collisionless magnetic reconection.

  20. Modal interactions in primary and subharmonic resonant dynamics of imperfect microplates with geometric nonlinearities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamed Farokhi; Mergen H Ghayesh

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the modal interactions in the nonlinear, size-dependent dynamics of geometrically imper-fect microplates. Based on the modified couple stress theory, the equations of motion for the in-plane and out-of-plane motions are obtained employing the von Kármán plate theory as well as Kirchhoff ’s hypotheses by means of the Lagrange equations. The equations of motions are solved using the pseudo-arclength continuation technique and direct time-integration method. The system parameters are tuned to the values associated with modal interactions, and then non-linear resonant responses and energy transfer are analysed. Nonlinear motion characteristics are shown in the form of frequency-response and force-response curves, time histo-ries, phase-plane portraits, and fast Fourier transforms.

  1. Nonlinear transient and chaotic interactions in disc brake squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-04-01

    In automotive disc-brake squeal, most numerical studies have been focussed on the prediction of unstable vibration modes in the frequency domain using the complex eigenvalue analysis. However, the magnitude of the positive real part of a complex eigenvalue is an unreliable indicator of squeal occurrence. Although nonlinearities have been shown to play a significant role in brake squeal, transient nonlinear time domain analyses have rarely been applied owing to high computational costs. Here the complex eigenvalue analysis, the direct steady-state analysis and the transient nonlinear time domain analysis are applied to an isotropic pad-on-disc finite element model representing a simple model of a brake system. While in this investigation, in-plane pad-mode instabilities are not detected by the complex eigenvalue analysis, the dissipated energy obtained by the direct steady-state analysis of the model subjected to harmonic contact pressure excitation is negative at frequencies of pad modes, indicating a potential for instabilities. Transient nonlinear time domain analysis of the pad and disc dynamics reveal that in-plane pad vibrations excite a dominant out-of-plane disc mode. For intermittently chaotic pad motion, the disc dynamics is quasi-periodic; and for chaotic motion of the pad, a toroidal attractor is found for the disc's out-of-plane motion. Nonlinear interactions between the pad and the disc highlight that different parts in a brake system display different dynamic behaviour and need to be analysed separately. The type II intermittency route to chaos could be the cause for the experimentally observed instantaneous mode squeal.

  2. Immersion and Invariance Based Nonlinear Adaptive Flight Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveldt, L.; Van Oort, E.R.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a theoretical framework for nonlinear adaptive flight control is developed and applied to a simplified, over-actuated nonlinear fighter aircraft model. The framework is based on a modular adaptive backstepping scheme with a new type of nonlinear estimator. The nonlinear estimator is co

  3. Nonlinear interaction of axisymmetric circulation and nonaxisymmetric disturbances in hurricanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO; Zhexian

    2004-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction of axisymmetric circulation and nonaxisymmetric disturbances in hurricanes is numerically studied with a quasigeostrophic barotropic model of a higher resolution. It is pointed out that the interaction may be divided into two categories. In the first category, nonaxisymmetric disturbances decay, the coordinate locus of maximum relative vorticity ζmax is seemingly unordered, and the central pressure of hurricane rises; while in the second one, nonaxisymmetric disturbances develop, the locus of ζmax shows an ordered limit cycle pattern, and the central pressure falls remarkably. A succinct criterion is given to judge which category the interaction belongs to, i.e. the vortex beta Rossby number at the initial time Rβ 1 to the developing one. Finally, practical applications of theoretical results of the rotational adaptation process presented by Zeng and numerical results in this paper to the hurricane intensity prediction in China are also discussed.

  4. Modeling of fatigue crack induced nonlinear ultrasonics using a highly parallelized explicit local interaction simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a parallelized modeling technique for the efficient simulation of nonlinear ultrasonics introduced by the wave interaction with fatigue cracks. The elastodynamic wave equations with contact effects are formulated using an explicit Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA). The LISA formulation is extended to capture the contact-impact phenomena during the wave damage interaction based on the penalty method. A Coulomb friction model is integrated into the computation procedure to capture the stick-slip contact shear motion. The LISA procedure is coded using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which enables the highly parallelized supercomputing on powerful graphic cards. Both the explicit contact formulation and the parallel feature facilitates LISA's superb computational efficiency over the conventional finite element method (FEM). The theoretical formulations based on the penalty method is introduced and a guideline for the proper choice of the contact stiffness is given. The convergence behavior of the solution under various contact stiffness values is examined. A numerical benchmark problem is used to investigate the new LISA formulation and results are compared with a conventional contact finite element solution. Various nonlinear ultrasonic phenomena are successfully captured using this contact LISA formulation, including the generation of nonlinear higher harmonic responses. Nonlinear mode conversion of guided waves at fatigue cracks is also studied.

  5. Seismic response analysis of a nuclear reactor structure considering nonlinear soil-structure interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaumik, Lopamudra, E-mail: lbhaumi2@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Raychowdhury, Prishati, E-mail: prishati@iitk.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Seismic response analysis of an internal shearwall of a reactor is done. • Incremental dynamic analysis is performed with 30 recorded ground motions. • Equivalent viscous damping increases up to twice when nonlinear SSI is considered. • Roof drift demand increases up to 25% upon consideration of foundation nonlinearity. • Base shear, base moment and ductility reduce up to 62%, 40%, and 35%, respectively. - Abstract: This study focuses on the seismic response analysis of an internal shearwall of a typical Indian reactor resting on a medium dense sandy silty soil, incorporating the nonlinear behavior of the soil-foundation interface. The modeling is done in an open-source finite element framework, OpenSees, where the soil-structure interaction (SSI) is modeled using a Beam-on-Nonlinear-Winkler-Foundation (BNWF) approach. Static pushover analysis and cyclic analysis are performed followed by an incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) with 30 recorded ground motions. For performing IDA, the spectral acceleration of each motion corresponding to the fundamental period, S{sub a}(T{sub 1})is incremented from 0.1 g to 1.0 g with an increment step of 0.1 g. It is observed from the cyclic analysis that the equivalent viscous damping of the system increases upto twice upon incorporation of inelastic SSI. The IDA results demonstrate that the average peak base shear, base moment and displacement ductility demand reduces as much as 62%, 40%, and 35%, respectively, whereas the roof drift demand increases up to 25% upon consideration of foundation nonlinearity for the highest intensity motion. These observations indicate the need of critical consideration of nonlinear soil-structure interaction as any deficient modeling of the same may lead to an inaccurate estimation of the seismic demands of the structure.

  6. LINEAR AND NONLINEAR AERODYNAMIC THEORY OF INTERACTION BETWEEN FLEXIBLE LONG STRUCTURE AND WIND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐旭; 曹志远

    2001-01-01

    In light of the characteristics of the interactions between flexible structure and wind in three directions, and based on the rational mechanical section-model of structure, a new aerodynamic force model is accepted, i. e. the coefficients of three component forces are the functions of the instantaneous attack angle and rotational speed Ci = Ci(β(t),θ),(i = D, L, M). So, a new method to formulate the linear and nonlinear aerodynamic items of wind and structure interacting has been put forward in accordance with "strip theory"and modified "quasi-static theory ", and then the linear and nonlinear coupled theory of super-slender structure for civil engineering analyzing are converged in one model. For the linear aerodynamic-force parts, the semi-analytical expressions of the items so-called "flutter derivatives" corresponding to the one in the classic equations have been given here,and so have the nonlinear parts. The study of the stability of nonlinear aerodynamic-coupled torsional vibration of the old Tacoma bridge shows that the form and results of the nonlinear control equation in rotational direction are in agreement with that of V. F. Bohm's.

  7. Vision-based interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In its early years, the field of computer vision was largely motivated by researchers seeking computational models of biological vision and solutions to practical problems in manufacturing, defense, and medicine. For the past two decades or so, there has been an increasing interest in computer vision as an input modality in the context of human-computer interaction. Such vision-based interaction can endow interactive systems with visual capabilities similar to those important to human-human interaction, in order to perceive non-verbal cues and incorporate this information in applications such

  8. Cluster-based control of nonlinear dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, Eurika; Spohn, Andreas; Cattafesta, Louis N; Morzynski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The ability to manipulate and control fluid flows is of great importance in many scientific and engineering applications. Here, a cluster-based control framework is proposed to determine optimal control laws with respect to a cost function for unsteady flows. The proposed methodology frames high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamics into low-dimensional, probabilistic, linear dynamics which considerably simplifies the optimal control problem while preserving nonlinear actuation mechanisms. The data-driven approach builds upon a state space discretization using a clustering algorithm which groups kinematically similar flow states into a low number of clusters. The temporal evolution of the probability distribution on this set of clusters is then described by a Markov model. The Markov model can be used as predictor for the ergodic probability distribution for a particular control law. This probability distribution approximates the long-term behavior of the original system on which basis the optimal control law is de...

  9. Hollow Gaussian beam generation through nonlinear interaction of photons with orbital-angular-momemtum

    CERN Document Server

    Chaitanya, N Apurv; Banerji, J; Samanta, G K

    2016-01-01

    Hollow Gaussian beams (HGB) are a special class of doughnut shaped beams that do not carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Such beams have a wide range of applications in many fields including atomic optics, bio-photonics, atmospheric science, and plasma physics. Till date, these beams have been generated using linear optical elements. Here, we show a new way of generating HGBs by three-wave mixing in a nonlinear crystal. Based on nonlinear interaction of photons having OAM and conservation of OAM in nonlinear processes, we experimentally generated ultrafast HGBs of order as high as 6 and power >180 mW at 355 nm. This generic concept can be extended to any wavelength, timescales (continuous-wave and ultrafast) and any orders. We show that the removal of azimuthal phase of vortices does not produce Gaussian beam. We also propose a new and only method to characterize the order of the HGBs.

  10. Hollow Gaussian beam generation through nonlinear interaction of photons with orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Jabir, M. V.; Banerji, J.; Samanta, G. K.

    2016-09-01

    Hollow Gaussian beams (HGB) are a special class of doughnut shaped beams that do not carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Such beams have a wide range of applications in many fields including atomic optics, bio-photonics, atmospheric science, and plasma physics. Till date, these beams have been generated using linear optical elements. Here, we show a new way of generating HGBs by three-wave mixing in a nonlinear crystal. Based on nonlinear interaction of photons having OAM and conservation of OAM in nonlinear processes, we experimentally generated ultrafast HGBs of order as high as 6 and power >180 mW at 355 nm. This generic concept can be extended to any wavelength, timescales (continuous-wave and ultrafast) and any orders. We show that the removal of azimuthal phase of vortices does not produce Gaussian beam. We also propose a new and only method to characterize the order of the HGBs.

  11. A look to nonlinear interacting Ghost dark energy cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshudyan, Martiros

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we organize a look to nonlinear interacting Ghost dark energy cosmology involving a discussion on the thermodynamics of the Ghost dark energy, when the universe is bounded via the Hubble horizon. One of the ways to study a dark energy model, is to reconstruct thermodynamics of it. Ghost dark energy is one of the models of the dark energy which has an explicitly given energy density as a function of the Hubble parameter. There is an active discussion towards various cosmological scenarios, where the Ghost dark energy interacts with the pressureless cold dark matter (CDM). Recently, various models of the varying Ghost dark energy has been suggested, too. To have a comprehensive understanding of suggested models, we will discuss behavior of the cosmological parameters on parameter-redshift z plane. Some discussion on Om and statefinder hierarchy analysis of these models is presented. Moreover, up to our knowledge, suggested forms of interaction between the Ghost dark energy and cold dark matter (CDM) are new, therefore, within obtained results, we provide new contribution to previously discussed models available in the literature. Our study demonstrates that the forms of the interactions considered in the Ghost dark energy cosmology are not exotic and the justification of this is due to the recent observational data.

  12. Study on Frozen Soil Pile Interaction Model Based on Dynamic Beam on Nonlinear Winkler Foundation Method%基于动力 BNWF 法的冻土-桩相互作用模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永波; 张鸿儒

    2015-01-01

    Permafrost is distributed widely in our country.Although pile foundation is the main foundation form for large bridges in frozen zones,few studies have been conducted regarding the dynamic characteristics of pile foundation construction in permafrost.An improved nonlinear ana-lytical model for frozen soil-pile dynamic interaction was developed on the basis of model test results of the dynamic characteristics of pile foundations in various subzero temperature soils under lateral dynamic loads and an analytical model of pile-soil-structure interaction with the dynamic beam on nonlinear Winkler foundation model.This improved analytical model simulates the nonlinear lateral pressure effect of the frozen soil around the pile with an improved bidirec-tional compression-only multi-yield spring.Vertical friction effects between the frozen soil and pile,extrusion and separation effects of frozen soil under pile tips,and damping effects of the far-field soil on the dynamic characteristics of pile foundations are also considered in this analytical model.The parameters of the bidirectional tensionless multi-section yield spring are determined by the nonlinear p-y relationship of frozen soil.The p-y relationship whose parameters were based on the results of the indoor frozen soil compression test was simulated by the combination of a cubic function and a constant function.Displacement-force response of the pile head and pile shaft responses to bending moments at different depths under dynamic forces were very similar to the model test results.Results indicate that the improved analytical model is potentially helpful during the analysis of frozen soil-pile dynamic interactions.%基于水平循环荷载作用下不同负温冻土环境中单桩动力特性模型试验结果,在已有分析桩-土-结构相互作用的动力 BNWF 模型的基础上,提出改进的冻土-桩基动力相互作用非线性反应分析模型。在该模型中,利用改进的双向无拉力多

  13. A nonlinear regression model-based predictive control algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubay, R; Abu-Ayyad, M; Hernandez, J M

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a unique approach for designing a nonlinear regression model-based predictive controller (NRPC) for single-input-single-output (SISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) processes that are common in industrial applications. The innovation of this strategy is that the controller structure allows nonlinear open-loop modeling to be conducted while closed-loop control is executed every sampling instant. Consequently, the system matrix is regenerated every sampling instant using a continuous function providing a more accurate prediction of the plant. Computer simulations are carried out on nonlinear plants, demonstrating that the new approach is easily implemented and provides tight control. Also, the proposed algorithm is implemented on two real time SISO applications; a DC motor, a plastic injection molding machine and a nonlinear MIMO thermal system comprising three temperature zones to be controlled with interacting effects. The experimental closed-loop responses of the proposed algorithm were compared to a multi-model dynamic matrix controller (MPC) with improved results for various set point trajectories. Good disturbance rejection was attained, resulting in improved tracking of multi-set point profiles in comparison to multi-model MPC.

  14. Axial Non-linear Dynamic Soil-Pile Interaction - Keynote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holeyman A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This keynote lecture describes recent analytical and numerical advances in the modeling of the axial nonlinear dynamic interaction between a single pile and its embedding soil. On one hand, analytical solutions are developed for assessing the nonlinear axial dynamic response of the shaft of a pile subjected to dynamic loads, and in particular to vibratory loads. Radial inhomogeneity arising from shear modulus degradation is evaluated over a range of parameters and compared with those obtained by other authors and by a numerical radial discrete model simulating the pile and soil movements from integration of the laws of motion. New approximate non linear solutions for axial pile shaft behaviour developed from general elastodynamic equations are presented and compared to existing linear solutions. The soil non linear behaviour and its ability to dissipate mechanical energy upon cyclic loading are shown to have a significant influence on the mechanical impedance provided by the surrounding soil against pile shaft movement. The limitations of over-simplified modelling of pile response are highlighted.

  15. Unity through nonlinearity: a unimodal coral-nutrient interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    The magnitude and direction of biological effects of environmental disturbances can vary considerably, especially among studies that use presence/absence manipulations. Because nonlinearities (e.g., humped relationships) are common in biological systems, this heterogeneity in effects may arise if systems are similar in their responses but specific studies use few (e.g., two) levels, or a narrow range, of a factor. To test whether nonlinearity can explain heterogeneous responses to a common environmental disturbance, I examined the effect of nutrient enrichment on coral growth, which has been previously shown using simple (e.g., two-level) manipulations to yield positive, negative, or neutral responses. I subjected corals (Porites) to a nutrient gradient in situ for 28 days. Coral growth rate increased (2.4-fold) then decreased (2.7-fold) with enrichment, returning to near-ambient values at the highest nutrient levels. This unimodal response could explain disparities among past findings and provides a compelling case for using regression designs to understand heterogeneity within ecological interactions.

  16. Structure-based control of complex networks with nonlinear dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zañudo, Jorge G T; Albert, Réka

    2016-01-01

    Given the network of interactions underlying a complex system, what can we learn about controlling such a system solely from its structure? Over a century of research in control theory has given us tools to answer this question, which were widely applied in science and engineering. Yet the current tools do not always consider the inherently nonlinear dynamics of real systems and the naturally occurring system states in their definition of "control", a term whose interpretation varies across disciplines. Here we use a new mathematical framework for structure-based control of networks governed by a broad class of nonlinear dynamics that includes the major dynamic models of biological, technological, and social processes. This framework provides realizable node overrides that steer a system towards any of its natural long term dynamic behaviors and which are guaranteed to be effective regardless of the dynamic details and parameters of the underlying system. We use this framework on several real networks, compar...

  17. On a class of nonlinear dispersive-dissipative interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenau, P. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Mathematical Sciences

    1997-07-29

    The authors study the prototypical, genuinely nonlinear, equation; u{sub t} + a(u{sup m}){sub x} + (u{sup n}){sub xxx} = {mu}(u{sup k}){sub xx}, a, {mu} = consts., which encompasses a wide variety of dissipative-dispersive interactions. The parametric surface k = (m + n)/2 separates diffusion dominated from dissipation dominated phenomena. On this surface dissipative and dispersive effects are in detailed balance for all amplitudes. In particular, the m = n + 2 = k + 1 subclass can be transformed into a form free of convection and dissipation making it accessible to theoretical studies. Both bounded and unbounded oscillations are found and certain exact solutions are presented. When a = (2{mu}3/){sup 2} the map yields a linear equation; rational, periodic and aperiodic solutions are constructed.

  18. Probabilistic approach to nonlinear wave-particle resonant interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Neishtadt, A. I.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Mourenas, D.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we provide a theoretical model describing the evolution of the charged-particle distribution function in a system with nonlinear wave-particle interactions. Considering a system with strong electrostatic waves propagating in an inhomogeneous magnetic field, we demonstrate that individual particle motion can be characterized by the probability of trapping into the resonance with the wave and by the efficiency of scattering at resonance. These characteristics, being derived for a particular plasma system, can be used to construct a kinetic equation (or generalized Fokker-Planck equation) modeling the long-term evolution of the particle distribution. In this equation, effects of charged-particle trapping and transport in phase space are simulated with a nonlocal operator. We demonstrate that solutions of the derived kinetic equations agree with results of test-particle tracing. The applicability of the proposed approach for the description of space and laboratory plasma systems is also discussed.

  19. Nonlinear laser-plasma interaction in magnetized liner inertial fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissel, Matthias; Awe, T. J.; Bliss, D. E.; Campbell, M. E.; Gomez, M. R.; Harding, E.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Hansen, S. B.; Jennings, C.; Kimmel, M. W.; Knapp, P.; Lewis, S. M.; McBride, R. D.; Peterson, K.; Schollmeier, M.; Scoglietti, D. J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Shores, J. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Smith, I. C.; Speas, C. S.; Vesey, R. A.; Porter, J. L.

    2016-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing a variation of Magneto-Inertial Fusion called Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion, or MagLIF. The MagLIF approach requires magnetization of the deuterium fuel, which is accomplished by an initial external B-Field and laser-driven pre-heat. While magnetization is crucial to the concept, it is challenging to couple sufficient energy to the fuel, since laser-plasma instabilities exist, and a compromise between laser spot size, laser entrance window thickness, and fuel density must be found. Nonlinear processes in laser plasma interaction, or laser-plasma instabilities (LPI), complicate the deposition of laser energy by enhanced absorption, backscatter, filamentation and beam-spray. Key LPI processes are determined, and mitigation methods are discussed. Results with and without improvement measures are presented.

  20. Nonlinear dynamic susceptibilities of interacting and noninteracting magnetic nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Joensson, P; García-Palacios, J L; Svedlindh, P

    2000-01-01

    The linear and cubic dynamic susceptibilities of solid dispersions of nanosized maghemite gamma-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 particles have been measured for three samples with a volume concentration of magnetic particles ranging from 0.3% to 17%, in order to study the effect of dipole-dipole interactions. Significant differences between the dynamic response of the samples are observed. While the linear and cubic dynamic susceptibilities of the most dilute sample compare reasonably well with the corresponding expressions proposed by Raikher and Stepanov for noninteracting particles, the nonlinear dynamic response of the most concentrated sample exhibits at low temperatures similar features as observed in a Ag(11 at% Mn) spin glass.

  1. New holographic dark energy model with non-linear interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveros, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the cosmological evolution of a holographic dark energy model with a non-linear interaction between the dark energy and dark matter components in a FRW type flat universe is analysed. In this context, the deceleration parameter $q$ and the equation state $w_{\\Lambda}$ are obtained. We found that, as the square of the speed of sound remains positive, the model is stable under perturbations since early times; it also shows that the evolution of the matter and dark energy densities are of the same order for a long period of time, avoiding the so--called coincidence problem. We have also made the correspondence of the model with the dark energy densities and pressures for the quintessence and tachyon fields. From this correspondence we have reconstructed the potential of scalar fields and their dynamics.

  2. Flight Dynamic Simulation with Nonlinear Aeroelastic Interaction using the ROM-ROM Procedure Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc. proposes to develop an integrated flight dynamics simulation capability with nonlinear aeroelastic interactions by combining a flight dynamics...

  3. Flight Dynamic Simulation with Nonlinear Aeroelastic Interaction using the ROM-ROM Procedure Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc. (ZONA) proposes to develop an integrated flight dynamics simulation capability with nonlinear aeroelastic interactions by combining a flight...

  4. Pitch glide effect induced by a nonlinear string-barrier interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartofelev, Dmitri; Stulov, Anatoli; Välimäki, Vesa

    2015-10-01

    Interactions of a vibrating string with its supports and other spatially distributed barriers play a significant role in the physics of many stringed musical instruments. It is well known that the tone of the string vibrations is determined by the string supports, and that the boundary conditions of the string termination may cause a short-lasting initial fundamental frequency shifting. Generally, this phenomenon is associated with the nonlinear modulation of the stiff string tension. The aim of this paper is to study the initial frequency glide phenomenon that is induced only by the string-barrier interaction, apart from other possible physical causes, and without the interfering effects of dissipation and dispersion. From a numerical simulation perspective, this highly nonlinear problem may present various difficulties, not the least of which is the risk of numerical instability. We propose a numerically stable and a purely kinematic model of the string-barrier interaction, which is based on the travelling wave solution of the ideal string vibration. The model is capable of reproducing the motion of the vibrating string exhibiting the initial fundamental frequency glide, which is caused solely by the complex nonlinear interaction of the string with its termination. The results presented in this paper can expand our knowledge and understanding of the timbre evolution and the physical principles of sound generation of numerous stringed instruments, such as lutes called the tambura, sitar and biwa.

  5. NONLINEAR DATA RECONCILIATION METHOD BASED ON KERNEL PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In the industrial process situation, principal component analysis (PCA) is a general method in data reconciliation.However, PCA sometime is unfeasible to nonlinear feature analysis and limited in application to nonlinear industrial process.Kernel PCA (KPCA) is extension of PCA and can be used for nonlinear feature analysis.A nonlinear data reconciliation method based on KPCA is proposed.The basic idea of this method is that firstly original data are mapped to high dimensional feature space by nonlinear function, and PCA is implemented in the feature space.Then nonlinear feature analysis is implemented and data are reconstructed by using the kernel.The data reconciliation method based on KPCA is applied to ternary distillation column.Simulation results show that this method can filter the noise in measurements of nonlinear process and reconciliated data can represent the true information of nonlinear process.

  6. Harmonic Propagation and Interaction Evaluation between Small-Scale Wind Farms and Nonlinear Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Xiong Mao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation is a flexible and effective way to utilize renewable energy. The dispersed generators are quite close to the load, and pose some power quality problems such as harmonic current emissions. This paper focuses on the harmonic propagation and interaction between a small-scale wind farm and nonlinear loads in the distribution grid. Firstly, by setting the wind turbines as P – Q(V nodes, the paper discusses the expanding Newton-Raphson power flow method for the wind farm. Then the generalized gamma mixture models are proposed to study the non-characteristic harmonic propagation of the wind farm, which are based on Gaussian mixture models, improved phasor clustering and generalized Gamma models. After the integration of the small-scale wind farm, harmonic emissions of nonlinear loads will become random and fluctuating due to the non-stationary wind power. Furthermore, in this paper the harmonic coupled admittance matrix model of nonlinear loads combined with a wind farm is deduced by rigorous formulas. Then the harmonic propagation and interaction between a real wind farm and nonlinear loads are analyzed by the harmonic coupled admittance matrix and generalized gamma mixture models. Finally, the proposed models and methods are verified through the corresponding simulation models in MATLAB/SIMULINK and PSCAD/EMTDC.

  7. Nonlinear Process Fault Diagnosis Based on Serial Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaogang; Tian, Xuemin; Chen, Sheng; Harris, Chris J

    2016-12-22

    Many industrial processes contain both linear and nonlinear parts, and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), widely used in nonlinear process monitoring, may not offer the most effective means for dealing with these nonlinear processes. This paper proposes a new hybrid linear-nonlinear statistical modeling approach for nonlinear process monitoring by closely integrating linear principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear KPCA using a serial model structure, which we refer to as serial PCA (SPCA). Specifically, PCA is first applied to extract PCs as linear features, and to decompose the data into the PC subspace and residual subspace (RS). Then, KPCA is performed in the RS to extract the nonlinear PCs as nonlinear features. Two monitoring statistics are constructed for fault detection, based on both the linear and nonlinear features extracted by the proposed SPCA. To effectively perform fault identification after a fault is detected, an SPCA similarity factor method is built for fault recognition, which fuses both the linear and nonlinear features. Unlike PCA and KPCA, the proposed method takes into account both linear and nonlinear PCs simultaneously, and therefore, it can better exploit the underlying process's structure to enhance fault diagnosis performance. Two case studies involving a simulated nonlinear process and the benchmark Tennessee Eastman process demonstrate that the proposed SPCA approach is more effective than the existing state-of-the-art approach based on KPCA alone, in terms of nonlinear process fault detection and identification.

  8. Nonlinear neutrino-photon interactions inside strong laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Meuren, Sebastian; Di Piazza, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Even though neutrinos are neutral particles and interact only via the exchange of weak gauge bosons, charged leptons and quarks can mediate a coupling to the photon field beyond tree level. Inside a relativistically strong laser field nonlinear effects in the laser amplitude can play an important role, as electrons and positrons interact nonperturbatively with the coherent part of the photon field. Here, we calculate for the first time the leading-order contribution to the axial-vector--vector current-coupling tensor inside an arbitrary plane-wave laser field (which is taken into account exactly by employing the Furry picture). The current-coupling tensor appears in the calculation of various electroweak processes inside strong laser fields like photon emission or trident electron-positron pair production by a neutrino. Moreover, as we will see below, the axial-vector--vector current-coupling tensor contains the Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly. This occurrence renders the current-coupling tensor also interest...

  9. Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves with the auroral ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alfred Y.

    1999-09-01

    The ionosphere provides us with an opportunity to perform plasma experiments in an environment with long confinement times, very large-scale lengths, and no confining walls. The auroral ionosphere with its nearly vertical magnetic field geometry is uniquely endowed with large amount of free energy from electron and ion precipitation along the magnetic field and mega-ampere current across the magnetic field. To take advantage of this giant outdoor laboratory, two facilities HAARP and HIPAS, with frequencies ranging from the radio to optical bands, are now available for active probing of and interaction with this interesting region. The ponderomotive pressures from the self-consistent wave fields have produced significant local perturbations of density and particle distributions at heights where the incident EM frequency matches a plasma resonance. This paper will review theory and experiments covering the nonlinear phenomena of parametric decay instability to wave collapse processes. At HF frequencies plasma lenses can be created by preconditioning pulses to focus what is a normally divergent beam into a high-intensity spot to further enhance nonlinear phenomena. At optical wavelengths a large rotating liquid metal mirror is used to focus laser pulses up to a given height. Such laser pulses are tuned to the same wavelengths of selected atomic and molecular resonances, with resulting large scattering cross sections. Ongoing experiments on dual-site experiments and excitation of ELF waves will be presented. The connection of such basic studies to environmental applications will be discussed. Such applications include the global communication using ELF waves, the ozone depletion and remediation and the control of atmospheric CO2 through the use of ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  10. Analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on nonlinear scatterers using time domain volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2014-07-06

    Effects of material nonlinearities on electromagnetic field interactions become dominant as field amplitudes increase. A typical example is observed in plasmonics, where highly localized fields “activate” Kerr nonlinearities. Naturally, time domain solvers are the method of choice when it comes simulating these nonlinear effects. Oftentimes, finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used for this purpose. This is simply due to the fact that explicitness of the FDTD renders the implementation easier and the material nonlinearity can be easily accounted for using an auxiliary differential equation (J.H. Green and A. Taflove, Opt. Express, 14(18), 8305-8310, 2006). On the other hand, explicit marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers have never been used for the same purpose even though they offer several advantages over FDTD (E. Michielssen, et al., ECCOMAS CFD, The Netherlands, Sep. 5-8, 2006). This is because explicit MOT solvers have never been stabilized until not so long ago. Recently an explicit but stable MOT scheme has been proposed for solving the time domain surface magnetic field integral equation (H.A. Ulku, et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 61(8), 4120-4131, 2013) and later it has been extended for the time domain volume electric field integral equation (TDVEFIE) (S. B. Sayed, et al., Pr. Electromagn. Res. S., 378, Stockholm, 2013). This explicit MOT scheme uses predictor-corrector updates together with successive over relaxation during time marching to stabilize the solution even when time step is as large as in the implicit counterpart. In this work, an explicit MOT-TDVEFIE solver is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic wave interactions on scatterers exhibiting Kerr nonlinearity. Nonlinearity is accounted for using the constitutive relation between the electric field intensity and flux density. Then, this relation and the TDVEFIE are discretized together by expanding the intensity and flux - sing half

  11. Nonvolatile Memory Based on Nonlinear Magnetoelectric Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianxin; Cong, Junzhuang; Chai, Yisheng; Shang, Dashan; Shen, Shipeng; Zhai, Kun; Tian, Ying; Sun, Young

    2016-08-01

    The magnetoelectric effects in multiferroics have a great potential in creating next-generation memory devices. We use an alternative concept of nonvolatile memory based, on a type of nonlinear magnetoelectric effects showing a butterfly-shaped hysteresis loop. The principle is to utilize the states of the magnetoelectric coefficient, instead of magnetization, electric polarization, or resistance, to store binary information. Our experiments in a device made of the PMN-PT/Terfenol-D multiferroic heterostructure clearly demonstrate that the sign of the magnetoelectric coefficient can be repeatedly switched between positive and negative by applying electric fields, confirming the feasibility of this principle. This kind of nonvolatile memory has outstanding practical virtues such as simple structure, easy operation in writing and reading, low power, fast speed, and diverse materials available.

  12. Simulations of Energetic Particles Interacting with Nonlinear Anisotropic Dynamical Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Heusen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate test-particle diffusion in dynamical turbulence based on a numerical approach presented before. For the turbulence we employ the nonlinear anisotropic dynamical turbulence model which takes into account wave propagation effects as well as damping effects. We compute numerically diffusion coefficients of energetic particles along and across the mean magnetic field. We focus on turbulence and particle parameters which should be relevant for the solar system and compare our findings with different interplanetary observations. We vary different parameters such as the dissipation range spectral index, the ratio of the turbulence bendover scales, and the magnetic field strength in order to explore the relevance of the different parameters. We show that the bendover scales as well as the magnetic field ratio have a strong influence on diffusion coefficients whereas the influence of the dissipation range spectral index is weak. The best agreement with solar wind observations can be found for equal bend...

  13. Mean Field Limit of Interacting Filaments and Vector Valued Non-linear PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessaih, Hakima; Coghi, Michele; Flandoli, Franco

    2017-03-01

    Families of N interacting curves are considered, with long range, mean field type, interaction. They generalize models based on classical interacting point particles to models based on curves. In this new set-up, a mean field result is proven, as N→ ∞. The limit PDE is vector valued and, in the limit, each curve interacts with a mean field solution of the PDE. This target is reached by a careful formulation of curves and weak solutions of the PDE which makes use of 1-currents and their topologies. The main results are based on the analysis of a nonlinear Lagrangian-type flow equation. Most of the results are deterministic; as a by-product, when the initial conditions are given by families of independent random curves, we prove a propagation of chaos result. The results are local in time for general interaction kernel, global in time under some additional restriction. Our main motivation is the approximation of 3D-inviscid flow dynamics by the interacting dynamics of a large number of vortex filaments, as observed in certain turbulent fluids; in this respect, the present paper is restricted to smoothed interaction kernels, instead of the true Biot-Savart kernel.

  14. Nonlinear Wave-Currents interactions in shallow water

    CERN Document Server

    Lannes, David

    2015-01-01

    We study here the propagation of long waves in the presence of vorticity. In the irrotational framework, the Green-Naghdi equations (also called Serre or fully nonlinear Boussinesq equations) are the standard model for the propagation of such waves. These equations couple the surface elevation to the vertically averaged horizontal velocity and are therefore independent of the vertical variable. In the presence of vorticity, the dependence on the vertical variable cannot be removed from the vorticity equation but it was however shown in [?] that the motion of the waves could be described using an extended Green-Naghdi system. In this paper we propose an analysis of these equations, and show that they can be used to get some new insight into wave-current interactions. We show in particular that solitary waves may have a drastically different behavior in the presence of vorticity and show the existence of solitary waves of maximal amplitude with a peak at their crest, whose angle depends on the vorticity. We als...

  15. Optical polarization based logic functions (XOR or XNOR) with nonlinear Gallium nitride nanoslab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, F A; Larciprete, M C; Giardina, M; Belardini, A; Centini, M; Sibilia, C; Bertolotti, M; Passaseo, A; Tasco, V

    2009-10-26

    We present a scheme of XOR/XNOR logic gate, based on non phase-matched noncollinear second harmonic generation from a medium of suitable crystalline symmetry, Gallium nitride. The polarization of the noncollinear generated beam is a function of the polarization of both pump beams, thus we experimentally investigated all possible polarization combinations, evidencing that only some of them are allowed and that the nonlinear interaction of optical signals behaves as a polarization based XOR. The experimental results show the peculiarity of the nonlinear optical response associated with noncollinear excitation, and are explained using the expression for the effective second order optical nonlinearity in noncollinear scheme.

  16. DG-FEM solution for nonlinear wave-structure interaction using Boussinesq-type equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Hesthaven, Jan; Bingham, Harry B.

    2008-01-01

    equations in complex and curvilinear geometries which amends the application range of previous numerical models that have been based on structured Cartesian grids. The Boussinesq method provides the basis for the accurate description of fully nonlinear and dispersive water waves in both shallow and deep...... considerations combined with a mirror principle, it is possible to impose weak slip boundary conditions for both structured and general curvilinear wall boundaries while maintaining the accuracy of the scheme. As is standard for current high-order Boussinesq-type models, arbitrary waves can be generated...... waters within the breaking limit. To demonstrate the current applicability of the model both linear and mildly nonlinear test cases are considered in two horizontal dimensions where the water waves interact with bottom-mounted fully reflecting structures. It is established that, by simple symmetry...

  17. Nonlinear signal-based control with an error feedback action for nonlinear substructuring control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokida, Ryuta; Kajiwara, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    A nonlinear signal-based control (NSBC) method utilises the 'nonlinear signal' that is obtained from the outputs of a controlled system and its linear model under the same input signal. Although this method has been examined in numerical simulations of nonlinear systems, its application in physical experiments has not been studied. In this paper, we study an application of NSBC in physical experiments and incorporate an error feedback action into the method to minimise the error and enhance the feasibility in practice. Focusing on NSBC in substructure testing methods, we propose nonlinear substructuring control (NLSC), that is a more general form of linear substructuring control (LSC) developed for dynamical substructured systems. In this study, we experimentally and numerically verified the proposed NLSC via substructuring tests on a rubber bearing used in base-isolated structures. In the examinations, NLSC succeeded in gaining accurate results despite significant nonlinear hysteresis and unknown parameters in the substructures. The nonlinear signal feedback action in NLSC was found to be notably effective in minimising the error caused by nonlinearity or unknown properties in the controlled system. In addition, the error feedback action in NLSC was found to be essential for maintaining stability. A stability analysis based on the Nyquist criterion, which is used particularly for linear systems, was also found to be efficient for predicting the instability conditions of substructuring tests with NLSC and useful for the error feedback controller design.

  18. Fast and Chaotic Fiber-Based Nonlinear Polarization Scrambler

    CERN Document Server

    Guasoni, M; Gilles, M; Picozzi, A; Fatome, J

    2015-01-01

    We report a simple and efficient all-optical polarization scrambler based on the nonlinear interaction in an optical fiber between a signal beam and its backward replica which is generated and amplified by a reflective loop. When the amplification factor exceeds a certain threshold, the system exhibits a chaotic regime in which the evolution of the output polarization state of the signal becomes temporally chaotic and scrambled all over the surface of the Poincar\\'e sphere. We derive some analytical estimations for the scrambling performances of our device which are well confirmed by the experimental results. The polarization scrambler has been successfully tested on a single channel 10-Gbit/s On/Off Keying Telecom signal, reaching scrambling speeds up to 250-krad/s, as well as in a wavelength division multiplexing configuration. A different configuration based on a sequent cascade of polarization scramblers is also discussed numerically, which leads to an increase of the scrambling performances.

  19. An SQP Algorithm for Recourse-based Stochastic Nonlinear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinshun Ma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The stochastic nonlinear programming problem with completed recourse and nonlinear constraints is studied in this paper. We present a sequential quadratic programming method for solving the problem based on the certainty extended nonlinear model. This algorithm is obtained by combing the active set method and filter method. The convergence of the method is established under some standard assumptions. Moreover, a practical design is presented and numerical results are provided.

  20. Cable dynamics under non-ideal support excitations: Nonlinear dynamic interactions and asymptotic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tieding; Kang, Houjun; Wang, Lianhua; Zhao, Yueyu

    2016-12-01

    Cable dynamics under ideal longitudinal support motions/excitations assumes that the support's mass, stiffness and mechanical energy are infinite. However, for many long/slender support structures, their finite mass and stiffness should be taken into account and the cable-support dynamic interactions should be modelled and evaluated. These moving supports are non-ideal support excitations, deserving a proper coupling analysis. For systems with a large support/cable mass ratio, using the multiple scale method and asymptotic approximations, a cable-support coupled reduced model, with both cable's geometric nonlinearity and cable-support coupling nonlinearity included, is established asymptotically and validated numerically in this paper. Based upon the reduced model, cable's nonlinear responses under non-ideal support excitations(and also the coupled responses) are found, with stability and bifurcation characteristics determined. By finding the modifications caused by the support/cable mass ratio, boundary damping, and internal detuning, full investigations into coupling-induced dynamic effects on the cable are conducted. Finally, the approximate analytical results based on the reduced model are verified by numerical results from the original full model.

  1. A NUMERICAL METHOD FOR SIMULATING NONLINEAR FLUID-RIGID STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XingJ.T; PriceW.G; ChenY.G

    2005-01-01

    A numerical method for simulating nonlinear fluid-rigid structure interaction problems is developed. The structure is assumed to undergo large rigid body motions and the fluid flow is governed by nonlinear, viscous or non-viscous, field equations with nonlinear boundary conditions applied to the free surface and fluid-solid interaction interfaces. An Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) mesh system is used to construct the numerical model. A multi-block numerical scheme of study is adopted allowing for the relative motion between moving overset grids, which are independent of one another. This provides a convenient method to overcome the difficulties in matching fluid meshes with large solid motions. Nonlinear numerical equations describing nonlinear fluid-solid interaction dynamics are derived through a numerical discretization scheme of study. A coupling iteration process is used to solve these numerical equations. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate applications of the model developed.

  2. Nonlinear properties of the lattice network-based nonlinear CRLH transmission lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正斌; 吴昭质; 高超

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear properties of lattice network-based (LNB) composite right-/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH TLs) with nonlinear capacitors are experimentally investigated. Harmonic generation, subharmonic generation, and parametric excitation are clearly observed in an unbalanced LNB CRLH TL separately. While the balanced design of the novel nonlinear TL shows that the subharmonic generation and parametric processes can be suppressed, and almost the same power level of the higher harmonics can be achieved over a wide bandwidth range, which are difficult to find in the conventional CRLH TLs.

  3. Beach steepness effects on nonlinear infragravity-wave interactions : A numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, A. T M; Tissier, M. F S; Ruessink, B. G.

    2016-01-01

    The numerical model SWASH is used to investigate nonlinear energy transfers between waves for a diverse set of beach profiles and wave conditions, with a specific focus on infragravity waves. We use bispectral analysis to study the nonlinear triad interactions, and estimate energy transfers to deter

  4. Nonlinear infragravity–wave interactions on a gently sloping laboratory beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bakker, A.T.M.; Herbers, T.H.C.; Smit, P.B.; Tissier, M.F.S.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2015-01-01

    A high-resolution dataset of three irregular wave conditions collected on a gently sloping laboratory beach is analyzed to study nonlinear energy transfers involving infragravity frequencies. This study uses bispectral analysis to identify the dominant, nonlinear interactions and estimate energy tra

  5. Nonlinear infragravity-wave interactions on a gently sloping laboratory beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, A. T M; Herbers, T. H C; Smit, P. B.; Tissier, M. F S; Ruessink, B. G.

    2015-01-01

    A high-resolution dataset of three irregular wave conditions collected on a gently sloping laboratory beach is analyzed to study nonlinear energy transfers involving infragravity frequencies. This study uses bispectral analysis to identify the dominant, nonlinear interactions and estimate energy tra

  6. Optical limiter based on two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabbas, Amirouche; Lazoul, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The aim behind this work is to investigate the capabilities of nonlinear photonic crystals to achieve ultra-fast optical limiters based on third order nonlinear effects. The purpose is to combine the actions of nonlinear effects with the properties of photonic crystals in order to activate the photonic band according to the magnitude of the nonlinear effects, themselves a function of incident laser power. We are interested in designing an optical limiter based nonlinear photonic crystal operating around 1064 nm and its second harmonic at 532 nm. Indeed, a very powerful solid-state laser that can blind or destroy optical sensors and is widely available and easy to handle. In this work, we perform design and optimization by numerical simulations to determine the better structure for the nonlinear photonic crystal to achieve compact and efficient integrated optical limiter. The approach consists to analyze the band structures in Kerr-nonlinear two-dimensional photonic crystals as a function of the optical intensity. We confirm that these bands are dynamically red-shifted with regard to the bands observed in linear photonic crystals or in the case of weak nonlinear effects. The implemented approach will help to understand such phenomena as intensitydriven optical limiting with Kerr-nonlinear photonic crystals.

  7. Nonlinear interaction of instability waves and vortex-pairing noise in axisymmetric subsonic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-Hua; Zhou, Lin; Zhang, Xing-Chen; Wan, Zhen-Hua; Sun, De-Jun

    2016-10-01

    A direct simulation with selected inflow forcing is performed for an accurate description of the jet flow field and far-field noise. The effects of the Mach number and heating on the acoustic field are studied in detail. The beam patterns and acoustic intensities are both varied as the change of the Mach number and temperature. The decomposition of the source terms of the Lilley-Goldstein (L-G) equation shows that the momentum and thermodynamic components lead to distinctly different beam patterns. Significant cancellation is found between the momentum and thermodynamic components at low polar angles for the isothermal jet and large polar angles for the hot jet. The cancellation leads to the minimum values of the far-field sound. Based on linear parabolized stability equation solutions, the nonlinear interaction model for sound prediction is built in combination with the L-G equation. The dominant beam patterns and their original locations predicted by the nonlinear model are in good agreement with the direct simulation results, and the predictions of sound pressure level (SPL) by the nonlinear model are relatively reasonable.

  8. Possible second-order nonlinear interactions of plane waves in an elastic solid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korneev, V.A.; Demcenko, A.

    2014-01-01

    There exist ten possible nonlinear elastic wave interactions for an isotropic solid described by three constants of the third order. All other possible interactions out of 54 combinations (triplets) of interacting and resulting waves are prohibited, because of restrictions of various kinds. The cons

  9. Online Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Nonlinear Spectral Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Rui-xuan; WU Li-xun; WANG Yong-chang; HAN Chong-zhao

    2005-01-01

    The fault diagnosis based on nonlinear spectral analysis is a new technique for the nonlinear fault diagnosis, but its online application could be limited because of the enormous compution requirements for the estimation of general frequency response functions. Based on the fully decoupled Volterra identification algorithm, a new online fault diagnosis method based on nonlinear spectral analysis is presented, which can availably reduce the online compution requirements of general frequency response functions. The composition and working principle of the method are described, the test experiments have been done for damping spring of a vehicle suspension system by utilizing the new method, and the results indicate that the method is efficient.

  10. Two-dimensional simulations of nonlinear beam-plasma interaction in isotropic and magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Timofeev, I V

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear interaction of a low density electron beam with a uniform plasma is studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We focus on formation of coherent phase space structures in the case, when a wide two-dimensional wave spectrum is driven unstable, and we also study how nonlinear evolution of these structures is affected by the external magnetic field. In the case of isotropic plasma, nonlinear buildup of filamentation modes due to the combined effects of two-stream and oblique instabilities is found to exist and growth mechanisms of secondary instabilities destroying the BGK--type nonlinear wave are identified. In the weak magnetic field, the energy of beam-excited plasma waves at the nonlinear stage of beam-plasma interaction goes predominantly to the short-wavelength upper-hybrid waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field, whereas in the strong magnetic field the spectral energy is transferred to the electrostatic whistlers with oblique propagation.

  11. Nonlinear phenomena in wave-body interaction: description and theoretical modeling; Les effets non-lineaires en interaction houle-structure et leur modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molin, B. [Ecole Generaliste d' Ingenieurs de Marseille, 13 (France)

    2006-03-15

    At first approximation, the study of wave interaction with fixed or floating bodies is carried out within a linear frame. However nonlinear effects are numerous and they have diverse origins: mechanical nonlinearities, variation in time of the wetted part of the hull, viscous phenomena (flow separation), nonlinear free surface equations. We focus here on the latter type of nonlinearities. Two different approaches are described, both being based on potential flow theory. Practical applications are given for two basic geometries: a vertical cylinder and a vertical plate, perpendicular to the wave direction. In the first approach, one proceeds through successive approximations, based on a perturbation series development. The first-order of approximation coincides with the linear theory. The main interest of the second-order of approximation, well mastered nowadays, is that it yields excitation loads in an enlarged frequency domain, encompassing most of the natural frequencies of the system considered. At third-order the complexity of the equations becomes dissuasive and few researchers have ventured there. We suggest that third-order (or tertiary) interactions, between incoming waves and reflected waves by the structure, can play a very important role, overlooked so far, in phenomena such as run-up or green water. In the second approach one integrates in time and space the nonlinear equations of the initial boundary value problem, with the free surface equations being exactly satisfied. In this way one obtains numerical equivalents of the physical wave-tanks. They are briefly described and some illustrative results are given. (authors)

  12. Nonlinear Zeno dynamics due to atomic interactions in Bose–Einstein condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, V.G.; Shchesnovich, V.S., E-mail: valery@ufabc.edu.br

    2014-12-01

    We show that nonlinear interactions induce both the Zeno and anti-Zeno effects in the generalized Bose–Josephson model (with the on-site interactions and the second-order tunneling) describing Bose–Einstein condensate in double-well trap subject to particle removal from one of the wells. We find that the on-site interactions induce only the Zeno effect, which appears at long evolution times, whereas the second-order tunneling leads to a strong decay of the atomic population at short evolution times, reminiscent of the anti-Zeno effect, and destroys the nonlinear Zeno effect due to the on-site interactions at long times.

  13. Wavelet neural network based fault diagnosis in nonlinear analog circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Shirong; Chen Guangju; Xie Yongle

    2006-01-01

    The theories of diagnosing nonlinear analog circuits by means of the transient response testing are studied. Wavelet analysis is made to extract the transient response signature of nonlinear circuits and compress the signature dada. The best wavelet function is selected based on the between-category total scatter of signature. The fault dictionary of nonlinear circuits is constructed based on improved back-propagation(BP) neural network. Experimental results demonstrate that the method proposed has high diagnostic sensitivity and fast fault identification and deducibility.

  14. Nonlinear fault diagnosis method based on kernel principal component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Weiwu; Zhang Chunkai; Shao Huihe

    2005-01-01

    To ensure the system run under working order, detection and diagnosis of faults play an important role in industrial process. This paper proposed a nonlinear fault diagnosis method based on kernel principal component analysis (KPCA). In proposed method, using essential information of nonlinear system extracted by KPCA, we constructed KPCA model of nonlinear system under normal working condition. Then new data were projected onto the KPCA model. When new data are incompatible with the KPCA model, it can be concluded that the nonlinear system isout of normal working condition. Proposed method was applied to fault diagnosison rolling bearings. Simulation results show proposed method provides an effective method for fault detection and diagnosis of nonlinear system.

  15. Theoretical and Experimental Study on the Acoustic Wave Energy After the Nonlinear Interaction of Acoustic Waves in Aqueous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰朝凤; 李凤臣; 陈欢; 卢迪; 杨德森; 张梦

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Burgers equation and Manley-Rowe equation, the derivation about nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves has been done in this paper. After nonlinear interaction among the low-frequency weak waves and the pump wave, the analytical solutions of acoustic waves’ amplitude in the field are deduced. The relationship between normalized energy of high-frequency and the change of acoustic energy before and after the nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves is analyzed. The experimental results about the changes of the acoustic energy are presented. The study shows that new frequencies are generated and the energies of the low-frequency are modulated in a long term by the pump waves, which leads the energies of the low-frequency acoustic waves to change in the pulse trend in the process of the nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves. The increase and decrease of the energies of the low-frequency are observed under certain typical conditions, which lays a foundation for practical engineering applications.

  16. Non-Linearly Interacting Ghost Dark Energy in Brans-Dicke Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrahimi, E

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we extend the form of interaction term into the non-linear regime in the ghost dark energy model. A general form of non-linear interaction term is presented and cosmic dynamic equations are obtained. Next, the model is detailed for two special choice of the non-linear interaction term. According to this the universe transits at suitable time ($z\\sim 0.8$) from deceleration to acceleration phase which alleviate the coincidence problem. Squared sound speed analysis revealed that for one class of non-linear interaction term $v_s^2$ can gets positive. This point is an impact of the non-linear interaction term and we never find such behavior in non interacting and linearly interacting ghost dark energy models. Also statefinder parameters are introduced for this model and we found that for one class the model meets the $\\Lambda CDM$ while in the second choice although the model approaches the $\\Lambda CDM$ but never touch that.

  17. Face Recognition Based on Nonlinear Feature Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimad E.A. Abusham

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction techniques are widely used to reduce the complexity high dimensional data. Nonlinear feature extraction via Locally Linear Embedding (LLE has attracted much attention due to their high performance. In this paper, we proposed a novel approach for face recognition to address the challenging task of recognition using integration of nonlinear dimensional reduction Locally Linear Embedding integrated with Local Fisher Discriminant Analysis (LFDA to improve the discriminating power of the extracted features by maximize between-class while within-class local structure is preserved. Extensive experimentation performed on the CMU-PIE database indicates that the proposed methodology outperforms Benchmark methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Fisher Discrimination Analysis (FDA. The results showed that 95% of recognition rate could be obtained using our proposed method.

  18. Optimization-Based Robust Nonlinear Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 661...systems with two time scales", A.R. Teel, L. Moreau and D. Nesic, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 1526-1544, September 2003...Turner, L. Zaccarian, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 1509- 1525, September 2003. 5. "Nonlinear Scheduled anti-windup

  19. Time-varying interaction leads to amplitude death in coupled nonlinear oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Awadhesh Prasad

    2013-09-01

    A new form of time-varying interaction in coupled oscillators is introduced. In this interaction, each individual oscillator has always time-independent self-feedback while its interaction with other oscillators are modulated with time-varying function. This interaction gives rise to a phenomenon called amplitude death even in diffusively coupled identical oscillators. The nonlinear variation of the locus of bifurcation point is shown. Results are illustrated with Landau–Stuart (LS) and Rössler oscillators.

  20. Comparative Study of Controllers for a Variable Area MIMO Interacting NonLinear System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Chandrasekar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the industrial processes are basically Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO system. In this paper a new combination of Spherical Conical Interacting Tank System (SCITS which is a variable area nonlinear MIMO system is considered for study and various control algorithms based on Ziegler Nichol’s tuning method, Hagglund Astrom Robust tuning method, Fractional Order (FO control and Passivity Based Control (PBC are used and compared for the level control of spherical tank system and conical tank system connected with interaction. Transfer function matrix of the system is obtained experimentally from the open loop response of the system. The designed controllers are tested for servo and regulatory operations. The controllers are compared in terms of time domain specification and performance index criterion. From the analysis of the simulation results, it is seen that FO controller gives improved performance when compared to conventional Integer Order (IO controller and overall Passivity Based Controller (PBCr gives improved performance comparatively for spherical conical interacting MIMO system.

  1. Nonlinear system identification and control based on modular neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puscasu, Gheorghe; Codres, Bogdan

    2011-08-01

    A new approach for nonlinear system identification and control based on modular neural networks (MNN) is proposed in this paper. The computational complexity of neural identification can be greatly reduced if the whole system is decomposed into several subsystems. This is obtained using a partitioning algorithm. Each local nonlinear model is associated with a nonlinear controller. These are also implemented by neural networks. The switching between the neural controllers is done by a dynamical switcher, also implemented by neural networks, that tracks the different operating points. The proposed multiple modelling and control strategy has been successfully tested on simulated laboratory scale liquid-level system.

  2. Mode interaction in horses, tea, and other nonlinear oscillators: the universal role of symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van der Jacobus P.; Banning, Erik J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is about mode interaction in systems of coupled nonlinear oscillators. The main ideas are demonstrated by means of a model consisting of two coupled, parametrically driven pendulums. On the basis of this we also discuss mode interaction in the Faraday experiment (as observed by Ciliberto

  3. Solitary excitations in discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger models with dispersive dipole-dipole interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Johansson, M.

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger models with long-range dispersive interactions is investigated. In particular, we focus on the cases where the dispersion arises from a dipole-dipole interaction, assuming the dipole moments at each lattice site to be aligned either...

  4. The dynamics of interacting nonlinearities governing long wavelength driftwave turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, D.E.

    1993-09-01

    Because of the ubiquitous nature of turbulence and the vast array of different systems which have turbulent solutions, the study of turbulence is an area of active research. Much present day understanding of turbulence is rooted in the well established properties of homogeneous Navier-Stokes turbulence, which, due to its relative simplicity, allows for approximate analytic solutions. This work examines a group of turbulent systems with marked differences from Navier-Stokes turbulence, and attempts to quantify some of their properties. This group of systems represents a variety of drift wave fluctuations believed to be of fundamental importance in laboratory fusion devices. From extensive simulation of simple local fluid models of long wavelength drift wave turbulence in tokamaks, a reasonably complete picture of the basic properties of spectral transfer and saturation has emerged. These studies indicate that many conventional notions concerning directions of cascades, locality and isotropy of transfer, frequencies of fluctuations, and stationarity of saturation are not valid for moderate to long wavelengths. In particular, spectral energy transfer at long wavelengths is dominated by the E {times} B nonlinearity, which carries energy to short scale in a manner that is highly nonlocal and anisotropic. In marked contrast to the canonical self-similar cascade dynamics of Kolmogorov, energy is efficiently passed between modes separated by the entire spectrum range in a correlation time. At short wavelengths, transfer is dominated by the polarization drift nonlinearity. While the standard dual cascade applies in this subrange, it is found that finite spectrum size can produce cascades that are reverse directed and are nonconservative in enstrophy and energy similarity ranges. In regions where both nonlinearities are important, cross-coupling between the nolinearities gives rise to large no frequency shifts as well as changes in the spectral dynamics.

  5. Long-term wave growth and its linear and nonlinear interactions with wind fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ge

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Following Ge and Liu (2007, the simultaneously recorded time series of wave elevation and wind velocity are examined for long-term (on Lavrenov's τ4-scale or 3 to 6 h linear and nonlinear interactions between the wind fluctuations and the wave field. Over such long times the detected interaction patterns should reveal general characteristics for the wave growth process. The time series are divided into three episodes, each approximately 1.33 h long, to represent three sequential stages of wave growth. The classic Fourier-domain spectral and bispectral analyses are used to identify the linear and quadratic interactions between the waves and the wind fluctuations as well as between different components of the wave field.

    The results show clearly that as the wave field grows the linear interaction becomes enhanced and covers wider range of frequencies. Two different wave-induced components of the wind fluctuations are identified. These components, one at around 0.4 Hz and the other at around 0.15 to 0.2 Hz, are generated and supported by both linear and quadratic wind-wave interactions probably through the distortions of the waves to the wind field. The fact that the higher-frequency wave-induced component always stays with the equilibrium range of the wave spectrum around 0.4 Hz and the lower-frequency one tends to move with the downshifting of the primary peak of the wave spectrum defines the partition of the primary peak and the equilibrium range of the wave spectrum, a characteristic that could not be revealed by short-time wavelet-based analyses in Ge and Liu (2007. Furthermore, these two wave-induced peaks of the wind spectrum appear to have different patterns of feedback to the wave field. The quadratic wave-wave interactions also are assessed using the auto-bispectrum and are found to be especially active during the first and the third episodes. Such directly detected wind-wave interactions, both linear and

  6. Kernel-Based Nonlinear Discriminant Analysis for Face Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU QingShan (刘青山); HUANG Rui (黄锐); LU HanQing (卢汉清); MA SongDe (马颂德)

    2003-01-01

    Linear subspace analysis methods have been successfully applied to extract features for face recognition. But they are inadequate to represent the complex and nonlinear variations of real face images, such as illumination, facial expression and pose variations, because of their linear properties. In this paper, a nonlinear subspace analysis method, Kernel-based Nonlinear Discriminant Analysis (KNDA), is presented for face recognition, which combines the nonlinear kernel trick with the linear subspace analysis method - Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA).First, the kernel trick is used to project the input data into an implicit feature space, then FLDA is performed in this feature space. Thus nonlinear discriminant features of the input data are yielded. In addition, in order to reduce the computational complexity, a geometry-based feature vectors selection scheme is adopted. Another similar nonlinear subspace analysis is Kernel-based Principal Component Analysis (KPCA), which combines the kernel trick with linear Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Experiments are performed with the polynomial kernel, and KNDA is compared with KPCA and FLDA. Extensive experimental results show that KNDA can give a higher recognition rate than KPCA and FLDA.

  7. The Nonlinear Interaction of Two-Crossed Focussed Ultrasonic Beams in the Presence of Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-10

    in water or any fluid medium can be obtained by the vibration of a solid body in the fluid, such as the vibration of a vocal chord or guitar string . In... physical phenomenon due to the nonlinearity of sound arises from the interaction of two sound beams. Nonlinear acoustic theory predictions by Westervelt in...known experimental data for the turbulent velocity field. Goals of this research include mapping out the turbulence and studying the physical

  8. Nonlinear Interactions of Dispersion-managed Soliton in OTDM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Ju; MAO Yu; LU Hui; ZHANG Li-na; YANG Xiang-lin

    2003-01-01

    The dispersion-managed soliton (DMS) transmission model of dispersion-managed systems is established,and the intrachannel DMS interactions equation is obtained.The impact of soliton interactions on DMS systems are numerically investigated.Finally,the relationships of the collision length changing with map strength are revealed.

  9. Possible second-order nonlinear interactions of plane waves in an elastic solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneev, V A; Demčenko, A

    2014-02-01

    There exist ten possible nonlinear elastic wave interactions for an isotropic solid described by three constants of the third order. All other possible interactions out of 54 combinations (triplets) of interacting and resulting waves are prohibited, because of restrictions of various kinds. The considered waves include longitudinal and two shear waves polarized in the interacting plane and orthogonal to it. The amplitudes of scattered waves have simple analytical forms, which can be used for experimental setup and design. The analytic results are verified by comparison with numerical solutions of initial equations. Amplitude coefficients for all ten interactions are computed as functions of frequency for polyvinyl chloride, together with interaction and scattering angles. The nonlinear equation of motion is put into a general vector form and can be used for any coordinate system.

  10. Interactions between impurities and breather-pairs in a nonlinear lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Han; Chen Weizhong; Lu Lei; Wei Rongjue

    2003-09-15

    Based on the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model with a {delta}-impurity, this Letter investigates the interactions between impurities and breather-pairs in a nonlinear pendulum chain driven by a vertical vibration. The numerical results show that a long impurity in pendulum length can absorb more energy into the chain and upgrade the energy level of the breather-pair, when the driving frequency is slight lower than that of parametric resonance of the perfect pendulums, while a short one plays a counteractive role. As the chain is driven at a higher frequency, the effect of impurities turns reverse, which shows a clear symmetry and equivalency between long and short impurities. The main results including the effect and the symmetry of impurities generalize the conclusion on the single breather to the breather-pair.

  11. Eluding the Physical Constraints in a Nonlinear Interaction Sound Synthesis Model for Gesture Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Thoret

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a flexible control strategy for a synthesis model dedicated to nonlinear friction phenomena is proposed. This model enables to synthesize different types of sound sources, such as creaky doors, singing glasses, squeaking wet plates or bowed strings. Based on the perceptual stance that a sound is perceived as the result of an action on an object we propose a genuine source/filter synthesis approach that enables to elude physical constraints induced by the coupling between the interacting objects. This approach makes it possible to independently control and freely combine the action and the object. Different implementations and applications related to computer animation, gesture learning for rehabilitation and expert gestures are presented at the end of this paper.

  12. Interactions between impurities and breather-pairs in a nonlinear lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han; Chen, Weizhong; Lu, Lei; Wei, Rongjue

    2003-09-01

    Based on the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model with a δ-impurity, this Letter investigates the interactions between impurities and breather-pairs in a nonlinear pendulum chain driven by a vertical vibration. The numerical results show that a long impurity in pendulum length can absorb more energy into the chain and upgrade the energy level of the breather-pair, when the driving frequency is slight lower than that of parametric resonance of the perfect pendulums, while a short one plays a counteractive role. As the chain is driven at a higher frequency, the effect of impurities turns reverse, which shows a clear symmetry and equivalency between long and short impurities. The main results including the effect and the symmetry of impurities generalize the conclusion on the single breather to the breather-pair.

  13. Nonlinear system modeling based on experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAEZ,THOMAS L.; HUNTER,NORMAN F.

    2000-02-02

    The canonical variate analysis technique is used in this investigation, along with a data transformation algorithm, to identify a system in a transform space. The transformation algorithm involves the preprocessing of measured excitation/response data with a zero-memory-nonlinear transform, specifically, the Rosenblatt transform. This transform approximately maps the measured excitation and response data from its own space into the space of uncorrelated, standard normal random variates. Following this transform, it is appropriate to model the excitation/response relation as linear since Gaussian inputs excite Gaussian responses in linear structures. The linear model is identified in the transform space using the canonical variate analysis approach, and system responses in the original space are predicted using inverse Rosenblatt transformation. An example is presented.

  14. Dynamical soil-structure interactions: influence of soil behaviour nonlinearities; Interaction Dynamique Sol-Structure: Influence des Nonlinearites de Comportement du Sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandomzadeh, Ali

    2011-02-08

    The interaction of the soil with the structure has been largely explored the assumption of material and geometrical linearity of the soil. Nevertheless, for moderate or strong seismic events, the maximum shear strain can easily reach the elastic limit of the soil behavior. Considering soil-structure interaction, the nonlinear effects may change the soil stiffness at the base of the structure and therefore energy dissipation into the soil. Consequently, ignoring the nonlinear characteristics of the dynamic soil-structure interaction (DSSI) this phenomenon could lead to erroneous predictions of structural response. The goal of this work is to implement a fully nonlinear constitutive model for soils into a numerical code in order to investigate the effect of soil nonlinearity on dynamic soil structure interaction. Moreover, different issues are taken into account such as the effect of confining stress on the shear modulus of the soil, initial static condition, contact elements in the soil-structure interface, etc. During this work, a simple absorbing layer method based on a Rayleigh/Caughey damping formulation, which is often already available in existing Finite Element softwares, is also presented. The stability conditions of the wave propagation problems are studied and it is shown that the linear and nonlinear behavior are very different when dealing with numerical dispersion. It is shown that the 10 points per wavelength rule, recommended in the literature for the elastic media is not sufficient for the nonlinear case. The implemented model is first numerically verified by comparing the results with other known numerical codes. Afterward, a parametric study is carried out for different types of structures and various soil profiles to characterize nonlinear effects. Different features of the DSSI are compared to the linear case: modification of the amplitude and frequency content of the waves propagated into the soil, fundamental frequency, energy dissipation in

  15. Fluid-structure interaction for nonlinear response of shells conveying pulsatile flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaldi, Eleonora; Amabili, Marco; Païdoussis, Michael P.

    2016-06-01

    Circular cylindrical shells with flexible boundary conditions conveying pulsatile flow and subjected to pulsatile pressure are investigated. The equations of motion are obtained based on the nonlinear Novozhilov shell theory via Lagrangian approach. The flow is set in motion by a pulsatile pressure gradient. The fluid is modeled as a Newtonian pulsatile flow and it is formulated using a hybrid model that contains the unsteady effects obtained from the linear potential flow theory and the pulsatile viscous effects obtained from the unsteady time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A numerical bifurcation analysis employs a refined reduced order model to investigate the dynamic behavior. The case of shells containing quiescent fluid subjected to the action of a pulsatile transmural pressure is also addressed. Geometrically nonlinear vibration response to pulsatile flow and transmural pressure are here presented via frequency-response curves and time histories. The vibrations involving both a driven mode and a companion mode, which appear due to the axial symmetry, are also investigated. This theoretical framework represents a pioneering study that could be of great interest for biomedical applications. In particular, in the future, a more refined model of the one here presented will possibly be applied to reproduce the dynamic behavior of vascular prostheses used for repairing and replacing damaged and diseased thoracic aorta in cases of aneurysm, dissection or coarctation. For this purpose, a pulsatile time-dependent blood flow model is here considered by applying physiological waveforms of velocity and pressure during the heart beating period. This study provides, for the first time in literature, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction model with deep insights in the nonlinear vibrations of circular cylindrical shells subjected to pulsatile pressure and pulsatile flow.

  16. Chaotic saddles in nonlinear modulational interactions in a plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Rodrigo A. [Institute of Aeronautical Technology (ITA) and World Institute for Space Environment Research (WISER), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12228-900 (Brazil); National Institute for Space Research (INPE) and World Institute for Space Environment Research (WISER), P.O. Box 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12227-010 (Brazil); University of Brasilia (UnB), Gama Campus, and Plasma Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Brasilia, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Rempel, Erico L. [Institute of Aeronautical Technology (ITA) and World Institute for Space Environment Research (WISER), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12228-900 (Brazil); National Institute for Space Research (INPE) and World Institute for Space Environment Research (WISER), P.O. Box 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12227-010 (Brazil); Chian, Abraham C.-L. [Institute of Aeronautical Technology (ITA) and World Institute for Space Environment Research (WISER), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12228-900 (Brazil); National Institute for Space Research (INPE) and World Institute for Space Environment Research (WISER), P.O. Box 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12227-010 (Brazil); Observatoire de Paris, LESIA, CNRS, 92195 Meudon (France)

    2012-11-15

    A nonlinear model of modulational processes in the subsonic regime involving a linearly unstable wave and two linearly damped waves with different damping rates in a plasma is studied numerically. We compute the maximum Lyapunov exponent as a function of the damping rates in a two-parameter space, and identify shrimp-shaped self-similar structures in the parameter space. By varying the damping rate of the low-frequency wave, we construct bifurcation diagrams and focus on a saddle-node bifurcation and an interior crisis associated with a periodic window. We detect chaotic saddles and their stable and unstable manifolds, and demonstrate how the connection between two chaotic saddles via coupling unstable periodic orbits can result in a crisis-induced intermittency. The relevance of this work for the understanding of modulational processes observed in plasmas and fluids is discussed.

  17. Chaotic saddles in nonlinear modulational interactions in a plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, Rodrigo A; Chian, Abraham C -L

    2012-01-01

    A nonlinear model of modulational processes in the subsonic regime involving a linearly unstable wave and two linearly damped waves with different damping rates in a plasma is studied numerically. We compute the maximum Lyapunov exponent as a function of the damping rates in a two-parameter space, and identify shrimp-shaped self-similar structures in the parameter space. By varying the damping rate of the low-frequency wave, we construct bifurcation diagrams and focus on a saddle-node bifurcation and an interior crisis associated with a periodic window. We detect chaotic saddles and their stable and unstable manifolds, and demonstrate how the connection between two chaotic saddles via coupling unstable periodic orbits can result in a crisis-induced intermittency. The relevance of this work for the understanding of modulational processes observed in plasmas and fluids is discussed.

  18. Leader-Based Consensus of Heterogeneous Nonlinear Multiagent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tairen Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the leader-based consensus of heterogeneous multiple agents with nonlinear uncertain systems. Based on the information obtained from the following agents’ neighbors, leader observers are designed by the following agents to estimate the leader’s states and nonlinear dynamics. Then, to achieve leader-based consensus, adaptive distributed controllers are designed for the following agents to track the designed corresponding leader observers. The effectiveness of the leader observers and distributed consensus controllers are illustrated by formal proof and simulation results.

  19. AxiSketcher: Interactive Nonlinear Axis Mapping of Visualizations through User Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bum Chul; Kim, Hannah; Wall, Emily; Choo, Jaegul; Park, Haesun; Endert, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Visual analytics techniques help users explore high-dimensional data. However, it is often challenging for users to express their domain knowledge in order to steer the underlying data model, especially when they have little attribute-level knowledge. Furthermore, users' complex, high-level domain knowledge, compared to low-level attributes, posits even greater challenges. To overcome these challenges, we introduce a technique to interpret a user's drawings with an interactive, nonlinear axis mapping approach called AxiSketcher. This technique enables users to impose their domain knowledge on a visualization by allowing interaction with data entries rather than with data attributes. The proposed interaction is performed through directly sketching lines over the visualization. Using this technique, users can draw lines over selected data points, and the system forms the axes that represent a nonlinear, weighted combination of multidimensional attributes. In this paper, we describe our techniques in three areas: 1) the design space of sketching methods for eliciting users' nonlinear domain knowledge; 2) the underlying model that translates users' input, extracts patterns behind the selected data points, and results in nonlinear axes reflecting users' complex intent; and 3) the interactive visualization for viewing, assessing, and reconstructing the newly formed, nonlinear axes.

  20. Localized excitations in discrete nonlinear Schrodinger systems: Effects of nonlocal dispersive interactions and noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Johansson, Magnus

    1998-01-01

    A one-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) model with the power dependence, r(-s) on the distance r, of dispersive interactions is proposed. The stationary states of the system are studied both analytically and numerically. Two kinds of trial functions, exp-like and sech-like are exp......A one-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) model with the power dependence, r(-s) on the distance r, of dispersive interactions is proposed. The stationary states of the system are studied both analytically and numerically. Two kinds of trial functions, exp-like and sech...

  1. Implementation of neural network based non-linear predictive control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole

    1999-01-01

    of non-linear systems. GPC is model based and in this paper we propose the use of a neural network for the modeling of the system. Based on the neural network model, a controller with extended control horizon is developed and the implementation issues are discussed, with particular emphasis...

  2. Transition waves and nonlinear interactions in the near wake of a circular cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌国灿; Allen T.Chwang; 牛家玉; 王冬(女菱)

    1997-01-01

    Transition waves and interactions between two kinds of instability-vortex shedding and transition wave in the near wake of a circular cylinder in the Reynolds number range 3 000-10 000 are studied by a domain decomposition hybrid numerical method.Based on high resolution power spectral analyses for velocity new results on the Reynolds-number dependence of the transition wave frequency,i.e.ft/fa~Re0.87 are obtained.The new predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results of Wei and Smith but different from Braza’s prediction and some early experimental results ft/fa-Re0.5 given by Bloor et al.The multi-interactions between two kinds of vortex are clearly visualized numerically.The strong nonlinear interactions between the two independent frequencies (ft,fa) leading to spectra broadening to form the coupling mfs±nft are predicted and analyzed numerically,and the characteristics of the transition are described.Longitudinal variations of the transition wave and its coupling are reported.Deta

  3. Topological charge algebra of optical vortices in nonlinear interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Alexandra A; Shutova, Mariia; Bahari, Aysan; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei V

    2015-12-28

    We investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum among multiple beams involved in a coherent Raman interaction. We use a liquid crystal light modulator to shape pump and Stokes beams into optical vortices with various integer values of topological charge, and cross them in a Raman-active crystal to produce multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands. We measure the resultant vortex charges using a tilted-lens technique. We verify that in every case the generated beams' topological charges obey a simple relationship, resulting from angular momentum conservation for created and annihilated photons, or equivalently, from phase-matching considerations for multiple interacting beams.

  4. Nonlinear interaction of impulsive gravitational waves for the vacuum Einstein equations

    CERN Document Server

    Luk, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of the nonlinear interaction of impulsive gravitational waves for the Einstein vacuum equations. The problem is studied in the context of a characteristic initial value problem with data given on two null hypersurfaces and containing curvature delta singularities. We establish an existence and uniqueness result for the spacetime arising from such data and show that the resulting spacetime represents the interaction of two impulsive gravitational waves germinating from the initial singularities. In the spacetime, the curvature delta singularities propagate along 3-dimensional null hypersurfaces intersecting to the future of the data. To the past of the intersection, the spacetime can be thought of as containing two independent, non-interacting impulsive gravitational waves and the intersection represents the first instance of their nonlinear interaction. Our analysis extends to the region past their first interaction and shows that the spacetime still remains smooth away fro...

  5. Soliton pair generation in the interactions of Airy and nonlinear accelerating beams

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Wu, Zhenkun; Zheng, Huaibin; Lu, Keqing; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-01-01

    We investigate numerically the interactions of two in-phase and out-of-phase Airy beams and nonlinear accelerating beams in Kerr and saturable nonlinear media, in one transverse dimension. We find that bound and unbound soliton pairs, as well as single solitons, can form in such interactions. If the interval between two incident beams is large relative to the width of their first lobes, the generated soliton pairs just propagate individually and do not interact. However, if the interval is comparable to the widths of the maximum lobes, the pairs interact and display varied behavior. In the in-phase case, they attract each other and exhibit stable bound, oscillating, and unbound states, after shedding some radiation initially. In the out-of-phase case, they repel each other and after an initial interaction, fly away as individual solitons. While the incident beams display acceleration, the solitons or soliton pairs generated from those beams do not.

  6. Numerical method of studying nonlinear interactions between long waves and multiple short waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Tao; Kuang Hai-Lan; William Perrie; Zou Guang-Hui; Nan Cheng-Feng; He Chao; Shen Tao; Chen Wei

    2009-01-01

    Although the nonlinear interactions between a single short gravity wave and a long wave can be solved analytically,the solution is less tractable in more general cases involving multiple short waves.In this work we present a numerical method of studying nonlinear interactions between a long wave and multiple short harmonic waves in infinitely deep water.Specifically,this method is applied to the calculation of the temporal and spatial evolutions of the surface elevations in which a given long wave interacts with several short harmonic waves.Another important application of our method is to quantitatively analyse the nonlinear interactions between an arbitrary short wave train and another short wave train.From simulation results,we obtain that the mechanism for the nonlinear interactions between one short wave train and another short wave train(expressed as wave train 2)leads to the energy focusing of the other short wave train(expressed as wave train 31.This mechanism Occurs on wave components with a narrow frequency bandwidth,whose frequencies are near that of wave train 3.

  7. State estimation of stochastic non-linear hybrid dynamic system using an interacting multiple model algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elenchezhiyan, M; Prakash, J

    2015-09-01

    In this work, state estimation schemes for non-linear hybrid dynamic systems subjected to stochastic state disturbances and random errors in measurements using interacting multiple-model (IMM) algorithms are formulated. In order to compute both discrete modes and continuous state estimates of a hybrid dynamic system either an IMM extended Kalman filter (IMM-EKF) or an IMM based derivative-free Kalman filters is proposed in this study. The efficacy of the proposed IMM based state estimation schemes is demonstrated by conducting Monte-Carlo simulation studies on the two-tank hybrid system and switched non-isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor system. Extensive simulation studies reveal that the proposed IMM based state estimation schemes are able to generate fairly accurate continuous state estimates and discrete modes. In the presence and absence of sensor bias, the simulation studies reveal that the proposed IMM unscented Kalman filter (IMM-UKF) based simultaneous state and parameter estimation scheme outperforms multiple-model UKF (MM-UKF) based simultaneous state and parameter estimation scheme.

  8. Demonstration of a Chip-based Nonlinear Optical Isolator

    CERN Document Server

    Hua, Shiyue; Jiang, Xiaoshun; Hua, Qian; Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Despite fundamentally challenging in integrated (nano)photonics, achieving chip-based light nonreciprocity becomes increasingly urgent in signal processing and optical communications. Because of material incompatibilities in conventional approaches based on Faraday effects, alternative solutions have resorted to nonlinear processes to obtain one-way transmission. However, revealed dynamic reciprocity in a recent theoretical analysis has pinned down the functionalities of these nonlinear isolators. To overcome this dynamic reciprocity, we here report the first demonstration of a nonlinear optical isolator on a silicon chip enforced by phase-matched parametric amplification. Using a high-Q microtoroid resonator, we realize highly nonreciprocal transport at the 1,550 nm wavelength when waves are simultaneously launched in both forward and backward directions. Our design, compatible with current CMOS technique, yields convincing isolation performance with sufficiently low insertion loss for a wide range of input ...

  9. Nonlinear interactions between electromagnetic waves and electron plasma oscillations in quantum plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B

    2007-08-31

    We consider nonlinear interactions between intense circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves and electron plasma oscillations (EPOs) in a dense quantum plasma, taking into account the electron density response in the presence of the relativistic ponderomotive force and mass increase in the CPEM wave fields. The dynamics of the CPEM waves and EPOs is governed by the two coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations and Poisson's equation. The nonlinear equations admit the modulational instability of an intense CPEM pump wave against EPOs, leading to the formation and trapping of localized CPEM wave pipes in the electron density hole that is associated with a positive potential distribution in our dense plasma. The relevance of our investigation to the next generation intense laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments is discussed.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics based digital logic and circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John F; Ditto, William L

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the role and importance of dynamics in the brain and biological neural networks and argue that dynamics is one of the main missing elements in conventional Boolean logic and circuits. We summarize a simple dynamics based computing method, and categorize different techniques that we have introduced to realize logic, functionality, and programmability. We discuss the role and importance of coupled dynamics in networks of biological excitable cells, and then review our simple coupled dynamics based method for computing. In this paper, for the first time, we show how dynamics can be used and programmed to implement computation in any given base, including but not limited to base two.

  11. Nonlinear theory of laser-induced dipolar interactions in arbitrary geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Shahmoon, Ephraim

    2013-01-01

    Polarizable dipoles, such as atoms, molecules or nanoparticles, subject to laser radiation, may attract or repel each other. We derive a general formalism in which such laser-induced dipole-dipole interactions (LIDDI) in any geometry and for any laser strength are described in terms of the resonant dipole-dipole interaction (RDDI) between dipoles dressed by the laser. Our expressions provide a physically clear and technically simple route towards the analysis of LIDDI in a general geometry. This approach can treat both mechanical and internal-state interactions between the dipoles. Our general results reveal LIDDI effects due to nonlinear dipole-laser interactions, unaccounted for by previous treatments of LIDDI. We discuss, via several simple approaches, the origin of these nonlinear effects and their absence in previous works.

  12. Nonlinear gravity-wave interactions in stratified turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmel, Mark; Sukhatme, Jai; Smith, Leslie M.

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the dynamics of gravity waves in stratified Boussinesq flows, a model is derived that consists of all three-gravity-wave-mode interactions (the GGG model), excluding interactions involving the vortical mode. The GGG model is a natural extension of weak turbulence theory that accounts for exact three-gravity-wave resonances. The model is examined numerically by means of random, large-scale, high-frequency forcing. An immediate observation is a robust growth of the so-called vertically sheared horizontal flow (VSHF). In addition, there is a forward transfer of energy and equilibration of the nonzero-frequency (sometimes called "fast") gravity-wave modes. These results show that gravity-wave-mode interactions by themselves are capable of systematic interscale energy transfer in a stratified fluid. Comparing numerical simulations of the GGG model and the full Boussinesq system, for the range of Froude numbers ( Fr) considered (0.05 ≤ Fr ≤ 1), in both systems the VSHF is hardest to resolve. When adequately resolved, VSHF growth is more vigorous in the GGG model. Furthermore, a VSHF is observed to form in milder stratification scenarios in the GGG model than the full Boussinesq system. Finally, fully three-dimensional nonzero-frequency gravity-wave modes equilibrate in both systems and their scaling with vertical wavenumber follows similar power-laws. The slopes of the power-laws obtained depend on Fr and approach -2 (from above) at Fr = 0.05, which is the strongest stratification that can be properly resolved with our computational resources.

  13. Soliton-potential interaction in the Nonlinear Klein-Gordon Model

    CERN Document Server

    Saadatmand, Danial

    2011-01-01

    Interaction of solitons with external potentials in nonlinear Klein-Gordon field theory is investigated using an improved model. Presented model is constructed with a better approximation for adding the potential to the lagrangian through the metric of background space-time. The results of the model are compared with the another model and the differences are discussed.

  14. Advanced Nonlinear Latent Variable Modeling: Distribution Analytic LMS and QML Estimators of Interaction and Quadratic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelava, Augustin; Werner, Christina S.; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Zapf, Dieter; Ma, Yue; Cham, Heining; Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    Interaction and quadratic effects in latent variable models have to date only rarely been tested in practice. Traditional product indicator approaches need to create product indicators (e.g., x[superscript 2] [subscript 1], x[subscript 1]x[subscript 4]) to serve as indicators of each nonlinear latent construct. These approaches require the use of…

  15. Management of the orbital angular momentum of vortex beams in a quadratic nonlinear interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Bovino, Fabio A; Bertolotti, Mario; Sibilia, Concita

    2011-01-01

    Light intensity control of the orbital angular momentum of the fundamental beam in a quadratic nonlinear process is theoretically and numerically presented. In particular we analyzed a seeded second harmonic generation process in presence of orbital angular momentum of the interacting beams due both to on axis and off axis optical vortices. Examples are proposed and discussed.

  16. Towards Ultrafast Communications: Nonlinear Coupling Dynamics and Light-Semiconductor Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, W.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with some specific problems concerning the processing of ultrashort optical pulses and their interaction with semiconductors. It includes the investigation of the ultrashort optical pulse propagation and coupling dynamics in the nonlinear coupled waveguide, and the coherent and in

  17. Interaction of Tangent Conormal Waves for Higher-Order Nonlinear Strictly Hyperbolic Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹会成; 仇庆久

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we deal with the interaction of three conormal waves for a class of third-order nonlinear strictly hyperbolic equations, in which two conormal waves are tangent. By the same argument, we may also discuss the similar problem for equation system of compressible fluid flow and obtain similar conclusions.

  18. Intermolecular interactions in linear and nonlinear susceptibilities : beyond the local-field approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, Jasper; Mukamel, Shaul

    1989-01-01

    Reduced equations of motion for material and radiation field variables in a molecular crystal are presented that allow us to calculate linear- and nonlinear-optical susceptibilities, accounting in a systematic way for intermolecular interactions. These equations are derived starting from the multipo

  19. Nonlinear time-domain soil–structure interaction analysis of embedded reactor structures subjected to earthquake loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solberg, Jerome M., E-mail: solberg2@llnl.gov [Methods Development Group, Lawrence Livermore Nat’l Lab, P.O. Box 808, Mailstop L-125, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Hossain, Quazi, E-mail: hossain1@llnl.gov [Structural and Applied Mechanics Group, Lawrence Livermore Nat’l Lab, P.O. Box 808, Mailstop L-129, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Mseis, George, E-mail: george.mseis@gmail.com [Structural and Applied Mechanics Group, Lawrence Livermore Nat’l Lab, P.O. Box 808, Mailstop L-129, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • Derived modified version of Bielak’s SSI method for nonlinear time-domain analysis. • Utilized a Ramberg–Osgood material with parameters that can be fit to EPRI data. • Matched vertically propagating shear wave results from CARES. • Applied this technique to a representative SMR, compared well with SASSI. • The technique is extensible to other material models and nonlinear effects. - Abstract: A generalized time-domain method for soil–structure interaction analysis is developed, based upon an extension of the work of the domain reduction method of Bielak et al. The methodology is combined with the use of a simple hysteretic soil model based upon the Ramberg–Osgood formulation and applied to a notional Small Modular Reactor. These benchmark results compare well (with some caveats) with those obtained by using the industry-standard frequency-domain code SASSI. The methodology provides a path forward for investigation of other sources of nonlinearity, including those associated with the use of more physically-realistic material models incorporating pore-pressure effects, gap opening/closing, the effect of nonlinear structural elements, and 3D seismic inputs.

  20. Likelihood-Based Inference in Nonlinear Error-Correction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Dennis; Rahbæk, Anders

    We consider a class of vector nonlinear error correction models where the transfer function (or loadings) of the stationary relation- ships is nonlinear. This includes in particular the smooth transition models. A general representation theorem is given which establishes the dynamic properties...... and a linear trend in general. Gaussian likelihood-based estimators are considered for the long- run cointegration parameters, and the short-run parameters. Asymp- totic theory is provided for these and it is discussed to what extend asymptotic normality and mixed normaity can be found. A simulation study...

  1. Nonlinear system identification based on internal recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puscasu, Gheorghe; Codres, Bogdan; Stancu, Alexandru; Murariu, Gabriel

    2009-04-01

    A novel approach for nonlinear complex system identification based on internal recurrent neural networks (IRNN) is proposed in this paper. The computational complexity of neural identification can be greatly reduced if the whole system is decomposed into several subsystems. This approach employs internal state estimation when no measurements coming from the sensors are available for the system states. A modified backpropagation algorithm is introduced in order to train the IRNN for nonlinear system identification. The performance of the proposed design approach is proven on a car simulator case study.

  2. Interaction of Lyapunov vectors in the formulation of the nonlinear extension of the Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatella, Luigi; Trevisan, Anna

    2015-04-01

    When applied to strongly nonlinear chaotic dynamics the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is prone to divergence due to the difficulty of correctly forecasting the forecast error probability density function. In operational forecasting applications ensemble Kalman filters circumvent this problem with empirical procedures such as covariance inflation. This paper presents an extension of the EKF that includes nonlinear terms in the evolution of the forecast error estimate. This is achieved starting from a particular square-root implementation of the EKF with assimilation confined in the unstable subspace (EKF-AUS), that is, the span of the Lyapunov vectors with non-negative exponents. When the error evolution is nonlinear, the space where it is confined is no more restricted to the unstable and neutral subspace causing filter divergence. The algorithm presented here, denominated EKF-AUS-NL, includes the nonlinear terms in the error dynamics: These result from the nonlinear interaction among the leading Lyapunov vectors and account for all directions where the error growth may take place. Numerical results show that with the nonlinear terms included, filter divergence can be avoided. We test the algorithm on the Lorenz96 model, showing very promising results.

  3. Nonlinear dynamics of nanoelectromechanical cantilevers based on nanowire piezoresistive detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baguet S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dynamics of in-plane nanoelectromechanical cantilevers based on silicon nanowire piezoresistive detection is investigated using a comprehensive analytical model that remains valid up to large displacements in the case of electrostatic actuation. This multiphysics model takes into account geometric, inertial and electrostatic nonlinearities as well as the fringing field effects which are significant for thin resonators. The bistability as well as multistability limits are considered in order to provide close-form expressions of the critical amplitudes. Third order nonlinearity cancellation is analytically inspected and set via an optimal DC drive voltage which permits the actuation of the NEMS beyond its critical amplitude. It may result on a large enhancement of the sensor performances by driving optimally the nanocantilever at very large amplitude, while suppressing the hysteresis.

  4. Change-Of-Bases Abstractions for Non-Linear Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    We present abstraction techniques that transform a given non-linear dynamical system into a linear system or an algebraic system described by polynomials of bounded degree, such that, invariant properties of the resulting abstraction can be used to infer invariants for the original system. The abstraction techniques rely on a change-of-basis transformation that associates each state variable of the abstract system with a function involving the state variables of the original system. We present conditions under which a given change of basis transformation for a non-linear system can define an abstraction. Furthermore, the techniques developed here apply to continuous systems defined by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs), discrete systems defined by transition systems and hybrid systems that combine continuous as well as discrete subsystems. The techniques presented here allow us to discover, given a non-linear system, if a change of bases transformation involving degree-bounded polynomials yielding an alge...

  5. Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Omri; Campione, Salvatore; Benz, Alexander; Ravikumar, Arvind P; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S; Kadlec, Emil A; Shaner, Eric A; Klem, John F; Sinclair, Michael B; Brener, Igal

    2015-07-01

    Coherent superposition of light from subwavelength sources is an attractive prospect for the manipulation of the direction, shape and polarization of optical beams. This phenomenon constitutes the basis of phased arrays, commonly used at microwave and radio frequencies. Here we propose a new concept for phased-array sources at infrared frequencies based on metamaterial nanocavities coupled to a highly nonlinear semiconductor heterostructure. Optical pumping of the nanocavity induces a localized, phase-locked, nonlinear resonant polarization that acts as a source feed for a higher-order resonance of the nanocavity. Varying the nanocavity design enables the production of beams with arbitrary shape and polarization. As an example, we demonstrate two second harmonic phased-array sources that perform two optical functions at the second harmonic wavelength (∼5 μm): a beam splitter and a polarizing beam splitter. Proper design of the nanocavity and nonlinear heterostructure will enable such phased arrays to span most of the infrared spectrum.

  6. Adaptive Observer-Based Fault Estimate for Nonlinear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Qun; LIU Wenjing; LIU Li

    2006-01-01

    An approach for adaptive observer-based fault estimate for nonlinear system is proposed.H-infinity theory is applied to analyzing the design method and stable conditions of the adaptive observer,from which both system state and fault can be estimated.It is proved that the fault estimate error is related to the given H-infinity track performance indexes,as well as to the changing rate of the fault and the Lipschitz constant of the nonlinear item.The design steps of the adaptive observer are proposed.The simulation results show that the observer has good performance for fault estimate even when the system includes nonlinear terms,which confirms the effectiveness of the method.

  7. Controlling chaos based on an adaptive nonlinear compensator mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Ling-Ling; Li Dong-Hai; Sun Xian-Fang

    2008-01-01

    The control problems of chaotic systems are investigated in the presence of parametric uncertainty and persistent external disturbances based on nonlinear control theory.By using a designed nonlinear compensator mechanism,the system deterministic nonlinearity,parametric uncertainty and disturbance effect can be compensated effectively.The renowned chaotic Lorenz system subjected to parametric variations and external disturbances is studied as an illustrative example.From the Lyapunov stability theory,sufficient conditions for choosing control parameters to guarantee chaos control are derived.Several experiments are carried out,including parameter change experiments,set-point change experiments and disturbance experiments.Simulation results indicate that the chaotic motion can be regulated not only to steady states but also to any desired periodic orbits with great immunity to parametric variations and external disturbances.

  8. Measurement of heart rate variability by methods based on nonlinear dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huikuri, Heikki V; Mäkikallio, Timo H; Perkiömäki, Juha

    2003-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) variability has been conventionally analyzed with time and frequency domain methods, which measure the overall magnitude of R-R interval fluctuations around its mean value or the magnitude of fluctuations in some predetermined frequencies. Analysis of HR dynamics by methods based on chaos theory and nonlinear system theory has gained recent interest. This interest is based on observations suggesting that the mechanisms involved in cardiovascular regulation likely interact with each other in a nonlinear way. Furthermore, recent observational studies suggest that some indexes describing nonlinear HR dynamics, such as fractal scaling exponents, may provide more powerful prognostic information than the traditional HR variability indexes. In particular, short-term fractal scaling exponent measured by detrended fluctuation analysis method has been shown to predict fatal cardiovascular events in various populations. Approximate entropy, a nonlinear index of HR dynamics, which describes the complexity of R-R interval behavior, has provided information on the vulnerability to atrial fibrillation. There are many other nonlinear indexes, eg, Lyapunov exponent and correlation dimensions, which also give information on the characteristics of HR dynamics, but their clinical utility is not well established. Although concepts of chaos theory, fractal mathematics, and complexity measures of HR behavior in relation to cardiovascular physiology or various cardiovascular events are still far away from clinical medicine, they are a fruitful area for future research to expand our knowledge concerning the behavior of cardiovascular oscillations in normal healthy conditions as well as in disease states.

  9. A Cumulant-based Analysis of Nonlinear Magnetospheric Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay R. Johnson; Simon Wing

    2004-01-28

    Understanding magnetospheric dynamics and predicting future behavior of the magnetosphere is of great practical interest because it could potentially help to avert catastrophic loss of power and communications. In order to build good predictive models it is necessary to understand the most critical nonlinear dependencies among observed plasma and electromagnetic field variables in the coupled solar wind/magnetosphere system. In this work, we apply a cumulant-based information dynamical measure to characterize the nonlinear dynamics underlying the time evolution of the Dst and Kp geomagnetic indices, given solar wind magnetic field and plasma input. We examine the underlying dynamics of the system, the temporal statistical dependencies, the degree of nonlinearity, and the rate of information loss. We find a significant solar cycle dependence in the underlying dynamics of the system with greater nonlinearity for solar minimum. The cumulant-based approach also has the advantage that it is reliable even in the case of small data sets and therefore it is possible to avoid the assumption of stationarity, which allows for a measure of predictability even when the underlying system dynamics may change character. Evaluations of several leading Kp prediction models indicate that their performances are sub-optimal during active times. We discuss possible improvements of these models based on this nonparametric approach.

  10. Relative Nonlinear Electrodynamics Interaction of Charged Particles with Strong and Super Strong Laser Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Avetissian, Hamlet

    2006-01-01

    This book covers a large class of fundamental investigations into Relativistic Nonlinear Electrodynamics. It explores the interaction between charged particles and strong laser fields, mainly concentrating on contemporary problems of x-ray lasers, new type small set-up high-energy accelerators of charged particles, as well as electron-positron pair production from super powerful laser fields of relativistic intensities. It will also discuss nonlinear phenomena of threshold nature that eliminate the concurrent inverse processes in the problems of Laser Accelerator and Free Electron Laser, thus creating new opportunities for solving these problems.

  11. Nonlinear interaction of two trapped-mode resonances in a bilayer "fish-scale" metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Tuz, Vladimir R; Mladyonov, Pavel L; Prosvirnin, Sergey L; Novitsky, Andrey V

    2014-01-01

    We report on a bistable light transmission through a bilayer "fish-scale" (meander-line) metamaterial. It is demonstrated that an all-optical switching may be achieved nearly the frequency of the high-quality-factor Fano-shaped trapped-mode resonance excitation. The nonlinear interaction of two closely spaced trapped-mode resonances in the bilayer structure composed with a Kerr-type nonlinear dielectric slab is analyzed in both frequency and time domains. It is demonstrated that these two resonances react differently on the applied intense light which leads to destination of a multistable transmission.

  12. Statistical analysis of nonlinear wave interactions in simulated Langmuir turbulence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soucek

    Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of strong turbulence of Langmuir and ion-sound waves resulting from beam-plasma interaction. The analysis is carried out on data sets produced by a numerical simulation of one-dimensional Zakharov’s equations. The nonlinear wave interactions are studied using two different approaches: high-order spectra and Volterra models. These methods were applied to identify two and three wave processes in the data, and the Volterra model was furthermore employed to evaluate the direction and magnitude of energy transfer between the wave modes in the case of Langmuir wave decay. We demonstrate that these methods allow one to determine the relative importance of strongly and weakly turbulent processes. The statistical validity of the results was thoroughly tested using surrogated data set analysis.

    Key words. Space plasma physics (wave-wave interactions; experimental and mathematical techniques; nonlinear phenomena

  13. GA-Based Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller for Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Chiang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the greatest difficulty encountered when designing a fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC or an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller (AFSMC capable of rapidly and efficiently controlling complex and nonlinear systems is how to select the most appropriate initial values for the parameter vector. In this paper, we describe a method of stability analysis for a GA-based reference adaptive fuzzy sliding model controller capable of handling these types of problems for a nonlinear system. First, we approximate and describe an uncertain and nonlinear plant for the tracking of a reference trajectory via a fuzzy model incorporating fuzzy logic control rules. Next, the initial values of the consequent parameter vector are decided via a genetic algorithm. After this, an adaptive fuzzy sliding model controller, designed to simultaneously stabilize and control the system, is derived. The stability of the nonlinear system is ensured by the derivation of the stability criterion based upon Lyapunov's direct method. Finally, an example, a numerical simulation, is provided to demonstrate the control methodology.

  14. Three-wave interaction in two-component quadratic nonlinear lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konotop, V. V.; Cunha, M. D.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1999-01-01

    We investigate a two-component lattice with a quadratic nonlinearity and find with the multiple scale technique that integrable three-wave interaction takes place between plane wave solutions when these fulfill resonance conditions. We demonstrate that. energy conversion and pulse propagation known...... from three-wave interaction is reproduced in the lattice and that exact phase matching of parametric processes can be obtained in non-phase-matched lattices by tilting the interacting plane waves with respect to each other. [S1063-651X(99)15110-9]....

  15. Local interaction simulation approach to modelling nonclassical, nonlinear elastic behavior in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalerandi, Marco; Agostini, Valentina; Delsanto, Pier Paolo; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Johnson, Paul A

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies show that a broad category of materials share "nonclassical" nonlinear elastic behavior much different from "classical" (Landau-type) nonlinearity. Manifestations of "nonclassical" nonlinearity include stress-strain hysteresis and discrete memory in quasistatic experiments, and specific dependencies of the harmonic amplitudes with respect to the drive amplitude in dynamic wave experiments, which are remarkably different from those predicted by the classical theory. These materials have in common soft "bond" elements, where the elastic nonlinearity originates, contained in hard matter (e.g., a rock sample). The bond system normally comprises a small fraction of the total material volume, and can be localized (e.g., a crack in a solid) or distributed, as in a rock. In this paper a model is presented in which the soft elements are treated as hysteretic or reversible elastic units connected in a one-dimensional lattice to elastic elements (grains), which make up the hard matrix. Calculations are performed in the framework of the local interaction simulation approach (LISA). Experimental observations are well predicted by the model, which is now ready both for basic investigations about the physical origins of nonlinear elasticity and for applications to material damage diagnostics.

  16. Wave–vortex interactions in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yuan, E-mail: yuanguo@cims.nyu.edu; Bühler, Oliver [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    This is a theoretical study of wave–vortex interaction effects in the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is a useful conceptual model for the limiting dynamics of superfluid quantum condensates at zero temperature. The particular wave–vortex interaction effects are associated with the scattering and refraction of small-scale linear waves by the straining flows induced by quantized point vortices and, crucially, with the concomitant nonlinear back-reaction, the remote recoil, that these scattered waves exert on the vortices. Our detailed model is a narrow, slowly varying wavetrain of small-amplitude waves refracted by one or two vortices. Weak interactions are studied using a suitable perturbation method in which the nonlinear recoil force on the vortex then arises at second order in wave amplitude, and is computed in terms of a Magnus-type force expression for both finite and infinite wavetrains. In the case of an infinite wavetrain, an explicit asymptotic formula for the scattering angle is also derived and cross-checked against numerical ray tracing. Finally, under suitable conditions a wavetrain can be so strongly refracted that it collapses all the way onto a zero-size point vortex. This is a strong wave–vortex interaction by definition. The conditions for such a collapse are derived and the validity of ray tracing theory during the singular collapse is investigated.

  17. An Interactive Multimedia Based Instruction in Experimental Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten; Nielsen, J.N.; Østergaard, J.

    1997-01-01

    A CD-ROM based interactive multimedia instruction in experimental modelling for Danish Engineering School teachers is described. The content is based on a new sensitivity approach for direct estimation of physical parameters in linear and nonlinear dynamic systems. The presentation is inspired...... of Solomans=s inventory of learning styles. To enhance active learning and motivation by real life problems, the simulation tool Matlab is integrated in the authoring program Medi8or....

  18. Adaptive Neural Network Based Control of Noncanonical Nonlinear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Tao, Gang; Chen, Mou

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a new study on the adaptive neural network-based control of a class of noncanonical nonlinear systems with large parametric uncertainties. Unlike commonly studied canonical form nonlinear systems whose neural network approximation system models have explicit relative degree structures, which can directly be used to derive parameterized controllers for adaptation, noncanonical form nonlinear systems usually do not have explicit relative degrees, and thus their approximation system models are also in noncanonical forms. It is well-known that the adaptive control of noncanonical form nonlinear systems involves the parameterization of system dynamics. As demonstrated in this paper, it is also the case for noncanonical neural network approximation system models. Effective control of such systems is an open research problem, especially in the presence of uncertain parameters. This paper shows that it is necessary to reparameterize such neural network system models for adaptive control design, and that such reparameterization can be realized using a relative degree formulation, a concept yet to be studied for general neural network system models. This paper then derives the parameterized controllers that guarantee closed-loop stability and asymptotic output tracking for noncanonical form neural network system models. An illustrative example is presented with the simulation results to demonstrate the control design procedure, and to verify the effectiveness of such a new design method.

  19. Interactions between time-varying mesh stiffness and clearance non-linearities in a geared system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, A.; Singh, R.

    1991-04-01

    Frequency response characteristics of a non-linear geared rotor-bearing system with time-varying mesh stiffness k h( overlinet) are examined in this paper. First, the single-degree-of-freedom spur gear pair model with backlash is extended to include sinusoidal or periodic mesh stiffness k h( overlinet) . Second, a three-degree-of-freedom model with k h( overlinet) and clearance non-lineariries associated with gear backlash and rolling element bearings, as excited by the static transmission error overlinee( overlinet) under a mean torque load, is developed. The governing equations are solved using digital simulation technique and only the primary resonances are studied. Resonances of the corresponding linear time-varying system associated with parametric and external excitations are identified using the method of multiple scales and digital simulation. Interactions between the mesh stiffness variation and clearance non-linearities have been investigated; a strong interaction between time-varying mesh stiffness k h( overlinet) and gear backlash is found, whereas the coupling between k h( overlinet) and bearing non-linearities is weak. Finally, our time-varying non-linear formulations yield reasonably good predictions when compared with the benchmark experimental results available in the literature.

  20. Nonlinear wave-particle interactions in the outer radiation belts: Van Allen Probes results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton; Drake, James; Vasko, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    Huge numbers of different nonlinear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc. referred to as Time Domain Structures - TDS) have been observed by the electric field experiment on board the Van Allen Probes. A large part of the observed non-linear structures are associated with whistler waves and some of them can be directly driven by whistlers. Observations of electron velocity distributions and chorus waves by the Van Allen Probe B provided long-lasting signatures of electron Landau resonant interactions with oblique chorus waves in the outer radiation belt. In the inhomogeneous geomagnetic field, such resonant interactions then lead to the formation of a plateau in the parallel (with respect to the geomagnetic field) velocity distribution due to trapping of electrons into the wave effective potential. The feedback from trapped particles provides steepening of parallel electric field and development of TDS seeded from initial whistler structure (well explained in terms of Particle-In-Cell model). The decoupling of the whistler wave and the nonlinear electrostatic component is shown in PIC simulation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field system and are observed by the Van Allen Probes in the radiation belts.

  1. A quadrature based method of moments for nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Dustin L.; Vedula, Prakash

    2011-09-01

    Fokker-Planck equations which are nonlinear with respect to their probability densities and occur in many nonequilibrium systems relevant to mean field interaction models, plasmas, fermions and bosons can be challenging to solve numerically. To address some underlying challenges, we propose the application of the direct quadrature based method of moments (DQMOM) for efficient and accurate determination of transient (and stationary) solutions of nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations (NLFPEs). In DQMOM, probability density (or other distribution) functions are represented using a finite collection of Dirac delta functions, characterized by quadrature weights and locations (or abscissas) that are determined based on constraints due to evolution of generalized moments. Three particular examples of nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations considered in this paper include descriptions of: (i) the Shimizu-Yamada model, (ii) the Desai-Zwanzig model (both of which have been developed as models of muscular contraction) and (iii) fermions and bosons. Results based on DQMOM, for the transient and stationary solutions of the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations, have been found to be in good agreement with other available analytical and numerical approaches. It is also shown that approximate reconstruction of the underlying probability density function from moments obtained from DQMOM can be satisfactorily achieved using a maximum entropy method.

  2. Commutator-based linearization of $N = 1$ nonlinear supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuda, Motomu

    2016-01-01

    We consider the linearization of $N = 1$ nonlinear supersymmetry (NLSUSY) based on a commutator algebra in Volkov-Akulov NLSUSY theory. We show explicitly that $U(1)$ gauge and scalar supermultiplets in addition to a vector supermultiplet with general auxiliary fields in linear SUSY theories are obtained from a same set of bosonic and fermionic functionals (composites) which are expressed as simple products of the powers of a Nambu-Goldstone fermion and a fundamental determinant in the NLSUSY theory.

  3. Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction via Path-Based Isometric Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods have demonstrated top-notch performance in many pattern recognition and image classification tasks. Despite their popularity, they suffer from highly expensive time and memory requirements, which render them inapplicable to large-scale datasets. To leverage such cases we propose a new method called "Path-Based Isomap". Similar to Isomap, we exploit geodesic paths to find the low-dimensional embedding. However, instead of preserving pairwise geodesic ...

  4. Stabilization of discrete nonlinear systems based on control Lyapunov functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The stabilization of discrete nonlinear systems is studied.Based on control Lyapunov functions,asufficient and necessary condition for a quadratic function to be a control Lyapunov function is given.From this condition,a continuous state feedback law is constructed explicitly.It can globally asymptotically stabilize the equilibrium of the closed-loop system.A simulation example shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Role of Convective Cells in Nonlinear Interaction of Kinetic Alfven Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Onnie

    The convective cells are observed in the auroral ionosphere and they could play an important role in the nonlinear interaction of Alfven waves and disrupt the kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) turbulence. Zonal fields, which are analogous to convective cells, are generated by microturbulence and regulate microturbulence inside toroidally confined plasmas. It is important to understand the role of convective cells in the nonlinear interaction of KAW leading to perpendicular cascade of spectral energy. A nonlinear gyrokinetic particle simulation has been developed to study the perpendicular spectral cascade of kinetic Alfven wave. However, convective cells were excluded in the study. In this thesis project, we have modified the formulation to implement the convective cells to study their role in the nonlinear interactions of KAW. This thesis contains detail description of the code formulation and convergence tests performed, and the simulation results on the role of convective cells in the nonlinear interactions of KAW. In the single KAW pump wave simulations, we observed the pump wave energy cascades to waves with shorter wavelengths, with three of them as dominant daughter waves. Convective cells are among those dominant daughter waves and they enhance the rate of energy transfer from pump to daughter waves. When zonal fields are present, the growth rates of the dominant daughter waves are doubled. The convective cell (zonal flow) of the zonal fields is shown to play a major role in the nonlinear wave interaction, while the linear zonal vector potential has little effects. The growth rates of the daughter waves linearly depends on the pump wave amplitude and the square of perpendicular wavenumber. On the other hand, the growth rates do not depend on the parallel wavenumber in the limit where the parallel wavenumber is much smaller than the perpendicular wavenumber. The nonlinear wave interactions with various perpendicular wavenumbers are also studied in this work. When

  6. Modelling of Nonlinear Dynamic of Mechanic Systems with the Force Tribological Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Nuzhdin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the mechanisms with different structure: tribometric device and a mechanism for handling of optical glasses. In the first device, the movement of the upper platform is due to a reciprocating friction interaction. In the second device, the processing of the optical element or group of elements occurs due to the rotational motion. Modelling of the dynamic of these systems with Matlab/Simmechanic allowed carrying out the analysis of dynamic of mechanisms, considering nonlinearity tribological interactions for these systems. The article shows that using of the computer models can effectively carry out the selection of the control parameters to create the desired mode of operation, as well as to investigate the behaviour of systems with nonlinear parameters and processes of self-oscillations. The organization of the managed self-oscillation process is realized to create the relevant high-performance manufacturing, for example, for the processing of optical glasses.

  7. Numerical simulation of nonlinear long waves interacting with arrays of emergent cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Zainali, Amir; Weiss, Robert; Irish, Jennifer L; Yang, Yongqian

    2016-01-01

    We presented numerical simulation of long waves, interacting with arrays of emergent cylinders inside regularly spaced patches, representing discontinues patchy coastal vegetation. We employed the fully nonlinear and weakly dispersive Serre-Green-Naghdi equations (SGN) until the breaking process starts, while we changed the governing equations to nonlinear shallow water equations (NSW) at the vicinity of the breaking-wave peak and during the runup stage. We modeled the cylinders as physical boundaries rather than approximating them as macro-roughness friction. We showed that the cylinders provide protection for the areas behind them. However they might also cause amplification in local water depth in those areas. The presented results are extensively validated against the existing numerical and experimental data. Our results demonstrate the capability and reliability of our model in simulating wave interaction with emergent cylinders.

  8. Wavenumber resonance in nonlinear wave interactions in the wake of a flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Jose Benigno

    The spatial traits of nonlinear wave interactions in transitioning flow in the symmetric wake of a flat plate were studied. The study combines the use of hot wire anemometry and digital analysis techniques for extracting frequency and wavenumber information from velocity fluctuation time series measurements. The linear spatial coherence was computed from velocity fluctuation data in order to determine if the frequency modes behave as waves, that is, spatially coherent fluctuations with a well defined dispersion relation. A new method was used to compute the mode triad wavenumber mismatch. The results were used to determine to what extent wavenumber resonance is present among quadratically interacting frequency resonant modes, as predicted by resonant wave interaction theory. The results show that, in the early part of the transition, instability modes interact nonlinearity to generate spatially coherent modes at frequencies above the instability range. Quadratically interacting, frequency resonant mode triads involve the transfer of energy to the harmonics of the fundamental instability exhibit good wavenumber resonance, as predicted by resonant wave interaction theory.

  9. The effect of crack orientation on the nonlinear interaction of a P wave with an S wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    TenCate, J. A.; Malcolm, A. E.; Feng, X.; Fehler, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Cracks, joints, fluids, and other pore-scale structures have long been hypothesized to be the cause of the large elastic nonlinearity observed in rocks. It is difficult to definitively say which pore-scale features are most important, however, because of the difficulty in isolating the source of the nonlinear interaction. In this work, we focus on the influence of cracks on the recorded nonlinear signal and in particular on how the orientation of microcracks changes the strength of the nonlinear interaction. We do this by studying the effect of orientation on the measurements in a rock with anisotropy correlated with the presence and alignment of microcracks. We measure the nonlinear response via the traveltime delay induced in a low-amplitude P wave probe by a high-amplitude S wave pump. We find evidence that crack orientation has a significant effect on the nonlinear signal.

  10. A non-linear wave decomposition model for efficient wave–structure interaction. Part A: Formulation, validations and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducrozet, Guillaume; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Bingham, Harry B.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of an enhanced model for solving wave–wave and wave–structure interaction problems. We describe the application of a non-linear splitting method originally suggested by Di Mascio et al. [1], to the high-order finite difference model developed by Bingham et al....... [2] and extended by Engsig-Karup et al. [3] and [4]. The enhanced strategy is based on splitting all solution variables into incident and scattered fields, where the incident field is assumed to be known and only the scattered field needs to be computed by the numerical model. Although this splitting...

  11. Spin–orbit interaction effect on nonlinear optical rectification of quantum wire in the presence of electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Lahon, Siddhartha, E-mail: sid.lahon@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Physics, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jha, Pradip Kumar [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Physics, DDU College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Gumber, Sukirti; Mohan, Man [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-04-01

    Here we have investigated the influence of external electric field and magnetic field on the nonlinear optical rectification of a parabolic confinement wire in the presence of Rashba spin–orbit interaction. We have used density matrix formulation for obtaining optical properties within the effective mass approximation. The results are presented as a function of quantum wire radius, electric field, magnetic field, Rashba spin–orbit interaction strength and photon energy. Our results indicate an increase of electric field gives the red-shift of the peak positions of nonlinear optical rectification. The role of confinement strength and spin–orbit interaction strength as control parameters on this nonlinear property have been demonstrated.

  12. Beta-functions of non-linear $\\sigma$-models for disordered and interacting electron systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Anna, Luca

    2016-01-01

    We provide and study complete sets of one-loop renormalization group equations, calculated at all orders in the interaction parameters, of several Finkel'stein non-linear $\\sigma$-models, the effective field theories describing the diffusive quantum fluctuations in correlated disordered systems. We consider different cases according to the presence of certain symmetries induced by the original random Hamiltonians, and we show that, for interacting systems, the Cartan's classification of symmetry classes is not enough to uniquely determine their scaling behaviors.

  13. Nonlinear interaction between the diurnal and semidiurnal tides: Terdiurnal and diurnal secondary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, H.; Vial, F.; Manson, A. H.; Giraldez, R.; Masseboeuf, M.

    1989-01-01

    Many years of measurements obtained using French meteor radars at Garchy (latitude 47 N) and Montpazier (latitude 44 N) are used to show the existence of an 8 hour oscillation. Some examples of the structure of this wave are displayed and compared with measurements performed at Saskatoon (latitude 52 N) and Budrio (latitude 45 N). This wave can be interpreted as the solar driven terdiurnal tide, or as the result of the nonlinear interaction between the diurnal and semidiurnal tides. Both hypotheses are tested with numerical models. Incidentally, the possible existence of a 24 hour wave resulting from this interaction is also studied.

  14. Transient stability improvement by nonlinear controllers based on tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Juan M. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados, Guadalajara, Mexico. Av. Cientifica 1145. Col. El Bajio. Zapopan, Jal. 45015 (Mexico); Arroyave, Felipe Valencia; Correa Gutierrez, Rosa Elvira [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin. Facultad de Minas, Escuela de Mecatronica (Colombia)

    2011-02-15

    This paper deals with the control problem in multi-machine electric power systems, which represent complex great scale nonlinear systems. Thus, the controller design is a challenging problem. These systems are subjected to different perturbations, such as short circuits, connection and/or disconnection of loads, lines, or generators. Then, the utilization of controllers which guarantee good performance under those perturbations is required in order to provide electrical energy to the loads with admissible stability margins. The proposed controllers are based on a systematic strategy, which calculate nonlinear controllers for generating units in a power plant, both for voltage and velocity regulation. The formulation allows designing controllers in a multi-machine power system without intricate calculations. Results on a power system of the open research indicate the proposition's suitability. The problem is formulated as a tracking problem. The designed controllers may be implemented in any electric power system. (author)

  15. Bayesian framework for modeling diffusion processes with nonlinear drift based on nonlinear and incomplete observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Noé, Frank

    2011-03-01

    Diffusion processes are relevant for a variety of phenomena in the natural sciences, including diffusion of cells or biomolecules within cells, diffusion of molecules on a membrane or surface, and diffusion of a molecular conformation within a complex energy landscape. Many experimental tools exist now to track such diffusive motions in single cells or molecules, including high-resolution light microscopy, optical tweezers, fluorescence quenching, and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Experimental observations are most often indirect and incomplete: (1) They do not directly reveal the potential or diffusion constants that govern the diffusion process, (2) they have limited time and space resolution, and (3) the highest-resolution experiments do not track the motion directly but rather probe it stochastically by recording single events, such as photons, whose properties depend on the state of the system under investigation. Here, we propose a general Bayesian framework to model diffusion processes with nonlinear drift based on incomplete observations as generated by various types of experiments. A maximum penalized likelihood estimator is given as well as a Gibbs sampling method that allows to estimate the trajectories that have caused the measurement, the nonlinear drift or potential function and the noise or diffusion matrices, as well as uncertainty estimates of these properties. The approach is illustrated on numerical simulations of FRET experiments where it is shown that trajectories, potentials, and diffusion constants can be efficiently and reliably estimated even in cases with little statistics or nonequilibrium measurement conditions.

  16. Learning-based Nonlinear Model Predictive Control to Improve Vision-based Mobile Robot Path Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Learning -based Nonlinear Model Predictive Control to Improve Vision-based Mobile Robot Path Tracking Chris J. Ostafew Institute for Aerospace Studies... learning from experience. Schoellig et al. (2012) and Ostafew et al. (2013) present ILC algorithms for quadrotors and mobile robots, respectively...presents a Learning -based Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (LB-NMPC) algo- rithm for a path-repeating, mobile robot negotiating large-scale, GPS

  17. Controller Design of Complex System Based on Nonlinear Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun Mu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new idea of controller design for complex systems. The nonlinearity index method was first developed for error propagation of nonlinear system. The nonlinearity indices access the boundary between the strong and the weak nonlinearities of the system model. The algorithm of nonlinearity index according to engineering application is first proposed in this paper. Applying this method on nonlinear systems is an effective way to measure the nonlinear strength of dynamics model over the full flight envelope. The nonlinearity indices access the boundary between the strong and the weak nonlinearities of system model. According to the different nonlinear strength of dynamical model, the control system is designed. The simulation time of dynamical complex system is selected by the maximum value of dynamic nonlinearity indices. Take a missile as example; dynamical system and control characteristic of missile are simulated. The simulation results show that the method is correct and appropriate.

  18. Nonlinear robust control of hypersonic aircrafts with interactions between flight dynamics and propulsion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoying; Zhou, Wenjie; Liu, Hao

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the nonlinear robust tracking controller design problem for hypersonic vehicles. This problem is challenging due to strong coupling between the aerodynamics and the propulsion system, and the uncertainties involved in the vehicle dynamics including parametric uncertainties, unmodeled model uncertainties, and external disturbances. By utilizing the feedback linearization technique, a linear tracking error system is established with prescribed references. For the linear model, a robust controller is proposed based on the signal compensation theory to guarantee that the tracking error dynamics is robustly stable. Numerical simulation results are given to show the advantages of the proposed nonlinear robust control method, compared to the robust loop-shaping control approach.

  19. Characterizing the nonlinear interaction of S- and P-waves in a rock sample

    CERN Document Server

    Gallot, Thomas; Szabo, Thomas L; Brown, Stephen; Burns, Daniel; Fehler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear elastic response of rocks is known to be caused by the rocks' microstructure, particularly cracks and fluids. This paper presents a method for characterizing the nonlinearity of rocks in a laboratory scale experiment with a unique configuration. This configuration has been designed to open up the possibility the nonlinear characterization of rocks as an imaging tool in a field scenario. The nonlinear interaction of two traveling waves: a low-amplitude 500 kHz P-wave probe and a high-amplitude 50 kHz S-wave pump has been studied on a room-dry 15 x 15x 3 cm slab of Berea sandstone. Changes in the arrival time of the P-wave probe as it passes through the perturbation created by the traveling S-wave pump were recorded. Waveforms were time gated to simulate a semi-infinite medium. The shear wave phase relative to the P-wave probe signal was varied with resultant changes in the P-wave probe arrival time of up to 100 ns, corresponding to a change in elastic properties of 0.2%. In order to estimate the ...

  20. Characterizing the nonlinear interaction of S- and P-waves in a rock sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallot, Thomas; Malcolm, Alison; Szabo, Thomas L.; Brown, Stephen; Burns, Daniel; Fehler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear elastic response of rocks is known to be caused by the rocks' microstructure, particularly cracks and fluids. This paper presents a method for characterizing the nonlinearity of rocks in a laboratory scale experiment with a unique configuration. This configuration has been designed to open up the possibility of using the nonlinear characterization of rocks as an imaging tool in the field. In our experiment, we study the nonlinear interaction of two traveling waves: a low-amplitude 500 kHz P-wave probe and a high-amplitude 50 kHz S-wave pump in a room-dry 15 × 15 × 3 cm slab of Berea sandstone. Changes in the arrival time of the P-wave probe as it passes through the perturbation created by the traveling S-wave pump were recorded. Waveforms were time gated to simulate a semi-infinite medium. The shear wave phase relative to the P-wave probe signal was varied with resultant changes in the P-wave probe arrival time of up to 100 ns, corresponding to a change in elastic properties of 0.2%. In order to estimate the strain in our sample, we also measured the particle velocity at the sample surface to scale a finite difference linear elastic simulation to estimate the complex strain field in the sample, on the order of 10-6, induced by the S-wave pump. We derived a fourth order elastic model to relate the changes in elasticity to the pump strain components. We recover quadratic and cubic nonlinear parameters: β ˜ = - 872 and δ ˜ = - 1.1 × 10 10 , respectively, at room-temperature and when particle motions of the pump and probe waves are aligned. Temperature fluctuations are correlated to changes in the recovered values of β ˜ and δ ˜ , and we find that the nonlinear parameter changes when the particle motions are orthogonal. No evidence of slow dynamics was seen in our measurements. The same experimental configuration, when applied to Lucite and aluminum, produced no measurable nonlinear effects. In summary, a method of selectively determining the

  1. Effects of Electron-Phonon Interaction on Linear and Nonlinear Optical Absorption in Cylindrical Quantum Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU You-Bin

    2008-01-01

    The electron-phonon interaction influences on linear and nonlinear optical absorption in cylindrical quantum wires (CQW) with an infinite confining potential are investigated. The optical absorption coefficients are obtained by using the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method, and the numerical results are presented for GaAs CQW. The results show that the electron-phonon interaction makes a distinct influence on optical absorption in CQW. The electron-phonon interaction on the wave functions of electron dominates the values of absorption coefficients and the correction of the electron-phonon effect on the energies of the electron makes the absorption peaks blue shift and become wider. Moreover, the electron-phonon interaction influence on optical absorption with an infinite confining potential is different from that with a finite confining potential.

  2. Nonlinear feature identification of impedance-based structural health monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, A. C. (Amanda C.); Park, G. H. (Gyu Hae); Sohn, H. (Hoon); Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2004-01-01

    The impedance-based structural health monitoring technique, which utilizes electromechanical coupling properties of piezoelectric materials, has shown feasibility for use in a variety of structural health monitoring applications. Relying on high frequency local excitations (typically > 30 kHz), this technique is very sensitive to minor changes in structural integrity in the near field of piezoelectric sensors. Several damage sensitive features have been identified and used coupled with the impedance methods. Most of these methods are, however, limited to linearity assumptions of a structure. This paper presents the use of experimentally identified nonlinear features, combined with impedance methods, for structural health monitoring. Their applicability to damage detection in various frequency ranges is demonstrated using actual impedance signals measured from a portal frame structure. The performance of the nonlinear feature is compared with those of conventional impedance methods. This paper reinforces the utility of nonlinear features in structural health monitoring and suggests that their varying sensitivity in different frequency ranges may be leveraged for certain applications.

  3. Nonlinear time-series-based adaptive control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, R. R.; Rajkumar, V.; Zakrzewski, R. R.

    1991-01-01

    A control design methodology based on a nonlinear time-series reference model is presented. It is indicated by highly nonlinear simulations that such designs successfully stabilize troublesome aircraft maneuvers undergoing large changes in angle of attack as well as large electric power transients due to line faults. In both applications, the nonlinear controller was significantly better than the corresponding linear adaptive controller. For the electric power network, a flexible AC transmission system with series capacitor power feedback control is studied. A bilinear autoregressive moving average reference model is identified from system data, and the feedback control is manipulated according to a desired reference state. The control is optimized according to a predictive one-step quadratic performance index. A similar algorithm is derived for control of rapid changes in aircraft angle of attack over a normally unstable flight regime. In the latter case, however, a generalization of a bilinear time-series model reference includes quadratic and cubic terms in angle of attack.

  4. Nonlinear Finite Element Modelling of Railway Turnout System considering Bearer/Sleeper-Ballast Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sae Siew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail turnouts are built to enable flexibility in the rail network as they allow for vehicles to switch between various tracks, therefore maximizing the utilisation of existing rail infrastructure. In general, railway turnouts are a safety-critical and expensive feature to a rail system as they suffer aggressive operational loads, in comparison to a plain rail track, and thus require frequent monitoring and maintenance. In practice, great consideration is given to the dynamic interaction between the turnouts components as a failed component may have adverse effects on the performance of neighbouring components. This paper presents a nonlinear 3D finite element (FE model, taking into account the nonlinearities of materials, in order to evaluate the interaction and behaviour of turnout components. Using ABAQUS, the finite element model was developed to simulate standard concrete bearers with 60 kg/m rail and with a tangential turnout radius of 250 m. The turnout structure is supported by a ballast layer, which is represented by a nonlinearly deformable tensionless solid. The numerical studies firstly demonstrate the importance of load transfer mechanisms in the failure modes of the turnout components. The outcome will lead to a better design and maintenance of railway turnouts, improving public safety and operational reliability.

  5. Nonlinear dynamic behavior of rubbing rotor under interaction between bending and torsional vibrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic behavior of a rubbing rotor system was studied with a mathematical model established with the eccentricity and interaction between bending and torsional vibrations taken into consideration.The nonlinear vibrational response of a rubbing rotor was analyzed using numerical integral,spectroscopic analysis and Poince mapping method,which made it possible to have better understanding of the vibrational characteristics of partial rubbing and complete circular rubbing rotors.The numerical results reveal the response of torsional vibration mainly takes a form of suporchronous motion,and its frequency decreases as the rotational speed increases when partial rubbing occurs,and the response of torsional vibration is synchronous when complete circular rubbing occurs.The comparison of the dynamics of rubbing rotors with and without the interaction between bending and torsional vibrations shows the interaction between bending and torsional vibrations advances the rotational speed,at which the response of bending vibration changes from a synchronous motion into a quasi-periodic motion,and the interaction between bending and torsional vibrations reduces stability of the rubbing rotor.

  6. Intrinsic nonlinearity of interaction of an electromagnetic field with quantum plasma and its research

    CERN Document Server

    Latyshev, A V

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of nonlinear interaction of transversal electromagnetic field with quantum collisionless plasma is carried out. Formulas for calculation electric current in quantum collisionless plasma at any temperature are deduced. It has appeared, that the nonlinearity account leads to occurrence of the longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. This second current is orthogonal to the known transversal classical current, received at the classical linear analysis. The case of degenerate electronic plasma is considered. The concept of longitudinal-transversal conductivity is entered. The graphic analysis of the real and imaginary parts of dimensionless coefficient of longitudinal-transversal conductivity is made. It is shown, that for degenerate plasmas the electric current is calculated under the formula, not containing quadratures. In this formula we have allocated known Kohn's singularities (W. Kohn, 1959).

  7. Nonlinear interaction between surface plasmons and ion oscillations in a semi-bounded collisional quantum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorashadizadeh, S. M., E-mail: smkhorashadi@birjand.ac.ir; Taheri Boroujeni, S. [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the nonlinear interaction between high-frequency surface plasmons and low-frequency ion oscillations in a semi-bounded collisional quantum plasma. By coupling the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and quantum hydrodynamic model, and taking into account the ponderomotive force, the dispersion equation is obtained. By solving this equation, it is shown that there is a modulational instability in the system, and collisions and quantum forces play significant roles on this instability. The quantum tunneling increases the phase and group velocities of the modulated waves and collisions increase the growth rate of the modulational instability. It is also shown that the effect of quantum forces and collisions is more significant in high modulated wavenumber regions.

  8. Nonlinear Damping Identification in Nonlinear Dynamic System Based on Stochastic Inverse Approach

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear model is crucial to prepare, supervise, and analyze mechanical system. In this paper, a new nonparametric and output-only identification procedure for nonlinear damping is studied. By introducing the concept of the stochastic state space, we formulate a stochastic inverse problem for a nonlinear damping. The solution of the stochastic inverse problem is designed as probabilistic expression via the hierarchical Bayesian formulation by considering various uncertainties such as the...

  9. Design Intelligent Model base Online Tuning Methodology for Nonlinear System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Roshanzamir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In various dynamic parameters systems that need to be training on-line adaptive control methodology is used. In this paper fuzzy model-base adaptive methodology is used to tune the linear Proportional Integral Derivative (PID controller. The main objectives in any systems are; stability, robust and reliability. However PID controller is used in many applications but it has many challenges to control of continuum robot. To solve these problems nonlinear adaptive methodology based on model base fuzzy logic is used. This research is used to reduce or eliminate the PID controller problems based on model reference fuzzy logic theory to control of flexible robot manipulator system and testing of the quality of process control in the simulation environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK Simulator.

  10. A New Nonlinear Compound Forecasting Method Based on ANN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the compound-forecasting method is discussed. The compound-forecasting method is one of the hotspots in the current predication. Firstly, the compound-forecasting method is introduced and various existing compound-forecasting methods arediscussed. Secondly, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is brought in compound-prediction research and a nonlinear compound-prediction model based on ANN is presented. Finally, inorder to avoid irregular weight, a new method is presented which uses principal component analyses to increase the availability of compound-forecasting information. Higherforecasting precision is achieved in practice.

  11. Stabilization of nonlinear systems based on robust control Lyapunov function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiu-shan; HAN Zheng-zhi; LU Gan-yun

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the robust stabilization problem for a class of nonlinear systems with structural uncertainty. Based on robust control Lyapunov function, a sufficient and necessary condition for a function to be a robust control Lyapunov function is given. From this condition, simply sufficient condition for the robust stabilization (robust practical stabilization) is deduced. Moreover, if the equilibrium of the closed-loop system is unique, the existence of such a robust control Lyapunov function will also imply robustly globally asymptotical stabilization. Then a continuous state feedback law can be constructed explicitly. The simulation shows the effectiveness of the method.

  12. Nonlinear mechanisms to Rogue events in the process of interaction between optical filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kovachev, L M

    2015-01-01

    We investigate two types of nonlinear interaction between collinear femtosecond laser pulses with power slightly above the critical for self-focusing $P_{cr}$. In the first case we study energy exchange between filaments. The model describes this process through degenerate four-photon parametric mixing (FPPM) scheme and requests initial phase difference between the waves. When there are no initial phase difference between the pulses, the FPPM process does not work. In this case it is obtained the second type of interaction as merging between two, three or four filaments in a single filament with higher power. It is found that in the second case the interflow between the filaments has potential of interaction due to cross-phase modulation (CPM).

  13. Temperature induced syllable breaking unveils nonlinearly interacting timescales in birdsong motor pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías A Goldin

    Full Text Available The nature of telencephalic control over premotor and motor circuits is debated. Hypotheses range from complete usurping of downstream circuitry to highly interactive mechanisms of control. We show theoretically and experimentally, that telencephalic song motor control in canaries is consistent with a highly interactive strategy. As predicted from a theoretical model of respiratory control, mild cooling of a forebrain nucleus (HVC led to song stretching, but further cooling caused progressive restructuring of song, consistent with the hypothesis that respiratory gestures are subharmonic responses to a timescale present in the output of HVC. This interaction between a life-sustaining motor function (respiration and telencephalic song motor control suggests a more general mechanism of how nonlinear integration of evolutionarily new brain structures into existing circuitry gives rise to diverse, new behavior.

  14. Modelling of nonlinear shoaling based on stochastic evolution equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Jørgen Hvenekær

    1998-01-01

    A one-dimensional stochastic model is derived to simulate the transformation of wave spectra in shallow water including generation of bound sub- and super-harmonics, near-resonant triad wave interaction and wave breaking. Boussinesq type equations with improved linear dispersion characteristics...... are recast into evolution equations for the complex amplitudes, and serve as the underlying deterministic model. Next, a set of evolution equations for the cumulants is derived. By formally introducing the well-known Gaussian closure hypothesis, nonlinear evolution equations for the power spectrum...... and bispectrum are derived. A simple description of depth-induced wave breaking is incorporated in the model equations, assuming that the total rate of dissipation may be distributed in proportion to the spectral energy density on each discrete frequency. The proposed phase-averaged model is compared...

  15. Multi-modal vibration energy harvesting approach based on nonlinear oscillator arrays under magnetic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, I.; Kacem, N.; Bouhaddi, N.; Bouazizi, M. L.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a multi-modal vibration energy harvesting approach based on arrays of coupled levitated magnets. The equations of motion which include the magnetic nonlinearity and the electromagnetic damping are solved using the harmonic balance method coupled with the asymptotic numerical method. A multi-objective optimization procedure is introduced and performed using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm for the cases of small magnet arrays in order to select the optimal solutions in term of performances by bringing the eigenmodes close to each other in terms of frequencies and amplitudes. Thanks to the nonlinear coupling and the modal interactions even for only three coupled magnets, the proposed method enable harvesting the vibration energy in the operating frequency range of 4.6-14.5 Hz, with a bandwidth of 190% and a normalized power of 20.2 {mW} {{cm}}-3 {{{g}}}-2.

  16. Simple nonlinear interferometer-based all-optical thresholder and its applications for optical CDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Konstantin; Prucnal, Paul R; Bubnov, Mikhail M

    2007-10-01

    We present an experimental demonstration of an ultrafast all-optical thresholder based on a nonlinear Sagnac interferometer. The proposed design is intended for operation at very small nonlinear phase shifts. Therefore, it requires an in-loop nonlinearity lower than for the classical nonlinear loop mirror scheme. Only 15 meters of conventional (non-holey) silica-based fiber is used as a nonlinear element. The proposed thresholder is polarization insensitive and is good for multi-wavelength operation, meeting all the requirements for autocorrelation detection in various optical CDMA communication systems. The observed cubic transfer function is superior to the quadratic transfer function of second harmonic generation-based thresholders.

  17. Neural network-based H∞ filtering for nonlinear systems with time-delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel H∞ design methodology for a neural network-based nonlinear filtering scheme is addressed.Firstly,neural networks are employed to approximate the nonlinearities.Next,the nonlinear dynamic system is represented by the mode-dependent linear difference inclusion (LDI).Finally,based on the LDI model,a neural network-based nonlinear filter (NNBNF) is developed to minimize the upper bound of H∞ gain index of the estimation error under some linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints.Compared with the existing nonlinear filters,NNBNF is time-invariant and numerically tractable.The validity and applicability of the proposed approach are successfully demonstrated in an illustrative example.

  18. On the Improved Nonlinear Tracking Differentiator based Nonlinear PID Controller Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Kasim Ibraheem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new improved nonlinear tracking differentiator (INTD with hyperbolic tangent function in the state-space system. The stability and convergence of the INTD are thoroughly investigated and proved. Through the error analysis, the proposed INTD can extract differentiation of any piecewise smooth nonlinear signal to reach a high accuracy. The improved tracking differentiator (INTD has the required filtering features and can cope with the nonlinearities caused by the noise. Through simulations, the INTD is implemented as a signal’s derivative generator for the closed-loop feedback control system with a nonlinear PID controller for the nonlinear Mass-Spring-Damper system and showed that it could achieve the signal tracking and differentiation faster with a minimum mean square error.

  19. Static compressive strength prediction of open-hole structure based on non-linear shear behavior and micro-mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wangnan; Cai, Hongneng; Li, Chao

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with the characterization of the strength of the constituents of carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminate (CFRP), and a prediction of the static compressive strength of open-hole structure of polymer composites. The approach combined with non-linear analysis in macro-level and a linear elastic micromechanical failure analysis in microlevel (non-linear MMF) is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy. A face-centered cubic micromechanics model is constructed to analyze the stresses in fiber and matrix in microlevel. Non-interactive failure criteria are proposed to characterize the strength of fiber and matrix. The non-linear shear behavior of the laminate is studied experimentally, and a novel approach of cubic spline interpolation is used to capture significant non-linear shear behavior of laminate. The user-defined material subroutine UMAT for the non-linear share behavior is developed and combined in the mechanics analysis in the macro-level using the Abaqus Python codes. The failure mechanism and static strength of open-hole compressive (OHC) structure of polymer composites is studied based on non-linear MMF. The UTS50/E51 CFRP is used to demonstrate the application of theory of non-linear MMF.

  20. ALE Fractional Step Finite Element Method for Fluid-Structure Nonlinear Interaction Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A computational procedure is developed to solve the problems of coupled motion of a structure and a viscous incompressible fluid. In order to incorporate the effect of the moving surface of the structure as well as the free surface motion, the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation is employed as the basis of the finite element spatial discretization. For numerical integration in time, the fraction step method is used. This method is useful because one can use the same linear interpolation function for both velocity and pressure. The method is applied to the nonlinear interaction of a structure and a tuned liquid damper. All computations are performed with a personal computer.

  1. Nonlinear soil-structure interaction calculations simulating the SIMQUAKE experiment using STEALTH 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H. T.; Hofmann, R.; Yee, G.; Vaughan, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    Transient, nonlinear soil-structure interaction simulations of an Electric Power Research Institute, SIMQUAKE experiment were performed using the large strain, time domain STEALTH 2D code and a cyclic, kinematically hardening cap soil model. Results from the STEALTH simulations were compared to identical simulations performed with the TRANAL code and indicate relatively good agreement between all the STEALTH and TRANAL calculations. The differences that are seen can probably be attributed to: (1) large (STEALTH) vs. small (TRANAL) strain formulation and/or (2) grid discretization differences.

  2. Altered phase interactions between spontaneous blood pressure and flow fluctuations in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Nonlinear assessment of cerebral autoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kun; Peng, C. K.; Huang, Norden E.; Wu, Zhaohua; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Cavallerano, Jerry; Novak, Vera

    2008-04-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is an important mechanism that involves dilatation and constriction in arterioles to maintain relatively stable cerebral blood flow in response to changes of systemic blood pressure. Traditional assessments of autoregulation focus on the changes of cerebral blood flow velocity in response to large blood pressure fluctuations induced by interventions. This approach is not feasible for patients with impaired autoregulation or cardiovascular regulation. Here we propose a newly developed technique-the multimodal pressure-flow (MMPF) analysis, which assesses autoregulation by quantifying nonlinear phase interactions between spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and flow velocity during resting conditions. We show that cerebral autoregulation in healthy subjects can be characterized by specific phase shifts between spontaneous blood pressure and flow velocity oscillations, and the phase shifts are significantly reduced in diabetic subjects. Smaller phase shifts between oscillations in the two variables indicate more passive dependence of blood flow velocity on blood pressure, thus suggesting impaired cerebral autoregulation. Moreover, the reduction of the phase shifts in diabetes is observed not only in previously-recognized effective region of cerebral autoregulation (type 2 diabetes mellitus alters cerebral blood flow regulation over a wide frequency range and that this alteration can be reliably assessed from spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and blood flow velocity during resting conditions. We also show that the MMPF method has better performance than traditional approaches based on Fourier transform, and is more suitable for the quantification of nonlinear phase interactions between nonstationary biological signals such as blood pressure and blood flow.

  3. FBFN-based adaptive repetitive control of nonlinearly parameterized systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenli Sun; Hong Cai; Fu Zhao

    2013-01-01

    An adaptive repetitive control scheme is presented for a class of nonlinearly parameterized systems based on the fuzzy ba-sis function network (FBFN). The parameters of the fuzzy rules are tuned with adaptive schemes. To attenuate chattering effectively, the discontinuous control term is approximated by an adaptive PI control structure. The bound of the discontinuous control term is assumed to be unknown and estimated by an adaptive mecha-nism. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive repeti-tive control law is proposed to guarantee the closed-loop stability and the tracking performance. By means of FBFNs, which avoid the nonlinear parameterization from entering into the adaptive repetitive control, the control er singularity problem is solved. The proposed approach does not require an exact structure of the sys-tem dynamics, and the proposed control er is utilized to control a model of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor subject to significant disturbances and parameter uncertainties. The simula-tion results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Three-photon interactions and spin exchange in a quantum nonlinear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Sergio; Liang, Qi-Yu; Thompson, Jeff; Nicholson, Travis; Venkatramani, Aditya; Gullans, Michael; Gorshkov, Alexey; Choi, Soonwon; Lukin, Mikhail; Vuletic, Vladan

    2016-05-01

    Robust quantum gates for photonic qubits are a longstanding goal of quantum information science. One promising approach to achieve this goal requires strong nonlinear interactions between single photons, which is impossible with conventional optical media. We realize these interactions with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), and strongly interacting Rydberg states to mediate strong interactions between photons. Operating in the dispersive regime of EIT, we have recently shown that two photons propagating in our system can bind into a photonic molecule. Extending these two-photon experiments to many-body physics would lead to exotic phenomena like photon crystallization. To that end, we have scaled up our two-photon measurements to three-photon experiments. We are now able to discern signatures of three-photon molecules from a variety of two- and three-photon interactions. Three-photon bound states manifest as an increase in photon bunching in g (3) correlation measurements. We also present a recent observation of coherent spin exchange interactions in Rydberg EIT.

  5. Position and Velocity Estimation for Two-Inertia System with Nonlinear Stiffness Based on Acceleration Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung-Tae Nam; Seung-Joon Lee; Tae-Yong Kuc; Hyungjong Kim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the state estimation problem for flexible joint manipulators that involve nonlinear characteristics in their stiffness. The two key ideas of our design are that (a) an accelerometer is used in order that the estimation error dynamics do not depend on nonlinearities at the link part of the manipulators and (b) the model of the nonlinear stiffness is indeed a Lipschitz function. Based on the measured acceleration, we propose a nonlinear observer under the Lipschitz co...

  6. Study of Super-Twisting sliding mode control for U model based nonlinear system

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Yang; Xueli WU; Jianan HUO; Shenyang ZHUANG

    2016-01-01

    The Super-Twisting control algorithm is adopted to analyze the U model based nonlinear control system in order to solve the controller design problems of non-affine nonlinear systems. The non-affine nonlinear systems are studied, the neural network approximation of the nonlinear function is performed, and the Super-Twisting control algorithm is used to control. The convergence of the Super-Twisting algorithm is proved by selecting an appropriate Lyapunov function. The Matlab simulation is car...

  7. Gradient-based optimization in nonlinear structural dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Suguang

    The intrinsic nonlinearity of mechanical structures can give rise to rich nonlinear dynamics. Recently, nonlinear dynamics of micro-mechanical structures have contributed to developing new Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), for example, atomic force microscope, passive frequency divider......, frequency stabilization, and disk resonator gyroscope. For advanced design of these structures, it is of considerable value to extend current optimization in linear structural dynamics into nonlinear structural dynamics. In this thesis, we present a framework for modelling, analysis, characterization...

  8. Nonlinear Dynamics of Cantilever-Sample Interactions in Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the cantilever tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with the sample surface is obtained by treating the cantilever and sample as independent systems coupled by a nonlinear force acting between the cantilever tip and a volume element of the sample surface. The volume element is subjected to a restoring force from the remainder of the sample that provides dynamical equilibrium for the combined systems. The model accounts for the positions on the cantilever of the cantilever tip, laser probe, and excitation force (if any) via a basis set of set of orthogonal functions that may be generalized to account for arbitrary cantilever shapes. The basis set is extended to include nonlinear cantilever modes. The model leads to a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations that are solved analytically using a matrix iteration procedure. The effects of oscillatory excitation forces applied either to the cantilever or to the sample surface (or to both) are obtained from the solution set and applied to the to the assessment of phase and amplitude signals generated by various acoustic-atomic force microscope (A-AFM) modalities. The influence of bistable cantilever modes of on AFM signal generation is discussed. The effects on the cantilever-sample surface dynamics of subsurface features embedded in the sample that are perturbed by surface-generated oscillatory excitation forces and carried to the cantilever via wave propagation are accounted by the Bolef-Miller propagating wave model. Expressions pertaining to signal generation and image contrast in A-AFM are obtained and applied to amplitude modulation (intermittent contact) atomic force microscopy and resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM). The influence of phase accumulation in A-AFM on image contrast is discussed, as is the effect of hard contact and maximum nonlinearity regimes of A-AFM operation.

  9. 基于量子力学的相互作用绘景构造非线性哈密顿系统的数值计算方法%Construction of Numerical Methods of Nonlinear Hamiltonian Systems Based on Interaction Picture of Quantum Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素英

    2012-01-01

    Numerical methods of nonlinear Hamiltonian systems are constructed in the interaction picture of quantum mechanics. Firstly the original system is transformed to interaction picture of quantum mechanics. This reduces the problem to a system of ordinary differential equations in time. Subsequently,the modified system is integrated in time and then transformed back to the initial representation of the state vector. Varies discrete schemes can be obtained based on different integration methods. The methods in this paper can also be used to solve multi-component Bose-Einstein condensate problem.%文章在量子力学的相互作用绘景中给出了非线性哈密顿系统离散格式的构造方法.首先将原非线性哈密顿问题变换至相互作用绘景,导出一个含时的常微分方程系统,离散该常微分方程并变换回原系统的态矢即可得到原问题的离散格式.基于不同的常微分方程数值方法,可得到原系统不同的离散格式.该方法还可以有效地求解多组分的Bose-Einstein凝聚态物理问题.

  10. Ensemble-based Kalman Filters in Strongly Nonlinear Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoxia PU; Joshua HACKER

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of ensemble Kalman filters in data assimilation with the strongly nonlinear dynamics of the Lorenz-63 model, and in particular their use in predicting the regime transition that occurs when the model jumps from one basin of attraction to the other. Four configurations of the ensemble-based Kalman filtering data assimilation techniques, including the ensemble Kalman filter, ensemble adjustment Kalman filter, ensemble square root filter and ensemble transform Kalman filter, are evaluated with their ability in predicting the regime transition (also called phase transition) and also are compared in terms of their sensitivity to both observational and sampling errors. The sensitivity of each ensemble-based filter to the size of the ensemble is also examined.

  11. Data based identification and prediction of nonlinear and complex dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wen-Xu [School of Systems Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China); Business School, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Lai, Ying-Cheng, E-mail: Ying-Cheng.Lai@asu.edu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Institute for Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology, King’s College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Grebogi, Celso [Institute for Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology, King’s College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-12

    The problem of reconstructing nonlinear and complex dynamical systems from measured data or time series is central to many scientific disciplines including physical, biological, computer, and social sciences, as well as engineering and economics. The classic approach to phase-space reconstruction through the methodology of delay-coordinate embedding has been practiced for more than three decades, but the paradigm is effective mostly for low-dimensional dynamical systems. Often, the methodology yields only a topological correspondence of the original system. There are situations in various fields of science and engineering where the systems of interest are complex and high dimensional with many interacting components. A complex system typically exhibits a rich variety of collective dynamics, and it is of great interest to be able to detect, classify, understand, predict, and control the dynamics using data that are becoming increasingly accessible due to the advances of modern information technology. To accomplish these goals, especially prediction and control, an accurate reconstruction of the original system is required. Nonlinear and complex systems identification aims at inferring, from data, the mathematical equations that govern the dynamical evolution and the complex interaction patterns, or topology, among the various components of the system. With successful reconstruction of the system equations and the connecting topology, it may be possible to address challenging and significant problems such as identification of causal relations among the interacting components and detection of hidden nodes. The “inverse” problem thus presents a grand challenge, requiring new paradigms beyond the traditional delay-coordinate embedding methodology. The past fifteen years have witnessed rapid development of contemporary complex graph theory with broad applications in interdisciplinary science and engineering. The combination of graph, information, and nonlinear

  12. Data based identification and prediction of nonlinear and complex dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-01

    The problem of reconstructing nonlinear and complex dynamical systems from measured data or time series is central to many scientific disciplines including physical, biological, computer, and social sciences, as well as engineering and economics. The classic approach to phase-space reconstruction through the methodology of delay-coordinate embedding has been practiced for more than three decades, but the paradigm is effective mostly for low-dimensional dynamical systems. Often, the methodology yields only a topological correspondence of the original system. There are situations in various fields of science and engineering where the systems of interest are complex and high dimensional with many interacting components. A complex system typically exhibits a rich variety of collective dynamics, and it is of great interest to be able to detect, classify, understand, predict, and control the dynamics using data that are becoming increasingly accessible due to the advances of modern information technology. To accomplish these goals, especially prediction and control, an accurate reconstruction of the original system is required. Nonlinear and complex systems identification aims at inferring, from data, the mathematical equations that govern the dynamical evolution and the complex interaction patterns, or topology, among the various components of the system. With successful reconstruction of the system equations and the connecting topology, it may be possible to address challenging and significant problems such as identification of causal relations among the interacting components and detection of hidden nodes. The "inverse" problem thus presents a grand challenge, requiring new paradigms beyond the traditional delay-coordinate embedding methodology. The past fifteen years have witnessed rapid development of contemporary complex graph theory with broad applications in interdisciplinary science and engineering. The combination of graph, information, and nonlinear dynamical

  13. Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong-Won; Yamashita, Shinji; Goh, Chee S.; Set, Sze Y.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel passive mode-locking scheme for pulsed lasers enhanced by the interaction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with the evanescent field of propagating light in a D-shaped optical fiber. The scheme features all-fiber operation as well as a long lateral interaction length, which guarantees a strong nonlinear effect from the nanotubes. Mode locking is achieved with less than 30% of the CNTs compared with the amount of nanotubes used for conventional schemes. Our method also ensures the preservation of the original morphology of the individual CNTs. The demonstrated pulsed laser with our CNT mode locker has a repetition rate of 5.88 MHz and a temporal pulse width of 470 fs.

  14. Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong-Won; Yamashita, Shinji; Goh, Chee S; Set, Sze Y

    2007-01-15

    We demonstrate a novel passive mode-locking scheme for pulsed lasers enhanced by the interaction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with the evanescent field of propagating light in a D-shaped optical fiber. The scheme features all-fiber operation as well as a long lateral interaction length, which guarantees a strong nonlinear effect from the nanotubes. Mode locking is achieved with less than 30% of the CNTs compared with the amount of nanotubes used for conventional schemes. Our method also ensures the preservation of the original morphology of the individual CNTs. The demonstrated pulsed laser with our CNT mode locker has a repetition rate of 5.88 MHz and a temporal pulse width of 470 fs.

  15. Chimera regimes in a ring of oscillators with local nonlinear interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelev, Igor A.; Zakharova, Anna; Vadivasova, Tatiana E.

    2017-03-01

    One of important problems concerning chimera states is the conditions of their existence and stability. Until now, it was assumed that chimeras could arise only in ensembles with nonlocal character of interactions. However, this assumption is not exactly right. In some special cases chimeras can be realized for local type of coupling [1-3]. We propose a simple model of ensemble with local coupling when chimeras are realized. This model is a ring of linear oscillators with the local nonlinear unidirectional interaction. Chimera structures in the ring are found using computer simulations for wide area of values of parameters. Diagram of the regimes on plane of control parameters is plotted and scenario of chimera destruction are studied when the parameters are changed.

  16. Discrete and continuum links to a nonlinear coupled transport problem of interacting populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, M. H.; Muntean, A.; Richardson, O. M.

    2017-02-01

    We are interested in exploring interacting particle systems that can be seen as microscopic models for a particular structure of coupled transport flux arising when different populations are jointly evolving. The scenarios we have in mind are inspired by the dynamics of pedestrian flows in open spaces and are intimately connected to cross-diffusion and thermo-diffusion problems holding a variational structure. The tools we use include a suitable structure of the relative entropy controlling TV-norms, the construction of Lyapunov functionals and particular closed-form solutions to nonlinear transport equations, a hydrodynamics limiting procedure due to Philipowski, as well as the construction of numerical approximates to both the continuum limit problem in 2D and to the original interacting particle systems.

  17. Three-state interactions determine the second-order nonlinear optical response

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Moreno, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Using the sum-rules, the sum-over-states expression for the diagonal term of first hyperpolarizability can be expressed as the sum of three-state interaction terms. We study the behavior of a generic three-state term to show that is possible to tune the contribution of resonant terms by tuning the spectrum of the molecule. When extrapolated to the off-resonance regime, the three-state interaction terms are shown to behave in a similar manner as the three-level model used to derive the fundamental limits. We finally show that most results derived using the three-level ansatz are general, and apply to molecules where more than three levels contribute to the second-order nonlinear response or/and far from optimization.

  18. Nonlinear Filter Based Image Denoising Using AMF Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Thivakaran, T K

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new technique based on nonlinear Adaptive Median filter (AMF) for image restoration. Image denoising is a common procedure in digital image processing aiming at the removal of noise, which may corrupt an image during its acquisition or transmission, while retaining its quality. This procedure is traditionally performed in the spatial or frequency domain by filtering. The aim of image enhancement is to reconstruct the true image from the corrupted image. The process of image acquisition frequently leads to degradation and the quality of the digitized image becomes inferior to the original image. Filtering is a technique for enhancing the image. Linear filter is the filtering in which the value of an output pixel is a linear combination of neighborhood values, which can produce blur in the image. Thus a variety of smoothing techniques have been developed that are non linear. Median filter is the one of the most popular non-linear filter. When considering a small neighborhood it is highly e...

  19. Simulation-based optimal Bayesian experimental design for nonlinear systems

    KAUST Repository

    Huan, Xun

    2013-01-01

    The optimal selection of experimental conditions is essential to maximizing the value of data for inference and prediction, particularly in situations where experiments are time-consuming and expensive to conduct. We propose a general mathematical framework and an algorithmic approach for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models; in particular, we focus on finding sets of experiments that provide the most information about targeted sets of parameters.Our framework employs a Bayesian statistical setting, which provides a foundation for inference from noisy, indirect, and incomplete data, and a natural mechanism for incorporating heterogeneous sources of information. An objective function is constructed from information theoretic measures, reflecting expected information gain from proposed combinations of experiments. Polynomial chaos approximations and a two-stage Monte Carlo sampling method are used to evaluate the expected information gain. Stochastic approximation algorithms are then used to make optimization feasible in computationally intensive and high-dimensional settings. These algorithms are demonstrated on model problems and on nonlinear parameter inference problems arising in detailed combustion kinetics. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  20. A non-linear analytic stress model for the analysis on the stress interaction between TSVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Han Liao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-elastic strain is induced by through silicon vias (TSV due to the difference of thermal expansion coefficients between the copper (∼18 ppm/◦C and silicon (∼2.8 ppm/◦C when the structure is exposed to a thermal budget in the three dimensional integrated circuit (3DIC process. These thermal expansion stresses are high enough to induce the delamination on the interfaces between the copper, silicon, and isolated dielectric. A compact analytic model for the strain field induced by different layouts of thermal copper filled TSVs with the linear superposition principle is found to result in large errors due to the strong stress interaction between TSVs. In this work, a nonlinear stress analytic model with different TSV layouts is demonstrated by the finite element method and Mohr’s circle analysis. The stress characteristics are also measured by the atomic force microscope-raman technique at a nanometer level resolution. This nonlinear stress model for the strong interactions between TSVs results in an electron mobility change ~2-6% smaller than that resulting from a model that only considers the linear stress superposition principle.

  1. Nonperturbative spin-boson and spin-spin dynamics and nonlinear Fano interferences: a unified dissipaton theory based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hou-Dao; Xu, Rui-Xue; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing

    2015-01-14

    We consider the hybrid system-bath dynamics, based on the Yan's dissipaton formalism [Y. J. Yan, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 054105 (2014)]. This theory provides a unified quasi-particle treatment on three distinct classes of quantum bath, coupled nonperturbatively to arbitrary quantum systems. In this work, to study the entangled system and bath polarization and nonlinear Fano interference, we incorporate further the time-dependent light field, which interacts with both the molecular system and the collective bath dipoles directly. Numerical demonstrations are carried out on a two-level system, with comparison between phonon and exciton baths, in both linear and nonlinear Fano interference regimes.

  2. Pulse-Shaping-Based Nonlinear Microscopy: Development and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Daniel Christopher

    The combination of optical microscopy and ultrafast spectroscopy make the spatial characterization of chemical kinetics on the femtosecond time scale possible. Commercially available octave-spanning Ti:Sapphire oscillators with sub-8 fs pulse durations can drive a multitude of nonlinear transitions across a significant portion of the visible spectrum with minimal average power. Unfortunately, dispersion from microscope objectives broadens pulse durations, decreases temporal resolution and lowers the peak intensities required for driving nonlinear transitions. In this dissertation, pulse shaping is used to compress laser pulses after the microscope objective. By using a binary genetic algorithm, pulse-shapes are designed to enable selective two-photon excitation. The pulse-shapes are demonstrated in two-photon fluorescence of live COS-7 cells expressing GFP-variants mAmetrine and tdTomato. The pulse-shaping approach is applied to a new multiphoton fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) stoichiometry method that quantifies donor and acceptor molecules in complex, as well as the ratio of total donor to acceptor molecules. Compared to conventional multi-photon imaging techniques that require laser tuning or multiple laser systems to selectively excite individual fluorophores, the pulse-shaping approach offers rapid selective multifluorphore imaging at biologically relevant time scales. By splitting the laser beam into two beams and building a second pulse shaper, a pulse-shaping-based pump-probe microscope is developed. The technique offers multiple imaging modalities, such as excited state absorption (ESA), ground state bleach (GSB), and stimulated emission (SE), enhancing contrast of structures via their unique quantum pathways without the addition of contrast agents. Pulse-shaping based pump-probe microscopy is demonstrated for endogenous chemical-contrast imaging of red blood cells. In the second section of this dissertation, ultrafast spectroscopic

  3. Envelope based nonlinear blind deconvolution approach for ultrasound imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. Chira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The resolution of ultrasound medical images is yet an important problem despite of the researchers efforts. In this paper we presents a nonlinear blind deconvolution to eliminate the blurring effect based on the measured radio-frequency signal envelope. This algorithm is executed in two steps. Firslty we make an estimation for Point Spread Function (PSF and, secondly we use the estimated PSF to remove, iteratively their effect. The proposed algorithm is a greedy algorithm, called also matching pursuit or CLEAN. The use of this algorithm is motivated beacause theorically it avoid the so called inverse problem, which usually needs regularization to obtain an optimal solution. The results are presented using 1D simulated signals in term of visual evaluation and nMSE in comparison with the two most kwown regularisation solution methods for least square problem, Thikonov regularization or l2-norm and Total Variation or l1 norm.

  4. OBLIQUE PROJECTION REALIZATION OF A KERNEL-BASED NONLINEAR DISCRIMINATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Benyong; Zhang Jing

    2006-01-01

    Previously, a novel classifier called Kernel-based Nonlinear Discriminator (KND) was proposed to discriminate a pattern class from other classes by minimizing mean effect of the latter. To consider the effect of the target class, this paper introduces an oblique projection algorithm to determine the coefficients of a KND so that it is extended to a new version called extended KND (eKND). In eKND construction, the desired output vector of the target class is obliquely projected onto the relevant subspace along the subspace related to other classes. In addition, a simple technique is proposed to calculate the associated oblique projection operator. Experimental results on handwritten digit recognition show that the algorithm performes better than a KND classifier and some other commonly used classifiers.

  5. Nonlinear diffusion methods based on robust statistics for noise removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Di-ye; HUANG Feng-gang; SU Han

    2007-01-01

    A novel smoothness term of Bayesian regularization framework based on M-estimation of robust statistics is proposed, and from this term a class of fourth-order nonlinear diffusion methods is proposed. These methods attempt to approximate an observed image with a piecewise linear image, which looks more natural than piecewise constant image used to approximate an observed image by P-M[1] model. It is known that M-estimators and W-estimators are essentially equivalent and solve the same minimization problem. Then, we propose PL bilateral filter from equivalent W-estimator. This new model is designed for piecewise linear image filtering,which is more effective than normal bilateral filter.

  6. Color image encryption based on Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazloom, Sahar [Faculty of Electrical, Computer and IT Engineering, Qazvin Islamic Azad University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: sahar.mazloom@gmail.com; Eftekhari-Moghadam, Amir Masud [Faculty of Electrical, Computer and IT Engineering, Qazvin Islamic Azad University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: eftekhari@qazviniau.ac.ir

    2009-11-15

    Image encryption is somehow different from text encryption due to some inherent features of image such as bulk data capacity and high correlation among pixels, which are generally difficult to handle by conventional methods. The desirable cryptographic properties of the chaotic maps such as sensitivity to initial conditions and random-like behavior have attracted the attention of cryptographers to develop new encryption algorithms. Therefore, recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, though the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper proposes a Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map, called CNCM, and a novel chaos-based image encryption algorithm to encrypt color images by using CNCM. The chaotic cryptography technique which used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography with a stream cipher structure. In order to increase the security of the proposed algorithm, 240 bit-long secret key is used to generate the initial conditions and parameters of the chaotic map by making some algebraic transformations to the key. These transformations as well as the nonlinearity and coupling structure of the CNCM have enhanced the cryptosystem security. For getting higher security and higher complexity, the current paper employs the image size and color components to cryptosystem, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to known/chosen-plaintext attacks. The results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image encryption and transmission.

  7. Energy and Transmissibility in Nonlinear Viscous Base Isolators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Athanasios A.; Manolis, George D.

    2016-09-01

    High damping rubber bearings (HDRB) are the most commonly used base isolators in buildings and are often combined with other systems, such as sliding bearings. Their mechanical behaviour is highly nonlinear and dependent on a number of factors. At first, a physical process is suggested here to explain the empirical formula introduced by J.M. Kelly in 1991, where the dissipated energy of a HDRB under cyclic testing, at constant frequency, is proportional to the amplitude of the shear strain, raised to a power of approximately 1.50. This physical process is best described by non-Newtonian fluid behaviour, originally developed by F.H. Norton in 1929 to describe creep in steel at high-temperatures. The constitutive model used includes a viscous term, that depends on the absolute value of the velocity, raised to a non-integer power. The identification of a three parameter Kelvin model, the simplest possible system with nonlinear viscosity, is also suggested here. Furthermore, a more advanced model with variable damping coefficient is implemented to better model in this complex mechanical process. Next, the assumption of strain-rate dependence in their rubber layers under cyclic loading is examined in order to best interpret experimental results on the transmission of motion between the upper and lower surfaces of HDRB. More specifically, the stress-relaxation phenomenon observed with time in HRDB can be reproduced numerically, only if the constitutive model includes a viscous term, that depends on the absolute value of the velocity raised to a non-integer power, i. e., the Norton fluid previously mentioned. Thus, it becomes possible to compute the displacement transmissibility function between the top and bottom surfaces of HDRB base isolator systems and to draw engineering-type conclusions, relevant to their design under time-harmonic loads.

  8. A numerical study on the impact of nonlinear interactions on the amplitude of the migrating semidiurnal tide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Huang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To quantitatively study the effects of nonlinear interactions on tide structure, a nonlinear numerical tidal model is developed, and the reliability and convergence of the adopted algorithm and coding are checked by numerical experiments. Under the same conditions as those employed by the GSWM-00 (Global Scale Wave Model 2000, our model provides the nonlinear quasi-steady solution of the migrating semidiurnal tide, which differs from the GSWM-00 result (the linear steady solution in the MLT region, especially above 100 km. Additionally, their amplitude difference displays a remarkable month-to-month variation, and its significant magnitudes occur during the month with strong semidiurnal tide. A quantitative analysis suggests that the main cause for the amplitude difference is that the initial migrating 12-h tide will interact with the mean flow as well as the nonlinearity-excited 6-h tide, and subsequently yield a new 12-h tidal part. Furthermore, our simulations also show that the mean flow/tidal interaction will significantly alter the background wind and temperature fields. The large magnitudes of the tidal amplitude difference and the background alteration indicate that the nonlinear processes involved in tidal propagations should be comprehensively considered in the description of global atmospheric dynamics in the MLT region. The comparisons among our simulations, the GSWMs and some observations of tides suggest that the nonlinearity-induced tidal structure variation could be a possible mechanism to account for some discrepancies between the GSWMs and the observations.

  9. Nonlinear analysis and enhancement of wing-based piezoaeroelastic energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkefi, Abdessattar

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the level of harvested power from aeroelastic vibrations for an elastically mounted wing supported by nonlinear springs. The energy is harvested by attaching a piezoelectric transducer to the plunge degree of freedom. The considered wing has a low-aspect ratio and hence three dimensional aerodynamic effects cannot be neglected. To this end, the three dimensional unsteady vortex lattice method for the prediction of the unsteady aerodynamic loads is developed. A strong coupling scheme that is based on Hamming\\'s fourth-order predictor-corrector method and accounts for the interaction between the aerodynamic loads and the motion of the wing is employed. The effects of the electrical load resistance, nonlinear torsional spring and eccentricity between the elastic axis and the gravity axis on the level of the harvested power, pitch and plunge amplitudes are investigated for a range of operating wind speeds. The results show that there is a specific wind speed beyond which the pitch motion does not pick any further energy from the incident flow. As such, the displacement in the plunge direction grows significantly and causes enhanced energy harvesting. The results also show that the nonlinear torsional spring plays an important role in enhancing the level of the harvested power. Furthermore, the harvested power can be increased by an order of magnitude by properly choosing the eccentricity and the load resistance. This analysis is helpful in designing piezoaeroelastic energy harvesters that can operate optimally at specific wind speeds. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Transistor-based metamaterials with dynamically tunable nonlinear susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, John P.; Katko, Alexander R.; Cummer, Steven A.

    2016-08-01

    We present the design, analysis, and experimental demonstration of an electromagnetic metamaterial with a dynamically tunable effective nonlinear susceptibility. Split-ring resonators loaded with transistors are shown theoretically and experimentally to act as metamaterials with a second-order nonlinear susceptibility that can be adjusted through the use of a bias voltage. Measurements confirm that this allows for the design of a nonlinear metamaterial with adjustable mixing efficiency.

  11. Gradiometer Based on Nonlinear Magneto-Optic Rotation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR project will demonstrate sensitive measurements of magnetic field gradients by nonlinear atomic spectroscopy. The gradients are determined by...

  12. Rate of non-linearity in DMS aerosol-cloud-climate interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The degree of non-linearity in DMS-cloud-climate interactions is assessed using the ECHAM5-HAMMOZ model by taking into account end-to-end aerosol chemistry-cloud microphysics link. The evaluation is made over the Southern oceans in austral summer, a region of minimal anthropogenic influence. In this study, we compare the DMS-derived changes in the aerosol and cloud microphysical properties between a baseline simulation with the ocean DMS emissions from a prescribed climatology, and a scenario where the DMS emissions are doubled. Our results show that doubling the DMS emissions in the current climate results in a non-linear response in atmospheric DMS burden and subsequently, in SO2 and H2SO4 burdens due to inadequate OH oxidation. The aerosol optical depth increases by only ~20 % in the 30° S–75° S belt in the SH summer months. This increases the vertically integrated cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC by 25 %. Since the vertically integrated liquid water vapor is constant in our model simulations, an increase in CDNC leads to a reduction in cloud droplet radius of 3.4 % over the Southern oceans in summer. The equivalent increase in cloud liquid water path is 10.7 %. The above changes in cloud microphysical properties result in a change in global annual mean radiative forcing at the TOA of −1.4 W m−2. The results suggest that the DMS-cloud microphysics link is highly non-linear. This has implications for future studies investigating the DMS-cloud climate feedbacks in a warming world and for studies evaluating geoengineering options to counteract warming by modulating low level marine clouds.

  13. Nonlinear Damping Identification in Nonlinear Dynamic System Based on Stochastic Inverse Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear model is crucial to prepare, supervise, and analyze mechanical system. In this paper, a new nonparametric and output-only identification procedure for nonlinear damping is studied. By introducing the concept of the stochastic state space, we formulate a stochastic inverse problem for a nonlinear damping. The solution of the stochastic inverse problem is designed as probabilistic expression via the hierarchical Bayesian formulation by considering various uncertainties such as the information insufficiency in parameter of interests or errors in measurement. The probability space is estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC. The applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated through numerical experiment and particular application to a realistic problem related to ship roll motion.

  14. Design of Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model based nonlinear sliding model controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yong; Chen Zengqiang; Yuan Zhuzhi

    2005-01-01

    A design method is presented for Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model based nonlinear sliding model controller. First, the closed-loop fuzzy system is divided into a set of dominant local linear systems according to operating sub-regions. In each sub-region the fuzzy system consists of nominal linear system and a group of interacting systems. Then the controller composed two parts is designed. One part is designed to control the nominal system, the other is designed to control the interacting systems with sliding mode theory. The proposed controller can improve the robustness and guarantee tracking performance of the fuzzy system. Stability is guaranteed without finding a common positive definite matrix.

  15. Nonlinear modal interactions in parity-time (${\\cal PT}$) symmetric lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Li

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time ($\\cal PT$) symmetric lasers have attracted considerable attention lately due to their promising applications and intriguing properties, such as free spectral range doubling and single-mode lasing. In this work we discuss nonlinear modal interactions in these laser systems under steady state conditions, and we demonstrate that several gain clamping scenarios can occur for lasing operation in the $\\cal PT$-symmetric and $\\cal PT$-broken phases. In particular, we show that, depending on the system's design and the external pump profile, its operation in the nonlinear regime falls into two different categories: in one the system is frozen in the $\\cal PT$ phase space as the applied gain increases, while in the other the system is pulled towards its exceptional point. These features are first illustrated by a coupled mode formalism and later verified by employing the Steady-state Ab-initio Laser Theory (SALT). Our findings shine light on the robustness of single-mode operation in these lasers against ...

  16. Nonlinear gauge interactions: a possible solution to the "measurement problem" in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Two fundamental, and unsolved problems in physics are: i) the resolution of the "measurement problem" in quantum mechanics ii) the quantization of strongly nonlinear (nonabelian) gauge theories. The aim of this paper is to suggest that these two problems might be linked, and that a mutual, simultaneous solution to both might exist. We propose that the mechanism responsible for the "collapse of the wave function" in quantum mechanics is the nonlinearities already present in the theory via nonabelian gauge interactions. Unlike all other models of spontaneous collapse, our proposal is, to the best of our knowledge, the only one which does not introduce any new elements into the theory. A possible experimental test of the model would be to compare the coherence lengths - here defined as the distance over which quantum mechanical superposition is still valid - for, \\textit{e.g}, electrons and photons in a double-slit experiment. The electrons should have a finite coherence length, while photons should have a much ...

  17. Results-Based Interaction Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Meredith

    2008-01-01

    Interaction design is a user-centered approach to development in which users and their goals are the driving force behind a project's design. Interaction design principles are fundamental to the design and implementation of effective websites, but they are not sufficient. This article argues that, to reach its full potential, a website should also…

  18. Decentralized neural identifier and control for nonlinear systems based on extended Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Carlos E; Esquivel, P

    2012-07-01

    A time-varying learning algorithm for recurrent high order neural network in order to identify and control nonlinear systems which integrates the use of a statistical framework is proposed. The learning algorithm is based in the extended Kalman filter, where the associated state and measurement noises covariance matrices are composed by the coupled variance between the plant states. The formulation allows identification of interactions associate between plant state and the neural convergence. Furthermore, a sliding window-based method for dynamical modeling of nonstationary systems is presented to improve the neural identification in the proposed methodology. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method is assessed to a five degree of freedom (DOF) robot manipulator where based on the time-varying neural identifier model, the decentralized discrete-time block control and sliding mode techniques are used to design independent controllers and develop the trajectory tracking for each DOF.

  19. Nonlinear model-based control algorithm for a distillation column using software sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Amiya Kumar; Samanta, Amar Nath; Ganguly, Saibal

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents the design of model-based globally linearizing control (GLC) structure for a distillation process within the differential geometric framework. The model of a nonideal binary distillation column, whose characteristics were highly nonlinear and strongly interactive, is used as a real process. The classical GLC law is comprised of a transformer (input-output linearizing state feedback), a nonlinear state observer, and an external PI controller. The tray temperature based short-cut observer (TTBSCO) has been used as a state estimator within the control structure, in which all tray temperatures were considered to be measured. Accordingly, the liquid phase composition of each tray was calculated online using the derived temperature-composition correlation. In the simulation experiment, the proposed GLC coupled with TTBSCO (GLC-TTBSCO) outperformed a conventional PI controller based on servo performances with and without measurement noise as well as on regulatory behaviors. In the subsequent part, the GLC law has been synthesized in conjunction with tray temperature based reduced-order observer (GLC-TTBROO) where the distillate and bottom compositions of the distillation process have been inferred from top and bottom product temperatures respectively, which were measured online. Finally, the comparative performance of the GLC-TTBSCO and the GLC-TTBROO has been addressed under parametric uncertainty and the GLC-TTBSCO algorithm provided slightly better performance than the GLC-TTBROO. The resulting control laws are rather general and can be easily adopted for other binary distillation columns.

  20. Nonlinear inverse modeling of sensor based on back-propagation fuzzy logical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun; Liu Junhua

    2007-01-01

    Objective To correct the nonlinear error of sensor output, a new approach to sensor inverse modeling based on Back-Propagation Fuzzy Logical System (BP FS) is presented. Methods The BP FS is a computationally efficient nonlinear universal approximator, which is capable of implementing complex nonlinear mapping from its input pattern space to the output with fast convergence speed. Results The neuro-fuzzy hybrid system, i.e. BP FS, is then applied to construct nonlinear inverse model of pressure sensor. The experimental results show that the proposed inverse modeling method automatically compensates the associated nonlinear error in pressure estimation, and thus the performance of pressure sensor is significantly improved. Conclusion The proposed method can be widely used in nonlinearity correction of various kinds of sensors to compensate the effects of nonlinearity and temperature on sensor output.

  1. FOXTAIL: Modeling the nonlinear interaction between Alfv\\'en eigenmodes and energetic particles in tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Tholerus, Emmi; Hellsten, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    FOXTAIL is a new hybrid magnetohydrodynamic-kinetic code used to describe interactions between energetic particles and Alfv\\'en eigenmodes in tokamaks with realistic geometries. The code simulates the nonlinear dynamics of the amplitudes of individual eigenmodes and of a set of discrete markers in five-dimensional phase space representing the energetic particle distribution. Action-angle coordinates of the equilibrium system are used for efficient tracing of energetic particles, and the particle acceleration by the wave fields of the eigenmodes is Fourier decomposed in the same angles. The eigenmodes are described using temporally constant eigenfunctions with dynamic complex amplitudes. Possible applications of the code are presented, e.g., making a quantitative validity evaluation of the one-dimensional bump-on-tail approximation of the system. Expected effects of the fulfillment of the Chirikov criterion in two-mode scenarios have also been verified.

  2. Non-linear interactions in a cosmological background in the DGP braneworld

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, K; Koyama, Kazuya; Silva, Fabio P

    2007-01-01

    We study quasi-static perturbations in a cosmological background in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) braneworld model. We identify the Vainshtein radius at which the non-linear interactions of the brane bending mode become important in a cosmological background. The Vainshtein radius in the early universe is much smaller than the one in the Minkowski background, but in a self-accelerating universe it is the same as the Minkowski background. Our result shows that the perturbative approach is applicable beyond the Vainshtein radius for weak gravity by taking into account the second order effects of the brane bending mode. The linearised cosmological perturbations are shown to be smoothly matched to the solutions inside the Vainshtein radius. We emphasize the importance of imposing a regularity condition in the bulk by solving the 5D perturbations and we highlight the problem of ad hoc assumptions on the bulk gravity that lead to different conclusions.

  3. Multirate Simulations of String Vibrations Including Nonlinear Fret-String Interactions Using the Functional Transformation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, L.; Rabenstein, R.

    2004-12-01

    The functional transformation method (FTM) is a well-established mathematical method for accurate simulations of multidimensional physical systems from various fields of science, including optics, heat and mass transfer, electrical engineering, and acoustics. This paper applies the FTM to real-time simulations of transversal vibrating strings. First, a physical model of a transversal vibrating lossy and dispersive string is derived. Afterwards, this model is solved with the FTM for two cases: the ideally linearly vibrating string and the string interacting nonlinearly with the frets. It is shown that accurate and stable simulations can be achieved with the discretization of the continuous solution at audio rate. Both simulations can also be performed with a multirate approach with only minor degradations of the simulation accuracy but with preservation of stability. This saves almost 80% of the computational cost for the simulation of a six-string guitar and therefore it is in the range of the computational cost for digital waveguide simulations.

  4. Electrostatic potential profile and nonlinear current in an interacting one-dimensional molecular wire

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Lakshmi; Swapan K Pati

    2003-10-01

    We consider an interacting one-dimensional molecular wire attached to two metal electrodes on either side of it. The electrostatic potential profile across the wire-electrode interface has been deduced solving the Schrodinger and Poisson equations self-consistently. Since the Poisson distribution crucially depends on charge densities, we have considered different Hamiltonian parameters to model the nanoscale wire. We find that for very weak electron correlations, the potential gradient is almost zero in the middle of the wire but are large near the chain ends. However, for strong correlations, the potential is essentially a ramp function. The nonlinear current, obtained from the scattering formalism, is found to be less with the ramp potential than for weak correlations. Some of the interesting features in current-voltage characteristics have been explained using one-electron formalism and instabilities in the system.

  5. Nonlinear Model of the Specificity of DNA-Protein Interactions and Its Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiputra, D.; Hidayat, W.; Khairani, R.; Zen, F. P.

    2016-08-01

    Specific DNA-protein interactions are fundamental processes of living cells. We propose a new model of DNA-protein interactions to explain the site specificity of the interactions. The hydrogen bonds between DNA base pairs and between DNA-protein peptide groups play a significant role in determination of the specific binding site. We adopt the Morse potential with coupling terms to construct the Hamiltonian of coupled oscillators representing the hydrogen bonds in which the depth of the potentials vary in the DNA chain. In this paper we investigate the stability of the model to determine the conditions satisfying the biological circumstances of the DNA-protein interactions.

  6. Axion-induced birefringence effects in laser driven nonlinear vacuum interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Villalba-Chávez, Selym

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of a probe electromagnetic field through a counterpropagating strong plane wave is investigated. The effects of the electromagnetic field-(pseudo)scalar axion field interaction and of the self-interaction of the electromagnetic field mediated by virtual electron-positron pairs in the effective Lagrangian approach are included. First, we show that if the strong field is circularly polarized, contrary to the leading-order nonlinear QED effects, the axion-photon interaction induces a chiral-like birefringence and a dichroism in the vacuum. The latter effect is explained by evoking the conservation of the total angular momentum along the common propagation direction of probe and the strong wave, which allows for real axion production only for probe and strong fields with the same helicity. Moreover, in the case of ultra-short strong pulses, it is shown that the absorption coefficients of probe photons depend on the form of the pulse and, in particular, on the carrier-envelope phase of the strong b...

  7. Resonant interactions between discrete phonons in quinhydrone driven by nonlinear electron-phonon coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rury, Aaron S.

    2016-06-01

    This study reports experimental, computational, and theoretical evidence for a previously unobserved coherent phonon-phonon interaction in an organic solid that can be described by the application of Fano's analysis to a case without the presence of a continuum. Using Raman spectroscopy of the hydrogen-bonded charge-transfer material quinhydrone, two peaks appear near 700 cm-1 we assign as phonons whose position and line-shape asymmetry depend on the sample temperature and light scattering excitation energy. Density functional theory calculations find two nearly degenerate phonons possessing frequencies near the values found in experiment that share similar atomic motion out of the aromatic plane of electron donor and acceptor molecules of quinhydrone. Further analytical modeling of the steady-state light scattering process using the Peierls-Hubbard Hamiltonian and time-dependent perturbation theory motivates assignment of the physical origin of the asymmetric features of each peak's line shape to an interaction between two discrete phonons via nonlinear electron-phonon coupling. In the context of analytical model results, characteristics of the experimental spectra upon 2.33 eV excitation of the Raman scattering process are used to qualify the temperature dependence of the magnitude of this coupling in the valence band of quinhydrone. These results broaden the range of phonon-phonon interactions in materials in general while also highlighting the rich physics and fundamental attributes specific to organic solids that may determine their applicability in next generation electronics and photonics technologies.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of electrons interacting with oblique whistler mode chorus in the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Kai; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2017-01-01

    We perform test particle simulations for relativistic electrons interacting with a whistler mode chorus packet propagating at oblique angles. By confirming that the energy transport of oblique lower band chorus is nearly along the ambient magnetic field, we apply the gyroaveraging method in calculating equations of motion of electrons. We trace evolution of a delta function of relativistic electrons in a phase space of kinetic energy and equatorial pitch angle and obtain numerical Green's functions of the chorus wave-particle interactions. Examining the Green's functions in a wide range of kinetic energies, we find that Landau resonance can accelerate MeV electrons efficiently and that higher nth resonances such as n =- 1 and n = 2 also contribute to acceleration of electrons at high equatorial pitch angles (˜70°) and high energies (˜2 MeV). We investigate the rate of energy gain of the cyclotron resonance acceleration and the Landau resonance acceleration and find that the perpendicular component of wave electric field dominates both accelerations for MeV electrons. Furthermore, the proximity between the parallel components of Vp and Vg of oblique whistler mode waves and the nonlinear trapping condition make the interaction time of Landau resonance much longer than that of n = 1 cyclotron resonance, resulting in efficient acceleration of MeV electrons.

  9. Resonant nonlinear interactions between atmospheric waves in the polar summer mesopause region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Renqiang; (刘仁强); YI; Fan; (易帆)

    2003-01-01

    Data obtained from the mobile SOUSY VHF radar at And(ya/Norway in summer 1987 have been used to study the nonlinear interactions between planetary waves, tides and gravity waves in the polar mesosphere, and the instability of background atmosphere above the mesopause. It is observed that 35-h planetary wave, diurnal, semidiurnal and terdiurnal tides are the prominent perturbations in the Lomb-Scargle spectra of the zonal wind component. By inspecting the frequency combinations, several triads are identified. By bispectral analysis it is shown that most bispectral peaks stand for quadratic coupling between tidal harmonics or between tide and planetary or gravity wave, and the height dependence of bispectral peaks reflects the variation of wave-wave interactions. Above the mesopause, the occurrence heights of the maximum L-S power spectral peaks corresponding to the prominent wave components tend to increase with their frequencies. This may result from the process in which two low frequency waves interact to generate a high frequency wave. Intensities of the planetary wave and tides increase gradually, arrive at their maxima, and then decay quickly in turn with increasing height. This kind of scene correlates with a "chain" of wave-wave resonant interactions that shifts with height from lower frequency segment to higher frequency segment. By instability analysis, it is observed that above the mesopause, the Richardson number becomes smaller and smaller with height, implying that the turbulent motion grows stronger and stronger and accordingly the background atmosphere more and more instable. It is suggested that the wave-wave sum resonant interaction and the wave dissipation due to instability are two dominant dynamical processes that occur in the mesopause region. The former invokes the energy transfer from lower frequency waves to higher frequency waves. The latter results in the heating of the atmosphere and accelerating of the background flow.

  10. Simple noise-reduction method based on nonlinear forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, James P. L.

    2017-03-01

    Nonparametric detrending or noise reduction methods are often employed to separate trends from noisy time series when no satisfactory models exist to fit the data. However, conventional noise reduction methods depend on subjective choices of smoothing parameters. Here we present a simple multivariate noise reduction method based on available nonlinear forecasting techniques. These are in turn based on state-space reconstruction for which a strong theoretical justification exists for their use in nonparametric forecasting. The noise reduction method presented here is conceptually similar to Schreiber's noise reduction method using state-space reconstruction. However, we show that Schreiber's method has a minor flaw that can be overcome with forecasting. Furthermore, our method contains a simple but nontrivial extension to multivariate time series. We apply the method to multivariate time series generated from the Van der Pol oscillator, the Lorenz equations, the Hindmarsh-Rose model of neuronal spiking activity, and to two other univariate real-world data sets. It is demonstrated that noise reduction heuristics can be objectively optimized with in-sample forecasting errors that correlate well with actual noise reduction errors.

  11. Kernel Based Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction and Classification for Genomic Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Shu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomic microarrays are powerful research tools in bioinformatics and modern medicinal research because they enable massively-parallel assays and simultaneous monitoring of thousands of gene expression of biological samples. However, a simple microarray experiment often leads to very high-dimensional data and a huge amount of information, the vast amount of data challenges researchers into extracting the important features and reducing the high dimensionality. In this paper, a nonlinear dimensionality reduction kernel method based locally linear embedding(LLE is proposed, and fuzzy K-nearest neighbors algorithm which denoises datasets will be introduced as a replacement to the classical LLE’s KNN algorithm. In addition, kernel method based support vector machine (SVM will be used to classify genomic microarray data sets in this paper. We demonstrate the application of the techniques to two published DNA microarray data sets. The experimental results confirm the superiority and high success rates of the presented method.

  12. Automated seeding-based nuclei segmentation in nonlinear optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medyukhina, Anna; Meyer, Tobias; Heuke, Sandro; Vogler, Nadine; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopy based, e.g., on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) or two-photon-excited fluorescence (TPEF) is a fast label-free imaging technique, with a great potential for biomedical applications. However, NLO microscopy as a diagnostic tool is still in its infancy; there is a lack of robust and durable nuclei segmentation methods capable of accurate image processing in cases of variable image contrast, nuclear density, and type of investigated tissue. Nonetheless, such algorithms specifically adapted to NLO microscopy present one prerequisite for the technology to be routinely used, e.g., in pathology or intraoperatively for surgical guidance. In this paper, we compare the applicability of different seeding and boundary detection methods to NLO microscopic images in order to develop an optimal seeding-based approach capable of accurate segmentation of both TPEF and CARS images. Among different methods, the Laplacian of Gaussian filter showed the best accuracy for the seeding of the image, while a modified seeded watershed segmentation was the most accurate in the task of boundary detection. The resulting combination of these methods followed by the verification of the detected nuclei performs high average sensitivity and specificity when applied to various types of NLO microscopy images.

  13. Reduction of nonlinear patterning effects in SOA-based All-optical Switches using Optical filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Mørk, Jesper; Skaguchi, J.

    2005-01-01

    We explain theoretically, and demonstrate and quantify experimentally, how appropriate filtering can reduce the dominant nonlinear patterning effect, which limits the performance of differential-mode SOA-based switches.......We explain theoretically, and demonstrate and quantify experimentally, how appropriate filtering can reduce the dominant nonlinear patterning effect, which limits the performance of differential-mode SOA-based switches....

  14. A nonlinear signal-based control method and its applications to input identification for nonlinear SIMO problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokida, Ryuta; Takewaki, Izuru; Stoten, David

    2014-12-01

    The problem of control system design can be conceptualised as identifying an input signal to a plant (the system to be controlled) so that the corresponding output matches that of a pre-defined reference signal. Primarily, this problem is solved via well-known techniques based upon the principle of feedback design, an essential component for ensuring stability and robustness of the controlled system. However, feedforward design techniques also have a large part to play, whereby (in the absence of feedback control and assuming that the plant is stable) a model of the plant dynamics can be used to modify the reference signal so that the resultant feedforward input signal generates a plant output signal that is sufficiently close to the original reference signal. The principal objective of this paper is to introduce a new nonlinear control method, called nonlinear signal-based control (NSBC) that can be executed as an on-line technique of feedforward compensation (used synonymously here with the phrase 'input identification') and an off-line technique of feedback compensation. NSBC determines the feedforward input signal to the plant by using an error signal, determined from the difference between the output signals from a linear model of the plant and from the nonlinear plant, under the same input signal. The efficacy of NSBC is examined via numerical examples using Matlab/Simulink and compared with alternative well-known methods based upon inverse transfer function compensation and also the method of high gain feedback control. NSBC was found to provide the most accurate input identification in all the examined cases of linear or nonlinear single-input, single-output and single-input, multi-output (SIMO) systems. Furthermore, in problems of structural and earthquake engineering, NSBC was also found to be particularly effective in estimating the original ground motion from a nonlinear SIMO system and its response.

  15. Consideration of nonlinear wheel-rail contact forces for dynamic vehicle-bridge interaction in high-speed railways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, Pablo; Zhang, Nan; Goicolea, José M.; Xia, He; Astiz, Miguel Á.; Oliva, Javier

    2013-03-01

    In this work models with nonlinear wheel-rail contact forces are considered for analysing the dynamic interaction between high speed trains and bridges, in order to study dynamic effects both in the bridge and in the vehicles resulting from the coupling. Nonlinear contact models may be necessary for evaluating the stability and the safety of running traffic in situations such as vehicle overturn when the train is crossing a bridge under strong lateral winds or when an earthquake occurs. For studying the coupled dynamic response of trains and bridges, models of multibody dynamics are used for vehicles and the finite element method for structures. Special relevance is given here to the consideration of contact interaction forces between railway vehicles and the track. Four different interaction models are compared in this work: (1) a model where the vehicle wheelset is considered to be rigidly coupled to the track; (2) a staggered uncoupled method in which vehicle and structure are analysed separately; (3) a linear contact model in which lateral relative displacements between rails and train wheels are allowed, assuming biconic wheel and rail profiles and linear Kalker theory for tangential contact; (4) a nonlinear model in which realistic wheel and rail profiles, Hertz's nonlinear theory for normal contact and Kalker's nonlinear theory for tangential contact are used. The different models are applied and compared to experimental measurements for a test case of a high-speed train in China.

  16. Generation of secondary waves arising from nonlinear interaction between the quasi 2 day wave and the migrating diurnal tide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu A.; Palo, Scott E.; Lieberman, Ruth S.; Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Ortland, David A.; Siskind, David E.

    2016-07-01

    Theory and past observations have provided evidence that atmospheric tides and other global-scale waves interact nonlinearly to produce additional secondary waves throughout the space-atmosphere interaction region. However, few studies have investigated the generation region of nonlinearly generated secondary waves, and as a result, the manifestation and impacts of these waves are still poorly understood. This study focuses on the nonlinear interaction between the quasi 2 day wave (2dayW3) and the migrating diurnal tide (DW1), two of the largest global-scale waves in the atmosphere. The fundamental goals of this effort are to characterize the forcing region of the secondary waves and to understand how it relates to their manifestation on a global scale. First, the Fast Fourier Synoptic Mapping method is applied to Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics-Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry satellite observations to provide new evidence of secondary waves. These results show that secondary waves are only significant above 80 km. The nonlinear forcing for each secondary wave is then computed by extracting short-term primary wave information from a reanalysis model. The estimated nonlinear forcing quantities are used to force a linearized tidal model in order to calculate numerical secondary wave responses. Model results show that the secondary waves are significant from the upper mesosphere to the middle thermosphere, highlighting the implications for the atmosphere-space weather coupling. The study also concludes that the secondary wave response is most sensitive to the nonlinear forcing occurring in the lower and middle mesosphere and not coincident with the regions of strongest nonlinear forcing.

  17. Nonlinear Progressive Failure Analysis of Surrounding Rock System Based on Similarity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear progressive failure study of surrounding rock is important for the stability analysis of underground engineering projects. Taking a deep-buried tunnel in Chongqing as an example, a three dimensional(3-D physical model was established based on similarity theory. To satisfy similarity requirement of physical–mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus, compressive strength and Poisson ratio, physical model materials were developed. Using full inner-spy photograph technology, the deformation and failure process of rock were studied under the situation of independent and combined action of anchor, shotcrete and reinforcing mesh. Based on experimental results, the interaction mechanism between rock and support structure under high stress was investigated.

  18. Nonlinear Robust Observer-Based Fault Detection for Networked Suspension Control System of Maglev Train

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A fault detection approach based on nonlinear robust observer is designed for the networked suspension control system of Maglev train with random induced time delay. First, considering random bounded time-delay and external disturbance, the nonlinear model of the networked suspension control system is established. Then, a nonlinear robust observer is designed using the input of the suspension gap. And the estimate error is proved to be bounded with arbitrary precision by adopting an appropria...

  19. Exciton Dynamics and Many Body Interactions in Layered Semiconducting Materials Revealed with Non-linear Coherent Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Prasenjit

    understanding the basic unexplored science as well as creating technological developments. The dephasing dynamics in semiconductors typically occur in the picosecond to femtosecond timescale, thus the use of ultrafast laser spectroscopy is a potential route to probe such excitonic responses. The focus of this dissertation is two-fold: firstly, to develop the necessary instrumentation to accurately probe the aforementioned parameters and secondly, to explore the quantum dynamics and the underlying many-body interactions in different layered semiconducting materials. A custom-built multidimensional optical non-linear spectrometer was developed in order to perform two-dimensional spectroscopic (2DFT) measurements. The advantages of this technique are multifaceted compared to regular one-dimensional and non-linear incoherent techniques. 2DFT technique is based on an enhanced version of Four wave mixing experiments. This powerful tool is capable of identifying the resonant coupling, probing the coherent pathways, unambiguously extracting the homogeneous linewidth in the presence of inhomogeneity and decomposing a complex spectra into real and imaginary parts. It is not possible to uncover such crucial features by employing one dimensional non-linear technique. Monolayers as well as bulk TMDs and group III-VI bulk layered materials are explored in this dissertation. The exciton quantum dynamics is explored with three pulse four-wave mixing whereas the phase sensitive measurements are obtained by employing two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy. Temperature and excitation density dependent 2DFT experiments unfold the information associated with the many-body interactions in the layered semiconducting samples.

  20. The late Universe with non-linear interaction in the dark sector: the coincidence problem

    CERN Document Server

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Zhuk, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We study the Universe at the late stage of its evolution and deep inside the cell of uniformity. At such a scale the Universe is highly inhomogeneous and filled with discretely distributed inhomogeneities in the form of galaxies and groups of galaxies. As a matter source, we consider dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE) with a non-linear interaction $Q = 3\\mathcal{H}\\gamma \\overline\\varepsilon_{\\mathrm{DE}} \\overline\\varepsilon_{\\mathrm{DM}} / (\\overline\\varepsilon_{\\mathrm{DE}} + \\overline\\varepsilon_{\\mathrm{DM}})$, where $\\gamma$ is a constant. We assume that DM is pressureless and DE has a constant equation of state parameter $w$. In the considered model, the energy densities of the dark sector components present a scaling behaviour with $\\overline\\varepsilon_{\\mathrm{DM}} / \\overline\\varepsilon_{\\mathrm{DE}} \\sim \\left({a_0} / {a} \\right)^{-3(w+\\gamma)}$. We investigate the possibility that the perturbations of DM and DE, which are interacting among themselves, could be coupled to the galaxies with the ...

  1. Optimal bipedal interactions with dynamic terrain: synthesis and analysis via nonlinear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubicki, Christian; Goldman, Daniel; Ames, Aaron

    In terrestrial locomotion, gait dynamics and motor control behaviors are tuned to interact efficiently and stably with the dynamics of the terrain (i.e. terradynamics). This controlled interaction must be particularly thoughtful in bipeds, as their reduced contact points render them highly susceptible to falls. While bipedalism under rigid terrain assumptions is well-studied, insights for two-legged locomotion on soft terrain, such as sand and dirt, are comparatively sparse. We seek an understanding of how biological bipeds stably and economically negotiate granular media, with an eye toward imbuing those abilities in bipedal robots. We present a trajectory optimization method for controlled systems subject to granular intrusion. By formulating a large-scale nonlinear program (NLP) with reduced-order resistive force theory (RFT) models and jamming cone dynamics, the optimized motions are informed and shaped by the dynamics of the terrain. Using a variant of direct collocation methods, we can express all optimization objectives and constraints in closed-form, resulting in rapid solving by standard NLP solvers, such as IPOPT. We employ this tool to analyze emergent features of bipedal locomotion in granular media, with an eye toward robotic implementation.

  2. Neurosurgery Simulation Using Non-linear Finite Element Modeling and Haptic Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Huai-Ping; Audette, Michel; Joldes, Grand Roman; Enquobahrie, Andinet

    2012-02-23

    Real-time surgical simulation is becoming an important component of surgical training. To meet the real-time requirement, however, the accuracy of the biomechancial modeling of soft tissue is often compromised due to computing resource constraints. Furthermore, haptic integration presents an additional challenge with its requirement for a high update rate. As a result, most real-time surgical simulation systems employ a linear elasticity model, simplified numerical methods such as the boundary element method or spring-particle systems, and coarse volumetric meshes. However, these systems are not clinically realistic. We present here an ongoing work aimed at developing an efficient and physically realistic neurosurgery simulator using a non-linear finite element method (FEM) with haptic interaction. Real-time finite element analysis is achieved by utilizing the total Lagrangian explicit dynamic (TLED) formulation and GPU acceleration of per-node and per-element operations. We employ a virtual coupling method for separating deformable body simulation and collision detection from haptic rendering, which needs to be updated at a much higher rate than the visual simulation. The system provides accurate biomechancial modeling of soft tissue while retaining a real-time performance with haptic interaction. However, our experiments showed that the stability of the simulator depends heavily on the material property of the tissue and the speed of colliding objects. Hence, additional efforts including dynamic relaxation are required to improve the stability of the system.

  3. The neurochemical mobile with non-linear interaction matrix: an exploratory computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Z; Fieni, D; Tretter, F; Voit, E O

    2013-05-01

    Several years ago, the "neurochemical mobile" was introduced as a visual tool for explaining the different balances between neurotransmitters in the brain and their role in mental disorders. Here we complement this concept with a non-linear computational systems model representing the direct and indirect interactions between neurotransmitters, as they have been described in the "neurochemical interaction matrix." The model is constructed within the framework of biochemical systems theory, which facilitates the mapping of numerically ill-characterized systems into a mathematical and computational construct that permits a variety of analyses. Simulations show how short- and long-term perturbations in any of the neurotransmitters migrate through the entire system, thereby affecting the balances within the mobile. In cases of short-term alterations, transients are of particular interest, whereas long-term changes shed light on persistently altered, allostatic states, which in mental diseases and sleep disorders could be due to a combination of unfavorable factors, resulting from a specific genetic predisposition, epigenetic effects, disease, or the repeated use of drugs, such as opioids and amphetamines.

  4. Switching behaviour of nonlinear Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on photonic crystal geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Man Mohan Gupta; S Medhekar

    2014-06-01

    Nonlinear Mach–Zehnder interferometer (NMZI) created with photonic crystal waveguides (PCW) and with Kerr-type nonlinearity has been investigated in this paper. The NMZI has been simulated using two-dimensional finite difference time domain (2D-FDTD) method. Input verses output (I/O) characteristics have been obtained for different lengths of the nonlinear arm, nonlinear coefficients of the nonlinear arm, wavelengths of the input beam, sizes of defect rods and NMZI offset. The results obtained are compared with earlier published results of NMZI created with conventional step index waveguides (SIW). It is shown that all useful features of light switching offered by SIW-based NMZIs are also possible with PCW-based NMZIs of extremely small dimensions. Moreover, PCW-based NMZIs offer additional useful feature not available with SIW-based NMZIs.

  5. Observer-Based Nonlinear Control of A Torque Motor with Perturbation Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J Chen; E Prempain; Q H Wu

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an observer-based nonlinear control method that was developed and implemented to provide accurate tracking control of a limited angle torque motor following a 50Hz reference waveform. The method is based on a robust nonlinear observer, which is used to estimate system states and perturbations and then employ input-output feedback linearization to compensate for the system nonlinearities and uncertainties. The estimation of system states and perturbations allows input-output linearization of the nonlinear system without an accurate mathematical model of nominal plant. The simulation results show that the observer-based nonlinear control method is superior in comparison with the conventional model-based state feedback linearizing controller.

  6. Two-dimensional spectroscopy for harmonic vibrational modes with nonlinear system-bath interactions. I. Gaussian-white case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffen, T; Tanimura, Y

    2000-01-01

    The quantum Fokker-Planck equation is derived for a system nonlinearly coupled to a harmonic oscillator bath. The system-bath interaction is assumed to be linear in the bath coordinates but quadratic in the system coordinate. The relaxation induced dynamics of a harmonic system are investigated by s

  7. Impact of non-linear smoking effects on the identification of gene-by-smoking interactions in COPD genetics studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaldi, P J; Demeo, D L; Hersh, C P;

    2010-01-01

    with COPD. Using data from the Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Genetic Modifiers Study, the accuracy and power of two different approaches to model smoking were compared by performing a simulation study of a genetic variant with a range of gene-by-smoking interaction effects. Results Non-linear relationships between...

  8. Interaction of additive noise and nonlinear dynamics in the double-gyre wind-driven ocean circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapsis, T.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors study the interactions of additive noise and nonlinear dynamics in a quasi-geostrophicmodel of the double-gyre wind-driven ocean circulation. The recently developed framework of dynamically orthogonal field theory is used to determine the statistics of the flows that arise

  9. Nonlinear structural joint model updating based on instantaneous characteristics of dynamic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuo-Cai; Xin, Yu; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a new nonlinear joint model updating method for shear type structures based on the instantaneous characteristics of the decomposed structural dynamic responses. To obtain an accurate representation of a nonlinear system's dynamics, the nonlinear joint model is described as the nonlinear spring element with bilinear stiffness. The instantaneous frequencies and amplitudes of the decomposed mono-component are first extracted by the analytical mode decomposition (AMD) method. Then, an objective function based on the residuals of the instantaneous frequencies and amplitudes between the experimental structure and the nonlinear model is created for the nonlinear joint model updating. The optimal values of the nonlinear joint model parameters are obtained by minimizing the objective function using the simulated annealing global optimization method. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a single-story shear type structure subjected to earthquake and harmonic excitations is simulated as a numerical example. Then, a beam structure with multiple local nonlinear elements subjected to earthquake excitation is also simulated. The nonlinear beam structure is updated based on the global and local model using the proposed method. The results show that the proposed local nonlinear model updating method is more effective for structures with multiple local nonlinear elements. Finally, the proposed method is verified by the shake table test of a real high voltage switch structure. The accuracy of the proposed method is quantified both in numerical and experimental applications using the defined error indices. Both the numerical and experimental results have shown that the proposed method can effectively update the nonlinear joint model.

  10. Visible and ultraviolet light sources based nonlinear interaction of lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Jain, Mayank;

    Different light sources can be used for optically stimulated luminescence measurements and usually a halogen lamp in combination with filters or light emitting diodes (LED’s) are used to provide the desired stimulation wavelength. However lasers can provide a much more well-defined beam, very...

  11. Proposal of all-optical sensor based on nonlinear MMI coupler for multi-purpose usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajaldini, M.; MatJafri, M. Z.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we propose an all-optical sensor based on consideration the nonlinear effects on modal propagation and output intensity based on ultra-compact nonlinear multimode interference (NLMMI) coupler. The sensor can be tuned to highest sensitivity in the wavelength and refractive index ranges sufficient to detect water- soluble chemical, air pollutions, and heart operation. The results indicate high output sensitivity to input wavelength. This sensitivity guides us to propose a wave sensor both transverse and longitudinal waves such as acoustic and light wave, when an external wave interacts with input waveguide. For instance, this sensor can be implemented by long input that inserted in the land, then any wave could detected from earth. The visible changes of intensity at output facet in various surrounding layer refractive index show the high sensitivity to the refractive index of surrounding layer that is foundation of introducing a sensor. Also, the results show the high distinguished changes on modal expansion and output throat distribution in various refractive indices of surrounding layer.

  12. Crack identification for rotating machines based on a nonlinear approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalini, A. A., Jr.; Sanches, L.; Bachschmid, N.; Steffen, V., Jr.

    2016-10-01

    In a previous contribution, a crack identification methodology based on a nonlinear approach was proposed. The technique uses external applied diagnostic forces at certain frequencies attaining combinational resonances, together with a pseudo-random optimization code, known as Differential Evolution, in order to characterize the signatures of the crack in the spectral responses of the flexible rotor. The conditions under which combinational resonances appear were determined by using the method of multiple scales. In real conditions, the breathing phenomenon arises from the stress and strain distribution on the cross-sectional area of the crack. This mechanism behavior follows the static and dynamic loads acting on the rotor. Therefore, the breathing crack can be simulated according to the Mayes' model, in which the crack transition from fully opened to fully closed is described by a cosine function. However, many contributions try to represent the crack behavior by machining a small notch on the shaft instead of the fatigue process. In this paper, the open and breathing crack models are compared regarding their dynamic behavior and the efficiency of the proposed identification technique. The additional flexibility introduced by the crack is calculated by using the linear fracture mechanics theory (LFM). The open crack model is based on LFM and the breathing crack model corresponds to the Mayes' model, which combines LFM with a given breathing mechanism. For illustration purposes, a rotor composed by a horizontal flexible shaft, two rigid discs, and two self-aligning ball bearings is used to compose a finite element model of the system. Then, numerical simulation is performed to determine the dynamic behavior of the rotor. Finally, the results of the inverse problem conveyed show that the methodology is a reliable tool that is able to estimate satisfactorily the location and depth of the crack.

  13. Generation and Nonlinear Dynamical Analyses of Fractional-Order Memristor-Based Lorenz Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Xi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, four fractional-order memristor-based Lorenz systems with the flux-controlled memristor characterized by a monotone-increasing piecewise linear function, a quadratic nonlinearity, a smooth continuous cubic nonlinearity and a quartic nonlinearity are presented, respectively. The nonlinear dynamics are analyzed by using numerical simulation methods, including phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams, the largest Lyapunov exponent and power spectrum diagrams. Some interesting phenomena, such as inverse period-doubling bifurcation and intermittent chaos, are found to exist in the proposed systems.

  14. A Nonlinear Multi-Scale Interaction Model for Atmospheric Blocking: The Eddy-Blocking Matching Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dehai; Cha, Jing; Zhong, Linhao; Dai, Aiguo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear multi-scale interaction (NMI) model is used to propose an eddy-blocking matching (EBM) mechanism to account for how synoptic eddies reinforce or suppress a blocking flow. It is shown that the spatial structure of the eddy vorticity forcing (EVF) arising from upstream synoptic eddies determines whether an incipient block can grow into a meandering blocking flow through its interaction with the transient synoptic eddies from the west. Under certain conditions, the EVF exhibits a low-frequency oscillation on timescales of 2-3 weeks. During the EVF phase with a negative-over- positive dipole structure, a blocking event can be resonantly excited through the transport of eddy energy into the incipient block by the EVF. As the EVF changes into an opposite phase, the blocking decays. The NMI model produces life cycles of blocking events that resemble observations. Moreover, it is shown that the eddy north-south straining is a response of the eddies to a dipole- or Ω-type block. In our model, as in observations, two synoptic anticyclones (cyclones) can attract and merge with one another as the blocking intensifies, but only when the feedback of the blocking on the eddies is included. Thus, we attribute the eddy straining and associated vortex interaction to the feedback of the intensified blocking on synoptic eddies. The results illustrate the concomitant nature of the eddy deformation, whose role as a PV source for the blocking flow becomes important only during the mature stage of a block. Our EBM mechanism suggests that an incipient block flow is amplified (or suppressed) under certain conditions by the EVF coming from the upstream of the blocking region.

  15. Probing hydrogen bond interactions in a shear thickening polysaccharide using nonlinear shear and extensional rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Aditya; Wee, May; Matia-Merino, Lara; Goh, Kelvin K T; McKinley, Gareth H

    2015-06-05

    Mamaku gum is a polysaccharide extracted from the fronds of the black tree fern found in New Zealand. The cooked pith has traditionally been used for various medicinal purposes and as a food source by the Maori people of New Zealand. It has potential applications as a thickener in the food industry and as a palliative for patients with dysphagia. Studies on the shear rheology of Mamaku gum have revealed that the gum exhibits shear thickening at a critical shear rate due to a transition from intra- to inter-molecular chain interactions upon shear-induced chain elongation. In this paper, we demonstrate that these interactions are primarily due to hydrogen bonding. We perform extensional rheology on mixtures of Mamaku gum and urea (a known disruptor of hydrogen bonds) to quantify the nature of these interactions. Capillary Breakup Extensional Rheometry (CaBER) performed on the pure Mamaku gum solutions yield plateau values of the Trouton ratio as high as ∼10(4), showing that the viscoelasticity of the gum in uniaxial elongation is much higher than in shear. For all Mamaku concentrations tested, the extensional viscosity decreases upon increasing urea concentration. Furthermore, the relaxation time decreases exponentially with increasing urea concentration. This exponential relationship is independent of the Mamaku concentration, and is identical to the relationships between urea concentration and characteristic timescales measured in nonlinear shear rheology. We show using the sticky reptation model for polymers with multiple sticker groups along the backbone how such a relationship is consistent with a linear decrease in the free energy for hydrogen bond dissociation. We then demonstrate that a time-concentration superposition principle can be used to collapse the viscoelastic properties of the Mamaku-gum/urea mixtures.

  16. Real time remaining useful life prediction based on nonlinear Wiener based degradation processes with measurement errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐圣金; 郭晓松; 于传强; 周志杰; 周召发; 张邦成

    2014-01-01

    Real time remaining useful life (RUL) prediction based on condition monitoring is an essential part in condition based maintenance (CBM). In the current methods about the real time RUL prediction of the nonlinear degradation process, the measurement error is not considered and forecasting uncertainty is large. Therefore, an approximate analytical RUL distribution in a closed-form of a nonlinear Wiener based degradation process with measurement errors was proposed. The maximum likelihood estimation approach was used to estimate the unknown fixed parameters in the proposed model. When the newly observed data are available, the random parameter is updated by the Bayesian method to make the estimation adapt to the item’s individual characteristic and reduce the uncertainty of the estimation. The simulation results show that considering measurement errors in the degradation process can significantly improve the accuracy of real time RUL prediction.

  17. Some Comments on the Nonlinear Dynamics of a Portal Frame under Base Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Souza de Paula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a nonlinear dynamic analysis of a flexible portal frame subjected to support excitation, which is provided by an electro-dynamical shaker. The main goal of this study is to investigate the dynamic interactions between a flexible portal frame and a nonlinear electrical support excitation. The numerical analysis shows a complex behavior of the system, which can be observed by phase spaces, Poincaré sections and bifurcation diagrams.

  18. Balanced Realization and Model Order Reduction for Nonlinear Systems based on Singular Value Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujimoto, Kenji; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses balanced realization and model order reduction for both continuous-time and discrete-time general nonlinear systems based on singular value analysis of the corresponding Hankel operators. Singular value analysis clarifies the gain structure of a given nonlinear operator. Here it

  19. Nonlinear ultrasonic measurements based on cross-correlation filtering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Andrew; Stewart, Dylan; Bunget, Gheorghe; Kramer, Patrick; Farinholt, Kevin; Friedersdorf, Fritz; Pepi, Marc; Ghoshal, Anindya

    2017-02-01

    Cyclic loading of mechanical components promotes the formation of dislocation dipoles in metals, which can serve as precursors to crack nucleation and ultimately lead to failure. In the laboratory setting, an acoustic nonlinearity parameter has been assessed as an effective indicator for characterizing the progression of fatigue damage precursors. However, the need to use monochromatic waves of medium-to-high acoustic energy has presented a constraint, making it problematic for use in field applications. This paper presents a potential approach for field measurement of acoustic nonlinearity by using general purpose ultrasonic pulser-receivers. Nonlinear ultrasonic measurements during fatigue testing were analyzed by the using contact and immersion pulse-through method. A novel cross-correlation filtering technique was developed to extract the fundamental and higher harmonic waves from the signals. As in the case of the classic harmonic generation, the nonlinearity parameters of the second and third harmonics indicate a strong correlation with fatigue cycles. Consideration was given to potential nonlinearities in the measurement system, and tests have confirmed that measured second harmonic signals exhibit a linear dependence on the input signal strength, further affirming the conclusion that this parameter relates to damage precursor formation from cyclic loading.

  20. Targeting Eigenstates by "Simulated Measurements" using a Decoherence based Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Furtmaier, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the idea of mimicking the measurement on a quantum system through a decoherence process to target specific eigenstates based on Born's law instead of the hierarchy of eigenvalues, we transform a Lindblad equation for the reduced density operator into a nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation to obtain a computationally feasible simulation of the decoherent dynamics in the open quantum system. The method shows an exponential convergence and its computational costs scale linear for sparse matrix representations of the involved Hermitian operators. Symmetries of the problem can be incorporated either in the initial state of the dynamics or explicitly using the symmetry operators in the evolution equation. As an application of the method we discuss \\textit{eigenstate towing}, which relies on the perturbation theory to follow the progression of an arbitrary subset of eigenstates along a sum of perturbation operators with the intention to explore for instance the effect of interactions on these eigenstates.

  1. Stability and adaptability of runner peanut genotypes based on nonlinear regression and AMMI analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Cavalcanti dos Santos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the stability and adaptability of pod and seed yield in runner peanut genotypes based on the nonlinear regression and AMMI analysis. Yield data from 11 trials, distributed in six environments and three harvests, carried out in the Northeast region of Brazil during the rainy season were used. Significant effects of genotypes (G, environments (E, and GE interactions were detected in the analysis, indicating different behaviors among genotypes in favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions. The genotypes BRS Pérola Branca and LViPE‑06 are more stable and adapted to the semiarid environment, whereas LGoPE‑06 is a promising material for pod production, despite being highly dependent on favorable environments.

  2. New Cardiovascular Indices Based on a Nonlinear Spectral Analysis of Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Laleg, Taous-Meriem; Papelier, Yves; Crépeau, Emmanuelle; Sorine, Michel

    2007-01-01

    A new method for analyzing arterial blood pressure is presented in this report. The technique is based on the scattering transform and consists in solving the spectral problem associated to a one-dimensional Schr\\"odinger operator with a potential depending linearly upon the pressure. This potential is then expressed with the discrete spectrum which includes negative eigenvalues and corresponds to the interacting components of an N-soliton. The approach is similar to a nonlinear Fourier transform where the solitons play the role of sine and cosine components. The method provides new cardiovascular indices that seem to contain relevant physiological information. We first show how to use this approach to decompose the arterial blood pressure pulse into elementary waves and to reconstruct it or to separate its systolic and diastolic phases. Then we analyse the parameters computed from this technique in two physiological conditions, the head-up 60 degrees tilt test and the isometric handgrip test, widely used for...

  3. Hybrid grammar-based approach to nonlinear dynamical system identification from biological time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, B. A.; Crowe, J. E., Jr.; Voss, H. U.; Crooke, P. S.; Barney, N.; Moore, J. H.

    2006-02-01

    We introduce a grammar-based hybrid approach to reverse engineering nonlinear ordinary differential equation models from observed time series. This hybrid approach combines a genetic algorithm to search the space of model architectures with a Kalman filter to estimate the model parameters. Domain-specific knowledge is used in a context-free grammar to restrict the search space for the functional form of the target model. We find that the hybrid approach outperforms a pure evolutionary algorithm method, and we observe features in the evolution of the dynamical models that correspond with the emergence of favorable model components. We apply the hybrid method to both artificially generated time series and experimentally observed protein levels from subjects who received the smallpox vaccine. From the observed data, we infer a cytokine protein interaction network for an individual’s response to the smallpox vaccine.

  4. Classifying content-based Images using Self Organizing Map Neural Networks Based on Nonlinear Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Parcham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Classifying similar images is one of the most interesting and essential image processing operations. Presented methods have some disadvantages like: low accuracy in analysis step and low speed in feature extraction process. In this paper, a new method for image classification is proposed in which similarity weight is revised by means of information in related and unrelated images. Based on researchers’ idea, most of real world similarity measurement systems are nonlinear. Thus, traditional linear methods are not capable of recognizing nonlinear relationship and correlation in such systems. Undoubtedly, Self Organizing Map neural networks are strongest networks for data mining and nonlinear analysis of sophisticated spaces purposes. In our proposed method, we obtain images with the most similarity measure by extracting features of our target image and comparing them with the features of other images. We took advantage of NLPCA algorithm for feature extraction which is a nonlinear algorithm that has the ability to recognize the smallest variations even in noisy images. Finally, we compare the run time and efficiency of our proposed method with previous proposed methods.

  5. Photoconductive and nonlinear optical properties of composites based on metallophthalocyanines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannikov, A. V.; Grishina, A. D.; Gorbunova, Yu. G.; Tsivadze, A. Yu.

    2015-08-01

    The photoconductive, photorefractive and nonlinear optical properties of composites from polyvinylcarbazole or aromatic polyimide containing supramolecular ensembles of (tetra-15-crown-5) - phthalocyaninato gallium, indium, - phthalocyaninateacetato yttrium, - phthalocyaninato ruthenium with axially coordinated pyrazine molecules were investigated at 633, 1030 and 1064nmusing continuous and pulsed lasers. Supramolecular ensembles (SE) were prepared through dissolution of molecular metallophthalocyanines in tetrachloroethane (TCE) and subsequent treatment via three cycles of heating to 90∘C and slow cooling to room temperature. The zscan method in femtosecond and nanosecond regimeswas used for measuring nonlinear optical properties phthalocyaninato indium and yttrium in TCE solutions and polymer films. It was established that effect of heavy metallic atom is basic factor which determines the quantum yield, photorefractive amplification of laser object beam, dielectric susceptibility of third order and nonlinear optical properties of metallophthalocyanines.

  6. Van Allen Probes observations of prompt MeV radiation belt electron acceleration in nonlinear interactions with VLF chorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. C.; Erickson, P. J.; Omura, Y.; Baker, D. N.; Kletzing, C. A.; Claudepierre, S. G.

    2017-01-01

    Prompt recovery of MeV (millions of electron Volts) electron populations in the poststorm core of the outer terrestrial radiation belt involves local acceleration of a seed population of energetic electrons in interactions with VLF chorus waves. Electron interactions during the generation of VLF rising tones are strongly nonlinear, such that a fraction of the relativistic electrons at resonant energies are trapped by waves, leading to significant nonadiabatic energy exchange. Through detailed examination of VLF chorus and electron fluxes observed by Van Allen Probes, we investigate the efficiency of nonlinear processes for acceleration of electrons to MeV energies. We find through subpacket analysis of chorus waveforms that electrons with initial energy of hundreds of keV to 3 MeV can be accelerated by 50 keV-200 keV in resonant interactions with a single VLF rising tone on a time scale of 10-100 ms.

  7. Adaptive Predistortion Using Cubic Spline Nonlinearity Based Hammerstein Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofang; Shi, Jianghong

    In this paper, a new Hammerstein predistorter modeling for power amplifier (PA) linearization is proposed. The key feature of the model is that the cubic splines, instead of conventional high-order polynomials, are utilized as the static nonlinearities due to the fact that the splines are able to represent hard nonlinearities accurately and circumvent the numerical instability problem simultaneously. Furthermore, according to the amplifier's AM/AM and AM/PM characteristics, real-valued cubic spline functions are utilized to compensate the nonlinear distortion of the amplifier and the following finite impulse response (FIR) filters are utilized to eliminate the memory effects of the amplifier. In addition, the identification algorithm of the Hammerstein predistorter is discussed. The predistorter is implemented on the indirect learning architecture, and the separable nonlinear least squares (SNLS) Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is adopted for the sake that the separation method reduces the dimension of the nonlinear search space and thus greatly simplifies the identification procedure. However, the convergence performance of the iterative SNLS algorithm is sensitive to the initial estimation. Therefore an effective normalization strategy is presented to solve this problem. Simulation experiments were carried out on a single-carrier WCDMA signal. Results show that compared to the conventional polynomial predistorters, the proposed Hammerstein predistorter has a higher linearization performance when the PA is near saturation and has a comparable linearization performance when the PA is mildly nonlinear. Furthermore, the proposed predistorter is numerically more stable in all input back-off cases. The results also demonstrate the validity of the convergence scheme.

  8. An extended harmonic balance method based on incremental nonlinear control parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaparast, Hamed Haddad; Madinei, Hadi; Friswell, Michael I.; Adhikari, Sondipon; Coggon, Simon; Cooper, Jonathan E.

    2017-02-01

    A new formulation for calculating the steady-state responses of multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) non-linear dynamic systems due to harmonic excitation is developed. This is aimed at solving multi-dimensional nonlinear systems using linear equations. Nonlinearity is parameterised by a set of 'non-linear control parameters' such that the dynamic system is effectively linear for zero values of these parameters and nonlinearity increases with increasing values of these parameters. Two sets of linear equations which are formed from a first-order truncated Taylor series expansion are developed. The first set of linear equations provides the summation of sensitivities of linear system responses with respect to non-linear control parameters and the second set are recursive equations that use the previous responses to update the sensitivities. The obtained sensitivities of steady-state responses are then used to calculate the steady state responses of non-linear dynamic systems in an iterative process. The application and verification of the method are illustrated using a non-linear Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) subject to a base harmonic excitation. The non-linear control parameters in these examples are the DC voltages that are applied to the electrodes of the MEMS devices.

  9. Observer-based Fault Detection and Isolation for Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lootsma, T.F.

    . Then the geometric approach is applied to a nonlinear ship propulsion system benchmark. The calculations and application results are presented in detail to give an illustrative example. The obtained subsystems are considered for the design of nonlinear observers in order to obtain FDI. Additionally, an adaptive...... for the observers designed for the ship propulsion system. Furthermore, it stresses the importance of the time-variant character of the linearization along a trajectory. It leads to a different stability analysis than for linearization at one operation point. Finally, the preliminary concept of (actuator) fault...

  10. A Nonlinear Physics-Based Optimal Control Method for Magnetostrictive Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of a nonlinear optimal control methodology for magnetostrictive actuators. At moderate to high drive levels, the output from these actuators is highly nonlinear and contains significant magnetic and magnetomechanical hysteresis. These dynamics must be accommodated by models and control laws to utilize the full capabilities of the actuators. A characterization based upon ferromagnetic mean field theory provides a model which accurately quantifies both transient and steady state actuator dynamics under a variety of operating conditions. The control method consists of a linear perturbation feedback law used in combination with an optimal open loop nonlinear control. The nonlinear control incorporates the hysteresis and nonlinearities inherent to the transducer and can be computed offline. The feedback control is constructed through linearization of the perturbed system about the optimal system and is efficient for online implementation. As demonstrated through numerical examples, the combined hybrid control is robust and can be readily implemented in linear PDE-based structural models.

  11. Microcrack Identification in Cement-Based Materials Using Nonlinear Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. J.; Kim, J.-Y.; Qu, J.; Kurtis, K. E.; Wu, S. C.; Jacobs, L. J.

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents results from tests that use nonlinear acoustic waves to distinguish microcracks in cement-based materials. Portland cement mortar samples prepared with alkali-reactive aggregate were exposed to an aggressive environment to induce cracking were compared to control samples, of the same composition, but which were not exposed to aggressive conditions. Two nonlinear ultrasonic methods were used to characterize the samples, with the aim of identifying the time and extent of microcracking; these techniques were a nonlinear acoustical modulation (NAM) method and a harmonic amplitude relation (HAR) method. These nonlinear acoustic results show that both methods can distinguish damaged samples from undamaged ones, demonstrating the potential of nonlinear acoustic waves to provide a quantitative evaluation of the deterioration of cement-based materials.

  12. Challenges for the Sequential Interaction Between Optimal Design of Field Campaigns and Model Calibration for Non-Linear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiges, A.; Nowak, W.; Rubin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Stochastic models of sub-surface systems generally suffer from parametric and conceptual uncertainty. To reduce the model uncertainty, model parameters are calibrated using additional collected data. These data often come from costly data acquisition campaigns that need to be optimized to collect the data with the highest data utility (DU) or value of information. In model-based approaches, the DU is evaluated based on the uncertain model itself and is therefore uncertain as well. Additionally, for non-linear models, data utility depends on the yet unobserved measurement values and can only be estimated as an expected value over an assumed distribution of possible measurement values. Both factors introduce uncertainty into the optimization of field campaigns. We propose and investigate a sequential interaction scheme between campaign optimization, data collection and model calibration. The field campaign is split in individual segments. Each segment consists of optimization, segment-wise data collection, and successive model calibration or data assimilation. By doing so, (1) the expected data utility for the newly collected data is replaced by their actual one, (2) the calibration restricts both conceptual and parametric model uncertainty, and thus (3) the distribution of possible future data values for the subsequent campaign segments also changes. Hence, the model to describe the real system improves successively with each collected data segment, and so does the estimate of the yet remaining data requirements to achieve the overall investigation goals. We will show that using the sequentially improved model for the optimal design (OD) of the remaining field campaign leads to superior and more targeted designs.However, this traditional sequential OD optimizes small data segments one-by-one. In such a strategy, possible mutual dependencies with the possible data values and the optimization of data values collection in later segments are neglected. This allows a

  13. Multirate Simulations of String Vibrations Including Nonlinear Fret-String Interactions Using the Functional Transformation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rabenstein

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The functional transformation method (FTM is a well-established mathematical method for accurate simulations of multidimensional physical systems from various fields of science, including optics, heat and mass transfer, electrical engineering, and acoustics. This paper applies the FTM to real-time simulations of transversal vibrating strings. First, a physical model of a transversal vibrating lossy and dispersive string is derived. Afterwards, this model is solved with the FTM for two cases: the ideally linearly vibrating string and the string interacting nonlinearly with the frets. It is shown that accurate and stable simulations can be achieved with the discretization of the continuous solution at audio rate. Both simulations can also be performed with a multirate approach with only minor degradations of the simulation accuracy but with preservation of stability. This saves almost 80% of the computational cost for the simulation of a six-string guitar and therefore it is in the range of the computational cost for digital waveguide simulations.

  14. Nonlinear instability and chaos in plasma wave-wave interactions. II. Numerical methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueny, C.S.; Morrison, P.J.

    1995-05-01

    In Part I of this work and Physics of Plasmas, June 1995, the behavior of linearly stable, integrable systems of waves in a simple plasma model was described using a Hamiltonian formulation. It was shown that explosive instability arises from nonlinear coupling between modes of positive and negative energy, with well-defined threshold amplitudes depending on the physical parameters. In this concluding paper, the nonintegrable case is treated numerically. Several sets of waves are considered, comprising systems of two and three degrees of freedom. The time evolution is modelled with an explicit symplectic integration algorithm derived using Lie algebraic methods. When initial wave amplitudes are large enough to support two-wave decay interactions, strongly chaotic motion destroys the separatrix bounding the stable region for explosive triplets. Phase space orbits then experience diffusive growth to amplitudes that are sufficient for explosive instability, thus effectively reducing the threshold amplitude. For initial amplitudes too small to drive decay instability, small perturbations might still grow to arbitrary size via Arnold diffusion. Numerical experiments do not show diffusion in this case, although the actual diffusion rate is probably underestimated due to the simplicity of the model.

  15. Lyapunov based nonlinear control of electrical and mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behal, Aman

    fusing a filtered tracking error transformation with the dynamic oscillator design presented in [20]. The proposed tracking controller yields a GUUB result for the regulation problem also. In the final chapter, a nonlinear controller is designed for the kinematic model of an underactuated rigid spacecraft that ensures uniform, ultimately bounded (UUB) tracking provided the initial errors are selected sufficiently small. The result is achieved via a judicious formulation of the spacecraft kinematics and the novel design of a Lyapunov-based controller. It is also demonstrated how standard backstepping control techniques can be fused with the kinematic controller to solve the full-order regulation problem for an axisymmetric spacecraft. Simulation results are included to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm. 1It is to be noted that the controller presented in [16] was originally designed to obtain exponential rotor position /rotor flux tracking for the full-order induction motor model (i.e., stator current dynamics are included).

  16. The late Universe with non-linear interaction in the dark sector: The coincidence problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Morais, João; Zhuk, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    We study the Universe at the late stage of its evolution and deep inside the cell of uniformity. At such a scale the Universe is highly inhomogeneous and filled with discretely distributed inhomogeneities in the form of galaxies and groups of galaxies. As a matter source, we consider dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE) with a non-linear interaction Q = 3 HγεbarDEεbarDM /(εbarDE +εbarDM) , where γ is a constant. We assume that DM is pressureless and DE has a constant equation of state parameter w. In the considered model, the energy densities of the dark sector components present a scaling behaviour with εbarDM /εbarDE ∼(a0 / a) - 3(w + γ). We investigate the possibility that the perturbations of DM and DE, which are interacting among themselves, could be coupled to the galaxies with the former being concentrated around them. To carry our analysis, we consider the theory of scalar perturbations (within the mechanical approach), and obtain the sets of parameters (w , γ) which do not contradict it. We conclude that two sets: (w = - 2 / 3 , γ = 1 / 3) and (w = - 1 , γ = 1 / 3) are of special interest. First, the energy densities of DM and DE on these cases are concentrated around galaxies confirming that they are coupled fluids. Second, we show that for both of them, the coincidence problem is less severe than in the standard ΛCDM. Third, the set (w = - 1 , γ = 1 / 3) is within the observational constraints. Finally, we also obtain an expression for the gravitational potential in the considered model.

  17. Evaluation of a physically based quasi-linear and a conceptually based nonlinear Muskingum methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Muthiah; Tayfur, Gokmen; Rao, C. Madhusudana; Gurarslan, Gurhan

    2017-03-01

    Two variants of the Muskingum flood routing method formulated for accounting nonlinearity of the channel routing process are investigated in this study. These variant methods are: (1) The three-parameter conceptual Nonlinear Muskingum (NLM) method advocated by Gillin 1978, and (2) The Variable Parameter McCarthy-Muskingum (VPMM) method recently proposed by Perumal and Price in 2013. The VPMM method does not require rigorous calibration and validation procedures as required in the case of NLM method due to established relationships of its parameters with flow and channel characteristics based on hydrodynamic principles. The parameters of the conceptual nonlinear storage equation used in the NLM method were calibrated using the Artificial Intelligence Application (AIA) techniques, such as the Genetic Algorithm (GA), the Differential Evolution (DE), the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the Harmony Search (HS). The calibration was carried out on a given set of hypothetical flood events obtained by routing a given inflow hydrograph in a set of 40 km length prismatic channel reaches using the Saint-Venant (SV) equations. The validation of the calibrated NLM method was investigated using a different set of hypothetical flood hydrographs obtained in the same set of channel reaches used for calibration studies. Both the sets of solutions obtained in the calibration and validation cases using the NLM method were compared with the corresponding solutions of the VPMM method based on some pertinent evaluation measures. The results of the study reveal that the physically based VPMM method is capable of accounting for nonlinear characteristics of flood wave movement better than the conceptually based NLM method which requires the use of tedious calibration and validation procedures.

  18. Linear and weakly nonlinear aspects of free shear layer instability, roll-up, subharmonic interaction and wall influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, A. B.; Thompson, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    The growth of the momentum thickness and the modal disturbance energies are examined to study the nature and onset of nonlinearity in a temporally growing free shear layer. A shooting technique is used to find solutions to the linearized eigenvalue problem, and pseudospectral weakly nonlinear simulations of this flow are obtained for comparison. The roll-up of a fundamental disturbance follows linear theory predictions even with a 20 percent disturbance amplitude. A weak nonlinear interaction of the disturbance creates a finite-amplitude mean shear stress which dominates the growth of the layer momentum thickness, and the disturbance growth rate changes until the fundamental disturbance dominates. The fundamental then becomes an energy source for the harmonic, resulting in an increase in the growth rate of the subharmonic over the linear prediction even when the fundamental has no energy to give. Also considered are phase relations and the wall influence.

  19. Cognitive neurorehabilitation based on interactive video technology

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Moreno, Jose Maria; Solana Sánchez, Javier; R. Sánchez; González Palmero, S.; Sánchez González, Patricia; Gómez Pérez, C.; Morell Vilaseca, Marc; Cáceres Taladriz, César; Roig Rovira, Teresa; Tormos Muñoz, Josep M.; Gómez Aguilera, Enrique J.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is the main cause of disability in developed societies. New interactive technologies help therapists in neurorehabilitation in order to increase patients’ autonomy and quality of life. This work proposes Interactive Video (IV) as a technology to develop cognitive rehabilitation tasks based on Activities of Daily Living (ADL). ADL cognitive task has been developed and integrated with eye-tracking technology for task interaction and patients’ performance monitoring....

  20. Quantum-dot-based integrated non-linear sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Alice; Mariani, Silvia; Andronico, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on the design and the preliminary characterisation of two active non-linear sources in the terahertz and near-infrared range. The former is associated to difference-frequency generation between whispering gallery modes of an AlGaAs microring resonator, whereas the latter is gra...

  1. UAV Formation Flight Based on Nonlinear Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Chao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We designed a distributed collision-free formation flight control law in the framework of nonlinear model predictive control. Formation configuration is determined in the virtual reference point coordinate system. Obstacle avoidance is guaranteed by cost penalty, and intervehicle collision avoidance is guaranteed by cost penalty combined with a new priority strategy.

  2. Grobner Bases for Nonlinear DAE Systems of Analog Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke J. Spang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Systems of differential equations play an important role in modelling and analysis of many complex systems e.g. in electronics and mechanics. The following article is concerned with a symbolic analysis approach for reduction of the differential index of nonlinear differential algebraic equation (DAE systems, which occur in the modelling and simulation of analog circuits.

  3. Non-linear interactions between {CO}_2 radiative and physiological effects on Amazonian evapotranspiration in an Earth system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, Kate; Good, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We present a detailed analysis of mechanisms underlying the evapotranspiration response to increased {CO}_2 in HadGEM2-ES, focussed on western Amazonia. We use three simulations from CMIP5 in which atmospheric {CO}_2 increases at 1% per year reaching approximately four times pre-industrial levels after 140 years. Using 3-hourly data, we found that evapotranspiration (ET) change was dominated by decreased stomatal conductance (g_s ), and to a lesser extent by decreased canopy water and increased moisture gradient (specific humidity difference between surface and near-surface). There were large, non-linear decreases in ET in the simulation in which radiative and physiological forcings could interact. This non-linearity arises from non-linearity in the conductance term (includes aerodynamic and stomatal resistance and partitioning between the two, which is determined by canopy water availability), the moisture gradient, and negative correlation between these two terms. The conductance term is non-linear because GPP responds non-linearly to temperature and GPP is the dominant control on g_s in HadGEM2-ES. In addition, canopy water declines, mainly due to increases in potential evaporation, which further decrease the conductance term. The moisture gradient responds non-linearly owing to the non-linear response of temperature to {CO}_2 increases, which increases the Bowen ratio. Moisture gradient increases resulting from ET decline increase ET and thus constitute a negative feedback. This analysis highlights the importance of the g_s parametrisation in determining the ET response and the potential differences between offline and online simulations owing to feedbacks on ET via the atmosphere, some of which would not occur in an offline simulation.

  4. Interactive Reliability-Based Optimal Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Siemaszko, A.

    1994-01-01

    Interactive design/optimization of large, complex structural systems is considered. The objective function is assumed to model the expected costs. The constraints are reliability-based and/or related to deterministic code requirements. Solution of this optimization problem is divided in four main...... be used in interactive optimization....

  5. On the multiscale nature of soil moisture-temperature couplings: the role of seasonality, causation and non-linear feedbacks in land-atmosphere interactions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molini, A.; Casagrande, E.; Mueller, B.

    2013-12-01

    Land-Atmosphere (L-A) interactions, their strength and directionality, are one of the main sources of uncertainty in current climate modeling, with strong implications on the accurate assessment of future climate variability and climate change impacts. Beside from the scarcity of direct observations, major uncertainties derive from the inherent complexity and nonlinearity of these interactions, and from their multi-scale character. Statistical analysis of L-A couplings is traditionally based on linear correlation methods and metrics. However, these approaches are not designed to detect causal connections or non-linear couplings and they poorly perform in presence of non-stationarities. Additionally these methods assess L-A couplings essentially in the time domain, despite the fact that L-A dynamical drivers can act simultaneously over a wide range of different space and time scales. This talk explores the multi-scale nature of L-A interactions, through the example of soil moisture-temperature couplings and soil-moisture memory effects. In several regions of the world, soil moisture can have a dampening effect on temperature due to evaporative cooling. By using spectral decomposition techniques and both newly developed satellite based products and re-analysis, we analyze the contribution of different time scales to the build-up of global soil moisture-temperature coupling hot spots, addressing at the same time the role of seasonality, causation and non-linear feedbacks in land-atmosphere interactions. Finally we focus on the role of fine (sub-monthly) time scales and their interplay with the seasonal scales.

  6. A Non-smooth Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Method for Interactive Contact Force Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silcowitz, Morten; Niebe, Sarah Maria; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    of a nonlinear complementarity problem (NCP), which can be solved using an iterative splitting method, such as the projected Gauss–Seidel (PGS) method. We present a novel method for solving the NCP problem by applying a Fletcher–Reeves type nonlinear nonsmooth conjugate gradient (NNCG) type method. We analyze...

  7. Nonlinearity Role in Long-Term Interaction of the Ocean Gravity Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    the Nonlinear Schrodinger equation and its exact solutions. Numerical simulations of the fully nonlinear Euler equation have also been performed in... Schrodinger breathers, Proceedings of ECMWF Workshop on "Ocean Waves" - 25 to 27 June 2012 [published] • Onorato, M. and Proment, D.; Approximate rogue wave

  8. Simultaneous Computation of Two Independent Tasks Using Reservoir Computing Based on a Single Photonic Nonlinear Node With Optical Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Verschaffelt, Guy; Danckaert, Jan; Van der Sande, Guy

    2015-12-01

    In this brief, we numerically demonstrate a photonic delay-based reservoir computing system, which processes, in parallel, two independent computational tasks even when the two tasks have unrelated input streams. Our approach is based on a single-longitudinal mode semiconductor ring laser (SRL) with optical feedback. The SRL emits in two directional optical modes. Each directional mode processes one individual task to mitigate possible crosstalk. We illustrate the feasibility of our scheme by analyzing the performance on two benchmark tasks: 1) chaotic time series prediction and 2) nonlinear channel equalization. We identify some feedback configurations for which the results for simultaneous prediction/classification indicate a good performance, but with slight degradation (as compared with the performance obtained for single task processing) due to nonlinear and linear interactions between the two directional modes of the laser. In these configurations, the system performs well on both tasks for a broad range of the parameters.

  9. Study on high order perturbation-based nonlinear stochastic finite element method for dynamic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Yao, Jing-Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Several algorithms were proposed relating to the development of a framework of the perturbation-based stochastic finite element method (PSFEM) for large variation nonlinear dynamic problems. For this purpose, algorithms and a framework related to SFEM based on the stochastic virtual work principle were studied. To prove the validity and practicality of the algorithms and framework, numerical examples for nonlinear dynamic problems with large variations were calculated and compared with the Monte-Carlo Simulation method. This comparison shows that the proposed approaches are accurate and effective for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of structures with random parameters.

  10. Approximation-Based Adaptive Tracking Control for MIMO Nonlinear Systems With Input Saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Shi, Peng; Tian, Yang; Wang, Mingyu

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an approximation-based adaptive tracking control approach is proposed for a class of multiinput multioutput nonlinear systems. Based on the method of neural network, a novel adaptive controller is designed via backstepping design process. Furthermore, by introducing Nussbaum function, the issue of unknown control directions is handled. In the backstepping design process, the dynamic surface control technique is employed to avoid differentiating certain nonlinear functions repeatedly. Moreover, in order to reduce the number of adaptation laws, we do not use the neural networks to directly approximate the unknown nonlinear functions but the desired control signals. Finally, we provide two examples to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Dsp-based Robust Nonlinear Speed Control of PM Synchronous Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, I.C.; Kim, K.H.; Youn, M.J. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-01

    A DSP-based robust nonlinear speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM) is presented. A quasi-linearized and decoupled model including the influence of parameter variations and speed measurement error on the nonlinear speed control of a PMSM is derived. Based on this model, a boundary layer integral sliding mode controller to improve the robustness and performance of the nonlinear speed control of a PMSM is designed and compared with the conventional controller. To show the validity of the proposed control scheme, simulations and experimental works are carried out and compared with the conventional control scheme. (author). 17 refs., 10 figs.

  12. A nonlinear multi-mode wideband piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester using compliant orthoplanar spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhote, Sharvari, E-mail: sharvari.dhote@mail.utoronto.ca; Zu, Jean; Zhu, Yang [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S-3G8 (Canada)

    2015-04-20

    In this paper, a nonlinear wideband multi-mode piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester (PVEH) is proposed based on a compliant orthoplanar spring (COPS), which has an advantage of providing multiple vibration modes at relatively low frequencies. The PVEH is made of a tri-leg COPS flexible structure, where three fixed-guided beams are capable of generating strong nonlinear oscillations under certain base excitation. A prototype harvester was fabricated and investigated through both finite-element analysis and experiments. The frequency response shows multiple resonance which corresponds to a hardening type of nonlinear resonance. By adding masses at different locations on the COPS structure, the first three vibration modes are brought close to each other, where the three hardening nonlinear resonances provide a wide bandwidth for the PVEH. The proposed PVEH has enhanced performance of the energy harvester in terms of a wide frequency bandwidth and a high-voltage output under base excitations.

  13. Properties of Differential Scattering Section Based on Multi-photon Nonlinear Compton Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Properties of damping electrons in collision with photons based on multi-photon nonlinear Compton effect are investigated. The expressions of the differential scattering section are derived. Several useful conclusions are drawn.

  14. A new nonlinear model for analyzing the behaviour of carbon nanotube-based resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhi, Hamed; Païdoussis, Michael P.; Misra, Arun K.

    2016-09-01

    The present study develops a new size-dependent nonlinear model for the analysis of the behaviour of carbon nanotube-based resonators. In particular, based on modified couple stress theory, the fully nonlinear equations of motion of the carbon nanotube-based resonator are derived using Hamilton's principle, taking into account both the longitudinal and transverse displacements. Molecular dynamics simulation is then performed in order to verify the validity of the developed size-dependent continuum model at the nano scale. The nonlinear partial differential equations of motion of the system are discretized by means of the Galerkin technique, resulting in a high-dimensional reduced-order model of the system. The pseudo-arclength continuation technique is employed to examine the nonlinear resonant behaviour of the carbon nanotube-based resonator. A new universal pull-in formula is also developed for predicting the occurrence of the static pull-in and validated using numerical simulations.

  15. Optical computation based on nonlinear total reflectional optical switch at the interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jianqi Zhang; Huan Xu

    2009-03-01

    A new scheme of binary half adder and full adder is proposed. It realizes a kind of all-optical computation which is based on the polarization coding technique and the nonlinear total reflectional optical switches.

  16. Vortex-based spatiotemporal characterization of nonlinear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Gregory A.

    Although the ubiquity of vortices in nature has been recognized by artists for over seven centuries, it was the work of artist and scientist Leonardo da Vinci that provided the monumental transition from an aesthetic form to a scientific tool. DaVinci used vortices to describe the motions he observed in air currents, flowing water and blood flow in the human heart. Five centuries later, the Navier-Stokes equations allow us to recreate the swirling motions of fluid observed in nature. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have provided a lens through which to study the role of vortices in a wide variety of modern day applications. The research summarized below represents an effort to look through this lens and bring into focus the practical use of vortices in describing nonlinear flows. Vortex-based spatiotemporal characterizations are obtained using two specific mathematical tools: vortex core lines (VCL) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). By applying these tools, we find that vortices continue to provide new insights in the realm of biofluids, urban flows and the phase space of dynamical systems. The insights we have gained are described in this thesis. Our primary focus is on biofluids. Specifically, we seek to gain new insights into the connection between vortices and vascular diseases in order to provide more effective methods for clinical diagnosis and treatment. We highlight several applications in which VCL and POD are used to characterize the flow conditions in a heart pump, identify stenosis in carotid arteries and validate numerical models against PIV-based experimental data. Next, we quantify the spatial complexity and temporal stability of hemodynamics generated by a database of 210 patient-specific aneurysm geometries. Visual classifications of the hemodynamics are compared to the automated, quantitative classifications. The quantities characterizing the hemodynamics are then compared to clinical data to determine conditions that are

  17. Modeling and Backstepping-based Nonlinear Control Strategy for a 6 DOF Quadrotor Helicopter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashfaq Ahmad Mian; Wang Daobo

    2008-01-01

    In this article,a nonlinear model of an underactuated six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) quadrotor helicopter is derived on the basis of the Newton-Euler formalism.The derivation comprises determining equations of the motion of the quadrotor in three dimensions andapproximating the actuation forces through the modeling of aerodynamic coefficients and electric motor dynamics.The derived modelcomposed of translatioual and rotational subsystems is dynamically unstable,so a sequential nonlinear control strategy is used.The con-trol strategy includes feedback linearization coupled with a PD controller for the translational subsystem and a backstepping-based PID nonlinear controller for the rotational subsystem of the quadrotor.The performances of the nonlinear control method are evaluated by nonlinear simulation and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy for the quadrotor helicopter inquasi-stationary flights.

  18. Position and Velocity Estimation for Two-Inertia System with Nonlinear Stiffness Based on Acceleration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Tae Nam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the state estimation problem for flexible joint manipulators that involve nonlinear characteristics in their stiffness. The two key ideas of our design are that (a an accelerometer is used in order that the estimation error dynamics do not depend on nonlinearities at the link part of the manipulators and (b the model of the nonlinear stiffness is indeed a Lipschitz function. Based on the measured acceleration, we propose a nonlinear observer under the Lipschitz condition of the nonlinear stiffness. In addition, in order to effectively compensate for the estimation error, the gain of the proposed observer is chosen from the ARE (algebraic Riccati equations which depend on the Lipschitz constant. Comparative experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Nonlinear observer based fault detection and isolation for a momentum wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2001-01-01

    This article realizes nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation for a momentum wheel. The Fault Detection and Isolation is based on a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, which states which faults might occur and can be detected. The algorithms presented in this paper are based on a geometric approach...... toachieve nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation. The proposed algorithms are tested in a simulation study and the pros and cons of the algorithm are discussed....

  20. Parameter Estimation of Jelinski-Moranda Model Based on Weighted Nonlinear Least Squares and Heteroscedasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingwei; Liu, Yi; Xu, Meizhi

    2015-01-01

    Parameter estimation method of Jelinski-Moranda (JM) model based on weighted nonlinear least squares (WNLS) is proposed. The formulae of resolving the parameter WNLS estimation (WNLSE) are derived, and the empirical weight function and heteroscedasticity problem are discussed. The effects of optimization parameter estimation selection based on maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method, least squares estimation (LSE) method and weighted nonlinear least squares estimation (WNLSE) method are al...

  1. Spatial interactions in agent-based modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel; Merlone, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Agent Based Modeling (ABM) has become a widespread approach to model complex interactions. In this chapter after briefly summarizing some features of ABM the different approaches in modeling spatial interactions are discussed. It is stressed that agents can interact either indirectly through a shared environment and/or directly with each other. In such an approach, higher-order variables such as commodity prices, population dynamics or even institutions, are not exogenously specified but instead are seen as the results of interactions. It is highlighted in the chapter that the understanding of patterns emerging from such spatial interaction between agents is a key problem as much as their description through analytical or simulation means. The chapter reviews different approaches for modeling agents' behavior, taking into account either explicit spatial (lattice based) structures or networks. Some emphasis is placed on recent ABM as applied to the description of the dynamics of the geographical distribution o...

  2. Prediction of ventricular fibrillation based on nonlinear multi-parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Junfeng; NING Xinbao; ZHOU Lingling; ZHANG Song

    2003-01-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) caused by myocardial ischemia is one of the leading factors of death attributed to cardiovascular diseases. It is particularly significant to predict VF and gain valuable time for clinic therapy. Fivedogs are taken as the research objects and a VF model is introduced. The nonlinear characteristics of the ECGs before and after VF are investigated with nonlinear multi-parame- ter analysis methods, Gaussian kernel (GK) correlation estimation algorithm and Lyapunov exponent estimation algorithm. Correlation entropy h2is also presented. The results indicate that there are three parameters which will change at the same time with the conditions of myocardial ischemia, and any changes of a single parameter may be caused by other factors and mislead the judgment. Multi-parameter analysis is more reliable to reveal the heart conditions,and to predict VF without misjudgments.

  3. Adaptive sampling for nonlinear dimensionality reduction based on manifold learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, Thomas; Zimmermann, Ralf; Goertz, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We make use of the non-intrusive dimensionality reduction method Isomap in order to emulate nonlinear parametric flow problems that are governed by the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Isomap is a manifold learning approach that provides a low-dimensional embedding space...... that is approximately isometric to the manifold that is assumed to be formed by the high-fidelity Navier-Stokes flow solutions under smooth variations of the inflow conditions. The focus of the work at hand is the adaptive construction and refinement of the Isomap emulator: We exploit the non-Euclidean Isomap metric...... to detect and fill up gaps in the sampling in the embedding space. The performance of the proposed manifold filling method will be illustrated by numerical experiments, where we consider nonlinear parameter-dependent steady-state Navier-Stokes flows in the transonic regime....

  4. Various Kinds Waves and Solitons Interaction Solutions of Boussinesq Equation Describing Ultrashort Pulse in Quadratic Nonlinear Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bang-Xing; Gao, Zhan-Jie; Lin, Ji

    2016-12-01

    The consistent tanh expansion (CTE) method is applied to the (2+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation which describes the propagation of ultrashort pulse in quadratic nonlinear medium. The interaction solutions are explicitly given, such as the bright soliton-periodic wave interaction solution, variational amplitude periodic wave solution, and kink-periodic wave interaction solution. We also obtain the bright soliton solution, kind bright soliton solution, double well dark soliton solution and kink-bright soliton interaction solution by using Painlevé truncated expansion method. And we investigate interactive properties of solitons and periodic waves. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province under Grant No. LZ15A050001 and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11675164

  5. Experimental and theoretical modelling of sand-water-object interaction under nonlinear progressive waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testik, Firat Yener

    An experimental and theoretical study has been conducted to obtain a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of the sand, water and a solid object interaction as progressive gravity waves impinge on a sloping beach. Aside from obvious scientific interest, this exceedingly complex physical problem is important for naval applications, related to the behavior of disk/cylindrical shaped objects (mines) in the coastal waters. To address this problem, it was divided into a set of simpler basic problems. To begin, nonlinear progressive waves were investigated experimentally in a wave tank for the case of a rigid (impermeable) sloping bottom. Parameterizations for wave characteristics were proposed and compared with the experiments. In parallel, a numerical wave tank model (NWT) was calibrated using experimental data from a single run, and wave field in the wave tank was simulated numerically for the selected experiments. Subsequently, a layer of sand was placed on the slope and bottom topography evolution processes (ripple and sandbar dynamics, bottom topography relaxation under variable wave forcing, etc.) were investigated experimentally. Models for those processes were developed and verified by experimental measurements. Flow over a circular cylinder placed horizontally on a plane wall was also studied. The far-flow field of the cylinder placed in the wave tank was investigated experimentally and numerical results from the NWT simulations were compared with the experimental data. In the mean time, the near-flow velocity/vorticity field around a short cylinder under steady and oscillatory flow was studied in a towing tank. Horseshoe vortex formation and periodic shedding were documented and explained. With the understanding gained through the aforementioned studies, dynamics and burial/scour around the bottom objects in the wave tank were studied. Possible scenarios on the behavior of the disk-shaped objects were identified and explained. Scour around 3D cylindrical

  6. Study of Nonlinear Interaction and Turbulence of Alfven Waves in LAPD Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldyrev, Stanislav; Perez, Jean Carlos

    2013-11-29

    The complete project had two major goals — investigate MHD turbulence generated by counterpropagating Alfven modes, and study such processes in the LAPD device. In order to study MHD turbulence in numerical simulations, two codes have been used: full MHD, and reduced MHD developed specialy for this project. Quantitative numerical results are obtained through high-resolution simulations of strong MHD turbulence, performed through the 2010 DOE INCITE allocation. We addressed the questions of the spectrum of turbulence, its universality, and the value of the so-called Kolmogorov constant (the normalization coefficient of the spectrum). In these simulations we measured with unprecedented accuracy the energy spectra of magnetic and velocity fluctuations. We also studied the so-called residual energy, that is, the difference between kinetic and magnetic energies in turbulent fluctuations. In our analytic work we explained generation of residual energy in weak MHD turbulence, in the process of random collisions of counterpropagating Alfven waves. We then generalized these results for the case of strong MHD turbulence. The developed model explained generation of residual energy is strong MHD turbulence, and verified the results in numerical simulations. We then analyzed the imbalanced case, where more Alfven waves propagate in one direction. We found that spectral properties of the residual energy are similar for both balanced and imbalanced cases. We then compared strong MHD turbulence observed in the solar wind with turbulence generated in numerical simulations. Nonlinear interaction of Alfv´en waves has been studied in the upgraded Large Plasma Device (LAPD). We have simulated the collision of the Alfven modes in the settings close to the experiment. We have created a train of wave packets with the apltitudes closed to those observed n the experiment, and allowed them to collide. We then saw the generation of the second harmonic, resembling that observed in the

  7. Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

    The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

  8. Nonlinear interactions between the pumping kinetics, fluid dynamics and optical resonator of cw fluid flow lasers. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentman, L.H.; Nayfeh, M.H.

    1983-12-01

    This research is an integrated theoretical and experimental investigation of the nonlinear interactions which may occur between the chemical kinetics, the fluid dynamics and the unstable resonator of a continuous wave fluid flow laser. The objectives of this grant were to measure the frequency and amplitude of the time dependent pulsations in the power spectral output which have been predicted to occur in cw chemical lasers employing unstable resonators to extract power.

  9. Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing due to interaction-induced nonlinearities: A numerical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sayed, Karim El; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;

    1997-01-01

    of the exciton line in the FWM spectrum and in the decay of the time-resolved FWM signal in real time are governed by the intrinsic excitonic dephasing rate. It is shown that for pulse durations of similar to 100 fs (for GaAs quantum wells) this behavior can be explained as the influence of the Coulomb exchange...... interaction, while for even shorter pulses this behavior is dominantly caused by nonlinear polarization decay....

  10. A Multiscale Nested Modeling Framework to Simulate the Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 A multiscale nested modeling framework to simulate the interaction of surface gravity waves with nonlinear internal gravity waves...Minnesota LONG-TERM GOALS Our long-term goal is to develop a multiscale nested modeling framework that simulates, with the finest resolution...frameworks such as the proposed HYCOM-LZSNFS-SUNTANS-LES nested model are crucial for understanding multiscale processes that are unresolved, and hence

  11. Movement-based Interaction in Camera Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movement-based projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space......, relations, and feedback. We see these as central for describing and analysing movement-based systems using camera tracking and we show how these three concepts can be used to analyse other camera tracking applications....

  12. Analytical Model of the Nonlinear Dynamics of Cantilever Tip-Sample Surface Interactions for Various Acoustic-Atomic Force Microscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H., Jr.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical model of the interaction of the cantilever tip of the atomic force microscope (AFM) with the sample surface is developed that accounts for the nonlinearity of the tip-surface interaction force. The interaction is modeled as a nonlinear spring coupled at opposite ends to linear springs representing cantilever and sample surface oscillators. The model leads to a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations that are solved analytically using a standard iteration procedure. Solutions are obtained for the phase and amplitude signals generated by various acoustic-atomic force microscope (A-AFM) techniques including force modulation microscopy, atomic force acoustic microscopy, ultrasonic force microscopy, heterodyne force microscopy, resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), and the commonly used intermittent contact mode (TappingMode) generally available on AFMs. The solutions are used to obtain a quantitative measure of image contrast resulting from variations in the Young modulus of the sample for the amplitude and phase images generated by the A-AFM techniques. Application of the model to RDF-AFUM and intermittent soft contact phase images of LaRC-cp2 polyimide polymer is discussed. The model predicts variations in the Young modulus of the material of 24 percent from the RDF-AFUM image and 18 percent from the intermittent soft contact image. Both predictions are in good agreement with the literature value of 21 percent obtained from independent, macroscopic measurements of sheet polymer material.

  13. Evidence-Based Interactive Management of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Fleischmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based interactive management of change means hands-on experience of modified work processes, given evidence of change. For this kind of pro-active organizational development support we use an organisational process memory and a communication-based representation technique for role-specific and task-oriented process execution. Both are effective means for organizations becoming agile through interactively modelling the business at the process level and re-constructing or re-arranging process representations according to various needs. The tool allows experiencing role-specific workflows, as the communication-based refinement of work models allows for executable process specifications. When presenting the interactive processes to individuals involved in the business processes, changes can be explored interactively in a context-sensitive way before re-implementing business processes and information systems. The tool is based on a service-oriented architecture and a flexible representation scheme comprising the exchange of message between actors, business objects and actors (roles. The interactive execution of workflows does not only enable the individual reorganization of work but also changes at the level of the entire organization due to the represented interactions.

  14. A nonlinear Schroedinger equation with two symmetric point interactions in one dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovarik, Hynek [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Sacchetti, Andrea [Facolta di Scienze, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy)], E-mail: Hynek.Kovarik@polito.it, E-mail: Andrea.Sacchetti@unimore.it

    2010-04-16

    We consider a time-dependent one-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a symmetric double-well potential represented by two Dirac's {delta}. Among our results we give an explicit formula for the integral kernel of the unitary semigroup associated with the linear part of the Hamiltonian. Then we establish the corresponding Strichartz-type estimate and we prove local existence and uniqueness of the solution to the original nonlinear probl0008.

  15. Command Filtering-Based Fuzzy Control for Nonlinear Systems With Saturation Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinpeng; Shi, Peng; Dong, Wenjie; Lin, Chong

    2016-12-13

    In this paper, command filtering-based fuzzy control is designed for uncertain multi-input multioutput (MIMO) nonlinear systems with saturation nonlinearity input. First, the command filtering method is employed to deal with the explosion of complexity caused by the derivative of virtual controllers. Then, fuzzy logic systems are utilized to approximate the nonlinear functions of MIMO systems. Furthermore, error compensation mechanism is introduced to overcome the drawback of the dynamics surface approach. The developed method will guarantee all signals of the systems are bounded. The effectiveness and advantages of the theoretic result are obtained by a simulation example.

  16. Conjugated iminopyridine based Azo dye derivatives with efficient charge transfer for third order nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerasidou, A. P.; Khammar, F.; Iliopoulos, K.; Ayadi, A.; El-Ghayoury, A.; Zouari, N.; Mhiri, T.; Sahraoui, B.

    2014-03-01

    The third order nonlinearities of two azobenzene-iminopyridine molecular systems have been investigated employing the Z-scan technique at 532 nm, 30 ps. The objective of the work has been to study and to compare the nonlinearity of two iminopyridine based ligands substituted with one (NO2AzoIminoPy, A) and two azobenzene units ((NO2Azo)2IminoPy, B). The ligand B exhibits an extended conjugated structure and higher charge transfer within the molecule. Our results show high dependence of the nonlinearity on both the conjugation length within the molecule and on the number of the electron accepting units.

  17. Dynamic Simulations of Nonlinear Multi-Domain Systems Based on Genetic Programming and Bond Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DI Wenhui; SUN Bo; XU Lixin

    2009-01-01

    A dynamic simulation method for non-linear systems based on genetic programming (GP) and bond graphs (BG) was developed to improve the design of nonlinear multi-domain energy conversion sys-tems. The genetic operators enable the embryo bond graph to evolve towards the target graph according to the fitness function. Better simulation requires analysis of the optimization of the eigenvalue and the filter circuit evolution. The open topological design and space search ability of this method not only gives a more optimized convergence for the operation, but also reduces the generation time for the new circuit graph for the design of nonlinear multi-domain systems.

  18. Nonlinear interaction of infrared waves on a VO2 surface at a semiconductor-metal phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, N. K.; Zhukov, E. A.; Novokhatskii, V. V.

    1984-04-01

    Nonlinear interactions (including wavefront reversal) of light from CW or pulsed 10.6-micron CO2 lasers at the semiconductor-metal phase transition in a VO2 film are investigated experimentally. The results are presented in graphs and characterized in detail. The intensity reflection coefficients of the three-wave interactions are found to be 0.5 percent for a CW reference wave of intensity 900 mW/sq cm and 42 percent for a pulsed reference wave of threshold density 600-800 microjoule/sq cm.

  19. Generation of higher order nonclassical states via interaction of intense electromagnetic field with third order nonlinear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, A

    2006-01-01

    Interaction of intense laser beam with an inversion symmetric third order nonlinear medium is modeled as a quartic anharmonic oscillator. A first order operator solution of the model Hamiltonian is used to study the possibilities of generation of higher order nonclassical states. It is found that the higher order squeezed and higher order antibunched states can be produced by this interaction. It is also shown that the higher order nonclassical states may appear separately, i.e. a higher order antibunched state is not essentially higher order squeezed state and vice versa.

  20. An interactive segmentation method based on superpixel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Shu; Zhu, Yaping; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an interactive image-segmentation method which is based on superpixel. To achieve fast segmentation, the method is used to establish a Graphcut model using superpixels as nodes, and a new energy function is proposed. Experimental results demonstrate that the authors' method has...... excellent performance in terms of segmentation accuracy and computation efficiency compared with other segmentation algorithm based on pixels....

  1. Activity-Based Collaboration for Interactive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Esbensen, Morten; Tabard, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Activity-based computing (ABC) is a conceptual and technological framework for designing interactive systems that offers a better mapping between the activities people conduct and the digital entities they use. In ABC, rather than interacting directly with lower-level technical entities like files......, folder, documents, etc., users are able to interact with ‘activities’ which encapsulate files and other low-level resources. In ABC an ‘activity’ can be shared between collaborating users and can be accessed on different devices. As such, ABC is a framework that suits the requirements of designing...... interactive spaces. This chapter provides an overview of ABC with a special focus on its support for collaboration (‘Activity Sharing’) and multiple devices (‘Activity Roaming’). These ABC concepts are illustrated as implemented in two different interactive spaces technologies; ReticularSpaces [1] and the e...

  2. Detecting determinism with improved sensitivity in time series: Rank-based nonlinear predictability score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naro, Daniel; Rummel, Christian; Schindler, Kaspar; Andrzejak, Ralph G.

    2014-09-01

    The rank-based nonlinear predictability score was recently introduced as a test for determinism in point processes. We here adapt this measure to time series sampled from time-continuous flows. We use noisy Lorenz signals to compare this approach against a classical amplitude-based nonlinear prediction error. Both measures show an almost identical robustness against Gaussian white noise. In contrast, when the amplitude distribution of the noise has a narrower central peak and heavier tails than the normal distribution, the rank-based nonlinear predictability score outperforms the amplitude-based nonlinear prediction error. For this type of noise, the nonlinear predictability score has a higher sensitivity for deterministic structure in noisy signals. It also yields a higher statistical power in a surrogate test of the null hypothesis of linear stochastic correlated signals. We show the high relevance of this improved performance in an application to electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from epilepsy patients. Here the nonlinear predictability score again appears of higher sensitivity to nonrandomness. Importantly, it yields an improved contrast between signals recorded from brain areas where the first ictal EEG signal changes were detected (focal EEG signals) versus signals recorded from brain areas that were not involved at seizure onset (nonfocal EEG signals).

  3. Interacting wave fronts and rarefaction waves in a second order model of nonlinear thermoviscous fluids : Interacting fronts and rarefaction waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich

    2011-01-01

    A wave equation including nonlinear terms up to the second order for a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid is proposed. In the lossless case this equation results from an expansion to third order of the Lagrangian for the fundamental non-dissipative fluid dynamical equations. Thus it preserves...

  4. Observer-based robust control of one-sided Lipschitz nonlinear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sohaira; Rehan, Muhammad; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an observer-based controller design for the class of nonlinear systems with time-varying parametric uncertainties and norm-bounded disturbances. The design methodology, for the less conservative one-sided Lipschitz nonlinear systems, involves astute utilization of Young's inequality and several matrix decompositions. A sufficient condition for simultaneous extraction of observer and controller gains is stipulated by a numerically tractable set of convex optimization conditions. The constraints are handled by a nonlinear iterative cone-complementary linearization method in obtaining gain matrices. Further, an observer-based control technique for one-sided Lipschitz nonlinear systems, robust against L2-norm-bounded perturbations, is contrived. The proposed methodology ensures robustness against parametric uncertainties and external perturbations. Simulation examples demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed methodologies are presented.

  5. Constrained predictive control based on T-S fuzzy model for nonlinear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Baili; Chen Zengqiang; Yuan Zhuzhi

    2007-01-01

    A constrained generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithm based on the T-S fuzzy model is presented for the nonlinear system. First, a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model based on the fuzzy cluster algorithm and the orthogonal least square method is constructed to approach the nonlinear system. Since its consequence is linear, it can divide the nonlinear system into a number of linear or nearly linear subsystems. For this T-S fuzzy model, a GPC algorithm with input constraints is presented.This strategy takes into account all the constraints of the control signal and its increment, and does not require the calculation of the Diophantine equations. So it needs only a small computer memory and the computational speed is high. The simulation results show a good performance for the nonlinear systems.

  6. Nonlinear Spline Kernel-based Partial Least Squares Regression Method and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Jin-ming; WEN Xiang-jun

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by the traditional Wold's nonlinear PLS algorithm comprises of NIPALS approach and a spline inner function model,a novel nonlinear partial least squares algorithm based on spline kernel(named SK-PLS)is proposed for nonlinear modeling in the presence of multicollinearity.Based on the iuner-product kernel spanned by the spline basis functions with infinite numher of nodes,this method firstly maps the input data into a high dimensional feature space,and then calculates a linear PLS model with reformed NIPALS procedure in the feature space and gives a unified framework of traditional PLS"kernel"algorithms in consequence.The linear PLS in the feature space corresponds to a nonlinear PLS in the original input (primal)space.The good approximating property of spline kernel function enhances the generalization ability of the novel model,and two numerical experiments are given to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  7. Nonlinear approximation of image based on monoscale orthonormal ridgelets frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Chengwu; Song Yimei; Song Guoxiang

    2007-01-01

    A new tight frame called as monoscale orthonormal ridgelet frame (MORF) is proposed. The localization principle and the orthonormal ridgelet constructed by Donoho are applied to construct the MORF, which are used to evaluate the order of nonlinear approximation for image with edge. Because the new tight frame not only has directionality but also bears orthonormality. It overcomes redundancy of Candes's monoscale ridgelets and provides many excellent properties in practical application. Theoretical analysis and experiments demonstrate that the new frame has remarkable potential for image compression, image reconstruction, and image denoising with the simple refinement for MORF.

  8. Non-linear interactions in a boundary layer developing over an array of cubes using stochastic estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Karin; Perret, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, a boundary layer developing over a rough-wall consisting of staggered cubes with a plan area packing density, λp = 25%, is studied within a wind tunnel using combined particle image velocimetry and hot-wire anemometry to investigate the non-linear interactions between large-scale momentum regions and small-scale structures induced by the presence of the roughness. Due to the highly turbulent nature of the roughness sub-layer and measurement equipment limitations, temporally resolved flow measurements are not feasible, making the conventional filtering methods used for triple decomposition unsuitable for the present work. Thus, multi-time delay linear stochastic estimation is used to decompose the flow into large-scales and small-scales. Analysis of the scale-decomposed skewness of the turbulent velocity (u') shows a significant contribution of the non-linear term uL ' uS ' 2 ¯ , which represents the influence of the large-scales ( uL ' ) onto the small-scales ( uS ' ). It is shown that this non-linear influence of the large-scale momentum regions occurs with all three components of velocity in a similar manner. Finally, through two-point spatio-temporal correlation analysis, it is shown quantitatively that large-scale momentum regions influence small-scale structures throughout the boundary layer through a non-linear top-down mechanism.

  9. Dual objective active suspension system based on a novel nonlinear disturbance compensator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Vaijayanti S.; Shendge, P. D.; Phadke, S. B.

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an active suspension system to fulfil the dual objective of improving ride comfort while trying to keep the suspension deflection within the limits of the rattle space. The scheme is based on a novel nonlinear disturbance compensator which employs a nonlinear function of the suspension deflection. The scheme is analysed and validated by simulation and experimentation on a laboratory setup. The performance is compared with a passive suspension system for a variety of road profiles.

  10. Cylindrical PVF2 film based fiber optic phase modulator - Phase shift nonlinearity and frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshanam, V. S.; Claus, Richard O.

    1993-03-01

    A new cylindrical coil configuration for polyvinylidene flouride (PVF2) film based fiber optic phase modulator is studied for the frequency response and nonlinearity of phase shift at the resonance frequency. This configuration, hitherto unapproached for PVF2 film modulators, offers resonance at well defined, controllable and higher frequencies than possible for the flat-strip configuration. Two versions of this configuration are presented that differ strongly in both the resonance frequency and the phase shift nonlinearity coefficient.

  11. NONLINEAR OPTICAL MOLECULAR CRYSTAL BASED ON 2,6-DIAMINOPYRIDINE: SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Pavlovetc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with investigation of a new nonlinear optical material based on nonlinear optical chromophore (4-Nitrophenol and aminopyridine (2,6-Diaminopyridine. Calculation results are presented for molecular packing in the crystalline compound, based on the given components. According to these results the finite material must have a noncentrosymmetric lattice, which determines the presence of the second order nonlinear optical response. Investigations carried out in this work confirm these calculations. Results of experiments are given describing the co-crystallization of these components and the following re-crystallization of the obtained material. In order to get a monocrystal form, the optimal conditions for the synthesis of molecular crystals based on these components are determined. Sufficiently large homogeneous crystals are obtained, that gave the possibility to record their spectra in the visible and near infrared parts of the spectrum, to determine their nonlinear optical properties and the level of homogeneity. Their optical (optical transmission and optical laser damage threshold and nonlinear optical properties are presented. For observation and measurement of the nonlinear optical properties an installation was built which implements the comparative method for measurements of nonlinear optical properties. A potassium titanyl oxide phosphate crystal was used as a sample for comparison. Results are given for the conversion efficiency of the primary laser radiation in the second optical harmonic relative to the signal obtained on the potassium titanyl oxide phosphate crystal. Obtained results show that the molecular co-crystal based on 2,6-Diaminopyridine is a promising nonlinear optical material for generating the second optical harmonic on the Nd: YAG laser (532 nm.

  12. EXACT LINEARIZATION BASED MULTIPLE-SUBSPACE ITERATIVE RESOLUTION TO AFFINE NONLINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zi-xiang; ZHOU De-yun; DENG Zi-chen

    2006-01-01

    To the optimal control problem of affine nonlinear system, based on differential geometry theory, feedback precise linearization was used. Then starting from the simulative relationship between computational structural mechanics and optimal control,multiple-substructure method was inducted to solve the optimal control problem which was linearized. And finally the solution to the original nonlinear system was found. Compared with the classical linearizational method of Taylor expansion, this one diminishes the abuse of error expansion with the enlargement of used region.

  13. AN ADAPTIVELY TRAINED KERNEL-BASED NONLINEAR REPRESENTOR FOR HANDWRITTEN DIGIT CLASSIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In practice, retraining a trained classifier is necessary when novel data become available. This paper adopts an incremental learning procedure to adaptively train a Kernel-based Nonlinear Representor(KNR), a recently presented nonlinear classifier for optimal pattern representation, so that its generalization ability may be evaluated in time-variant situation and a sparser representation is obtained for computationally intensive tasks. The addressed techniques are applied to handwritten digit classification to illustrate the feasibility for pattern recognition.

  14. Optimization of Passive and Active Non-Linear Vibration Mounting Systems Based on Vibratory Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, T. J.; Singh, R.

    1996-07-01

    While significant non-linear behavior has been observed in many vibration mounting applications, most design studies are typically based on the concept of linear system theory in terms of force or motion transmissibility. In this paper, an improved analytical strategy is presented for the design optimization of complex, active of passive, non-linear mounting systems. This strategy is built upon the computational Galerkin method of weighted residuals, and incorporates order reduction and numerical continuation in an iterative optimization scheme. The overall dynamic characteristics of the mounting system are considered and vibratory power transmission is minimized via adjustment of mount parameters by using both passive and active means. The method is first applied through a computational example case to the optimization of basic passive and active, non-linear isolation configurations. It is found that either active control or intentionally introduced non-linearity can improve the mount's performance; but a combination of both produces the greatest benefit. Next, a novel experimental, active, non-linear isolation system is studied. The effect of non-linearity on vibratory power transmission and active control are assessed via experimental measurements and the enhanced Galerkin method. Results show how harmonic excitation can result in multiharmonic vibratory power transmission. The proposed optimization strategy offers designers some flexibility in utilizing both passive and active means in combination with linear and non-linear components for improved vibration mounts.

  15. Nonlinear modeling of PEMFC based on neural networks identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Tao; CAO Guang-yi; ZHU Xin-jian

    2005-01-01

    The proton exchange membrane generation technology is highly efficient and clean, and is considered as the most hopeful "green" power technology. The operating principles of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system involve thermodynamics, electrochemistry, hydrodynamics and mass transfer theory, which comprise a complex nonlinear system, for which it is difficult to establish a mathematical model. This paper first simply analyzes the necessity of the PEMFC generation technology, then introduces the generating principle from four aspects: electrode, single cell, stack, system; and then uses the approach and self-study ability of artificial neural network to build the model of nonlinear system, and adapts the Levenberg-Marquardt BP (LMBP) to build the electric characteristic model of PEMFC. The model uses experimental data as training specimens, on the condition the system is provided enough hydrogen. Considering the flow velocity of air (or oxygen) and the cell operational temperature as inputs, the cell voltage and current density as the outputs and establishing the electric characteristic model of PEMFC according to the different cell temperatures. The voltage-current output curves of model has some guidance effect for improving the cell performance, and provide basic data for optimizing cell performance that have practical significance.

  16. Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanculescu, F.; Stanculescu, A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised.

  17. Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanculescu, F; Stanculescu, A

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised.

  18. Adhesive nonlinearity in Lamb-wave-based structural health monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shengbo; Cheng, Li; Li, Peng

    2017-02-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques with nonlinear Lamb waves have gained wide popularity due to their high sensitivity to microstructural changes for the detection of damage precursors. Despite the significant progress made, various unavoidable nonlinear sources in a practical SHM system, as well as their impact on the detection, have not been fully assessed and understood. For the real-time and online monitoring, transducers are usually permanently bonded on the structure under inspection. In this case, the inherent material nonlinear properties of the bonding layer, referred to as adhesive nonlinearity (AN), may create undesired interference to the SHM system, or even jeopardize the damage diagnosis if they become serious. In this paper, a nonlinear theoretical framework is developed, covering the process of wave generation, propagation and sensing, with the aim of investigating the mechanism and characteristics of AN-induced Lamb waves in plates, which potentially allows for further system optimization to minimize the influence of AN. The model shows that an equivalent nonlinear normal stress is generated in the bonding layer due to its nonlinear material behavior, which, through its coupling with the system, is responsible for the generation of second harmonic Lamb waves in the plate, subsequently resulting in the nonlinear responses in the captured signals. With the aid of the finite element (FE) modeling and a superposition method for nonlinear feature extraction, the theoretical model is validated in terms of generation mechanism of the AN-induced wave components as well as their propagating characteristics. Meanwhile, the influence of the AN is evaluated by comparing the AN-induced nonlinear responses with those caused by the material nonlinearity of the plate, showing that AN should be considered as a non-negligible nonlinear source in a typical nonlinear Lamb-wave-based SHM system. In addition, the theoretical model is also experimentally

  19. Rigorous mathematical investigation of a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion-based image restoration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Barbu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear diffusion based image denoising technique is introduced in this paper. The proposed PDE denoising and restoration scheme is based on a novel diffusivity function that uses an automatically detected conductance parameter. A robust mathematical treatment is also provided for our anisotropic diffusion model. We demonstrate that edge-stopping function model is properly chosen, explaining the mathematical reasons behind it. Also, we perform a rigorous mathematical investigation on of the existence and uniqueness of the solution of our nonlinear diffusion equation. This PDE-based noise removal approach outperforms most diffusion-based methods, producing considerably better smoothing results and providing a much better edge preservation.

  20. Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Concrete Structure with Soil-Structure Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Talberg, Marte Sørbrøden

    2015-01-01

    A common assumption for a structure that is subjected to an earthquake is that the structure is considered fixed at the base. In this thesis, analyses where the soil is deformed and the foundation may be moved and rotate have been done, and it has been investigated if this can reduce forces or displacements in the structure. This have been done through the use of soil-structure interaction (SSI). In this thesis well known beam-column element formulations will be presented, and the benefi...

  1. Growth and decay of discrete nonlinear Schrodinger breathers interacting with internal modes or standing-wave phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson; Aubry

    2000-05-01

    We investigate the long-time evolution of weakly perturbed single-site breathers (localized stationary states) in the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The perturbations we consider correspond to time-periodic solutions of the linearized equations around the breather, and can be either (i) spatially localized or (ii) spatially extended. For case (i), which corresponds to the excitation of an internal mode of the breather, we find that the nonlinear interaction between the breather and its internal mode always leads to a slow growth of the breather amplitude and frequency. In case (ii), corresponding to interaction between the breather and a standing-wave phonon, the breather will grow provided that the wave vector of the phonon is such that the generation of radiating higher harmonics at the breather is possible. In other cases, breather decay is observed. This condition yields a limit value for the breather frequency above which no further growth is possible. We also discuss another mechanism for breather growth and destruction which becomes important when the amplitude of the perturbation is non-negligible, and which originates from the oscillatory instabilities of the nonlinear standing-wave phonons.

  2. Evolutionary algorithm based configuration interaction approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    A stochastic configuration interaction method based on evolutionary algorithm is designed as an affordable approximation to full configuration interaction (FCI). The algorithm comprises of initiation, propagation and termination steps, where the propagation step is performed with cloning, mutation and cross-over, taking inspiration from genetic algorithm. We have tested its accuracy in 1D Hubbard problem and a molecular system (symmetric bond breaking of water molecule). We have tested two different fitness functions based on energy of the determinants and the CI coefficients of determinants. We find that the absolute value of CI coefficients is a more suitable fitness function when combined with a fixed selection scheme.

  3. Nonlinear photocurrents in two-dimensional systems based on graphene and boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipolito, F.; Pedersen, Thomas G.; Pereira, Vitor M.

    2016-07-01

    The dc photoelectrical currents can be generated purely as a nonlinear effect in uniform media lacking inversion symmetry without the need for a material junction or bias voltages to drive it, in what is termed photogalvanic effect. These currents are strongly dependent on the polarization state of the radiation, as well as on topological properties of the underlying Fermi surface such as its Berry curvature. In order to study the intrinsic photogalvanic response of gapped graphene, biased bilayer graphene (BBG), and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), we compute the nonlinear current using a perturbative expansion of the density matrix. This allows a microscopic description of the quadratic response to an electromagnetic field in these materials, which we analyze as a function of temperature and electron density. We find that the intrinsic response is robust across these systems and allows for currents in the range of pA cm/W to nA cm/W. At the independent-particle level, the response of hBN-based structures is significant only in the ultraviolet due to their sizable band gap. However, when Coulomb interactions are accounted for by explicit solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation, we find that the photoconductivity is strongly modified by transitions involving exciton levels in the gap region, whose spectral weight dominates in the overall frequency range. Biased bilayers and gapped monolayers of graphene have a strong photoconductivity in the visible and infrared window, allowing for photocurrent densities of several nA cm/W. We further show that the richer electronic dispersion of BBG at low energies and the ability to change its band gap on demand allows a higher tunability of the photocurrent, including not only its magnitude but also, and significantly, its polarity.

  4. Data-based identification and control of nonlinear systems via piecewise affine approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chow Yin; Xiang, Cheng; Lee, Tong Heng

    2011-12-01

    The piecewise affine (PWA) model represents an attractive model structure for approximating nonlinear systems. In this paper, a procedure for obtaining the PWA autoregressive exogenous (ARX) (autoregressive systems with exogenous inputs) models of nonlinear systems is proposed. Two key parameters defining a PWARX model, namely, the parameters of locally affine subsystems and the partition of the regressor space, are estimated, the former through a least-squares-based identification method using multiple models, and the latter using standard procedures such as neural network classifier or support vector machine classifier. Having obtained the PWARX model of the nonlinear system, a controller is then derived to control the system for reference tracking. Both simulation and experimental studies show that the proposed algorithm can indeed provide accurate PWA approximation of nonlinear systems, and the designed controller provides good tracking performance.

  5. Enhanced nonlinear imaging through scattering media using transmission matrix based wavefront shaping

    CERN Document Server

    de Aguiar, Hilton B; Brasselet, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the tremendous progresses in wavefront control through or inside complex scattering media, several limitations prevent reaching practical feasibility for nonlinear imaging in biological tissues. While the optimization of nonlinear signals might suffer from low signal to noise conditions and from possible artifacts at large penetration depths, it has nevertheless been largely used in the multiple scattering regime since it provides a guide star mechanism as well as an intrinsic compensation for spatiotemporal distortions. Here, we demonstrate the benefit of Transmission Matrix (TM) based approaches under broadband illumination conditions, to perform nonlinear imaging. Using ultrashort pulse illumination with spectral bandwidth comparable but still lower than the spectral width of the scattering medium, we show strong nonlinear enhancements of several orders of magnitude, through thicknesses of a few transport mean free paths, which corresponds to millimeters in biological tissues. Linear TM refocusing ...

  6. Synthesis, characterization and third-order nonlinear optical properties of symmetrical ferrocenyl Schiff base materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiguo; Jia, Jianhong; Gao, Jianrong; Han, Liang; Li, Yujin

    2015-03-01

    Six symmetrical ferrocenyl Schiff base materials were synthesized and characterized by UV, 1H NMR, mass spectrometry (MS) and elemental analysis. Their off-resonant third-order nonlinear optical properties were measured using femtosecond laser and degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities χ(3) were 1.961-6.363 × 10-13 esu. The nonlinear refractive indexes n2 were 3.609-11.716 × 10-12 esu. The second-order hyperpolarizabilities γ of these molecules were 1.967-6.388 × 10-31 esu. The response time were 45.759-73.079 fs. The results indicate that these materials have potential nonlinear optical applications.

  7. Nonlinear dynamic analysis based on experimental data of RC telecommunication towers subjected to wind loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A. Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to propose a nonlinear dynamic model based on experimental data and NBR-6123-87 to accomplish a nonlinear dynamic analysis of slender structures subjected to wind loading. At first we compute the static answer given by the mean wind speed. In this part of the problem we consider the concept of effective stiffness to represent the physical nonlinearity of material and a P-Delta method to represent the geometrical nonlinearity. Considering the final stiffness obtained in that P-Delta method, we compute the dynamic answer given by the floating wind speed, according to the discrete dynamic model given by NBR-6123-87. A 40 m RC telecommunication tower was analyzed, and the results obtained were compared with those given by linear static and dynamic models.

  8. Study of Super-Twisting sliding mode control for U model based nonlinear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua ZHANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Super-Twisting control algorithm is adopted to analyze the U model based nonlinear control system in order to solve the controller design problems of non-affine nonlinear systems. The non-affine nonlinear systems are studied, the neural network approximation of the nonlinear function is performed, and the Super-Twisting control algorithm is used to control. The convergence of the Super-Twisting algorithm is proved by selecting an appropriate Lyapunov function. The Matlab simulation is carried out to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the described method. The result shows that the output of the controlled system can be tracked in a very short time by using the designed Super-Twisting controller, and the robustness of the controlled system is significantly improved as well.

  9. Robust Homography Estimation Based on Nonlinear Least Squares Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Mou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The homography between image pairs is normally estimated by minimizing a suitable cost function given 2D keypoint correspondences. The correspondences are typically established using descriptor distance of keypoints. However, the correspondences are often incorrect due to ambiguous descriptors which can introduce errors into following homography computing step. There have been numerous attempts to filter out these erroneous correspondences, but it is unlikely to always achieve perfect matching. To deal with this problem, we propose a nonlinear least squares optimization approach to compute homography such that false matches have no or little effect on computed homography. Unlike normal homography computation algorithms, our method formulates not only the keypoints’ geometric relationship but also their descriptor similarity into cost function. Moreover, the cost function is parametrized in such a way that incorrect correspondences can be simultaneously identified while the homography is computed. Experiments show that the proposed approach can perform well even with the presence of a large number of outliers.

  10. Non-linear scalable TFETI domain decomposition based contact algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobiáš, J.; Pták, S.; Dostál, Z.; Vondrák, V.; Kozubek, T.

    2010-06-01

    The paper is concerned with the application of our original variant of the Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting (FETI) domain decomposition method, called the Total FETI (TFETI), to solve solid mechanics problems exhibiting geometric, material, and contact non-linearities. The TFETI enforces the prescribed displacements by the Lagrange multipliers, so that all the subdomains are 'floating', the kernels of their stiffness matrices are known a priori, and the projector to the natural coarse grid is more effective. The basic theory and relationships of both FETI and TFETI are briefly reviewed and a new version of solution algorithm is presented. It is shown that application of TFETI methodology to the contact problems converts the original problem to the strictly convex quadratic programming problem with bound and equality constraints, so that the effective, in a sense optimal algorithms is to be applied. Numerical experiments show that the method exhibits both numerical and parallel scalabilities.

  11. Nonlinear model predictive control based on collective neurodynamic optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng; Wang, Jun

    2015-04-01

    In general, nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) entails solving a sequential global optimization problem with a nonconvex cost function or constraints. This paper presents a novel collective neurodynamic optimization approach to NMPC without linearization. Utilizing a group of recurrent neural networks (RNNs), the proposed collective neurodynamic optimization approach searches for optimal solutions to global optimization problems by emulating brainstorming. Each RNN is guaranteed to converge to a candidate solution by performing constrained local search. By exchanging information and iteratively improving the starting and restarting points of each RNN using the information of local and global best known solutions in a framework of particle swarm optimization, the group of RNNs is able to reach global optimal solutions to global optimization problems. The essence of the proposed collective neurodynamic optimization approach lies in the integration of capabilities of global search and precise local search. The simulation results of many cases are discussed to substantiate the effectiveness and the characteristics of the proposed approach.

  12. Quantitative analysis for nonlinear fluorescent spectra based on edges matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel spectra-edge-matching approach is proposed for the quantitative analysis of the nonlinear fluorescence spectra of the air impurities excited by a femtosecond laser.The fluorescence spectra are first denoised and compressed,both by wavelet transform,and several peak groups are then picked from each spectrum according to a threshold of intensity and are used to extract the spectral features through principal component analysis.It is indicated that the first two principle components actually cover up to 98% of the total information and are sufficient for the final concentration analysis.The analysis reveals a monotone relationship between the spectra intensity and the concentration of the air impurities,suggesting that the femtosecond laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy along with the proposed spectra analysis method can become a powerful tool for monitoring environmental pollutants.

  13. Simulation of nanosecond square pulse fiber laser based on nonlinear amplifying loop mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang Chen; Chun Gu; Lixin Xu; Huan Zheng; Hai Ming

    2011-01-01

    A nanosecond square pulse fiber laser based on the nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) is numerically analyzed by the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The fiber cavity with a NALM has a tendency to provide pulse shaping effect with nonlinearity increasing in the NALM, and the nanosecond square pulse is generated by the pulse shaping effect. The numerical results show that the stable square pulse can be obtained when the parameters of the NALM are chosen appropriately. The generated square pulses have flat top and no internal structure.%@@ A nanosecond square pulse fiber laser based on the nonlinear amplifying loop mirror(NALM)is numerically analyzed by the nonlinear Schr6dinger equation.The fiber cavity with a NALM has a tendency to provide pulse shaping effect with nonlinearity increasing in the NALM,and the nanosecond square pulse is generated by the pulse shaping effect.The numerical results show that the stable square pulse can be obtained when the parameters of the NALM are chosen appropriately.The generated square pulses have flat top and no internal structure.

  14. Pseudo-transient Continuation Based Variable Relaxation Solve in Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Chen

    2009-12-07

    Efficient and robust Variable Relaxation Solver, based on pseudo-transient continuation, is developed to solve nonlinear anisotropic thermal conduction arising from fusion plasma simulations. By adding first and/or second order artificial time derivatives to the system, this type of method advances the resulting time-dependent nonlinear PDEs to steady state, which is the solution to be sought. In this process, only the stiffness matrix itself is involved so that the numerical complexity and errors can be greatly reduced. In fact, this work is an extension of integrating efficient linear elliptic solvers for fusion simulation on Cray XIE. Two schemes are derived in this work, first and second order Variable Relaxations. Four factors are observed to be critical for efficiency and preservation of solution's symmetric structure arising from periodic boundary condition: refining meshes in different coordinate directions, initializing nonlinear process, varying time steps in both temporal and spatial directions, and accurately generating nonlinear stiffness matrix. First finer mesh scale should be taken in strong transport direction; Next the system is carefully initialized by the solution with linear conductivity; Third, time step and relaxation factor are vertex-based varied and optimized at each time step; Finally, the nonlinear stiffness matrix is updated by just scaling corresponding linear one with the vector generated from nonlinear thermal conductivity.

  15. Nonlinear interactions in superfluid dynamics: Nonstationary heat transfer due to second sound shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepmann, H. W.; Torczynski, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Second sound techniques were used to study superfluid helium. Second sound shock waves produced relative velocities in the bulk fluid. Maximum counterflow velocities produced in this way are found to follow the Langer-Fischer prediction for the fundamental critical velocity in its functional dependence on temperature and pressure. Comparison of successive shock and rotating experiments provides strong evidence that breakdown results in vorticity production in the flow behind the shock. Schlieren pictures have verified the planar nature of second sound shocks even after multiple reflections. The nonlinear theory of second sound was repeatedly verified in its prediction of double shocks and other nonlinear phenomena.

  16. Nonlinear frequency conversion effect in a one-dimensional graphene-based photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicharn, S.; Buranasiri, P.

    2015-07-01

    In this research, the nonlinear frequency conversion effect based on four-wave mixing (FWM) principle in a onedimensional graphene-based photonics crystal (1D-GPC) has been investigated numerically. The 1D-GPC structure is composed of two periodically alternating material layers, which are graphene-silicon dioxide bilayer system and silicon membrane. Since, the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) of bilayer system is hundred time higher than pure silicon dioxide layer, so the enhancement of FWM response can be achieved inside the structure with optimizing photon energy being much higher than a chemical potential level (μ) of graphene sheet. In addition, the conversion efficiencies of 1DGPC structure are compared with chalcogenide based photonic structure for showing that 1D-GPC structure can enhance nonlinear effect by a factor of 100 above the chalcogenide based structure with the same structure length.

  17. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction for visualizing toxicity data: distance-based versus topology-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeva, Natalia V; Ovchinnikova, Svetlana I; Tetko, Igor V; Asiri, Abdullah M; Balakin, Konstantin V; Tsivadze, Aslan Yu

    2014-05-01

    Over the years, a number of dimensionality reduction techniques have been proposed and used in chemoinformatics to perform nonlinear mappings. In this study, four representatives of nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods related to two different families were analyzed: distance-based approaches (Isomap and Diffusion Maps) and topology-based approaches (Generative Topographic Mapping (GTM) and Laplacian Eigenmaps). The considered methods were applied for the visualization of three toxicity datasets by using four sets of descriptors. Two methods, GTM and Diffusion Maps, were identified as the best approaches, which thus made it impossible to prioritize a single family of the considered dimensionality reduction methods. The intrinsic dimensionality assessment of data was performed by using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation. It was observed that descriptor sets with a higher intrinsic dimensionality contributed maps of lower quality. A new statistical coefficient, which combines two previously known ones, was proposed to automatically rank the maps. Instead of relying on one of the best methods, we propose to automatically generate maps with different parameter values for different descriptor sets. By following this procedure, the maps with the highest values of the introduced statistical coefficient can be automatically selected and used as a starting point for visual inspection by the user.

  18. Multiscale Study of the Nonlinear Behavior of Heterogeneous Clayey Rocks Based on the FFT Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Xu, Weiya; Shao, Jianfu

    2015-03-01

    A multiscale model based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is applied to study the nonlinear mechanical behavior of Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) argillite, a typical heterogeneous clayey rocks. COx argillite is modeled as a three-phase composite with a clay matrix and two types of mineral inclusions. The macroscopic mechanical behavior of argillite samples with different mineralogical compositions are satisfactorily predicted by unified local constitutive models and material parameters. Moreover, the numerical implementation of the FFT-based nonlinear homogenization is easier than direct homogenization, such as the FEM-based homogenization, because it automatically satisfies the periodic boundary condition.

  19. SVM with Quadratic Polynomial Kernel Function Based Nonlinear Model One-step-ahead Predictive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟伟民; 何国龙; 皮道映; 孙优贤

    2005-01-01

    A support vector machine (SVM) with quadratic polynomial kernel function based nonlinear model one-step-ahead predictive controller is presented. The SVM based predictive model is established with black-box identification method. By solving a cubic equation in the feature space, an explicit predictive control law is obtained through the predictive control mechanism. The effect of controller is demonstrated on a recognized benchmark problem and on the control of continuous-stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Simulation results show that SVM with quadratic polynomial kernel function based predictive controller can be well applied to nonlinear systems, with good performance in following reference trajectory as well as in disturbance-rejection.

  20. The development of controlled damage mechanisms-based design method for nonlinear static pushover analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosić Mladen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the original method of controlled building damage mechanisms based on Nonlinear Static Pushover Analysis (NSPA-DMBD. The optimal building damage mechanism is determined based on the solution of the Capacity Design Method (CDM, and the response of the building is considered in incremental situations. The development of damage mechanism of a system in such incremental situations is being controlled on the strain level, examining the relationship of current and limit strains in concrete and reinforcement steel. Since the procedure of the system damage mechanism analysis according to the NSPA-DMBD method is being iteratively implemented and designing checked after the strain reaches the limit, for this analysis a term Iterative-Interactive Design (IID has been introduced. By selecting, monitoring and controlling the optimal damage mechanism of the system and by developed NSPA-DMBD method, damage mechanism of the building is being controlled and the level of resistance to an early collapse is being increased. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36043

  1. Vector rectangular-shape laser based on reduced graphene oxide interacting with long fiber taper

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Lei; Zeng, Jing; Huang, Wei; Liu, Min

    2014-01-01

    A vector dual-wavelength rectangular-shape laser (RSL) based on a long fiber taper deposited with reduced graphene oxide is proposed, where the nonlinearity is enhanced due to large evanescent-field-interacting length and strong field confinement of a 8 mm fiber taper with a waist diameter of 4 micronmeters. Graphene flakes are deposited uniformly on the taper waist with light pressure effect, so this structure guarantees both excellent saturable absorption and high nonlinearity. The RSL with a repetition rate of 7.9 MHz exhibits fast polarization switching in two orthogonal polarization directions, and the temporal and spectral characteristics are investigated. The results suggest that the long taper-based graphene structure is an efficient choice for nonlinear devices.

  2. A Boussinesq-type method for fully nonlinear waves interacting with a rapidly varying bathymetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.; Wang, Benlong

    2006-01-01

    and class II Bragg scattering from an undular sea bottom. The computations are verified against measurements, theoretical solutions and numerical models from the literature. Finally, we make a detailed investigation of nonlinear class III Bragg scattering and results are given for the sub-harmonic and super...

  3. Nonlinear grating interaction in photorefractive Bi12SiO20

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Andersen, Peter E.; Petersen, Paul Michael

    1995-01-01

    Recently significant crosstalk has been observed in a multibeam experiment in which gratings were previously thought to be independent. In this letter, it is shown that the crosstalk is due to a coherent nonlinear combination of the primary gratings, which causes additional peaks to occur...

  4. Cross-polarized wave generation by effective cubic nonlinear optical interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, G I; Albert, O; Etchepare, J; Saltiel, S M

    2001-03-15

    A new cubic nonlinear optical effect in which a linearly polarized wave propagating in a single quadratic medium is converted into a wave that is cross polarized to the input wave is observed in BBO crystal. The effect is explained by cascading of two different second-order processes: second-harmonic generation and difference frequency mixing.

  5. Analytical and numerical modelling of thermoviscous shocks in their interactions in nonlinear fluids including dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich

    2010-01-01

    A wave equation, that governs finite amplitude acoustic disturbances in a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid, and includes nonlinear terms up to second order, is proposed. The equation preserves the Hamiltonian structure of the fundamental fluid dynamical equations in the non dissipative limit. An exact...

  6. Consideration of Transient Stream/Aquifer Interaction with the Nonlinear Boussinesq Equation using HPM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganji, S. S.; Barari, Amin; Sfahani, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    of time. The differential equations were solved using the method of Homotopy Perturbation. The simplicity and accuracy of the approximation are compared with “exact” solution and illustrated numerically and graphically. The results reveal that the HPM is very effective and simple and provides highly...... accurate solutions for nonlinear differential equations....

  7. Detection of interactions between myogenic and TGF mechanisms using nonlinear analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chon, K H; Chen, Y M; Marmarelis, V Z;

    1994-01-01

    for computation of the kernels have made this technique more attractive for the study of the dynamics of nonlinear physiological systems, such as the system mediating renal autoregulation. In this study, the general theory and requirements for using this technique are discussed. The feasibility of using...

  8. Non-linear finite element analysis for prediction of seismic response of buildings considering soil-structure interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Çelebi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper focuses primarily on the numerical approach based on two-dimensional (2-D finite element method for analysis of the seismic response of infinite soil-structure interaction (SSI system. This study is performed by a series of different scenarios that involved comprehensive parametric analyses including the effects of realistic material properties of the underlying soil on the structural response quantities. Viscous artificial boundaries, simulating the process of wave transmission along the truncated interface of the semi-infinite space, are adopted in the non-linear finite element formulation in the time domain along with Newmark's integration. The slenderness ratio of the superstructure and the local soil conditions as well as the characteristics of input excitations are important parameters for the numerical simulation in this research. The mechanical behavior of the underlying soil medium considered in this prediction model is simulated by an undrained elasto-plastic Mohr-Coulomb model under plane-strain conditions. To emphasize the important findings of this type of problems to civil engineers, systematic calculations with different controlling parameters are accomplished to evaluate directly the structural response of the vibrating soil-structure system. When the underlying soil becomes stiffer, the frequency content of the seismic motion has a major role in altering the seismic response. The sudden increase of the dynamic response is more pronounced for resonance case, when the frequency content of the seismic ground motion is close to that of the SSI system. The SSI effects under different seismic inputs are different for all considered soil conditions and structural types.

  9. Nonlinear observer based fault detection and isolation for a momentum wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2001-01-01

    This article realizes nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation for a momentum wheel. The Fault Detection and Isolation is based on a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, which states which faults might occur and can be detected. The algorithms presented in this paper are based on a geometric approach...

  10. Parity Relation Based Fault Estimation for Nonlinear Systems: An LMI Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sing Kiong Nguang; Ping Zhang; Steven X. Ding

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a parity relation based fault estimation for a class of nonlinear systems which can be modelled by Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy models. The design of a parity relation based residual generator is formulated in terms of a family of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design techniques.

  11. Gain Scheduling Control of Nonlinear Systems Based on Neural State Space Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for gain scheduling control of nonlinear systems based on extraction of local linear state space models from neural networks with direct application to robust control. A neural state space model of the system is first trained based on in- and output training...

  12. CONTROL OF NONLINEAR PROCESS USING NEURAL NETWORK BASED MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.A.TRIVEDI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Neural Network based Model Predictive Control (NNMPC strategy to control nonlinear process. Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP is chosen to represent a Nonlinear Auto Regressive with eXogenous signal (NARX model of a nonlinear system. NARX dynamic model is based on feed-forward architecture and offers good approximation capabilities along with robustness and accuracy. Based on the identified neural model, a generalized predictive control (GPC algorithm is implemented to control the composition in acontinuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR, whose parameters are optimally determined by solving quadratic performance index using well known Levenberg-Marquardt and Quasi-Newton algorithm. NNMPC is tuned by selecting few horizon parameters and weighting factor. The tracking performance of the NNMPC is tested using different amplitude function as a reference signal on CSTR application. Also the robustness and performance is tested in the presence of disturbance on random reference signal.

  13. Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaala, Adam; Jaber, Nizar; Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming.

  14. Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-05-25

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming.

  15. Correntropy-based partial directed coherence for testing multivariate Granger causality in nonlinear processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Rohit; Tangirala, Arun K.

    2014-06-01

    Identification of directional influences in multivariate systems is of prime importance in several applications of engineering and sciences such as plant topology reconstruction, fault detection and diagnosis, and neurosciences. A spectrum of related directionality measures, ranging from linear measures such as partial directed coherence (PDC) to nonlinear measures such as transfer entropy, have emerged over the past two decades. The PDC-based technique is simple and effective, but being a linear directionality measure has limited applicability. On the other hand, transfer entropy, despite being a robust nonlinear measure, is computationally intensive and practically implementable only for bivariate processes. The objective of this work is to develop a nonlinear directionality measure, termed as KPDC, that possesses the simplicity of PDC but is still applicable to nonlinear processes. The technique is founded on a nonlinear measure called correntropy, a recently proposed generalized correlation measure. The proposed method is equivalent to constructing PDC in a kernel space where the PDC is estimated using a vector autoregressive model built on correntropy. A consistent estimator of the KPDC is developed and important theoretical results are established. A permutation scheme combined with the sequential Bonferroni procedure is proposed for testing hypothesis on absence of causality. It is demonstrated through several case studies that the proposed methodology effectively detects Granger causality in nonlinear processes.

  16. H∞ consensus and synchronization of nonlinear systems based on a novel fuzzy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Li, Bing; Qin, Jiahu; Gao, Huijun; Karimi, Hamid Reza

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates the H∞ consensus control problem of nonlinear multiagent systems under an arbitrary topological structure. A novel Takagi-Sukeno (T-S) fuzzy modeling method is proposed to describe the problem of nonlinear follower agents approaching a time-varying leader, i.e., the error dynamics between the follower agents and the leader, whose dynamics is evolving according to an isolated unforced nonlinear agent model, is described as a set of T-S fuzzy models. Based on the model, a leader-following consensus algorithm is designed so that, under an arbitrary network topology, all the follower agents reach consensus with the leader subject to external disturbances, preserving a guaranteed H(∞) performance level. In addition, we obtain a sufficient condition for choosing the pinned nodes to make the entire multiagent network reach consensus. Moreover, the fuzzy modeling method is extended to solve the synchronization problem of nonlinear systems, and a fuzzy H(∞) controller is designed so that two nonlinear systems reach synchronization with a prescribed H(∞) performance level. The controller design procedure is greatly simplified by utilization of the proposed fuzzy modeling method. Finally, numerical simulations on chaotic systems and arbitrary nonlinear functions are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results.

  17. Study of third-order nonlinear susceptibility of polySchiff base containing triphenylamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU HaiJun; WANG Wen; HUANG YuDong; ZHANG YunDong; ZHANG YunJun; BAI XuDuo; LIU Yuan

    2007-01-01

    PolySchiff base containing triphenylamine has been synthesized by polycondensation and characterized by FT-IR, NMR, UV-visible spectrometer. Measurements of the third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility x(3)by Z-scan technique have shown that the large nonlinearity is dominated by the two-photon absorption in PSB. The sign and size of real part Rex(3), nonlinear refractive index n2 have been measured with the condition of 532 nm, 8 ns-duration pulses to be -1.23x10-10esu, -3.06x10-12esu;nonlinear absorption index β and size of image part Imx(3) to be 3.63x10-10 m/W, 1.15x10-11 esu, respectively, so the third-order nonlinear susceptibility x(3) is 1.19x10-11 esu. The value is larger than other polymers reported. PSB is self-focusing material and has potential application in nonlinear optic field.

  18. Study of third-order nonlinear susceptibility of polySchiff base containing triphenylamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    PolySchiff base containing triphenylamine has been synthesized by polycondensation and character-ized by FT-IR,NMR,UV-visible spectrometer. Measurements of the third-order optical nonlinear sus-ceptibility χ(3) by Z-scan technique have shown that the large nonlinearity is dominated by the two-photon absorption in PSB. The sign and size of real part Reχ(3) ,nonlinear refractive index n2 have been measured with the condition of 532 nm,8 ns-duration pulses to be -1.23×10-10 esu,-3.06×10-12 esu;nonlinear absorption index β and size of image part Imχ(3) to be 3.63×10-10 m/W,1.15×10-11 esu,respec-tively,so the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) is 1.19×10-11 esu. The value is larger than other polymers reported. PSB is self-focusing material and has potential application in nonlinear optic field.

  19. Universal power-law decay of electron-electron interactions due to nonlinear screening in a Josephson junction array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Daniel; Rubbert, Sebastian; Ulrich, Jascha; Hassler, Fabian

    2016-09-01

    Josephson junctions are the most prominent nondissipative and at the same time nonlinear elements in superconducting circuits allowing Cooper pairs to tunnel coherently between two superconductors separated by a tunneling barrier. Due to this, physical systems involving Josephson junctions show highly complex behavior and interesting novel phenomena. Here, we consider an infinite one-dimensional chain of superconducting islands where neighboring islands are coupled by capacitances. We study the effect of Josephson junctions shunting each island to a common ground superconductor. We treat the system in the regime where the Josephson energy exceeds the capacitive coupling between the islands. For the case of two offset charges on two distinct islands, we calculate the interaction energy of these charges mediated by quantum phase slips due to the Josephson nonlinearities. We treat the phase slips in an instanton approximation and map the problem onto a classical partition function of interacting particles. Using the Mayer cluster expansion, we find that the interaction potential of the offset charges decays with a universal inverse-square power-law behavior.

  20. Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos of Microcantilever-Based TM-AFMs with Squeeze Film Damping Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Yu Chen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In Atomic force microscope (AFM examination of a vibrating microcantilever, the nonlinear tip-sample interaction would greatly influence the dynamics of the cantilever. In this paper, the nonlinear dynamics and chaos of a tip-sample dynamic system being run in the tapping mode (TM were investigated by considering the effects of hydrodynamic loading and squeeze film damping. The microcantilever was modeled as a spring-mass-damping system and the interaction between the tip and the sample was described by the Lennard-Jones (LJ potential. The fundamental frequency and quality factor were calculated from the transient oscillations of the microcantilever vibrating in air. Numerical simulations were carried out to study the coupled nonlinear dynamic system using the bifurcation diagram, Poincaré maps, largest Lyapunov exponent, phase portraits and time histories. Results indicated the occurrence of periodic and chaotic motions and provided a comprehensive understanding of the hydrodynamic loading of microcantilevers. It was demonstrated that the coupled dynamic system will experience complex nonlinear oscillation as the system parameters change and the effect of squeeze film damping is not negligible on the micro-scale.

  1. Nonlinear, interacting responses to climate limit grassland production under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kai; Chiariello, Nona R.; Tobeck, Todd; Fukami, Tadashi; Field, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Global changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and pollutants are altering ecosystems and the goods and services they provide. Among approaches for predicting ecosystem responses, long-term observations and manipulative experiments can be powerful approaches for resolving single-factor and interactive effects of global changes on key metrics such as net primary production (NPP). Here we combine both approaches, developing multidimensional response surfaces for NPP based on the longest-running, best-replicated, most-multifactor global-change experiment at the ecosystem scale—a 17-y study of California grassland exposed to full-factorial warming, added precipitation, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition. Single-factor and interactive effects were not time-dependent, enabling us to analyze each year as a separate realization of the experiment and extract NPP as a continuous function of global-change factors. We found a ridge-shaped response surface in which NPP is humped (unimodal) in response to temperature and precipitation when CO2 and nitrogen are ambient, with peak NPP rising under elevated CO2 or nitrogen but also shifting to lower temperatures. Our results suggest that future climate change will push this ecosystem away from conditions that maximize NPP, but with large year-to-year variability. PMID:27601643

  2. Nonlinear, interacting responses to climate limit grassland production under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kai; Chiariello, Nona R; Tobeck, Todd; Fukami, Tadashi; Field, Christopher B

    2016-09-20

    Global changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and pollutants are altering ecosystems and the goods and services they provide. Among approaches for predicting ecosystem responses, long-term observations and manipulative experiments can be powerful approaches for resolving single-factor and interactive effects of global changes on key metrics such as net primary production (NPP). Here we combine both approaches, developing multidimensional response surfaces for NPP based on the longest-running, best-replicated, most-multifactor global-change experiment at the ecosystem scale-a 17-y study of California grassland exposed to full-factorial warming, added precipitation, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition. Single-factor and interactive effects were not time-dependent, enabling us to analyze each year as a separate realization of the experiment and extract NPP as a continuous function of global-change factors. We found a ridge-shaped response surface in which NPP is humped (unimodal) in response to temperature and precipitation when CO2 and nitrogen are ambient, with peak NPP rising under elevated CO2 or nitrogen but also shifting to lower temperatures. Our results suggest that future climate change will push this ecosystem away from conditions that maximize NPP, but with large year-to-year variability.

  3. Nonlinear genetic-based simulation of soil shear strength parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi; Amir Hossein Alavi; Amir Hossein Gandomi; Ali Mollahasani

    2011-12-01

    New nonlinear solutions were developed to estimate the soil shear strength parameters utilizing linear genetic programming (LGP). The soil cohesion intercept () and angle of shearing resistance () were formulated in terms of the basic soil physical properties. The best models were selected after developing and controlling several models with different combinations of influencing parameters. Comprehensive experimental database used for developing the models was established upon a series of unconsolidated, undrained, and unsaturated triaxial tests conducted in this study. Further, sensitivity and parametric analyses were carried out. and were found to be mostly influenced by the soil unit weight and liquid limit. In order to benchmark the proposed models, a multiple least squares regression (MLSR) analysis was performed. The validity of the models was proved on portions of laboratory results that were not included in the modelling process. The developed models are able to effectively learn the complex relationship between the soil strength parameters and their contributing factors. The LGP models provide a significantly better prediction performance than the regression models.

  4. Integrated optic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tomme, Emmanuel; van Daele, Peter P.; Baets, Roel G.; Lagasse, Paul E.

    1991-03-01

    An examination is made of the state of the art of nonlinear optical polymeric materials in view of their potential advantages. It is shown that these organic materials have many attractive features compared to LiNbO3 and III-V semiconductors with regard to their use in integrated optic circuits, especially since the level of integration is ever increasing. Considering more specifically electro-optic devices, a description is given of some of the theoretical background and basic properties. These polymers have already demonstrated a very high and extremely fast electro-optic effect compared to LiNbO3. It is also shown how low-loss waveguides can be fabricated by using easy techniques such as direct UV bleaching. The performance of phase modulators, Mach-Zehnder interferometers, and 2 x 2 space switches built with such polymers is already very promising. The results described in this study indicate a rapid rate of progress made by this technology, and one can expect that polymers in general and NLO polymers in particular will play an increasingly important role in integrated optics.

  5. A Wavelet Bicoherence-Based Quadratic Nonlinearity Feature for Translational Axis Condition Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The translational axis is one of the most important subsystems in modern machine tools, as its degradation may result in the loss of the product qualification and lower the control precision. Condition-based maintenance (CBM has been considered as one of the advanced maintenance schemes to achieve effective, reliable and cost-effective operation of machine systems, however, current vibration-based maintenance schemes cannot be employed directly in the translational axis system, due to its complex structure and the inefficiency of commonly used condition monitoring features. In this paper, a wavelet bicoherence-based quadratic nonlinearity feature is proposed for translational axis condition monitoring by using the torque signature of the drive servomotor. Firstly, the quadratic nonlinearity of the servomotor torque signature is discussed, and then, a biphase randomization wavelet bicoherence is introduced for its quadratic nonlinear detection. On this basis, a quadratic nonlinearity feature is proposed for condition monitoring of the translational axis. The properties of the proposed quadratic nonlinearity feature are investigated by simulations. Subsequently, this feature is applied to the real-world servomotor torque data collected from the X-axis on a high precision vertical machining centre. All the results show that the performance of the proposed feature is much better than that of original condition monitoring features.

  6. A wavelet bicoherence-based quadratic nonlinearity feature for translational axis condition monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Wang, Xiufeng; Lin, Jing; Shi, Shengyu

    2014-01-27

    The translational axis is one of the most important subsystems in modern machine tools, as its degradation may result in the loss of the product qualification and lower the control precision. Condition-based maintenance (CBM) has been considered as one of the advanced maintenance schemes to achieve effective, reliable and cost-effective operation of machine systems, however, current vibration-based maintenance schemes cannot be employed directly in the translational axis system, due to its complex structure and the inefficiency of commonly used condition monitoring features. In this paper, a wavelet bicoherence-based quadratic nonlinearity feature is proposed for translational axis condition monitoring by using the torque signature of the drive servomotor. Firstly, the quadratic nonlinearity of the servomotor torque signature is discussed, and then, a biphase randomization wavelet bicoherence is introduced for its quadratic nonlinear detection. On this basis, a quadratic nonlinearity feature is proposed for condition monitoring of the translational axis. The properties of the proposed quadratic nonlinearity feature are investigated by simulations. Subsequently, this feature is applied to the real-world servomotor torque data collected from the X-axis on a high precision vertical machining centre. All the results show that the performance of the proposed feature is much better than that of original condition monitoring features.

  7. ARTICLES: Nonlinear interaction of infrared waves on a VO2 surface at a semiconductor-metal phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, N. K.; Zhukov, E. A.; Novokhatskiĭ, V. V.

    1984-04-01

    The use of a semiconductor-metal phase transition for wavefront reversal of laser radiation was proposed. An investigation was made of nonlinear reflection of CO2 laser radiation at a phase transition in VO2. A three-wave interaction on a VO2 surface was achieved using low-power cw and pulsed CO2 lasers. In the first case, the intensity reflection coefficient was 0.5% for a reference wave intensity of 0.9 W/cm2 and in the second case, it was 42% for a threshold reference wave energy density of 0.6-0.8 mJ/cm2.

  8. Communication: The origin of many-particle signals in nonlinear optical spectroscopy of non-interacting particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy signals detected by fluorescence from dilute samples of N non-interacting molecules are usually adequately described by simply multiplying the single molecule response by N. We show that signals that scale with higher powers of N are generated by the joint detection of several particles. This can be accomplished by phase sensitive detection such as phase cycling, photo-acoustic modulation, or by Hanbury-Brown Twiss photon coincidence. Such measurements can dissect the ensemble according to the number of excited particles.

  9. Signatures of nonlinear mode interactions in the pulsating hot B subdwarf star KIC 10139564

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, W.; Charpinet, S.; Vauclair, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The unprecedented photometric quality and time coverage offered by the Kepler spacecraft has opened up new opportunities to search for signatures of nonlinear effects that affect oscillation modes in pulsating stars. Aims: The data accumulated on the pulsating hot B subdwarf KIC 10139564 are used to explore in detail the stability of its oscillation modes, focusing in particular on evidences of nonlinear behaviors. Methods: We analyzed 38 months of contiguous short-cadence data, concentrating on mode multiplets induced by the star rotation and on frequencies forming linear combinations that show intriguing behaviors during the course of the observations. Results: We find clear signatures that point toward nonlinear effects predicted by resonant mode coupling mechanisms. These couplings can induce various mode behaviors for the components of multiplets and for frequencies related by linear relationships. We find that a triplet at 5760 μHz, a quintuplet at 5287 μHz and a (ℓ > 2) multiplet at 5412 μHz, all induced by rotation, show clear frequency and amplitude modulations which are typical of the so-called intermediate regime of a resonance between the components. One triplet at 316 μHz and a doublet at 394 μHz show modulated amplitude and constant frequency which can be associated with a narrow transitory regime of the resonance. Another triplet at 519 μHz appears to be in a frequency-locked regime where both frequency and amplitude are constant. Additionally, three linear combinations of frequencies near 6076 μHz also show amplitude and frequency modulations, which are likely related to a three-mode direct resonance of the type ν0 ~ ν1 + ν2. Conclusions: The identified frequency and amplitude modulations are the first clear-cut signatures of nonlinear resonant couplings occurring in pulsating hot B subdwarf stars. However, the observed behaviors suggest that the resonances occurring in these stars usually follow more complicated patterns than

  10. Dynamic neural network-based robust observers for uncertain nonlinear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, H T; Kamalapurkar, R; Bhasin, S; Dixon, W E

    2014-12-01

    A dynamic neural network (DNN) based robust observer for uncertain nonlinear systems is developed. The observer structure consists of a DNN to estimate the system dynamics on-line, a dynamic filter to estimate the unmeasurable state and a sliding mode feedback term to account for modeling errors and exogenous disturbances. The observed states are proven to asymptotically converge to the system states of high-order uncertain nonlinear systems through Lyapunov-based analysis. Simulations and experiments on a two-link robot manipulator are performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method in comparison to several other state estimation methods.

  11. Nonlinear model predictive control with guaraneed stability based on pesudolinear neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yongji; WANG Hong

    2004-01-01

    A nonlinear model predictive control problem based on pseudo-linear neural network (PNN) is discussed, in which the second order on-line optimization method is adopted. The recursive computation of Jacobian matrix is investigated. The stability of the closed loop model predictive control system is analyzed based on Lyapunov theory to obtain the sufficient condition for the asymptotical stability of the neural predictive control system. A simulation was carried out for an exothermic first-order reaction in a continuous stirred tank reactor. It is demonstrated that the proposed control strategy is applicable to some of nonlinear systems.

  12. Effects of Interactive Function Forms and Refractoryperiod in a Self-Organized Critical Model Based on Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOULi-Ming; CHENTian-Lun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the standard self-organizing map neural network model and an integrate-and-fire mechanism, we investigate the effect of the nonlinear interactive function on the self-organized criticality in our model. Based on the sewe also investigate the effect of the refractoryperiod on the self-organized criticality of the system.

  13. Effects of Interactive Function Forms and Refractoryperiod in a Self-Organized Critical Model Based on Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li-Ming; CHEN Tian-Lun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the standard self-organizing map neural network model and an integrate-and-tire mechanism, we investigate the effect of the nonlinear interactive function on the self-organized criticality in our model. Based on these we also investigate the effect of the refractoryperiod on the self-organized criticality of the system.

  14. Robust scalable stabilisability conditions for large-scale heterogeneous multi-agent systems with uncertain nonlinear interactions: towards a distributed computing architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Sabato

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale dynamic systems are becoming highly pervasive in their occurrence with applications ranging from system biology, environment monitoring, sensor networks, and power systems. They are characterised by high dimensionality, complexity, and uncertainty in the node dynamic/interactions that require more and more computational demanding methods for their analysis and control design, as well as the network size and node system/interaction complexity increase. Therefore, it is a challenging problem to find scalable computational method for distributed control design of large-scale networks. In this paper, we investigate the robust distributed stabilisation problem of large-scale nonlinear multi-agent systems (briefly MASs) composed of non-identical (heterogeneous) linear dynamical systems coupled by uncertain nonlinear time-varying interconnections. By employing Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, new conditions are given for the distributed control design of large-scale MASs that can be easily solved by the toolbox of MATLAB. The stabilisability of each node dynamic is a sufficient assumption to design a global stabilising distributed control. The proposed approach improves some of the existing LMI-based results on MAS by both overcoming their computational limits and extending the applicative scenario to large-scale nonlinear heterogeneous MASs. Additionally, the proposed LMI conditions are further reduced in terms of computational requirement in the case of weakly heterogeneous MASs, which is a common scenario in real application where the network nodes and links are affected by parameter uncertainties. One of the main advantages of the proposed approach is to allow to move from a centralised towards a distributed computing architecture so that the expensive computation workload spent to solve LMIs may be shared among processors located at the networked nodes, thus increasing the scalability of the approach than the network

  15. Nonlinear ultrafast switching based on soliton self-trapping in dual-core photonic crystal fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajanca, P.; Bugar, I.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic numerical study of a novel ultrafast nonlinear switching concept based on soliton self-trapping in dual-core (DC) photonic crystal fibre (PCF). The geometrical parameters of highly-nonlinear (HN) DC microstructure are optimized with regard to desired linear and nonlinear propagation characteristics. The comparable magnitude of fibre coupling length and soliton period is identified as a key condition for presented switching concept. The optimized DC PCF design is subjected to detailed nonlinear numerical study. Complex temporal-spectral-spatial transformations of 100 fs hyperbolic secant pulse at 1550 nm in the DC PCF are studied numerically employing a model based on coupled generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations solved by a split-step Fourier method. For the optimized DC structure, mutual interplay of solitonic and coupling processes gives rise to nonlinear switching of self-trapped soliton. The output channel (fibre core) for the generated soliton can be controlled via the input pulse energy. For vertical polarization, the optimal soliton switching with extinction ratio contrast of 32.4 dB at 10.75 mm propagation distance is achieved. Even better switching contrast of 34.8 dB can be achieved for horizontal polarization at optimal propagation distance of 10.25 mm. Besides energy-controlled soliton self-trapping switching, the fibre supports also nonlinear polarization switching with soliton switching contrast as high as 37.4 dB. The proposed fibre holds a high application potential allowing efficient ultrafast switching of sub-nanojoule pulses at over-Tb/s data rates requiring only about 1 cm fibre length.

  16. Analytical and numerical modeling of front propagation and interaction of fronts in nonlinear thermoviscous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich

    2008-01-01

    A wave equation, that governs nite amplitude acoustic disturbances in a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid, and includes nonlinear terms up to second order, is proposed. In contrast to the model known as the Kuznetsov equation, the proposed nonlinear wave equation preserves the Hamiltonian structure...... of the fundamental fluid dynamical equations in the non-dissipative limit. An exact traveling front solution is obtained from a generalized traveling wave assumption. This solution is, in an overall sense, equivalent to the Taylor shock solution of the Burgers equation. However, in contrast to the Burgers equation...... with respect to the fluid ahead of it, and subsonic speed with respect to the fluid behind it, similarly to the fluid dynamical shock. Linear stability analysis reveals that the front is stable when the acoustic pressure belongs to a critical interval, and is otherwise unstable. These results are veried...

  17. Interaction of Magnetic Field and Nonlinear Convection in the Stagnation Point Flow over a Shrinking Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady two-dimensional boundary layer stagnation point flow due to a shrinking sheet is analyzed. The combined effects of magnetic field and nonlinear convection are taken into account. The governing equations for the flow are modeled and then simplified using the similarity transformation and boundary layer approach. The numerical solution of the reduced equations is obtained by the second-order finite difference scheme also known as Keller box method. The influence of the pertinent parameters of the problem on velocity and temperature profiles, skin friction, and sheet temperature gradient are presented through the graphs and tables and discussed. The magnetic field and nonlinear convection parameters significantly enhance the solution range.

  18. On the stability and compressive nonlinearity of a physiologically based model of the cochlea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nankali, Amir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Grosh, Karl [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Hearing relies on a series of coupled electrical, acoustical (fluidic) and mechanical interactions inside the cochlea that enable sound processing. A positive feedback mechanism within the cochlea, called the cochlear amplifier, provides amplitude and frequency selectivity in the mammalian auditory system. The cochlear amplifier and stability are studied using a nonlinear, micromechanical model of the Organ of Corti (OoC) coupled to the electrical potentials in the cochlear ducts. It is observed that the mechano-electrical transduction (MET) sensitivity and somatic motility of the outer hair cell (OHC), control the cochlear stability. Increasing MET sensitivity beyond a critical value, while electromechanical coupling coefficient is within a specific range, causes instability. We show that instability in this model is generated through a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. A reduced order model of the system is approximated and it is shown that the tectorial membrane (TM) transverse mode effect on the dynamics is significant while the radial mode can be simplified from the equations. The cochlear amplifier in this model exhibits good agreement with the experimental data. A comprehensive 3-dimensional model based on the cross sectional model is simulated and the results are compared. It is indicated that the global model qualitatively inherits some characteristics of the local model, but the longitudinal coupling along the cochlea shifts the stability boundary (i.e., Hopf bifurcation point) and enhances stability.

  19. Least-Squares, Continuous Sensitivity Analysis for Nonlinear Fluid-Structure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-20

    Lecture notes in mathematics ; 606, Springer-Verlag, Berlin ; New York, 1977, pp. 362. [56] Gel’fand, I.M., Fomin, S.V., and Silverman, R.A...computational fluid dynamics and electromagnetics, Scientific computation, Springer, Berlin ; New York, 1998. [70] Karniadakis, G., and Sherwin, S.J...Aeroelasticity,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 40, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1066-1092. [78] Lucia , D.J., “The SensorCraft Configurations: A Non-Linear

  20. Nonlinear Diffusion Filtering of the GOCE-Based Satellite-Only Mean Dynamic Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunderlik, Robert; Mikula, Karol

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents nonlinear diffusion filtering of the GOCE-based satellite-only mean dynamic topography (MDT). Our approach is based on a numerical solution to the nonlinear diffusion equation defined on the discretized Earth’s surface using the regularized surface Perona-Malik Model. For its numerical discretization we use a surface finite volume method. A key idea is that the diffusivity coefficient depends on the edge detector. It allows effectively reduce the stripping noise while preserve important gradients in filtered data. Numerical experiments present nonlinear filtering of the geopotential evaluated from the GO_CONS_GCF_2_ DIR_R5 model on the DTU13 mean sea surface. After filtering the geopotential is transformed into the MDT.

  1. Function Based Nonlinear Least Squares and Application to Jelinski--Moranda Software Reliability Model

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingwei

    2011-01-01

    A function based nonlinear least squares estimation (FNLSE) method is proposed and investigated in parameter estimation of Jelinski-Moranda software reliability model. FNLSE extends the potential fitting functions of traditional least squares estimation (LSE), and takes the logarithm transformed nonlinear least squares estimation (LogLSE) as a special case. A novel power transformation function based nonlinear least squares estimation (powLSE) is proposed and applied to the parameter estimation of Jelinski-Moranda model. Solved with Newton-Raphson method, Both LogLSE and powLSE of Jelinski-Moranda models are applied to the mean time between failures (MTBF) predications on six standard software failure time data sets. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of powLSE with optimal power index compared to the classical least--squares estimation (LSE), maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and LogLSE in terms of recursively relative error (RE) index and Braun statistic index.

  2. Saturations-based nonlinear controllers with integral term: validation in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatorre, A. G.; Castillo, P.; Mondié, S.

    2016-05-01

    Popular saturations-based nonlinear controller usually include proportional and derivative components of the state or output. The fact that in many applications, these components do not suffice to insure the convergence to the desired output values, motivate the addition of an integral term. In this paper, three configurations of nonlinear controllers based on saturation functions are improved with an integral component. The stability of the three algorithms is analysed using the Lyapunov theory. Simulation results validate the proposed control laws when they are applied to nonlinear systems with constant and unknown perturbations. Real-time experiments realised with a quad-rotor aerial vehicle and a hovercraft vehicle show that the proposed scheme can follow autonomously some trajectories, and that it could be robust with respect to delays.

  3. Implementation of a strain energy-based nonlinear finite element in the object-oriented environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Tadeusz; Pęczak, Andrzej

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the paper is to describe a novel finite element computational method based on a strain energy density function and to implement it in the object-oriented environment. The original energy-based finite element was put into the known standard framework of classes and handled in a different manner. The nonlinear properties of material are defined with a modified strain energy density function. The local relaxation procedure proposed as a method used to resolve a nonlinear problem is implemented in C++ language. The hexahedral element with eight nodes as well as the adaptation of the nonlinear finite element is introduced. The chosen numerical model is made of nearly incompressible hyperelastic material. The application of the proposed element is shown on the example of a rectangular parallelepiped with a hollow port.

  4. Blind separation of sources in nonlinear convolved mixture based on a novel network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡英; 杨杰; 沈利

    2004-01-01

    Blind separation of independent sources from their nonlinear convoluted mixtures is a more realistic problem than from linear ones. A solution to this problem based on the Entropy Maximization principle is presented. First we propose a novel two-layer network as the de-mixing system to separate sources in nonlinear convolved mixture. In output layer of our network we use feedback network architecture to cope with convoluted mixtures. Then we derive learning algorithms for the two-layer network by maximizing the information entropy. Based on the comparison of the computer simulation results, it can be concluded that the proposed algorithm has a better nonlinear convolved blind signal separation effect than the H.H. Y' s algorithm.

  5. An Artificial Neural Network-Based Algorithm for Evaluation of Fatigue Crack Propagation Considering Nonlinear Damage Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the aerospace and aviation sectors, the damage tolerance concept has been applied widely so that the modeling analysis of fatigue crack growth has become more and more significant. Since the process of crack propagation is highly nonlinear and determined by many factors, such as applied stress, plastic zone in the crack tip, length of the crack, etc., it is difficult to build up a general and flexible explicit function to accurately quantify this complicated relationship. Fortunately, the artificial neural network (ANN is considered a powerful tool for establishing the nonlinear multivariate projection which shows potential in handling the fatigue crack problem. In this paper, a novel fatigue crack calculation algorithm based on a radial basis function (RBF-ANN is proposed to study this relationship from the experimental data. In addition, a parameter called the equivalent stress intensity factor is also employed as training data to account for loading interaction effects. The testing data is then placed under constant amplitude loading with different stress ratios or overloads used for model validation. Moreover, the Forman and Wheeler equations are also adopted to compare with our proposed algorithm. The current investigation shows that the ANN-based approach can deliver a better agreement with the experimental data than the other two models, which supports that the RBF-ANN has nontrivial advantages in handling the fatigue crack growth problem. Furthermore, it implies that the proposed algorithm is possibly a sophisticated and promising method to compute fatigue crack growth in terms of loading interaction effects.

  6. Interactive analysis of geodata based intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Boris; Eck, Ralf; Unmüessig, Gabriel; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    When a spatiotemporal events happens, multi-source intelligence data is gathered to understand the problem, and strategies for solving the problem are investigated. The difficulties arising from handling spatial and temporal intelligence data represent the main problem. The map might be the bridge to visualize the data and to get the most understand model for all stakeholders. For the analysis of geodata based intelligence data, a software was developed as a working environment that combines geodata with optimized ergonomics. The interaction with the common operational picture (COP) is so essentially facilitated. The composition of the COP is based on geodata services, which are normalized by international standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The basic geodata are combined with intelligence data from images (IMINT) and humans (HUMINT), stored in a NATO Coalition Shared Data Server (CSD). These intelligence data can be combined with further information sources, i.e., live sensors. As a result a COP is generated and an interaction suitable for the specific workspace is added. This allows the users to work interactively with the COP, i.e., searching with an on board CSD client for suitable intelligence data and integrate them into the COP. Furthermore, users can enrich the scenario with findings out of the data of interactive live sensors and add data from other sources. This allows intelligence services to contribute effectively to the process by what military and disaster management are organized.

  7. Wave-particle interaction and the nonlinear saturation of the electron temperature gradient mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamani, Srinath; Parker, Scott E.; Chen, Yang; Howard, James E.

    2004-11-01

    It has been proposed that the electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven turbulence is responsible for experimentally relevant electron thermal transport in tokamak plasmas. Significant transport levels are possible by the creation of radially elongated vortices or ``streamers" [1,2], which are sustained by the nonlinear saturation of the instability and are not susceptible to shear flow destruction, as is the case with the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode. We present a dynamical system to explore the dependence of saturation level due to E × B and E_\\| motion, as well as the effect of radial elongation. With this model, we can predict the nonlinear saturation level of the ETG streamers. We compare our theoretical predictions with a 2D shear-less slab gyrokinetic electron code that includes the E_\\| nonlinearity. [1]F. Jenko, W. Dorland, M Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Plasmas 7, 1904 (2000). [2]C. Holland, and P.H. Diamond, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3857 (2002). [3]W. M. Manheimer, Phys. Fluids 14, 579 (1971). [4]R. A. Smith, John A. Krommes, and W. W. Lee, Phys. Fluids 28, 1069 (1985).

  8. Adaptive, Small-Rotation-Based, Corotational Technique for Analysis of 2D Nonlinear Elastic Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroon Rungamornrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and accurate numerical technique for analysis of two-dimensional frames accounted for both geometric nonlinearity and nonlinear elastic material behavior. An adaptive remeshing scheme is utilized to optimally discretize a structure into a set of elements where the total displacement can be decomposed into the rigid body movement and one possessing small rotations. This, therefore, allows the force-deformation relationship for the latter part to be established based on small-rotation-based kinematics. Nonlinear elastic material model is integrated into such relation via the prescribed nonlinear moment-curvature relationship. The global force-displacement relation for each element can be derived subsequently using corotational formulations. A final system of nonlinear algebraic equations along with its associated gradient matrix for the whole structure is obtained by a standard assembly procedure and then solved numerically by Newton-Raphson algorithm. A selected set of results is then reported to demonstrate and discuss the computational performance including the accuracy and convergence of the proposed technique.

  9. Nonlinear dynamics of emotion-cognition interaction: when emotion does not destroy cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Young, Todd; Muezzinoglu, Mehmet K; Rabinovich, Mikhail I

    2011-02-01

    Emotion (i.e., spontaneous motivation and subsequent implementation of a behavior) and cognition (i.e., problem solving by information processing) are essential to how we, as humans, respond to changes in our environment. Recent studies in cognitive science suggest that emotion and cognition are subserved by different, although heavily integrated, neural systems. Understanding the time-varying relationship of emotion and cognition is a challenging goal with important implications for neuroscience. We formulate here the dynamical model of emotion-cognition interaction that is based on the following principles: (1) the temporal evolution of cognitive and emotion modes are captured by the incoming stimuli and competition within and among themselves (competition principle); (2) metastable states exist in the unified emotion-cognition phase space; and (3) the brain processes information with robust and reproducible transients through the sequence of metastable states. Such a model can take advantage of the often ignored temporal structure of the emotion-cognition interaction to provide a robust and generalizable method for understanding the relationship between brain activation and complex human behavior. The mathematical image of the robust and reproducible transient dynamics is a Stable Heteroclinic Sequence (SHS), and the Stable Heteroclinic Channels (SHCs). These have been hypothesized to be possible mechanisms that lead to the sequential transient behavior observed in networks. We investigate the modularity of SHCs, i.e., given a SHS and a SHC that is supported in one part of a network, we study conditions under which the SHC pertaining to the cognition will continue to function in the presence of interfering activity with other parts of the network, i.e., emotion.

  10. Effects of radial electric field on suppression of electron-temperature-gradient mode through multiscale nonlinear interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chanho; Kaneko, Toshiro; Itoh, Kimitaka; Ida, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Shigeru; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    2016-11-01

    Turbulence in fluids and plasmas is ubiquitous in Nature and in the laboratory. Contrary to the importance of the ‘scale-free’ nature of cascade in neutral fluid turbulence, the turbulence in plasma is characterised by dynamics of distinct length scales. The cross-scale interactions can be highly non-symmetric so as to generate the plasma turbulence structures. Here we report that the system of hyper-fine electron-temperature-gradient (ETG) fluctuations and microscopic drift-wave (DW) fluctuations is strongly influenced by the sign of the gradient of the radial electric field through multiscale nonlinear interactions. The selective suppression effects by radial electric field inhomogeneity on DW mode induce a new route to modify ETG mode. This suppression mechanism shows disparity with respect to the sign of the radial electric field inhomogeneity, which can be driven by turbulence, so that it could be a new source for symmetry breaking in the turbulence structure formation in plasmas.

  11. Implementation of neural network based non-linear predictive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    -linear systems. GPC is model-based and in this paper we propose the use of a neural network for the modeling of the system. Based on the neural network model a controller with extended control horizon is developed and the implementation issues are discussed, with particular emphasis on an efficient Quasi...

  12. Support Vector Machine-Based Nonlinear System Modeling and Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩然; 韩正之; 冯瑞; 于志强

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to a support vector machine, a new kernel-based technique introduced in statistical learning theory and structural risk minimization, then presents a modeling-control framework based on SVM.At last a numerical experiment is taken to demonstrate the proposed approach's correctness and effectiveness.

  13. Nonlinear optical properties of a three-electron quantum dot with account of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanabadi, Hassan, E-mail: h.hasanabadi@shahroodut.ac.ir [Physics Department, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161-316, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimov, Hamed [Physics Department, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161-316, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lu Liangliang [Department of Physics, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang Chao [Institute of Public Administration, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-05-15

    In this study, a detailed investigation of the nonlinear optical properties such as optical absorption and refractive index change associated with intersubband transitions in a three-electron quantum dot in two dimensions in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction has been carried out. We present the exact wave functions and energy levels of the system. Numerical results on typical GaAs/AlGaAs materials show that the decrease of the quantum dot radius blueshifts and amplifies the absorption coefficients as well as the refractive index changes, as expected. Additionally, an increase of the optical intensity and relaxation time considerably changes the absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We consider a three-electron quantum dot in 2D in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the exact wave functions and energy levels of the system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We apply this model for GaAs/AlGaAs materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detailed nonlinear optical properties have been investigated.

  14. Scene matching based on non-linear pre-processing on reference image and sensed image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Sheng; Zhang Tianxu; Sang Nong

    2005-01-01

    To solve the heterogeneous image scene matching problem, a non-linear pre-processing method for the original images before intensity-based correlation is proposed. The result shows that the proper matching probability is raised greatly. Especially for the low S/N image pairs, the effect is more remarkable.

  15. Nonlinear Dynamic Behaviors of Rotated Blades with Small Breathing Cracks Based on Vibration Power Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotated blades are key mechanical components in turbomachinery and high cycle fatigues often induce blade cracks. Accurate detection of small cracks in rotated blades is very significant for safety, reliability, and availability. In nature, a breathing crack model is fit for a small crack in a rotated blade rather than other models. However, traditional vibration displacements-based methods are less sensitive to nonlinear characteristics due to small breathing cracks. In order to solve this problem, vibration power flow analysis (VPFA is proposed to analyze nonlinear dynamic behaviors of rotated blades with small breathing cracks in this paper. Firstly, local flexibility due to a crack is derived and then time-varying dynamic model of the rotated blade with a small breathing crack is built. Based on it, the corresponding vibration power flow model is presented. Finally, VPFA-based numerical simulations are done to validate nonlinear behaviors of the cracked blade. The results demonstrate that nonlinear behaviors of a crack can be enhanced by power flow analysis and VPFA is more sensitive to a small breathing crack than displacements-based vibration analysis. Bifurcations will occur due to breathing cracks and subharmonic resonance factors can be defined to identify breathing cracks. Thus the proposed method can provide a promising way for detecting and predicting small breathing cracks in rotated blades.

  16. A finite element-based perturbation method for nonlinear free vibration analysis of composite cylindrical shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, T.; Jansen, E.L.; Tiso, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a finite element-based approach for nonlinear vibration analysis of shell structures is presented. The approach makes use of a perturbation method that gives an approximation for the amplitude-frequency relation of the structure. The method is formulated using a functional notation an

  17. A Kernel-Based Nonlinear Representor with Application to Eigenface Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing; LIU Ben-yong; TAN Hao

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a classifier named kernel-based nonlinear representor (KNR) for optimal representation of pattern features. Adopting the Gaussian kernel, with the kernel width adaptively estimated by a simple technique, it is applied to eigenface classification. Experimental results on the ORL face database show that it improves performance by around 6 points, in classification rate, over the Euclidean distance classifier.

  18. Cascaded Optical Buffer Based on Nonlinear Polarization Rotation in Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Mu; WU Chong-Qing; LIU Hua

    2008-01-01

    A cascaded buffer based on nonlinear polarization rotation in semiconductor optical amplifiers is proposed, which is suitable for fast reconfiguration of buffering time at picoseconds. With the proposed buffer, sixty different buffer times are demonstrated at 2.5 Gb/s.

  19. A versatile all-optical modulator based on nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, G.J.M.; Villeneuve, A.; Stegeman, G.I.; Lambeck, P.V.; Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    A device based on a Nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer (NMI) which exploits cross-phase modulation of two co-propagating modes in bimodal branches has been described in this paper. The advantage of this device is that it becomes polarisation independent while keeping phase insensitive by using di

  20. Effects on the Floor Response Spectra by the Nonlinear Behavior of a Seismic Base Isolation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyungkui; Kim, Jung Han; Choi, Inkil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    An evaluation of safety being carried out for various risk factors of prevents for nuclear power plant accident. In general, an evaluation of the structural integrity was performed about seismic risk. In recent years, an assessment of integrity of internal equipment being carried out for earthquake loads owing to the possibility of severe accidents caused by the destruction of internal equipment or a blackout. Floor response spectra of the structure should be sought for evaluating of the integrity of internal equipment. The floor response spectra depends on the characteristics of seismic base isolation system such as the natural frequency, damping ratio, and height of the floor of the structure. An evaluation of the structural integrity using the equivalent stiffness of the seismic base isolation system was satisfactory. In this study, the effect of the non-linearity of isolated system in the floor response spectrum of the structure is analyzed. In this study, the floor response spectrum of the seismic base isolation system by the non-linear effect of the rubber isolator was analyzed. As a result, the influence of the non-linear isolated system was increased in hi-frequency domain. In addition, each floor exhibited a more different of responses compared with the equivalent linear model of the isolated structure. The non-linearity of the isolation system of the structure was considered, because of a more reliable assessment of integrity of equipment at each floor of seismic base the isolation system.

  1. A new approach of binary addition and subtraction by non-linear material based switching technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archan Kumar Das; Partha Partima Das; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2005-02-01

    Here, we refer a new proposal of binary addition as well as subtraction in all-optical domain by exploitation of proper non-linear material-based switching technique. In this communication, the authors extend this technique for both adder and subtractor accommodating the spatial input encoding system.

  2. Model reduction for nonlinear systems based on the differential eigenstructure of Hankel operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujimoto, Kenji; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper offers a new input-normal output-diagonal realization and model reduction procedure for nonlinear systems based on the differential eigenstructure of Hankel operators. Firstly, we refer to the preliminary results on input-normal realizations with original singular value functions and the

  3. A Nonlinear Lagrange Algorithm for Stochastic Minimax Problems Based on Sample Average Approximation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suxiang He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An implementable nonlinear Lagrange algorithm for stochastic minimax problems is presented based on sample average approximation method in this paper, in which the second step minimizes a nonlinear Lagrange function with sample average approximation functions of original functions and the sample average approximation of the Lagrange multiplier is adopted. Under a set of mild assumptions, it is proven that the sequences of solution and multiplier obtained by the proposed algorithm converge to the Kuhn-Tucker pair of the original problem with probability one as the sample size increases. At last, the numerical experiments for five test examples are performed and the numerical results indicate that the algorithm is promising.

  4. New variable structure control for MIMO nonlinear system based on I/O linearization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许春山; 孙兴进; 曹广益

    2004-01-01

    A novel variable structure control (VSC) with new rapid-smooth reaching law (RSRL) and new rapid-convergent sliding mode (FCSM) is proposed, which is based on analysis of normal VSC system. When it is used for an MIMO nonlinear system, we combine the method of Input/Output linearizing (I/O L) with VSC. After analyzing the robustness of the MIMO nonlinear system, we use this novel controller for Precision One Robot position control system. Simulation provides a quite satisfactory performance with uncertainties and external disturbances.

  5. Likelihood-based inference for cointegration with nonlinear error-correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Dennis; Rahbek, Anders Christian

    2010-01-01

    We consider a class of nonlinear vector error correction models where the transfer function (or loadings) of the stationary relationships is nonlinear. This includes in particular the smooth transition models. A general representation theorem is given which establishes the dynamic properties...... and a linear trend in general. Gaussian likelihood-based estimators are considered for the long-run cointegration parameters, and the short-run parameters. Asymptotic theory is provided for these and it is discussed to what extend asymptotic normality and mixed normality can be found. A simulation study...

  6. [Non-linear rectification of sensor based on immune genetic Algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lirong; Zhou, Jinyang; Niu, Xiaodong

    2014-08-01

    A non-linear rectification based on immune genetic algorithm (IGA) is proposed in this paper, for the shortcoming of the non-linearity rectification. This algorithm introducing the biologic immune mechanism into the genetic algorithm can restrain the disadvantages that the poor precision, slow convergence speed and early maturity of the genetic algorithm. Computer simulations indicated that the algorithm not only keeps population diversity, but also increases the convergent speed, precision and the stability greatly. The results have shown the correctness and effectiveness of the method.

  7. An iterative regularization method for nonlinear problems based on Bregman projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaß, Peter; Strehlow, Robin

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present an iterative method for the regularization of ill-posed, nonlinear problems. The approach is based on the Bregman projection onto stripes the width of which is controlled by both the noise level and the structure of the operator. In our investigations, we follow (Lorenz et al 2014 SIAM J. Imaging Sci. 7 1237-62) and extend the respective method to the setting of nonlinear operators. Furthermore, we present a proof for the regularizing properties of the method.

  8. A Nonlinear Attitude Estimator for Attitude and Heading Reference Systems Based on MEMS Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; Soltani, Mohsen; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear attitude estimator is designed for an Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) based on Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors. The design process of the attitude estimator is stated with detail, and the equilibrium point of the estimator error model...... the problems in previous research works. Moreover, the estimation of MEMS gyroscope bias is also inclueded in this estimator. The designed nonlinear attitude estimator is firstly tested in simulation environment and then implemented in an AHRS hardware for further experiments. Finally, the attitude estimation...

  9. [Non-linear rectification of sensor based on immune genetic algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lirong; Zhou, Jinyang; Niu, Xiaodong

    2014-08-01

    A non-linear rectification based on immune genetic algorithm (IGA) is proposed in this paper, for the shortcoming of the non-linearity rectification. This algorithm introducing the biologic immune mechanism into the genetic algorithm can restrain the disadvantages that the poor precision, slow convergence speed and early maturity of the genetic algorithm. Computer simulations indicated that the algorithm not only keeps population diversity, but also increases the convergent speed, precision and the stability greatly. The results have shown the correctness and effectiveness of the method.

  10. Nonlinear vortex-phonon interactions in a Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J. T.; Haas, F.; Gammal, A.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the nonlinear coupling between an exact vortex solution in a Bose-Einstein condensate and a spectrum of elementary excitations in the medium. These excitations, or Bogoliubov-de Gennes modes, are indeed a special kind of phonons. We treat the spectrum of elementary excitations in the medium as a gas of quantum particles, sometimes also called bogolons. An exact kinetic equation for the bogolon gas is derived, and an approximate form of this equation, valid in the quasi-classical limit, is also obtained. We study the energy transfer between the vortex and the bogolon gas, and establish conditions for vortex instability and damping.

  11. Effects of Interaction Between Gravitation and Nonlinear Electrodynamics On Scalar Field Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ju-Hua; WANG Yong-Jiu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the scalar field evolution in the dyadosphere spacetime by using the third-order WKB approximation.We find that the coupling term between the gravitation and the nonlinear electrodynamics makes the scalar field decay more quickly and it also makes the scalar field oscillate more slowly.On the other words, this coupling term takes effect on the scalar field evolution as a damping factor.At the same time these effects become more obvious for the scalar field with higher angle quantum number.

  12. A Projected Non-linear Conjugate Gradient Method for Interactive Inverse Kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten; Erleben, Kenny

    2009-01-01

    Inverse kinematics is the problem of posing an articulated figure to obtain a wanted goal, without regarding inertia and forces. Joint limits are modeled as bounds on individual degrees of freedom, leading to a box-constrained optimization problem. We present A projected Non-linear Conjugate...... Gradient optimization method suitable for box-constrained optimization problems for inverse kinematics. We show application on inverse kinematics positioning of a human figure. Performance is measured and compared to a traditional Jacobian Transpose method. Visual quality of the developed method...

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of nanomechanical beam resonators: improving the performance of NEMS-based sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacem, N; Hentz, S; Pinto, D; Reig, B; Nguyen, V [CEA/LETI-MINATEC, Grenoble (France)

    2009-07-08

    In order to compensate for the loss of performance when scaling resonant sensors down to NEMS, it proves extremely useful to study the behavior of resonators up to very high displacements and hence high nonlinearities. This work describes a comprehensive nonlinear multiphysics model based on the Euler-Bernoulli equation which includes both mechanical and electrostatic nonlinearities valid up to displacements comparable to the gap in the case of an electrostatically actuated doubly clamped beam. Moreover, the model takes into account the fringing field effects, significant for thin resonators. The model has been compared to both numerical integrations and electrical measurements of devices fabricated on 200 mm SOI wafers; it shows very good agreement with both. An important contribution of this work is the provision for closed-form expressions of the critical amplitude and the pull-in domain initiation amplitude including all nonlinearities. This model allows designers to cancel out nonlinearities by tuning some design parameters and thus gives the possibility to drive the resonator beyond its critical amplitude. Consequently, the sensor performance can be enhanced to the maximum below the pull-in instability, while keeping a linear behavior.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of nanomechanical beam resonators: improving the performance of NEMS-based sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, N; Hentz, S; Pinto, D; Reig, B; Nguyen, V

    2009-07-08

    In order to compensate for the loss of performance when scaling resonant sensors down to NEMS, it proves extremely useful to study the behavior of resonators up to very high displacements and hence high nonlinearities. This work describes a comprehensive nonlinear multiphysics model based on the Euler-Bernoulli equation which includes both mechanical and electrostatic nonlinearities valid up to displacements comparable to the gap in the case of an electrostatically actuated doubly clamped beam. Moreover, the model takes into account the fringing field effects, significant for thin resonators. The model has been compared to both numerical integrations and electrical measurements of devices fabricated on 200 mm SOI wafers; it shows very good agreement with both. An important contribution of this work is the provision for closed-form expressions of the critical amplitude and the pull-in domain initiation amplitude including all nonlinearities. This model allows designers to cancel out nonlinearities by tuning some design parameters and thus gives the possibility to drive the resonator beyond its critical amplitude. Consequently, the sensor performance can be enhanced to the maximum below the pull-in instability, while keeping a linear behavior.

  15. Non-linear spacecraft component parameters identification based on experimental results and finite element modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismara, S. O.; Ricci, S.; Bellini, M.; Trittoni, L.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the present paper is to describe a procedure to identify and model the non-linear behaviour of structural elements. The procedure herein applied can be divided into two main steps: the system identification and the finite element model updating. The application of the restoring force surface method as a strategy to characterize and identify localized non-linearities has been investigated. This method, which works in the time domain, has been chosen because it has `built-in' characterization capabilities, it allows a direct non-parametric identification of non-linear single-degree-of-freedom systems and it can easily deal with sine-sweep excitations. Two different application examples are reported. At first, a numerical test case has been carried out to investigate the modelling techniques in the case of non-linear behaviour based on the presence of a free-play in the model. The second example concerns the flap of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle that successfully completed its 100-min mission on 11 February 2015. The flap was developed under the responsibility of Thales Alenia Space Italia, the prime contractor, which provided the experimental data needed to accomplish the investigation. The procedure here presented has been applied to the results of modal testing performed on the article. Once the non-linear parameters were identified, they were used to update the finite element model in order to prove its capability of predicting the flap behaviour for different load levels.

  16. Characteristics of the Main Journal Bearings of an Engine Based on Non-linear Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Guangjian; ZHANG Junhong; CHENG Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Many simple nonlinear main journal bearing models have been studied theoretically, but the connection to existing engineering system has not been equally investigated. The consideration of the characteristics of engine main journal bearings may provide a prediction of the bearing load and lubrication. Due to the strong non-linear features in bearing lubrication procedure, it is difficult to predict those characteristics. A non-linear dynamic model is described for analyzing the characteristics of engine main journal bearings. Components such as crankshaft, main journals and con rods are found by applying the finite element method. Non-linear spring/dampers are introduced to imitate the constraint and supporting functions provided by the main bearing and oil film. The engine gas pressure is imposed as excitation on the model via the engine piston, con rod, etc. The bearing reaction force is calculated over one engine cycle, and meanwhile, the oil film thickness and pressure distribution are obtained based on Reynolds differential equation. It can be found that the maximum bearing reaction force always occurs when the maximum cylinder pressure arises in the cylinder adjacent to that bearing. The simulated minimum oil film thickness, which is 3 μm, demonstrates the reliability of the main journal bearings. This non-linear dynamic analysis may save computing efforts of engine main bearing design and also is of good precision and close connection to actual engine main journal bearing conditions.

  17. McMC-based nonlinear EIVAZ inversion driven by rock physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinpeng; Zhang, Guangzhi; Chen, Huaizhen; Yin, Xingyao

    2017-03-01

    A single set of vertically aligned fractures embedded in a purely isotropic background medium may be considered as a long-wavelength effective transversely isotropic medium with a horizontal symmetry axis (HTI). The estimation of fracture weaknesses is essential for characterizing the anisotropy in HTI media. Using the fractured anisotropic rock-physics models and the wide-azimuth seismic data, elastic impedance inversion variation with incident angle and azimuth, or simply ‘EIVAZ’ for short, can be carried out for the estimation of the normal and tangential fracture weaknesses with the nonlinear Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) strategy. Firstly, an inversion method of nonlinear anisotropic elastic impedance (AEI) with the McMC algorithm was proposed, which is used for the inversion of nonlinear AEI information with different angles of incidence and azimuth. Then we extracted the normal and tangential fracture weaknesses directly using the ratio differences of inverted nonlinear AEI data. So we can eliminate the influence of the isotropic background elastic impedance on the anisotropic perturbation elastic impedance and obtain the normal and tangential fracture weaknesses more stably. A test on a 2D over-thrust model shows that the fracture weaknesses are still estimated reasonably with moderate noise. A test on a real data set demonstrates that the estimated results are in good agreement with the results of the well log interpretation, and our McMC-based nonlinear AEI approach appears to be a stable method for predicting fracture weaknesses.

  18. Nonlinear Robust Observer-Based Fault Detection for Networked Suspension Control System of Maglev Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fault detection approach based on nonlinear robust observer is designed for the networked suspension control system of Maglev train with random induced time delay. First, considering random bounded time-delay and external disturbance, the nonlinear model of the networked suspension control system is established. Then, a nonlinear robust observer is designed using the input of the suspension gap. And the estimate error is proved to be bounded with arbitrary precision by adopting an appropriate parameter. When sensor faults happen, the residual between the real states and the observer outputs indicates which kind of sensor failures occurs. Finally, simulation results using the actual parameters of CMS-04 maglev train indicate that the proposed method is effective for maglev train.

  19. Nonlinear consensus protocols for multi-agent systems based on centre manifold reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yu-Mei; Guan Xin-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear consensus protocols for dynamic directed networks of multi-agent systems with fixed and switching topologies are investigated separately in this paper. Based on the centre manifold reduction technique,nonlinear consensus protocols are presented.We prove that a group of agents can reach a β-consensus,the value of which is the group decision value varying from the minimum and the maximum values of the initial states of the agents.Moreover,we derive the conditions to guarantee that all the agents reach a β-consensus on a desired group decision value.Finally,a simulation study concerning the vertical alignment manoeuvere of a team of unmanned air vehicles is performed.Simulation results show that the nonlinear consensus protocols proposed are more effective than the linear protocols for the formation control of the agents and they are an improvement over existing protocols.

  20. NONLINEAR FILTER METHOD OF GPS DYNAMIC POSITIONING BASED ON BANCROFT ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGQin; TAOBen-zao; ZHAOChao-ying; WANGLi

    2005-01-01

    Because of the ignored items after linearization, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) becomes a form of suboptimal gradient descent algorithm. The emanative tendency exists in GPS solution when the filter equations are ill-posed. The deviation in the estimation cannot be avoided. Furthermore, the true solution may be lost in pseudorange positioning because the linearized pseudorange equations are partial solutions. To solve the above problems in GPS dynamic positioning by using EKF, a closed-form Kalman filter method called the two-stage algorithm is presented for the nonlinear algebraic solution of GPS dynamic positioning based on the global nonlinear least squares closed algorithm--Bancroft numerical algorithm of American. The method separates the spatial parts from temporal parts during processing the GPS filter problems, and solves the nonlinear GPS dynamic positioning, thus getting stable and reliable dynamic positioning solutions.

  1. A Parameter Estimation Method for Nonlinear Systems Based on Improved Boundary Chicken Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaolong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parameter estimation is an important problem in nonlinear system modeling and control. Through constructing an appropriate fitness function, parameter estimation of system could be converted to a multidimensional parameter optimization problem. As a novel swarm intelligence algorithm, chicken swarm optimization (CSO has attracted much attention owing to its good global convergence and robustness. In this paper, a method based on improved boundary chicken swarm optimization (IBCSO is proposed for parameter estimation of nonlinear systems, demonstrated and tested by Lorenz system and a coupling motor system. Furthermore, we have analyzed the influence of time series on the estimation accuracy. Computer simulation results show it is feasible and with desirable performance for parameter estimation of nonlinear systems.

  2. Nonlinear Electrical Circuit Oscillator Control Based on Backstepping Method: A Genetic Algorithm Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Khoeiniha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated study of dynamics of nonlinear electrical circuit by means of modern nonlinear techniques and the control of a class of chaotic system by using backstepping method based on Lyapunov function. The behavior of such nonlinear system when they are under the influence of external sinusoidal disturbances with unknown amplitudes has been considered. The objective is to analyze the performance of this system at different amplitudes of disturbances. We illustrate the proposed approach for controlling duffing oscillator problem to stabilize this system at the equilibrium point. Also Genetic Algorithm method (GA for computing the parameters of controller has been used. GA can be successfully applied to achieve a better controller. Simulation results have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Nonlinear combined forecasting model based on fuzzy adaptive variable weight and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ai-hua; MEI Chi; E Jia-qiang; SHI Zhang-ming

    2010-01-01

    In order to enhance forecasting precision of problems about nonlinear time series in a complex industry system,a new nonlinear fuzzy adaptive variable weight combined forecasting model was established by using conceptions of the relative error,the change tendency of the forecasted object,gray basic weight and adaptive control coefficient on the basis of the method of fuzzy variable weight.Based on Visual Basic 6.0 platform,a fuzzy adaptive variable weight combined forecasting and management system was developed.The application results reveal that the forecasting precisions from the new nonlinear combined forecasting model are higher than those of other single combined forecasting models and the combined forecasting and management system is very powerful tool for the required decision in complex industry system.

  4. A chaotic communication system of improved performance based on the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos

    2016-07-01

    The Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter is used for developing a communication system that is based on a chaotic modulator such as the Duffing system. In the transmitter's side, the source of information undergoes modulation (encryption) in which a chaotic signal generated by the Duffing system is the carrier. The modulated signal is transmitted through a communication channel and at the receiver's side demodulation takes place, after exploiting the estimation provided about the state vector of the chaotic oscillator by the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter. Evaluation tests confirm that the proposed filtering method has improved performance over the Extended Kalman Filter and reduces significantly the rate of transmission errors. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter can work within a dual Kalman Filtering scheme, for performing simultaneously transmitter-receiver synchronisation and estimation of unknown coefficients of the communication channel.

  5. Correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis of network traffics with different application protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun-Song; Yuan Jing; Li Qiang; Yuan Rui-Xi

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis approach to analyse the dynamics of network traffics with three different application protocols-HTTP, FTP and SMTP. First, the phase space is reconstructed and the embedding parameters are obtained by the mutual information method. Secondly, the correlation dimensions of three different traffics are calculated and the results of analysis have demonstrated that the dynamics of the three different application protocol traffics is different from each other in nature, i.e. HTTP and FTP traffics are chaotic,furthermore, the former is more complex than the later; on the other hand, SMTP traffic is stochastic. It is shown that correlation dimension approach is an efficient method to understand and to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of HTTP, FTP and SMTP protocol network traffics. This analysis provided insight into and a more accurate understanding of nonlinear dynamics of internet traffics which have a complex mixture of chaotic and stochastic components.

  6. On the Nonlinear Behavior of the Piezoelectric Coupling on Vibration-Based Energy Harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana L. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration-based energy harvesting with piezoelectric elements has an increasing importance nowadays being related to numerous potential applications. A wide range of nonlinear effects is observed in energy harvesting devices and the analysis of the power generated suggests that they have considerable influence on the results. Linear constitutive models for piezoelectric materials can provide inconsistencies on the prediction of the power output of the energy harvester, mainly close to resonant conditions. This paper investigates the effect of the nonlinear behavior of the piezoelectric coupling. A one-degree of freedom mechanical system is coupled to an electrical circuit by a piezoelectric element and different coupling models are investigated. Experimental tests available in the literature are employed as a reference establishing the best matches of the models. Subsequently, numerical simulations are carried out showing different responses of the system indicating that nonlinear piezoelectric couplings can strongly modify the system dynamics.

  7. Observer-based Adaptive Iterative Learning Control for Nonlinear Systems with Time-varying Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Sheng Chen; Rui-Hong Li; Jing Li

    2010-01-01

    An observer-based adaptive iterative learning control (AILC) scheme is developed for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown time-varying parameters and unknown time-varying delays. The linear matrix inequality (LMI) method is employed to design the nonlinear observer. The designed controller contains a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback term in time domain. The learning law of unknown constant parameter is differential-difference-type, and the learning law of unknown time-varying parameter is difference-type. It is assumed that the unknown delay-dependent uncertainty is nonlinearly parameterized. By constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii-like composite energy function (CEF), we prove the boundedness of all closed-loop signals and the convergence of tracking error. A simulation example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the control algorithm proposed in this paper.

  8. Image quality assessment method based on nonlinear feature extraction in kernel space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong DING‡; Nan LI; Yang ZHAO; Kai HUANG

    2016-01-01

    To match human perception, extracting perceptual features effectively plays an important role in image quality assessment. In contrast to most existing methods that use linear transformations or models to represent images, we employ a complex mathematical expression of high dimensionality to reveal the statistical characteristics of the images. Furthermore, by introducing kernel methods to transform the linear problem into a nonlinear one, a full-reference image quality assessment method is proposed based on high-dimensional nonlinear feature extraction. Experiments on the LIVE, TID2008, and CSIQ databases demonstrate that nonlinear features offer competitive performance for image inherent quality representation and the proposed method achieves a promising performance that is consistent with human subjective evaluation.

  9. ECCE Toolkit: Prototyping Sensor-Based Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Andrea; Aedo, Ignacio; Díaz, Paloma

    2017-01-01

    Building and exploring physical user interfaces requires high technical skills and hours of specialized work. The behavior of multiple devices with heterogeneous input/output channels and connectivity has to be programmed in a context where not only the software interface matters, but also the hardware components are critical (e.g., sensors and actuators). Prototyping physical interaction is hindered by the challenges of: (1) programming interactions among physical sensors/actuators and digital interfaces; (2) implementing functionality for different platforms in different programming languages; and (3) building custom electronic-incorporated objects. We present ECCE (Entities, Components, Couplings and Ecosystems), a toolkit for non-programmers that copes with these issues by abstracting from low-level implementations, thus lowering the complexity of prototyping small-scale, sensor-based physical interfaces to support the design process. A user evaluation provides insights and use cases of the kind of applications that can be developed with the toolkit. PMID:28241502

  10. ECCE Toolkit: Prototyping Sensor-Based Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Andrea; Aedo, Ignacio; Díaz, Paloma

    2017-02-23

    Building and exploring physical user interfaces requires high technical skills and hours of specialized work. The behavior of multiple devices with heterogeneous input/output channels and connectivity has to be programmed in a context where not only the software interface matters, but also the hardware components are critical (e.g., sensors and actuators). Prototyping physical interaction is hindered by the challenges of: (1) programming interactions among physical sensors/actuators and digital interfaces; (2) implementing functionality for different platforms in different programming languages; and (3) building custom electronic-incorporated objects. We present ECCE (Entities, Components, Couplings and Ecosystems), a toolkit for non-programmers that copes with these issues by abstracting from low-level implementations, thus lowering the complexity of prototyping small-scale, sensor-based physical interfaces to support the design process. A user evaluation provides insights and use cases of the kind of applications that can be developed with the toolkit.

  11. ECCE Toolkit: Prototyping Sensor-Based Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bellucci

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Building and exploring physical user interfaces requires high technical skills and hours of specialized work. The behavior of multiple devices with heterogeneous input/output channels and connectivity has to be programmed in a context where not only the software interface matters, but also the hardware components are critical (e.g., sensors and actuators. Prototyping physical interaction is hindered by the challenges of: (1 programming interactions among physical sensors/actuators and digital interfaces; (2 implementing functionality for different platforms in different programming languages; and (3 building custom electronic-incorporated objects. We present ECCE (Entities, Components, Couplings and Ecosystems, a toolkit for non-programmers that copes with these issues by abstracting from low-level implementations, thus lowering the complexity of prototyping small-scale, sensor-based physical interfaces to support the design process. A user evaluation provides insights and use cases of the kind of applications that can be developed with the toolkit.

  12. Nonlinear interaction of intense hypergeometric Gaussian subfamily laser beams in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, H.; Vaziri (Khamedi), M.; Rooholamininejad, H.; Bahrampour, A. R.

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of Hypergeometric-Gaussian laser beam in a nonlinear plasma medium is investigated by considering the Source Dependent Expansion method. A subfamily of Hypergeometric-Gaussian beams with a non-negative, even and integer radial index, can be expressed as the linear superposition of finite number of Laguerre-Gaussian functions. Propagation of Hypergeometric-Gaussian beams in a nonlinear plasma medium depends on the value of radial index. The bright rings' number of these beams is changed during the propagation in plasma medium. The effect of beam vortex charge number l and initial (input) beam intensity on the self-focusing of Hypergeometric-Gaussian beams is explored. Also, by choosing the suitable initial conditions, Hypergeometric-Gaussian subfamily beams can be converted to one or more mode components that a typical of mode conversion may be occurred. The self-focusing of these winding beams can be used to control the focusing force and improve the electron bunch quality in laser plasma accelerators.

  13. Global existence and nonexistence for the viscoelastic wave equation with nonlinear boundary damping-source interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this work is to study a model of the viscoelastic wave equation with nonlinear boundary/interior sources and a nonlinear interior damping. First, applying the Faedo-Galerkin approximations combined with the compactness method to obtain existence of regular global solutions to an auxiliary problem with globally Lipschitz source terms and with initial data in the potential well. It is important to emphasize that it is not possible to consider density arguments to pass from regular to weak solutions if one considers regular solutions of our problem where the source terms are locally Lipschitz functions. To overcome this difficulty, we use an approximation method involving truncated sources and adapting the ideas in [13] to show that the existence of weak solutions can still be obtained for our problem. Second, we show that under some restrictions on the initial data and if the interior source dominates the interior damping term, then the solution ceases to exist and blows up in finite time provided that the initial data are large enough.

  14. Intrusion detection method based on nonlinear correlation measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambusaidi, Mohammed A.; Tan, Zhiyuan; He, Xiangjian; Nanda, Priyadarsi; Lu, Liang Fu; Jamdagni, Aruna

    2014-01-01

    Cyber crimes and malicious network activities have posed serious threats to the entire internet and its users. This issue is becoming more critical, as network-based services, are more widespread and closely related to our daily life. Thus, it has raised a serious concern in individual internet user

  15. Nonlinear Statistical Process Monitoring Based on Control Charts with Memory Effect and Kernel Independent Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel nonlinear combination process monitoring method was proposed based on techniques with memory effect (multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA)) and kernel independent component analysis (KICA). The method was developed for dealing with nonlinear issues and detecting small or moderate drifts in one or more process variables with autocorrelation. MEWMA charts use additional information from the past history of the process for keeping the memory effect of the process behavior trend. KICA is a recently developed statistical technique for revealing hidden, nonlinear statistically independent factors that underlie sets of measurements and it is a two-phase algorithm: whitened kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) plus independent component analysis (ICA). The application to the fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) simulated process indicates that the proposed combined method based on MEWMA and KICA can effectively capture the nonlinear relationship and detect small drifts in process variables. Its performance significantly outperforms monitoring method based on ICA, MEWMA-ICA and KICA, especially for long-term performance deterioration.

  16. A refined element-based Lagrangian shell element for geometrically nonlinear analysis of shell structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Young Jung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For the solution of geometrically nonlinear analysis of plates and shells, the formulation of a nonlinear nine-node refined first-order shear deformable element-based Lagrangian shell element is presented. Natural co-ordinate-based higher order transverse shear strains are used in present shell element. Using the assumed natural strain method with proper interpolation functions, the present shell element generates neither membrane nor shear locking behavior even when full integration is used in the formulation. Furthermore, a refined first-order shear deformation theory for thin and thick shells, which results in parabolic through-thickness distribution of the transverse shear strains from the formulation based on the third-order shear deformation theory, is proposed. This formulation eliminates the need for shear correction factors in the first-order theory. To avoid difficulties resulting from large increments of the rotations, a scheme of attached reference system is used for the expression of rotations of shell normal. Numerical examples demonstrate that the present element behaves reasonably satisfactorily either for the linear or for geometrically nonlinear analysis of thin and thick plates and shells with large displacement but small strain. Especially, the nonlinear results of slit annular plates with various loads provided the benchmark to test the accuracy of related numerical solutions.

  17. Nonlinear Dynamic Model-Based Adaptive Control of a Solenoid-Valve System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DongBin Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a nonlinear model-based adaptive control approach is proposed for a solenoid-valve system. The challenge is that solenoids and butterfly valves have uncertainties in multiple parameters in the nonlinear model; various kinds of physical appearance such as size and stroke, dynamic parameters including inertia, damping, and torque coefficients, and operational parameters especially, pipe diameters and flow velocities. These uncertainties are making the system not only difficult to adjust to the environment, but also further complicated to develop the appropriate control approach for meeting the system objectives. The main contribution of this research is the application of adaptive control theory and Lyapunov-type stability approach to design a controller for a dynamic model of the solenoid-valve system in the presence of those uncertainties. The control objectives such as set-point regulation, parameter compensation, and stability are supposed to be simultaneously accomplished. The error signals are first formulated based on the nonlinear dynamic models and then the control input is developed using the Lyapunov stability-type analysis to obtain the error bounded while overcoming the uncertainties. The parameter groups are updated by adaptation laws using a projection algorithm. Numerical simulation results are shown to demonstrate good performance of the proposed nonlinear model-based adaptive approach and to compare the performance of the same solenoid-valve system with a non-adaptive method as well.

  18. Ultracompact all-optical logic gates based on nonlinear plasmonic nanocavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, nanoscale integrated all-optical XNOR, XOR, and NAND logic gates were realized based on all-optical tunable on-chip plasmon-induced transparency in plasmonic circuits. A large nonlinear enhancement was achieved with an organic composite cover layer based on the resonant excitation-enhancing nonlinearity effect, slow light effect, and field confinement effect provided by the plasmonic nanocavity mode, which ensured a low excitation power of 200 μW that is three orders of magnitude lower than the values in previous reports. A feature size below 600 nm was achieved, which is a one order of magnitude lower compared to previous reports. The contrast ratio between the output logic states "1" and "0" reached 29 dB, which is among the highest values reported to date. Our results not only provide an on-chip platform for the study of nonlinear and quantum optics but also open up the possibility for the realization of nanophotonic processing chips based on nonlinear plasmonics.

  19. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of a structure with a friction-based seismic base isolation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suy, H.M.R.; Fey, R.H.B.; Galanti, F.M.B.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2007-01-01

    Many dynamical systems are subject to some form of non-smooth or discontinuous nonlinearity. One eminent example of such a nonlinearity is friction. This is caused by the fact that friction always opposes the direction of movement, thus changing sign when the sliding velocity changes sign. In this p

  20. Frequency domain analysis and design of nonlinear systems based on Volterra series expansion a parametric characteristic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Xingjian

    2015-01-01

    This book is a systematic summary of some new advances in the area of nonlinear analysis and design in the frequency domain, focusing on the application oriented theory and methods based on the GFRF concept, which is mainly done by the author in the past 8 years. The main results are formulated uniformly with a parametric characteristic approach, which provides a convenient and novel insight into nonlinear influence on system output response in terms of characteristic parameters and thus facilitate nonlinear analysis and design in the frequency domain.  The book starts with a brief introduction to the background of nonlinear analysis in the frequency domain, followed by recursive algorithms for computation of GFRFs for different parametric models, and nonlinear output frequency properties. Thereafter the parametric characteristic analysis method is introduced, which leads to the new understanding and formulation of the GFRFs, and nonlinear characteristic output spectrum (nCOS) and the nCOS based analysis a...