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Sample records for based msr molten-salt

  1. The molten salt reactors (MSR) pyro chemistry and fuel cycle for innovative nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the studies on next generation nuclear systems, and especially for the molten salt reactors and for the integrated fuel cycle (as IFR), the fuel cycle constraints must be taken into account in the preliminary studies of the system to improve the cycle and reactor optimisation. Among the purposes for next generation nuclear systems, sustainability and waste (radio-toxicity and mass) management are important goals. These goals imply reprocessing and recycling strategies. The objectives of this workshop are to present and to share the different strategies and scenarios, the needs based on these scenarios, the experimental facilities available today or in the future and their capabilities, the needs for demonstration. It aims at: identifying the needs for fuel cycle based on solid fuel or liquid fuel, and especially, the on-line reprocessing or clean up for the molten salt reactors; assessing the state-of-the-art on the pyro-chemistry applied to solid fuel and to present the research activities; assessing the state-of-the-art on liquid fuels (or others), and to present the research activities; expressing the R and D programs for pyro-chemistry, molten salt, and also to propose innovative processes; and proposing some joint activities in the frame of GEDEON and PRACTIS programs. This document brings together the transparencies of 18 contributions dealing with: scenario studies with AMSTER concept (Scenarios, MSR, breeders (Th) and burners); fuel cycle for innovative systems; current reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in molten salts (review of pyro-chemistry processes (non nuclear and nuclear)); high temperature NMR spectroscopies in molten salts; reductive extraction of An from molten fluorides (salt - liquid metal extraction); electrochemistry characterisation; characterisation with physical methods - extraction coefficient and kinetics; electrolytic extraction; dissolution-precipitation of plutonium in the eutectic LiCl-KCl (dissolution and

  2. System design description of forced-convection molten-salt corrosion loops MSR-FCL-3 and MSR-FCL-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten-salt corrosion loops MSR-FCL-3 and MSR-FCL-4 are high-temperature test facilities designed to evaluate corrosion and mass transfer of modified Hastelloy N alloys for future use in Molten-Salt Breeder Reactors. Salt is circulated by a centrifugal sump pump to evaluate material compatibility with LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 fuel salt at velocities up to 6 m/s (20 fps) and at salt temperatures from 566 to 7050C (1050 to 13000F). The report presents the design description of the various components and systems that make up each corrosion facility, such as the salt pump, corrosion specimens, salt piping, main heaters, salt coolers, salt sampling equipment, and helium cover-gas system, etc. The electrical systems and instrumentation and controls are described, and operational procedures, system limitations, and maintenance philosophy are discussed

  3. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Based on Unit Cell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contemporary computer codes like the MCNP6 or SCALE are only good for solving a fixed solid fuel reactor. However, due to the molten-salt fuel, MSR analysis needs some functions such as online reprocessing and refueling, and circulating fuel. J. J. Power of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) suggested in 2013 a method for simulating the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) with SCALE, which does not support continuous material processing. In order to simulate MSR characteristics, the method proposes dividing a depletion time into short time intervals and batchwise reprocessing and refueling at each step. We are applying this method by using the MCNP6 and PYTHON and NEWT-TRITON-PYTHON and PYTHON code systems to MSBR. This paper contains various parameters to analyze the MSBR unit cell model such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, change of amount of fuel, amount of fuel feeding, and neutron flux distribution. The result of MCNP6 and NEWT module in SCALE show some difference in depletion analysis, but it still seems that they can be used to analyze MSBR. Using these two computer code system, it is possible to analyze various parameters for the MSBR unit cells such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, amount of material, total feeding, and neutron flux distribution. Furthermore, the two code systems will be able to be used for analyzing other MSR model or whole core models of MSR

  4. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Based on Unit Cell Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yongjin; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Contemporary computer codes like the MCNP6 or SCALE are only good for solving a fixed solid fuel reactor. However, due to the molten-salt fuel, MSR analysis needs some functions such as online reprocessing and refueling, and circulating fuel. J. J. Power of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) suggested in 2013 a method for simulating the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) with SCALE, which does not support continuous material processing. In order to simulate MSR characteristics, the method proposes dividing a depletion time into short time intervals and batchwise reprocessing and refueling at each step. We are applying this method by using the MCNP6 and PYTHON and NEWT-TRITON-PYTHON and PYTHON code systems to MSBR. This paper contains various parameters to analyze the MSBR unit cell model such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, change of amount of fuel, amount of fuel feeding, and neutron flux distribution. The result of MCNP6 and NEWT module in SCALE show some difference in depletion analysis, but it still seems that they can be used to analyze MSBR. Using these two computer code system, it is possible to analyze various parameters for the MSBR unit cells such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, amount of material, total feeding, and neutron flux distribution. Furthermore, the two code systems will be able to be used for analyzing other MSR model or whole core models of MSR.

  5. Molten Salt Demonstration Transmuter (comparison of new technical problems with old US MSR plans)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Molten Salt Demonstration Transmuter (MSDT) is required to show the operation and design performance for closing the nuclear spent fuel (NSF) cycle for PWR or WWER reactors operated in the once-through cycle (OTC) mode. The remnant waste (fission products only) would be either permanently stored or held for secondary use. The purpose of this proposal is to establish the design basis for the MSDT and compare contemporary knowledge and demands with that from US plans for MS reactors from 1974, because both technologies are very near (Authors)

  6. The molten salt reactors (MSR) pyro chemistry and fuel cycle for innovative nuclear systems; Congres sur les reacteurs a sels fondus (RSF) pyrochimie et cycles des combustibles nucleaires du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossard, Ph. [GEDEON, Groupement de Recherche CEA CNRS EDF FRAMATOME (France); Garzenne, C.; Mouney, H. [and others

    2002-07-01

    In the frame of the studies on next generation nuclear systems, and especially for the molten salt reactors and for the integrated fuel cycle (as IFR), the fuel cycle constraints must be taken into account in the preliminary studies of the system to improve the cycle and reactor optimisation. Among the purposes for next generation nuclear systems, sustainability and waste (radio-toxicity and mass) management are important goals. These goals imply reprocessing and recycling strategies. The objectives of this workshop are to present and to share the different strategies and scenarios, the needs based on these scenarios, the experimental facilities available today or in the future and their capabilities, the needs for demonstration. It aims at: identifying the needs for fuel cycle based on solid fuel or liquid fuel, and especially, the on-line reprocessing or clean up for the molten salt reactors; assessing the state-of-the-art on the pyro-chemistry applied to solid fuel and to present the research activities; assessing the state-of-the-art on liquid fuels (or others), and to present the research activities; expressing the R and D programs for pyro-chemistry, molten salt, and also to propose innovative processes; and proposing some joint activities in the frame of GEDEON and PRACTIS programs. This document brings together the transparencies of 18 contributions dealing with: scenario studies with AMSTER concept (Scenarios, MSR, breeders (Th) and burners); fuel cycle for innovative systems; current reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in molten salts (review of pyro-chemistry processes (non nuclear and nuclear)); high temperature NMR spectroscopies in molten salts; reductive extraction of An from molten fluorides (salt - liquid metal extraction); electrochemistry characterisation; characterisation with physical methods - extraction coefficient and kinetics; electrolytic extraction; dissolution-precipitation of plutonium in the eutectic LiCl-KCl (dissolution and

  7. Nickel based alloys compatibility with fuel salts for molten salt reactor with thorium and uranium support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R and D on molten salt reactors (MSR) in Europe are concentrated now on fast/intermediate spectrum concepts which were recognised as long-term alternative to solid fuelled fast reactors due to their attractive features: strong negative feedback coefficients, easy in-service inspection, and simplified fuel cycle. For high-temperature MSR corrosion of the metallic container alloy in primary circuit is the primary concern. Key problem receiving current attention include surface fissures in Ni-based alloys probably arising from fission product tellurium attack. This paper summarises results of corrosion tests conducted recently to study effect of oxidation state in selected fuel salts on tellurium attack and to develop means of controlling tellurium cracking in the special Ni - based alloys recently developed for large power units: molten salt actinide recycler and transmuter (MOSART) and molten salt fast reactor (MSFR). Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys was tested in the temperature range from 730 deg. C up to 800 deg. C in stressed and unloaded conditions with fuel LiF-BeF2-UF4 and LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 salt mixtures at different [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratios from 0.7 up to 500. Following Russian and French Ni-based alloys (in mass%): HN80M-VI (Mo-12, Cr-7.6, Nb-1.5), HN80MTY (Mo-13, Cr-6.8, Al-1.1, Ti-0.9), HN80MTW (Mo-9.4, Cr-7.0, Ti-1.7, W-5.5) and EM-721 (W-25.2, Cr-5.7, Ti-0.17) were used for the study in the corrosion facility. The HN80MTY alloy has shown the best resistance against Te cracking and after test mechanical properties. (authors)

  8. Impact of thorium based molten salt reactor on the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Safwan Qasim Mohammad

    Molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of six reactors selected by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). The liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR) is a MSR concept based on thorium fuel cycle. LFTR uses liquid fluoride salts as a nuclear fuel. It uses 232Th and 233U as the fertile and fissile materials, respectively. Fluoride salt of these nuclides is dissolved in a mixed carrier salt of lithium and beryllium (FLiBe). The objective of this research was to complete feasibility studies of a small commercial thermal LFTR. The focus was on neutronic calculations in order to prescribe core design parameter such as core size, fuel block pitch (p), fuel channel radius, fuel path, reflector thickness, fuel salt composition, and power. In order to achieve this objective, the applicability of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) to MSR modeling was verified. Then, a prescription for conceptual small thermal reactor LFTR and relevant calculations were performed using MCNP to determine the main neutronic parameters of the core reactor. The MCNP code was used to study the reactor physics characteristics for the FUJI-U3 reactor. The results were then compared with the results obtained from the original FUJI-U3 using the reactor physics code SRAC95 and the burnup analysis code ORIPHY2. The results were comparable with each other. Based on the results, MCNP was found to be a reliable code to model a small thermal LFTR and study all the related reactor physics characteristics. The results of this study were promising and successful in demonstrating a prefatory small commercial LFTR design. The outcome of using a small core reactor with a diameter/height of 280/260 cm that would operate for more than five years at a power level of 150 MWth was studied. The fuel system 7LiF - BeF2 - ThF4 - UF4 with a (233U/ 232Th) = 2.01 % was the candidate fuel for this reactor core.

  9. FLUENT-based neutronics and thermal-hydraulics coupling calculation for a liquid-fuel molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is the only one using liquid fuel in the six candidate reactors of the Generation IV advanced nuclear power systems with expected remarkable advantages in safety, economics, sustainability, and proliferation resistance. The strong coupling between neutronics and thermal-hydraulics due to fuel movement in the liquid-fuel MSRs induces many new challenges in reactor analyses from the perspective of both theoretical models and solution methods. In this study, the multi-group diffusion theory was adopted to deduce the neutronics model for the liquid-fuel MSRs, in which the salt flow effects on the delayed neutron precursor distributions in space were considered particularly. Since the liquid-fuel salt is a Newton fluid, the single-phase thermal hydraulics model for liquid-fuel MSRs was generally established based on the fundamental laws of the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations as used in the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method. Since the control equations of the neutronic model can be written in the same form of those solved in the CFD softwares, a neutronics and thermal-hydraulics coupling scheme was proposed and a program was developed based on the FLUENT software by using its user-defined functions and subroutines (UDF and UDS). This program was applied to perform the steady state calculation of the molten salt fast reactor (MSFR), and the main results such as the space distributions of the neutron fluxes, delayed neutron precursors, temperatures, velocities were obtained. The results show that the liquid fuel flow influences the delayed neutron precursors significantly, while slightly affects the neutron fluxes. The flow in the MSFR core generates a vortex near the fertile tank leading the maximal temperature to about 1200 K at the centre of the vortex, which will be optimized in the future core design. (author)

  10. Development of a three dimension multi-physics code for molten salt fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) was selected as one of the six innovative nuclear reactors by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). The circulating-fuel in the can-type molten salt fast reactor makes the neutronics and thermo-hydraulics of the reactor strongly coupled and different from that of traditional solid-fuel reactors. In the present paper: a new coupling model is presented that physically describes the inherent relations between the neutron flux, the delayed neutron precursor, the heat transfer and the turbulent flow. Based on the model, integrating nuclear data processing, CAD modeling, structured and unstructured mesh technology, data analysis and visualization application, a three dimension steady state simulation code system (MSR3DS) for the can-type molten salt fast reactor is developed and validated. In order to demonstrate the ability of the code, the three dimension distributions of the velocity, the neutron flux, the delayed neutron precursor and the temperature were obtained for the simplified MOlten Salt Advanced Reactor Transmuter (MOSART) using this code. The results indicate that the MSR3DS code can provide a feasible description of multi-physical coupling phenomena in can-type molten salt fast reactor. Furthermore, the code can well predict the flow effect of fuel salt and the transport effect of the turbulent diffusion. (authors)

  11. Design of a heterogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor with molten salts based on thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the design of a heterogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor with molten salts based on thorium, with graphite moderator and a 252Cf source, whose dose levels at the periphery allows its use in teaching and research activities. The design was realized by the Monte Carlo method, where the geometry, dimensions and the fuel was varied in order to obtain the best design. The result was a cubic reactor of 110 cm of side, with graphite moderator and reflector. In the central part having 9 ducts of 3 cm in diameter, eight of them are 110 cm long, which were placed on the Y axis; the separation between each duct is 10 cm. The central duct has 60 cm in length and this contains the 252Cf source, also there are two irradiation channels and the other six contain a molten salt (7LiF - BeF2 - ThF4 - UF4) as fuel. For the design the keff was calculated, neutron spectra and ambient dose equivalent. In the first instance the above was calculated for a virgin fuel, was called case 1; then a percentage of 233U was used and the percentage of Th was decreased and was called case 2. This with the purpose of comparing two different fuels operating within the reactor. For the two irradiation ducts three positions are used: center, back and front, in each duct in order to have different flows. (Author)

  12. A basic study on fluoride-based molten salt electrolysis technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Kwang Bum [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Byung Gi [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this project is to study on the physicochemical properties of fluoride molten salt, to develop numerical model for simulation of molten salt electrolysis, and to establish experimental technique of fluoride molten salt. Physicochemical data of fluoride molten salt are investigated and summarized. The numerical model, designated as REFIN is developed with diffusion-layer theory and electrochemical reaction kinetics. REFIN is benchmarked with published experimental data. REFIN has a capability to simulate multicomponent electrochemical system at transient conditions. Experimental device is developed to measure electrochemical properties of structural material for fluoride molten salt. Ni electrode is measured with cyclic voltammogram in the conditions of 600 .deg. C LiF-BeF{sub 2} and 700 .deg. C LiF-BeF{sub 2}. 74 refs., 23 figs., 57 tabs. (Author)

  13. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolley, Robert D [PPPL; Miller, Laurence F [PPPL

    2014-04-01

    Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

  14. Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) refers to a concept for a system that uses a blanket assembly driven by a source of neutrons produced when high-energy protons from an accelerator strike a heavy metal target. One application for such a system is called Accelerator-Based Plutonium Conversion, or ABC. Currently, the version of this concept being proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory features a liquid lead target material and a blanket fuel of molten fluorides that contain plutonium. Thus, the materials to be used in such a system must have, in addition to adequate mechanical strength, corrosion resistance to molten lead, corrosion resistance to molten fluoride salts, and resistance to radiation damage. In this report the corrosion properties of liquid lead and the LiF-BeF2 molten salt system are reviewed in the context of candidate materials for the above application. Background information has been drawn from extensive past studies. The system operating temperature, type of protective environment, and oxidation potential of the salt are shown to be critical design considerations. Factors such as the generation of fission products and transmutation of salt components also significantly affect corrosion behavior, and procedures for inhibiting their effects are discussed. In view of the potential for extreme conditions relative to neutron fluxes and energies that can occur in an ADTT, a knowledge of radiation effects is a most important factor. Present information for potential materials selections is summarized

  15. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  16. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  17. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia

    2012-05-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 C

  18. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia; Piyush Sabharwall

    2012-09-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 °C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700

  19. Parametric analyses of single-zone thorium-fueled molten salt reactor fuel cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of fuel cycle options based on thorium-fueled Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) have been performed in support of fuel cycle screening and evaluation activities for the United States Department of Energy. The MSR options considered are based on thermal spectrum MSRs with 3 different separations levels: full recycling, limited recycling, and 'once-through' operation without active separations. A single-fluid, single-zone 2250 MWth (1000 MWe) MSR concept consisting of a fuel-bearing molten salt with graphite moderator and reflectors was used as the basis for this study. Radiation transport and isotopic depletion calculations were performed using SCALE 6.1 with ENDF/B-VII nuclear data. New methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) enables MSR analysis using SCALE, modeling material feed and removal by taking user-specified parameters and performing multiple SCALE/TRITON simulations to determine the resulting equilibrium operating conditions. Parametric analyses examined the sensitivity of the performance of a thorium MSR to variations in the separations efficiency for protactinium and fission products. Results indicate that self-sustained operation is possible with full or limited recycling but once-through operation would require an external neutron source. (authors)

  20. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Cioncolini, Andrea; Iacovides, Hector

    2015-04-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015.

  1. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015

  2. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauzi, Anas Muhamad, E-mail: Anas@uniten.edu.my [Centre of Nuclear Energy, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Cioncolini, Andrea; Iacovides, Hector [School of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Civil Engineering (MACE), University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-29

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015.

  3. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a thor

  4. Study of fluid fuel influence on delayed neutron in Molten Salt Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the six advanced reactor types for future nuclear energy systems in the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), possessing the advantages of good neutron economics, inherent safety, processing online, nuclear nonproliferation, etc. Due to the fluid fuel, a part of delayed neutron precursors drifts out of the reactor and decays in the loop, which is different from the solid-fuel reactor. Purpose: The distribution of delayed neutrons with different fuel velocity for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) is analyzed to provide reference for safety design of MSR. Methods: Based on the neutron kinetics and approximate method of homogeneous reactor, a distribution model of delayed neutron was presented. This model is applied to the distribution study of delayed neutrons with different fuel velocity. Results: The number of delayed neutrons in a core radius of 20 cm was more than that in a core radius of 30 cm. When the flow velocity of fuel decreased by a half, the discrepancy of delayed neutrons between the fifth-group and sixth-group precursors is within 6%. Conclusion: The number of delayed neutrons is increasing toward the center of reactor core. The group of delayed neutron precursors with shorter half-time has little effect on the flow velocity of molten salt. (authors)

  5. Thorium conversion optimization in two-fluid molten-salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten-Salt Reactors (MSR) are an attractive reactor system for various purposes. They can be designed to be operated in a fast neutron spectrum for spent fuel transmutation or in a thermal spectrum. Thermal MSRs provide an ideal platform for conversion of thorium to 233U. Flowing salt can be continuously reprocessed to minimize neutron losses due to neutron absorption in fission products. This study deals with a static neutronic optimization of a Two-Fluid MSR concept. Such a reactor features two separated molten-salt streams in the reactor core. One salt contains fissile material 233U, the other thorium. Separation of these streams improves the conversion capabilities of MSRs. Such a design was analysed for Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) development. This reactor was not realized, but it is used as a reference for this study. Monte-Carlo code MCNP5 was used to model a simplified MSBR core and for calculation of the breeding capabilities of this design. Several basic geometric parameters were selected for evaluation of their effect on characteristics of the reactor. Based on this analysis, an improved designed was prepared with shorter fissile material doubling time. The whole analysis was carried out for fresh fuel composition. It is possible to expect that on-line fuel reprocessing will limit fuel composition changes during reactor operation. Only effect of 233Pa accumulation on the thorium conversion was studied for several fuel reprocessing rates. (author)

  6. Cathodes for molten-salt batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argade, Shyam D.

    1993-02-01

    Viewgraphs of the discussion on cathodes for molten-salt batteries are presented. For the cathode reactions in molten-salt cells, chlorine-based and sulfur-based cathodes reactants have relatively high exchange current densities. Sulfur-based cathodes, metal sulfides, and disulfides have been extensively investigated. Primary thermal batteries of the Li-alloy/FeS2 variety have been available for a number of years. Chlorine based rechargable cathodes were investigated for the pulse power application. A brief introduction is followed by the experimental aspects of research, and the results obtained. Performance projections to the battery system level are discussed and the presentation is summarized with conclusions.

  7. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  8. An innovative approach to dynamics modeling and simulation of the molten salt rector experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a circulating fuel thermal reactor built and operated in the sixties. As the only Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) testing facility for which extensive experimental data are available, it can be considered as a reference for the development of modeling approaches for the studies related to the Gen-IV MSR. In this work, a geometric multi-scale approach has been adopted for the simulation of the MSRE plant. The data and the experimental results relative to the U-233 fuelled reactor are considered. The neutronic parameters have been determined using the Monte Carlo code Serpent. The reactor core is divided into three radial regions, each one described by a 3D channel in which Navier-Stokes and energy conservation equations plus delayed neutron precursors (DNP) balance equations are solved. Determination of the generated power is obtained employing a point kinetics like equation, fed with importance weighted values of temperatures and DNP concentrations. The remaining part of the plant, that includes the primary and secondary cooling circuits, is modeled by means of zero-dimensional components. The results attained with such modeling approach are compared with experimental data both in time and frequency domain, showing good agreement. The adopted approach, thanks to the punctual, coupled solution of the governing equations in the core, gives better insights into the thermal behavior of the graphite and its effects on MSR dynamics than commonly used correlation-based solvers. (author)

  9. Hot corrosion resistance of high-velocity oxyfuel sprayed coatings on a nickel-base superalloy in molten salt environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, T. S.; Prakash, S.; Agrawal, R. D.

    2006-09-01

    No alloy is immune to hot corrosion attack indefinitely. Coatings can extend the lives of substrate materials used at higher temperatures in corrosive environments by forming protective oxides layers that are reasonably effective for long-term applications. This article is concerned with studying the performance of high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCrBSi, Cr3C2-NiCr, Ni-20Cr, and Stellite-6 coatings on a nickel-base superalloy at 900 °C in the molten salt (Na2SO4-60% V2O5) environment under cyclic oxidation conditions. The thermogravimetric technique was used to establish kinetics of corrosion. Optical microscope, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/electron dispersive analysis by x-ray (SEM/EDAX), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) techniques were used to characterize the as-sprayed coatings and corrosion products. The bare superalloy suffered somewhat accelerated corrosion in the given environmental conditions. whereas hot corrosion resistance of all the coated superalloys was found to be better. Among the coating studied, Ni-20Cr coated superalloy imparted maximum hot corrosion resistance, whereas Stellite-6 coated indicated minimum resistance. The hot corrosion resistance of all the coatings may be attributed to the formation of oxides and spinels of nickel, chromium, or cobalt.

  10. Preliminary Study of Single-Phase Natural Circulation for Lab-scaled Molten Salt Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yukyung; Kang, Sarah; Kim, In Guk; Seo, Seok Bin; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Dae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Advanced reactors such as MSR (FHR), VHTR and AHTR utilized molten salt as a coolant for efficiency and safety which has advantages in higher heat capacity, lower pumping power and scale compared to liquid metal. It becomes more necessary to study on the characteristics of molten salt. However, due to several characteristics such as high operating temperature, large-scale facility and preventing solidification, satisfying that condition for study has difficulties. Thus simulant fluid was used with scaling method for lab-scale experiment. Scaled experiment enables simulant fluid to simulate fluid mechanics and heat transfer behavior of molten salt on lower operating temperature and reduced scale. In this paper, as a proof test of the scaled experiment, simplified single-phase natural circulation loop was designed in a lab-scale and applied to the passive safety system in advanced reactor in which molten salt is considered as a major coolant of the system. For the application of the improved safety system, prototype was based on the primary loop of the test-scale DRACS, the main passive safety system in FHR, developed at the OSU. For preliminary experiment, single-phase natural circulation under low power was performed. DOWTHERM A and DOWTHERM RP were selected as simulant candidates. Then, study of feasibility with simulant was conducted based on the scaling law for heat transfer characteristics and geometric parameters. Additionally, simulation with MARS code and ANSYS-CFX with the same condition of natural circulation was carried out as verification. For the accurate code simulation, thermo-physical properties of DOWTHERM A and RP were developed and implemented into MARS code. In this study, single-phase natural circulation experiment was performed with simulant oil, DOWTHERM RP, based on the passive safety system of FHR. Feasibility of similarity experiment for molten salt with oil simulant was confirmed by scaling method. In addition, simulation with two

  11. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a thorough knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of molten fluorides salts, which are one of the best options for the reactor fuel. This dissertation presents the thermodynamic description of the ...

  12. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinsu; Jeong, Yongjin; Lee, Deokjung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Utilizing the uranium-thorium fuel cycle shows considerable potential for the possibility of MSR. The concept of MSBR should be revised because of molten salt reactor's advantage such as outstanding neutron economy, possibility of continuous online reprocessing and refueling, a high level of inherent safety, and economic benefit by keeping off the fuel fabrication process. For the development of MSR research, this paper provides the MSBR single-cell, two-cell and whole core model for computer code input, and several calculation results including depletion calculation of each models. The calculations are carried out by using MCNP6, a Monte Carlo computer code, which has CINDER90 for depletion calculation using ENDF-VII nuclear data. From the calculation results of various reactor design parameters, the temperature coefficients are all negative at the initial state and MTC becomes positive at the equilibrium state. From the results of core rod worth, the graphite control rod alone cannot makes the core subcritical at initial state. But the equilibrium state, the core can be made subcritical state only by graphite control rods. Through the comparison of the results of each models, the two-cell method can represent the MSBR core model more accurately with a little more computational resources than the single-cell method. Many of the thermal spectrum MSR have adopted a multi-region single-fluid strategy.

  13. Thermal-hydraulics of internally heated molten salts and application to the Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorina, Carlo; Cammi, Antonio; Luzzi, Lelio; Mikityuk, Konstantin; Ninokata, Hisashi; Ricotti, Marco E.

    2014-04-01

    The Molten Salt Reactors (MSR) are an innovative kind of nuclear reactors and are presently considered in the framework of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF-IV) for their promising performances in terms of low resource utilization, waste minimization and enhanced safety. A unique feature of MSRs is that molten fluoride salts play the distinctive role of both fuel (heat source) and coolant. The presence of an internal heat generation perturbs the temperature field and consequences are to be expected on the heat transfer characteristics of the molten salts. In this paper, the problem of heat transfer for internally heated fluids in a straight circular channel is first faced on a theoretical ground. The effect of internal heat generation is demonstrated to be described by a corrective factor applied to traditional correlations for the Nusselt number. It is shown that the corrective factor can be fully characterized by making explicit the dependency on Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. On this basis, a preliminary correlation is proposed for the case of molten fluoride salts by interpolating the results provided by an analytic approach previously developed at the Politecnico di Milano. The experimental facility and the related measuring procedure for testing the proposed correlation are then presented. Finally, the developed correlation is used to carry out a parametric investigation on the effect of internal heat generation on the main out-of-core components of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR), the reference circulating-fuel MSR design in the GIF-IV. The volumetric power determines higher temperatures at the channel wall, but the effect is significant only in case of large diameters and/or low velocities.

  14. Steady thermal hydraulic analysis for a molten salt reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dalin; QIU Suizheng; LIU Changliang; SU Guanghui

    2008-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) can meet the demand of transmutation and breeding. In this study, theoretical calculation of steady thermal hydraulic characteristics of a graphite-moderated channel type MSR is conducted. The DRAGON code is adopted to calculate the axial and radial power factor firstly. The flow and heat transfer model in the fuel salt and graphite are developed on basis of the fundamental mass, momentum and energy equations. The results show the detailed flow distribution in the core, and the temperature profiles of the fuel salt, inner and outer wall in the nine typical elements along the axial flow direction are also obtained.

  15. Development status and potential program for development of proliferation-resistant molten-salt reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, J.R.; Bauman, H.F.; Dearing, J.F.; Grimes, W.R.; McCoy, H.E. Jr.

    1979-03-01

    Preliminary studies of existing and conceptual molten-salt reactor (MSR) designs have led to the identification of conceptual systems that are technologically attractive when operated with denatured uranium as the principal fissile fuel. These denatured MSRs would also have favorable resource-utilization characteristics and substantial resistance to proliferation of weapons-usable nuclear materials. The report presents a summary of the current status of technology and a discussion of the major technical areas of a possible base program to develop commercial denatured MSRs. The general areas treated are (1) reactor design and development, (2) safety and safety related technology, (3) fuel-coolant behavior and fuel processing, and (4) reactor materials. A substantial development effort could lead to authorization for construction of a molten-salt test reactor about 5 years after the start of the program and operation of the unit about 10 years later. A prototype commercial denatured MSR could be expected to begin operating 25 years from the start of the program. The postulated base program would extend over 32 years and would cost about $700 million (1978 dollars, unescalated). Additional costs to construct the MSTR, $600 million, and the prototype commercial plant, $1470 million, would bring the total program cost to about $2.8 billion. Additional allowances probably should be made to cover contingencies and incidental technology areas not explicitly treated in this preliminary review.

  16. Design of a heterogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor with molten salts based on thorium; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico heterogeneo con sales fundidas a base de torio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina C, D.; Hernandez A, P.; Letechipia de L, C.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: dmedina_c@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents the design of a heterogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor with molten salts based on thorium, with graphite moderator and a {sup 252}Cf source, whose dose levels at the periphery allows its use in teaching and research activities. The design was realized by the Monte Carlo method, where the geometry, dimensions and the fuel was varied in order to obtain the best design. The result was a cubic reactor of 110 cm of side, with graphite moderator and reflector. In the central part having 9 ducts of 3 cm in diameter, eight of them are 110 cm long, which were placed on the Y axis; the separation between each duct is 10 cm. The central duct has 60 cm in length and this contains the {sup 252}Cf source, also there are two irradiation channels and the other six contain a molten salt ({sup 7}LiF - BeF{sub 2} - ThF{sub 4} - UF{sub 4}) as fuel. For the design the k{sub eff} was calculated, neutron spectra and ambient dose equivalent. In the first instance the above was calculated for a virgin fuel, was called case 1; then a percentage of {sup 233}U was used and the percentage of Th was decreased and was called case 2. This with the purpose of comparing two different fuels operating within the reactor. For the two irradiation ducts three positions are used: center, back and front, in each duct in order to have different flows. (Author)

  17. 50 years of searching for means of energy technology revolution. Thorium molten-salt reactors without nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of CO2 emission is a global concern for all industrialized countries. Nuclear energy can play an important role in this context since it does not emit CO2 for power generation. However, there are still some concerns and difficulties with current nuclear power such as nuclear proliferation, radioactive waste, safety, economy, usability etc. Therefore, there is a need for a novel global scale nuclear industry aiming to supply half of all primary energy by the middle of this century. During the 1960s, the US developed the molten salt breeder reactor (MSBR) and a small prototype was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). There is now renewed interest in its concept by several countries. Strong incentives for the molten salt reactor (MSR) design are its good fuel utilization, good economics, amazing fuel flexibility, and promising benefits. In Japan, the nuclear energy system 'THORIMS-NES (Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System)' is a new concept, designed such as to realize a novel enormous nuclear industry without requiring investment, solving the developmental difficulties of MSBR. Following several R and D years and a pilot scale prototype (miniFUJI), a new commercial project has just been launched aiming to realize a thorium-based molten salt reactor (FUJI). The present paper will outline this system and its strategy development, high-lighting the advantages of the Thorium-MSR such as (1) a conclusive measure on green-house-gas elimination, (2) nuclear proliferation and terrorism resistance (no plutonium production with its effective burning), (3) little high level nuclear waste production, (4) high safety (no severe accidents principally and practically), (5) rich thorium resources (distributed on large global scale), (6) low electricity generation cost, (7) easy deployment (small/simple economical reactors). (author)

  18. Dynamic modelling and simulation of linear Fresnel solar field model based on molten salt heat transfer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Elina; Tähtinen, Matti

    2016-05-01

    Demonstrations of direct steam generation (DSG) in linear Fresnel collectors (LFC) have given promising results related to higher steam parameters compared to the current state-of-the-art parabolic trough collector (PTC) technology using oil as heat transfer fluid (HTF). However, DSG technology lacks feasible solution for long-term thermal energy storage (TES) system. This option is important for CSP technology in order to offer dispatchable power. Recently, molten salts have been proposed to be used as HTF and directly as storage medium in both line-focusing solar fields, offering storage capacity of several hours. This direct molten salt (DMS) storage concept has already gained operational experience in solar tower power plant, and it is under demonstration phase both in the case of LFC and PTC systems. Dynamic simulation programs offer a valuable effort for design and optimization of solar power plants. In this work, APROS dynamic simulation program is used to model a DMS linear Fresnel solar field with two-tank TES system, and example simulation results are presented in order to verify the functionality of the model and capability of APROS for CSP modelling and simulation.

  19. Radionuclides release possibility analysis of MSR at various accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong Wie; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    There are some accidents which go beyond our expectation such as Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster and amounts of radionuclides release to environment, so more effort and research are conducted to prevent it. MSR (Molten Salt Reactor) is one of GEN-IV reactor types, and its coolant and fuel are mixtures of molten salt. MSR has a schematic like figure 1 and it has different features with the solid fuel reactor, but most important and interesting feature of MSR is its many safety systems. For example, MSR has a large negative void coefficient. Even though power increases, the reactor slows down soon. Radionuclides release possibility of MSR was analyzed at various accident conditions including Chernobyl and Fukushima ones. The MSR was understood to prevent the severe accident by the negative reactivity coefficient and the absence of explosive material such as water at the Chernobyl disaster condition. It was expected to contain fuel salts in the reactor building and not to release radionuclides into environment even if the primary system could be ruptured or broken and fuel salts would be leaked at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster condition of earthquake and tsunami. The MSR, which would not lead to the severe accident and therefore prevents the fuel release to the environment at many expected scenarios, was thought to have priority in the aspect of accidents. A quantitative analysis and a further research are needed to evaluate the possibility of radionuclide release to the environment at the various accident conditions based on the simple comparison of the safety feature between MSR and solid fuel reactor.

  20. Molten-salt synthesis and composition-dependent luminescent properties of barium tungsto-molybdate-based solid solution phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang-Hong, He; Zhao-Lian, Ye; Ming-Yun, Guan; Ning, Lian; Jian-Hua, Sun

    2016-02-01

    Pr3+-activated barium tungsto-molybdate solid solution phosphor Ba(Mo1-zWz)O4:Pr3+ is successfully fabricated via a facile molten-salt approach. The as-synthesized microcrystal is of truncated octahedron and exhibits deep-red-emitting upon blue light excitation. Powder x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy techniques are utilized to investigate the formation of solid solution phosphor. The luminescence behaviors depend on the resulting composition of the microcrystals with fixed Pr3+-doping concentration, while the host lattices remain in a scheelite structure. The forming solid solution via the substitution of [WO4] for [MoO4] can significantly enhance its luminescence, which may be due to the fact that Ba(Mo1-zWz)O4:Pr3+ owns well-defined facets and uniform morphologies. Owing to its properties of high phase purity, well-defined facets, highly uniform morphologies, exceptional chemical and thermal stabilities, and stronger emission intensity, the resulting solid solution phosphor is expected to find potential applications in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Project supported by the Construction Fund for Science and Technology Innovation Group from Jiangsu University of Technology, China, the Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, China (Grant No. KHK1409), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21373103).

  1. Behavior study on Na heat pipe in passive heat removal system of new concept molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high temperature Na heat pipe is an effective device for transporting heat, which is characterized by remarkable advantages in conductivity, isothermally and passively working. The application of Na heat pipe on passive heat removal system of new concept molten salt reactor (MSR) is significant. The transient performance of high temperature Na heat pipe was simulated by numerical method under the MSR accident. The model of the Na heat pipe was composed of three conjugate heat transfer zones, i.e. the vapor, wick and wall. Based on finite element method, the governing equations were solved by making use of FORTRAN to acquire the profiles of the temperature, velocity and pressure for the heat pipe transient operation. The results show that the high temperature Na heat pipe has a good performance on operating characteristics and high heat transfer efficiency from the frozen state. (authors)

  2. Electrochemistry of molten salt systems within context of modern nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among other applications, electrochemical based separation of actinides and lanthanides from molten salt media seems to be suitable method for reprocessing schemes in several fuel cycles of modern reactor types which are currently under development. Within this work, electrochemical properties of selected actinides (U,Th), lanthanides (Eu, Sm, Nd, Pr, Gd, La) and other elements (Mo, Zr) were studied in several molten fluoride systems (LiF-BeF2, LiF-CaF2, LiF-NaF, LiF-NaF-KF). Based on obtained results, electrolytic experiments to deposit some of the elements on inert and reactive electrode were performed. LiF-BeF2 (FLiBe) melt is considered to be a crucial system for most of the molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts. In FLiBe, basic electrochemical properties of selected actinides and lanthanides were studied. Due to FLiBe's narrow electrochemical window, only uranium can be directly deposited on the cathode. Electrolytic deposition of uranium on Mo and Ni electrodes was achieved. In BeF2-free melts, full spectrum of available elements was studied by variety of electrochemical methods. Electrolytic experiments were performed with special attention given to pulsed-current electrolysis and reactive electrode (Ni) on which the deposits are in the form of alloys and successful separation of uranium from gadolinium was demonstrated. (author)

  3. A new approach for modeling and analysis of molten salt reactors using SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy is performing an evaluation and screening of potential fuel cycle options to provide information that can support future research and development decisions based on the more promising fuel cycle options. [1] A comprehensive set of fuel cycle options are put into evaluation groups based on physics and fuel cycle characteristics. Representative options for each group are then evaluated to provide the quantitative information needed to support the valuation of criteria and metrics used for the study. Included in this set of representative options are Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs), the analysis of which requires several capabilities that are not adequately supported by the current version of SCALE or other neutronics depletion software packages (e.g., continuous online feed and removal of materials). A new analysis approach was developed for MSR analysis using SCALE by taking user-specified MSR parameters and performing a series of SCALE/TRITON calculations to determine the resulting equilibrium operating conditions. This paper provides a detailed description of the new analysis approach, including the modeling equations and radiation transport models used. Results for an MSR fuel cycle option of interest are also provided to demonstrate the application to a relevant problem. The current implementation is through a utility code that uses the two-dimensional (2D) TRITON depletion sequence in SCALE 6.1 but could be readily adapted to three-dimensional (3D) TRITON depletion sequences or other versions of SCALE. (authors)

  4. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li;

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  5. Fuels and fission products clean up for molten salt reactor of the incinerator type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, V.; Gorbunov, V.; Zakirov, R. [RRC-Karchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of molten salt reactor technology for treatment of plutonium, minor actinides and fission products, when the reactor and fission product cleanup unit are planned as an integral system. This contribution summarizes the reasons which led to selection of the salt compositions for the molten salt reactor of the TRU incinerator type (MSB). Special characteristics of behavior of TRUs and fission products during power operation of MSB concepts are presented. The present paper briefly reviews the processing developments underlying the prior molten salt reactor (MSR) programs and relates then to the separation requirements for the MSB concept. Status and development needs in the thermodynamic properties of fluorides and fission product cleanup methods (with emphasis on actinides-lanthanides separation) are discussed. (authors)

  6. Fuels and fission products clean up for molten salt reactor of the incinerator type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of molten salt reactor technology for treatment of plutonium, minor actinides and fission products, when the reactor and fission product cleanup unit are planned as an integral system. This contribution summarizes the reasons which led to selection of the salt compositions for the molten salt reactor of the TRU incinerator type (MSB). Special characteristics of behavior of TRUs and fission products during power operation of MSB concepts are presented. The present paper briefly reviews the processing developments underlying the prior molten salt reactor (MSR) programs and relates then to the separation requirements for the MSB concept. Status and development needs in the thermodynamic properties of fluorides and fission product cleanup methods (with emphasis on actinides-lanthanides separation) are discussed. (authors)

  7. Nonmetal-metal transition in metal–molten-salt solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestrelli, P.-L.; Alavi, A.; Parrinello, M.; Frenkel, D.

    1996-01-01

    The method of ab initio molecular dynamics, based on finite-temperature density-functional theory, is used to study the nonmetal-metal transition in two different metal–molten-salt solutions, Kx(KCl)1-x and Nax(NaBr)1-x. As the excess metal concentration is increased the electronic density becomes d

  8. Reactivity insertion accident in a small molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) have a long history with the first design studies beginning in the 1950's at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). MSRs have many advantages such as improved potential in safety, proliferation resistance, resource sustainability and waste reduction. But MSR developmental activities have slowed considerably except for some small scale efforts, mostly in Russia, France, Japan and a few other places and there are few data available to support detailed analyses. Recently, a conceptual design of a small MSR, name Fuji-12 has been proposed. Fuji-12 operates with the same fuel salt as the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) designed by ORNL. But it differs from the ORNL design in several ways, such as no on-site chemical processing plant and a low rated power. The authors are interested in the MSR concept due to its high potential in the areas of safety, proliferation resistance, resource sustainability and waste reduction, all necessary requirements for the generation IV nuclear power systems. Therefore the MSR concept has been selected as one of the more promising candidates for future consideration. The authors believe that additional investigations are necessary for future study. From this point of view, the authors have analyzed various reactivity insertion accidents due to control rod malfunctions in a MSR named FUJI-12. The MSR can be operated with a small excess reactivity and also the control rods for power adjustment consist of graphite, which has buoyancy in the fuel salt. Thus the reactivity addition could be limited by design. However at the same time the delayed neutron fraction is quite small due to the usage of U-233 as fissile material and the circulation of the fuel salt. Therefore reactivity insertion accident should be qualitatively evaluated. The reactor transients were analyzed without scram in order to evaluate the severity of such accidents against the safety. The severity of the accident was discussed for the outlet

  9. Alloys compatibility in molten salt fluorides: Kurchatov Institute related experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexandr

    2013-10-01

    In the last several years, there has been an increased interest in the use of high-temperature molten salt fluorides in nuclear power systems. For all molten salt reactor designs, materials selection is a very important issue. This paper summarizes results, which led to selection of materials for molten salt reactors in Russia. Operating experience with corrosion thermal convection loops has demonstrated good capability of the “nickel-molybdenum alloys + fluoride salt fueled by UF4 and PuF3 + cover gas” system up to 750 °C. A brief description is given of the container material work in progress. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys in stressed and unloaded conditions studies was also tested in different molten salt mixtures at temperatures up to 700-750 °C, also with measurement of the redox potential. HN80MTY alloy with 1% added Al is the most resistant to tellurium intergranular cracking of Ni-base alloys under study.

  10. Probability safety assessment of LOOP accident to molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Loss of offsite power (LOOP) is a possible accident to any type of reactor, and this accident can reflect the main idea of reactor safety design. Therefore, it is very important to conduct a study on probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of the molten salt reactor that is under LOOP circumstance. Purpose: The aim is to calculate the release frequency of molten salt radioactive material to the core caused by LOOP, and find out the biggest contributor to causing the radioactive release frequency. Methods: We carried out the PSA analysis of the LOOP using the PSA process risk spectrum, and assumed that the primary circuit had no valve and equipment reliability data based on the existing mature power plant equipment reliability data. Results: Through the PSA analysis, we got the accident sequences of the release of radioactive material to the core caused by LOOP and its frequency. The results show that the release frequency of molten salt radioactive material to the core caused by LOOP is about 2×10-11/(reactor ·year), which is far below that of the AP1000 LOOP. In addition, through the quantitative analysis, we obtained the point estimation and interval estimation of uncertainty analysis, and found that the biggest contributor to cause the release frequency of radioactive material to the core is the reactor cavity cooling function failure. Conclusion: This study provides effective help for the design and improvement of the following molten salt reactor system. (authors)

  11. The Integral Molten Salt Reactor (IMSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, D. [Terrestrial Energy, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-12-15

    The Integral Molten Salt Reactor is a simple burner or converter design that seeks to maximize passive and inherent safety features in order to minimize development time and achieve true cost innovation. Its integration of all primary systems into a unit sealed for the design life of the reactor will be reviewed with focus on the unique design aspects that make this a pragmatic approach. The IMSR is being developed by Terrestrial Energy in a range of power outputs with initial focus on an 80 MWth (32.5 MWe) unit primarily for remote energy needs. Similar units of modestly larger dimension and up to 600 MWth (291 MWe) are planned that remain truck transportable and able to compete in base load electricity markets worldwide. (author)

  12. Analysis of reactivity initiated transient from control rod failure events of a molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a molten salt reactor (MSR), the fuel is dissolved in fluoride salt. In this paper, the reactivity worth and reactivity initiated transient of Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) in the control rod failure events are analyzed. The point kinetic coupling heat-transfer model with decay character of six-group delayed neutron precursors due to the fuel motion is applied. The relative power and temperature transient under reactivity step and ramp initiated at different power levels are studied. The results show that the reactor power and temperature increase to a maximum, where they begin to decrease to stable values. Comparing with full power level, the transient result at low power level is more serious. The results are of help in our study on safety characteristics of an MSR system. (authors)

  13. Effect of Halide Flux on Physicochemical Properties of MgCl2-Based Molten Salts for Accelerating Zirconium Production: Thermodynamic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Hong; Park, Joo Hyun

    2016-09-01

    The effective halide flux additive for increasing the density of MgCl2 mixture and for decreasing the activity of MgCl2 was investigated in order to improve the reaction efficiency between gaseous ZrCl4 and fresh Mg melt to produce zirconium sponge. Thermochemical computation using FactSageTM software was primarily carried out, followed by the experimental confirmation. The addition of CaCl2, BaCl2, MgF2, and CaF2 to the molten MgCl2 increases the density of the melts, indicating that these halide additives can be a candidate to increase the density of the MgCl2-based molten salts. Among them, BaCl2, MgF2, and CaF2 are the useful additives. The activity of MgCl2 can be reduced by the addition of BaCl2, KCl, NaCl, MgF2, and CaF2, among which the CaF2 is the most effective additive to reduce the activity of MgCl2 with the strongest negative deviation from an ideality. Thus, the addition of CaF2 to the MgCl2, forming the MgCl2-CaF2 binary melt, is the most effective way not only to increase the density of the melt but also to decrease the activity of MgCl2, which was experimentally confirmed. Consequently, the production rate of zirconium sponge by magnesiothermic reduction process can be accelerated by the addition of CaF2.

  14. Effect of Halide Flux on Physicochemical Properties of MgCl2-Based Molten Salts for Accelerating Zirconium Production: Thermodynamic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Hong; Park, Joo Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The effective halide flux additive for increasing the density of MgCl2 mixture and for decreasing the activity of MgCl2 was investigated in order to improve the reaction efficiency between gaseous ZrCl4 and fresh Mg melt to produce zirconium sponge. Thermochemical computation using FactSageTM software was primarily carried out, followed by the experimental confirmation. The addition of CaCl2, BaCl2, MgF2, and CaF2 to the molten MgCl2 increases the density of the melts, indicating that these halide additives can be a candidate to increase the density of the MgCl2-based molten salts. Among them, BaCl2, MgF2, and CaF2 are the useful additives. The activity of MgCl2 can be reduced by the addition of BaCl2, KCl, NaCl, MgF2, and CaF2, among which the CaF2 is the most effective additive to reduce the activity of MgCl2 with the strongest negative deviation from an ideality. Thus, the addition of CaF2 to the MgCl2, forming the MgCl2-CaF2 binary melt, is the most effective way not only to increase the density of the melt but also to decrease the activity of MgCl2, which was experimentally confirmed. Consequently, the production rate of zirconium sponge by magnesiothermic reduction process can be accelerated by the addition of CaF2.

  15. Cooling molten salt reactors using “gas-lift”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitek, Pavel, E-mail: zitek@kke.zcu.cz, E-mail: klimko@kke.zcu.cz; Valenta, Vaclav, E-mail: zitek@kke.zcu.cz, E-mail: klimko@kke.zcu.cz; Klimko, Marek, E-mail: zitek@kke.zcu.cz, E-mail: klimko@kke.zcu.cz [University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Univerzitní 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-06

    This study briefly describes the selection of a type of two-phase flow, suitable for intensifying the natural flow of nuclear reactors with liquid fuel - cooling mixture molten salts and the description of a “Two-phase flow demonstrator” (TFD) used for experimental study of the “gas-lift” system and its influence on the support of natural convection. The measuring device and the application of the TDF device is described. The work serves as a model system for “gas-lift” (replacing the classic pump in the primary circuit) for high temperature MSR planned for hydrogen production. An experimental facility was proposed on the basis of which is currently being built an experimental loop containing the generator, separator bubbles and necessary accessories. This loop will model the removal of gaseous fission products and tritium. The cleaning of the fuel mixture of fluoride salts eliminates problems from Xenon poisoning in classical reactors.

  16. Cooling molten salt reactors using "gas-lift"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitek, Pavel; Valenta, Vaclav; Klimko, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This study briefly describes the selection of a type of two-phase flow, suitable for intensifying the natural flow of nuclear reactors with liquid fuel - cooling mixture molten salts and the description of a "Two-phase flow demonstrator" (TFD) used for experimental study of the "gas-lift" system and its influence on the support of natural convection. The measuring device and the application of the TDF device is described. The work serves as a model system for "gas-lift" (replacing the classic pump in the primary circuit) for high temperature MSR planned for hydrogen production. An experimental facility was proposed on the basis of which is currently being built an experimental loop containing the generator, separator bubbles and necessary accessories. This loop will model the removal of gaseous fission products and tritium. The cleaning of the fuel mixture of fluoride salts eliminates problems from Xenon poisoning in classical reactors.

  17. Preparation and Molten Salt as Performances of Room Electrolyte carbon Capacitor Based on Trifluoroacetamide n CarbonLiPF6 and

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A novel room moRen salt with an eutectic temperature of about -62℃ is prepared using LiPF6 and trifluoroacetamide as precursors. And then its performance is evaluated in carbon-carbon electrochemical double layerdifferent molar ratios are characterized and then the liquid-solid phase diagram is presented. The electrochemical performance tests show that the as-prepared LiPF6/trifluoroacetamide molten salt is a promising electrolyte candidate for carboncarbon EDLCs.

  18. Status Report on Scoping Reactor Physics and Sensitivity/Uncertainty Analysis of LR-0 Reactor Molten Salt Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Mueller, Donald E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division

    2016-08-31

    Experiments are being planned at Research Centre Rež (RC Rež) to use the FLiBe (2 7LiF-BeF2) salt from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) to perform reactor physics measurements in the LR-0 low power nuclear reactor. These experiments are intended to inform on neutron spectral effects and nuclear data uncertainties for advanced reactor systems utilizing FLiBe salt in a thermal neutron energy spectrum. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analysis of these planned experiments as part of the ongoing collaboration between the United States and the Czech Republic on civilian nuclear energy research and development. The objective of these analyses is to produce the sensitivity of neutron multiplication to cross section data on an energy-dependent basis for specific nuclides. This report provides a status update on the S/U analyses of critical experiments at the LR-0 Reactor relevant to fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) and liquid-fueled molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts. The S/U analyses will be used to inform design of FLiBe-based experiments using the salt from MSRE.

  19. Feasibility study of a pilot scale molten salt reactor demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy Process Developments Ltd. was awarded a grant by Innovate UK in July 2014 to undertake a year-long project to determine the feasibility of developing a pilot scale molten salt reactor in the UK. The study looked at six current available proposed MSR configurations and proposed the immediate next steps for design and build of a chosen demonstrator reactor project. Tremendous knowledge growth in the 60 years of the first nuclear era has not seen substantial advances in nuclear fission technology much beyond the Pressurised Water Reactor, initially a hastily adopted device for military and civil applications, and essentially comprising water cooling of solid fuel elements. The imminent second nuclear era requires introduction of inherently more efficient, safer, cheaper, nuclear power obtainable with liquid-fuelled - namely Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) technology - the best out of the six Gen IV options. This Gen IV option, when considered in 2002, was believed to be decades away from readiness. This study reviews more recent work. The evidence is that the MSR is ready now. In the immediate urgency of the present, this liquid-fuelled reactor technology can be seen as highly innovative, necessary and rewarding. It is ready to form a key part of any affordable policy proposals for the UK energy supply. This feasibility study is seen as the first step towards full scale implementation of the technology. MSRs are passively safe, operate at atmospheric pressure, at higher efficiencies than PWRs and can be load following. Thorium is the ultimate fuel of choice which can provide the world with a near limitless supply of energy. A demonstration reactor will show the media, public and investors that this technology exists as a clean source of cheap sustainable power. The project reviewed the status of all MSR activity internationally, the regulatory regime in the UK and potential sites. Nuclear insurers were consulted on their insurability and the outlook of an energy

  20. Molten salts and energy related materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fray, Derek

    2016-08-15

    Molten salts have been known for centuries and have been used for the extraction of aluminium for over one hundred years and as high temperature fluxes in metal processing. This and other molten salt routes have gradually become more energy efficient and less polluting, but there have been few major breakthroughs. This paper will explore some recent innovations that could lead to substantial reductions in the energy consumed in metal production and in carbon dioxide production. Another way that molten salts can contribute to an energy efficient world is by creating better high temperature fuel cells and novel high temperature batteries, or by acting as the medium that can create novel materials that can find applications in high energy batteries and other energy saving devices, such as capacitors. Carbonate melts can be used to absorb carbon dioxide, which can be converted into C, CO and carbon nanoparticles. Molten salts can also be used to create black silicon that can absorb more sunlight over a wider range of wavelengths. Overall, there are many opportunities to explore for molten salts to play in an efficient, low carbon world. PMID:27276650

  1. 熔盐堆的安全性介绍%The Introduction of the Safety of Molten Salt Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左嘉旭; 张春明

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the GenerationⅣNuclear Energy Systems and molten salt reactor which is the only fluid fuel reactor in the Gen-Ⅳ.Safety features and attributes of MSR are described.The supply of fuel and the minimum of waste are described.The clean molten salt in the secondary heat transport system transfers the heat from the primary heat exchanger to a high-temperature Brayton cycle that converts the heat to electricity.With the Brayton cycle,the thermal efficiency of the system will be improved. Base on the MSR,the thorium-uranium fuel cycle is also introduced.%介绍了四代反应堆的分类与特点,简述了第四代反应堆中唯一使用液态燃料的熔盐堆工作原理。基于与其他使用固体芯块燃料反应堆的比较,主要简述了熔盐堆更高的固有安全性特点,以及熔盐堆在燃料供应、废料最小化、防止核扩散诸方面的安全性优点以及熔盐堆发展面临的问题和挑战。说明了由于熔盐堆较高的工作温度使用布雷顿循环,提高热效率的优点。基于熔盐堆的燃料循环,简要叙述了钍基熔盐堆在钍-铀燃料循环应用中的优点及面临的问题。

  2. Molten salt converter reactors: from DMSR to SmAHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten salt reactors were developed extensively from the 1950s to 1970s as a thermal breeder alternative on the Thorium-233U cycle. Simplified designs running as fluid fuel converters without salt processing as well as TRISO fueled, salt cooled reactors both hold much promise as potential small modular reactors and as larger base load producers. A background will be presented along with the most likely routes forward for a Canadian development program. (author)

  3. Prospects of subcritical molten salt reactor for minor actinides incineration in closed fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, Pavel N.; Balanin, Andrey L.; Dudnikov, Anatoly A.; Fomichenko, Petr A.; Nevinitsa, Vladimir A.; Frolov, Aleksey A.; Lubina, Anna S.; Sedov, Aleksey A.; Subbotin, Aleksey S.; Blandinsky, Viktor Yu. [Nuclear Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    A subcritical molten salt reactor is proposed for minor actinides (separated from spent fuel VVER-1000 light water reactor) incineration and for {sup 233}U conversion from {sup 232}Th. Here the subcritical molten salt reactor with fuel composition of heavy nuclide fluorides in molten LiF - NaF - KF salt and with external neutron source, based on 1 GeV proton accelerator and molten salt cooled tungsten target is considered. The paper presents the results of parametrical analysis of equilibrium nuclide composition of molten salt reactor with minor actinides feed in dependence of core dimensions, average neutron flux and external neutron source intensity. Reactor design is defined; requirements to external neutron source are posed; heavy nuclides equilibrium and fuel cycle main parameters are calculated.

  4. Design of the distributed control system for HTS molten salt test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is the distributed control system software which is commonly used in large-scale experimental physics facilities. Purpose: We wish to apply it into the field of molten salt reactor relevant process control, e.g. HTS 1st test loop of thorium-based molten salt reactor (TMSR), which is characterized by heating, circulation, cooling and other process control. Methods: During the development of EPICS based control system, the Simense S7-300 PLC and Yokogawa FA-M3 PLC hardware drivers specification format transformation has been done, to support the Autosave and devIocState plug, and ASYN serial communication between the DTI-1000 reference digital temperature indicator and the EPICS IOC has been developed with the StreamDevice packages, also EDM interface program was modified to support PV control of the 'molten salt flow', 'fans', 'molten salt pump rotation', etc. by dynamic symbols. Results: EPICS based control system achieved the standardized communication of three hardwares with different types, the monitoring and storage of nearly 500 process variables, and the dynamic monitoring of control process. Conclusions: The EPICS-based control system can achieve the molten salt heating, feeding, cooling and other process control of the molten salt test loop. Safety analysis and research of control system requires further efforts to implement. (authors)

  5. Review of R and D of thorium molten-salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power will be used continuously as low-carbon energy for a sustainable society. On the other hand, prime attention is inclined to thorium molten-salt reactor (MSR) in recent years due to necessity for radioactive waste disposal, nuclear non-proliferation ('world without nuclear weapon') and higher safety of nuclear power. Thorium MSR is a type of liquid-fueled reactor utilizing thorium as fertile with some fissile materials contained in molten-salt. Research and development (R and D) of MSR started in the 1950s at Oak-Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for aircraft reactors. R and D activities were later extended to develop civilian power reactors using thorium, a concept which was completed in the 1970s. Nonetheless, technical problems still remained, such as temperature reactivity coefficient, material corrosion, and tritium permeation at heat exchanger. Since the 1980s several R and D activities to circumvent these problems have been done inside and outside ORNL. The problems relating to thorium MSR and recent R and D activities will be introduced in this paper. (author)

  6. Conceptual design of Indian molten salt breeder reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Vijayan; A Basak; I V Dulera; K K Vaze; S Basu; R K Sinha

    2015-09-01

    The third stage of Indian nuclear power programme envisages the use of thorium as the fertile material with 233U, which would be obtained from the operation of Pu/Th-based fast reactors in the later part of the second stage. Thorium-based reactors have been designed in many configurations, from light water-cooled designs to high-temperature liquid metal-cooled options. Another option, which holds promise, is the molten salt-fuelled reactor, which can be configured to give significant breeding ratios. A crucial part for achieving reasonable breeding in such reactors is the need to reprocess the salt continuously, either online or in batch mode. India has recently started carrying out fundamental studies so as to arrive at a conceptual design of Indian molten salt breeder reactor (IMSBR). Presently, various design options and possibilities are being studied from the point of view of reactor physics and thermal hydraulic design. In parallel, fundamental studies on natural circulation and corrosion behaviour of various molten salts have also been initiated.

  7. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  8. Preparation of biomorphic silicon carbide–mullite ceramics using molten salt synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei, E-mail: wwchem@126.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Environment Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecology in Arid Areas, Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, 126# Yanta Road, Xi' an 710054, Shaanxi (China); Hou, Guangya [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Wang, Boya; Deng, Shunxi [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Environment Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecology in Arid Areas, Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, 126# Yanta Road, Xi' an 710054, Shaanxi (China)

    2014-09-15

    Biomorphic silicon carbide–mullite ceramics were prepared from beech wood using liquid Si infiltration and molten salts synthesis. The resulting mullite whiskers coating, as well as the growth mechanism in molten Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} environment, have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The biomorphic SiC ceramics derived from the beech wood template have coarse pore walls consisting of β-SiC grains with diameters ranging from 5 μm to 20 μm. After the molten salts reactions between biomorphic SiC substrate and mixture molten salts (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), porous Silicon carbide–mullite ceramics with cilia-like microstructure were obtained. This unique structure has potential application in hot gases filters. An oxidation–dissolution cycle was proposed to explain the mullite whiskers growth in molten salts environment. - Graphical abstract: Biomorphic silicon carbide–mullite ceramics with cilia-like microstructure prepared from beech wood using liquid Si infiltration (LSI) and molten salts reactions (MSR) processes. Mullite whiskers with nanometer-sized diameters and micrometer-sized lengths grow on the surface of SiC substrate, and the biomorphic silicon carbide–mullite ceramics inherit the porous microstructure originated from biomorphic SiC ceramics and beech wood. The mullite whiskers grow on the pores' surface of biomorphic SiC to form cilia-like surface, and this special structure can be used for hot gases filter. - Highlights: • Biomorphic silicon carbide–mullite ceramics were prepared. • An oxidation–dissolution mechanism was proposed to explain the coating formation. • The unique structure has potential application in hot gases filter.

  9. Steady state investigation on neutronics of a molten salt reactor considering the flow effect of fuel salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Da-Lin; QIU Sui-Zheng; LIU Chang-Liang; SU Guang-Hui

    2008-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR),one of the‘Generation Ⅳ'concepts,is a liquid-fuel reactor,which is different from the conventional reactors using solid fissile materials due to the flow effect of fuel salt.The study on its neutronice considering the fuel salt flow,which is the base of the thermal-hydraulic calculation and safety analysis,must be done.In this paper,the theoretical model on neutronics under steady condition for a single-liquid-fueled MSR is conducted and calculated by numerical method.The neutronics model consists of two group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes,and balance equations for six-group delayed neutron precursors considering the flow effect of fuel salt. The spatial discretization of the above models is based on the finite volume method,and the discretization equations are computed by the source iteration method.The distributions of neutron fluxes and the distributions of the delayed neutron precursors in the core are obtained.The numerical calculated results show that,the fuel salt flow has little effect on the distribution of fast and thermal neutron fluxes and the effective multiplication factor;however,it affects the distribution of the delayed neutron precursors significantly,especially the long-lived one.In addition,it could be found that the delayed neutron precursors influence the nentronics slightly under the steady condition.

  10. Physical and chemical feasibility of fueling molten salt reactors with TRU's trifluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, V.; Feinberg, O.; Konakov, S.; Subbotine, S.; Surenkov, A.; Zakirov, R. [Kurchatov Institute, RRC, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The molten salt reactor (MSR) concept is very important for consideration as an element of future nuclear energy systems. These reactor systems are unique in many ways. Particularly, the MSRs appear to have substantial promise not only as advanced TRU free system operating in U-Th cycle, but also as transmuter of TRU. Physical and chemical feasibility of fueling MSR with TRU trifluorides is examined. Solvent compositions with and without U-Th as fissile / fertile addition are considered. The principle reactor and fuel cycle variables available for optimizing the performance of MSR as TRU transmuting system are discussed. These efforts led to the definition in minimal TRU mass flow rate, reduced total losses to waste and maximum possible burn up rate for the molten salt transmuter. The current status of technology and prospects for revisited interest are summarized. Significant chemical problems are remain to be resolved at the end of prior MSRs programs, notably, graphite life durability, tritium control, fate of noble metal fission products. Questions arising from plutonium and minor actinide fueling include: corrosion and container chemistry, new redox buffer for systems without uranium, analytical chemistry instrumentation, adequate constituent solubilities, suitable fuel processing and waste form development. However these problems appear to be soluble. (author)

  11. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Dong, Pei; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results...

  12. Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jr., Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or a fiber-powder mixture.

  13. Electromagnetic process to purify nuclear molten salts

    OpenAIRE

    Mestre Molist, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The separation between actinides and fission products could be realized by a pyrometallurgical liquid/liquid extraction process. Thanks to an oxide-reductive reaction, a mass exchange occurs at the interface between a polluted molten salt layer and a containment loquid metal layer. The aims of this project is to develop the diffusion process which occurs and the thermodynamics process associated to this phenomena. This work consist in two parts: -An experimental prototype industrial type inst...

  14. Development of structural materials to enable the electrochemical reduction of spent oxide nuclear fuel in a molten salt electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the development of the advanced spent fuel management process based on the molten salt technology, it is essential to choose the optimum material for the process equipment handling a molten salt. In this study, corrosion behavior of Fe-base superalloy, Ni-base superalloy, non-metallic material and surface modified superalloy were investigated in the hot molten salt under oxidation atmosphere. These experimental data will suggest a guideline for the selection of corrosion resistant materials and help to find the operation criteria of each equipment in aspects of high temperature characteristics and corrosion retardation

  15. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  16. Renewable energy and the role of molten salts and carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fray D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molten carbonate fuel cells have been under development for a number of years and reliable units are successfully working at 250kW scale and demonstration units have produced up to 2 MW. Although these cells cannot be considered as renewable as the fuel, hydrogen or carbon monoxide is consumed and not regenerated, the excellent reliability of such a cell can act as a stimulus to innovative development of similar cells with different outcomes. Molten salt electrolytes based upon LiCl - Li2O can be used to convert carbon dioxide, either drawn from the output of a conventional thermal power station or from the atmosphere, to carbon monoxide or carbon. Recently, dimensionally stable anodes have been developed for molten salt electrolytes, based upon alkali or alkaline ruthenates which are highly electronically conducting and these may allow the concept of high temperature batteries to be developed in which an alkali or alkaline earth element reacts with air to form oxides when the battery is discharging and the oxide decomposes when the battery is being recharged. Batteries using these concepts may be based upon the Hall-Heroult cell, which is used worldwide for the production of aluminium on an industrial scale, and could be used for load levelling. Lithium ion batteries are, at present, the preferred energy source for cars in 2050 as there are sufficient lithium reserves to satisfy the world’s energy needs for this particular application. Graphite is used in lithium ion batteries as the anode but the capacity is relatively low. Silicon and tin have much higher capacities and the use of these materials, encapsulated in carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles will be described. This paper will review these interesting developments and demonstrate that a combination of carbon and molten salts can offer novel ways of storing energy and converting carbon dioxide into useful products.

  17. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Study for Thermal Molten Salt Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidaud, Adrien; Ivanona, Tatiana; Mastrangelo, Victor; Kodeli, Ivo

    2006-04-01

    The Thermal Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) using the thorium cycle can achieve the GEN IV objectives of economy, safety, non-proliferation and durability. Its low production of higher actinides, coupled with its breeding capabilities - even with a thermal spectrum - are very valuable characteristics for an innovative reactor. Furthermore, the thorium cycle is more flexible than the uranium cycle since only a small fissile inventory (reactor. The potential of these reactors is currently being extensively studied at the CNRS and EdF /1,2/. A simplified chemical reprocessing is envisaged compared to that used for the former Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR). The MSBR concept was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1970's based on the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE). The main goals of our current studies are to achieve a reactor concept that enables breeding, improved safety and having chemical reprocessing needs reduced and simplified as much as reasonably possible. The neutronic properties of the new TMSR concept are presented in this paper. As the temperature coefficient is close to zero, we will see that the moderation ratio cannot be chosen to simultaneously achieve a high breeding ratio, long graphite lifetime and low uranium inventory. It is clear that any safety margin taken due to uncertainty in the nuclear data will significantly reduce the capability of this concept, thus a sensitivity analysis is vital to propose measurements which would allow to reduce at present high uncertainties in the design parameters of this reactor. Two methodologies, one based on OECD/NEA deterministic codes and one on IPPE (Obninsk) stochastic code, are compared for keff sensitivity analysis. The uncertainty analysis of keff using covariance matrices available in evaluated files has been performed. Furthermore, a comparison of temperature coefficient sensitivity profiles is presented for the most important reactions. These results are used to review the

  18. Castable Cement Can Prevent Molten-Salt Corrosion in CSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    NREL's study demonstrated that castable cements on metals are a protective barrier that can prevent permeation of molten salts toward metallic surfaces. The silica-based castable cement Aremco 645-N, when sprayed with boron nitride, can protect containment metallic alloys from attack by molten chlorides at high temperatures (650 degrees C) in short-term tests. Improved thermal energy storage technology could increase the performance of CSP and reduce costs, helping to reach the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative to make solar cost-competitive with other non-renewable sources of electricity by 2020.

  19. On an optimized neutron shielding for an advanced molten salt fast reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molten salt reactor technology has gained renewed interest. In contrast to the historic molten salt reactors, the current projects are based on designing a molten salt fast reactor. Thus the shielding becomes significantly more challenging than in historic concepts. One very interesting and innovative result of the most recent EURATOM project on molten salt reactors – EVOL – is the fluid flow optimized design of the inner core vessel using curved blanket walls. The developed structure leads to a very uniform flow distribution. The design avoids all core internal structures. On the basis of this new geometry a model for neutron physics calculation is presented and applied for a shielding optimization. Based on these results an optimized shielding strategy is developed for the molten salt fast reactor to keep the fluence in the safety related outer vessel below expected limit values. A lifetime of 80 years can be assured, but the size of the core/blanket system has to be significantly increased and will finally be comparable to a sodium cooled fast reactor. The HELIOS results are verified against Monte-Carlo calculations with very satisfactory agreement for a deep penetration problem. (author)

  20. Development of computer code packages for molten salt reactor core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the implementations of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) approach for Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) core analysis with two nuclear reactor core analysis computer code systems. The first code system has been set up with the MCNP6 Monte Carlo code, its depletion module CINDER90 and the PYTHON script language. The second code system has been set up with the NEWT transport calculation module and ORIGEN depletion module connected by TRITON sequence in SCALE code, and the PYTHON script language. The PYTHON script language is used for implementing the online reprocessing of molten-salt fuel, and feeding new fertile material in the computer code simulations. In this paper, simplified nuclear reactor core models of a Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR), designed by ORNL in the 1960's, and FUJI-U3 designed by Toyohashi University of Technology (TUT) in the 2000's, were analyzed by the two code systems. Using these, various reactor design parameters of the MSRs were compared, such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, amount of material, total feeding, neutron flux distribution, and temperature coefficient. (author)

  1. Helium-cooled molten-salt fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new conceptual design for a fusion reactor blanket that is intended to produce fissile material for fission power plants. Fast fission is suppressed by using beryllium instead of uranium to multiply neutrons. Thermal fission is suppressed by minimizing the fissile inventory. The molten-salt breeding medium (LiF + BeF2 + ThF4) is circulated through the blanket and to the on-line processing system where 233U and tritium are continuously removed. Helium cools the blanket and the austenitic steel tubes that contain the molten salt. Austenitic steel was chosen because of its ease of fabrication, adequate radiation-damage lifetime, and low corrosion by molten salt. We estimate that a breeder having 3000 MW of fusion power will produce 6500 kg of 233U per year. This amount is enough to provide makeup for 20 GWe of light-water reactors per year or twice that many high-temperature gas-cooled reactors or Canadian heavy-water reactors. Safety is enhanced because the afterheat is low and blanket materials do not react with air or water. The fusion breeder based on a pre-MARS tandem mirror is estimated to cost $4.9B or 2.35 times a light-water reactor of the same power. The estimated cost of the 233U produced is $40/g for fusion plants costing 2.35 times that of a light-water reactor if utility owned or $16/g if government owned

  2. Fast molten salt reactor-transmuter for closing nuclear fuel cycle on minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creation fast critical molten salt reactor for burning-out minor actinides and separate long-living fission products in the closed nuclear fuel cycle is the most perspective and actual direction. The reactor on melts salts - molten salt homogeneous reactor with the circulating fuel, working as burner and transmuter long-living radioactive nuclides in closed nuclear fuel cycle, can serve as an effective ecological cordon from contamination of the nature long-living radiotoxic nuclides. High-flux fast critical molten-salt nuclear reactors in structure of the closed nuclear fuel cycle of the future nuclear power can effectively burning-out / transmute dangerous long-living radioactive nuclides, make radioisotopes, partially utilize plutonium and produce thermal and electric energy. Such reactor allows solving the problems constraining development of large-scale nuclear power, including fueling, minimization of radioactive waste and non-proliferation. Burning minor actinides in molten salt reactor is capable to facilitate work solid fuel power reactors in system NP with the closed nuclear fuel cycle and to reduce transient losses at processing and fabrications fuel pins. At substantiation MSR-transmuter/burner as solvents fuel nuclides for molten-salt reactors various salts were examined, for example: LiF - BeF2; NaF - LiF - BeF2; NaF-LiF ; NaF-ZrF4 ; LiF-NaF -KF; NaCl. RRC 'Kurchatov institute' together with other employees have developed the basic design reactor installations with molten salt reactor - burner long-living nuclides for fluoride fuel composition with the limited solubility minor actinides (MAF3 10 mol %) allows to develop in some times more effective molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum - burner/ transmuter of the long-living radioactive waste. In high-flux fast reactors on melts salts within a year it is possible to burn ∼300 kg minor actinides per 1 GW thermal power of reactor. The technical and economic estimation given power

  3. Conceptual design of loop-in-tank type Indian molten salt breeder reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third stage of Indian nuclear power programme envisages use of thorium as fertile material with 233U, which is proposed to be obtained from reprocessing of spent fuel of Pu/Th based fast reactors in the later part of the second stage of the programme. In India, thorium based reactors have been designed in many configurations, from light water cooled designs to high temperature liquid metal and molten salt cooled options. Another option, which holds promise, is the molten salt-fuelled reactor, which can be configured to give significant breeding ratios. A crucial part for achieving reasonable breeding in such reactors is the need to reprocess the salt continuously, either online or in batch mode. India has recently started carrying out fundamental studies so as to arrive at a conceptual design of Indian Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (IMSBR). (author)

  4. Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in molten salt reactor miniFUJI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Waris, A., E-mail: awaris@fi.itb.ac.id [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa No. 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in 25MWth and 50MWth of miniFUJI MSR (molten salt reactor) has been carried out. In this study, a very high enriched uranium that we called weapon grade uranium has been employed in UF{sub 4} composition. The {sup 235}U enrichment is 90 - 95 %. The results show that the 25MWth miniFUJI MSR can get its criticality condition for 1.56 %, 1.76%, and 1.96% of UF{sub 4} with {sup 235}U enrichment of at least 93%, 90%, and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the 50 MWth miniFUJI reactor can be critical for 1.96% of UF{sub 4} with {sup 235}U enrichment of at smallest amount 95%. The neutron spectra are almost similar for each power output.

  5. Accelerator molten-salt breeding and thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent efforts at the development of fission energy utilization have not been successful in establishing fully rational technology. A new philosophy should be established on the basis of the following three principles: (1) thorium utilization, (2) molten-salt fuel concept, and (3) separation of fissile-breeding and power-generating functions. Such philosophy is called 'Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetics [THORIMS-NES]'. The present report first addresses the establishment of 233U breeding fuel cycle, focusing on major features of the Breeding and Chemical Processing Centers and a small molten-salt power station (called FUJI-II). The development of fissile producing breeders is discussed in relation to accelerator molten-salt breeder (AMSB), impact fusion molten-salt breeder, and inertial-confined fusion hybrid molten-salt breeder. Features of the accelerator molten-salt breeder are described, focusing on technical problems with accelerator breeders (or spallators), design principle of the accelerator molten-salt breeder, selection of molten salt compositions, and nuclear- and reactor-chemical aspects of AMSB. Discussion is also made of further research and development efforts required in the future for AMSB. (N.K.)

  6. Numerical simulation and experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer of molten salt around fine wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; YuanWei; LI; XiaoLi; LI; Qiang; WU; YuTing; MA; ChongFang

    2013-01-01

    In order to get the natural convection heat transfer mechanism of molten salt, the experimental investigation of natural convective heat transfer of LiNO3was studied after it was simulated by numerical calculation. Experiment was carried out on the nat-ural convection heat transfer of air and water around the fine wire using the method of Joule heating. The results showed that the natural convection heat transfer of air and water around the fine wire agreed well with Fand’s correlation. Based on the aforementioned experiment, the natural convection heat transfer of molten salt LiNO3was studied by experiment and the same results were got. Therefore, the natural convection heat transfer of molten salt can be calculated by Fand’s correlation, which takes into consideration the effect of viscosity dissipation.

  7. PROPAGATING COLLECTIVE EXCITATIONS IN MOLTEN SALTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Bryk

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal as well as transverse dynamics of a molten salt beyond the hydrodynamic region is studied within the generalized collective modes (GCM approach. An analytical three-variable model is applied to the treatment of the coupled long- and short-time charge fluctuations. Dispersion laws of propagating kinetic collective excitations such as optic phonon-like modes, heat and shear waves are obtained and analyzed for the case of molten NaCl within the eight-variable GCM scheme, combining the analytical methods and molecular dynamics simulations.

  8. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Transient simulation of molten salt central receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doupis, Dimitri; Wang, Chuan; Carcorze-Soto, Jorge; Chen, Yen-Ming; Maggi, Andrea; Losito, Matteo; Clark, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing concentrated solar power (CSP) utilizing 60/40wt% NaNO3-KNO3 molten salt as the working fluid in a tower receiver for the global renewable energy market. In the CSP power generation cycle, receivers undergo a daily cyclic operation due to the transient nature of solar energy. Development of robust and efficient start-up and shut-down procedures is critical to avoiding component failures due to mechanical fatigue resulting from thermal transients, thus maintaining the performance and availability of the CSP plant. The Molten Salt Central Receiver (MSCR) is subject to thermal transients during normal daily operation, a cycle that includes warmup, filling, operation, draining, and shutdown. This paper describes a study to leverage dynamic simulation and finite element analysis (FEA) in development of start-up, shutdown, and transient operation concepts for the MSCR. The results of the FEA also verify the robustness of the MSCR design to the thermal transients anticipated during the operation of the plant.

  11. Three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled simulation of MSR in steady state condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianjun; Wang, Chenglong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); An, Hongzhen [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100082 (China); Zhang, Daling, E-mail: dlzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui; Tian, Wenxi; Wu, Yingwei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Developed a three dimensional coupled code for MSR. • Investigated the neutron distribution and thermal-hydraulic characters of the core under steady state condition. • Analyzed the influence of inlet temperature and inlet velocity to thermal-hydraulics characteristics of the reactor. - Abstract: MSR (molten salt reactor) uses liquid molten salt as the coolant and fuel solvent, making it the only liquid reactor among the six generation IV reactor types. As a liquid reactor the physical properties of the reactor are significantly influenced by the fuel salt flow therefore conventional analysis methods applied in solid fuel reactors are not applicable for this type of reactors. The present work developed a three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled code and applied it to investigate the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the core in steady state condition based on neutron diffusion theory and numerical heat transfer. The code consists of two group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes and six group balance equations for delayed neutron precursors. The temperature distribution, neutron fluxes and delayed neutron precursors distribution of the core in steady state conditions was studied, and the result analyzed when inlet temperature and velocity were changed. From simulation it was found that the inlet temperature has little influence to neutron distribution however inlet velocity affects the delayed neutron distribution in steady state condition. The results provide some valuable information in design and research of this kind of reactor.

  12. Three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled simulation of MSR in transient state condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianjun [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xianning Road, 28, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); College of Mechanical and Power Engineering, China Three Gorges University, No 8, Daxue road, Yichang, Hubei 443002 (China); Zhang, Daling, E-mail: dlzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xianning Road, 28, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui; Tian, Wenxi; Wu, Yingwei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xianning Road, 28, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Developed a three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled transient analysis code for MSR. • Investigated the neutron distribution and thermal-hydraulic characters of the core under transient condition. • Analyzed three different transient conditions of inlet temperature drop, reactivity jump and pump coastdown. - Abstract: MSR (molten salt reactor) use liquid molten salt as coolant and fuel solvent, which was the only one liquid reactor of six Generation IV reactor types. As a liquid reactor the physical property of reactor was significantly influenced by fuel salt flow and the conventional analysis methods applied in solid fuel reactors are not applicable for this type of reactors. The present work developed a three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled code investigated the neutronics and thermo-hydraulics characteristics of the core in transient condition based on neutron diffusion theory and numerical heat transfer. The code consists of two group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes and six group balance equations for delayed neutron precursors. The code was separately validated by neutron benchmark and flow and heat transfer benchmark. Three different transient conditions was analyzed with inlet temperature drop, reactivity jump and pump coastdown. The results provide some valuable information in design and research this kind of reactor.

  13. Molten salt reactors and the oil sands: odd couple or key to north american energy independence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear power to aid oil sands development has often been proposed largely due to the virtual elimination of natural gas use and thus a large reduction in GHG emissions. Nuclear power can replace natural gas for process steam production (SAGD) and electricity generation but also potentially for hydrogen production to upgrade bitumen for pipeline transit, synthetic crude production and even at the final refinery stage. Prior candidates included CANDU and gas cooled Pebble Bed Reactors. The case for CANDU use can be shown to be marginally economic with a proven technology but with an uncertainty of current construction costs and too large a unit size (~2400 MWth). PBRs offered modest theoretical cost savings, smaller unit size and the ability to offer higher temperatures needed for thermochemical hydrogen production from water. Interest in PBRs however has greatly waned with the cancellation of their major South African development program which highlighted the severe challenges of helium as a coolant and TRISO fuel manufacturing. More recently, Small Modular Reactors based on scaled down light water reactor technology have attracted interest but are unlikely to compete economically outside of niche applications. However, a 'new' reactor option, the Molten Salt Reactor, has been rapidly gaining momentum over the past decade. This 'new' technology was actually developed over 50 years ago as a thorium breeder reactor to compete with the sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (U-Pu cycle). During this time two molten salt test reactors were constructed. A modern version however would likely be a simpler converter design using Low Enriched Uranium but needing only a small fraction the uranium resources of LWRs or CANDUs. Besides resource sustainability, these unique designs offer large potential improvements in the areas of capital costs, safety and nuclear waste. This presentation will explain the unique attributes and advantages of these

  14. Molten salts database for energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano-López, Roberto; Cuesta-López, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    The growing interest in energy applications of molten salts is justified by several of their properties. Their possibilities of usage as a coolant, heat transfer fluid or heat storage substrate, require thermo-hydrodynamic refined calculations. Many researchers are using simulation techniques, such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for their projects or conceptual designs. The aim of this work is providing a review of basic properties (density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity) of the most common and referred salt mixtures. After checking data, tabulated and graphical outputs are given in order to offer the most suitable available values to be used as input parameters for other calculations or simulations. The reviewed values show a general scattering in characterization, mainly in thermal properties. This disagreement suggests that, in several cases, new studies must be started (and even new measurement techniques should be developed) to obtain accurate values.

  15. Modelisation of the SECMin molten salts environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, M.; Slim, C.; Delpech, S.; di Caprio, D.; Stafiej, J.

    2014-06-01

    We develop a cellular automata modelisation of SECM experiments to study corrosion in molten salt media for generation IV nuclear reactors. The electrodes used in these experiments are cylindrical glass tips with a coaxial metal wire inside. As the result of simulations we obtain the current approach curves of the electrodes with geometries characterized by several values of the ratios of glass to metal area at the tip. We compare these results with predictions of the known analytic expressions, solutions of partial differential equations for flat uniform geometry of the substrate. We present the results for other, more complicated substrate surface geometries e. g. regular saw modulated surface, surface obtained by Eden model process, ...

  16. Development of viscometers for molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viscometers specially designed for molten salts were made. One is a oscillating cup type and the other is a capillary type. In the case of the oscillating cup viscometer, the viscosity is determined absolutely through the period and the logarithmic decrement of oscillation with other physical parameters. The period and the logarithmic decrement are calculated from the time intervals between two photo-detectors' intercepts of the reflected laser beam. The capillary viscometer used is made of quartz and the sample is sealed under vacuum, which is placed in a transparent furnace. Efflux time is measured by direct visual observation. Cell constants are determined with distilled water as a calibrating liquid. Viscosities of molten KCl are measured with each viscometer. The differences between measured and standard values of molten KCl at several temperatures are within 5% for the oscillating cup viscometer and within 3% for the capillary viscometer. (author)

  17. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  18. Electrochemical studies on plutonium in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical studies on plutonium have been supporting the development of pyrochemical processes involving plutonium at CEA. The electrochemical properties of plutonium have been studied in molten salts - ternary eutectic mixture NaCl-KCl-BaCl2, equimolar mixture NaCl-KCl and pure CaCl2 - and in liquid gallium at 1073 K. The formal, or apparent, standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu redox couple in eutectic mixture of NaCl-KCl-BaCl2 at 1073 K determined by potentiometry is equal to -2.56 V (versus Cl2, 1 atm/Cl- reference electrode). In NaCl-KCl eutectic mixture and in pure CaCl2 the formal standard potentials deduced from cyclic voltammetry are respectively -2.54 V and -2.51 V. These potentials led to the calculation of the activity coefficients of Pu(III) in the molten salts. Chronoamperometry on plutonium in liquid gallium using molten chlorides - CaCl2 and equimolar NaCl/KCl - led to the determination of the activity coefficient of Pu in liquid Ga, log γ = -7.3. This new data is a key parameter to assess the thermodynamic feasibility of a process using gallium as solvent metal. By comparing gallium with other solvent metals - cadmium, bismuth, aluminum - gallium appears to be, with aluminum, more favorable for the selectivity of the separation at 1073 K of plutonium from cerium. In fact, compared with a solid tungsten electrode, none of these solvent liquid metals is a real asset for the selectivity of the separation. The role of a solvent liquid metal is mainly to trap the elements

  19. A Novel Modeling of Molten-Salt Heat Storage Systems in Thermal Solar Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Peón Menéndez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many thermal solar power plants use thermal oil as heat transfer fluid, and molten salts as thermal energy storage. Oil absorbs energy from sun light, and transfers it to a water-steam cycle across heat exchangers, to be converted into electric energy by means of a turbogenerator, or to be stored in a thermal energy storage system so that it can be later transferred to the water-steam cycle. The complexity of these thermal solar plants is rather high, as they combine traditional engineering used in power stations (water-steam cycle or petrochemical (oil piping, with the new solar (parabolic trough collector and heat storage (molten salts technologies. With the engineering of these plants being relatively new, regulation of the thermal energy storage system is currently achieved in manual or semiautomatic ways, controlling its variables with proportional-integral-derivative (PID regulators. This makes the overall performance of these plants non optimal. This work focuses on energy storage systems based on molten salt, and defines a complete model of the process. By defining such a model, the ground for future research into optimal control methods will be established. The accuracy of the model will be determined by comparing the results it provides and those measured in the molten-salt heat storage system of an actual power plant.

  20. Control strategies in a thermal oil - Molten salt heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Lidia; Bonilla, Javier; Rodríguez-García, Margarita M.; Palenzuela, Patricia; de la Calle, Alberto; Valenzuela, Loreto

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a preliminary control scheme for a molten salt - thermal oil heat exchanger. This controller regulates the molten salt mass flow rate to reach and maintain the desired thermal oil temperature at the outlet of the heat exchanger. The controller architecture has been tested using an object-oriented heat exchanger model that has been validated with data from a molten salt testing facility located at CIEMAT-PSA. Different simulations are presented with three different goals: i) to analyze the controller response in the presence of disturbances, ii) to demonstrate the benefits of designing a setpoint generator and iii) to show the controller potential against electricity price variations.

  1. Transient analysis of a molten salt central receiver (MSCR) in a solar power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, A.; Wang, C.; Akinjiola, O.; Lou, X.; Neuschaefer, C.; Quinn, J.

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing solar power tower plants utilizing molten salt as the working fluid. In solar power tower, the molten salt central receiver (MSCR) atop of the tower is constructed of banks of tubes arranged in panels creating a heat transfer surface exposed to the solar irradiation from the heliostat field. The molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF), in this case 60/40%wt NaNO3-KNO3, flows in serpentine flow through the surface collecting sensible heat thus raising the HTF temperature from 290°C to 565°C. The hot molten salt is stored and dispatched to produce superheated steam in a steam generator, which in turn produces electricity in the steam turbine generator. The MSCR based power plant with a thermal energy storage system (TESS) is a fully dispatchable renewable power plant with a number of opportunities for operational and economic optimization. This paper presents operation and controls challenges to the MSCR and the overall power plant, and the use of dynamic model computer simulation based transient analyses applied to molten salt based solar thermal power plant. This study presents the evaluation of the current MSCR design, using a dynamic model, with emphasis on severe events affecting critical process response, such as MS temperature deviations, and recommend MSCR control design improvements based on the results. Cloud events are the scope of the transient analysis presented in this paper. The paper presents results from a comparative study to examine impacts or effects on key process variables related to controls and operation of the MSCR plant.

  2. An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattrick Calderoni

    2010-09-01

    Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R&D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part of the

  3. Study of the pyrochemical treatment-recycling process of the Molten Salt Reactor fuel; Estudio de sistema de un proceso de tratamiento-reciclaje piroquimico del combustible de un reactor de sales fundidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussier, H.; Heuer, D.

    2010-07-01

    The Separation Processes Studies Laboratory (Commissariat a l'energie Atomique) has made a preliminary assessment of the reprocessing system associated with Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). The scheme studied in this paper is based on the principle of reductive extraction and metal transfer that constituted the core process designed for the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR), although the flow diagram has been adapted to the current needs of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR).

  4. Boric Ester-Type Molten Salt via Dehydrocoupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyoshi Matsumi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel boric ester-type molten salt was prepared using 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride as a key starting material. After an ion exchange reaction of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with lithium (bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide (LiNTf2, the resulting 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium NTf2 was reacted with 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN to give the desired boric ester-type molten salt in a moderate yield. The structure of the boric ester-type molten salt was supported by 1H-, 13C-, 11B- and 19F-NMR spectra. In the presence of two different kinds of lithium salts, the matrices showed an ionic conductivity in the range of 1.1 × 10−4–1.6 × 10−5 S cm−1 at 51 °C. This was higher than other organoboron molten salts ever reported.

  5. System Requirements Document for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, R.D.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the conversion process is to convert the {sup 233}U fluoride compounds that are being extracted from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) equipment to a stable oxide for long-term storage at Bldg. 3019.

  6. Segregation of Molten Salt on Chromizing in Thermal Diffusion Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongfu; WANG Junyuan; WANG Huachang

    2011-01-01

    The segregation of thermal diffusion salt bath chromizing process was analyzed.The experimental chromizing ingredients were prepared by the four groups A,B,C,and D.In order to study the segregation status of this case,the cooling molten salt in the crucible was removed by drilling from the heart core of molten salt.The core of molten salt was analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and XRD.Through the analysis,we can conclude that the Cr element deposited in the bottom was 4.51 times than the top.Chloride added to the molten salt will reduce segregation.Meantime we proposed some measures to overcome the segregation problem.

  7. Analysis of fluid fuel flow to the neutron kinetics on molten salt reactor FUJI-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro, E-mail: indartaaji@s.itb.ac.id [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Waris, Abdul, E-mail: awaris@fi.itb.ac.id; Permana, Sidik [Nuclear Physics & Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Molten Salt Reactor is a reactor are operating with molten salt fuel flowing. This condition interpret that the neutron kinetics of this reactor is affected by the flow rate of the fuel. This research analyze effect by the alteration velocity of the fuel by MSR type Fuji-12, with fuel composition LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ThF{sub 4}-{sup 233}UF{sub 4} respectively 71.78%-16%-11.86%-0.36%. Calculation process in this study is performed numerically by SOR and finite difference method use C programming language. Data of reactivity, neutron flux, and the macroscopic fission cross section for calculation process obtain from SRAC-CITATION (Standard thermal Reactor Analysis Code) and JENDL-4.0 data library. SRAC system designed and developed by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). This study aims to observe the effect of the velocity of fuel salt to the power generated from neutron precursors at fourth year of reactor operate (last critical condition) with number of multiplication effective; 1.0155.

  8. Analysis of fluid fuel flow to the neutron kinetics on molten salt reactor FUJI-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten Salt Reactor is a reactor are operating with molten salt fuel flowing. This condition interpret that the neutron kinetics of this reactor is affected by the flow rate of the fuel. This research analyze effect by the alteration velocity of the fuel by MSR type Fuji-12, with fuel composition LiF-BeF2-ThF4-233UF4 respectively 71.78%-16%-11.86%-0.36%. Calculation process in this study is performed numerically by SOR and finite difference method use C programming language. Data of reactivity, neutron flux, and the macroscopic fission cross section for calculation process obtain from SRAC-CITATION (Standard thermal Reactor Analysis Code) and JENDL-4.0 data library. SRAC system designed and developed by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). This study aims to observe the effect of the velocity of fuel salt to the power generated from neutron precursors at fourth year of reactor operate (last critical condition) with number of multiplication effective; 1.0155

  9. Development of High-temperature Molten Salt Transport Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Park, G. I.; Park, S. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The pyrochemical process, which has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since 1997, consists of processes such as pretreatment, oxide reduction, electrorefining, electrowinning, and waste salt treatment. In pyroprocessing, high-temperature molten salt transport technologies are required because the molten salt used in an electrorefiner should be transported to next process, the electrowinning process to recover U/TRU/RE after the electrorefining process is finished. However, there have been few transport studies on high temperature molten salt. Therefore, in pyrometallurgical processing, the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology is a crucial prerequisite. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated. In addition, the performance test of the apparatus in the system was then carried out. After the electrorefining process, the molten salt used is transported to an electrowinning system to recover U/TRU/RE, and a high temperature molten salt transfer technology by suction is now being developed. To develop engineering-scale salt transport technology, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed a Ar cell, 2{sup nd} of the PRIDE facility for engineering-scale salt transport demonstration, and its performance was confirmed from blank and performance tests for the PRIDE salt transport system.

  10. Coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and safety characteristics of liquid-fueled molten salt reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Dalin; Liu, Minghao; Liu, Limin; Xu, Rongshuan; Gong, Cheng; Su, Guanghui [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering

    2016-05-15

    Molten salt reactor (MSR) as one candidate of the Generation IV advanced nuclear power systems is attracted more attention in China due to its top ranked fuel cycle and thorium utilization. The MSRs are characterized by using liquid-fuel, which offers complicated coupling problem of neutronics and thermal hydraulics. In this paper, the fundamental model and numerical method are established to calculate and analyze the safety characteristics for liquid-fuel MSRs. The theories and methodologies are applied to the MOSART concept. The liquid-fuel flow effects on neutronics, reactivity coefficients and three operation parameters' influences at steady state are obtained, which provide the basic information for safety analysis. The unprotected loss of flow transient is calculated, the results of which shows the inherent safety characteristics of MOSART due to its strong negative reactivity feedbacks.

  11. Coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and safety characteristics of liquid-fueled molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten salt reactor (MSR) as one candidate of the Generation IV advanced nuclear power systems is attracted more attention in China due to its top ranked fuel cycle and thorium utilization. The MSRs are characterized by using liquid-fuel, which offers complicated coupling problem of neutronics and thermal hydraulics. In this paper, the fundamental model and numerical method are established to calculate and analyze the safety characteristics for liquid-fuel MSRs. The theories and methodologies are applied to the MOSART concept. The liquid-fuel flow effects on neutronics, reactivity coefficients and three operation parameters' influences at steady state are obtained, which provide the basic information for safety analysis. The unprotected loss of flow transient is calculated, the results of which shows the inherent safety characteristics of MOSART due to its strong negative reactivity feedbacks.

  12. 球床型固体燃料熔盐堆计算软件开发%Software Development for Pebble-bed MSR Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄坤; 曹良志; 吴宏春; 郑友琦

    2013-01-01

    Molten salt reactor (MSR ) , the unique liquid fuel reactor in the fourth generation nuclear power system , has great advantages in terms of inherent safety , neutron economy ,nuclear non-proliferation ,nuclear waste transmutation and thorium fuel breeding ,compared with other solid fuel reactors .At present ,there are two main types of molten salt reactor in domestic:Hexagonal assembly MSR and pebble-bed MSR .In this paper , the pebble-bed MSR fuel sphere homogenization method was studied with double heterogeneity characteristics taken into consideration ,and the core fuel management code BORAGE was developed based on SIXTUS 3-D hexagonal node diffusion code . Numerical results suggest that the developed code achieves good accuracy ,efficiency and can be used in MSR steady analytical calculation .%熔盐堆是第四代核能系统中唯一的液体燃料反应堆,在安全性、经济性、核不扩散、核废料嬗变和钍燃料增殖特性方面与其他反应堆相比具有很大的优势。目前国内的熔盐堆主要有两种堆型:液态燃料熔盐堆和球床式固体燃料熔盐堆。本文考虑到球床熔盐堆燃料球的双重非均匀性特点研究了其组件均匀化方法。基于SISXTUS三维六角形节块程序开发了堆芯燃料管理程序BORAGE ,并进行了数值验证。验证结果表明,本文所开发的程序具有很好的精度和效率,可用于熔盐堆稳态计算。

  13. Study of trans-uranian incineration in molten salt reactor; Etude de l'incineration des transuraniens en reacteur a sel fondu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valade, M

    2000-10-27

    With the emergence of new options for nuclear power, molten salt reactors are envisaged for waste management. The aim of this thesis is to show how molten salt reactors can help to solve the transuranics issue. Their high versatility regarding to isotopic vector allows to accommodate large fractions of minor actinides as compared to solid fuel system. In this thesis, a neutronics study of molten salt reactors, MSR, has been conducted. For this purpose, two reference systems were considered, TIER1 and AMSTER. In the case of TIER1, an optimisation was made to reach an equilibrium. The analysis of both systems showed the main characteristics of MSR: their link to chemistry and on line reprocessing. In this work, several methods to drive the system to a state of equilibrium have been implemented and compared. During this process the isotopic composition and neutron spectrum, thus the nuclear reaction cross sections, vary tremendously. It is essential to take these evolutions into account in order to accurately estimate the equilibrium state. This has been accomplished inside the multi-recycling procedure we set with ERANOS. A dedicated calculation schema has been realized to simulate superthermal systems with this computation code. These results were checked through a benchmark against other computer codes. Then, with multi-recycling method, several molten salt systems have been compared in order to define the optimal reactor for transuranics incineration. Nevertheless, a final choice can not only be done using only neutronics characteristics since chemistry and thermal-hydraulics constraints are really important for MSR. Moreover, a complete safety study would be required. (author)

  14. Preparation and characterizations of heat storage material combining porous metal with molten salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 何方; 戴永年; 胡建杭

    2003-01-01

    A new type of heat storage materials combining high temperature molten salts phases change latent heat thermal storage materials, PCM with porous metals sensible heat thermal storage materials was developed. The process was expressed as following: firstly, it is necessary to heat up the molten salts phases change materials to molten; and then the porous metals are put into the molten bath; after being held for 1-3 h, the composite heat thermal storage materials lumps are taken out of the molten bath and cooled to atmospheric temperature; the last step is to electrodeposit a layer metal coat on the surface of the material lumps. The new type of heat storage material integrates the advantages of both solid sensible heat thermal storage materials and high temperature phases change latent heat thermal storage materials. The metal-base heat storage materials enjoy some favorable characteristics such as higher heat charge-discharge rate, higher heat storage density and better mechanical strength.

  15. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    1996-01-01

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

  16. Effects of Stress on Corrosion in a Molten Salt Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdzis, Samuel; Manos, Dennis; Cooke, William

    Molten salt is often used as a heat transfer and energy storage fluid in concentrating solar power plants. Despite its suitable thermal properties, molten salt can present challenges in terms of corrosion. Previous studies have focused extensively on mass loss due to molten salt-induced corrosion. In contrast, we have investigated how corrosion begins and how it changes the surface of stainless steel. Samples of alloys including 304 and 316 stainless steel were exposed to the industry-standard NaNO3-KNO3 (60%-40% by weight) mixture at temperatures over 500°C and then analyzed using Hirox, SEM, and TOF-SIMS. We compare the corrosion at grain boundaries to that within single grain surfaces, showing the effect of the increased internal stresses and the weakened passivation layer. Also, we have examined the enhanced corrosion of samples under mechanical stress, simulating the effects of thermal stresses in a power plant.

  17. Novel Molten Salts Media For Production of Functional Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkacheva Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical-chemical properties of molten salt media based on potassium cryolite with additions of boron or scandium oxides have been considered from the point of view of their feasibility in production of functional materials, such as aluminum alloys. Liquidus temperature in the quasi-binary systems: [KF–AlF3]-B2O3, [KF–AlF3]-Sc2O3, [KF–NaF–AlF3]-B2O3, and [KF–NaF–AlF3]-Sc2O3 has been measured by thermal analysis. Solubility of Al2O3, B2O3, and Sc2O3 in potassium and potassium-sodium cryolites has been determined. The potassium-cryolite-based melts were found to have an enhance protective function due to a low melting point, and an effective refining ability due to a good alumina solubility. It has been assumed that for aluminum alloys production the potassium-cryolite-based melts can be used as fluxes with improved properties as well as electrolytes for low-temperature electrolysis.

  18. LIFE Materails: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R; Brown, N; Caro, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Kaufman, L; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Powers, J; Shaw, H; Turchi, P

    2008-12-11

    The goals of the Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) is to use fusion neutrons to fission materials with no enrichment and minimum processing and have greatly reduced wastes that are not of interest to making weapons. Fusion yields expected to be achieved in NIF a few times per day are called for with a high reliable shot rate of about 15 per second. We have found that the version of LIFE using TRISO fuel discussed in other volumes of this series can be modified by replacing the molten-flibe-cooled TRISO fuel zone with a molten salt in which the same actinides present in the TRISO particles are dissolved in the molten salt. Molten salts have the advantage that they are not subject to radiation damage, and hence overcome the radiation damage effects that may limit the lifetime of solid fuels such as TRISO-containing pebbles. This molten salt is pumped through the LIFE blanket, out to a heat exchanger and back into the blanket. To mitigate corrosion, steel structures in contact with the molten salt would be plated with tungsten or nickel. The salt will be processed during operation to remove certain fission products (volatile and noble and semi-noble fission products), impurities and corrosion products. In this way neutron absorbers (fission products) are removed and neutronics performance of the molten salt is somewhat better than that of the TRISO fuel case owing to the reduced parasitic absorption. In addition, the production of Pu and rare-earth elements (REE) causes these elements to build up in the salt, and leads to a requirement for a process to remove the REE during operation to insure that the solubility of a mixed (Pu,REE)F3 solid solution is not exceeded anywhere in the molten salt system. Removal of the REE will further enhance the neutronics performance. With molten salt fuels, the plant would need to be safeguarded because materials of interest for weapons are produced and could potentially be removed.

  19. Ionic liquids: the link to high-temperature molten salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abedin, Sherif Zein; Endres, Frank

    2007-11-01

    Due to their wide thermal windows, ionic liquids can be regarded as the missing link between aqueous/organic solutions and high-temperature molten salts. They can be employed efficiently for the coating of other metals with thin layers of tantalum, aluminum, and presumably many others at reasonable temperatures by electrochemical means. The development of ionic liquids, especially air and water stable ones, has opened the door for the electrodeposition of reactive elements such as, for example, Al, Ta, and Si, which in the past were only accessible using high-temperature molten salts or, in part, organic solvents. PMID:17521159

  20. Nuclear Hybrid energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Sabharwall, P.; Yoon, S. J.; Bragg-Sitton, S. B.; Stoot, C.

    2014-07-01

    Without growing concerns in reliable energy supply, the next generation in reliable power generation via hybrid energy systems is being developed. A hybrid energy system incorporates multiple energy input source sand multiple energy outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these combined systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilization because stored excess energy is used later to meet peak energy demands. With high thermal energy production the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct thermal properties. This paper discusses the criteria for efficient energy storage and molten salt energy storage system options for hybrid systems. (Author)

  1. Gasification characteristics of organic waste by molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Kimihiko; Minami, Keishi; Yamauchi, Makoto; Morimitsu, Shinsuke; Tanimoto, Kazumi

    Recently, along with the growth in economic development, there has been a dramatic accompanying increase in the amount of sludge and organic waste. The disposal of such is a significant problem. Moreover, there is also an increased in the consumption of electricity along with economic growth. Although new energy development, such as fuel cells, has been promoted to solve the problem of power consumption, there has been little corresponding promotion relating to the disposal of sludge and organic waste. Generally, methane fermentation comprises the primary organic waste fuel used in gasification systems. However, the methane fermentation method takes a long time to obtain the fuel gas, and the quality of the obtained gas is unstable. On the other hand, gasification by molten salt is undesirable because the molten salt in the gasification gas corrodes the piping and turbine blades. Therefore, a gasification system is proposed by which the sludge and organic waste are gasified by molten salt. Moreover, molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are needed to refill the MCFC electrolyte volatilized in the operation. Since the gasification gas is used as an MCFC fuel, MCFC electrolyte can be provided with the fuel gas. This paper elucidates the fundamental characteristics of sludge and organic waste gasification. A crucible filled with the molten salt comprising 62 Li 2CO 3/38 K 2CO 3, is installed in the reaction vessel, and can be set to an arbitrary temperature in a gas atmosphere. In this instance, the gasifying agent gas is CO 2. Sludge or the rice is supplied as organic waste into the molten salt, and is gasified. The chemical composition of the gasification gas is analyzed by a CO/CO 2 meter, a HC meter, and a SO x meter gas chromatography. As a result, although sludge can generate CO and H 2 near the chemical equilibrium value, all of the sulfur in the sludge is not fixed in the molten salt, because the sludge floats on the surface of the carbonate by the specific

  2. A Possible Regenerative, Molten-Salt, Thermoelectric Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jacob; Thaller, Lawrence H.; Weber, Donald E.

    1964-01-01

    Molten or fused salts have been evaluated as possible thermoelectric materials because of the relatively good values of their figures of merit, their chemical stability, their long liquid range, and their ability to operate in conjunction with a nuclear reactor to produce heat. In general, molten salts are electrolytic conductors; therefore, there will be a transport of materials and subsequent decomposition with the passage of an electric current. It is possible nonetheless to overcome this disadvantage by using the decomposition products of the molten-salt electrolyte in a fuel cell. The combination of a thermoelectric converter and a fuel cell would lead to a regenerative system that may be useful.

  3. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  4. Design study of small molten-salt fission power station suitable for coupling with accelerator molten-salt breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design study of /sup 233/U fueled 350 MWth(150MWe) molten-salt fission reactor was proceeded as an example of the economical utility facilities improving excellent inherent safety and easy operation and maintenance as follows (1) no exchange of core graphite resulting a sealed reactor vessel, (2) 99% removal of fission gases only and no continuous chemical processing, (3) very high conversion ratio such as 1.00 (fuel self-sufficient), (4) usefulness for the Trans-U incineration and the non-nuclear proliferation. Its low concentration of /sup 233/UF/sub 4/ will be significant for the symbiotic molten-salt fuel cycle with Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder or the similiars

  5. Castable cements to prevent corrosion of metals in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Vidal, J. C.; Morton, E.

    2016-08-01

    Castable cements on metals form a protective barrier that is able to prevent permeation of molten salts towards metallic surfaces. Silica-based castable cements are capable of protecting containment metallic alloys from the corrosive attack of molten chlorides at temperatures as high as 650 degrees C. Boron nitride (BN) blocking the pores in the cured cement prevents permeation of the molten chloride towards the metal surface. The cements tested are not chemically stable in molten carbonates, because the bonding components dissolved into molten carbonates salt. The corrosion rate is 7.72+/-0.32 mm/year for bare stainless steel 347 in molten eutectic NaCl - 65.58 wt% LiCl at 650 degrees C, which is the baseline used for determining how well the cement protects the metallic surfaces from corrosion. In particular the metal fully encapsulated with Aremco 645-N with pores filled with boron nitride immersed in molten eutectic NaCl - 65.58 wt% LiCl at 650 degrees C shows a corrosion rate of 9E-04 mm/year. The present study gives initial corrosion rates. Long-term tests are required to determine if Aremco 645-N with BN coating on metal has long term chemical stability for blocking salt permeation through coating pores.

  6. Molten salt extraction at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the Rocky Flats Plant which uses dicesium hexachloroplutonate (DCHP) as an oxidant and calcium chloride as a solvent in the molten salt extraction (MSE) of americium from plutonium metal. This process was implemented into production using the following operating parameters: 0.20 salt/metal (g/g) ratio and 2.5 salt/DCHP (g/g). The results from the technology transfer show a 95.6% americium extraction efficiency. On-going research is directed at reducing the amount of DCHP required and minimizing the amount of plutonium metal lost to the salt. A study was performed to profile the neutron and gamma radiation associated with the MSE process. The DCHP MSE process was broken down into fifty steps: the neutron and gamma radiation was measured at each step. Based on the analysis of the radiation profiles, recommendations to reduce the radiation exposure to the operator have been made. These recommendations primarily have focused on the feed metal preparation area and the material handling outside of the glovebox, especially during bag cut operations

  7. An evaluation of possible next-generation high temperature molten-salt power towers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, Gregory J.

    2011-12-01

    Since completion of the Solar Two molten-salt power tower demonstration in 1999, the solar industry has been developing initial commercial-scale projects that are 3 to 14 times larger. Like Solar Two, these initial plants will power subcritical steam-Rankine cycles using molten salt with a temperature of 565 C. The main question explored in this study is whether there is significant economic benefit to develop future molten-salt plants that operate at a higher receiver outlet temperature. Higher temperatures would allow the use of supercritical steam cycles that achieve an improved efficiency relative to today's subcritical cycle ({approx}50% versus {approx}42%). The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of a 565 C subcritical baseline plant was compared with possible future-generation plants that operate at 600 or 650 C. The analysis suggests that {approx}8% reduction in LCOE can be expected by raising salt temperature to 650 C. However, most of that benefit can be achieved by raising the temperature to only 600 C. Several other important insights regarding possible next-generation power towers were also drawn: (1) the evaluation of receiver-tube materials that are capable of higher fluxes and temperatures, (2) suggested plant reliability improvements based on a detailed evaluation of the Solar Two experience, and (3) a thorough evaluation of analysis uncertainties.

  8. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible 238Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na2SO4, Na3PO4 and NaAsO2 or Na3AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the 238Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox

  9. Sorbitol dehydration into isosorbide in a molten salt hydrate medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Spina, A.; Moulijn, J.A.; Makkee, M.

    2013-01-01

    The sorbitol conversion in a molten salt hydrate medium (ZnCl2; 70 wt% in water) was studied. Dehydration is the main reaction, initially 1,4- and 3,6-anhydrosorbitol are the main products that are subsequently converted into isosorbide; two other anhydrohexitols, (1,5- and 2,5-), formed are in less

  10. Conceptual design of a pool type molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renewed interest in molten salt coolant technology is backed by the 50 years history of molten salt nuclear technology development, mainly in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In Indian context MSBR is found to be one of the options for sustainable nuclear energy generation, especially in the third stage of the nuclear programme. The system can be operated at high temperature which makes high efficiency power conversion and efficient hydrogen generation through thermo-chemical reactions possible. At present development is in progress in BARC on two molten salt reactor concepts, one is pool type and the other is loop type. Here the design of pool type concept with 850MWe power is described. The core is designed to operate in the fast spectrum region so the conversion of 233U breeding is possible from thorium. Preliminary thermal hydraulic analysis is carried out with LiF-ThF4-UF4 as the primary fuel and coolant. The blanket material is also a molten salt, LiF-ThF4. Reactor physics calculations are also carried out for the feasibility studies of the core design of the reactor. FLiNaK is used as the secondary coolant for the calculations. Both forced circulation and natural circulation options are evaluated. (author)

  11. Electrowinning Al from Al2S3 in Molten Salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Y.; Van der Plas, D.W.; Bohte, J.; Lans, S.C.; Van Sandwijk, A.; Reuter, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate an alternative process for the production of primary aluminum via a sulfide intermediate, the electrochemical behavior of Al2S3 in molten salt has been studied on a laboratory scale. The effects of electrolyte composition, temperature, and cell design on the cell performance

  12. Simulation of neutron diffusion and transient analysis of MSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten salt reactor (MSR) is a potential nuclear power reactor of Generation IV. The working process of the primary loop of an MSR is studied in this paper. A physical model is established to describe the coupled heat transfer for the MSR core channels, the temperature negative feedback and the neutron characteristics. The simulation code, NDPID, has been developed with the object-oriented method, conducting the neutron diffusion and transient analysis in a parallel way. The simulation data and diagrams of neutron, power, flow rate and temperature can be obtained via graphical user interface. The simulation results can be used for further study on MSRs of larger dimensions and more complicated geometry. (authors)

  13. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  14. Hydrocracking of coal using molten salts as catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, S.; Nomura, M.; Sakashita, H.; Nishimura, M.; Miyake, M.

    1981-10-01

    Characteristics of the reactions during coal liquefaction and the hydrocracking of coal and coal-related materials using ZnCl2-transition metal chloride or ZnCl2-alkaline metal chloride are discussed. The studies involve development of a molten salt catalyst for hydrocracking heavy residual oils or coals, including hydrocarbons containing many heteroatoms. It was found that ZnCl2 shows higher activity for hydrocracking of anthracene and phenanthrene, and experiments with Yubari coal using the binary metal catalysts ZnCl2-MoCl5 and ZnCl2-CrCl3 are described. The use of molten salts in the desulphurization of heavy residual oils is also explored, specifically for the hydrocracking of benziophene, and the possibility that a coal-like polymer structure containing an oxygen surplus might depolymerize above ternary melts is suggested.

  15. Electrodeposition of alloys or compounds in molten salts and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Taxil P.; Chamelot P.; Massot L.; Hamel C.

    2003-01-01

    This article deals with the different modes of preparation of alloys or intermetallic compounds using the electrodeposition in molten salts, more particularly molten alkali fluorides. The interest in this process is to obtain new materials for high technology, particularly the compounds of reactive components such as actinides, rare earth and refractory metals. Two ways of preparation are considered: (i) electrocoating of the more reactive metal on a cathode made of the noble one and reaction...

  16. Optical absorption of dilute solutions of metals in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The F-centre model for the bound state and the first optical transition of an electron in a metal-molten salt solution is examined in the high dilution limit appropriate for comparison with optical absorption data. It is first argued that the model is consistent with recent neutron diffraction and computer simulation data on the structure of pure molten salts, and not incompatible with an Anderson localization model for the electronic conductivity of the solution at higher concentration of metal. A detailed evaluation of the model is presented for the case of a molten salt of equi-sized ions simulating molten KCl. The treatment of the electronic states is patterned after semicontinuum approximations previously applied to the F-centre in ionic crystals, but the equilibrium radius of the electronic cavity and its fluctuations are determined self-consistently from the free energy of the solution. The detailed analysis of this case and the agreement of the results with experiment allow the construction of a simple parametrization scheme, which is then applied to explore the trends of the optical absorption spectrum and of the volume of mixing through the whole family of M-MX solutions, where M is an alkali and X a halogen. Similarities and differences of the electronic bound state in the crystal and in the liquid are underlined. (author)

  17. Advances in electroanalysis, sensing and monitoring in molten salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Damion K; Elliott, Justin P; Blair, Ewen O; Reeves, Simon J; Schmüser, Ilka; Walton, Anthony J; Mount, Andrew R

    2016-08-15

    Microelectrodes have a number of advantages over macroelectrodes for quantitative electroanalysis and monitoring, including reduced iR drop, a high signal-to-noise ratio and reduced sensitivity to convection. Their use in molten salts has been generally precluded by the combined materials challenges of stresses associated with thermal cycling and physical and corrosive chemical degradation at the relatively high temperatures involved. We have shown that microfabrication, employing high precision photolithographic patterning in combination with the controlled deposition of materials, can be used to successfully address these challenges. The resulting molten salt compatible microelectrodes (MSMs) enable prolonged quantitative microelectrode measurements in molten salts (MSs). This paper reports the fabrication of novel MSM disc electrodes, chosen because they have an established ambient analytical response. It includes a detailed set of electrochemical characterisation studies which demonstrate both their enhanced capability over macroelectrodes and over commercial glass pulled microelectrodes, and their ability to extract quantitative electroanalytical information from MS systems. MSM measurements are then used to demonstrate their potential for shedding new light on the fundamental properties of, and processes in, MSs, such as mass transport, charge transfer reaction rates and the selective plating/stripping and alloying reactions of liquid Bi and other metals; this will underpin the development of enhanced MS industrial processes, including pyrochemical spent nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  18. Molten salt processing of mixed wastes with offgas condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing an advanced process for treatment of mixed wastes in molten salt media at temperatures of 700--1000 degrees C. Waste destruction has been demonstrated in a single stage oxidation process, with destruction efficiencies above 99.9999% for many waste categories. The molten salt provides a heat transfer medium, prevents thermal surges, and functions as an in situ scrubber to transform the acid-gas forming components of the waste into neutral salts and immobilizes potentially fugitive materials by a combination of particle wetting, encapsulation and chemical dissolution and solvation. Because the offgas is collected and assayed before release, and wastes containing toxic and radioactive materials are treated while immobilized in a condensed phase, the process avoids the problems sometimes associated with incineration processes. We are studying a potentially improved modification of this process, which treats oxidizable wastes in two stages: pyrolysis followed by catalyzed molten salt oxidation of the pyrolysis gases at ca. 700 degrees C. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. Molten Salts for High Temperature Reactors: University of Wisconsin Molten Salt Corrosion and Flow Loop Experiments -- Issues Identified and Path Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Matt Ebner; Manohar Sohal; Phil Sharpe; Thermal Hydraulics Group

    2010-03-01

    Considerable amount of work is going on regarding the development of high temperature liquid salts technology to meet future process needs of Next Generation Nuclear Plant. This report identifies the important characteristics and concerns of high temperature molten salts (with lesson learned at University of Wisconsin-Madison, Molten Salt Program) and provides some possible recommendation for future work

  20. Thermo-mechanical and optical optimization of the molten salt receiver for a given heliostat field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augsburger, Germain; Das, Apurba K.; Boschek, Erik; Clark, Michael M.

    2016-05-01

    The tower type molten salt solar thermal power plant has proven to be advantageous over other utility scale solar power plant configurations due to its scalability and provision of storage, thereby improving the dispatchability. The configuration consists of a molten salt central receiver (MSCR) located atop an optimally located tower within a heliostat field with thousands of mirrors. The MSCR receives the concentrated energy from the heliostat field which heats a molten salt heat transfer fluid for thermal storage and utilization in producing steam as and when required for power generation. The MSCR heat transfer surface consists of banks of tangent tubes arranged in panels. The combined cost of the heliostat field and the receiver is 40%-50% of the total plant cost, which calls for optimization to maximize their utilization. Several previous studies have looked into the optimum solar power plant size based on various site conditions. However, the combined optimization of the receiver and the heliostat field has not been reported before. This study looks into the optimum configuration of the receiver for a given heliostat field. An in-house tool has been developed to select and rank a few receiver surface configurations (typically <50) from a list of hundreds of thousands of possible options. The operating limits which the heliostat field needs to obey are defined for the ranked surface configurations based on several different design considerations (e.g. mechanical integrity, corrosion limits). The thermal output of the receiver configurations for a given heliostat field is maximized. A combined rank indicating the optimum configurations in descending order of preference is presented based on the performance and various other practical considerations (e.g. total surface area, cost of material, ability of aiming strategies to distribute the flux). The methodology thus provided can be used as a guideline to arrive at an optimum receiver configuration for a given

  1. Thorium cycle and molten salt reactors: field parameters and field constraints investigations toward 'thorium molten salt reactor' definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Producing nuclear energy in order to reduce the anthropic CO2 emission requires major technological advances. Nuclear plants of 4. generation have to respond to several constraints, as safety improvements, fuel breeding and radioactive waste minimization. For this purpose, it seems promising to use Thorium Cycle in Molten Salt Reactors. Studies on this domain have already been carried out. However, the final concept suffered from serious issues and was discontinued. A new reflection on this topic is being led in order to find acceptable solutions, and to design the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor concept. A nuclear reactor is simulated by the coupling of a neutron transport code with a materials evolution code. This allows us to reproduce the reactor behavior and its evolution all along its operation. Thanks to this method, we have studied a large number of reactor configurations. We have evaluated their efficiency through a group of constraints they have to satisfy. This work leads us to a better understanding of many physical phenomena controlling the reactor behavior. As a consequence, several efficient configurations have been discovered, allowing the emergence of new points of view in the research of Molten Salt Reactors. (author)

  2. Recent Research of Thorium Molten-Salt Reactor from a Sustainability Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kamei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important target of the concept “sustainability” is to achieve fairness between generations. Its expanding interpolation leads to achieve fairness within a generation. Thus, it is necessary to discuss the role of nuclear power from the viewpoint of this definition. The history of nuclear power has been the control of the nuclear fission reaction. Once this is obtained, then the economy of the system is required. On the other hand, it is also necessary to consider the internalization of the external diseconomy to avoid damage to human society caused by the economic activity itself, due to its limited capacity. An extreme example is waste. Thus, reducing radioactive waste resulting from nuclear power is essential. Nuclear non-proliferation must be guaranteed. Moreover, the FUKUSHIMA accident revealed that it is still not enough that human beings control nuclear reaction. Further, the most essential issue for sustaining use of one technology is human resources in manufacturing, operation, policy-making and education. Nuclear power will be able to satisfy the requirements of sustainability only when these subjects are addressed. The author will review recent activities of a thorium molten-salt reactor (MSR as a cornerstone for a sustainable society and describe its objectives and forecasts.

  3. Degradation of organochloride pesticides by molten salt oxidation at IPEN: spin-off nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear spin-off has at least two dimensions. It may provide benefits to the society such as enlarge knowledge base, strengthen infrastructure and benefit technology development. Besides this, to emphasize that some useful technologies elapsed from nuclear activities can affect favorably the public opinion about nuclear energy. In this paper is described a technology developed initially by the Rockwell Int. company in the USA more than thirty years ago to solve some problems of nuclear fuel cycle wastes. For different reasons the technology was not employed. In the last years the interest in the technology was renewed and IPEN has developed his version of the method applicable mainly to the safe degradation of hazardous wastes. This study was motivated by the world interest in the development of advanced processes of waste decomposition, due to the need of safer decomposition processes, particularly for the POPs - persistent organic pollutants and particularly for the organ chlorides. A tendency observed at several countries is the adoption of progressively more demanding legislation for the atmospheric emissions, resultants of the waste decomposition processes. The suitable final disposal of hazardous organic wastes such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), pesticides, herbicides and hospital residues constitutes a serious problem. In some point of their life cycles, these wastes should be destroyed, in reason of the risk that they represent for the human being, animals and plants. The process involves using a chemical reactor containing molten salts, sodium carbonate or some alkaline carbonates mixtures to decompose the organic waste. The decomposition is performed by submerged oxidation and the residue is injected below the surface of a turbulent salt bath along with the oxidizing agent. Decomposition of halogenated compounds, among which some pesticides, is particularly effective in molten salts. The process presents properties such as intrinsically safe

  4. 2 MW液态钍基熔盐实验堆主屏蔽温度场分析%Temperature field analysis for the main shielding of the 2-MW thorium-based molten salt experimental reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何杰; 夏晓彬; 蔡军; 潘登; 彭玉; 黄建平; 张国庆

    2016-01-01

    Background:Molten salt reactor is a fourth generation advanced reactor. The concrete wall is the key part of this high-temperature reactor shielding, so temperature field analysis is important. Purpose: This study attempts to calculate the temperature field of the TMSR-LF1 (2-MW liquid-fueled molten salt experimental reactor) shielding, and judge if it meets the design requirements. Methods: In accordance with the problem that MCNP (Monte Carlo N Particle Transport Code) results cannot be directly imported into Fluent, a program which converts MCNP results to the spatial distribution of power density, and imports the spatial distribution of power density into the Fluent in the form of User-Defined Function (UDF) was developed by using Python programming language to realize the coupling of the two. According to TMSR-LF1 design parameters, a one-eight physical and thermal model of the whole reactor is established, using code MCNP and Fluent. Reactor radiation shielding thermal analysis adopts the assumptions that the different environment temperatures are 5°C, 18°C, 25°C, 30°C, 35°C and 40°C, respectively.Results: The maximal values of temperature and temperature gradient in the radiation shielding concrete wall are 67.42 °C and 78.40 °C·m?1, which are lower than limit values.Conclusion: The radiation shielding concrete wall can meet the design requirements.%反应堆主屏蔽是核反应堆的重要组成部分,用来有效降低反应堆运行时屏蔽体外的辐射剂量水平,以满足反应堆部件材料对辐射限制的要求.温度是影响反应堆主屏蔽性能的重要因素.针对2 MWth液态熔盐堆(2-MW liquid-fueled molten salt experimental reactor,TMSR-LF1),采用MCNP软件获得功率分布后,利用Fluent软件对主屏蔽进行温度场计算.计算过程中利用Python语言编写了程序(MCNP to Fluent,MTF)来实现将MCNP(Monte Carlo N Particle Transport Code)计算结果转换为功率密度的空间分布,

  5. Implementation of Molten Salt Properties into RELAP5-3D/ATHENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cliff Davis

    2005-01-01

    Molten salts are being considered as coolants for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) in both the reactor and the heat transport loop between the reactor and the hydrogen production plant because of their superior thermophysical properties compared to helium. Because specific molten salts have not been selected for either application, four separate molten salts were implemented into the RELAP5-3D/ATHENA computer program as working fluids. The implemented salts were LiF-BeF2 in a molar mixture that is 66% LiF and 34% BeF2, respectively, NaBF4-NaF (92% and 8%), LiF-NaF-KF (11.5%, 46.5%, and 42%), and NaF-ZrF4 (50% and 50%). LiF-BeF2 is currently the first choice for the primary coolant for the Advanced High- Temperature Reactor, while NaF-ZrF4 is being considered as an alternate. NaBF4-NaF and LiFNaF- KF are being considered as possible coolants for the heat transport loop. The molten salts were implemented into ATHENA using a simplified equation of state based on data and correlations obtained from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The simplified equation of state assumes that the liquid density is a function of temperature and pressure and that the liquid heat capacity is constant. The vapor is assumed to have the same composition as the liquid and is assumed to be a perfect gas. The implementation of the thermodynamic properties into ATHENA for LiF-BeF2 was verified by comparisons with results from a detailed equation of state that utilized a soft-sphere model. The comparisons between the simplified and soft-sphere models were in reasonable agreement for liquid. The agreement for vapor properties was not nearly as good as that obtained for liquid. Large uncertainties are possible in the vapor properties because of a lack of experimental data. The simplified model used here is not expected to be accurate for boiling or single-phase vapor conditions. Because neither condition is expected during NGNP applications, the simplified equation of state is considered

  6. Technical review of Molten Salt Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process was reviewed for destruction of mixed low-level radioactive waste. Results: extensive development work and scaleup has been documented on coal gasification and hazardous waste which forms a strong experience base for this MSO process; it is clearly applicable to DOE wastes such as organic liquids and low-ash wastes. It also has potential for processing difficult-to-treat wastes such as nuclear grade graphite and TBP, and it may be suitable for other problem waste streams such as sodium metal. MSO operating systems may be constructed in relatively small units for small quantity generators. Public perceptions could be favorable if acceptable performance data are presented fairly; MSO will likely require compliance with regulations for incineration. Use of MSO for offgas treatment may be complicated by salt carryover. Figs, tabs, refs

  7. Synthesis and characterization of silicide coating on niobium alloy produced using molten salt method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nb based alloys are promising structural materials for high temperature reactors due to their strength at higher temperatures. However Nb based alloys undergoes substantial oxidation at high temperatures. In order to improve its oxidation resistance property at high temperatures (>400 °C) a protective layer must be provided to avoid direct contact of the component to atmospheric oxygen. In the present work, attempts have been made to obtain silicide coatings on Nb alloy using molten salt method. In this method, deposition of silicon is a multistep process. Metallic Si produced by the subsequent reactions in the molten salt diffuses and an oxidation resistant silicide coating forms on the surface of substrate. To study the variation in the thickness of coated layer on the Nb alloy, experiments were carried out at different temperature and time periods. These silicide coated samples were characterized using optical, SEM and XRD techniques. Based on these results mechanism of silicide coating on Nb alloys has been discussed in detail. (author)

  8. Advances toward industrialization of novel molten salt electrochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Nishikiori, Tokujiro; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-15

    We have invented various novel molten salt electrochemical processes, that can be put to practical use in the fields of energy and materials. These processes are promising from both technological and commercial viewpoints, and they are currently under development for industrial application. To showcase current developments in work toward industrialization, we focus here on three of these processes: (1) electrolytic synthesis of ammonia from water and nitrogen under atmospheric pressure, (2) electrochemical formation of carbon film, and (3) plasma-induced discharge electrolysis to produce nanoparticles. PMID:27265244

  9. Searching for an idealistic nuclear energy system. The thorium molten-salt nuclear energy synergetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solar-based energy should become a global major one at the end of this century. The intermediate between fossil and solar energies has to be filled by the fission energy. For the decisive improvement of its safety, radioactive-waste and plutonium issues, the Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System should be established by the use of fluid-fuel of 7LiF-BeF2-based molten fluoride salt, as a triple functional medium for nuclear-reaction, heat-transfer and chemical-process without radiation-damage. This system is composed of simple and economical fuel-self-sustaining small power reactors and Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeders for spallation breeding. The economical extinction of radioactive-wastes will be achieved by using excess fuel (neutron) at the phase-out period of this system near the end of this century. This technology will be essential for solving global environmental and poverty issues and for the complete abolition of nuclear weapons. (author)

  10. Nuclear analysis and optimization of the molten-salt fusion hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved method of studying the neutronic characteristics of fusion hybrid reactor blankets has been developed. Two major improvements over previous analysis methods have been accomplished. The first of these improvements is the introduction of one-dimensional, homogenized-region blanket neutronic models in which resonance and spatial self-shielding effects are treated explicitly. The second improvement involves the application of an iterative gradient-ascent based optimization scheme. In this method, key blanket dimensions and concentrations are automatically varied in a search for a configuration which maximizes neutronic performance. The specific fusion hybrid blanket design to which these new methods of analysis are applied in an evolution of the U-233 producing molten-salt-in-tubes concept studied by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Optimistic analysis techniques initially predicted the fissile fuel production capacity of this blanket to be 6400 kg of U-233 per year when driven by a 3000 MW tandem mirror fusion driver. The improved and more realistic analysis techniques employed in this study predict that an optimized molten-salt blanket design will produce over 6700 kg of U-233 per year when driven by the same tandem mirror device. Finally, the techniques and data base developed in this study have been designed to be easily extended to the task of performing future, more extensive analysis. Such an analysis might involve the minimization of fuel costs in an entire fusion hybrid reactor complex. 20 refs., 10 figs., 14 tabs

  11. Preliminary analysis of Th-U conversion performance in a ZrH-moderated molten salt reactor%氢化锆慢化熔盐堆钍铀转换性能初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴攀; 蔡翔舟; 余呈刚; 陈金根; 徐刚

    2016-01-01

    中子能谱对钍基燃料在熔盐堆中的利用效率及温度反馈系数等安全问题有较大影响,所以对熔盐堆新型慢化剂的研究具有重要意义。本工作基于 SCALE6计算程序,对不同几何栅元结构的氢化锆栅元组件在熔盐堆的物理性能进行了研究,分别计算了中子能谱、钍铀转换比、233U 浓度、总温度反馈系数以及燃耗等中子物理参量。结果表明,减小六边形栅元对边距或者增加熔盐占栅元体积比可以增加钍铀转换比和改善温度反应性系数;当加入的氢化锆慢化剂体积份额为0.1时就可以将熔盐堆233U初始浓度降低到2.5×10−2以内;氢化锆慢化熔盐堆在超热谱条件下,其233U初装载量和超铀核素产量较小,同时堆芯较为紧凑。%Background: The neutron spectrum plays an important role in thorium-based fuel utilization efficiency and temperature feedback coefficient concerning reactor operation safety, so it is very important to study the new moderator material used in molten salt reactor (MSR).Purpose: This study aims to analyze thethorium-uranium conversion performance of a ZrH-moderated molten salt reactor and analyze the feasibility of ZrH as moderator in molten salt reactor.Methods: SCALE program is used to calculate neutron spectrum, thorium uranium conversion ratio,233U concentration, total temperature feedback coefficient and burnup calculation with different lattice parameters.Results: The thorium uranium conversion ratio and total temperature feedback coefficient can be improved significantly by reducing lattice size or increasing salt volume ratio; the initial233U concentration for start reactor can be easily controlled under 2.5×10−2 when the volume share of added ZrH is 0.1.Conclusion:Compared to the graphite-moderated MSR, ZrH-moderated MSR reduces initial233U inventory and transuraniums (TRUs) production, and makes its core more compact.

  12. Molten Salt Power Tower Cost Model for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2013-02-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for molten-salt power tower solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), using data from several prior studies, including a contracted analysis from WorleyParsons Group, which is included herein as an Appendix. The WorleyParsons' analysis also estimated material composition and mass for the plant to facilitate a life cycle analysis of the molten salt power tower technology. Details of the life cycle assessment have been published elsewhere. The cost model provides a reference plant that interfaces with NREL's System Advisor Model or SAM. The reference plant assumes a nominal 100-MWe (net) power tower running with a nitrate salt heat transfer fluid (HTF). Thermal energy storage is provided by direct storage of the HTF in a two-tank system. The design assumes dry-cooling. The model includes a spreadsheet that interfaces with SAM via the Excel Exchange option in SAM. The spreadsheet allows users to estimate the costs of different-size plants and to take into account changes in commodity prices. This report and the accompanying Excel spreadsheet can be downloaded at https://sam.nrel.gov/cost.

  13. Thermal energy storage heat exchanger: Molten salt heat exchanger design for utility power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferarra, A.; Yenetchi, G.; Haslett, R.; Kosson, R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of thermal energy storage (TES) in the latent heat of molten salts as a means of conserving fossil fuels and lowering the cost of electric power was evaluated. Public utility systems provided electric power on demand. This demand is generally maximum during late weekday afternoons, with considerably lower overnight and weekend loads. Typically, the average demand is only 60% to 80% of peak load. As peak load increases, the present practice is to purchase power from other grid facilities or to bring older less efficient fossil-fuel plants on line which increase the cost of electric power. The widespread use of oil-fired boilers, gas turbine and diesel equipment to meet peaking loads depletes our oil-based energy resources. Heat exchangers utilizing molten salts can be used to level the energy consumption curve. The study begins with a demand analysis and the consideration of several existing modern fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants for use as models. Salts are evaluated for thermodynamic, economic, corrosive, and safety characteristics. Heat exchanger concepts are explored and heat exchanger designs are conceived. Finally, the economics of TES conversions in existing plants and new construction is analyzed. The study concluded that TES is feasible in electric power generation. Substantial data are presented for TES design, and reference material for further investigation of techniques is included.

  14. Determination and evaluation of the thermophysical properties of an alkali carbonate eutectic molten salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xuehui; Cheng, Jinhui; Zhang, Peng; Tang, Zhongfeng; Wang, Jianqiang

    2016-08-15

    The thermal physical properties of Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 eutectic molten salt were comprehensively investigated. It was found that the liquid salt can remain stable up to 658 °C (the onset temperature of decomposition) by thermal analysis, and so the investigations on its thermal physical parameters were undertaken from room temperature to 658 °C. The density was determined using a self-developed device, with an uncertainty of ±0.00712 g cm(-3). A cooling curve was obtained from the instrument, giving the liquidus temperature. For the first time, we report the obtainment of the thermal diffusivity using a laser flash method based on a special crucible design and establishment of a specific sample preparation method. Furthermore, the specific heat capacity was also obtained by use of DSC, and combined with thermal diffusivity and density, was used to calculate the thermal conductivity. We additionally built a rotating viscometer with high precision in order to determine the molten salt viscosity. All of these parameters play an important part in the energy storage and transfer calculation and safety evaluation for a system. PMID:27203821

  15. Thermodynamic analysis on the direct preparation of metallic vanadium from NaVO3 by molten salt electrolysis☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Weng; Mingyong Wang; Xuzhong Gong; Zhi Wang; Zhancheng Guo

    2016-01-01

    A novel and environmentally friendly route to directly prepare metallic vanadium from NaVO3 by molten salt electrolysis is proposed. The feasibility about the direct electro-reduction of NaVO3 to metallic vanadi-um is analyzed based on the thermodynamic calculations and experimental verifications. The theoretical decomposition voltage of NaVO3 to metallic vanadium is only 0.47 V at 800 °C and much lower than that of the alkali and alkali earth metal chloride salts. The value is slightly higher than that of low-valence vanadium oxides such as V2O3, V3O5 and VO. However, the low-valence vanadium oxides can be further electro-reduced to metallic vanadium thermodynamically. The thermodynamic analysis is verified by the experimental results. The direct preparation of metallic vanadium from NaVO3 by molten salt electrolysis is feasible.

  16. A three-dimensional simulation of a parabolic trough solar collector system using molten salt as heat transfer fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations on the thermal physics mechanisms of the parabolic trough collector systems (PTCs) play a vital role in the utilization of solar energy. In this paper, a three-dimensional simulation based on Finite Element Method (FVM) is established to solve the complex problem coupling with radiation, heat conduction and convection in the PTCs. The performances of the PTCs using molten salt as the heat transfer fluid were numerically studied, and the influences of the key operating parameters on the PTCs were investigated. As a result, it can be found that the circumferential temperature difference (CTD) of the absorber increases with the rising of the direct normal irradiance (DNI) and decreases with the increase of heat transfer fluid (HTF) inlet temperature and inlet velocity. With the velocity of the molten salt in the range of 1 m/s–4 m/s, the DNIs of 500 W/m2–1250 W/m2 and the inlet temperature of 623 K–825 K, the CTD of the absorber can reach 12 K–42 K. Furthermore, the numerical results indicate the non-uniform distribution of the solar energy flux affects the CTD of receiver while has a little influence on the thermal efficiency. The promising results will provide a reference for the design of the novel parabolic trough solar collectors. - Highlights: • A coupled three-dimensional simulation is established. • The performance of the PTCs with molten salt as HTF was obtained. • The effects of key parameters on the PTCs with molten salt were achieved. • The coupling characteristics of thermal and fluid of the receiver were disclosed

  17. Effects of Different Molten-salt on the Synthesis of Hexagonal Barium Ferrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing-ping; LIU Ying; HU Min; ZHANG Mi-lin

    2006-01-01

    Hexagonal-plate BaFe12O19 nano-particles were prepared by combining the co-precipitation and molten-salt method. The effects of molten-salt NaCl on the products have been compared with those of KCl. The X-ray diffraction analysis,the environment scanning electron microscopy and the vibrating sample magnetometer were used to measure their characteristics. The results show that the molten-salt KCl is helpful to obtain pure phase while the molten-salt NaCl will prompt the crystallinity of particles to increase. It is also found that, given the molten-salt of NaCl and that of KCl of the same quantity, the particles formed are also the same size. The size of particles slightly increases as the quantity of the salt increases. Moreover, the sample prepared under 200% NaCl salt system has magnetization of 71.5 emu/g.

  18. Molten salt destruction of rubber and chlorinated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acceptable methods for the treatment of mixed wastes are not currently available. The authors have investigated Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) as an alternative to incineration of mixed wastes. MSD differs from incineration in several ways: there is no evidence of open flames in MSD, the containment of actinides is accomplished by chemical means (wetting and dissolution), the operating temperature of MSD is much lower (700--590 C vs 1,000--1,200 C) thus lowering the volatility of actinides. Furthermore, no acid gases are released from MSD. These advantages provide the main incentive for developing MSD as an alternative to incineration. The authors have demonstrated the viability of the MSD process to cleanly destroy rubber and chlorinated solvents

  19. Electrodeposition of alloys or compounds in molten salts and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taxil P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the different modes of preparation of alloys or intermetallic compounds using the electrodeposition in molten salts, more particularly molten alkali fluorides. The interest in this process is to obtain new materials for high technology, particularly the compounds of reactive components such as actinides, rare earth and refractory metals. Two ways of preparation are considered: (i electrocoating of the more reactive metal on a cathode made of the noble one and reaction between the two metals in contact, and (ii electrocoating on an inert cathode of the intermetallic compound by coreduction of the ions of each elements. The kinetic is controlled by the reaction at the electrolyte interface. A wide bibliographic survey on the preparation of various compounds (intermetallic compounds, borides, carbides… is given and a special attention is paid to the own experience of the authors in the preparation of these compounds and interpretation of their results.

  20. Heats of Mixing in Binary Systems of Molten Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heat of mixing is an important thermodynamic property in binary mixtures. As a result of the recent development of high-temperature calorimetry we have been able to determine directly the heat of mixing in binary systems of molten salts. In this work we present the results of thermochemical measurements carried out in our laboratories for the systems (Rb-K)Cl; (Rb-Na)Cl; (Ag-Na)Cl; (Na-K)Br and(Br-Cl)Na for different concentrations and temperatures. In our view, the most significant components of the heat of mixing are the ionic contribution and the polarization energy of the ions. Consequently, use could be made of a relation of the form: ΔHM = Qi - Qp. The heat of mixing can then have either positive or negative values depending on the sign and the preponderance of the Qi and Qp energies. (author)

  1. Electrochemical Synthesis of Niobium-Hafnium Coatings in Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Sergey A.; Kuznetsova, Svetlana V.

    2007-08-01

    Graphite is widely used in technology because of its unique properties. A drawback of graphite is its low heat resistance in oxidizing atmospheres. To increase its heat resistance, Nb-Hf protective coatings were synthesized. Electrodeposition of niobium coatings on graphite with subsequent precise surface alloying of niobium with hafnium was studied. Electrochemical synthesis of Nb-Hf coatings from molten salt systems containing compounds of niobium and hafnium was used too. It was shown that Nb-Hf coatings with a planar growing front can be obtained if the concentration and therefore the limiting current density of the more electropositive component Nb is kept low. Nb-Hf coatings with a thickness of 20 - 30 μm have been obtained in this way from an NaCl-KCl-K2NbF7 (1 wt%)-K2HfF6 (10 wt%)-NaF (5 wt%) melt, above the limiting current density of niobium deposition.

  2. Quantitative analysis of cesium in synthetic lithium molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical technique for fission products in lithium molten salts of spent PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) fuels has been studied for the establishment of optimum chemical engineering process and the evaluation of process material balance in developing Direct Oxide Reduction Process with lithium metal. As part of the basic research, synthetic dissolver solutions of lithium chloride containing trace amounts of fission product elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Y, Cs, Ru, Rh, Pd, Mo, Zr, Cd, Ba, Sr, Te and Se) was prepared and used in establishing the selective separation technique of cesium from lithium chloride matrix using cation exchange chromatography. Its recovery was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and the reliability of this technique was evaluate

  3. Electrodeposition of aluminum on aluminum surface from molten salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenmao HUANG; Xiangyu XIA; Bin LIU; Yu LIU; Haowei WANG; Naiheng MA

    2011-01-01

    The surface morphology,microstructure and composition of the aluminum coating of the electrodeposition plates in AlC13-NaC1-KC1 molten salt with a mass ratio of 8:1:1 were investigated by SEM and EDS.The binding force was measured by splat-cooling method and bending method.The results indicate that the coatings with average thicknesses of 12 and 9 μm for both plates treated by simple grinding and phosphating are compacted,continuous and well adhered respectively. Tetramethylammonium chloride (TMAC) can effectively prevent the growth of dendritic crystal,and the anode activation may improve the adhesion of the coating. Binding force analysis shows that both aluminum coatings are strongly adhered to the substrates.

  4. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System: Molten Salt Energy Storage (Summer Report 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Michael George mckellar; Su-Jong Yoon

    2013-11-01

    Effective energy use is a main focus and concern in the world today because of the growing demand for energy. The nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) is a valuable technical concept that can potentially diversify and leverage existing energy technologies. This report considers a particular NHES design that combines multiple energy systems including a nuclear reactor, energy storage system (ESS), variable renewable generator (VRG), and additional process heat applications. Energy storage is an essential component of this particular NHES because its design allows the system to produce peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant power output. Many energy storage options are available, but this study mainly focuses on a molten salt ESS. The primary purpose of the molten salt ESS is to enable the nuclear reactor to be a purely constant heat source by acting as a heat storage component for the reactor during times of low demand, and providing additional capacity for thermo-electric power generation during times of peak electricity demand. This report will describe the rationale behind using a molten salt ESS and identify an efficient molten salt ESS configuration that may be used in load following power applications. Several criteria are considered for effective energy storage and are used to identify the most effective ESS within the NHES. Different types of energy storage are briefly described with their advantages and disadvantages. The general analysis to determine the most efficient molten salt ESS involves two parts: thermodynamic, in which energetic and exergetic efficiencies are considered; and economic. Within the molten salt ESS, the two-part analysis covers three major system elements: molten salt ESS designs (two tank direct and thermocline), the molten salt choice, and the different power cycles coupled with the molten salt ESS. Analysis models are formulated and analyzed to determine the most effective ESS. The results show that the most

  5. Corrosion behaviour of Ti3SiC2 with LiF-NaF-KF molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Recently, the molten salt reactor (MSR), a generation IV fission reactor candidate, has drawn much attention because of its intrinsic safety. However, the harsh service environment of the MSR, especially the corrosion environment, raises many challenges in terms of applying structural materials, such as intergranular cracking and embrittlement. MAX phases materials are promising structural materials that can be used in MSRs. However, the corrosion behaviour of these materials in molten LiF-NaF-KF (FLiNaK) is yet to be evaluated. Purpose: The present work is a preliminary investigation of the corrosion behaviour of MAX phase materials in molten fluoride salts and aims to understand the corrosion mechanism of MAX phases to enable their application in next generation MSR. Methods: We choose two common MAX phases: Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 as experiment subject. The corrosion tests were performed at 850℃ for 144 h in airtight graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Results and Conclusion: The corrosion of these two MAX phases in molten FLiNaK salt mainly showed as the corrosion of element A and then left us mostly cubic TiCx. The difference was that Ti3AlC2 lost Al entirely, however, the loss of Si in Ti3SiC2 occurred only 150 μm depth below the surface. The weight loss data showed that Ti3SiC2 had a much better corrosion resistance than Ti3AlC2. (authors)

  6. Electrodeposition of tin from EMI⋅BF4⋅Cl room temperature molten salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morimitsu M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemistry of Sn(II was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry in the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate molten salt containing free chloride ions (EMI ⋅BF4 ⋅Cl originated from the mixture of EMIC and NaBF4 (60:40 mol%. The well defined redox waves for the electro deposition and dissolution of tin were observed on a platinum electrode at 303 K. The deposition of tin proceeded through a quasi-reversible step with two electron transfer, and the deposited tin was sufficiently recovered during oxidation. The experimental current-time transient coincided with the theory based on one-dimensional diffusion control.

  7. PERFORMANCE SIMULATION OF PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR COLLECTOR USING TWO FLUIDS (THERMIC OIL AND MOLTEN SALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Boukelia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Parabolic trough solar collector is considered as one of the most proven, mature and commercial concentrating solar systems implemented in arid and semi-arid regions for energy production. It focuses sunlight onto a solar receiver by using mirrors and is finally converted to a useful thermal energy by means of a heat transfer fluid. The aims of this study are (i to develop a new methodology for simulation and performance evaluation of parabolic trough solar collector, in addition (i to compare the efficiencies of this system using two different fluids; thermic oil and molten solar salt. The validation of obtained results using this methodology shows a good agreement with those obtained by the experimental tests. Furthermore, this study favors the using of thermic oil as heat transfer fluid in the receiver instead of molten salt due to the high efficiency of the concentrator based on the first fluid in comparison to the second one.

  8. Synthesis of TiNi/Ti2Ni Composite Particles in Molten Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Rui-song; CUI Li-shan; ZHENG Yan-jun

    2006-01-01

    A new process of synthesizing TiNi/Ti2Ni composite particles, high temperature molten salts method, is introduced. This method uses molten salts as a reaction medium that does not take part in the chemical reaction and can be easily dissolved in rinsing water. According this method, the composite particles were prepared in molten salts at 700 ℃-900 ℃. By means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the reversible martensitic transformation of TiNi particles in these composite particles was confirmed.

  9. Magneto-hydrodynamic detection of vortex shedding for molten salt flow sensing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Crocker, Robert W.

    2012-09-01

    High temperature flow sensors must be developed for use with molten salts systems at temperatures in excess of 600ÀC. A novel magneto-hydrodynamic sensing approach was investigated. A prototype sensor was developed and tested in an aqueous sodium chloride solution as a surrogate for molten salt. Despite that the electrical conductivity was a factor of three less than molten salts, it was found that the electrical conductivity of an electrolyte was too low to adequately resolve the signal amidst surrounding noise. This sensor concept is expected to work well with any liquid metal application, as the generated magnetic field scales proportionately with electrical conductivity.

  10. Incorporating supercritical steam turbines into molten-salt power tower plants :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, James Edward; Wolf, Thorsten; Muley, Nishant

    2013-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Siemens Energy, Inc., examined 14 different subcritical and supercritical steam cycles to determine if it is feasible to configure a molten-salt supercritical steam plant that has a capacity in the range of 150 to 200 MWe. The effects of main steam pressure and temperature, final feedwater temperature, and hot salt and cold salt return temperatures were determined on gross and half-net efficiencies. The main steam pressures ranged from 120 bar-a (subcritical) to 260 bar-a (supercritical). Hot salt temperatures of 566 and 600ÀC were evaluated, which resulted in main steam temperatures of 553 and 580ÀC, respectively. Also, the effects of final feedwater temperature (between 260 and 320ÀC) were evaluated, which impacted the cold salt return temperature. The annual energy production and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated using the System Advisory Model on 165 MWe subcritical plants (baseline and advanced) and the most promising supercritical plants. It was concluded that the supercritical steam plants produced more annual energy than the baseline subcritical steam plant for the same-size heliostat field, receiver, and thermal storage system. Two supercritical steam plants had the highest annual performance and had nearly the same LCOE. Both operated at 230 bar-a main steam pressure. One was designed for a hot salt temperature of 600ÀC and the other 565ÀC. The LCOEs for these plants were about 10% lower than the baseline subcritical plant operating at 120 bar-a main steam pressure and a hot salt temperature of 565ÀC. Based on the results of this study, it appears economically and technically feasible to incorporate supercritical steam turbines in molten-salt power tower plants.

  11. Corrosion effects between molten salts and thermal storage material for concentrated solar power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Thermal energy storage combining sensible heat and phase change materials (PCMs). ► Asbestos-containing wastes valorisation in concentrated solar power plants. ► Interactions between inertized asbestos-containing waste and molten salts. ► High temperature NMR characterization of corrosion. -- Abstract: Today, thermal energy storage (TES) is a key issue for concentrated solar power plants (CSPs). The available and mature technologies of TES do not mach all the actualised criteria for those properties. Alternative approaches have to be identified and developed to guaranty the expected extension of CSP implementations with respect to the IEA 2050 scenario. In this context, promising hybrid TES systems based upon the combination of sensible heat and liquid/solid phase change material (PCM) sub-systems are considered. For the sensible heat stage, a recycled refractory ceramic made of inertised asbestos-containing waste (IACW) is proposed. For the PCM stage, high temperature inorganic salts are considered. One major aspect of the hybrid TES is the integration of the two stages together. Therefore, the present study is focussed on the needed assessment concerning the compatibility between the IACW and the molten salts in terms of corrosion. Sulphates, phosphates, carbonates and nitrates salts have been experimented and the corrosion effects characterised by in situ NMR, ex situ X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Among those available salts, only the nitrates have shown good compatibility with IACW materials. For higher temperature levels, other salts or eutectics will have to be considered to allow hybrid TES with direct contact.

  12. Molten salt reactors. Synthesis of studies realized between 1973 and 1983. Chemistry file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of molten salt reactors was first acquired by foreign literature and developed by experimental studies. Salt preparation, analysis, chemical and electrochemical properties, interaction with metals or graphites and use of molten lead for direct cooling are examined

  13. Determination of Stoichiometry of Solutes in Molten Salt Solvents by Correlations of Relative Raman Band Intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boghosian, Soghomon; Berg, Rolf W.

    1999-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been used to determine the stoichiometry of solute complexes in molten salts at high temperatures under static equilibrium conditions, A simple formalism is derived for correlating relative Raman band intensities with stoichiometric coefficients. The experimental procedures...

  14. Proceedings of the workshop on molten salts technology and computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Hirokazu; Minato, Kazuo (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    Applications of molten salts technology to separation and synthesis of materials have been studied eagerly, which would develop new fields of materials science. Research Group for Actinides Science, Department of Materials Science, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), together with Reprocessing and Recycle Technology Division, Atomic Energy Society of Japan, organized the Workshop on Molten Salts Technology and Computer Simulation at Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI on July 18, 2001. In the workshop eleven lectures were made and lively discussions were there on the fundamentals and applications of the molten salts technology that covered the structure and basic properties of molten salts, the pyrochemical reprocessing technology and the relevant computer simulation. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  15. Development of High-Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt in Pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, In Tae; Park, Sung Bin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The electrorefining process, which is a key process in pyroprocessing, is composed of two parts, electrorefining to deposit a uranium with a solid cathode and electrowinning to co-deposit TRU and RE with a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC). As the electrorefining operation proceedes, TRU and RE are accumulated in electrolyte LiCl-KCl salt, and after the electrorefining process, the molten salt used in an electrorefining reactor should by transported to the next process, the electrowinning process, to recover U/TRU/RE; Thus, a molten salt transfer system by suction is now being developed. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high- temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The feasibility of pyro-reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory-scale experiments. In pyroprocessing, a eutectic LiCl-KCl salt was used as a liquid elextrolyte for a recovery of actinides. However, reliable transport technologies for these high temperature liquids have not yet been developed. A preliminary study on high-temperature transport technology for molten salt by suction is now being carried out. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated to select the most suitable method for molten salt transport. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology. Basic preliminary suction transport experiments were carried out using the prepared LiC-KCl eutectic salt at 500 .deg. C to observe the transport behavior of LiCl-KCl molten salt. In addition, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed for an engineering-scale salt transport demonstration. Several types of suction transport experiments using molten salt (LiCl-KCl eutectics) for the development of a high

  16. Advanced Thermal Storage System with Novel Molten Salt: December 8, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonemann, M.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Halotechnics Subcontract No. NEU-2-11979-01. Halotechnics has demonstrated an advanced thermal energy storage system with a novel molten salt operating at 700 degrees C. The molten salt and storage system will enable the use of advanced power cycles such as supercritical steam and supercritical carbon dioxide in next generation CSP plants. The salt consists of low cost, earth abundant materials.

  17. Thermal Energy Storage in Molten Salts: Overview of Novel Concepts and the DLR Test Facility (TESIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Breidenbach, Nils; Martin, Claudia; Jockenhöfer, Henning; Bauer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    At present, two-tank molten salt storage systems are the established commercially available concept for solar thermal power plants. Due to their very low vapour pressure and comparatively high thermal stability, molten salts are preferred as the heat transfer fluid and storage medium. Therefore, the development of alternative, more cost-effective concepts is an important step in making thermal energy storage more competitive for industrial processes and solar thermal applications. The pape...

  18. Deposition of niobium plate on niobium-titanium from molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility of using Nb-Ti alloys (50 and 34 mas.% of Ti) as substrates for deposition of niobium coating of chloride-fluoride and fluoride molten salts is studied. Corrosion behaviour of alloys indicates in the electrolytic bath within 970-1070 K interval, coating structure and state of coating-substrate boundary are investigated. Chloride-fluoride molten salt usefullness for making products with niobium coatings is shown

  19. Decommissioning of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment: A technical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report completes a technical evaluation of decommissioning planning for the former Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, which was shut down in December, 1969. The key issues revolve around the treatment and disposal of some five tons of solid fuel salt which contains over 30 kg of fissionable uranium-233 plus fission products and higher actinides. The chemistry of this material is complicated by the formation of elemental fluorine via a radiolysis reaction under certain conditions. Supporting studies carried out as part of this evaluation include (a) a broad scope analysis of possible options for storage/disposal of the salts, (b) calculation of nuclide decay in future years, (c) technical evaluation of the containment facility and hot cell penetrations, (d) review and update of surveillance and maintenance procedures, (e) measurements of facility groundwater radioactivity and sump pump operation, (f) laboratory studies of the radiolysis reaction, and (g) laboratory studies which resulted in finding a suitable getter for elemental fluorine. In addition, geologic and hydrologic factors of the surrounding area were considered, and also the implications of entombment of the fuel in-place with concrete. The results of this evaluation show that the fuel salt cannot be left in its present form and location permanently. On the other hand, extended storage in its present form is quite acceptable for 20 to 30 years, or even longer. For continued storage in-place, some facility modifications are recommended. 30 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  20. Optimized molten salt receivers for ultimate trough solar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffelmann, Klaus-J.; Richert, Timo; Kuckelkorn, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Today parabolic trough collectors are the most successful concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. For the next development step new systems with increased operation temperature and new heat transfer fluids (HTF) are currently developed. Although the first power tower projects have successfully been realized, up to now there is no evidence of an all-dominant economic or technical advantage of power tower or parabolic trough. The development of parabolic trough technology towards higher performance and significant cost reduction have led to significant improvements in competitiveness. The use of molten salt instead of synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid will bring down the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) even further while providing dispatchable energy with high capacity factors. FLABEG has developed the Ultimate TroughTM (UT) collector, jointly with sbp Sonne GmbH and supported by public funds. Due to its validated high optical accuracy, the collector is very suitable to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C. SCHOTT will drive the key-innovations by introducing the 4th generation solar receiver that addresses the most significant performance and cost improvement measures. The new receivers have been completely redesigned to provide a product platform that is ready for high temperature operation up to 550 °C. Moreover distinct product features have been introduced to reduce costs and risks in solar field assembly and installation. The increased material and design challenges incurred with the high temperature operation have been reflected in sophisticated qualification and validation procedures.

  1. Molten salt synthesis of mullite nanowhiskers using different silica sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yang; Peng-long Qiu; Mei Zhang; Kuo-Chih Chou; Xin-mei Hou; Bai-jun Yan

    2015-01-01

    Mullite nanowhiskers with Al-rich structure were prepared by molten salt synthesis at 1000°C for 3 h in air using silica, amor-phous silica, and ultrafine silica as the silica sources. The phase and morphology of the synthesized products were investigated by X-ray dif-fraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. A thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis was carried out to determine the reaction mechanism. The results reveal that the silica sources play an important role in determining the morphology of the obtained mullite nanowhiskers. Clusters and disordered arrangements are obtained using common silica and amorphous silica, respectively, whereas the use of ultrafine silica leads to highly ordered mullite nanowhiskers that are 80−120 nm in diameter and 20−30μm in length. Considering the growth mechanisms, mullite nanowhiskers in the forms of clusters and highly ordered arrangements can be attributed to heterogeneous nucleation, whereas disordered mullite nanowhiskers are obtained by homogenous nuclea-tion.

  2. A study on the corrosion-control test of material for molten salt handling(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On this technical report, corrosion behaviors of Fe-Ni binary alloys in molten salts were investigated in the temperature range of 650∼850 deg C. In a molten salt of LiCl, the internal oxidation occurred in the alloys studied and the corrosion rate followed the parabolic kinetics and it increased with an increase of Fe content. In a mixed molten salt of LiCl-Li2O, an internal oxidation occurred in Fe-rich alloy and uniformal corrosion in Ni-rich alloy. Corrosion behaviors of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys in molten salts were investigated in the temperature range of 650∼850 deg C. In a molten salt of LiCl, an internal oxidation of Fe of the alloy without Cr occurred, and a dense protective oxide scale of LiCrO2 of the alloy with Cr formed. In a mixed molten salt of LiCl-Li2O, an internal oxidation of Fe of the alloy without Cr and an internal oxidation of Cr of the alloy with Cr occurred

  3. Simulation of radiation dose distribution and thermal analysis for the bulk shielding of an optimized molten salt reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志宏; 夏晓彬; 蔡军; 王建华; 李长园; 葛良全; 张庆贤

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese Academy of Science has launched a thorium-based molten-salt reactor (TMSR) research project with a mission to research and develop a fission energy system of the fourth generation. The TMSR project intends to construct a liquid fuel molten-salt reactor (TMSR-LF), which uses fluoride salt as both the fuel and coolant, and a solid fuel molten-salt reactor (TMSR-SF), which uses fluoride salt as coolant and TRISO fuel. An optimized 2 MWth TMSR-LF has been designed to solve major technological challenges in the Th-U fuel cycle. Preliminary conceptual shielding design has also been performed to develop bulk shielding. In this study, the radiation dose and temperature distribution of the shielding bulk due to the core were simulated and analyzed by performing Monte Carlo simulations and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The MCNP calculated dose rate and neutron and gamma spectra indicate that the total dose rate due to the core at the external surface of the concrete wall was 1.91 µSv/h in the radial direction, 1.16 µSv/h above and 1.33 µSv/h below the bulk shielding. All the radiation dose rates due to the core were below the design criteria. Thermal analysis results show that the temperature at the outermost surface of the bulk shielding was 333.86 K, which was below the required limit value. The results indicate that the designed bulk shielding satisfies the radiation shielding requirements for the 2 MWth TMSR-LF.

  4. Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system customer interface document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald D.

    2013-09-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL is a test capability that allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt. The components tested can range from materials samples, to individual components such as flex hoses, ball joints, and valves, up to full solar collecting systems such as central receiver panels, parabolic troughs, or linear Fresnel systems. MSTL provides realistic conditions similar to a portion of a concentrating solar power facility. The facility currently uses 60/40 nitrate %E2%80%9Csolar salt%E2%80%9D and can circulate the salt at pressure up to 40 bar (600psi), temperature to 585%C2%B0C, and flow rate of 44-50kg/s(400-600GPM) depending on temperature. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for customers to evaluate the applicability to their testing needs, and to provide an outline of expectations for conducting testing on MSTL. The document can serve as the basis for testing agreements including Work for Others (WFO) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA). While this document provides the basis for these agreements and describes some of the requirements for testing using MSTL and on the site at Sandia, the document is not sufficient by itself as a test agreement. The document, however, does provide customers with a uniform set of information to begin the test planning process.

  5. Space Molten Salt Reactor Concept for Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Surface Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, M.; Flanders, J.; McMurray, N.; Denning, R.; Sun, X.; Windl, W.; Blue, T.

    Students at The Ohio State University working under the NASA Steckler Grant sought to investigate how molten salt reactors with fissile material dissolved in a liquid fuel medium can be applied to space applications. Molten salt reactors of this kind, built for non-space applications, have demonstrated high power densities, high temperature operation without pressurization, high fuel burn up and other characteristics that are ideal for space fission systems. However, little research has been published on the application of molten salt reactor technology to space fission systems. This paper presents a conceptual design of the Space Molten Salt Reactor (SMSR), which utilizes molten salt reactor technology for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and surface power at the 100 kWe to 15 MWe level. Central to the SMSR design is a liquid mixture of LiF, BeF2 and highly enriched U235F4 that acts as both fuel and core coolant. In brief, some of the positive characteristics of the SMSR are compact size, simplified core design, high fuel burn up percentages, proliferation resistant features, passive safety mechanisms, a considerable body of previous research, and the possibility for flexible mission architecture.

  6. Resistance of Nanostructured Environmental Barrier Coatings to the Movement of Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S.; Frederick, L.; McDonald, A.

    2012-09-01

    Corrosion of components in a recovery boiler is a major problem faced by the pulp and paper industry. The superheater tubes become severely corroded due to the presence of sulfidic gases in the boiler and molten salts which are deposited on the surface of the tubes. As a result, the boiler must be decommissioned for expensive maintenance and repairs. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings have been shown to provide corrosion resistance when applied on gas turbines operating at high temperatures. Air plasma-sprayed YSZ environmental barrier coatings on Type 309 stainless steel were exposed to three different corrosive environments: Test A—600 °C, salt vapors, flue gases, 168 h; Test B—600 °C, molten salt, air, 168 h; and Test C—600 °C, molten salt, flue gases, 168 h. Two different types of YSZ coatings—conventional YSZ and nanostructured YSZ—were tested to study their resistance to corrosion and molten salt penetration. The performances of both types of coatings were evaluated, and a comparative study was conducted. It was found that the nanostructured YSZ samples protected the stainless steel substrate better than their conventional counterparts. This superior performance was attributed to the presence of semi-molten nano-agglomerates present in the coating microstructure, which acted as collection points for the penetrating molten salts.

  7. Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, Anoop [Terrafore Inc.

    2013-08-14

    A key technological issue facing the success of future Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants is creating an economical Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. Current TES systems use either sensible heat in fluids such as oil, or molten salts, or use thermal stratification in a dual-media consisting of a solid and a heat-transfer fluid. However, utilizing the heat of fusion in inorganic molten salt mixtures in addition to sensible heat , as in a Phase change material (PCM)-based TES, can significantly increase the energy density of storage requiring less salt and smaller containers. A major issue that is preventing the commercial use of PCM-based TES is that it is difficult to discharge the latent heat stored in the PCM melt. This is because when heat is extracted, the melt solidifies onto the heat exchanger surface decreasing the heat transfer. Even a few millimeters of thickness of solid material on heat transfer surface results in a large drop in heat transfer due to the low thermal conductivity of solid PCM. Thus, to maintain the desired heat rate, the heat exchange area must be large which increases cost. This project demonstrated that the heat transfer coefficient can be increase ten-fold by using forced convection by pumping a hyper-eutectic salt mixture over specially coated heat exchanger tubes. However,only 15% of the latent heat is used against a goal of 40% resulting in a projected cost savings of only 17% against a goal of 30%. Based on the failure mode effect analysis and experience with pumping salt at near freezing point significant care must be used during operation which can increase the operating costs. Therefore, we conclude the savings are marginal to justify using this concept for PCM-TES over a two-tank TES. The report documents the specialty coatings, the composition and morphology of hypereutectic salt mixtures and the results from the experiment conducted with the active heat exchanger along with the lessons learnt during

  8. Molten salts as stripping media for radioactive superficial decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira Lainetti, Paulo Ernesto [Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente - CQMA, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 C. Universitaria Sao Paulo - SP, CEP- 5508-000 (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    developments in these fields were started. The mentioned steel structures, during the operations and after ten or twelve years after the facilities shut down, have presented severe corrosion. In the past, to protect them, several layers of paint were applied. Traditional decontamination methods were tried, such as acid pickling, alkaline washing and ultrasonic baths. Nevertheless, these methods have failed to reach effective decontamination. In this paper are described some aspects and problems in decommissioning of IPEN's nuclear fuel cycle facilities and is presented an innovative method for radioactive superficial decontamination of steel structures, with paint and corrosion products removal, using different molten salt compositions and temperatures as stripping media. (author)

  9. Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt

  10. Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Remote Surveillance of Actinides in Molten Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natalie J. Gese; Jan-Fong Jue; Brenda E. Serrano; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2012-07-01

    A potentiometric sensor is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for real-time remote surveillance of actinides during electrorefining of spent nuclear fuel. During electrorefining, fuel in metallic form is oxidized at the anode while refined uranium metal is reduced at the cathode in a high temperature electrochemical cell containing LiCl-KCl-UCl3 electrolyte. Actinides present in the fuel chemically react with UCl3 and form stable metal chlorides that accumulate in the electrolyte. This sensor will be used for process control and safeguarding of activities in the electrorefiner by monitoring the concentrations of actinides in the electrolyte. The work presented focuses on developing a solid-state cation conducting ceramic sensor for detecting varying concentrations of trivalent actinide metal cations in eutectic LiCl-KCl molten salt. To understand the basic mechanisms for actinide sensor applications in molten salts, gadolinium was used as a surrogate for actinides. The ß?-Al2O3 was selected as the solid-state electrolyte for sensor fabrication based on cationic conductivity and other factors. In the present work Gd3+-ß?-Al2O3 was prepared by ion exchange reactions between trivalent Gd3+ from GdCl3 and K+-, Na+-, and Sr2+-ß?-Al2O3 precursors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for characterization of Gd3+-ß?-Al2O3 samples. Microfocus X-ray Diffraction (µ-XRD) was used in conjunction with SEM energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to identify phase content and elemental composition. The Gd3+-ß?-Al2O3 materials were tested for mechanical and chemical stability by exposing them to molten LiCl-KCl based salts. The effect of annealing on the exchanged material was studied to determine improvements in material integrity post ion exchange. The stability of the ß?-Al2O3 phase after annealing was verified by µ-XRD. Preliminary sensor tests with different assembly designs will also be presented.

  11. Thermodynamic Assessment of Hot Corrosion Mechanisms of Superalloys Hastelloy N and Haynes 242 in Eutectic Mixture of Molten Salts KF and ZrF4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael V. Glazoff

    2012-02-01

    The KF - ZrF4 system was considered for the application as a heat exchange agent in molten salt nuclear reactors (MSRs) beginning with the work carried out at ORNL in early fifties. Based on a combination of excellent properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity in the molten state, and other thermo-physical and rheological properties, it was selected as one of possible candidates for the nuclear reactor secondary heat exchanger loop.

  12. On the performance of CSP oil-cooled plants, with and without heat storage in tanks of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most-used thermodynamic CSP (concentrating solar plants) in the world, provided with linear parabolic collectors cooled by oil, have been analyzed in the two configurations employed: with heat storage in two tanks filled with molten salts and without heat storage. The performances and the costs of the plants have been analyzed in the paper according to solar multiple (ranging between 1 and 3) and to storage capacity (ranging between 0 and 24 h), in terms of annual electrical energy, average annual plant efficiency, charge factor, capital cost and levelized cost of energy (LCOE). Also a method of economic optimization, based on the evaluation of the minimum value of the levelized cost of energy is presented. The minimum LCOE value, in the case of heat storage, is obtained for a solar multiple of 2.2 and a storage capacity of 16 h. In the plants without storage, minimum LCOE is achieved for SM (solar multiple) equal to 1.2. - Highlights: • A model to analyze the performance of oil thermodynamic solar plant is presented. • Plants without heat storage and with storage in molten salts are considered. • Annual electricity production, efficiency, capital cost, CF and LCOE are estimated. • Storage capacity and solar multiple values which minimize LCOE have been found

  13. Physical chemistry of molten-salt batteries. Final report, 1 October 1980-September 1981. Current-induced composition gradients in molten LiCl-KCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current-induced composition gradients have been predicted in mixed molten salt battery electrolytes. Composition shifts, if large enough, can produce significant deleterious effects, such as solid phase precipitation in or near the electrodes of molten salt batteries, including the LiAl/LiCl-KCl/FeS/sub x/ battery. Quantitative measurements are needed to determine the extent of the gradients and to find means to reduce them. This report presents the first quantitative SEM/EDX measurements with high distance resolution (<50 μm) of the shape of the composition profile in LiCl-KCl electrolyzed between LiAl electrodes. Also, current-induced precipitation of LiCl in a porous LiAl anode is indicated by SEM/EDX examination. The measured compositions are consistent with predictions from mass transport models based on the electrode reactions, migrational and diffusional mobilities. 5 figures, 4 tables

  14. Application of annexation principle to the study of thermodynamic properties of ternary molten salts CaCl2-MgCl2-NaCl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian

    2004-01-01

    Based on the practical basis of measured activities and phase diagrams as well as in the light of the mass action law, the model of inseparable cations and anions of molten salts and mattes, and the annexation principle of two kinds of solutions in binary melts, the calculating model of mass action concentrations of molten salts CaC12-MgCl2-NaCl was formulated. The results of calculation not only agree with experimental values, but also obey the mass action law, testifying that the model formulated can embody the sauctural characteristics of these temary salts, and that the model of inseparable cations and anions as well as the annexation principle of two kinds of solutions in binary melts are also applicable to these ternary salts.

  15. Reversible Electro-Optic Device Employing Aprotic Molten Salts And Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Hall, Simon B.

    2005-03-01

    A single-compartment reversible mirror device having a solution of aprotic molten salt, at least one soluble metal-containing species comprising metal capable of being electrodeposited, and at least one anodic compound capable of being oxidized was prepared. The aprotic molten salt is liquid at room temperature and includes lithium and/or quaternary ammonium cations, and anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3 SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2 N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3 CF.sub.2 SO.sub.2).sub.2 N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). A method for preparing substantially pure molten salts is also described.

  16. Review of the Molten Salt Electric Experiment: A solar central receiver project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delameter, W.R.; Bergan, N.E.

    1986-12-01

    The Molten Salt Electric Experiment was the first full solar-to-electric central receiver system to use molten nitrate salt as a primary working fluid. The experiment was built and tested at the Central Receiver Test Facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico, between 1982 and 1985. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a molten salt central receiver system. The Molten Salt Electric Experiment was operated through a year of successful testing; system performance was measured, operating procedures and an effective receiver control algorithm were developed, and personnel from participating electrical utilities and solar industries were trained to operate the system. The testing culminated in a one-month power production campaign to measure daily performance, component reliability, and system availability. This paper discusses the major accomplishments and some of the more significant problems of the project.

  17. Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Multivalent Ion Concentrations in Molten Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter A. Zink; Jan-Fong Jue; Brenda E. Serrano; Guy L. Fredrickson; Ben F. Cowan; Steven D. Herrmann; Shelly X. Li

    2010-07-01

    Electrorefining of spent metallic nuclear fuel in high temperature molten salt systems is a core technology in pyroprocessing, which in turn plays a critical role in the development of advanced fuel cycle technologies. In electrorefining, spent nuclear fuel is treated electrochemically in order to effect separations between uranium, noble metals, and active metals, which include the transuranics. The accumulation of active metals in a lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt electrolyte occurs at the expense of the UCl3-oxidant concentration in the electrolyte, which must be periodically replenished. Our interests lie with the accumulation of active metals in the molten salt electrolyte. The real-time monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte is highly desirable for controlling electrochemical operations and assuring materials control and accountancy. However, real-time monitoring is not possible with current methods for sampling and chemical analysis. A new solid-state electrochemical sensor is being developed for real-time monitoring of actinide ion concentrations in a molten salt electrorefiner. The ultimate function of the sensor is to monitor plutonium concentrations during electrorefining operations, but in this work gadolinium was employed as a surrogate material for plutonium. In a parametric study, polycrystalline sodium beta double-prime alumina (Na-ß?-alumina) discs and tubes were subject to vapor-phase exchange with gadolinium ions (Gd3+) using a gadolinium chloride salt (GdCl3) as a precursor to produce gadolinium beta double-prime alumina (Gd-ß?-alumina) samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were performed on the ion-exchanged discs to determine the relationship between ion exchange and Gd3+ ion conductivity. The ion-exchanged tubes were configured as potentiometric sensors in order to monitor real-time Gd3+ ion concentrations in mixtures of gadolinium

  18. Electrodeposition of Ca Metal in CaCl2-CaO Molten Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Jun-kang; WANG; Chang-shui; CAO; Long-hao; OUYANG; Ying-gen

    2013-01-01

    To realize the continuouscalciothermic reduction in molten salts,the electrodeposition behavior of Ca metal in CaCl2-CaO molten salt was investigated by cylic voltammetry.The cyclic voltammograms at the scan rate of 100 mV/s are shown in Fig.1.As is shown,the electrodeposition potential of Ca deviated from-1.66 V to-0.97 V after CaO was added to molten CaCl2 and the decomposition of CaO

  19. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  20. Boron removal from metallurgical grade silicon using a FeCl2 molten salt refining technique

    OpenAIRE

    Jia B.J.; Wu J. J.; Ma W.H.; Yang B; Liu D.C.; Dai Y.N.

    2013-01-01

    The slag refining for boron removal from metallurgical grade silicon is a promising metallurgical process for producing solar grade silicon. In this paper, FeCl2 molten salt has been used as a new refining agent to remove boron from MG-Si. The effects of refining time and mass ratio of MG-Si to FeCl2 molten salt on boron removal have been investigated in detail. The results showed that boron can be efficiently removed in form of BCl3 and boron concentration...

  1. Methane-steam reforming by molten salt - membrane reactor using concentrated solar thermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By utilization of concentrated solar thermal energy for steam reforming of natural gas, which is an endothermic reaction, the chemical energy of natural gas can be up-graded. The chemical system for steam reforming of natural gas with concentrated solar thermal energy was studied to produce hydrogen by using the thermal storage with molten salt and the membrane reactor. The original steam reforming module with hydrogen permeable palladium membrane was developed and fabricated. Steam reforming of methane proceeded with the original module with palladium membrane below the decomposition temperature of molten salt (around 870 K). (authors)

  2. Computation fluid dynamic modelling of natural convection heat flow in unpumped molten salt fuel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of static molten salt nuclear fuel in simple tubes was discarded in 1949 without considering how convection could affect its utility. This poster describes CFD studies showing that such tubes are practical as fuel elements in essentially conventional fuel assemblies. They can achieve power densities above 250kW per liter of fuel salt (higher than PWR's) and do so without causing the tube wall to heat to dangerous levels. This discovery enables the achievement of the many benefits of molten salt fuel while utilizing the highly developed technology, regulatory, non proliferation and safety benefits of current fuel assembly technology. (author)

  3. Fluoride partitioning R and D programme for molten salt transmutation reactor systems in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, J. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc, CZ (Czech Republic); Priman, V.; Vanicek, J. [Czech Power Company, Praha (Czech Republic)

    2001-07-01

    The transmutation of spent nuclear fuel is considered a prospective alternative conception to the current conception based on the non-reprocessed spent fuel disposal into underground repository. The Czech research and development programme in the field of partitioning and transmutation is founded on the Molten Salt Transmutation Reactor system concept with fluoride salts based liquid fuel, the fuel cycle of which is grounded on pyrochemical / pyrometallurgical fluoride partitioning of spent fuel. The main research activities in the field of fluoride partitioning are oriented mainly towards technological research of Fluoride Volatility Method and laboratory research on electro-separation methods from fluoride melts media. The Czech national conception in the area of P and T research issues from the national power industry programme and from the Czech Power Company intentions of the extensive utilization of nuclear power in our country. The experimental R and D work is concentrated mainly in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc that plays a role of main nuclear research workplace for the Czech Power Company. (author)

  4. Molten salt CO2 capture and electro-transformation (MSCC-ET) into capacitive carbon at medium temperature: effect of the electrolyte composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bowen; Chen, Zhigang; Gao, Muxing; Song, Yuqiao; Zheng, Kaiyuan; Tang, Juanjuan; Xiao, Wei; Mao, Xuhui; Wang, Dihua

    2016-08-15

    Electrochemical transformation of CO2 into functional materials or fuels (i.e., carbon, CO) in high temperature molten salts has been demonstrated as a promising way of carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) in recent years. In a view of continuous operation, the electrolysis process should match very well with the CO2 absorption kinetics. At the same time, in consideration of the energy efficiency, a molten salt electrochemical cell running at lower temperature is more beneficial to a process powered by the fluctuating renewable electricity from solar/wind farms. Ternary carbonates (Li : Na : K = 43.5 : 31.5 : 25.0) and binary chlorides (Li : K = 58.5 : 41.5), two typical kinds of eutectic melt with low melting points and a wide electrochemical potential window, could be the ideal supporting electrolyte for the molten salt CO2 capture and electro-transformation (MSCC-ET) process. In this work, the CO2 absorption behaviour in Li2O/CaO containing carbonates and chlorides were investigated on a home-made gas absorption testing system. The electrode processes as well as the morphology and properties of carbon obtained in different salts are compared to each other. It was found that the composition of molten salts significantly affects the absorption of CO2, electrode processes and performance of the product. Furthermore, the relationship between the absorption and electro-transformation kinetics are discussed based on the findings. PMID:27193751

  5. Molten salt CO2 capture and electro-transformation (MSCC-ET) into capacitive carbon at medium temperature: effect of the electrolyte composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bowen; Chen, Zhigang; Gao, Muxing; Song, Yuqiao; Zheng, Kaiyuan; Tang, Juanjuan; Xiao, Wei; Mao, Xuhui; Wang, Dihua

    2016-08-15

    Electrochemical transformation of CO2 into functional materials or fuels (i.e., carbon, CO) in high temperature molten salts has been demonstrated as a promising way of carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) in recent years. In a view of continuous operation, the electrolysis process should match very well with the CO2 absorption kinetics. At the same time, in consideration of the energy efficiency, a molten salt electrochemical cell running at lower temperature is more beneficial to a process powered by the fluctuating renewable electricity from solar/wind farms. Ternary carbonates (Li : Na : K = 43.5 : 31.5 : 25.0) and binary chlorides (Li : K = 58.5 : 41.5), two typical kinds of eutectic melt with low melting points and a wide electrochemical potential window, could be the ideal supporting electrolyte for the molten salt CO2 capture and electro-transformation (MSCC-ET) process. In this work, the CO2 absorption behaviour in Li2O/CaO containing carbonates and chlorides were investigated on a home-made gas absorption testing system. The electrode processes as well as the morphology and properties of carbon obtained in different salts are compared to each other. It was found that the composition of molten salts significantly affects the absorption of CO2, electrode processes and performance of the product. Furthermore, the relationship between the absorption and electro-transformation kinetics are discussed based on the findings.

  6. Preliminary Study on LiF4-ThF4-PuF4 Utilization as Fuel Salt of miniFUJI Molten Salt Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waris, Abdul; Aji, Indarta K.; Pramuditya, Syeilendra; Widayani; Irwanto, Dwi

    2016-08-01

    miniFUJI reactor is molten salt reactor (MSR) which is one type of the Generation IV nuclear energy systems. The original miniFUJI reactor design uses LiF-BeF2-ThF4-233UF4 as a fuel salt. In the present study, the use of LiF4-ThF4-PuF4 as fuel salt instead of LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 will be discussed. The neutronics cell calculation has been performed by using PIJ (collision probability method code) routine of SRAC 2006 code, with the nuclear data library is JENDL-4.0. The results reveal that the reactor can attain the criticality condition with the plutonium concentration in the fuel salt is equal to 9.16% or more. The conversion ratio diminishes with the enlarging of plutonium concentration in the fuel. The neutron spectrum of miniFUJI MSR with plutonium fuel becomes harder compared to that of the 233U fuel.

  7. Molten salt corrosion resistance of FeAl alloy with additions of Li, Ce and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion performance of FeAl intermetallic alloys with additions of (1 at.%)Li, Ce, Ni and combinations (Ce + Li and Ce + Ni) in molten salts have been studied using the weight loss technique. Salts included Na2SO4 and NaVO3 and testing temperatures included 600, 650 and 700 deg. C for NaVO3, and 900, 950 and 1000 deg. C for Na2SO4 during 100 h. The corroded specimens were studied in the scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and the corrosion products analyzed with an X-ray energy dispersive analyzer (EDX) attached to it. The corrosion resistance in NaVO3 increases as the temperature increased, whereas in Na2SO4 decreased. The effect of the different alloying elements depended upon the salt used. In NaVO3, for instance, the FeAl + Ce + Li alloy was one with the highest corrosion rates but in Na2SO4 it had the lowest corrosion rate. The addition of these elements most of times increased the corrosion rate of the FeAl-base alloy, whereas in Na2SO4 most of times decreased the corrosion rate. The results are discussed in terms of the degree of protectiveness that the external Al2O3 layer gives to the alloys depending on the testing temperature

  8. Development of molten salt electrorefining for separating transuranium elements. Plutonium collection efficiency lowered by neodymium reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten salt electrorefining using a solid cathode has been studied for collecting plutonium with rare-earth elements remaining in the salt. Scandium, a surrogate for plutonium, and neodymium were used for the experiments. The difference in the standard potential between the Sc/Sc(3) and the Pu/Pu(3) couples was no more than 0.025 volts at soot, and the diffusion coefficient of Sc (3) ions appeared to be nearly equal to that of Pu (3) ions. Neodymium could decrease the current efficiency of plutonium collection due to the reduction of Nd (3) to Nd (2) at the cathode. The electrodeposition tests for collecting scandium metal onto solid cathodes were carried out in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt containing ScCl3and NdCl3. The current efficiency was more than 70% when the concentration of ScCl3 was higher, and then decreased to less than 5% as the concentration decreased. The separation factor of scandium from neodymium varied between 102 and 104. The experimental results were consistent with the calculated results obtained by using the data for a stationary current and the Nernst equation. Preliminary estimations of the electrowinning process to collect plutonium and uranium was carried out based on the Sc/Nd separation studies. (author)

  9. Electrochemical separation of actinides and fission products in molten salt electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, R. L.; Grantham, L. F.; Fusselman, S. P.; Grimmett, D. L.; Roy, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Molten salt electrochemical separation may be applied to accelerator-based conversion (ABC) and transmutation systems by dissolving the fluoride transport salt in LiCl-KCl eutectic solvent. The resulting fluoride-chloride mixture will contain small concentrations of fission product rare earths (La, Nd, Gd, Pr, Ce, Eu, Sm, and Y) and actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm). The Gibbs free energies of formation of the metal chlorides are grouped advantageously such that the actinides can be deposited on a solid cathode with the majority of the rare earths remaining in the electrolyte. Thus, the actinides are recycled for further transmutation. Rockwell and its partners have measured the thermodynamic properties of the metal chlorides of interest (rare earths and actinides) and demonstrated separation of actinides from rare earths in laboratory studies. A model is being developed to predict the performance of a commercial electrochemical cell for separations starting with PUREX compositions. This model predicts excellent separation of plutonium and other actinides from the rare earths in metal-salt systems.

  10. Validation of electro-thermal simulation with experimental data to prepare online operation of a molten salt target at ISOLDE for the Beta Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Cimmino, S; Marzari, S; Stora, T

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the Beta Beams is to study oscillation property of pure electrons neutrinos. It produces high energy beams of pure electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos for oscillation experiments by beta decay of He-6 and Ne-18 radioactive ion beams, stored in a decay ring at gamma = 100. The production of He-6 beam has already been accomplished using a thick beryllium oxide target. However, the production of the needed rate of Ne-18 has proven to be more challenging. In order to achieve the requested yield for Ne-18 a new high power target design based on a circulating molten salt loop has been proposed. To verify some elements of the design, a static molten salt target prototype has been developed at ISOLDE and operated successfully. This paper describes the electro-thermal study of the molten salt target taking into account the heat produced by Joule effect, radiative heat exchange, active water cooling due to forced convection and air passive cooling due to natural convection. The numerical results...

  11. Boron removal from metallurgical grade silicon using a FeCl2 molten salt refining technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The slag refining for boron removal from metallurgical grade silicon is a promising metallurgical process for producing solar grade silicon. In this paper, FeCl2 molten salt has been used as a new refining agent to remove boron from MG-Si. The effects of refining time and mass ratio of MG-Si to FeCl2 molten salt on boron removal have been investigated in detail. The results showed that boron can be efficiently removed in form of BCl3 and boron concentration in MG-Si was successfully reduced from 22×10-6 to 4×10-6 at 1823K for 2 h with the mass ratio of FeCl2 molten salt to MG-Si for 1.0. The rate equation of boron removal using FeCl2 molten salt was proposed and established in kinetic, which showed a large difference in removal limitation of boron compared with thermodynamics.

  12. Certain properties of thin-film niobium carbide coatings on carbon steels obtained in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niobium carbide coatings have been deposited by means of a currentless transfer of electronegative niobium metal to a more electropositive substratum made of carbon steel in molten salts containing niobium compounds. Corrosion resistance of niobium carbide coated products is studied, wear resistance and tribological characteristics of the coatings are determined

  13. Ethanol steam reforming heated up by molten salt CSP: Reactor assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, De Marcello; Gallucci, Fausto

    2010-01-01

    In this paper hydrogen production via reforming of ethanol has been studied in a novel hybrid plant consisting in a ethanol reformer and a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant using molten salt as heat carrier fluid. The heat needed for the reforming of ethanol has been supplied to the system by mo

  14. Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetics system for the global energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this century, we have to solve the two antithetical energy problems. The one is a huge and steep energy demand by the population explosion and the other is a CO2 emission reduction for preventing global warming. It is clear that innovative nuclear system satisfying the following conditions can only solve these problems: adequate safety; nuclear proliferation resistance and safeguards; economic competitiveness; improved radio-waste management; resource utilization, and flexible applicability. To meet these conditions, a new concept THORIMS-NES (Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetics) has been proposed, which is composed of simple molten-salt reactors (FUJI) and Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeders (AMSB) which produce the fissile 233U from Th and feed it to the nearly self-sustaining molten-salt reactor FUJI. A number of FUJIs can use 239Pu as part of their fissile fuel along with the fertile Th thereby eliminating the excess Pu in the world. A nuclear option for Brazil using this system is presented. (author)

  15. A comparison of conventional and prototype nondestructive measurements on molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen molten salt extraction residues were assayed by conventional and prototype nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques to be compared with destructive chemical analysis in an effort to identify acceptable NDA measurement methods for this matrix. NDA results on seven samples and destructive results on four samples are presented

  16. Molten Salt Fuel Version of Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R W; Shaw, H F; Caro, A; Kaufman, L; Latkowski, J F; Powers, J; Turchi, P A

    2008-10-24

    Molten salt with dissolved uranium is being considered for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) fission blanket as a backup in case a solid-fuel version cannot meet the performance objectives, for example because of radiation damage of the solid materials. Molten salt is not damaged by radiation and therefore could likely achieve the desired high burnup (>99%) of heavy atoms of {sup 238}U. A perceived disadvantage is the possibility that the circulating molten salt could lend itself to misuse (proliferation) by making separation of fissile material easier than for the solid-fuel case. The molten salt composition being considered is the eutectic mixture of 73 mol% LiF and 27 mol% UF{sub 4}, whose melting point is 490 C. The use of {sup 232}Th as a fuel is also being studied. ({sup 232}Th does not produce Pu under neutron irradiation.) The temperature of the molten salt would be {approx}550 C at the inlet (60 C above the solidus temperature) and {approx}650 C at the outlet. Mixtures of U and Th are being considered. To minimize corrosion of structural materials, the molten salt would also contain a small amount ({approx}1 mol%) of UF{sub 3}. The same beryllium neutron multiplier could be used as in the solid fuel case; alternatively, a liquid lithium or liquid lead multiplier could be used. Insuring that the solubility of Pu{sup 3+} in the melt is not exceeded is a design criterion. To mitigate corrosion of the steel, a refractory coating such as tungsten similar to the first wall facing the fusion source is suggested in the high-neutron-flux regions; and in low-neutron-flux regions, including the piping and heat exchangers, a nickel alloy, Hastelloy, would be used. These material choices parallel those made for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL. The nuclear performance is better than the solid fuel case. At the beginning of life, the tritium breeding ratio is unity and the plutonium plus {sup 233}U production rate is {approx}0

  17. Impact analysis of criticality safety for 10-MWt solid thorium-based molten salt reactor spent nuclear fuel storage system%10-MWt固态钍基熔盐堆乏燃料贮存系统临界安全影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田金; 夏晓彬; 彭超; 张志宏

    2015-01-01

    10-MWt固态钍基熔盐堆(Thorium-based Molten Salt Reactor-Solid Fuel,TMSR-SF)使用TRISO(Tri-structural isotropic)颗粒燃料元件,并采用熔融氟盐作为一回路冷却剂,附着在燃料元件上的熔盐有可能影响系统反应性.因此,需要分析在燃料元件的贮存过程中熔盐附着燃料元件对贮存临界安全的影响.使用SCALE6.1的TRITON (Transport Rigor Implemented with Time-dependent Operation for Neutronic depletion)模块对TMSR-SF堆芯建模并进行燃耗计算,使用MCNP对乏燃料贮存系统进行临界计算.分别考虑熔盐浸渗球形燃料元件和熔盐包覆在球形燃料元件表面两种典型情况下,熔盐附着对贮存系统反应性的影响.针对乏燃料贮存系统,以浸渗最大量,即熔盐体积是石墨体积的13.9%为前提,临界计算结果表明,熔盐浸渗入石墨基体贮存系统的反应性比熔盐包覆在球形燃料元件表面的贮存系统的反应性要大5%;与没有熔盐附着的情况相比,有熔盐附着的情况下贮存系统反应性要大15%.对乏燃料贮存系统的临界安全分析可知,两种典型的熔盐附着模型对贮存系统的反应性存在一定的影响,但无论是熔盐浸渗还是包覆,贮存系统仍处于次临界,意味着贮存系统在正常工况下是安全的.

  18. Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Ramana G. [The University of Alabama

    2013-10-23

    The explicit UA program objective is to develop low melting point (LMP) molten salt thermal energy storage media with high thermal energy storage density for sensible heat storage systems. The novel Low Melting Point (LMP) molten salts are targeted to have the following characteristics: 1. Lower melting point (MP) compared to current salts (<222ºC) 2. Higher energy density compared to current salts (>300 MJ/m3) 3. Lower power generation cost compared to current salt In terms of lower power costs, the program target the DOE's Solar Energy Technologies Program year 2020 goal to create systems that have the potential to reduce the cost of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) to less than $15/kWh-th and achieve round trip efficiencies greater than 93%. The project has completed the experimental investigations to determine the thermo-physical, long term thermal stability properties of the LMP molten salts and also corrosion studies of stainless steel in the candidate LMP molten salts. Heat transfer and fluid dynamics modeling have been conducted to identify heat transfer geometry and relative costs for TES systems that would utilize the primary LMP molten salt candidates. The project also proposes heat transfer geometry with relevant modifications to suit the usage of our molten salts as thermal energy storage and heat transfer fluids. The essential properties of the down-selected novel LMP molten salts to be considered for thermal storage in solar energy applications were experimentally determined, including melting point, heat capacity, thermal stability, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, vapor pressure, and corrosion resistance of SS 316. The thermodynamic modeling was conducted to determine potential high temperature stable molten salt mixtures that have thermal stability up to 1000 °C. The thermo-physical properties of select potential high temperature stable (HMP) molten salt mixtures were also experimentally determined. All the salt mixtures align with the

  19. Amster: a molten-salt reactor concept generating its own 233U and incinerating transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the coming century, sustainable development of atomic energy will require the development of new types of reactors able to exceed the limits of the existing reactor types, be it in terms of optimum use of natural fuel resources, reduction in the production of long-lived radioactive waste, or economic competitiveness. Of the various candidates with the potential to meet these needs, molten-salt reactors are particularly attractive, in the light of the benefits they offer, arising from two fundamental features: - A liquid fuel does away with the constraints inherent in solid fuel, leading to a drastic simplification of the fuel cycle, in particular making in possible to carry out on-line pyrochemical reprocessing; - Thorium cycle and thermal spectrum breeding. The MSBR concept proposed by ORNL in the 1970's thus gave a breeding factor of 1.06, with a doubling time of about 25 years. However, given the tight neutron balance of the thorium cycle (the η of 233U is about 2.3), MSBR performance is only possible if there are strict constraints set on the in-line reprocessing unit: all the 233Pa must be removed from the core so that it can decay on the 233U in no more than about ten days (or at least 15 tonnes of salt to be extracted from the core daily), and the absorbing fission products, in particular the rare earths, must be extracted in about fifty days. With the AMSTER MSR concept, which we initially developed for incinerating transuranium elements, we looked to reduce the mass of salt to be reprocessed in order to minimise the size and complexity of the reprocessing unit coupled to the reactor, and the quantity of transuranium elements sent for disposal, as this is directly proportional to the mass of salt reprocessed for extraction of the fission products. Given that breeding was not an absolute necessity, because the reactor can be started by incinerating the transuranium elements from the spent fuel assemblies of current reactors, or if necessary by loading

  20. Engineering development studies for molten-salt breeder reactor processing No. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication and assembly of carbon steel vessels for metal transfer experiment MTE-3B was continued. Examination of the vessels and analysis of the salt and metal phases from the previously operated experiment MTE-3 was completed. Internal surfaces exposed to salts and bismuth appeared in excellent condition. Failure of the oxidation-resistant protective coating on the external surfaces allowed significant oxidation of these surfaces at the 6500C operating temperature, but was not extensive enough to affect the vessel integrity. A different protective coating with superior air-oxidation resistance was applied to the MTE-3B vessels. X-ray fluorescence analyses of the Li-Bi phase from the rare-earth stripper at the LiCl--Li-Bi interface contained significant amounts of iron and thorium. A 6-in. diam low-carbon steel stirred interface contactor was installed in the Salt-Bismuth Flowthrough Facility. Results from the first six runs using 97Zr and 237U tracers indicate that the salt-phase mass transfer coefficient based on 237U counting data is 37 +- 3 percent of the value predicted by the Lewis correlation for runs 1, 2, 3, and 5, and is 116 +- 10 percent of the Lewis value for runs 4 and 6. The mass transfer coefficients based on 97Zr counting data are felt to be less reliable than those based on 237U because of the inability to correct for self absorption of the 743.37 keV β- in the solid bismuth samples. Reaction of gaseous UF6 with UF4 dissolved in molten salt and the subsequent reduction with hydrogen of the resultant UF5 will be a flowthrough operation, and the main vessels will consist of a 36-liter feed tank, a UF6 absorption vessel, a hydrogen reduction column, and a receiver vessel. (U.S.)

  1. Development of electrolytic process in molten salt media for light rare-earth metals production. The metallic cerium electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of molten salt process and the respective equipment aiming rare-earth metals recovery was described. In the present case, the liquid cerium metal electrodeposition in a molten electrolytes of cerium chloride and an equimolar mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides in temperatures near 800C was studied. Due the high chemical reactivity of the rare-earth metals in the liquid state and their molten halides, an electrolytic cell was constructed with controlled atmosphere, graphite crucibles and anodes and a tungsten cathode. The electrolytic process variables and characteristics were evaluated upon the current efficiency and metallic product purity. Based on this evaluations, were suggested some alterations on the electrolytic reactor design and upon the process parameters. (author). 90 refs, 37 figs, 20 tabs

  2. Molten Salt Synthesis of Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhong-qing; LIU Han-xing; YU Hong-tao; OUYANG Shi-xi

    2004-01-01

    The single-phase Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3(BMN) powder was successfully prepared by the KCl molten salt synthesis(MSS) method.The temperature for single-phase BMN powders by MSS was about 400℃ lower than that by the solid-phase method.The average particle size(APS) was about 0.91μm at 900℃ and increased with increasing synthesis temperature.Based on the APS,the activation energy for particle growth in the MSS,whose value was 64.1kJmol-1,was attained.The sinterability of the powder prepared by MSS method was better than that prepared by solid-phase method.

  3. Pore Scale Thermal Hydraulics Investigations of Molten Salt Cooled Pebble Bed High Temperature Reactor with BCC and FCC Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixiong Song

    2014-01-01

    CFD results and empirical correlations’ predictions of pressure drop and local Nusselt numbers. Local pebble surface temperature distributions in several default conditions are investigated. Thermal removal capacities of molten salt are confirmed in the case of nominal condition; the pebble surface temperature under the condition of local power distortion shows the tolerance of pebble in extreme neutron dose exposure. The numerical experiments of local pebble insufficient cooling indicate that in the molten salt cooled pebble bed reactor, the pebble surface temperature is not very sensitive to loss of partial coolant. The methods and results of this paper would be useful for optimum designs and safety analysis of molten salt cooled pebble bed reactors.

  4. Solid oxide membrane-assisted controllable electrolytic fabrication of metal carbides in molten salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xingli; Zheng, Kai; Lu, Xionggang; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu

    2016-08-15

    Silicon carbide (SiC), titanium carbide (TiC), zirconium carbide (ZrC), and tantalum carbide (TaC) have been electrochemically produced directly from their corresponding stoichiometric metal oxides/carbon (MOx/C) precursors by electrodeoxidation in molten calcium chloride (CaCl2). An assembled yttria stabilized zirconia solid oxide membrane (SOM)-based anode was employed to control the electrodeoxidation process. The SOM-assisted controllable electrochemical process was carried out in molten CaCl2 at 1000 °C with a potential of 3.5 to 4.0 V. The reaction mechanism of the electrochemical production process and the characteristics of these produced metal carbides (MCs) were systematically investigated. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analyses clearly identify that SiC, TiC, ZrC, and TaC carbides can be facilely fabricated. SiC carbide can be controlled to form a homogeneous nanowire structure, while the morphologies of TiC, ZrC, and TaC carbides exhibit porous nodular structures with micro/nanoscale particles. The complex chemical/electrochemical reaction processes including the compounding, electrodeoxidation, dissolution-electrodeposition, and in situ carbonization processes in molten CaCl2 are also discussed. The present results preliminarily demonstrate that the molten salt-based SOM-assisted electrodeoxidation process has the potential to be used for the facile and controllable electrodeoxidation of MOx/C precursors to micro/nanostructured MCs, which can potentially be used for various applications. PMID:27195950

  5. Solid oxide membrane-assisted controllable electrolytic fabrication of metal carbides in molten salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xingli; Zheng, Kai; Lu, Xionggang; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu

    2016-08-15

    Silicon carbide (SiC), titanium carbide (TiC), zirconium carbide (ZrC), and tantalum carbide (TaC) have been electrochemically produced directly from their corresponding stoichiometric metal oxides/carbon (MOx/C) precursors by electrodeoxidation in molten calcium chloride (CaCl2). An assembled yttria stabilized zirconia solid oxide membrane (SOM)-based anode was employed to control the electrodeoxidation process. The SOM-assisted controllable electrochemical process was carried out in molten CaCl2 at 1000 °C with a potential of 3.5 to 4.0 V. The reaction mechanism of the electrochemical production process and the characteristics of these produced metal carbides (MCs) were systematically investigated. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analyses clearly identify that SiC, TiC, ZrC, and TaC carbides can be facilely fabricated. SiC carbide can be controlled to form a homogeneous nanowire structure, while the morphologies of TiC, ZrC, and TaC carbides exhibit porous nodular structures with micro/nanoscale particles. The complex chemical/electrochemical reaction processes including the compounding, electrodeoxidation, dissolution-electrodeposition, and in situ carbonization processes in molten CaCl2 are also discussed. The present results preliminarily demonstrate that the molten salt-based SOM-assisted electrodeoxidation process has the potential to be used for the facile and controllable electrodeoxidation of MOx/C precursors to micro/nanostructured MCs, which can potentially be used for various applications.

  6. Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Multivalent Ion Concentrations in Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrorefining of spent metallic nuclear fuel in high temperature molten salt systems is a core technology in pyroprocessing, which in turn plays a critical role in the development of advanced fuel cycle technologies. In electrorefining, spent nuclear fuel is treated electrochemically in order to effect separations between uranium, noble metals, and active metals, which include the transuranics. The accumulation of active metals in a lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt electrolyte occurs at the expense of the UCl3-oxidant concentration in the electrolyte, which must be periodically replenished. Our interests lie with the accumulation of active metals in the molten salt electrolyte. The real-time monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte is highly desirable for controlling electrochemical operations and assuring materials control and accountancy. However, real-time monitoring is not possible with current methods for sampling and chemical analysis. A new solid-state electrochemical sensor is being developed for real-time monitoring of actinide ion concentrations in a molten salt electrorefiner. The ultimate function of the sensor is to monitor plutonium concentrations during electrorefining operations, but in this work gadolinium was employed as a surrogate material for plutonium. In a parametric study, polycrystalline sodium beta double-prime alumina (Na-β(doubleprime)-alumina) discs and tubes were subject to vapor-phase exchange with gadolinium ions (Gd3+) using a gadolinium chloride salt (GdCl3) as a precursor to produce gadolinium beta double-prime alumina (Gd-β(doubleprime)-alumina) samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were performed on the ion-exchanged discs to determine the relationship between ion exchange and Gd3+ ion conductivity. The ion-exchanged tubes were configured as potentiometric sensors in order to monitor real-time Gd3+ ion concentrations in

  7. Uncertainty studies of real anode surface area in computational analysis for molten salt electrorefining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Numerical electrochemo-fluid modeling of pyrochemical electrorefining in cross comparison with 2D and 3D analysis models. → Benchmark study on cell potential of molten LiCl-KCl electrorefining with Mark-IV electrorefiner containing EBR-II spent fuel. → Determination of real anode surface area profile model governing electrorefining performance. → Identification of uncertainty factors in electrorefining causing disagreements between simulation and experiment. → Fully transient performance analysis of 80 hours Mark-IV electrorefining with multi-species multi-reaction 1D model. - Abstract: This study examines how much cell potential changes with five differently assumed real anode surface area cases. Determining real anode surface area is a significant issue to be resolved for precisely modeling molten salt electrorefining. Based on a three-dimensional electrorefining model, calculated cell potentials compare with an experimental cell potential variation over 80 h of operation of the Mark-IV electrorefiner with driver fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. We succeeded to achieve a good agreement with an overall trend of the experimental data with appropriate selection of a mode for real anode surface area, but there are still local inconsistencies between theoretical calculation and experimental observation. In addition, the results were validated and compared with two-dimensional results to identify possible uncertainty factors that had to be further considered in a computational electrorefining analysis. These uncertainty factors include material properties, heterogeneous material distribution, surface roughness, and current efficiency. Zirconium's abundance and complex behavior have more impact on uncertainty towards the latter period of electrorefining at given batch of fuel. The benchmark results found that anode materials would be dissolved from both axial and radial directions at least for low burn-up metallic fuels after active

  8. Molten salt corrosion resistance of FeAl alloy with additions of Li, Ce and Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, FCQI-CIICAP, 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor (Mexico); Luna-Ramirez, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Mor (Mexico); CIMAV, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua, Chih (Mexico); Salazar, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Mor (Mexico); Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); Porcayo-Calderon, J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Mor (Mexico); Rosas, G. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Mich (Mexico); Martinez-Villafane, A. [CIMAV, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua, Chih (Mexico)]. E-mail: martinez.villafane@cimav.edu.mx

    2005-06-15

    The corrosion performance of FeAl intermetallic alloys with additions of (1 at.%)Li, Ce, Ni and combinations (Ce + Li and Ce + Ni) in molten salts have been studied using the weight loss technique. Salts included Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaVO{sub 3} and testing temperatures included 600, 650 and 700 deg. C for NaVO{sub 3}, and 900, 950 and 1000 deg. C for Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} during 100 h. The corroded specimens were studied in the scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and the corrosion products analyzed with an X-ray energy dispersive analyzer (EDX) attached to it. The corrosion resistance in NaVO{sub 3} increases as the temperature increased, whereas in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decreased. The effect of the different alloying elements depended upon the salt used. In NaVO{sub 3}, for instance, the FeAl + Ce + Li alloy was one with the highest corrosion rates but in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} it had the lowest corrosion rate. The addition of these elements most of times increased the corrosion rate of the FeAl-base alloy, whereas in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} most of times decreased the corrosion rate. The results are discussed in terms of the degree of protectiveness that the external Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer gives to the alloys depending on the testing temperature.

  9. Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

    2009-09-30

    This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material

  10. Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2014-05-27

    Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

  11. Redox condition in molten salts and solute behavior: A first-principles molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyo On; Morgan, Dane

    2015-10-01

    Molten salts technology is of significant interest for nuclear, solar, and other energy systems. In this work, first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) was used to model the solute behavior in eutectic LiCl-KCl and FLiBe (Li2BeF4) melts at 773 K and 973 K, respectively. The thermo-kinetic properties for solute systems such as the redox potential, solute diffusion coefficients and structural information surrounding the solute were predicted from FPMD modeling and the calculated properties are generally in agreement with the experiments. In particular, we formulate an approach to model redox energetics vs. chlorine (or fluorine) potential from first-principles approaches. This study develops approaches for, and demonstrates the capabilities of, FPMD to model solute properties in molten salts.

  12. Disposal of transuranic solid waste using Atomics International's molten salt combustion process. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomics International Molten Salt Combustion Process reduces the weight and volume of combustible transuranic waste by utilizing a molten salt medium to combust organic materials, to trap particulates and fissile material, and to react chemically with any acidic gases produced during combustion. The ''ash'' is retained by the molten salt. To control the amount of noncombustible substances in the melt, a portion of the molten salt is periodically drained from the combustor. There are two options following the combustion step: the salt-ash mixture can be cast into a metal canister for direct storage, which is preferred, or the salt-ash mixture can be processed to separate ash for disposal, to recover the salt for recycle and to recover fissile materials. Either option results in the rapid, complete, and nonpolluting destruction of the combustible waste. Bench-scale (0.2 kg/hr) combustion tests with plutonium-contaminated waste showed that >99.9 percent of the plutonium is retained in the melt during combustion. A similar test with uranium indicated that uranium and plutonium behave identically during combustion. Bench-scale plutonium recovery tests have shown that approx. 98 percent of the plutonium can be recovered from the ash-melt mixture with a single acid leach. Pilot plant combustion tests were conducted with uncontaminated shredded waste consisting of paper, Kimwipes, cardboard, rubber, polyvinyl chloride, and polyethylene at feed rates up to 70 kg/hr. Hydrogen chloride (3 at approx. 7900C to 0.6 g/m3 at 10200C before the venturi scrubber, and 0.01 to 0.04 g/m3, respectively, after the scrubber. Downstream of the HEPA filters, no particulates could be detected

  13. Preparation of Al-La Master Alloy by Thermite Reaction in NaF-NaCl-KCl Molten Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Poknam; Li, Hyonmo; Kim, Wenjae; Wang, Zhaowen; Liu, Fengguo

    2015-05-01

    A NaF-NaCl-KCl ternary system containing La2O3 was investigated for the preparation of Al-La master alloy by the thermite reaction method. The solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salt was determined by the method of isothermal solution saturation. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to consider the content of La2O3 in molten salt and the supernatant composition of molten salt after dissolution of La2O3, respectively. The results showed that the content of NaF had a positive influence on the solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salts, and the solubility of La2O3 could reach 8.71 wt.% in molten salts of 50 wt.%NaF-50 wt.% (44 wt.%NaCl + 56 wt.%KCl). The XRD pattern of cooling molten salt indicated the formation of LaOF in molten salt, which was probably obtained by the reaction between NaF and La2O3. The kinetic study showed that the thermite reaction was in accord with a first-order reaction model. The main influence factors on La content in the Al-La master alloy product, including molten salt composition, amount of Al, concentration of La2O3, stirring, reduction time and temperature, were investigated by single-factor experimentation. The content of La in the Al-La master alloy could be reached to 10.1 wt.%.

  14. A simplified burnup calculation strategy with refueling in static molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten Salt Reactors, by nature can be refuelled and reprocessed online. Thus, a simulation methodology has to be developed which can consider online refueling and reprocessing aspect of the reactor. To cater such needs a simplified burnup calculation strategy to account for refueling and removal of molten salt fuel at any desired burnup has been identified in static molten salt reactor in batch mode as a first step of way forward. The features of in-house code ITRAN has been explored for such calculations. The code also enables us to estimate the reactivity introduced in the system due to removal of any number of considered nuclides at any burnup. The effect of refueling fresh fuel and removal of burned fuel has been studied in batch mode with in-house code ITRAN. The effect of refueling and burnup on change in reactivity per day has been analyzed. The analysis of removal of 233Pa at a particular burnup has been carried out. The similar analysis has been performed for some other nuclides also. (author)

  15. Growth of SiC nanowires on wooden template surface using molten salt media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Jun; Zhu, Hongxi, E-mail: wust6168@hotmail.com; Li, Guangqiang; Deng, Chengji; Li, Jun

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Biomorphic SiC/C ceramics have been produced using a relatively low temperature by molten salt method. • The resulting biomorphic SiC ceramic retains the original structures of wooden template. • The pore size distribution within the porous SiC/C ceramics was determined by automatic mercury porosimetry. - Abstract: This paper examines the growth of SiC nanowires on a wooden template surface through the reaction of wooden template/silicon composites in static argon atmosphere, using molten salt media. The effects of temperature and salt/Si ratio on the growth of wooden template were investigated. Morphology and structure of the biomorphic SiC/C ceramics were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The pore size distribution within the porous SiC/C ceramics was investigated using automatic mercury porosimetry. The results show that the biomorphic cellular morphology of wooden template was remained in the porous SiC ceramic with high precision that consists of β-SiC with traces of α-SiC. SiC in the wooden template exists in the cellular pores in the form of nanowires. The SiC nanowires were formed at about 1250 °C by molten salt reaction between Si and C during the wooden-to-ceramic conversion.

  16. Concentrating Solar Power - Molten Salt Pump Development, Final Technical Report (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael McDowell; Alan Schwartz

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long shafted pump to operate at high temperatures for the purpose of producing energy with renewable resources. In Phase I of this three phase project we developed molten salt pump requirements, evaluated existing hardware designs for necessary modifications, developed a preliminary design of the pump concept, and developed refined cost estimates for Phase II and Phase III of the project. The decision has been made not to continue the project into Phases II and III. There is an ever increasing world-wide demand for sources of energy. With only a limited supply of fossil fuels, and with the costs to obtain and produce those fuels increasing, sources of renewable energy must be found. Currently, capturing the sun's energy is expensive compared to heritage fossil fuel energy production. However, there are government requirements on Industry to increase the amount of energy generated from renewable resources. The objective of this project is to design, build and test a long-shafted, molten salt pump. This is the type of pump necessary for a molten salt thermal storage system in a commercial-scale solar trough plant. This project is under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program, managed by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. To reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and to meet the requirements of 'tomorrows' demand, technical innovations are needed. The DOE is committed to reducing the LCOE to 7-10 cents/kWh by 2015, and to 5-7 cents/kWh by 2020. To accomplish these goals, the performance envelope for commercial use of long-shafted molten salt pumps must be expanded. The intent of this project is to verify acceptable operation of pump components in the type of molten salt (thermal storage medium) used in commercial power plants today. Field testing will be necessary to verify the integrity of the pump design, and thus reduce the risk to industry. While the primary

  17. Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

    2012-04-01

    This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was

  18. Transport properties of molten-salt reactor fuel mixtures: the case of Na, Li, Be/F and Li, Be, Th/F salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we have compiled transport properties information, available, on two types of FLiBe based salt mixtures (Na,Li,Be/F and Li,Be,Th/F) that are presently of importance in the design of innovative molten-salt burner reactors. Estimated and/or experimental values measured (particularly, from prior US and Russian studies, as well our recent studies) are given for the following properties: viscosity, thermal conductivity, phase transition behaviour, heat capacity, density and thermal expansion. (author)

  19. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15

    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50

  20. libMSR library and msr-safe kernel module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-09-26

    Modern processors offer a wide range of control and measurement features. While those are traditionally accessed through libraries like PAPI, some newer features no longer follow the traditional model of counters that can be used to only read the state of the processor. For example, Precise Event Based Sampling (PEBS) can generate records that requires a kernel memory for storage. Additionally, new features like power capping and thermal control require similar new access methods. All of these features are ultimately controlled through Model Specific Registers (MSRs). We therefore need new mechanisms to make such features available to tools and ultimately to the user. libMSR provides a convenient interface to access MSRs and to allow tools to utilize their full functionality.

  1. Electrochemical Deposition of Uranium Metal in Molten Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Based on the studies in the electrode process of uranium ions in the molten LiCl-KCl, we carried out the electrochemical deposition of uranium in two kinds of melts, LiCl-KCl-UCl3 and LiCl- KCl-UCl3-

  2. Metals recovering from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) using molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Recovering of valuable metals from WPCBs. ► Low temperature treatment, i.e., 300 °C. ► Copper, and precious metals are recovered, without dissolution or melting. ► Many hazardous gases are dissolved and trapped in the molten salt. ► Under operation without oxygen the flue gas contains large quantities of hydrogen. - Abstract: Recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) has been taken into consideration in the literature due to the large quantity of concerned wastes and their hazardous contents. The situation is so critical that EU published European Directives imposing collection and recycling with a minimum of material recovery . Moreover, WEEEs contain precious metals, making the recycling of these wastes economically interesting, but also some critical metals and their recycling leads to resource conservation. This paper reports on a new approach for recycling waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). Molten salts and specifically molten KOH–NaOH eutectic is used to dissolve glasses, oxides and to destruct plastics present in wastes without oxidizing the most valuable metals. This method is efficient for recovering a copper-rich metallic fraction, which is, moreover, cleared of plastics and glasses. In addition, analyses of gaseous emission show that this method is environmentally friendly since most of the process gases, such as carbon monoxide and dioxide and halogens, are trapped in the highly basic molten salt. In other respects, under operation without oxygen, a large quantity of hydrogen is produced and might be used as fuel gas or as synthesis gas, leading to a favourable energy balance for this new process.

  3. Molten salt thermal energy storage systems. Project 8981, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Kardas, A.; Paul, L.

    1978-03-01

    The feasibility of storing thermal energy at temperatures of 450/sup 0/ to 535/sup 0/C (850/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/F) in the form of latent heat of fusion has been examined for over 30 inorganic salts and salt mixtures. Alkali carbonate mixtures are attractive as phase-change storage materials in this temperature range because of their relatively high storage capacity and thermal conductivity, moderate cost, low volumetric expansion upon melting, low corrosivity, and good chemical stability. An equimolar mixture of Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, which melts at 505/sup 0/C with a latent heat of 148 Btu/lb, was chosen for experimental study. The cyclic charge/discharge behavior of laboratory- and engineering-scale systems was determined and compared with predictions based on a mathematical heat-transfer model that was developed during this program. The thermal performance of one engineering-scale unit remained very stable during 1400 hours of cyclic operation. Several means of improving heat conduction through the solid salt were explored. Areas requiring further investigation have been identified.

  4. Titanium Powder Preparation from TiCl4 in the Molten Salt

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, R. O.; Deura, T. N.; Ishii, R.; Matsunaga, T.; Harada, T. N.; Wakino, M.; Ono, K.

    2000-01-01

    Two processes are proposed to produce Ti powder directly from TiCl4 gas using molten magnesium as reductant. TiCl4 gas injection into a liquid Mg layer through the molten chloride salts could produce the Ti powder of 1 to 10 μm in diameter. Neither the operation temperature nor the salt composition affected the powder morphology. When TiCl4 was dissolved once in the molten salt as Ti2+, and when Mg successively reduced this Ti2+, the Ti morphology varied from the needle-like to the round shap...

  5. HIGH PURITY ALUMINIUM-LITHIUM MASTER ALLOY BY MOLTEN SALT ELECTROLYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Y; Toyoshima, M; Itoh, K

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop the economical production process of the Al-Li master alloy free from metallic sodium, calcium and potassium. This master alloy can be used for aluminium-lithium alloys for structual materials of aircrafts, automobiles and robots. Moreover the Al-Li master alloy with lithium content of 18-20wt. % is applicable to the blanket of fusion reactors and the active mass of batteries. This Al-Li master alloy can be produced by means of LiCl-KCl molten salt electroly...

  6. Conceptual Design of Forced Convection Molten Salt Heat Transfer Testing Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Piyush Sabharwall; Pattrick Calderoni; Alan K. Wertsching; S. Brandon Grover

    2010-09-01

    This report develops a proposal to design and construct a forced convection test loop. A detailed test plan will then be conducted to obtain data on heat transfer, thermodynamic, and corrosion characteristics of the molten salts and fluid-solid interaction. In particular, this report outlines an experimental research and development test plan. The most important initial requirement for heat transfer test of molten salt systems is the establishment of reference coolant materials to use in the experiments. An earlier report produced within the same project highlighted how thermophysical properties of the materials that directly impact the heat transfer behavior are strongly correlated to the composition and impurities concentration of the melt. It is therefore essential to establish laboratory techniques that can measure the melt composition, and to develop purification methods that would allow the production of large quantities of coolant with the desired purity. A companion report describes the options available to reach such objectives. In particular, that report outlines an experimental research and development test plan that would include following steps: •Molten Salts: The candidate molten salts for investigation will be selected. •Materials of Construction: Materials of construction for the test loop, heat exchangers, and fluid-solid corrosion tests in the test loop will also be selected. •Scaling Analysis: Scaling analysis to design the test loop will be performed. •Test Plan: A comprehensive test plan to include all the tests that are being planned in the short and long term time frame will be developed. •Design the Test Loop: The forced convection test loop will be designed including extensive mechanical design, instrument selection, data acquisition system, safety requirements, and related precautionary measures. •Fabricate the Test Loop. •Perform the Tests. •Uncertainty Analysis: As a part of the data collection, uncertainty analysis will

  7. Nuclear performance of molten salt fusion--fission symbiotic systems for catalyzed DD and DT reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear performance of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor having a molten salt composed of Na-Th-F-Be as the blanket fertile material and operating with a catalyzed DD plasma is compared to a similar system utilizing a Li-Th-F-Be salt and operating with a DT plasma. The production of fissile fuel via the 232Th-233U fuel cycle was considered on the basis of its potential nonproliferation aspects. The calculations were performed using one-dimensional discrete ordinates methods to compare neutron balances, fuel producion rates, energy deposition rates, and the radiation damage in the reactor structure

  8. Preparation of Mg-Li alloys by electrolysis in molten salt at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi Lin Zhang; Yong De Yan; Zhi Yao Hou; Lu An Fan; Zeng Chen; Ding Xiang Tang

    2007-01-01

    A new technology for preparation of low cost Mg-Li alloys was studied. The alloys were prepared by electrolysis in molten were investigated, and optimal electrolysis parameters were obtained. Mg-Li alloys with low lithium content (about 25%) were prepared by the unique method of a higher post-thermal treatment temperature after electrolysis at low temperature. The results showed that the electrolysis can be carried out at low temperature, which resulted in reducing preparation cost due to energy saving.The new technology for the preparation of Mg-Li alloy by electrolysis in molten salt was proved to be feasible.

  9. Coupled neutronics and thermal-hydraulics numerical simulations of a Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupled neutronics and thermalhydraulic numerical analyses of a molten salt fast reactor (MSFR) are presented. These preliminary numerical simulations are carried-out using the Monte Carlo code MCNP and the Computation Fluid Dynamic code OpenFOAM. The main objectives of this analysis performed at steady-reactor conditions are to confirm the acceptability of the current neutronic and thermalhydraulic designs of the reactor, to study the effects of the reactor operating conditions on some of the key MSFR design parameters such as the temperature peaking factor. The effects of the precursor's motion on the reactor safety parameters such as the effective fraction of delayed neutrons have been evaluated. (authors)

  10. Molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood using an electrostatic precipitator for oil collection

    OpenAIRE

    Nygård, Heidi S.; Espen Olsen

    2015-01-01

    A tubular electrostatic precipitator (ESP) was designed and tested for collection of pyrolysis oil in molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood (0.5-2 mm). The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics were studied, showing most stable performance of the ESP when N2 was utilized as inert gas. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out in FLiNaK and (LiNaK)2CO3 over the temperature range of 450-600 ℃. The highest yields of pyrolysis oil were achieved in FLiNaK, with a maximum of 34.2 wt% at 500 ℃...

  11. Preparation of niobium nanoparticles by sodiothermic reduction of Nb_2O_5 in molten salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Niobium nanoparticles with high purity were prepared by a sodiothermic reduction process using Nb2O5 as the raw material, LiCl, NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 as the diluents and sodium as the reducing reagent. The effects of the different molten salt systems, CaCl2 content, reaction time, excessive sodium and reaction temperature on the characteristics of the obtained niobium powder were discussed. The as-prepared niobium nanoparticles under the optimum experimental conditions were obtained by sodiothermic reduction ...

  12. Luminescent Properties of Y2O3:Eu3+ Nanocrystals Prepared by Molten Salt Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of red phosphors Y2O3:Eu3+ were prepared by the molten salt method with different surfactants. Their structures, morphologies, and the photoluminescent properties were investigated at room temperature. The particles size of Y2O3:Eu3+ can be controlled by adjusting the kinds of surfactants. The phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ prepared with NP-10 [polyoxyethylene (10 nonyl phenyl ether] shows regular morphology and higher crystallinity, and its average particle size is about 200 nm. Bright red light can be observed by naked eyes from the red phosphor under 254 nm excitation.

  13. Preparation and Performances of Room Molten Salt as Electrolyte in Carbon-carbon Capacitor Based on LiPFe and Trifluoroacetamide%LiPF6/三氟乙酰胺室温熔盐的制备及在碳-碳电容器中的性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左晓希; 李奇; 刘建生; 肖信; 范成杰; 南俊民

    2012-01-01

    利用LiPF6和三氟乙酰胺为前驱物,制备了低共熔温度约为-62℃的室温熔盐,并测试了该熔盐作为碳-碳电化学电容器(EDLCs)电解液时的性能。其中,使用差示扫描量热法(DSC)和红外光谱法(FTIR)分析了不同LiPF6和三氟乙酰胺配比熔盐的热稳定性,拟制了该二元组分的共熔相图,认为LiPF6和三氟乙酰胺极性基团间的氢键作用促成了室温熔盐的形成。循环伏安(CV)、交流阻抗(EIS)和电导等测定结果表明,所制备的LiPF6/三氟乙酰胺电解液的室温电导率为1.30mS/cm,电化学窗口大于5.6V,大于60℃的使用温度,作为电解液可满足碳-碳EDLCs的使用要求。%A novel room molten salt with an eutectic temperature of about -62℃ is prepared using LiPF6 and trifluoroacetamide as precursors. And then its performances are evaluated in carbon-carbon electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) as electrolyte. The thermal properties of the complex electrolyte with different molar ratios are characterized and then the liquid-solid phase diagram is presented by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The hydrogen bonding interaction between LiPF6 and trifluoroacetamide molecules is attributed to the formation of the as-prepared molten salt. In addition, the results of cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and conductance tests show that the as-prepared LiPF6/trifluoroacetamide electrolyte has a maximum conductance at room temperature, i.e. 1.30 mS/cm, a stable electrochemical window of ca. 5.6 V, an applicable temperature of more than 60℃, suggesting it is a promising electrolyte candidate for carbon-carbon EDLCs.

  14. Effects of operating conditions on molten-salt electrorefining for zirconium recovery from irradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding of pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaeyeong, E-mail: d486916@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sungyeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Sungjune [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Rag [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Il Soon [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Computational simulation on electrorefining of irradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding. • Composition of irradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding of pressurized water reactor. • Redox behavior of elements in irradiated Zircaloy cladding during electrorefining. • Effect of electrorefining operating conditions on decontamination factor. - Abstract: To reduce the final waste volume from used nuclear fuel assembly, it is significant to decontaminate irradiated cladding. Electrorefining in high temperature molten salt could be one of volume decontamination processes for the cladding. This study examines the effect of operating conditions on decontamination factor in electrorefining of irradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding of pressurized water reactor. One-dimensional time-dependent electrochemical reaction code, REFIN, was utilized for simulating irradiated cladding electrorefining. Composition of irradiated Zircaloy was estimated based on ORIGEN-2 and other literatures. Co and U were considered in electrorefining simulation with major elements of Zircaloy-4 to represent activation products and actinides penetrating into the cladding respectively. Total 240 cases of electrorefining are simulated including 8 diffusion boundary layer thicknesses, 10 concentrations of contaminated molten salt and 3 termination conditions. Decontamination factors for each case were evaluated and it is revealed that the radioactivity of Co-60 in recovered zirconium on cathode could decrease below the clearance level when initial concentration of chlorides except ZrCl{sub 4} is lower than 1 × 10{sup −11} weight fraction if electrorefining is finished before anode potential reaches −1.8 V (vs. Cl{sub 2}/Cl{sup −})

  15. Corrosion behavior of Hastelloy-N alloys in molten salt fluoride in Ar gas or in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of air on the corrosion of Hastelloy-N alloys in molten salt coolant containing fission product elements were investigated to determine the safety of structural materials in high-temperature reactors cooled with fluoride salt. Corrosion tests of Hastelloy-N in the molten fluoride salt FLiNaK in an alumina crucible and a graphite crucible under argon gas or air were performed at 773–923 K for 100 h. The depth of corrosive attack, as well as the extent of chromium and molybdenum depletion, increased with increasing temperature. The extent of Hastelloy-N corrosion in molten salt under air was significantly greater than under argon gas. The effect of adding the impurity cesium iodide to molten salt containing nuclear waste fuel on the corrosion behavior was negligible. (author)

  16. Calculation of activities of ions in molten salts with potential application to the pyroprocessing of nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanne, Mathieu; Simon, Christian; Turq, Pierre; Madden, Paul A

    2008-01-31

    The ability to separate fission products by electrodeposition from molten salts depends, in part, on differences between the interactions of the different fission product cations with the ions present in the molten salt "solvent". These differences may be expressed as ratios of activity coefficients, which depend on the identity of the solvent and other factors. Here, we demonstrate the ability to calculate these activity coefficient ratios using molecular dynamics simulations with sufficient precision to guide the choice of suitable solvent systems in practical applications. We use polarizable ion interaction potentials which have previously been shown to give excellent agreement with structural, transport, and spectroscopic information of the molten salts, and the activity coefficients calculated in this work agree well with experimental data. The activity coefficients are shown to vary systematically with cation size for a set of trivalent cations.

  17. Thermal storage performance of molten salt thermocline system with packed phase change bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Molten salt thermocline storage with packed phase change bed is simulated. • Phase change material can remarkably increase the effective discharging energy. • Thermocline can be divided into three stages including phase change layer. • Melting point of phase change material should be slightly below initial temperature. • The discharging efficiency increases with the phase change material content. - Abstract: Comprehensive transient and two-dimensional numerical model is developed to study energy storage performance of molten salt thermocline thermal storage system with packed phase change bed in solar thermal power. The results show that the packed phase change bed can remarkably increase the effective discharging energy and discharging efficiency. Because of phase change material, the thermocline can be divided into three stages including the high temperature thermocline, low temperature thermocline and phase change layer. As the melting point within the inlet and initial temperature increases, the whole discharging time decreases, while the effective discharging energy remarkably increases, and thus the melting point of phase change material should be within the initial temperature and effective outlet temperature for good heat storage performance. As the phase change material content increases, the effective discharging energy increases with the effective discharging time rising, and the effective discharging efficiency also increases

  18. Applicability of molten salt oxidation to the destruction of actinide-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1989 ban on incineration in the state of New Mexico caused cessation of actinide-contaminated cheesecloth, paper, and wood incineration within the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Subsequently, plastic wipes were substituted for cheesecloth in the cleaning of glovebox interiors. However, waste minimization is not achieved by these measures since the wipes are discarded as Waste Isolation Pilot Plant certifiable wastes. After the ban was instituted, thermal decomposition of cheesecloth under argon at elevated temperature was examined and found satisfactory although scale of operation and speed were inferior to incineration. In 1991, the ban on incineration was lifted in New Mexico but Alamos has not chosen to pursue renewal of incineration at the Plutonium Facility. This paper reports that Los Alamos is looking from alternatives to incineration and thermal decomposition which are compatible with molten salt processing technology, historically a strength in actinide research at the Laboratory. Also, the technology must significantly reduce the volume of the waste upon treatment, i.e. waste minimization. Molten salt oxidation (MSO) has the promise of such a technology

  19. Conceptual Design of a 100 MWe Modular Molten Salt Power Tower Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Pacheco; Carter Moursund, Dale Rogers, David Wasyluk

    2011-09-20

    A conceptual design of a 100 MWe modular molten salt solar power tower plant has been developed which can provide capacity factors in the range of 35 to 75%. Compared to single tower plants, the modular design provides a higher degree of flexibility in achieving the desired customer's capacity factor and is obtained simply by adjusting the number of standard modules. Each module consists of a standard size heliostat field and receiver system, hence reengineering and associated unacceptable performance uncertainties due to scaling are eliminated. The modular approach with multiple towers also improves plant availability. Heliostat field components, receivers and towers are shop assembled allowing for high quality and minimal field assembly. A centralized thermal-storage system stores hot salt from the receivers, allowing nearly continuous power production, independent of solar energy collection, and improved parity with the grid. A molten salt steam generator converts the stored thermal energy into steam, which powers a steam turbine generator to produce electricity. This paper describes the conceptual design of the plant, the advantages of modularity, expected performance, pathways to cost reductions, and environmental impact.

  20. Tritium permeation and recovery for the helium-cooled molten salt fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design concepts are presented to control tritium permeation from a molten salt/helium fusion breeder reactor. This study assumes tritium to be a gas dissolved in molten salt, with TF formation suppressed. Tritium permeates readily through the hot steel tubes of the reactor and steam generator and will leak into the steam system at the rate of about one gram per day in the absence of special permeation barriers, assuming that 1% of the helium coolant flow rate is processed for tritium recovery at 90% efficiency per pass. The proposed permeation barrier for the reactor tubes is a 10 μm layer of tungsten which, in principle, will reduce tritium blanket permeation by a factor of about 300 below the bare-steel rate. A research and development effort is needed to prove feasibility or to develop alternative barriers. A 1 mm aluminum sleeve is proposed to suppress permeation through the steam generator tubes. This gives a calculated reduction factor of more than 500 relative to bare steel, including a factor of 30 due to an assumed oxide layer. The permeation equations are developed in detail for a multi-layer tube wall including a frozen salt layer and with two fluid boundary-layer resistances. Conditions are discussed for which Sievert's or Henry's Law materials become flux limiters. An analytical model is developed to establish the tritium split between wall permeation and reactor-tube flow

  1. Research on thermal and mechanical behaviour of a Freeze-Valve for molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Reactor safety is an important component of developing and designing any nuclear energy systems. The Freeze-Valve is one of the core technologies of the molten salt reactor, which thermal-structural property is directly related to the inherent safety of the molten salt reactor nuclear system. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to improve the inherent safety of the fourth-generation nuclear energy systems, by researching and optimizing the thermodynamic properties of Freeze-Valve, and exploring reliable safety design. Methods: A 3D Finite Element model to simulate the thermal-structural coupling behaviors was established by the ANSYS software to analyze the performances and the properties of a Freeze-Valve. Results: The analysis result shows that the flat part of the Freeze-Valve plays a very important role in engineering applications. The effects of different factors (heat transfer coefficient, heating power, and insulation size and so on) on the temperature and the stress field of the Freeze-Valve during operation are obtained, which provide some basis for optimization of design and safe operation. The thermal stress of the initial model of the Freeze-Valve is so large that it is easy to cause fatigue failure, owing to the unreasonable initial design (insulation size and heating power, for example). Conclusions: After the relative analysis and structural optimization, the maximum stress of the Freeze-Valve is significantly reduced, and the performance has been greatly improved. (authors)

  2. Archimede solar energy molten salt parabolic trough demo plant: Improvements and second year of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Augusto; Donnola, Sandro; Matino, Francesca; Tamano, Shiro

    2016-05-01

    Since July 2013, the first stand-alone Molten Salt Parabolic Trough (MSPT) demo plant, which was built in collaboration with Archimede Solar Energy and Chiyoda Corporation, is in operation, located adjacent to the Archimede Solar Energy (ASE) manufacturing plant in Massa Martana (Italy). During the two year's operating time frame, the management of the demo plant has shown that MSPT technology is a suitable and reliable option. Several O&M procedures and tests have been performed, as Heat Loss and Minimum Flow Test, with remarkable results confirming that this technology is ready to be extended to standard size CSP plant, if the plant design takes into account molten salt peculiarities. Additionally, the plant has been equipped on fall 2014 with a Steam Generator system by Chiyoda Corporation, in order to test even this important MSPT plant subsystem and to extend the solar field active time, overcoming the previous lack of an adequate thermal load. Here, a description of the plant improvements and the overall plant operation figures will be presented.

  3. Preparation of niobium carbide powder by electrochemical reduction in molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The niobium carbide powder was prepared via electrochemical reduction of the mixture of Nb2O5 and carbon in molten CaCl2–NaCl. The reaction pathway from the sintered precursor to the final product has been investigated. The effect of the working temperature on the reduction of the Nb2O5/C composite precursor was considered. The role of carbon during the electrochemical reduction of the composite pellet was discussed. The samples were analysed by XRD and SEM. The results indicated that the NbC powder was approximately 200 nm after the reduction. Nb2O5 was gradually reduced to Nb, and NbC was subsequently obtained by the reaction of carbon with Nb metal. In addition, Nb2O5 could spontaneously react with CaO in the melt to form a serious of calcium niobates. The participation of carbon was available for the efficiency of electro-reduction of Nb2O5. - Graphical abstract: Niobium carbide powder was electrochemically prepared in molten salt, and the reduction pathway was illustrated schematically. - Highlights: • NbC powder was prepared electrochemically in molten salt. • The working temperature was lower than that of carbothermic reduction. • The reduction pathway was discussed compared to direct electro-deoxidation of Nb2O5

  4. Corrosion Behavior of Pure Cr, Ni, and Fe Exposed to Molten Salts at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sotelo-Mazón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion resistance of pure Fe, Cr, and Ni materials exposed in NaVO3 molten salt at 700°C was evaluated in static air during 100 hours. The corrosion resistance was determined using potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential, and lineal polarization resistance. The conventional weight loss method (WLM was also used during 100 hours. The electrochemical results showed that Fe and Cr have a poor corrosion resistance, whereas pure Ni showed the best corrosion performance, which was supported by the passive layer of NiO formed on the metallic surface and the formation of Ni3V2O8 during the corrosion processes, which is a refractory compound with a higher melting point than that of NaVO3, which reduces the corrosivity of the molten salt. Also, the behavior of these materials was associated with the way in which their corresponding oxides were dissolved together with their type of corrosion attack. Through this study, it was confirmed that when materials suffer corrosion by a localized processes such as pitting, the WLM is not reliable, since a certain amount of corrosion products can be kept inside the pits. The corroded samples were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy.

  5. Electrochemical study of nickel from urea-acetamide-LiBr low-temperature molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CV results show that the charge transfer process of Ni(II)/Ni in urea-acetamide-LiBr is irreversible. • The reduction process is a single step two-electron transfer process. • Chronoamperometry indicates that the reaction on tungsten electrode involves progressive nucleation. • EDS and XRD analyses confirm that the obtained deposits are pure nickel. -- Abstract: The electrochemical behavior of nickel was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques at 353 K using a tungsten electrode in urea-acetamide-LiBr low-temperature molten salt. The cyclic voltammograms indicate that the reduction of Ni(II) to Ni proceeds via a single-step, two-electron transfer process. Chronoamperometric measurements show that the electrodeposition of nickel on the tungsten electrode involves three-dimensional (3D) progressive nucleation under diffusion-controlled growth at 353 K. Nickel coatings were prepared at different cathodic potentials (−0.70 to −0.85 V) and different temperatures (343–373 K) in urea-acetamide-LiBr molten salt. The deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM images reveal that uniform, dense, and compact deposits were obtained at more positive cathodic potentials within the temperature range of 343–363 K. The EDS and XRD analyses confirm that the obtained deposits are pure nickel

  6. Preparation of niobium carbide powder by electrochemical reduction in molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Qiushi [School of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Xu, Qian, E-mail: qianxu201@mail.neu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Meng, Jingchun; Lou, Taiping; Ning, Zhiqiang [School of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Qi, Yang [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Yu, Kai [School of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-10-25

    The niobium carbide powder was prepared via electrochemical reduction of the mixture of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and carbon in molten CaCl{sub 2}–NaCl. The reaction pathway from the sintered precursor to the final product has been investigated. The effect of the working temperature on the reduction of the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/C composite precursor was considered. The role of carbon during the electrochemical reduction of the composite pellet was discussed. The samples were analysed by XRD and SEM. The results indicated that the NbC powder was approximately 200 nm after the reduction. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} was gradually reduced to Nb, and NbC was subsequently obtained by the reaction of carbon with Nb metal. In addition, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} could spontaneously react with CaO in the melt to form a serious of calcium niobates. The participation of carbon was available for the efficiency of electro-reduction of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. - Graphical abstract: Niobium carbide powder was electrochemically prepared in molten salt, and the reduction pathway was illustrated schematically. - Highlights: • NbC powder was prepared electrochemically in molten salt. • The working temperature was lower than that of carbothermic reduction. • The reduction pathway was discussed compared to direct electro-deoxidation of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}.

  7. High Temperature Corrosion studies on Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welded Alloy C-276 in Molten Salt Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, M.; Arivarasu, M.; Arivazhagan, N.; Puneeth, T.; Sivakumar, N.; Murugan, B. Arul; Sathishkumar, M.; Sivalingam, S.

    2016-09-01

    Alloy C-276 is widely used in the power plant environment due to high strength and corrosion in highly aggressive environment. The investigation on high- temperature corrosion resistance of the alloy C-276 PCGTA weldment is necessary for prolonged service lifetime of the components used in corrosive environments. Investigation has been carried out on Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding by autogenous and different filler wires (ERNiCrMo-3 and ERNiCrMo-4) under molten state of K2SO4-60% NaCl environment at 675oC under cyclic condition. Thermogravimetric technique was used to establish the kinetics of corrosion. Weight gained in the molten salt reveals a steady-state parabolic rate law while the kinetics with salt deposits displays multi-stage growth rates. PCGTA ERNiCrMo-3 shows the higher parabolic constant compared to others. The scale formed on the weldment samples upon hot corrosion was characterized by using X-ray diffraction, SEM and EDAX analysis to understand the degradation mechanisms. From the results of the experiment the major phases are identified as Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and NiCr2O4. The result showed that weld fabricated by ERNiCrMo-3 found to be more prone to degradation than base metal and ERNiCrMo-4 filler wire due to higher segregation of alloying element of Mo and W in the weldment

  8. The mechanics of pressed-pellet separators in molten salt batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin Nicholas; Roberts, Christine Cardinal; Roberts, Scott Alan; Grillet, Anne

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological constitutive model that describes the macroscopic behavior of pressed-pellet materials used in molten salt batteries. Such materials include separators, cathodes, and anodes. The purpose of this model is to describe the inelastic deformation associated with the melting of a key constituent, the electrolyte. At room temperature, all constituents of these materials are solid and do not transport cations so that the battery is inert. As the battery is heated, the electrolyte, a constituent typically present in the separator and cathode, melts and conducts charge by flowing through the solid skeletons of the anode, cathode, and separator. The electrochemical circuit is closed in this hot state of the battery. The focus of this report is on the thermal-mechanical behavior of the separator, which typically exhibits the most deformation of the three pellets during the process of activating a molten salt battery. Separator materials are composed of a compressed mixture of a powdered electrolyte, an inert binder phase, and void space. When the electrolyte melts, macroscopically one observes both a change in volume and shape of the separator that depends on the applied boundary conditions during the melt transition. Although porous flow plays a critical role in the battery mechanics and electrochemistry, the focus of this report is on separator behavior under flow-free conditions in which the total mass of electrolyte is static within the pellet. Specific poromechanics effects such as capillary pressure, pressure-saturation, and electrolyte transport between layers are not considered. Instead, a phenomenological model is presented to describe all such behaviors including the melting transition of the electrolyte, loss of void space, and isochoric plasticity associated with the binder phase rearrangement. The model is appropriate for use finite element analysis under finite deformation and finite temperature change conditions. The model

  9. Status of benchmark calculations of the neutron characteristics of the cascade molten salt ADS for the nuclear waste incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, A.A.; Alekseev, P.N.; Subbotin, S.A.; Vasiliev, A.V.; Abagyan, L.P.; Alexeyev, N.I.; Gomin, E.A.; Ponomarev, L.I.; Kolyaskin, O.E.; Men' shikov, L.I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Kolesov, V.F.; Ivanin, I.A.; Zavialov, N.V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, RFNC-VNIIEF, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The facility for incineration of long-lived minor actinides and some dangerous fission products should be an important feature of the future nuclear power (NP). For many reasons the liquid-fuel reactor driven by accelerator can be considered as the perspective reactor- burner for radioactive waste. The fuel of such reactor is the fluoride molten salt composition with minor actinides (Np, Cm, Am) and some fission products ({sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, etc.). Preliminary analysis shows that the values of keff, calculated with different codes and nuclear data differ up to several percents for such fuel compositions. Reliable critical and subcritical benchmark experiments with molten salt fuel compositions with significant quantities of minor actinides are absent. One of the main tasks for the numerical study of this problem is the estimation of nuclear data for such fuel compositions and verification of the different numerical codes used for the calculation of keff, neutron spectra and reaction rates. It is especially important for the resonance region where experimental data are poor or absent. The calculation benchmark of the cascade subcritical molten salt reactor is developed. For the chosen nuclear fuel composition the comparison of the results obtained by three different Monte-Carlo codes (MCNP4A, MCU, and C95) using three different nuclear data libraries are presented. This report concerns the investigation of subcritical molten salt reactor unit main peculiarities carried out at the beginning of ISTC project 1486. (author)

  10. Status of benchmark calculations of the neutron characteristics of the cascade molten salt ADS for the nuclear waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The facility for incineration of long-lived minor actinides and some dangerous fission products should be an important feature of the future nuclear power (NP). For many reasons the liquid-fuel reactor driven by accelerator can be considered as the perspective reactor- burner for radioactive waste. The fuel of such reactor is the fluoride molten salt composition with minor actinides (Np, Cm, Am) and some fission products (99Tc, 129I, etc.). Preliminary analysis shows that the values of keff, calculated with different codes and nuclear data differ up to several percents for such fuel compositions. Reliable critical and subcritical benchmark experiments with molten salt fuel compositions with significant quantities of minor actinides are absent. One of the main tasks for the numerical study of this problem is the estimation of nuclear data for such fuel compositions and verification of the different numerical codes used for the calculation of keff, neutron spectra and reaction rates. It is especially important for the resonance region where experimental data are poor or absent. The calculation benchmark of the cascade subcritical molten salt reactor is developed. For the chosen nuclear fuel composition the comparison of the results obtained by three different Monte-Carlo codes (MCNP4A, MCU, and C95) using three different nuclear data libraries are presented. This report concerns the investigation of subcritical molten salt reactor unit main peculiarities carried out at the beginning of ISTC project 1486. (author)

  11. Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor (MSR) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary conceptual study has been made of the Modulator Stellarator Reactor (MSR) as a stedy-state, ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor. The MSR concept combines the physics of classic stellarator confinement with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4.8-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. Neither an economic analysis nor a detailed conceptual engineering design is presented here, as the primary intent of this scoping study is the elucidation of key physics tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties for the ultimate power-reactor embodiment

  12. Molten salt considerations for accelerator-driven subcritical fission to close the nuclear fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooby, Elizabeth; Adams, Marvin; Baty, Austin; Gerity, James; McIntyre, Peter; Melconian, Karie; Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Pogue, Nathaniel; Sattarov, Akhdiyor; Simpson, Michael; Tripathy, Prabhat; Tsevkov, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    The host salt selection, molecular modeling, physical chemistry, and processing chemistry are presented here for an accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS). The core is fueled solely with the transuranics (TRU) and long-lived fission products (LFP) from used nuclear fuel. The neutronics and salt composition are optimized to destroy the transuranics by fission and the long-lived fission products by transmutation. The cores are driven by proton beams from a strong-focusing cyclotron stack. One such ADSMS system can destroy the transuranics in the used nuclear fuel produced by a 1GWe conventional reactor. It uniquely provides a method to close the nuclear fuel cycle for green nuclear energy.

  13. Numerical Modelling of Induction Heating for a Molten Salts Pyrochemical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Xuan-Tuyen; Feraud, Jean-Pierre; Ode, Denis [CEA Marcoule: DTEC/SGCS/LGCI Bat. 57 B17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France); Du Terrail Couvat, Yves [SIMaP, Grenoble INP, CNRS: ENSEEG, BP 75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Technological developments in the pyro-chemistry program are required to allow choices for a reprocessing experiment on 100 g of spent nuclear fuel. In this context, a special device must be designed for the solid/gas reaction phases followed by actinide extraction and stripping in molten salt. This paper discusses a modelling approach for designing an induction furnace. Using this numerical approach is a good way to improve thermal performance of the device in terms of magnetic/thermal coupling phenomena. The influence of current frequency is also studied to give another view of the possibilities of an induction furnace. Electromagnetic forces are taken into account in a computational fluid dynamics code derived from a specifically developed exchange library. Induction heating systems are an example of a typical multi-physics problem involving numerically coupled equations. (authors)

  14. Electrochemical behavior of Cu in the (NaCl-KCl-CuCl)molten salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yungang LI; Jie LI; Kuai ZHANG; Limin LIU

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction mechanism and electrocrystallization process of Cu on copper electrode in the eutectic NaC1-KC1-CuC1 molten salt were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry,chronopotentiometry and chronoamperometry technique at 710 ℃.The results show that the electrochemical reaction process of Cu is a quasi-reversible process mix-controlled by Cu+ diffusion rate and electron transport rate; the electrochemical reduction mechanism is Cu++e→Cu; the electrocrystallization process of copper is an instantaneous hemispheroid three-dimensional nucleation process; the Cu+ diffusion coefficient is 4.3×10-4 cm2·s-1 under the experimental conditions.

  15. Molten-salt Synthesis and Properties of ZnS with Hexagonal Prism Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU, Jin-Song; JI, Guang-Bin; LI, Zi-Quan; CAO, Jie-Ming; ZHENG, Ming-Bo; KE, Xing-Fei

    2007-01-01

    ZnS with hexagonal prism morphology has been synthesized successfully by molten-salt method with ZnS nanoparticles as precursors, and the ZnS nanoparticles were prepared by one-step solid-state reaction of Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O with Na2S·9H2O at ambient temperature. Crystal structure and morphology of the product were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and HRTEM. Ultraviolet-visible optical absorption spectrum of the ZnS hexagonal prism shows a distinct red shift from that of bulk ZnS crystals and photoluminescence spectrum exhibits strong emissions at 380 and 500 nm, respectively. Further experiments were designed and the formation mechanism of the ZnS hexagonal prism has been also discussed in brief.

  16. Molten Salt Heat Transport Loop: Materials Corrosion and Heat Transfer Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Kumar Sridharan; Dr. Mark Anderson; Dr. Michael Corradini; Dr. Todd Allen; Luke Olson; James Ambrosek; Daniel Ludwig

    2008-07-09

    An experimental system for corrosion testing of candidate materials in molten FLiNaK salt at 850 degree C has been designed and constructed. While molten FLiNaK salt was the focus of this study, the system can be utilized for evaluation of materials in other molten salts that may be of interest in the future. Using this system, the corrosion performance of a number of code-certified alloys of interest to NGNP as well as the efficacy of Ni-electroplating have been investigated. The mechanisums underlying corrosion processes have been elucidated using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the materials after the corrosion tests, as well as by the post-corrosion analysis of the salts using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques.

  17. Nuclear-grade zirconium prepared by combining combustion synthesis with molten-salt electrorefining technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Graduate School of Green Energy Technology, Chungnam National University, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nersisyan, Hayk H. [Rapidly Solidified Materials Research Institute, Chungnam National University, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyung-Tae [Graduate School of Green Energy Technology, Chungnam National University, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung-Bin; Kim, Jeong-Guk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Min [Technical Research Laboratory, Poongsan Corporation, 2222-2 Sandae-ri, Angang-oup, Kyungju, Kyungbuk 780-775 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Hyeon, E-mail: jonglee@cnu.ac.kr [Graduate School of Green Energy Technology, Chungnam National University, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Zirconium has a low absorption cross-section for neutrons, which makes it an ideal material for use in nuclear reactor applications. However, hafnium typically contained in zirconium causes it to be far less useful for nuclear reactor materials because of its high neutron-absorbing properties. In the present study, a novel effective method has been developed for the production of hafnium-free zirconium. The process includes two main stages: magnesio-thermic reduction of ZrSiO{sub 4} under a combustion mode, to produce zirconium silicide (ZrSi), and recovery of hafnium-free zirconium by molten-salt electrorefining. It was found that, depending on the electrorefining procedure, it is possible to produce zirconium powder with a low hafnium content: 70 ppm, determined by ICP-AES analysis.

  18. Molten-salt synthesis and characterization of Bi-substituted yttrium garnet nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.J. [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, SIP, Suzhou 215123 (China); Hong, R.Y. [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, SIP, Suzhou 215123 (China); State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, CAS, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: rhong@suda.edu.cn; Wang, L.S. [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, SIP, Suzhou 215123 (China); Di, G.Q. [Department of Physics, Soochow University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Li, H.Z. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, CAS, Beijing 100080 (China); Xu, B. [Suzhou Nanotec Inc., Suzhou 215123 (China); Zheng, Y. [Chem. Eng. Dept., Univ. of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B., E3B 5A3 Canada (Canada)], E-mail: yzheng@unb.ca; Wei, D.G. [Center for Nanoscale Sys., School of Eng. and Appl. Sci., Harvard Univ., 11 Oxford St., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)], E-mail: dougwei@deas.harvard.edu

    2009-07-29

    Bi-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi-YIG, Bi{sub 1.8}Y{sub 1.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by molten-salt method in NaCl-KCl flux at 650 deg. C. Subsequently, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometer tests were used to characterize the phase, morphology, size distribution and magnetic properties of the as-prepared Bi-YIG nanoparticles, respectively. Moreover, the transparence and Faraday rotation of the PMMA slices filled with Bi-YIG nanoparticles were investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer and Faraday rotation meter, respectively.

  19. Expedited demonstration of molten salt mixed waste treatment technology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report discusses the molten salt mixed waste project in terms of the various subtasks established. Subtask 1: Carbon monoxide emissions; Establish a salt recycle schedule and/or a strategy for off-gas control for MWMF that keeps carbon monoxide emission below 100 ppm on an hourly averaged basis. Subtask 2: Salt melt viscosity; Experiments are conducted to determine salt viscosity as a function of ash composition, ash concentration, temperature, and time. Subtask 3: Determine that the amount of sodium carbonate entrained in the off-gas is minimal, and that any deposited salt can easily be removed form the piping using a soot blower or other means. Subtask 4: The provision of at least one final waste form that meets the waste acceptance criteria of a landfill that will take the waste. This report discusses the progress made in each of these areas

  20. Determination and correlation of mass transfer coefficients in a stirred cell. [Molten Salt Breeder Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, J.; Bloxom, S.R.; Keeler, J.B.; Roth, S.R.

    1975-12-17

    In the proposed Molten Salt Breeder Reactor flowsheet, a fraction of the rare earth fission products is removed from the fuel salt in mass transfer cells. To obtain design parameters for this extraction, the effect of cell size, blade diameter, phase volume, and agitation rate on the mass transfer for a high density ratio system (mercury/water) in nondispersing square cross section contactors was determined. Aqueous side mass transfer coefficients were measured by polarography over a wide range of operating conditions. Correlations for the experimental mass transfer coefficients as functions of the operating parameters are presented. Several techniques for measuring mercury-side mass transfer coefficients were evaluated and a new one is recommended. (auth)

  1. A new form of MgTa2O6 obtained by the molten salt method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok K Ganguli; Shikha Nangia; A Meganathan Thirumala; Pratibha L Gai

    2006-01-01

    Using molten salt route (with NaCl/KCl as the salt) we have been able to synthesize a new form of magnesium tantalate at 850°C. Powder X-ray diffraction data could be indexed on an orthorhombic unit cell with lattice parameters, `' = 15.36(1) Å, ‘’ = 13.38(1) Å and ‘’ = 12.10(1) Å. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction studies confirm the results obtained by X-ray studies. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy helps ascertain the composition of MgTa2O6. The title compound shows a dielectric constant of ∼ 24 with a low dielectric loss of 0.006 at 100 kHz at room temperature. Dielectric constant is nearly unchanged with rise in temperature while the loss shows a very marginal increase (0.007 at 300°C).

  2. Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Simpson, Mike [Idaho National Lab., (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500 deg C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal.

  3. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a 238Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of 238Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of 238Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious 238Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of 238Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further 238Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious 238Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose 238Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment

  4. Molten salt synthesis of sodium lithium titanium oxide anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, S.Y., E-mail: yshy2004@hotmail.com [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Feng, C.Q. [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wu, S.J.; Liu, H.L.; Ke, B.Q. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Zhang, K.L. [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, D.H. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Catalysis and Material Science, College of Chemistry and Material Science, South Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} has been successfully synthesized via a molten salt route. • Calcination temperature is an important effect on the component and microstructure of the product. • Pure phase Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} could be obtained at 700 °C for 2 h. - Abstract: The sodium lithium titanium oxide with composition Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 14} has been synthesized by a molten salt synthesis method using sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixture as a flux medium. Synthetic variables on the synthesis, such as sintering temperature, sintering time and the amount of lithium carbonate, were intensively investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy images of the reaction products indicates that pure phase sodium lithium titanium oxide has been obtained at 700 °C, and impure phase sodium hexatitanate with whiskers produced at higher temperature due to lithium evaporative losses. The results of cyclic voltammetry and discharge–charge tests demonstrate that the synthesized products prepared at various temperatures exhibited electrochemical diversities due to the difference of the components. And the sample obtained at 700 °C revealed highly reversible insertion and extraction of Li{sup +} and displayed a single potential plateau at around 1.3 V. The product obtained at 700 °C for 2 h exhibits good cycling properties and retains the specific capacity of 62 mAh g{sup −1} after 500 cycles.

  5. Experimental and theoretical studies in Molten Salt Natural Circulation Loop (MSNCL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Temperature Reactors (HTR) and solar thermal power plants use molten salt as a coolant, as it has low melting point and high boiling point, enabling us to operate the system at low pressure. Molten fluoride salt and molten nitrate salt are proposed as a candidate coolant for High Temperature Reactors (HTR) and solar power plant respectively. BARC is developing a 600 MWth pebble bed high temperature reactor, cooled by natural circulation of fluoride salt and capable of supplying process heat at 1000°C to facilitate hydrogen production by splitting water. Beside this, BARC is also developing a 2MWe solar power tower system using molten nitrate salt. With these requirements, a Molten Salt Natural Circulation Loop (MSNCL) has been designed, fabricated, installed and commissioned in Hall-7, BARC for thermal hydraulic, instrumentation development and material compatibility related studies. Steady state natural circulation experiments with molten nitrate salt (mixture of NaNO3 and KNO3 in 60:40 ratio) have been carried out in the loop at different power level. Various transients viz. startup of natural circulation, step power change, loss of heat sink and heater trip has also been studied in the loop. A well known steady state correlation given by Vijayan et. al. has been compared with experimental data. In-house developed code LeBENC has also been validated against all steady state and transient experimental results. The detailed description of MSNCL, steady state and transient experimental results and validation of in-house developed code LeBENC have been described in this report. (author)

  6. NMR insights on the properties of ZnCl2 molten salt hydrate medium through its interaction with SnCl4 and fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Yan; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Wang, Yingxiong;

    2014-01-01

    formation during the biomass conversion was evaluated. The ion complex composed by Sn4+ and Zn2+ indicated that there is a synergic catalytic effect between these two Lewis acid ions. 13C NMR spectra of fructose in different ZnCl2 molten salt hydrate concentrations revealed that the concentration of β......The solvent properties of ZnCl2 molten salt medium and its synergic effect with the Lewis acid catalyst, Sn4+, for biomass conversion, were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance. The tautomeric distribution of fructose in the ZnCl2 molten salt medium was examined, and its effect for humins...

  7. New design for CSP plant with direct-steam solar receiver and molten-salt storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganany, Alon; Hadad, Itay

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the evolution of BrightSource's Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology - from a solar steam generator (SRSG) with no Thermal Energy Storage (TES) to SRSG with TES to Extended-cycle TES. The paper discusses SRSG with TES technology, and the capabilities of this solution are compared with those of an MSR plant.

  8. Neutron Flux and Th-U Conversion Ratio for Graphite-Molten Salt Reactor%石墨-熔盐反应堆堆芯中子通量与钍铀转换比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓斌; 谢芹; 姚泽恩; 陈达

    2012-01-01

    作为获国际认可的第四代核电站反应堆堆型之一的熔盐堆(Molten salt reactor,MSR),具有固有安全性高、经济性好、核资源可持续发展以及易于防止核扩散等优点.针对石墨-熔盐零功率堆的几何参数,利用蒙特卡罗计算程序MCNP5建立了物理计算模型,计算临界情况下堆芯径向、轴向中子通量及增殖区厚度与Th-U转换比(Conversion ratio,CR)的关系.结果表明,(1)石墨-熔盐零功率堆堆芯中子通量密度分布较为平坦;(2)石墨-熔盐零功率堆反射层厚度和增殖区厚度在一定范围内,CR随反射层厚度或增殖区厚度的增加而增加,当超出该范围,CR不再随反射层厚度或增殖区厚度的增加而明显增加.%The molten salt reactor (MSR) is the only one liquid-fuel reactor in six candidates of Generation IV advanced nuclear reactor, which is characterized by remarkable advantages in safety, economics and sustainable development of the fissile resource and proliferation resistance of nuclear energy. A detailed computational model using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 is set up, in order to study about radical/axis neutron flux and the influences of the reflect thickness or blanket thickness on the conversion ratio (CR) of the Th-U fuel cycle. Main results obtained in this calculation show that: (1) The neutron flux distribution of the graphite-molten zero power reactor core is relatively smooth. (2) CR will increase with the increasing of the thickness of reflector and/or the thickness of breeding region in a certain range and when it exceeds this range CR cannot get increased significantly.

  9. Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material

  10. Preparation of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires via molten salt mediated carbothermal reduction route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju; Yan, Shuai; Jia, Quanli; Huang, Juntong; Lin, Liangxu; Zhang, Shaowei

    2016-06-01

    The growth of silicon carbide (SiC) crystal generally requires a high temperature, especially when low quality industrial wastes are used as the starting raw materials. In this work, SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires (NWs) were synthesized from low cost silica fume and sucrose via a molten salt mediated carbothermal reduction (CR) route. The molten salt was found to be effective in promoting the SiC growth and lowering the synthesis temperature. The resultant NWs exhibited a heterostructure composed of a 3C-SiC core of 100 nm in diameter and a 5-10 nm thick amorphous SiO2 shell layer. The photoluminescence spectrum of the achieved SiC NWs displayed a significant blue shift (a dominant luminescence at round 422 nm), which suggested that they were high quality and could be a promising candidate material for future optoelectronic applications.

  11. New operating strategies for molten salt in line focusing solar fields - Daily drainage and solar receiver preheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, Martin; Meyer-Grünefeldt, Mirko; Keller, Lothar

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays molten salt is efficiently used in point concentrating solar thermal power plants. Line focusing systems still have the disadvantage of elevated heat losses at night because of active freeze protection of the solar field piping system. In order to achieve an efficient operation of line focusing solar power plants using molten salt, a new plant design and a novel operating strategy is developed for Linear Fresnel- and Parabolic Trough power plants. Daily vespertine drainage of the solar field piping and daily matutinal refilling of the solar preheated absorber tubes eliminate the need of nocturnal heating of the solar field and reduce nocturnal heat losses to a minimum. The feasibility of this new operating strategy with all its sub-steps has been demonstrated experimentally.

  12. Surface Morphology and Microstructure of Zinc Deposit From Imidazole with Zinc Chloride Low Temperature Molten Salt Electrolyte in The Presence of Aluminium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugasigamani Srinivasan, M. Selvam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature molten salts have variety of applications in organic synthesis, catalytic processing, batteries and electrode position due to their air and water stability. They have wide potential window for their applications in voltage and temperature and hence there is a possibility to deposit metals which could not be deposited from aqueous electrolytes. Our aim and scope of our research was to deposit zinc from low temperature molten salt electrolyte (LTMS containing zinc salt in the presence of aluminium chloride at different current densities and to qualify the nature of deposits. We could identify the effect of current density on the deposit at low temperature molten salt electrolyte by analysing the nature of deposits using different instrumental techniques. Compact, adherent, dense fine grained deposits of zinc with average grain size of 40-150 nm could be obtained from low temperature molten salt electrolyte. (LTMS

  13. Effects assessment of 10 functioning years on the main components of the molten salt PCS experimental facility of ENEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Walter; Di Ascenzi, Primo; Rinaldi, Luca; Tarquini, Pietro; Fabrizi, Fabrizio

    2016-05-01

    In the frame of the Solar Thermodynamic Laboratory, ENEA has improved CSP Parabolic Trough technologies by adopting new advanced solutions for linear tube receivers and by implementing a binary mixture of molten salt (60% NaNO3 and 40% KNO3) [1] as both heat transfer fluid and heat storage medium in solar field and in storage tanks, thus allowing the solar plants to operate at high temperatures up to 550°C. Further improvements have regarded parabolic mirror collectors, piping and process instrumentation. All the innovative components developed by ENEA, together with other standard parts of the plant, have been tested and qualified under actual solar operating conditions on the PCS experimental facility at the ENEA Casaccia Research Center in Rome (Italy). The PCS (Prova Collettori Solari, i.e. Test of Solar Collectors) facility is the main testing loop built by ENEA and it is unique in the world for what concerns the high operating temperature and the fluid used (mixture of molten salt). It consists in one line of parabolic trough collectors (test section of 100 m long life-size solar collectors) using, as heat transfer fluid, the aforesaid binary mixture of molten salt up to 10 bar, at high temperature in the range 270° and 550°C and a flow rate up to 6.5 kg/s. It has been working since early 2004 [2] till now; it consists in a unique closed loop, and it is totally instrumented. In this paper the effects of over ten years qualification tests on the pressurized tank will be presented, together with the characterization of the thermal losses of the piping of the molten salt circuit, and some observations performed on the PCS facility during its first ten years of operation.

  14. The procedure and results of calculations of the equilibrium isotopic composition of a demonstration subcritical molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevinitsa, V. A., E-mail: Neviniza-VA@nrcki.ru; Dudnikov, A. A.; Blandinskiy, V. Yu.; Balanin, A. L.; Alekseev, P. N. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu., E-mail: yuri.titarenko@itep.ru [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A subcritical molten salt reactor with an external neutron source is studied computationally as a facility for incineration and transmutation of minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel of reactors of VVER-1000 type and for producing {sup 233}U from {sup 232}Th. The reactor configuration is chosen, the requirements to be imposed on the external neutron source are formulated, and the equilibrium isotopic composition of heavy nuclides and the key parameters of the fuel cycle are calculated.

  15. The procedure and results of calculations of the equilibrium isotopic composition of a demonstration subcritical molten salt reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevinitsa, V. A.; Dudnikov, A. A.; Blandinskiy, V. Yu.; Balanin, A. L.; Alekseev, P. N.; Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    A subcritical molten salt reactor with an external neutron source is studied computationally as a facility for incineration and transmutation of minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel of reactors of VVER-1000 type and for producing 233U from 232Th. The reactor configuration is chosen, the requirements to be imposed on the external neutron source are formulated, and the equilibrium isotopic composition of heavy nuclides and the key parameters of the fuel cycle are calculated.

  16. Molten-salt reactors for efficient nuclear fuel utilization without plutonium separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, J.R.; Grimes, W.R.; Rhoades, W.A.; Dearing, J.F.

    1978-08-01

    Research and development studies of molten-salt reactors (MSRs) for special purposes have been under way since 1947 and for possible application as possible commercial nuclear electric power generators since 1956. For the latter, the previous emphasis has been on breeding performance and low fissile inventory to help limit the demand on nonrenewable natural resources (uranium) in an expanding nuclear economy; little or no thought has been given to alternative uses of nuclear fuels such as proliferation of nuclear explosives. As a consequence, the conceptual designs that evolved (e.g., the ORNL reference design MSBR) all favored enriched /sup 233/U as fuel with an on-site chemical processing facility from which portions of that fuel could be diverted fairly easily. With the current interest in limiting the proliferation potential of nuclear electric power systems, a redirected study of MSRs was undertaken in an effort to identify conceptual systems that would be attractive in this situation. It appears that practical proliferation-resistant MSRs could be designed and built, and the report describes a particularly attractive break-even breeder that includes an on-site chemical reprocessing facility within the reactor primary containment.

  17. Molten-salt reactors for efficient nuclear fuel utilization without plutonium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development studies of molten-salt reactors (MSRs) for special purposes have been under way since 1947 and for possible application as possible commercial nuclear electric power generators since 1956. For the latter, the previous emphasis has been on breeding performance and low fissile inventory to help limit the demand on nonrenewable natural resources (uranium) in an expanding nuclear economy; little or no thought has been given to alternative uses of nuclear fuels such as proliferation of nuclear explosives. As a consequence, the conceptual designs that evolved (e.g., the ORNL reference design MSBR) all favored enriched 233U as fuel with an on-site chemical processing facility from which portions of that fuel could be diverted fairly easily. With the current interest in limiting the proliferation potential of nuclear electric power systems, a redirected study of MSRs was undertaken in an effort to identify conceptual systems that would be attractive in this situation. It appears that practical proliferation-resistant MSRs could be designed and built, and the report describes a particularly attractive break-even breeder that includes an on-site chemical reprocessing facility within the reactor primary containment

  18. Customer interface document for the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettit, Kathleen; Kolb, William J.; Gill, David Dennis; Briggs, Ronald D.

    2012-03-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL is a test capability that allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt. The components tested can range from materials samples, to individual components such as flex hoses, ball joints, and valves, up to full solar collecting systems such as central receiver panels, parabolic troughs, or linear Fresnel systems. MSTL provides realistic conditions similar to a portion of a concentrating solar power facility. The facility currently uses 60/40 nitrate 'solar salt' and can circulate the salt at pressure up to 600psi, temperature to 585 C, and flow rate of 400-600GPM depending on temperature. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for customers to evaluate the applicability to their testing needs, and to provide an outline of expectations for conducting testing on MSTL. The document can serve as the basis for testing agreements including Work for Others (WFO) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA). While this document provides the basis for these agreements and describes some of the requirements for testing using MSTL and on the site at Sandia, the document is not sufficient by itself as a test agreement. The document, however, does provide customers with a uniform set of information to begin the test planning process.

  19. TiB2 coating formed on nickel substrates by electroplating in molten salt of fluoride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Jin-ming; GUO Zhong-cheng; HAN Xia-yun

    2004-01-01

    The TiB2 coatings deposited over nickel substrate by electroplating was investigated, which is in molten salt of a fluoride mixture involving KF, NaF, K2 TiF6 and KBF4. Effects of temperature, cathodic current density (Jc) and duration on the coating's formation were examined. The composition, morphology and structure of the coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the coatings, with black, smooth and uniform appearance, are composed of predominating TiB2 and small amounts of nickel titanium oxide (Ni0.75 Ti0.125 O). The coatings show a nodular morphology and the grain size is dependent on the Jc and ranges about 1 - 10 μm. There is a linear relationship between the coating's thickness and the time of electrolysis within certain duration range. The reduction of the potassium can take place simultaneously with the electrochemical synthesis of TiB2 as the Jc is in excess of certain level. The hardness of the TiB2 coatings is likely to be deteriorated due to the presence of potassium and Ni0.75Ti0.125 O in the coatings.

  20. Electrodeposition of metallic tungsten coating from binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tungsten is considered a promising plasma facing armor material for future fusion devices. An electrodeposited metallic tungsten coating from Na2WO4–WO3 binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel (LAS) substrate was investigated in this paper. Tungsten coatings were deposited under various pulsed currents conditions at 1173 K in atmosphere. Cathodic current density and pulsed duty cycle were investigated for pulsed current electrolysis. The crystal structure and microstructure of tungsten coatings were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy X-ray dispersive analysis techniques. The results indicated that pulsed current density and duty cycle significantly influence tungsten nucleation and electro-crystallization phenomena. The average grain size of the coating becomes much larger with increasing cathodic current density, which demonstrates that appropriate high cathodic current density can accelerate the growth of grains on the surface of the substrate. The micro-hardness of tungsten coatings increases with the increasing thickness of coatings; the maximum micro-hardness is 482 HV. The prepared tungsten coatings have a smooth surface, a porosity of less than 1%, and an oxygen content of 0.024 wt%

  1. Direct Conversion of Greenhouse Gas CO2 into Graphene via Molten Salts Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liwen; Song, Yang; Jiao, Shuqiang; Liu, Yingjun; Ge, Jianbang; Jiao, Handong; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Junxiang; Zhu, Hongmin; Fray, Derek J

    2016-03-21

    Producing graphene through the electrochemical reduction of CO2 remains a great challenge, which requires precise control of the reaction kinetics, such as diffusivities of multiple ions, solubility of various gases, and the nucleation/growth of carbon on a surface. Here, graphene was successfully created from the greenhouse gas CO2 using molten salts. The results showed that CO2 could be effectively fixed by oxygen ions in CaCl2-NaCl-CaO melts to form carbonate ions, and subsequently electrochemically split into graphene on a stainless steel cathode; O2 gas was produced at the RuO2-TiO2 inert anode. The formation of graphene in this manner can be ascribed to the catalysis of active Fe, Ni, and Cu atoms at the surface of the cathode and the microexplosion effect through evolution of CO in between graphite layers. This finding may lead to a new generation of proceedures for the synthesis of high value-added products from CO2, which may also contribute to the establishment of a low-carbon and sustainable world. PMID:26871684

  2. Engineering development studies for molten-salt breeder reactor processing No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A water--mercury system was used to study the effect of geometric variations on mass transfer rates in rectangular contractors similar to those proposed for the molten-salt breeder reactor (MSBR) fuel reprocessing scheme. Since mass transfer rates were not accurately predicted by the Lewis correlation, other correlations were investigated. A correlation which was found to fit the experimental results is given. Mass transfer rates are being measured in a fluoride salt--bismuth contactor. Experimental results indicate that the mass transfer rates in the salt--bismuth system fall between the Lewis correlation and the modified correlation given above. Autoresistance heating tests were continued in the fluorinator mock-up using LiF--BeF2--ThF4 (72-16-12 mole percent) salt. The equipment was returned to operating condition, and five experiments were run. Although correct steady-state operation was not achieved, the results were encouraging. A two-dimensional electrical analog was constructed to study current flow through the electrode sidearm and other critical areas of the test vessel. These studies indicate that no regions of abnormally high current density existed in the first nine runs with the present autoresistance heating equipment. Localized heating had previously been the suspected cause for the failure to achieve proper operation of this equipment. (U.S.)

  3. Conceptual design characteristics of a denatured molten-salt reactor with once-through fueling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, J.R.; Bauman, H.F.; Dearing, J.F.; Grimes, W.R.; McCoy, H.E.; Rhoades, W.A.

    1980-07-01

    A study was made to examine the conceptual feasibility of a molten-salt power reactor fueled with denatured /sup 235/U and operated with a minimum of chemical processing. Because such a reactor would not have a positive breeding gain, reductions in the fuel conversion ratio were allowed in the design to achieve other potentially favorable characteristics for the reactor. A conceptual core design was developed in which the power density was low enough to allow a 30-year life expectancy of the moderator graphite with a fluence limit of 3 x 10/sup 26/ neutrons/m/sup 2/ (E > 50 keV). This reactor could be made critical with about 3450 kg of 20% enriched /sup 235/U and operated for 30 years with routine additions of denatured /sup 235/U and no chemical processing for removal of fission products. A review of the chemical considerations assoicated with the conceptual fuel cycle indicates that no substantial difficulties would be expected if the soluble fission products and higher actinides were allowed to remain in the fuel salt for the life of the plant.

  4. Molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood using an electrostatic precipitator for oil collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi S. Nygård

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A tubular electrostatic precipitator (ESP was designed and tested for collection of pyrolysis oil in molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood (0.5-2 mm. The voltage-current (V-I characteristics were studied, showing most stable performance of the ESP when N2 was utilized as inert gas. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out in FLiNaK and (LiNaK2CO3 over the temperature range of 450-600 ℃. The highest yields of pyrolysis oil were achieved in FLiNaK, with a maximum of 34.2 wt% at 500 ℃, followed by a decrease with increasing reactor temperature. The temperature had nearly no effect on the oil yield for pyrolysis in (LiNaK2CO3 (19.0-22.5 wt%. Possible hydration reactions and formation of HF gas during FLiNaK pyrolysis were investigated by simulations (HSC Chemistry software and measurements of the outlet gas (FTIR, but no significant amounts of HF were detected.

  5. Tungsten coating prepared on molybdenum substrate by electrodeposition from molten salt in air atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Yingchun, E-mail: zycustb@163.com; Sun, Ningbo; Leng, Jiaxun

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings were electroplated on molybdenum substrate for the first time. • The electrodeposition was studied in the air atmosphere. • The coating has columnar structure with preferential growth orientation of (1 1 0). • The columnar structure was disappeared after high-temperature annealing. • The coating has an extremely low oxygen content with the value of 0.032 wt%. - Abstract: Compact and smooth tungsten coating on molybdenum substrate was obtained by electrodeposition from Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt at 1173 K in atmosphere. Microstructure, morphology and properties were performed on the tungsten coating. The tungsten coating had columnar structure with the preferential growth orientation of (2 0 0). There was about 2 μm thick diffusion layer of tungsten in the molybdenum substrate. The bending test and thermal shock test showed the tungsten coating had good adhesion with the molybdenum substrate. The microhardness of the coating was about 492 HV and the oxygen content of the coating was 0.032 wt%. The high-temperature could enhance the high-temperature oxidation resistance and bond strength of the tungsten coating.

  6. A final report on the Phase 1 testing of a molten-salt cavity receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, J M [ed.; Smith, D C [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States). Nuclear Equipment Div.

    1992-05-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and testing of a solar central receiver using molten nitrate salt as a heat exchange fluid. Design studies for large commercial plants (30--100 MWe) have shown molten salt to be an excellent fluid for solar thermal plants as it allows for efficient thermal storage. Plant design studies concluded that an advanced receiver test was required to address uncertainties not covered in prior receiver tests. This recommendation led to the current test program managed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy. The 4.5 MWt receiver is installed at Sandia National Laboratories' Central Receiver Test Facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The receiver incorporates features of large commercial receiver designs. This report describes the receiver's configuration, heat absorption surface (design and sizing), the structure and supporting systems, and the methods for control. The receiver was solar tested during a six-month period at the Central Receiver Test Facility in Albuquerque, NM. The purpose of the testing was to characterize the operational capabilities of the receiver under a number of solar operating and stand-by conditions. This testing consisted of initial check-out of the systems, followed by steady-state performance, transient receiver operation, receiver operation in clouds, receiver thermal loss testing, receiver start-up operation, and overnight thermal conditioning tests. This report describes the design, fabrication, and results of testing of the receiver.

  7. A descriptive model of the molten salt reactor experiment after shutdown: Review of FY 1995 progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.; Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    During FY 1995 considerable progress was made toward gaining a better understanding of the chemistry and transport processes that continue to govern the behavior of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE). As measurements in the MSRE proceed, laboratory studies continue, and better analyses are available, our understanding of the state of the MSRE and the best path toward remediation improves. Because of the immediate concern about the deposit in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB), laboratory studies in the past year focused on carbon-fluorine chemistry. Secondary efforts were directed toward investigation of gas generation from MSRE salts by both radiolytic and nonradiolytic pathways. In addition to the laboratory studies, field measurements at the MSRE provided the basis for estimating the inventory of uranium and fluorine in the ACB. Analysis of both temperature and radiation measurements provided independent and consistent estimates of about 2.6 kg of uranium deposited in the top of the ACB. Further analysis efforts included a refinement in the estimates of the fuel- salt source term, the deposited decay energy, and the projected rate of radiolytic gas generation. This report also provides the background material necessary to explain new developments and to review areas of particular interest. The detailed history of the MSRE is extensively documented and is cited where appropriate. This work is also intended to update and complement the more recent MSRE assessment reports.

  8. Thermal analysis to support decommissioning of the molten salt reactor experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulfredge, C.D.; Morris, D.G.; Park, J.E.; Williams, P.T.

    1996-06-01

    As part of the decommissioning process for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, several thermal-sciences issues were addressed. Apparently a mixture of UF{sub 6} and F{sub 2} had diffused into the upper portion of one charcoal column in the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB), leading to radiative decay heating and possible chemical reaction sources. A proposed interim corrective action was planned to remove the water from the ACB cell to reduce criticality and reactivity concerns and then fill the ACB cell with an inert material. This report describes design of a thermocouple probe to obtain temperature measurements for mapping the uranium deposit, as well as development of steady-state and transient numerical models for the heat transfer inside the charcoal column. Additional numerical modeling was done to support filling of the ACB cell. Results from this work were used to develop procedures for meeting the goals of the MSRE Remediation Project without exceeding appropriate thermal limits.

  9. A preliminary assessment of salt and radionuclide volatilities in the molten salt processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have applied thermodynamic methods to analyze the volatilities of plutonium (Pu), uranium (U), iodine (I), and salts from molten salt processor baths in bench-scale runs conducted by Rockwell International on oxidation of laboratory mixed waste. Good agreement is obtained between calculated and observed volatilities. The volatilizing species of Pu and U have been identified as gaseous PuO2(OH)2 and UO2(OH)2, both with volatilities that are strongly dependent upon temperature, chemical activity of condensed phase Pu and U, and steam pressure. Hence, for example, orders of magnitude reduction can be achieved in Pu and U volatilities by operating the bath at lower temperatures. Iodine is found to volatilize from the bath as gaseous sodium iodide (NaI) but a small portion of the NaI is converted to gaseous I2 during cooldown of the off-gas. Observations by Rockwell of trace amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl) particulates in the off-gas as a result of NaCl volatilization from the bath are confirmed by our calculations. 24 refs., 1 fig., 16 tabs

  10. Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schuller; Frank Little; Darren Malik; Matt Betts; Qian Shao; Jun Luo; Wan Zhong; Sandhya Shankar; Ashwin Padmanaban

    2012-03-30

    We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials, including the specific heat, thermal conductivity, latent heat, and melting point. We also assessed the stability of the composite material with repeated thermal cycling and the effects of adding the nanoparticles on the corrosion of stainless steel by the composite salt. Our results indicate that stable, repeatable 25-50% improvements in specific heat are possible for these materials. We found that using these composite salts as the thermal energy storage material for a concentrating solar thermal power system can reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 10-20%. We conclude that these materials are worth further development and inclusion in future concentrating solar power systems.

  11. A study of metallic coatings obtained by electrolysis of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An appropriate technique has been developed for obtaining compact metallic coatings from electrolysis of molten salts. Through the use of this method, it has been possible to produce pure metal deposits which, until now, has been extremely difficult to do. The apparatus used and the main steps of the process such as dehydration of the solvant, degassing of the equipment, and starting of the electrolytic process, are first described. This is followed by a discussion of the deposits of the metals beryllium, uranium, tantalum and tungsten obtained from electrolysis of molten fluorides at temperatures between 600 and 8000C. The metal coatings so obtained are homogeneous and show continuity, their thicknesses varying from a few microns to a millimeter or more. They have been studied by measurements. As potential applications of this new technique, one can mention the growth of diffusion barriers and the production of cathodes for thermoionic emission. The method can also be used for electroforming. An intermetallic diffusion between the deposit and the substrate has been observed in some cases. The advantage of the technique of melt electrolysis in obtaining metal coatings of enhanced thicknesses is illustrated by taking the beryllium-nickel system as an example. It is shown that the thickness obtained is proportional to the square root of growth time and is about 6 to 8 times larger than that obtained by conventional techniques

  12. Estimating steady state and transient characteristics of molten salt natural circulation loop using CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steady state and transient characteristics of a molten salt natural circulation loop (NCL) are obtained by 3D CFD simulations. The working fluid is a mixture of NaNO3 and KNO3 in 60:40 ratio. Simulation is performed using PHOENICS CFD software. The computational domain is discretized by a body fitted grid generated using in-built mesh generator. The CFD model includes primary side. Primary side fluid is subjected to heat addition in heater section, heat loss to ambient (in piping connecting heater and cooler) and to secondary side (in cooler section). Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations are solved along with the standard k-ε turbulence model. Validation of the model is done by comparing the computed steady state Reynolds number with that predicted by various correlations proposed previously. Transient simulations were carried out to study the flow initiations transients for different heater powers and different configurations. Similarly the ''power raising'' transient is computed and compared with in-house experimental data. It is found that, using detailed information obtained from 3D transient CFD simulations, it is possible to understand the physics of oscillatory flow patterns obtained in the loop under certain conditions.

  13. The chemistry of molten salt mixtures: application to the reductive extraction of lanthanides and actinides by a liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a process of An/Ln separation by liquid - liquid extraction can be used for on-line purification of the molten salt in a molten salt nuclear reactor (Generation IV) as well as reprocessing various spent fuels. In order to establish the chemical properties of An and Ln in molten salt mediums, E - pO2 - diagrams were established for the relevant chemical elements. With the purpose of checking the possibilities of separating the An from Ln, the real activity coefficients in liquid metals were measured. An experimental protocol was developed and validated on the Gd/Ga system. It was then transferred to radioactive environment to measure the activity coefficient of Pu in Ga. The results made it possible to estimate the effectiveness of the Pu extraction and its separation from Gd and Ce. The selectivity was shown to decrease with the temperature and Al and Ga showed a good selectivity between Pu and the Ce in fluoride medium. (author)

  14. Comparative study of dielectric properties of MgNb2O6 prepared by molten salt and ceramic method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vishnu Shanker; Ashok K Ganguli

    2003-12-01

    Magnesium niobate (MgNb2O6) powder was synthesized by the conventional ceramic route as well as by the molten salt route using a eutectic mixture of NaCl–KCl as the salt and Mg(NO3)$_2\\cdot$6H2O and TiO2 as the starting materials. Pure phase of MgNb2O6 could be obtained by the molten salt method at 1100°C. However, in ceramic method the pure phase of MgNb2O6 was obtained by heating at 1025°C for 20 h. On sintering at 1100°C the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of MgNb2O6 obtained by the molten salt method was found to be 19.5 and 0.004 at 100 kHz at room temperature. Lower values were obtained for these oxides prepared by the ceramic route, 16.6 and 0.000518, respectively. In both cases the dielectric constant was quite stable with frequency.

  15. 液态熔盐堆运行安全特性初步研究%Preliminary Study on Safety Characteristics of Molten Salt Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏泉; 梅龙伟; 战志超; 郭威; 陈金根; 蔡翔舟

    2014-01-01

    Compared with solid fuel reactors ,there are differences in physics for liquid fuel reactor .As for molten salt reactor (MSR) ,due to fuel flow in primary loop ,the delayed neutron precursors and fission product partly decay out of core , resulting in reactivity loss as well as heat generation in the primary loop .In this paper ,the critical dynamics and safety characteristics of MSR were investigated using Cinsf 1D code .Con‐sidering the loss of delayed neutrons under different fuel flow speeds at zero‐power ,the corresponding control rod positions were calculated under pump start and stop condi‐tions .Keeping reactor power at 2 MW ,the temperature and power were computed for the primary loop system . Finally , the pump stop accident was simulated from rated power 2 MW . After pump stop , the reactor power increases slightly due to the reduction of delayed neutron loss at initial time and then it decreases to approach the decay heat power level quickly .The temperature in core increases slowly and reaches to a balance within safety range .It can be concluded that MSR has intrinsic safety .%液态燃料反应堆与固态燃料反应堆相比,原理上有较大不同。液态熔盐堆中由于燃料流动带走缓发中子先驱核在堆外衰变导致堆芯反应性降低,且裂变产物在堆外回路中衰变也会引起一回路发热。本文使用熔盐堆中子动力学程序Cinsf1D探讨2 M W熔盐堆的临界动力学特性和安全特性,研究零功率临界下不同熔盐流速启泵和停泵导致的缓发中子先驱核流失所需改变的控制棒棒位。同时还计算了2 MW恒定功率情况下稳态运行及降低流速时一回路温度分布,并模拟了2 MW额定功率下停泵事件。停泵后由于缓发中子损失减少反应堆功率先缓慢增加,然后迅速降低到接近余热水平。停泵后堆芯温度缓慢增加后稳定在安全值以内,说明熔盐堆具有本征安全性。

  16. Thorium cycle and molten salt reactors: field parameters and field constraints investigations toward 'thorium molten salt reactor' definition; Cycle thorium et reacteurs a sel fondu: exploration du champ des parametres et des contraintes definissant le 'Thorium Molten Salt Reactor'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, L

    2005-09-15

    Producing nuclear energy in order to reduce the anthropic CO{sub 2} emission requires major technological advances. Nuclear plants of 4. generation have to respond to several constraints, as safety improvements, fuel breeding and radioactive waste minimization. For this purpose, it seems promising to use Thorium Cycle in Molten Salt Reactors. Studies on this domain have already been carried out. However, the final concept suffered from serious issues and was discontinued. A new reflection on this topic is being led in order to find acceptable solutions, and to design the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor concept. A nuclear reactor is simulated by the coupling of a neutron transport code with a materials evolution code. This allows us to reproduce the reactor behavior and its evolution all along its operation. Thanks to this method, we have studied a large number of reactor configurations. We have evaluated their efficiency through a group of constraints they have to satisfy. This work leads us to a better understanding of many physical phenomena controlling the reactor behavior. As a consequence, several efficient configurations have been discovered, allowing the emergence of new points of view in the research of Molten Salt Reactors. (author)

  17. Challenges Related to the Use of Liquid Metal and Molten Salt Coolants in Advanced Reactors. Report of the collaborative project COOL of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was launched in 2000, based on a resolution by the IAEA General Conference (GC(44)/RES/21). INPRO aims at helping to ensure that nuclear energy is available in the twenty-first century in a sustainable manner, and seeks to bring together all interested Member States, both technology holders and technology users, to jointly consider actions to achieve desired innovations. INPRO is taking care of the specific needs of developing countries. One of the aims of INPRO is to develop options for enhanced sustainability through promotion of technical and institutional innovations in nuclear energy technology through collaborative projects among IAEA Member States. Collaboration among INPRO members is fostered on selected innovative nuclear technologies to bridge technology gaps. Collaborative projects have been selected so that they complement other national and international R and D activities. The INPRO Collaborative Project COOL on Investigation of Technological Challenges Related to the Removal of Heat by Liquid Metal and Molten Salt Coolants from Reactor Cores Operating at High Temperatures investigated the technological challenges of cooling reactor cores that operate at high temperatures in advanced fast reactors, high temperature reactors and accelerator driven systems by using liquid metals and molten salts as coolants. The project was initiated in 2008 and was led by India; experts from Brazil, China, Germany, India, Italy and the Republic of Korea participated and provided chapters of this report. The INPRO Collaborative Project COOL addressed the following fields of research regarding liquid metal and molten salt coolants: (i) survey of thermophysical properties; (ii) experimental investigations and computational fluid dynamics studies on thermohydraulics, specifically pressure drop and heat transfer under different operating conditions; (iii) monitoring and control of coolant

  18. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  19. Electrochemical decomposition of SiO{sub 2} pellets to form silicon in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erguel, Emre [Middle East Technical University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Inoenue Bulvari, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Karakaya, Ishak, E-mail: kkaya@metu.edu.tr [Middle East Technical University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Inoenue Bulvari, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Erdogan, Metehan [Middle East Technical University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Inoenue Bulvari, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: > Increasing temperature or decreasing SiO{sub 2} particle size increased the reduction rate. > Addition of NaCl to the electrolyte decreased the reduction rate. > Complete reduction of SiO{sub 2} pellets was achieved after 16 h of electrolysis. > The brown color of silicon may be the result of nanometer-scale crystallite size. > Higher purity of Si may be obtained by advancement of cell component materials. - Abstract: Direct electrochemical reduction of porous SiO{sub 2} pellets in molten CaCl{sub 2} salt and CaCl{sub 2}-NaCl salt mixture was investigated by applying 2.8 V potential. The study focused on the effects of temperature, particle size of SiO{sub 2} powder starting material and the behavior of cathode contacting materials during electrochemical reduction process. The starting materials and the electrolysis products were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy mainly. The studies showed that smaller particle sizes and higher temperatures had slightly positive effects in increasing the reduction rate within the ranges covered in this study. The results were interpreted from variations of current and accumulative electrical charge that passed through the cell as a function of duration of electrochemical reduction under different conditions. Microstructures and compositions of the reduced pellets were used to infer that electrochemical reduction of SiO{sub 2} in molten salts may become a method to produce silicon that could be used in solar energy utilization. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction analysis results indicated that the silicon produced at the cathode reacts with contacting materials; nickel, and iron in stainless steel to form Ni-Si and Fe-Si compounds due to very reactive nature of silicon especially at high temperatures.

  20. Synthesis of LaMO3 (M = Fe, Co, Ni) using nitrate or nitrite molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The molten salt, synthesis temperature, the oxidising properties, the basicity and oxidation states of the melt play an important role in LaMO3 synthesis. → The system needs a careful optimisation of these parameters to obtain pure orthorhombic LaFeO3, hexagonal LaCoO3 and LaNiO3. Purely hexagonal LaNiO3 nanocrystals were successfully synthesized. → SEM analyses were taken to investigate how the different parameters affect the microstructure of the samples. → The specific surface area and crystallite size of LaMO3 show much difference in different system. - Abstract: Perovskite compound LaMO3 (M = Fe, Co, Ni) nanocrystals were successfully synthesized in molten nitrates or nitrites from a mixture of lanthanum nitrate and an M-containing nitrate for 2 h. The effect of the various process parameters on the phase purity, crystallite size, specific surface area and morphology of the synthesized nanocrystals were systematically studied by XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), simultaneous TG/DSC and BET measurements. The results showed that salt medium, annealing temperatures (mainly 450-850 oC), oxidising properties and basicity of the melt played an important role in the synthesis of LaMO3. The addition of Na2O2 facilitated the reaction between La2O3 and NiO or Co3O4, leading to the formation of LaNiO3 and LaCoO3 at a much lower temperature of 450 oC. Pure hexagonal LaNiO3 nanocrystals were obtained in molten NaNO3-KNO3 eutectic with Na2O2 at 550-750 oC.

  1. Core flow distribution design of molten salt reactor with liquid fuel%一种液态燃料熔盐堆堆芯流量分配设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振华; 潘登; 陈玉爽; 黄建平; 余笑寒; 王纳秀

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the thermal-hydraulic design of molten salt reactor (MSR) with liquid fuel, the structure and the flow field distribution of lower plenum play a decisive role for the core flow distribution.Purpose: The mass flow distribution of core inlet is designed to match with the release heat distribution, so that the core power distribution will be flattened in radical.Methods: To realize the reasonable distribution of core flow, the flow field of lower plenum is optimized through adjusting the geometry of core lower plenum and flow distribution device using FLUENT software to simulate three-dimensional flow field of core.Results: The simulation results showed that the mass flow rate standard deviation of salt channels of trumpet-shape lower plenum is reduced by 4.2% compared with that of the ellipsoid-shape. The mass flow rate standard deviation of salt channel is reduced by 29.2% by setting the flow distribution plate.Conclusion:Changing the structure of lower plenum andsetting the flow distribution plate are useful measures to adjust the mass flow distribution and power matching. The results can provide the basis for the optimization design of MSR with liquid fuel.%在液态燃料熔盐堆(Molten salt reactor, MSR)热工水力设计中,为实现堆芯径向功率展平需对堆芯流量分配进行设计,使得堆芯进口流量分布正比于释热量分布,而下腔室结构和流场分布对堆芯流量分配起决定性作用。利用FLUENT软件对堆芯三维流场进行模拟,通过调节下腔室结构和流量分配装置,对下腔室流场分布进行优化,最终实现堆芯流量合理分配。数值模拟结果表明,喇叭状下腔室比椭球形下腔室熔盐通道流量标准差降低4.2%,设置流量分配板熔盐通道流量标准差降低29.2%;改变下腔室结构和设置流量分配装置能够较好调节流量分配和功率分布匹配性,该结果可为液态熔盐堆堆芯优化设计提供依据。

  2. On the use of a molten salt fast reactor to apply an idealized transmutation scenario for the nuclear phase out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merk, Bruno; Rohde, Ulrich; Glivici-Cotruţă, Varvara;

    2014-01-01

    In the view of transmutation of transuranium (TRU) elements, molten salt fast reactors (MSFRs) offer certain advantages compared to solid fuelled reactor types like sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). In the first part these advantages are discussed in comparison with the SFR technology, and the...... developed. The final aim is dictated by the phase out decision of the German government, which requests to put the focus onthe determination of the maximal transmutation efficiency and on an as much as possible reduced leftover of transuranium elements at the end of the reactor life. This minimal leftover...

  3. Thermal performance prediction and sensitivity analysis for future deployment of molten salt cavity receiver solar power plants in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Performance of power plant with molten salt cavity receiver is assessed. • A method has been used to optimize the plant solar multiple, capacity factor and LEC. • Comparison of the simulated results to those of PS20 has shown good agreement. • Higher fossil fuel fraction reduces the LEC and increases the capacity factor. • Highland and Sahara regions are suitable for CRS plants deployment. - Abstract: Of all Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technologies available today, the molten salt solar power plant appears to be the most important option for providing a major share of the clean and renewable electricity needed in the future. In the present paper, a technical and economic analysis for the implementation of a probable molten salt cavity receiver thermal power plant in Algeria has been carried out. In order to do so, we have investigated the effect of solar field size, storage capacity factor, solar radiation intensity, hybridization and power plant capacity on the thermal efficiency and electricity cost of the selected plant. The system advisor model has been used to perform the technical performance and the economic assessment for different locations (coastal, highland and Sahara regions) in Algeria. Taking into account various factors, a method has been applied to optimize the solar multiple and the capacity factor of the plant, to get a trade-off between the incremental investment costs of the heliostat field and the thermal energy storage. The analysis has shown that the use of higher fossil fuel fraction significantly reduces the levelized electricity cost (LEC) and sensibly increases the capacity factor (CF). The present study indicates that hybrid molten salt solar tower power technology is very promising. The CF and the LEC have been found to be respectively of the order of 71% and 0.35 $/kWe. For solar-only power plants, these parameters are respectively about 27% and 0.63 $/kWe. Therefore, hybrid central receiver systems are

  4. Many-electron electrochemical processes. Reactions in molten salts, room-temperature ionic liquids and ionic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriiko, Aleksandr A. [National Technical Univ. Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine). Kyiv Polytechnic Inst.; Andriyko, Yuriy O. [CEST Centre of Electrochemical Surface Technology, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Nauer, Gerhard E. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    2013-02-01

    The authors provide a unified concept for understanding multi-electron processes in electrochemical systems such as molten salts, ionic liquids, or ionic solutions. A major advantage of this concept is its independence of assumptions like one-step many-electron transfers or 'discrete' discharge of complex species. This book contains the following main topics: 1. Many-electron electrochemical systems: Concepts and definitions. 2. Many-electron systems at equilibrium. 3. Phenomenology of electrochemical kinetics. 4. Electrode film systems: experimental evidences. 5. Dynamics of a non-equilibrium electrochemical system. 6. Electrochemistry of Ti(IV) in ionic liquids.

  5. Electrodeposited tin coating as negative electrode material for lithium-ion battery in room temperature molten salt

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, YS; Zhu, DR

    2002-01-01

    A new room temperature molten salt (RTMS) [1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium/AlCl3/SnCl2 (3:2:0.5)] was developed for depositing tin on a copper electrode. Different tin crystallites were deposited at different temperatures, giving widely different performances of the assembled lithium cell [Sn (Cu)/LiCl buffered MEICl-AlCl3 RTMS/lithium]. Tin film deposited at 50°C or higher gave a more desirable crystal structure and an improved performance than films obtained at lower temperatures. Both cyclic v...

  6. Characterization of the effects of continuous salt processing on the performance of molten salt fusion breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several continuous salt processing options are available for use in molten salt fusion breeder blanket designs. The effects of processing on blanket performance have been assessed for three levels of processing and various equilibrium uranium concentrations in the salt. A one-dimensional model of the blanket was used in the neutronics analysis which incorporated transport calculations with time-dependent isotope generation and depletion calculations. The level of salt processing was found to have little effect on the behavior of the blanket during reactor operation; however, significant effects were observed during the decay period after reactor shutdown

  7. Synthesis of LiSm_(0.01)Mn_(1.99)O_4 by molten salt technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M; Helan; L; John; Berchmans

    2010-01-01

    Samarium substituted lithium manganese oxide powders were successfully prepared by molten-salt synthesis(MSS) using eutectic mixture of LiCl,SmCl3.6H2O and MnO2 salt at 700 °C.The synthesis was carried out in open atmosphere.The crystalline powders were characterized for their phase identification using X-ray diffraction(XRD) analysis.The physico-chemical properties of the samarium substituted lithium manganese oxide powders were investigated by thermal analysis(TGA/DTA),FT-IR spectroscopy,EDAX,electron par...

  8. Extending and Verification of RELAP5 Code for Liquid Fueled Molten Salt Reactor%RELAP5应用于液态燃料熔盐堆的扩展及验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施承斌; 程懋松; 刘桂民

    2016-01-01

    为将RELAP5程序应用于液态燃料熔盐堆的建模分析,需要对RELAP5的模型进行扩展.基于RELAP5原有的点堆模型和热工水力模型,新增了液态燃料熔盐堆点堆模型和相应的带有内热源的热工水力模型,并通过熔盐实验堆(MSRE)实验数据进行验证.结果表明,扩展后的RELAP5程序能够适用于液态燃料熔盐堆系统建模分析.%In order to analyze the liquid fueled molten salt reactor using RELAP5 code,models in RELAP5 code need to be extended.This paper attempts to add new point kinetic model of liquid fueled reactor and thermo-hydraulics model with internal heat source based on the original RELAP5 models,then the code is verified using MSRE experimental datum.The results indicate that the extended RELAP5 code can be applied to model and analyze the liquid fueled molten salt reactor.

  9. Interaction of molten salts with a semi-anthracite char at 743 K. Influence on the gasification in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Serrano, V.; Alfaro-Dominguez, M.; Higes-Rolando, F.J. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica; Martin-Aranda, M.; Rojas-Cervantes, M.L.; Lopez-Peinado, A.J. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica

    1997-12-31

    The treatments of a semi-anthracite char (AC) with molten salts followed by washing of the intermediate products with distilled water as a rule produce an increase in the surface area of micropores (S{sub mi}) and in the mean equivalent pore diameter (MEPD), which is greater for AC-MgO. The variation of MEPD is only slight for AC-CaO and AC-CoO. The reactivity of the carbon in air at 823 K enhances for a number of samples but especially for AC-CaO and AC-MgO. Washing with HCl generally results in a small increase in S{sub mi} and in a more uniform MEPD. The reactivity of the carbon decreases for most samples including AN and AC. This suggests that mineral components of the starting materials and chemical species present in distilled waterwashed samples (i.e. metal oxides in excess and reaction products of molten salts with the mineral fraction of AC) are catalytically active and that their removal from such samples occurs by washing with HCl. The presence of catalytic species seems to be greater for AC-MgO and AC-CaO than for the other samples. (orig.)

  10. Recovery of ZrO{sub 2} by leaching from LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} molten salt in distilled water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Mun Sik; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Park, Hyun Soo; Kang, Young Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soo Han [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ZrF{sub 4} (63-30-7 mol%) molten salt was dissolved up to 0.02 g in 1 ml of distilled water at room temperature. ZrO{sub 2} oxide made from ZrF{sub 4} through pyrohydrolysis was recovered by leaching in distilled water with LiF-BeF{sub 2Z}rF{sub 4} molten salt including it at room temperature. The crystalline sharpness of recovered ZrO{sub 2} oxide was not damaged. (author)

  11. Quality assurance plan for the molten salt reactor experiment Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) identifies and describes the systems utilized by Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Project personnel to implement the requirements and associated applicable guidance contained in the Quality Program Description, Y/QD-15 Rev. 2 (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., 1995) and Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities Work Smart Standards. This QAP defines the quality assurance (QA) requirements applicable to all activities and operations in and directly pertinent to the MSRE Remediation Project. This QAP will be periodically reviewed, revised, and approved as necessary. This QAP identifies and describes the QA activities and procedures implemented by the various Oak Ridge National Laboratory support organizations and personnel to provide confidence that these activities meet the requirements of this project. Specific support organization (Division) quality requirements, including the degree of implementation of each, are contained in the appendixes of this plan

  12. Effect of Salt on Crystal Growth of Plate-like Alumina Particles by Molten-salt Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Yeon; Lee, Yoon Joo; Kim, Soo Ryong; Kwon, Woo Teck; Shin, Dong Geun; Kim, Young Hee [Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Duck Kyun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Alumina powder have been expanded its application in industry and required to control its morphology such as powder size and aspect ratio of single particle. It can be synthesized by molten - salt method which is possible to obtain various shapes of ceramic particles by controlling the growth direction because each crystal face has different growth rate. In this study, various combinations of salts such as NaCl, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and their mixture were used for control the growth of plate like alumina particle from the initial stage of synthesis because salt having different ionic strength can control the growth direction of ceramic particle under its melting condition around 800-900 .deg. C, and growth behavior of plate-like alumina particle with different reaction conditions such as temperature and concentration on the crystal size and shape was studied.

  13. Analysis of a helical coil once-through molten salt steam generator: Experimental results and heat transfer evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubert, B.; Rojas, E.; Rivas, E.; Gaggioli, W.; Rinaldi, L.; Fluri, T.

    2016-05-01

    A molten salt helical coil steam generator is an alternative to kettle- or drum-type evaporators which are currently used in commercial-scale solar thermal power plants. A 300 kW prototype was tested during the OPTS project at ENEA. The experimental results presented in this paper have been used to validate a detailed heat transfer analysis of the whole system. The heat transfer analysis deals with the study of both the overall heat transfer coefficient and the shell-side heat transfer coefficient. Due to the specific features of this type of system, no correlations were available in the literature. A new numerical model to predict the performance of large-scale systems is also presented.

  14. Structural characteristics of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bifluoride: HF-deficient form of a highly conductive room temperature molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Hagiwara, Rika; Ito, Yasuhiko; Tamada, Osamu

    2002-01-01

    EMIF·HF, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bifluoride, has been obtained by eliminating HF from a room temperature molten salt EMIF·2.3HF at around 400 K. EMIF·HF crystallizes in space group P2 1/m with a=7.281(1) Å, b=6.762(1) Å, c=8.403(1) Å, β=107.26(1)°, V=395.09(18) Å 3, Z=2 at room temperature. The cations are stacked in pillars via the hydrogen bonding between the C4 proton and the ring π-electrons of the adjacent cation. The cations and the anions coupled by strong hydrogen bondings are co-planar.

  15. Program management plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The primary mission of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Project is to effectively implement the risk-reduction strategies and technical plans to stabilize and prevent further migration of uranium within the MSRE facility, remove the uranium and fuel salts from the system, and dispose of the fuel and flush salts by storage in appropriate depositories to bring the facility to a surveillance and maintenance condition before decontamination and decommissioning. This Project Management Plan (PMP) for the MSRE Remediation Project details project purpose; technical objectives, milestones, and cost objectives; work plan; work breakdown structure (WBS); schedule; management organization and responsibilities; project management performance measurement planning, and control; conduct of operations; configuration management; environmental, safety, and health compliance; quality assurance; operational readiness reviews; and training.

  16. Novel band gap-tunable K–Na co-doped graphitic carbon nitride prepared by molten salt method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jiannan [Institute of Eco-environmental Sciences, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Ma, Lin [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Wang, Haoying; Zhao, Yanfeng [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Zhang, Jian [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Hu, Shaozheng, E-mail: hushaozhenglnpu@163.com [Institute of Eco-environmental Sciences, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: K and Na ions co-doped into g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} crystal lattice can tune the position of CB and VB potentials, influence the structural and optical properties, and thus improve the photocatalytic degradation and mineralization ability. - Highlights: • K, Na co-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared in KCl/NaCl molten salt system. • The structural and optical properties of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} were greatly influenced by co-doping. • The position of VB and CB can be tuned by controlling the weight ratio of eutectic salts to melamine. • Co-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} showed outstanding photodegradation ability, mineralization ability, and catalytic stability. - Abstract: Novel band gap-tunable K–Na co-doped graphitic carbon nitride was prepared by molten salt method using melamine, KCl, and NaCl as precursor. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV–vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The CB and VB potentials of graphitic carbon nitride could be tuned from −1.09 and +1.55 eV to −0.29 and +2.25 eV by controlling the weight ratio of eutectic salts to melamine. Besides, ions doping inhibited the crystal growth of graphitic carbon nitride, enhanced the surface area, and increased the separation rate of photogenerated electrons and holes. The visible-light-driven Rhodamine B (RhB) photodegradation and mineralization performances were significantly improved after K–Na co-doping.

  17. Molten salt oxidation of chloro-organic compounds: Experimental results for product gas compositions and final forms studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, J.C.; Haas, P.A.; Bell, J.T.; Crosley, S.M.; Calhoun, C.L. Jr.; Gorin, A.H.; Nulf, L.E.

    1995-04-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) has been selected as a promising technology for treatment of some US Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes. Mixed wastes are defined as those wastes that contain both radioactive components, which are regulated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, and hazardous waste components, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has installed and operated a bench-scale MSO apparatus to obtain experimental information needed before the design and construction of an MSO pilot plant. The primary objective of the experiments performed was to show that dioxin and furan emissions from a molten salt oxidation (MSO) unit were below the proposed regulatory limit of 0.1 ng/m{sup 3} as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin equivalents or toxic equivalence quotient. The feed stream was to contain 2,4-dichlorophenol, a suspected precursor to the formation of dioxin and furans. The tests were to be done over a range of salt compositions and flow rates expected in a pilot- or full-scale MSO unit. Two other objectives were to demonstrate destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) greater than US Environmental Protection Agency requirements and to show that levels of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) are the same as, or lower than, those observed in incinerators for two common waste constituents [carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) and CH{sub 3}CCl{sub 3}]. A final objective was to perform some initial studies of final waste forms using sulfur polymer cement (SPC). This report presents the results from the operation of the bench-scale MSO system.

  18. Intergranular tellurium cracking of nickel-based alloys in molten Li, Be, Th, U/F salt mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Russia, R and D on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) are concentrated now on fast/intermediate spectrum concepts which were recognized as long term alternative to solid fueled fast reactors due to their attractive features: strong negative feedback coefficients, easy in-service inspection, and simplified fuel cycle. For high-temperature MSR corrosion of the metallic container alloy in primary circuit is the primary concern. Key problem receiving current attention include surface fissures in Ni-based alloys probably arising from fission product tellurium attack. This paper summarizes results of corrosion tests conducted recently to study effect of oxidation state in selected fuel salt on tellurium attack and to develop means of controlling tellurium cracking in the special Ni-based alloys recently developed for molten salt actinide recycler and tranforming (MOSART) system. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys was tested at temperatures up to 750 °C in stressed and unloaded conditions in molten LiF–BeF2 salt mixture fueled by about 20 mol% of ThF4 and 2 mol% of UF4 at different [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratios: 0.7, 4, 20, 100 and 500. Following Ni-based alloys (in mass%): HN80M-VI (Mo—12, Cr—7.6, Nb—1.5), HN80MTY (Mo—13, Cr—6.8, Al—1.1, Ti—0.9), HN80MTW (Mo—9.4, Cr—7.0, Ti—1.7, W—5.5) and EM-721 (W—25.2, Cr—5.7, Ti—0.17) were used for the study in the corrosion facility

  19. Intergranular tellurium cracking of nickel-based alloys in molten Li, Be, Th, U/F salt mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, Victor, E-mail: ignatiev@vver.kiae.ru; Surenkov, Alexander; Gnidoy, Ivan; Kulakov, Alexander; Uglov, Vadim; Vasiliev, Alexander; Presniakov, Mikhail

    2013-09-15

    In Russia, R and D on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) are concentrated now on fast/intermediate spectrum concepts which were recognized as long term alternative to solid fueled fast reactors due to their attractive features: strong negative feedback coefficients, easy in-service inspection, and simplified fuel cycle. For high-temperature MSR corrosion of the metallic container alloy in primary circuit is the primary concern. Key problem receiving current attention include surface fissures in Ni-based alloys probably arising from fission product tellurium attack. This paper summarizes results of corrosion tests conducted recently to study effect of oxidation state in selected fuel salt on tellurium attack and to develop means of controlling tellurium cracking in the special Ni-based alloys recently developed for molten salt actinide recycler and tranforming (MOSART) system. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys was tested at temperatures up to 750 °C in stressed and unloaded conditions in molten LiF–BeF{sub 2} salt mixture fueled by about 20 mol% of ThF{sub 4} and 2 mol% of UF{sub 4} at different [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratios: 0.7, 4, 20, 100 and 500. Following Ni-based alloys (in mass%): HN80M-VI (Mo—12, Cr—7.6, Nb—1.5), HN80MTY (Mo—13, Cr—6.8, Al—1.1, Ti—0.9), HN80MTW (Mo—9.4, Cr—7.0, Ti—1.7, W—5.5) and EM-721 (W—25.2, Cr—5.7, Ti—0.17) were used for the study in the corrosion facility.

  20. Development of Pyro-separation Technology Based on Molten Salt Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Joon Bo; Kim, E. H.; Yoo, J. H. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The focus of this study was to develop recovery technologies in the pyroprocessing. The unit processes of the project can be classified into two groups; electro-refining process to recover uranium and long-lived nuclides, and cathode processing to produce a metal ingot both from a salt-contained metal and from Cd-contained metal. This project has been carried out for the third phase period of the long-term nuclear R and D program, and focused on the development of key technologies of the pyroprocessing such as electrorefining, draw down and cathode processing. Mock-up system of 1 kg-U/batch was built for performance tests which were conducted to ensure the adequacy of the research and development of the pyroprocessing technology. The experiments were carried out through bench-scale inactive tests except for uranium. In particular, the sticking problem was inevitable in the US's Mark-V and PEER electrorefiner. As a result of this study, a graphite cathode was developed, which exhibited self-scraping behavior and did not need scraping step. The design of an electrorefiner could be simplified, and the throughput was enhanced due to an increased cathode area. A long-term R and D plan was established to develop pyroprocessing technology. In the near term, the results of the current project will be utilized in the next phase of the R and D plan ('07 - '10), and long-term wise, is expected to contribute to recovering fuel materials for transmutation in a Gen-IV reactor.

  1. A computational tool for selective pyrochemical processes based on molten salts in nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walle, Eric [EDF R and D - MMC, Site des Renardieres, Avenue des Renardieres, Ecuelles, 77818 Moret Sur Loing cedex (France)]. E-mail: eric.walle@edf.fr; Finne, Jorgen [LECA - CNRS - UMR 7575, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Picard, Gerard [LECA - CNRS - UMR 7575, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sanchez, Sylvie [LECA - CNRS - UMR 7575, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Boursier, Jean-Marie [EDF R and D - MMC, Site des Renardieres, Avenue des Renardieres, Ecuelles, 77818 Moret Sur Loing cedex (France); Noel, Didier [EDF R and D - MMC, Site des Renardieres, Avenue des Renardieres, Ecuelles, 77818 Moret Sur Loing cedex (France)

    2005-09-01

    In the framework of the development of pyrochemical techniques for future nuclear systems, we propose to investigate the development of computational tools in order to optimise the control of chemical parameters for pyrochemical processes (electrodeposition, oxide selective precipitation, liquid/liquid reductive extraction). This paper discusses how potential-oxoacidity diagrams can be automatically constructed and gives illustrative examples on how these diagrams may help in the choice and the optimisation of pyrochemical processes.

  2. Concept of a demonstrational hybrid reactor—a tokamak with molten-salt blanket for {sup 233}U fuel production: 1. Concept of a stationary Tokamak as a neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizov, E. A.; Gladush, G. G., E-mail: gladush@triniti.ru; Dokuka, V. N.; Khayrutdinov, R. R. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation, Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    On the basis of current understanding of physical processes in tokamaks and taking into account engineering constraints, it is shown that a low-cost facility of a moderate size can be designed within the adopted concept. This facility makes it possible to achieve the power density of neutron flux which is of interest, in particular, for solving the problem of {sup 233}U fuel production from thorium. By using a molten-salt blanket, the important task of ensuring the safe operation of such a reactor in the case of possible coolant loss is accomplished. Moreover, in a hybrid reactor with the blanket based on liquid salts, the problem of periodic refueling that is difficult to perform in solid blankets can be solved.

  3. Concept of a demonstrational hybrid reactor—a tokamak with molten-salt blanket for 233U fuel production: 1. Concept of a stationary Tokamak as a neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizov, E. A.; Gladush, G. G.; Dokuka, V. N.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    On the basis of current understanding of physical processes in tokamaks and taking into account engineering constraints, it is shown that a low-cost facility of a moderate size can be designed within the adopted concept. This facility makes it possible to achieve the power density of neutron flux which is of interest, in particular, for solving the problem of 233U fuel production from thorium. By using a molten-salt blanket, the important task of ensuring the safe operation of such a reactor in the case of possible coolant loss is accomplished. Moreover, in a hybrid reactor with the blanket based on liquid salts, the problem of periodic refueling that is difficult to perform in solid blankets can be solved.

  4. An extended version of the SERPENT-2 code to investigate fuel burn-up and core material evolution of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufiero, M.; Cammi, A.; Fiorina, C.; Leppänen, J.; Luzzi, L.; Ricotti, M. E.

    2013-10-01

    In this work, the Monte Carlo burn-up code SERPENT-2 has been extended and employed to study the material isotopic evolution of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). This promising GEN-IV nuclear reactor concept features peculiar characteristics such as the on-line fuel reprocessing, which prevents the use of commonly available burn-up codes. Besides, the presence of circulating nuclear fuel and radioactive streams from the core to the reprocessing plant requires a precise knowledge of the fuel isotopic composition during the plant operation. The developed extension of SERPENT-2 directly takes into account the effects of on-line fuel reprocessing on burn-up calculations and features a reactivity control algorithm. It is here assessed against a dedicated version of the deterministic ERANOS-based EQL3D procedure (PSI-Switzerland) and adopted to analyze the MSFR fuel salt isotopic evolution. Particular attention is devoted to study the effects of reprocessing time constants and efficiencies on the conversion ratio and the molar concentration of elements relevant for solubility issues (e.g., trivalent actinides and lanthanides). Quantities of interest for fuel handling and safety issues are investigated, including decay heat and activities of hazardous isotopes (neutron and high energy gamma emitters) in the core and in the reprocessing stream. The radiotoxicity generation is also analyzed for the MSFR nominal conditions. The production of helium and the depletion in tungsten content due to nuclear reactions are calculated for the nickel-based alloy selected as reactor structural material of the MSFR. These preliminary evaluations can be helpful in studying the radiation damage of both the primary salt container and the axial reflectors.

  5. Progress in the Application of Molten Salts for New Energy Production%熔盐在新能源领域的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨武龙; 姜洪涛; 吴靥汝; 樊皓; 华炜; 计建炳

    2012-01-01

    The applications of molten salts in electrolyte cell (including fuel cell, lithium battery and thermal battery), solar thermal power generation and biomass pyrolysis are reviewed. The working characteristics, conversion efficiency and service life of fuel cells with molten salts are evaluated. It is also pointed out that the development of fuel cells will focus on molten carbonate fuel cells. Compared with the cathode material of lithium battery, prepared by high temperature solid phase method, the material by molten salt method is improved on crystalline structure and performance. And in solar thermal power generation field, high temperature molten salt as a low cost and high efficiency heat transfer and storage medium has been also applied, Furthermore, recent research progress in pyrolysis of biomass to bio-oil or hydrogen-rich gas in molten salt media is summarized. By examining molten salt composition and reaction temperature, and referring pyrolysis mechanism and kinetics, it is concluded that pyrolysis of biomass in molten salts is practicable. Finally, in order to enhance the development of molten salts application forward, problems to be solved are listed.%综述了熔盐在电池(燃料电池、锂电池和热电池)、太阳能热发电等新能源领域的应用及其在生物质热裂解领域的研究动态,评价了熔盐为电解质的燃料电池的工作特点、转换效率和使用寿命,指出了熔融碳酸盐电池是燃料电池的发展方向.相对于高温固相法制备的锂电池正极材料,熔盐法制备的正极材料的晶体结构和性能得到改善.在太阳能热发电领域,高温熔盐作为一种低成本、高效率的传热蓄热介质得到了一定的应用.介绍了熔盐热裂解生物质制取生物油或富氢气体的过程,对比了熔盐组成、裂解条件对产物产率的影响,分析了热裂解机理和动力学,指出熔盐裂解生物质技术的可行性.最后对熔盐在新能源领域的应用存在

  6. In situ NMR spectroscopy: inulin biomass conversion in ZnCl₂ molten salt hydrate medium-SnCl₄ addition controls product distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingxiong; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Qiao, Yan; Deng, Tiansheng; Shi, Jing; Hou, Xianglin

    2015-01-22

    The dehydration of inulin biomass to the platform chemicals, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and levulinic acid (LA), in ZnCl2 molten salt hydrate medium was investigated. The influence of the Lewis acid catalyst, SnCl4, on the product distribution was examined. An in situ(1)H NMR technique was employed to follow the reaction at the molecular level. The experimental results revealed that only 5-HMF was obtained from degradation of inulin biomass in ZnCl2 molten salt hydrate medium, while the LA was gradually becoming the main product when the reaction temperature was increased in the presence of the Lewis acid catalyst SnCl4. In situ NMR spectroscopy could monitor the reaction and give valuable insight.

  7. Investigation of concentration-dependence of thermodynamic properties of lanthanum, yttrium, scandium and terbium in eutectic LiCl-KCl molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafei; Zhou, Wentao; Zhang, Jinsuo

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamic properties of rare earth metals in LiCl-KCl molten salt electrolyte are crucial to the development of electrochemical separation for the treatment of used nuclear fuels. In the present study, activity coefficient, apparent potential, and diffusion coefficient of lanthanum, yttrium, scandium, and terbium in the molten salt (58 at% LiCl and 42 at% KCl) were calculated by the method of molecular dynamics simulation up to a concentration around 3 at% at temperatures of 723 K and 773 K. It was found that the activity coefficient and the apparent potential increase with the species concentration while diffusion coefficient shows a trend of increase followed by decrease. The calculated results were validated by available measurement data of dilution cases. This research extends the range of data to a wide component and would provide further insight to the pyroprocessing design and safeguards.

  8. Electrochemical Behavior of Europium(III)-Europium(II) in LiF-NaF-KF Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformation of Eu(III) to Eu(II) was confirmed in a fluoride eutectic, LiF-NaF-KF (46.5-11.5-42.0 mol%, FLiNaK) molten salt during a treatment of high temperature as high as 1023 K. The coexistence of Eu(III)-Eu(II) was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and voltammetry method, and their concentrations were measured. The electrochemical behavior of Eu(III) and Eu(II) in the fluoride salt was investigated. The mechanism of the electrode reaction was determined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The results indicated a one-electron exchange process, corresponding to the reduction of Eu(III) to Eu(II) and the oxidation of Eu(II) to Eu(III). This process is reversible and diffusion-controlled. The diffusion coefficients (D) of Eu(III) and Eu(II) were determined using the conventional CV by changing the scanning rate and a modified method by changing the area of the working electrode successively. The values obtained by these two different methods were consistent. The temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient was investigated, and the activation energies of diffusion process were calculated to be 38.9 ± 4.6 kJ mol-1 for Eu(III) and 34.7 ± 1.6 kJ mol-1 for Eu(II), respectively

  9. Actinide-Lanthanide separation by an electrolytic method in molten salt media: feasibility assessment of a renewed liquid cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is part of a research program concerning the assessment of pyrochemical methods for the nuclear waste processing. The An-Ln partitioning could be achieved by an electrolytic selective extraction in molten salt media. It has been decided to focus on liquid reactive cathode which better suits to a group actinides co-recycling. The aim of the study is to propose, define and initiate the development of an electrolytic pyro-process dedicated to the quantitative and selective recovery of the actinides. Quantitativeness is related to technology, whereas selectivity is governed by chemistry. The first step consisted in selecting the adequate operating conditions, which enables a sufficient An-Ln separation. The first step consisted, by means of thermodynamic calculi and electrochemical investigations, in selecting a promising combination between molten electrolyte and cathodic material, regarding the process constraints. To improve the recovery yield, it is necessary to develop a disruptive technology: here comes the concept of a dynamic electrodeposition carried out onto liquid metallic drops. The next step consisted in designing and manufacturing a lab-scale device which enables dropping flow studies. Since interfacial phenomena are of primary meaning in such a concept, it has been decided to focus on high temperature liquid-liquid interfacial measurements. (author)

  10. Health and safety plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment remediation project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of the policy requires that operations at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to safety and health (S and H) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all MSRE operations. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated at the MSRE that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and the best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air

  11. Al/Pb lightweight grids prepared by molten salt electroless plating for application in lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo; Jiang, Liangxing; Hao, Ketao; Liu, Fangyang; Yu, Xiaoying; Xue, Haitao; Li, Jie; Liu, Yexiang

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a lightweight Pb plated Al (Al/Pb) grid was prepared by molten salt electroless plating. The SEM and bonding strength test show that the lead coating is deposited with a smooth surface and firm combination. CV test shows that the electrochemical properties of Al/Pb electrodes are stable. 2.0 V single-cell flooded lead-acid batteries with Al/Pb grids as negative collectors are assembled and the performances including 20 h capacity, rate capacity, cycle life, internal resistance are investigated. The results show that the cycle life of Al/Pb-grid cells is about 475 cycles and can meet the requirement of lead-acid batteries. Al/Pb grids are conducive to the refinement of PbSO4 grain, and thereby reduce the internal resistance of battery and advance the utilization of active mass. Moreover, weight of Al/Pb grid is only 55.4% of the conventional-grid. In this way, mass specific capacity of Al/Pb-grid negatives is 17.8% higher and the utilization of active mass is 6.5% higher than conventional-grid negatives.

  12. Calculating the effective delayed neutron fraction in the Molten Salt Fast Reactor: Analytical, deterministic and Monte Carlo approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Calculation of effective delayed neutron fraction in circulating-fuel reactors. • Extension of the Monte Carlo SERPENT-2 code for delayed neutron precursor tracking. • Forward and adjoint multi-group diffusion eigenvalue problems in OpenFOAM. • Analytical approach for βeff calculation in simple geometries and flow conditions. • Good agreement among the three proposed approaches in the MSFR test-case. - Abstract: This paper deals with the calculation of the effective delayed neutron fraction (βeff) in circulating-fuel nuclear reactors. The Molten Salt Fast Reactor is adopted as test case for the comparison of the analytical, deterministic and Monte Carlo methods presented. The Monte Carlo code SERPENT-2 has been extended to allow for delayed neutron precursors drift, according to the fuel velocity field. The forward and adjoint eigenvalue multi-group diffusion problems are implemented and solved adopting the multi-physics tool-kit OpenFOAM, by taking into account the convective and turbulent diffusive terms in the precursors balance. These two approaches show good agreement in the whole range of the MSFR operating conditions. An analytical formula for the circulating-to-static conditions βeff correction factor is also derived under simple hypotheses, which explicitly takes into account the spatial dependence of the neutron importance. Its accuracy is assessed against Monte Carlo and deterministic results. The effects of in-core recirculation vortex and turbulent diffusion are finally analysed and discussed

  13. Isotopic ratios and effective power determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy vs mass spectroscopy for molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impure plutonium metal is routinely processed by molten salt extraction (MSE) to reduce the amount of americium in the metal product. Throughput at various facilities where similar processes are performed has made it essential to evaluate uncertainties and possible discrepancies in the analyses of these difficult MSE materials. In an effort to evaluate the plutonium isotopic ratios and americium concentrations obtained from gamma-ray spectral data analyzed by the computer code GRPAUT, measurements were made on ten MSE salts as received and after pulverization and blending. These results were then compared to the specific powers obtained from isotopic ratios determined by mass spectrometry on these same ten samples. Americium values ranged from a few thousand parts-per-million of total plutonium to greater than 50,000 ppM. Our results indicate a small discrepancy between specific powers as determined by GRPAUT on ''as received'' vs pulverized and blended MSE salts. The specific powers obtained via GRPAUT on the pulverized salts agree somewhat better with specific powers obtained from the mass spectroscopy data. This work may indicate that a small discrepancy exists in the specific powers by using GRPAUT on heterogeneous, high americium samples. 5 refs., 6 tabs

  14. Health and safety plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment remediation project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Uziel, M.S.

    1995-12-01

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of the policy requires that operations at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to safety and health (S and H) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all MSRE operations. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated at the MSRE that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and the best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air.

  15. Reprocessing of spent nitride fuel by chemical dissolution in molten salt: Results on plutonium nitride containing inert matrix materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid solutions of actinide mono-nitrides have been proposed as a candidate fuel of the accelerator-driven system (ADS) for transmutation of minor actinides (MA). The pyrochemical process has several advantages over the wet process such as PUREX in the case of treating spent nitride fuel with large decay heat and fast neutron emission, and recovering highly enriched 15N. In the present study, the chemical dissolution of PuN, (PuxZr1-x)N and PuN+TiN, with CdCl2 in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt were investigated to confirm the possibility of the chemical dissolution process of spent nitride fuel. The plutonium nitrides, PuN, (PuxZr1-x)N and PuN+TiN, were dissolved by the reaction with CdCl2 in LiCl- KCl eutectic melt at 823 K and most of Pu was recovered into the molten salt. On the other hand, most of ZrN and TiN were not dissolved and remained as undissolved residues. (authors)

  16. Theoretical investigation on local structure and transport properties of NaFsbnd AlF3 molten salts under electric field environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaojun; Xu, Zhenming; Li, Jie; Chen, Jiangan; Liu, Qingsheng

    2016-08-01

    The effect of electric field and molecular ratio CR (NaF/AlF3) on basic structure and transport properties of NaFsbnd AlF3 molten salts were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations with the Buckingham potential model. The [AlF6]3- groups are the dominant specie in NaFsbnd AlF3 molten salts at CR ≥ 2.6, and followed by the [AlF5]2- groups, while CR ≤ 2.4, [AlF5]2- groups are the protagonists up to 40%. In NaFsbnd AlF3 system, with the increase of CR, the proportion of Fb decreases slightly and the percentage of Ff increases dramatically. The Alsbnd F bonds have ionic characters as well as partial covalently characters due to the hybridization of F-2p and Al-3s, 3p orbitals. The order of ion diffusion ability follows as Na+ > F- > Al3+. Adding more NaF can break some F bridges of structure networks and decrease the polymerization degree of NaFsbnd AlF3 molten salts, the viscosity reduces and ionic conductivity increases as a consequence. The calculated results of ionic conductivity are in agreement with the experimental results. Electric field has no significant impact on the local structure characters, while transport properties are not. The change of CR (NaF/AlF3) can significantly affect these characters of both the structure and transport.

  17. 熔盐炉余热回收系统分析研究%Analysis of Waste Heat Recovery System for Molten Salt Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雁; 闫博

    2016-01-01

    Molten salt furnace is applied to heat process whose temperature is above 400 ℃. Molten salt furnace has high outlet temperature flue gas. Applying waste heat recovery system recycling energy can achieve remarkable energy saving effect. In view of the waste heat recovery system forms and thermodynamic parameters, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of all kinds of waste heat recovery system, provides the theory basis for molten salt furnace waste heat recovery system design.%熔盐炉经常用于400℃以上的介质换热,熔盐炉出炉烟气温度较高,应用余热回收系统回收能量可取得显著的节能效果。本文针对余热回收系统形式及热力参数,分析各种余热回收系统的优缺点,为熔炉盐炉余热回收系统设计提供理论依据。

  18. On the use of a molten salt fast reactor to apply an idealized transmutation scenario for the nuclear phase out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Bruno; Rohde, Ulrich; Glivici-Cotruţă, Varvara; Litskevich, Dzianis; Scholl, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In the view of transmutation of transuranium (TRU) elements, molten salt fast reactors (MSFRs) offer certain advantages compared to solid fuelled reactor types like sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). In the first part these advantages are discussed in comparison with the SFR technology, and the research challenges are analyzed. In the second part cycle studies for the MSFR are given for different configurations--a core with U-238 fertile, a fertile free core, and a core with Th-232 as fertile material. For all cases, the transmutation potential is determined and efficient transmutation performance for the case with thorium as a fertile material as well as for the fertile free case is demonstrated and the individual advantages are discussed. The time evolution of different important isotopes is analyzed. In the third part a strategy for the optimization of the transmutation efficiency is developed. The final aim is dictated by the phase out decision of the German government, which requests to put the focus on the determination of the maximal transmutation efficiency and on an as much as possible reduced leftover of transuranium elements at the end of the reactor life. This minimal leftover is achieved by a two step procedure of a first transmuter operation phase followed by a second deep burning phase. There the U-233, which is bred in the blanket of the core consisting of thorium containing salt, is used as feed. It is demonstrated, that transmutation rates up to more than 90% can be achieved for all transuranium isotopes, while the production of undesired high elements like californium is very limited. Additionally, the adaptations needed for the simulation of a MSFR, and the used tool HELIOS 1.10 is described. PMID:24690768

  19. On the use of a molten salt fast reactor to apply an idealized transmutation scenario for the nuclear phase out.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Merk

    Full Text Available In the view of transmutation of transuranium (TRU elements, molten salt fast reactors (MSFRs offer certain advantages compared to solid fuelled reactor types like sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs. In the first part these advantages are discussed in comparison with the SFR technology, and the research challenges are analyzed. In the second part cycle studies for the MSFR are given for different configurations--a core with U-238 fertile, a fertile free core, and a core with Th-232 as fertile material. For all cases, the transmutation potential is determined and efficient transmutation performance for the case with thorium as a fertile material as well as for the fertile free case is demonstrated and the individual advantages are discussed. The time evolution of different important isotopes is analyzed. In the third part a strategy for the optimization of the transmutation efficiency is developed. The final aim is dictated by the phase out decision of the German government, which requests to put the focus on the determination of the maximal transmutation efficiency and on an as much as possible reduced leftover of transuranium elements at the end of the reactor life. This minimal leftover is achieved by a two step procedure of a first transmuter operation phase followed by a second deep burning phase. There the U-233, which is bred in the blanket of the core consisting of thorium containing salt, is used as feed. It is demonstrated, that transmutation rates up to more than 90% can be achieved for all transuranium isotopes, while the production of undesired high elements like californium is very limited. Additionally, the adaptations needed for the simulation of a MSFR, and the used tool HELIOS 1.10 is described.

  20. Preparation of Al-Si Master Alloy by Electrochemical Reduction of Volcanic Rock in Cryolite Molten Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aimin; Shi, Zhongning; Xu, Junli; Hu, Xianwei; Gao, Bingliang; Wang, Zhaowen

    2016-06-01

    Volcanic rock found in the Longgang Volcano Group in Jilin Province of China has properties essentially similar to Apollo lunar soils and previously prepared lunar soil simulants, such as Johnson Space Center Lunar simulant and Minnesota Lunar simulant. In this study, an electrochemical method of preparation of Al-Si master alloy was investigated in 52.7 wt.%NaF-47.3 wt.%AlF3 melt adding 5 wt.% volcanic rock at 1233 K. The cathodic electrochemical process was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the results showed that the cathodic reduction of Si(IV) is a two-step reversible diffusion-controlled reaction. Si(IV) is reduced to Si(II) by two electron transfers at -1.05 V versus platinum quasi-reference electrode in 52.7 wt.%NaF-47.3 wt.%AlF3 molten salt adding 5 wt.% volcanic rock, while the reduction peak at -1.18 V was the co-deposition of aluminum and silicon. In addition, the cathodic product obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis for 4 h was analyzed by means of x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. The results showed that the phase compositions of the products are Al, Si, Al5FeSi, and Al3.21Si0.47, while the components are 90.5 wt.% aluminum, 4.4 wt.% silicon, 1.9 wt.% iron, and 0.2 wt.% titanium.

  1. Development of a new process for radioactive decontamination of painted carbon steel structures by molten salt stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main practical difficulty associated to the task of the dismantling and decommissioning of the old Nuclear Fuel Cycle facilities of the IPEN has been the large amount of radioactive waste generated in the dismantling operations. The waste is mainly in the form of contaminated carbon steel structures. In the IPEN, the presence of contamination in the equipment, structures and buildings, although restricted to low and average activity levels, constituted an important concern due, on one hand, to the great volume of radioactive wastes generated during the operations. On the other hand, it should be outstanding that the capacity of stockpiling the radioactive wastes in IPEN found been exhausted. Basically, for the dismantling operations of the units, the main radionuclides of interest, from the radioprotection point of view, are U of natural isotopic composition and the thorium-232. Some attempts were done to reduce the volume of those wastes. Nevertheless, the only decontamination available methods were chemical methods such as pickling/rinsing treatments employing acid solutions (with nitric or citric acids) and alkaline solutions (sodium hydroxide). Different concentrations of such solutions were tested. The results obtained in the employed processes were not satisfactory. Ultrasonic equipment available was also employed in an attempt to increase the efficiency of decontamination. The choice of a coating removal process for radioactive material in the form of carbon steel pieces must have into account, among other factors, that it is not necessary a high quality of finishing, since the main objective is the release of the material as iron scrap. This paper describes the development of a new method for surface decontamination by immersion in molten salt baths. (author)

  2. Synthesis of LaMO{sub 3} (M = Fe, Co, Ni) using nitrate or nitrite molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jun, E-mail: tyangj@jnu.edu.c [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Shipai, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510632 (China); Li Runsheng; Zhou Junyi; Li Xiaoci; Zhang Yuanming; Long Yulin [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Shipai, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510632 (China); Li Yongwang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} The molten salt, synthesis temperature, the oxidising properties, the basicity and oxidation states of the melt play an important role in LaMO{sub 3} synthesis. {yields} The system needs a careful optimisation of these parameters to obtain pure orthorhombic LaFeO{sub 3}, hexagonal LaCoO{sub 3} and LaNiO{sub 3}. Purely hexagonal LaNiO{sub 3} nanocrystals were successfully synthesized. {yields} SEM analyses were taken to investigate how the different parameters affect the microstructure of the samples. {yields} The specific surface area and crystallite size of LaMO{sub 3} show much difference in different system. - Abstract: Perovskite compound LaMO{sub 3} (M = Fe, Co, Ni) nanocrystals were successfully synthesized in molten nitrates or nitrites from a mixture of lanthanum nitrate and an M-containing nitrate for 2 h. The effect of the various process parameters on the phase purity, crystallite size, specific surface area and morphology of the synthesized nanocrystals were systematically studied by XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), simultaneous TG/DSC and BET measurements. The results showed that salt medium, annealing temperatures (mainly 450-850 {sup o}C), oxidising properties and basicity of the melt played an important role in the synthesis of LaMO{sub 3}. The addition of Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} facilitated the reaction between La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO or Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, leading to the formation of LaNiO{sub 3} and LaCoO{sub 3} at a much lower temperature of 450 {sup o}C. Pure hexagonal LaNiO{sub 3} nanocrystals were obtained in molten NaNO{sub 3}-KNO{sub 3} eutectic with Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} at 550-750 {sup o}C.

  3. Equilibrium and dynamics of ionic solutions and molten salts: from the primitive model to molecular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this HDR (Accreditation to supervise researches) thesis, the author first recalls his research thesis work which addressed the study of structural properties of simple electrolyte solutions by neutron scattering and interpretation by using integral equations of statistic mechanics. He also evokes other related research works he supervised, and more recent research works he performed on a GDR Practis issue (the solubility of ionic compounds) in collaboration with German and Italian researchers. Thus, the author describes how his scientific activity has known a double evolution: on the experimental point of view (determination of scattering coefficients on long durations), and on the modelling point of view (transition from a model based on a continuous solvent to a model based on molecular structures, which meant a transition from integral equations of Brownian dynamics to a molecular dynamics)

  4. Molten Salt Catalysts for Sulfuric Acid Production and SO2 Removal From Flue Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    1996-01-01

    The report summarises the results obtained during 3 years of collaboration between ICE/HT,University of Patras,GR and Department of Chemistry,DTU,DK , supported by EU through a BRITE/EURAM project.The project has been concerned with fundamental investigations on the complex , redox and compound c...... chemistry of the V2O5 based sulfuric acid catalysts and model systems...

  5. Electrochemical production of Sn-filled carbon nanotubes in molten salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄辉; 张文魁; 李美超; 甘永平; 马淳安; 张孝彬

    2004-01-01

    Sn-filled carbon nanotubes(CNTs) were prepared in situ by electrolysis of graphite in molten LiCl/SnCl2mixtures. Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) investigation shows that the as-made products contain abundance of carbon nanotubes and most of them are filled with metal nanoparticles or nanorods. Some nanotubes are even inserted with long continuous nanowires more than several micrometers in length. Selected area electron diffraction(SAED) patterns and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDS) of the filled nanotubes confirm the presence ofSn inside the nanotubes. The encapsulated Sn was further identified asβ-Sn with tetragonal structure. Based on theexperimental results, a possible growth mechanism of the Sn-filled nanotubes was also discussed.

  6. A Facile Molten-Salt Route for Large-Scale Synthesis of NiFe2O4 Nanoplates with Enhanced Lithium Storage Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gang; Du, Xinchuan; Zhang, Feifei; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2015-09-28

    Binary metal oxides have been deemed as a promising class of electrode materials for high-performance lithium ion batteries owing to their higher conductivity and electrochemical activity than corresponding monometal oxides. Here, NiFe2O4 nanoplates consisting of nanosized building blocks have been successfully fabricated by a facile, large-scale NaCl and KCl molten-salt route, and the changes in the morphology of NiFe2O4 as a function of the molten-salt amount have been systemically investigated. The results indicate that the molten-salt amount mainly influences the diameter and thickness of the NiFe2O4 nanoplates as well as the morphology of the nanosized building blocks. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements have been conducted to evaluate the lithium storage properties of the NiFe2O4 nanoplates prepared with a Ni(NO3)2/Fe(NO3)3/KCl/NaCl molar ratio of 1:2:20:60. A high reversible capacity of 888 mAh g(-1) is delivered over 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1). Even at a current density of 5000 mA g(-1) , the discharge capacity could still reach 173 mAh g(-1). Such excellent electrochemical performances of the NiFe2O4 nanoplates are contributed to the short Li(+) diffusion distance of the nanosized building blocks and the synergetic effect of the Ni(2+) and Fe(3+) ions. PMID:26251115

  7. Assessment of Candidate Molten Salt Coolants for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.

    2006-03-24

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a novel reactor design that utilizes the graphite-matrix high-temperature fuel of helium-cooled reactors, but provides cooling with a high-temperature fluoride salt. For applications at temperatures greater than 900 C the AHTR is also referred to as a Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This report provides an assessment of candidate salts proposed as the primary coolant for the AHTR based upon a review of physical properties, nuclear properties, and chemical factors. The physical properties most relevant for coolant service were reviewed. Key chemical factors that influence material compatibility were also analyzed for the purpose of screening salt candidates. Some simple screening factors related to the nuclear properties of salts were also developed. The moderating ratio and neutron-absorption cross-section were compiled for each salt. The short-lived activation products, long-lived transmutation activity, and reactivity coefficients associated with various salt candidates were estimated using a computational model. Table A presents a summary of the properties of the candidate coolant salts. Certain factors in this table, such as melting point, vapor pressure, and nuclear properties, can be viewed as stand-alone parameters for screening candidates. Heat-transfer properties are considered as a group in Sect. 3 in order to evaluate the combined effects of various factors. In the course of this review, it became apparent that the state of the properties database was strong in some areas and weak in others. A qualitative map of the state of the database and predictive capabilities is given in Table B. It is apparent that the property of thermal conductivity has the greatest uncertainty and is the most difficult to measure. The database, with respect to heat capacity, can be improved with modern instruments and modest effort. In general, ''lighter'' (low-Z) salts tend to

  8. In situ production of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in molten salt phase for thermal energy storage and heat-transfer fluid applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lasfargues, M; Bell, A.; Ding, Y.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, TiO2 nanoparticles (average particle size 16 nm) were successfully produced in molten salt phase and were showed to significantly enhance the specific heat capacity of a binary eutectic mixture of sodium and potassium nitrate (60/40) by 5.4 % at 390 °C and 7.5 % at 445 °C for 3.0 wt% of precursors used. The objective of this research was to develop a cost-effective alternate method of production which is potentially scalable, as current techniques utilized are not economically ...

  9. Separation of rare earths from transition metals by liquid–liquid extraction from a molten salt hydrate to an ionic liquid phase

    OpenAIRE

    Rout, Alok; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-01-01

    The solvent extraction of trivalent rare-earth ions and their separation from divalent transition metal ions using molten salt hydrates as the feed phase and an undiluted fluorine-free ionic liquid as the extracting phase were investigated in detail. The extractant was tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate, [A336][NO3], and the hydrated melt was calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, Ca(NO3)2·4H2O. The extraction behavior of rare-earth ions was studied for solutions of individual elements, as well as for mi...

  10. Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility (Building 7503) standards/requirements identification document adherence assessment plan at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This is the Phase 2 (adherence) assessment plan for the Building 7503 Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Facility standards/requirements identification document (S/RID). This document outlines the activities to be conducted from FY 1996 through FY 1998 to ensure that the standards and requirements identified in the MSRE S/RID are being implemented properly. This plan is required in accordance with the Department of Energy Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-2, November 9, 1994, Attachment 1A. This plan addresses the major aspects of the adherence assessment and will be consistent with Energy Systems procedure QA-2. 7 ``Surveillances.``

  11. Aerosol-assisted molten salt synthesis of NaInS{sub 2} nanoplates for use as a new photoanode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Amanda K.P.; Skrabalak, Sara E. [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, 800 E. Kirkwood Ave., Bloomington, IN, 47405 (United States); Wicker, Susanne [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Tuebingen University, Morgenstelle 15, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany)

    2012-12-04

    NaInS{sub 2}, a H{sub 2}-evolving photocatalyst, is synthesized as single-crystalline hexagonal plates by coupling a molten salt synthesis with ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) for the first time. USP NaInS{sub 2} films are used as a new photoanode material and have an initial photocurrent of {approx}37 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} upon illumination and activities 25 times greater than films made from a standard non-aerosol NaInS{sub 2} sample. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Application of normal pulse voltammetric technique for on-line monitoring of lanthanide ions in LiCl-KCl molten salt at 773K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of normal pulse voltammetry (NPV) to on-line monitoring of lanthanide ions in a molten salt system has been investigated for use in the pyrochemical process. It was revealed from NPV curves for lanthanides that the limiting currents for lanthanides linearly increased at lanthanide concentration of less than 2.5 wt%. However, it was observed that the concentration dependence of the limiting currents was not linear at higher concentration. It is thought from those results that NPV could be considered as a promising way to monitor concentration of lanthanides in the pyrochgemical process if the concentration range of analytes is properly controlled. (author)

  13. Synthesis by molten salt method of the AFeO{sub 3} system (A=La, Gd) and its structural, vibrational and internal hyperfine magnetic field characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M.; Gómez, R.W. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-399, México D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Marquina, V., E-mail: marquina@unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-399, México D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Pérez-Mazariego, J.L. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-399, México D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Escamilla, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, México D. F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2014-06-15

    Polycrystalline samples of LaFeO{sub 3} and GdFeO{sub 3} were synthesized by the molten salt method. Some properties and the quality of the resulting compounds were investigated. The crystal structure and purity of the samples were determined through X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis. The vibrational properties were characterized by Raman and IR spectroscopy. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the ionic state of the Fe ions and the internal hyperfine magnetic fields. Considerable reduction of the heat treatment (temperature and time) for the reaction to take place was achieved without detriment of the quality of the compounds.

  14. Electrochemical reduction and electrocrystallization process of B(Ⅲ) in the LiF-NaF-KF-KBF4 molten salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; LI Bing

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of the electrochemical reduction and nucleation process of B(Ⅲ) on the platinum electrode in the LiF-NaF-KF-KBF4 molten salt at 700℃ were first investigated using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques.It was found that the electrochemical reduction of B(Ⅲ) occurs in single-step charge transfer: B(Ⅲ) + 3e → B,and the cathode process is reversible.The electrocrystallization process of B(Ⅲ) is instantaneous.

  15. Slitting criterion for various rolling speeds in MSR rolling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stefanik

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main idea of MSR technology is the capability of producing two, three, four and even five rods simultaneously from a single strip in a hot rolling process. Correctly separation of the joined strips is the one of the mainly problem in MSR process. Changing the rolling speed may causes easier of the strand division. In this paper results of the computer simulation of the double slitting rolling process were presented.Design/methodology/approach: For numerical modelling of the multi rolling process a computer program Forge 2005, based by the finished element method was used. As a slitting criterion normalised Cockroft – Latham criterion was used.Findings: For the analysis performed in this study, it was found that increasing of the rolling speed causes of increasing the normalized Cockroft – Latham criterion. For the small values of rolling velocity the strip separation was easier.Research limitations/implications: Multi Slit Rolling process is applied in ribbed rods rolling. Adjusting of the rolling speed in multi slit rolling process could improve of the slitting band to the separated strips.Originality/value: Incorrect construction or bad gap matching could cause lack of separation propelled slitting rolls. The separation of the band is effected by means of separating rollers, which shape must be properly designed to suit to the slitting pass. Changing of the rolling speed could improve of the separation to the single strips.

  16. 固态钍基熔盐堆堆芯核设计安全限值研究%Safety Margin Analysis of Thorium Molten Salt Reactor with Solid Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昆鹏; 左嘉旭; 靖剑平; 攸国顺; 张大林; 刘利民

    2016-01-01

    Thorium molten salt reactor has been listed as a key development of the fourth generation nuclear power system because of its advantages in safety , economy and sustainability .China has carried out the relevant re-search , however , the domestic regulations on the research reactor is not complete .The problem of the nuclear safe-ty review is analyzed in depth from the point of view of the nuclear safety review .This study is based on NRC ’ s re-view of the next generation of advanced nuclear energy systems , fully research light water power reactor ( PWR, BWR) , running research reactor , sodium cooled fast reactor , and high temperature gas cooled reactor .On the ba-sis of the determination of the design limits of the core design , the key safety margins for the design of the thorium molten salt reactor are given.%钍基熔盐堆因其在安全性、经济性及可持续性方面的优势被列为第四代核能系统重点发展的堆型。我国已经开展了相关的研究,然而国内关于研究堆的法规导则不完整,相关规定和要求比较原则,必须结合钍基熔盐研究堆的特点进行具体研究。针对固态燃料钍基熔盐实验堆,从核安全评审的角度,对核安全评审相关的问题进行深入研究分析。依据NRC针对下一代先进核能系统制定的评审方法,充分调研轻水动力堆(压水堆、沸水堆)、正在运行的研究堆、以及同样被列为第四代反应堆重点发展堆型的钠冷快堆、高温气冷堆,参考国内外对上述堆型堆芯核设计限值的确定原则及相关依据,初步给出钍基熔盐堆堆芯核设计关键安全限值。

  17. Testing thermocline filler materials and molten-salt heat transfer fluids for thermal energy storage systems used in parabolic trough solar power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Michael James; Hlava, Paul Frank; Brosseau, Douglas A.

    2004-07-01

    Parabolic trough power systems that utilize concentrated solar energy to generate electricity are a proven technology. Industry and laboratory research efforts are now focusing on integration of thermal energy storage as a viable means to enhance dispatchability of concentrated solar energy. One option to significantly reduce costs is to use thermocline storage systems, low-cost filler materials as the primary thermal storage medium, and molten nitrate salts as the direct heat transfer fluid. Prior thermocline evaluations and thermal cycling tests at the Sandia National Laboratories' National Solar Thermal Test Facility identified quartzite rock and silica sand as potential filler materials. An expanded series of isothermal and thermal cycling experiments were planned and implemented to extend those studies in order to demonstrate the durability of these filler materials in molten nitrate salts over a range of operating temperatures for extended timeframes. Upon test completion, careful analyses of filler material samples, as well as the molten salt, were conducted to assess long-term durability and degradation mechanisms in these test conditions. Analysis results demonstrate that the quartzite rock and silica sand appear able to withstand the molten salt environment quite well. No significant deterioration that would impact the performance or operability of a thermocline thermal energy storage system was evident. Therefore, additional studies of the thermocline concept can continue armed with confidence that appropriate filler materials have been identified for the intended application.

  18. 熔盐冷冻壁形成及控制实验研究%Experimental research on the formation and controlling of molten salt frozen-wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金豪; 孙波; 佘长锋; 窦强; 龙德武; 李晴暖; 吴国忠

    2015-01-01

    Background:As corrosion of processing equipment from the high aggressive reagent is a serious problem during the pyroprocessing, the molten salt frozen-wall is proposed as an option for protecting the metallic walls from corrosion by a layer of frozen salt.Purpose:In order to study this means of corrosion protection, the research on the formation and controlling of molten salt frozen-wall was carried out.Methods: Nitrate molten salt (melt point: 142 ºC) was used as the research medium and heat transfer oil was adopted as coolant. An experimental platform for the research of molten salt frozen-wall was built, which contains an up-flow tapered test tank covered with heat exchange jacket. The frozen-wall was formed and maintained by controlling the internally heating and the cooling of outer part of the test tank. The thickness of frozen wall was directly measured by caliper and also figured out by the measured temperatures.Results:The operation temperature of molten salt ranges from 150 ºC to 250 ºC; the maximum flowrate of molten salt is 500 L·h−1; the operation temperature of heat transfer oil ranges from 5 ºC to 120 ºC; and the flowrate of oil ranges from 1.5 m3·h−1 to 15 m3·h−1. Under the expected operating conditions, a layer of frozen can be easily and predictably deposited and maintained on surfaces contacted by the salt. The molten salt frozen-wall was adherent and stable. The average formation rate ranges from 0.2 mm·min−1 to 0.5 mm·min−1. The heat flow decreases with the thickness increasing during the process of formation, at the same time temperature difference through frozen-wall layer gradually increased, and the change trends are all damped. The frozen-wall could reach static equilibrium by controlling the heat transfer rate. When frozen-wall is in a state of balance, the temperature gradient and the thickness of frozen-wall are constant; the decay heat of fission produces simulated by heating rod is equal to the heat flow through

  19. Corrosion aspects of compatible alloys in molten salt (FLiNaK) medium for Indian MSR program in the temperature range of 550-750 °C using electrochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion behaviours of different alloys were evaluated in fluoride eutectic FLiNaK in the temperature range of 550-750 °C under static and dynamic conditions. Electrochemical polarization and impedance techniques were used to estimate corrosion rate. The results showed that the corrosion process was controlled by activation and in some cases by formation of passive layer. In static mode, the corrosion rates followed the order : Inconel 625 > Inconel 617 > Inconel 600 > Incoloy 800 > Ni 220 > Hastelloy N > Incoloy 800HT. In dynamic mode, Hastelloy N and Incoloy 800HT showed better corrosion resistance in comparison to other alloys. (author)

  20. [download] (941Data Analysis with the Morse-Smale Complex: The msr Package for R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gerber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In many areas, scientists deal with increasingly high-dimensional data sets. An important aspect for these scientists is to gain a qualitative understanding of the process or system from which the data is gathered. Often, both input variables and an outcome are observed and the data can be characterized as a sample from a high-dimensional scalar function. This work presents the R package msr for exploratory data analysis of multivariate scalar functions based on the Morse-Smale complex. The Morse-Smale complex provides a topologically meaningful decomposition of the domain. The msr package implements a discrete approximation of the Morse-Smale complex for data sets. In previous work this approximation has been exploited for visualization and partition-based regression, which are both supported in the msr package. The visualization combines the Morse-Smale complex with dimension-reduction techniques for a visual summary representation that serves as a guide for interactive exploration of the high-dimensional function. In a similar fashion, the regression employs a combination of linear models based on the Morse-Smale decomposition of the domain. This regression approach yields topologically accurate estimates and facilitates interpretation of general trends and statistical comparisons between partitions. In this manner, the msr package supports high-dimensional data understanding and exploration through the Morse-Smale complex.

  1. Data Analysis with the Morse-Smale Complex: The msr Package for R

    KAUST Repository

    Gerber, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    In many areas, scientists deal with increasingly high-dimensional data sets. An important aspect for these scientists is to gain a qualitative understanding of the process or system from which the data is gathered. Often, both input variables and an outcome are observed and the data can be characterized as a sample from a high-dimensional scalar function. This work presents the R package msr for exploratory data analysis of multivariate scalar functions based on the Morse-Smale complex. The Morse-Smale complex provides a topologically meaningful decomposition of the domain. The msr package implements a discrete approximation of the Morse-Smale complex for data sets. In previous work this approximation has been exploited for visualization and partition-based regression, which are both supported in the msr package. The visualization combines the Morse-Smale complex with dimension-reduction techniques for a visual summary representation that serves as a guide for interactive exploration of the high-dimensional function. In a similar fashion, the regression employs a combination of linear models based on the Morse-Smale decomposition of the domain. This regression approach yields topologically accurate estimates and facilitates interpretation of general trends and statistical comparisons between partitions. In this manner, the msr package supports high-dimensional data understanding and exploration through the Morse-Smale complex.

  2. Accurate differential stress measurement using the molten salt cell and solid salt assemblies in the Griggs apparatus with applications to strength, piezometers and rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoke, Caleb W.; Kronenberg, Andreas K.

    2010-10-01

    Calibrations have been developed for the molten salt cell and solid salt assemblies used in tri-axial Griggs-type piston-cylinder deformation apparatus (Griggs apparatus) that enable accurate differential stress determinations in both assemblies at high pressures and high resolution differential stress measurements in the molten salt cell. Elastic response of the apparatus was characterized by loading alumina and WC rods, and flow strengths were measured for high-purity nickel and molybdenum, and a Ti-Zr-Mo alloy in replicate experiments in a Griggs apparatus and a Heard tri-axial gas apparatus (gas apparatus) at identical pressures, temperatures and strain rates. The elastic response of the Griggs apparatus is nonlinear at low total loads (< 15 kN or σ 1 = 760 MPa on a 5 mm diameter sample); but becomes linear at loads greater than 15 kN. Plastic deformation experiments on water-insensitive metals indicate that differential stresses measured in the molten salt cell (MSC) and solid salt (SSA) assemblies in the Griggs apparatus are greater than those measured in the gas apparatus at all conditions, but vary systematically and reproducibly. A simple, linear calibration (σ Gas apparatus = 0.73 × σ GriggsMSC, +/-10 MPa, where differential stress σ = σ 1-σ 3) can be applied to the differential stresses obtained using the MSC in the Griggs apparatus to obtain sample flow strength. A similar linear calibration (σ Gas apparatus = 0.73 × σ GriggsSSA - 48 MPa, +/-30 MPa) can be applied to the differential stresses obtained using the Griggs apparatus with a solid salt assembly to obtain accurate sample flow strength. These calibrations have been tested by applying them to mechanical data for carbonates deformed in the Griggs apparatus and gas apparatus. The calibrations are also applied to data from previous studies performed in the Griggs apparatus on clinopyroxenites and quartzites and compared to results from similar experiments using the gas apparatus. When the

  3. Study on electrochemical preparation of Al-Li-Y alloys from Y2O3 in LiCl-KCl-AlCl3 molten salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yaming; WANG Fengli; ZHANG Milin; HAN Wei; TIAN Yang

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical preparaton of Al-Li-Y alloys from LiCl-KCl-A1Cl3-Y2O3 system was studied. The chlorination of Y2O3 by AlCl3 led to the formation of Y (Ⅲ) ions in the molten salts. Cyclic voltammogram (CV) showed that the underpotential deposition (UPD) of yttrium on pre-deposited aluminum caused the formation of Al-Y alloy. Al-Li-Y alloys with different yttriurn contents were obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis and analysed by SEM-EDS and ICP. The ICP results showed that the lithium and yttrium contents in Al-Li-Y alloysdepended on the addition of AlCl3 into the melts.

  4. Dielectric relaxation behaviour of Sr2SbMnO6 ceramics fabricated from nanocrystalline powders prepared by molten salt synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antara Baral; K R S Preethi Meher; K B R Varma

    2011-02-01

    Double perovskite polycrystalline single phase and dense Sr2SbMnO6 (SSM) ceramics, fabricated using the nanocrystalline powders synthesized by molten salt method, exhibited high dielectric constant with low dielectric loss as compared to that of SSM ceramics obtained from the powders prepared by solid-state synthesis method. The dielectric data obtained over a wide frequency (100 Hz–1 MHz) and temperature (190 K–300 K) ranges exhibited distinct relaxations owing to both the grain and grain boundary. The dielectric dispersion was modeled using the Cole–Cole equation consisting of two separate relaxation terms corresponding to the grain and grain boundary. The grain and grain boundary relaxations observed in the Nyquist plots (' and ) were modeled by an equivalent circuit consisting of two parallel RC circuits connected in series with each other. A careful analysis of both the impedance ('' vs) and modulus ('' vs) behaviour corroborated the conclusions drawn fromthe dielectric data.

  5. In situ synthesis of ultra-fine, porous, tin oxide-carbon nanocomposites via a molten salt method for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin [Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); School of Science, Xinjiang Eduction Institute, Urumqi, Xinjiang (China); Guo, Zai Ping [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Du, Guodong; Hassan, Mohd Faiz [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Nuli, Yanna [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Jia, Dianzeng [Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    Ultra-fine, porous, tin oxide-carbon (SnO{sub 2}/C) nanocomposites are fabricated by a molten salt method at 300 C, and malic acid is decomposed as the carbon source. In situ synthesis is favourable for the combination of carbon and SnO{sub 2}. The structure and morphology are confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis, specific surface-area measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Examination of TEM images reveals that the SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are embedded in the carbon matrix, with sizes between 2 and 5 nm. The electrochemical measurements show that the nanocomposite delivers a high capacity with good capacity retention as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, due to the combination of the ultra-fine porous structure and the carbon component. (author)

  6. On the Burning of Plutonium Originating from Light Water Reactor Use in a Fast Molten Salt Reactor—A Neutron Physical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Merk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient burning of the plutonium produced during light water reactor (LWR operation has the potential to significantly improve the sustainability indices of LWR operations. The work offers a comparison of the efficiency of Pu burning in different reactor configurations—a molten salt fast reactor, a LWR with mixed oxide (MOX fuel, and a sodium cooled fast reactor. The calculations are performed using the HELIOS 2 code. All results are evaluated against the plutonium burning efficiency determined in the Consommation Accrue de Plutonium dans les Réacteurs à Neutrons RApides (CAPRA project. The results are discussed with special view on the increased sustainability of LWR use in the case of successful avoidance of an accumulation of Pu which otherwise would have to be forwarded to a final disposal. A strategic discussion is given about the unavoidable plutonium production, the possibility to burn the plutonium to avoid a burden for the future generations which would have to be controlled.

  7. 熔盐电解制备细颗粒钛粉研究%Preparation of Fine-grained Titanium Powder by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 翁启钢; 吴浩波; 贺跃辉; 袁铁锤

    2012-01-01

    在氯化物熔融盐中电解海绵钛制取细颗粒钛粉,研究了可溶钛浓度、阴极电流密度以及加料方式等因素对阴极产品颗粒形貌及粒度的影响,制备了平均粒度约为60 ~70 μm的细颗粒钛粉.实验结果表明,电解初期形成块状结晶,电解后期为树枝状;可溶钛浓度对钛粉粒度影响显著;采用气相加料容易使钛在熔盐表层形成鳞片状结构.%Fine-grained titanium powder was prepared by electrolyzing titanium sponge in chlorite molten salt.An inves-tigation"was made on the effects of soluble titanium concentration,cathode current density and feeding methods on the morphology and particle size of titanium powder.The average particle size of the prepared titanium powder is about 60~70μm.The results showed that bulk crystal was formed in the initial period of electrolysis,but dendrite crystal was formed in the later period.The particle size of titanium powder was greatly affected by soluble titanium concentration.Bygas.phase feeding,the titanium will be observed formation of scaly structure on the surface of molten salt.

  8. Preparation of tungsten coatings on graphite by electro-deposition via Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ning-bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Ying-chun, E-mail: zycustb@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, Fan; Lang, Shao-ting [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Xia, Min [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Institute of Powder Metallurgy and Advanced Ceramics, Southwest Jiaotong University, 111, 1st Section, Northern 2nd Ring Road, Chengdu (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings on graphite were firstly obtained by electro-deposition method via Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system. • Uniform and dense tungsten coatings could be easily prepared in each face of the sample, especially the complex components. • The obtained tungsten coatings are with high purity, ultra-low oxygen content (about 0.022 wt%). • Modulate pulse parameters can get tungsten coatings with different thickness and hardness. - Abstract: Tungsten coating on graphite substrate is one of the most promising candidate materials as the ITER plasma facing components. In this paper, tungsten coatings on graphite substrates were fabricated by electro-deposition from Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system at 1173 K in atmosphere. Tungsten coatings with no impurities were successfully deposited on graphite substrates under various pulsed current densities in an hour. By increasing the current density from 60 mA cm{sup −2} to 120 mA cm{sup −2} an increase of the average size of tungsten grains, the thickness and the hardness of tungsten coatings occurs. The average size of tungsten grains can reach 7.13 μm, the thickness of tungsten coating was in the range of 28.8–51 μm, and the hardness of coating was higher than 400 HV. No cracks or voids were observed between tungsten coating and graphite substrate. The oxygen content of tungsten coating is about 0.022 wt%.

  9. Results of molten salt panel and component experiments for solar central receivers: Cold fill, freeze/thaw, thermal cycling and shock, and instrumentation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, J.E.; Ralph, M.E.; Chavez, J.M.; Dunkin, S.R.; Rush, E.E.; Ghanbari, C.M.; Matthews, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted with a molten salt loop at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM to resolve issues associated with the operation of the 10MW{sub e} Solar Two Central Receiver Power Plant located near Barstow, CA. The salt loop contained two receiver panels, components such as flanges and a check valve, vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters, and an impedance pressure transducer. Tests were conducted on procedures for filling and thawing a panel, and assessing components and instrumentation in a molten salt environment. Four categories of experiments were conducted: (1) cold filling procedures, (2) freeze/thaw procedures, (3) component tests, and (4) instrumentation tests. Cold-panel and -piping fill experiments are described, in which the panels and piping were preheated to temperatures below the salt freezing point prior to initiating flow, to determine the feasibility of cold filling the receiver and piping. The transient thermal response was measured, and heat transfer coefficients and transient stresses were calculated from the data. Freeze/thaw experiments were conducted with the panels, in which the salt was intentionally allowed to freeze in the receiver tubes, then thawed with heliostat beams. Slow thermal cycling tests were conducted to measure both how well various designs of flanges (e.g., tapered flanges or clamp type flanges) hold a seal under thermal conditions typical of nightly shut down, and the practicality of using these flanges on high maintenance components. In addition, the flanges were thermally shocked to simulate cold starting the system. Instrumentation such as vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters were tested alongside each other, and compared with flow measurements from calibration tanks in the flow loop.

  10. Development of electrolytic process in molten salt media for light rare-earth metals production. The metallic cerium electrodeposition; Desenvolvimento de processo de eletrolise em meio de sais fundidos para a producao de metais de terras-raras leves. A obtencao do cerio metalico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, T.A.G.

    1994-12-31

    The development of molten salt process and the respective equipment aiming rare-earth metals recovery was described. In the present case, the liquid cerium metal electrodeposition in a molten electrolytes of cerium chloride and an equimolar mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides in temperatures near 800{sup C} was studied. Due the high chemical reactivity of the rare-earth metals in the liquid state and their molten halides, an electrolytic cell was constructed with controlled atmosphere, graphite crucibles and anodes and a tungsten cathode. The electrolytic process variables and characteristics were evaluated upon the current efficiency and metallic product purity. Based on this evaluations, were suggested some alterations on the electrolytic reactor design and upon the process parameters. (author). 90 refs, 37 figs, 20 tabs.

  11. Preliminary Study on Pyrolysis of Wood Tar in Molten Salt Media%熔融盐裂解木焦油的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕红云; 于凤文; 唐强; 计建炳

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic cracking reactions was performed using wood tar as raw material under the catlysis of molten salt in fixed-bed cracking reactor. The influence of cracking temperature on the components of product was investigated. The chemical components of wood tar and secondary cracking products were analyzed using gas chromatograph with mass selective detector ( GC-MS). It was found that the wood tar is mainly compsed of guaiacol, 4-ethyl guaiacol, 4-methyl guaiacol, 3-methyl phenol, diacetone alcohol etc. Combination of high cracking temperature and low feed rate are beneficial to the cracking reaction of tar. The secondary cracking of tar yield could reach 16. 47% under the reaction conditions of temperature 500℃ and the feeding rate 1 g/min. Under the effect of molten salt, the amount of acids, ketones, esters and phenanthrene was significantly reduced. The conversion of phenol is lower than other fractions, and other fractions can be converted phenolic fractions.%以木焦油为原料,在自制的反应器上利用ZnCl2和KCI混合盐分别在300、350、400、450和500℃下,对木焦油进行裂解试验,利用GC -MS分析木焦油裂解前后组成的变化.结果表明:木焦油的主要成分为愈创木酚、4-乙基愈创木酚、4-甲基愈创木酚、间甲酚及二丙酮醇等.较高的熔融盐温度、较低的进料速率有利于木焦油的裂解,在裂解温度为500℃,进料速率为1 g/min时,二次裂解焦油的得率为16.47%.在高温熔融盐作用下,酸、酮、酯及菲都有较明显的减少,酚类的转化较少,并且还存在其它组分向酚类的转化.

  12. Orientation control of (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics using platelike NaNbO3 templates prepared by single-step molten salt synthesis with mixed salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Keisuke; Tashiro, Shinjiro

    2016-10-01

    In order to shorten the firing time for sintering textured (K,Na)NbO3 system ceramics, the fabrication method of the single-step molten salt synthesis for preparing platelike NaNbO3 single-crystal particles was improved. An uneven shape was formed on the surfaces of platelike NaNbO3 single-crystal particles obtained by single-step molten salt synthesis in the mixed salts of KCl and NaCl. Using these single-crystal particles as the templates, textured (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics were fabricated. The sinterability of the textured ceramics and their piezoelectricity were compared between two kinds of templates synthesized in the mixed salt and in the conventional NaCl salt. The diffusivity of K atoms into these templates from the matrix powder of (K,Na)NbO3 during firing was also compared.

  13. Studies on Hot Corrosion of the 2.25 Cr-1Mo Boiler Tube Steel and Its Weldments in the Molten Salt Na2SO4-60 pct V2O5 Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravindra; Tewari, V. K.; Prakash, S.

    2007-01-01

    Hot corrosion is mainly due to the dissolution of protective oxides in the molten salt at the metal surface and their reprecipitation at some other sites as nonprotective porous mass. The hot corrosion attack along the grain boundaries leading to subsurface precipitation of oxides and sulfides also contributes to weakening of material. Ferritic steel with 2.25Cr 1Mo is used widely as a candidate material in the steam generating system of power plants. Hot corrosion studies were conducted on 2.25Cr-1Mo unwelded as well as welded steel specimens with molten salt coated after exposure at 900 °C under cyclic conditions. The thermogravimetric technique was used to establish the kinetics of corrosion X-ray diffraction (XRD); scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive analysis (SEM/EDAX) was used to analyze the corrosion products.

  14. Production of ZrO{sub 2} oxide by pyrohydrolysis in LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ZrF{sub 4} molten salt-effect of the reaction time and the H{sub 2}O feed rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, M. S.; Yoo, J. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, S. H. [Chungbuk National Univ., Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    ZrO{sub 2} oxide was conversion from ZrF{sub 4} with supply steam in LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ArF{sub 4} (63-30-7mol%) molten salt at 600 .deg. C. In this time, conformed the conversion rate and the morphology of ZrO{sub 2} crystal. Conversion rate was 97% at reaction for 3 hours. And particle size increases with increasing temperature gradient of reactor inside.

  15. Comparative advantages of novel algorithms using MSR threshold and MSR difference threshold for biclustering gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shyama; Idicula, Sumam Mary

    2011-01-01

    The goal of biclustering in gene expression data matrix is to find a submatrix such that the genes in the submatrix show highly correlated activities across all conditions in the submatrix. A measure called mean squared residue (MSR) is used to simultaneously evaluate the coherence of rows and columns within the submatrix. MSR difference is the incremental increase in MSR when a gene or condition is added to the bicluster. In this chapter, three biclustering algorithms using MSR threshold (MSRT) and MSR difference threshold (MSRDT) are experimented and compared. All these methods use seeds generated from K-Means clustering algorithm. Then these seeds are enlarged by adding more genes and conditions. The first algorithm makes use of MSRT alone. Both the second and third algorithms make use of MSRT and the newly introduced concept of MSRDT. Highly coherent biclusters are obtained using this concept. In the third algorithm, a different method is used to calculate the MSRDT. The results obtained on bench mark datasets prove that these algorithms are better than many of the metaheuristic algorithms. PMID:21431553

  16. Corrosion characteristics of reduced activation ferritic steel, JLF-1 (8.92Cr-2W) in molten salts Flibe and Flinak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Masatoshi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Gifu (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan)], E-mail: kondo.masatoshi@nifs.ac.jp; Nagasaka, Takuya [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Gifu (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Xu Qi [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Muroga, Takeo; Sagara, Akio [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Gifu (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Noda, Nobuaki [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Gifu (Japan); Ninomiya, Daisuke; Nagura, Masaru; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Fujii, Naoki [Biko Chemical Company, Koube (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Static corrosion tests were performed in molten salts, LiF-BeF{sub 2} (Flibe) and LiF-NaF-KF (Flinak), at 500 deg. C and 600 deg. C for 1000 h. The purpose is to investigate the corrosion characteristics of reduced activation ferritic steels, JLF-1 (8.92Cr-2W) in the fluids. The concentration of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in the fluids was measured by slurry pH titration method before and after the exposure. The HF concentration determined the fluoridation potential. The corrosion was mainly caused by dissolution of Fe and Cr into the fluids due to fluoridation and/or electrochemical corrosion. Carbon on the surface might be dissolved into the fluids due to the corrosion, and this resulted to the decrease of carbide on the surface. The corrosion depth of the JLF-1 specimen, which was obtained from the weight losses, was 0.637 {mu}m in Flibe at 600 deg. C and 6.73 {mu}m in Flinak at 600 deg. C.

  17. Electrochemistry of vanadium(II and the electrodeposition of aluminum-vanadium alloys in the aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuda T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of vanadium(II was examined in the 66.7-33.3 mole percent aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt containing dissolved VCl2 at 353 K. Voltammetry experiments revealed that V(II could be electrochemically oxidized to V(III and V(IV. However at slow scan rates the V(II/V(III electrode reaction is complicated by the rapid precipitation of V(III as VCl3. The reduction of V(II occurs at potentials considerably negative of the Al(III/Al electrode reaction, and Al-V alloys cannot be electrodeposited from this melt. However electrodeposition experiments conducted in VCl2-saturated melt containing the additive, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, resulted in Al-V alloys. The vanadium content of these alloys increased with increasing cathodic current density or more negative applied potentials. X-ray analysis of Al-V alloys that were electrodeposited on a rotating copper wire substrate indicated that these alloys did not form or contain an intermetallic compound, but were non-equilibrium or metastable solid solutions. The chloride-pitting corrosion properties of these alloys were examined in aqueous NaCl by using potentiodynamic polarization techniques. Alloys containing ~10 a/o vanadium exhibited a pitting potential that was 0.3 V positive of that for pure aluminum.

  18. Environmental health and safety plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Tiner, P.F.; Gosslee, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to environmental protection and safety and health (S and H) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all MSRE operations. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated at the MSRE that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and the best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air.

  19. Interplay between structure and transport properties of molten salt mixtures of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl: A molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Venkateswara Rao; Swinteck, Nichlas; Bringuier, Stefan; Lucas, Pierre; Deymier, Pierre; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Molten mixtures of network-forming covalently bonded ZnCl2 and network-modifying ionically bonded NaCl and KCl salts are investigated as high-temperature heat transfer fluids for concentrating solar power plants. Specifically, using molecular dynamics simulations, the interplay between the extent of the network structure, composition, and the transport properties (viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion) of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl molten salts is characterized. The Stokes-Einstein/Eyring relationship is found to break down in these network-forming liquids at high concentrations of ZnCl2 (>63 mol. %), while the Eyring relationship is seen with increasing KCl concentration. Further, the network modification due to the addition of K ions leads to formation of non-bridging terminal Cl ions, which in turn lead to a positive temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in these melts. This new understanding of transport in these ternary liquids enables the identification of appropriate concentrations of the network formers and network modifiers to design heat transfer fluids with desired transport properties for concentrating solar power plants. PMID:26957165

  20. Environmental health and safety plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to environmental protection and safety and health (S and H) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all MSRE operations. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated at the MSRE that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and the best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air

  1. Thermal modeling of a secondary concentrator integrated with an open direct-absorption molten-salt volumetric receiver in a beam-down tower system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlou, Radia; Armstrong, Peter; Grange, Benjamin; Almheiri, Saif; Calvet, Nicolas; Slocum, Alexander; Shamim, Tariq

    2016-05-01

    An upward-facing three-dimensional secondary concentrator, herein termed Final Optical Element (FOE), is designed to be used in a beam-down tower in combination with an open volumetric direct-absorption molten-salt receiver tank acting simultaneously as a thermal energy storage system. It allows reducing thermal losses from the open receiver by decreasing its aperture area while keeping minimal spillage losses. The FOE is exposed to high solar fluxes, a part of which is absorbed by its reflector material, leading to material degradation by overheating. Consequently, the FOE may require active cooling. A thermal model of the FOE under passive cooling mechanism is proposed as a first step to evaluate its sensitivity to some design parameters. Then, it will be used to evaluate the requirements for the active cooling system. The model provides insights on the FOE thermal behavior and highlights the effectiveness of a design modification on passive cooling enhancement. First prototype tests under reduced flux and with no active cooling will be used for model adjustment.

  2. Prototype Tests for the Recovery and Conversion of UF6 Chemisorbed in NaF Traps for the Molten Salt Reactor Remediation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Icenhour, A.S.; Simmons, D.W.

    2000-04-01

    The remediation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site includes the removal of about 37 kg of uranium. Of that inventory, about 23 kg have already been removed from the piping system and chemisorbed in 25 NaF traps. This material is being stored in Building 3019. The planned recovery of -11 kg of uranium from the fuel salt will generate another 15 to 19 NaF traps. The remaining 2 to 3 kg of uranium are present in activated charcoal beds, which are also scheduled to be removed from the reactor site. Since all of these materials (NaF traps and the uranium-laden charcoal) are not suitable for long-term storage, they will be converted to a chemical form [uranium oxide], which is suitable for long-term storage. This document describes the process that will be used to recover and convert the uranium in the NaF traps into a stable oxide for long-term storage. Included are a description of the process, equipment, test results, and lessons learned. The process was developed for remote operation in a hot cell. Lessons learned from the prototype testing were incorporated into the process design.

  3. Prototype Tests for the Recovery and Conversion of UF6Chemisorbed in NaF Traps for the Molten Salt Reactor Remediation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.

    2000-06-07

    The remediation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site includes the removal of about 37 kg of uranium. Of that inventory, about 23 kg have already been removed from the piping system and chemisorbed in 25 NaF traps. This material is being stored in Building 3019. The planned recovery of {approx}11 kg of uranium from the fuel salt will generate another 15 to 19 NaF traps. The remaining 2 to 3 kg of uranium are present in activated charcoal beds, which are also scheduled to be removed from the reactor site. Since all of these materials (NaF traps and the uranium-laden charcoal) are not suitable for long-term storage, they will be converted to a chemical form [uranium oxide (U{sub 3}O{sub 8})], which is suitable for long-term storage. This document describes the process that will be used to recover and convert the uranium in the NaF traps into a stable oxide for long-term storage. Included are a description of the process, equipment, test results, and lessons learned. The process was developed for remote operation in a hot cell. Lessons learned from the prototype testing were incorporated into the process design.

  4. CeO2 as the Oxygen Carrier for Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas in Molten Salts: Thermodynamic Analysis and Experimental Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new technique - the direct partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas using lattice oxygen in molten salts medium has been introduced. Using CeO2 as the oxygen carrier, thermodynamic data were calculated in the reaction process, and the results indicated that direct partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas using lattice oxygen of cerium oxide is feasible in theory. In a stainless steel reactor, the effects of temperature and varying amounts of γ-Al2O3 supported CeO2 on CH4 conversion,H2 and CO selectivity, were investigated, respectively. The results show that 10% CeO2/γ-Al2O3 has the maximal reaction activity at a temperature of 865 ℃ and above, the H2/CO ratio in the gas that has been produced reaches 2 and the CH4 conversion, H2 and CO selectivity reached the following percentages: i.e.61%, 89%, and 91% at 870 ℃, respectively. In addition, increase of reaction temperature is favorable for the partial oxidation of methane.

  5. Interplay between structure and transport properties of molten salt mixtures of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl: A molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Venkateswara Rao; Swinteck, Nichlas; Bringuier, Stefan; Lucas, Pierre; Deymier, Pierre; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Molten mixtures of network-forming covalently bonded ZnCl2 and network-modifying ionically bonded NaCl and KCl salts are investigated as high-temperature heat transfer fluids for concentrating solar power plants. Specifically, using molecular dynamics simulations, the interplay between the extent of the network structure, composition, and the transport properties (viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion) of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl molten salts is characterized. The Stokes-Einstein/Eyring relationship is found to break down in these network-forming liquids at high concentrations of ZnCl2 (>63 mol. %), while the Eyring relationship is seen with increasing KCl concentration. Further, the network modification due to the addition of K ions leads to formation of non-bridging terminal Cl ions, which in turn lead to a positive temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in these melts. This new understanding of transport in these ternary liquids enables the identification of appropriate concentrations of the network formers and network modifiers to design heat transfer fluids with desired transport properties for concentrating solar power plants.

  6. Corrosion Performance of AISI-309 Exposed to Molten Salts V2O5-Na2SO4 at 700°C Applying EIS and Rp Electrochemical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Diaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion performance of AISI-309 exposed 5 days to molten salts 50 mol% V2O5-50 mol% Na2SO4 at 700°C is reported in this paper. Such evaluation was made using three electrochemical techniques: potentiodynamic polarization curve (PC, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and linear polarization resistance (Rp. From PC, the Tafel slopes, Icorr, and Ecorr were obtained. From Nyquist and Bode plots, it was possible to determine two different stages; the first one showed just one loop, which indicated the initial formation of Cr2O3 layer over the metallic surface; after that, the dissolution of Cr2O3 formed a porous layer, which became part of the corrosion products; at the same time a NiO layer combined with sulfur was forming, which was suggested as the second stage, represented by two capacitive loops. EIS plots were in agreement with the physical characterization made from SEM and EDS analyses. Fitting of EIS experimental data allowed us to propose two electrical circuits, being in concordance with the corrosion stages. Parameters obtained from the simulation of EIS data are also reported. From the results, it was stated that AISI-309 suffered intergranular corrosion due to the presence of sulfur, which diffused to the metallic surface through a porous Cr2O3 layer.

  7. [sup 7]Li-NMR determination of stability constants as a function of temperature for lithium-crown ether complexes in a molten salt mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhard, A. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States) Univ. of Witten/Herdecke (Germany)); Cobranchi, D.P.; Garland, B.A.; Highley, A.M.; Huang, Y.H.; Konya, G.; Eyring, E.M. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Zahl, A.; Eldik, R. van (Univ. of Witten/Herdecke (Germany)); Petrucci, S. (Polytechnic Univ., Farmingdale, NY (United States))

    1994-08-11

    The stability constants of several crown ethers with lithium ion were determined by [sup 7]Li-NMR measurements. A room temperature, basic molten salt of the composition of 55/45 mol % 1-methyl-3-ethyl-imidazolium chloride to aluminum (III) chloride was used as solvent. On the basis of a 1:1 complex formation the following order was found for the stability constants of the investigated crown ethers: 18-crown-6 < 12-crown-4 < benzo-15-crown-5 < 15-crown-5. A temperature dependence study for 12-crown-4, benzo-15-crown-5, and 15-crown-5 was undertaken for the range 5-84[degree]C. Values of [Delta]H and [Delta]S were calculated. At 5.5[degree]C the splitting of the single, fast exchange peak into two separate signals was observed for benzo-15-crown-5, providing further evidence for the formation of the 1:1 complex. 34 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. The Synthesis of TiNi and Composite Particles in Molten Salts%熔盐法制备TiNi记忆合金粒子及其复合粒子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞嵩; 崔立山; 郑雁军

    2005-01-01

    A novel process for synthesizing TiNi and TiNi/TiC particles, called the high-temperature salt-melting method,is discussed in this paper. So far as this method is concerned, the molten salts are a reaction medium that does not take part in the chemical reaction but can be easily dissolved by water washing. With this method, TiNi shape memory alloy and TiNi/TiC composite particles were prepared in molten salts at 680-850℃. TiNi particles, ranging from 100 nm to several microns in diameter, are obtained and the reverse martensitic transformation is confirmed in these particles by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The reaction temperature and the holding time have no significant influence on the particle size, morphology or the reverse martensitic transformation characteristics. In the molten salts, the released heat of the chemical reaction causes the local temperature to rise quickly, which is the key to obtaining the desired particulate composite.

  9. Developing Tools and Technologies to Meet MSR Planetary Protection Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the tools and technologies that need to be developed for a Caching Rover mission in order to meet the overall Planetary Protection requirements for future Mars Sample Return (MSR) campaign. This is the result of an eight-month study sponsored by the Mars Exploration Program Office. The goal of this study is to provide a future MSR project with a focused technology development plan for achieving the necessary planetary protection and sample integrity capabilities for a Mars Caching Rover mission.

  10. 锑在Na2CO3?NaCl二元熔盐中的溶解度%Solubility of Sb in binary Na2CO3?NaCl molten salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永明; 叶龙刚; 唐朝波; 杨声海; 唐谟堂; 张文海

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between molten Na2CO3?NaCl salt and Sb and the solubility of Sb in molten salt were investigated in the temperature range of 700?1000 ℃. The results show that the dissolution equilibrium of Sb in molten salt can be achieved in 3 h, and the amount of Sb dissolved in the melt decreases as the viscosity decreases. The solubility limits in an eutectic mixture were determined as 5.42%, 2.42%, 0.75% and 0.68% at 700, 800, 900 and 1000 ℃, respectively. A high temperature and appropriate content of NaCl will decrease the dissolution of Sb. The insoluble Sb was collected at the bottom of molten salt. The Sb dissolved on the surface of the molten salt is easily oxidized, whereas the Sb dissolved inside the molten salt is randomly distributed in terms of the form of metal Sb.%研究了在700~1000 ℃温度范围内金属锑在Na2CO3?NaCl二元熔盐中的溶解行为.结果表明,金属锑的溶解平衡可以在3 h内完成,同时锑的溶解量随熔体黏度的降低而减少.在700、800、900和1000 ℃时锑的饱和溶解量分别为5.42%、2.42%、0.75% 和0.68%,较高的温度和适量的NaCl含量可以降低锑的溶解量.不溶解的锑沉聚于熔盐底部,不与熔盐反应.溶解在熔盐表面的锑容易被氧化,而溶解于熔盐中的锑以金属态的形式随机地分布于熔盐中,形成夹杂.

  11. 熔盐电解法制备TiW合金%Preparation of TiW Alloy by Electrolysis Method in Molten-salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜波; 罗志涛; 邢朋飞; 常鹏北

    2012-01-01

    采用熔盐电解法直接由TiO2和WO3混合物电极制备了高W含量的TiW合金,并对电解中的电流变化、物相组成和组织演变进行了研究分析.在900℃和3.1V的电解条件下,在熔融CaCl2熔盐中,以石墨为阳极、TiO2和WO3的混合物为阴极进行电解,采用SEM、EDS和XRD等方法对电解还原过程中的产物进行了分析.电解后可制得成分可控的钛钨合金,氧含量较低.%TiW alloy with high W content was prepared directly by electrolysis in molten-salt from the mixture electrode of TiO2 and WO3, and the current change, phase component and microstructure evolvement were studied and analyzed. Under the electrolysis conditions of 900℃ and 3. IV voltage, with a graphite anode and TiO2-WO3 oxides cathode, the electrolysis was carried out in molten CaCl2 salt, and the electrolysis products were examined by SEM, EDS and XRD during the process. The TiW alloy with uniform component was obtained after electrochemical reduction, where the atomic ratio of Ti and W of produced alloy was agreed closely with the pre-determined ratio, and the reduced products had low oxygen content after electrolyzing for 16h.

  12. Sign Crossover in All Maxwell-Stefan Diffusivities for Molten Salt LiF-BeF2: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Brahmananda

    2015-08-20

    Applying Green-Kubo formalism and equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have studied for the first time the dynamic correlation, Onsager coefficients, and Maxwell-Stefan (MS) diffusivities of molten salt LiF-BeF2, which is a potential candidate for a coolant in a high temperature reactor. We observe an unusual composition dependence and strikingly a crossover in sign for all the MS diffusivities at a composition of around 7% of LiF where the MS diffusivity between cation-anion pair (Đ(BeF) and Đ(LiF)) jumps from positive to negative value while the MS diffusivity between cation-cation pair (Đ(LiBe)) becomes positive from a negative value. Even though the negative MS diffusivities have been observed for electrolyte solutions between cation-cation pair, here we report negative MS diffusivity between cation-anion pair where Đ(BeF) shows a sharp rise around 66% of BeF2, reaches maximum value at 70% of BeF2, and then decreases almost exponentially with a sign change for BeF2 around 93%. For low mole fraction of LiF, Đ(BeF) follows the Debye-Huckel theory and rises with the square root of LiF mole fraction similar to the MS diffusivity between cation-anion pair in aqueous solution of electrolyte salt. Negative MS diffusivities while unusual are, however, shown to satisfy the non-negative entropy constraints at all thermodynamic states as required by the second law of thermodynamics. We have established a strong correlation between the structure and dynamics and predict that the formation of flouride polyanion network between Be and F ions and coulomb interaction is responsible for sharp variation of the MS diffusivities which controls the multicomponent diffusion phenomenon in LiF-BeF2 which has a strong impact on the performance of the reactor.

  13. Effect of Minor Alloying Elements on the Corrosion Behavior of Fe40Al in NaCl-KCl Molten Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Salinas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hot corrosion behavior of Fe40Al intermetallic alloyed with Ag, Cu, Li, and Ni (1–5 at.% in NaCl-KCl (1 : 1 M at 670°C, typical of waste gasification environments, has been evaluated by using polarization curves and weight loss techniques and compared with a 304-type stainless steel. Both gravimetric and electrochemical techniques showed that all different Fe40Al-base alloys have a much higher corrosion resistance than that for stainless steel. Among the different Fe40Al-based alloys, the corrosion rate was very similar among each other, but it was evident that the addition of Li decreased their corrosion rate whereas all the other elements increased it. Results have been explained in terms of the formation and stability of an external, protective Al2O3 layer.

  14. The sRNA RyhB regulates the synthesis of the Escherichia coli methionine sulfoxide reductase MsrB but not MsrA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bos

    Full Text Available Controlling iron homeostasis is crucial for all aerobically grown living cells that are exposed to oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS, as free iron increases the production of ROS. Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msr are key enzymes in repairing ROS-mediated damage to proteins, as they reduce oxidized methionine (MetSO residues to methionine. E. coli synthesizes two Msr, A and B, which exhibit substrate diastereospecificity. The bacterial iron-responsive small RNA (sRNA RyhB controls iron metabolism by modulating intracellular iron usage. We show in this paper that RyhB is a direct regulator of the msrB gene that encodes the MsrB enzyme. RyhB down-regulates msrB transcripts along with Hfq and RNaseE proteins since mutations in the ryhB, fur, hfq, or RNaseE-encoded genes resulted in iron-insensitive expression of msrB. Our results show that RyhB binds to two sequences within the short 5'UTR of msrB mRNA as identified by reverse transcriptase and RNase and lead (II protection assays. Toeprinting analysis shows that RyhB pairing to msrB mRNA prevents efficient ribosome binding and thereby inhibits translation initiation. In vivo site directed-mutagenesis experiments in the msrB 5'UTR region indicate that both RyhB-pairing sites are required to decrease msrB expression. Thus, this study suggests a novel mechanism of translational regulation where a same sRNA can basepair to two different locations within the same mRNA species. In contrast, expression of msrA is not influenced by changes in iron levels.

  15. The sRNA RyhB regulates the synthesis of the Escherichia coli methionine sulfoxide reductase MsrB but not MsrA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Julia; Duverger, Yohann; Thouvenot, Benoît; Chiaruttini, Claude; Branlant, Christiane; Springer, Mathias; Charpentier, Bruno; Barras, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Controlling iron homeostasis is crucial for all aerobically grown living cells that are exposed to oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS), as free iron increases the production of ROS. Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msr) are key enzymes in repairing ROS-mediated damage to proteins, as they reduce oxidized methionine (MetSO) residues to methionine. E. coli synthesizes two Msr, A and B, which exhibit substrate diastereospecificity. The bacterial iron-responsive small RNA (sRNA) RyhB controls iron metabolism by modulating intracellular iron usage. We show in this paper that RyhB is a direct regulator of the msrB gene that encodes the MsrB enzyme. RyhB down-regulates msrB transcripts along with Hfq and RNaseE proteins since mutations in the ryhB, fur, hfq, or RNaseE-encoded genes resulted in iron-insensitive expression of msrB. Our results show that RyhB binds to two sequences within the short 5'UTR of msrB mRNA as identified by reverse transcriptase and RNase and lead (II) protection assays. Toeprinting analysis shows that RyhB pairing to msrB mRNA prevents efficient ribosome binding and thereby inhibits translation initiation. In vivo site directed-mutagenesis experiments in the msrB 5'UTR region indicate that both RyhB-pairing sites are required to decrease msrB expression. Thus, this study suggests a novel mechanism of translational regulation where a same sRNA can basepair to two different locations within the same mRNA species. In contrast, expression of msrA is not influenced by changes in iron levels.

  16. SiC Schottky Diode Detectors for Measurement of Actinide Concentrations from Alpha Activities in Molten Salt Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windl, Wolfgang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Blue, Thomas [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-01-28

    In this project, we have designed a 4H-SiC Schottky diode detector device in order to monitor actinide concentrations in extreme environments, such as present in pyroprocessing of spent fuel. For the first time, we have demonstrated high temperature operation of such a device up to 500 °C in successfully detecting alpha particles. We have used Am-241 as an alpha source for our laboratory experiments. Along with the experiments, we have developed a multiscale model to study the phenomena controlling the device behavior and to be able to predict the device performance. Our multiscale model consists of ab initio modeling to understand defect energetics and their effect on electronic structure and carrier mobility in the material. Further, we have developed the basis for a damage evolution model incorporating the outputs from ab initio model in order to predict respective defect concentrations in the device material. Finally, a fully equipped TCAD-based device model has been developed to study the phenomena controlling the device behavior. Using this model, we have proven our concept that the detector is capable of performing alpha detection in a salt bath with the mixtures of actinides present in a pyroprocessing environment.

  17. Molten salts in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author)

  18. Pulsed power molten salt battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argade, Shyam D.

    1992-02-01

    It was concluded that carbon cathodes with chlorine work well. Lithium alloy chlorine at 450 C, 1 atm given high power capability, high energy density, DC + pulsing yields 600 pulses, no initial peak, and can go to red heat without burn-up. Electrochemical performance at the cell and cell stack level out under demanding test regime. Engineering and full prototype development for advancing this technology is warranted.

  19. 高温熔盐吸热器的传热研究和系统设计%The Study on the Heat Transfer of the Molten Salt Receiver and System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小平; 杨晓西; 丁静; 秦贯丰; 蒋润花

    2012-01-01

    The present study simulates the heat transfer performance of the molten salt receiver with non -uniform radiant heat flux, getting the inner tube wall temperature, heat transfer performance and other characteristic parameters. The results show that the temperature distribution of molten salt and tube wall are very uneven whether in axial or radial direction. The heat transfer coefficient is higher than that of the Sieder - Tate formula. The paper also designs and analyzes a solar thermal power tower with 10MW thermal capacity.%本文对非均匀辐射热流密度太阳能熔盐吸热器传热过程进行了模拟研究,得到了熔盐吸热器内部的温度、传热性能等特征参数.结果表明在轴向和径向上熔盐流体温度和管壁的温度都非常不均匀,同时其综合传热性能要高于按照Sieder-Tate公式的计算值.并对10MW塔式太阳能热发电的熔盐吸热器进行了设计和分析.

  20. Prospect on Desalination and Other Non-Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy In Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    G.R. Sunaryo

    2007-01-01

    Molten-Salt Reactor (MSR) is a design of an advanced reactor system from the GEN IV family working in thermal or epithermal neutron spectrum and using thorium or transuranium fuel in the form of molten fluorides. It is based on the experience with the development of the molten-salt reactor technology in the Oak-Ridge National Laboratory in the United States. The MSR fuel cycle with integrated reprocessing represents one of the potential ways both for significant decrease of total amount of ra...

  1. High-resolution wave number spectrum using multi-point measurements in space - the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Y.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Motschmann, U.

    2011-02-01

    A new analysis method is presented that provides a high-resolution power spectrum in a broad wave number domain based on multi-point measurements. The analysis technique is referred to as the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR) and it benefits from Capon's minimum variance method for obtaining the proper power spectral density of the signal as well as the MUSIC algorithm (Multiple Signal Classification) for considerably reducing the noise part in the spectrum. The mathematical foundation of the analysis method is presented and it is applied to synthetic data as well as Cluster observations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Using the MSR technique for Cluster data we find a wave in the solar wind propagating parallel to the mean magnetic field with relatively small amplitude, which is not identified by the Capon spectrum. The Cluster data analysis shows the potential of the MSR technique for studying waves and turbulence using multi-point measurements.

  2. High-resolution wave number spectrum using multi-point measurements in space – the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new analysis method is presented that provides a high-resolution power spectrum in a broad wave number domain based on multi-point measurements. The analysis technique is referred to as the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR and it benefits from Capon's minimum variance method for obtaining the proper power spectral density of the signal as well as the MUSIC algorithm (Multiple Signal Classification for considerably reducing the noise part in the spectrum. The mathematical foundation of the analysis method is presented and it is applied to synthetic data as well as Cluster observations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Using the MSR technique for Cluster data we find a wave in the solar wind propagating parallel to the mean magnetic field with relatively small amplitude, which is not identified by the Capon spectrum. The Cluster data analysis shows the potential of the MSR technique for studying waves and turbulence using multi-point measurements.

  3. Parametric systems analysis of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The close coupling in the stellarator/torsatron/heliotron (S/T/H) between coil design (peak field, current density, forces), magnetics topology (transform, shear, well depth), and plasma performance (equilibrium, stability, transport, beta) complicates the reactor assessment more so than for most magnetic confinement systems. In order to provide an additional degree of resolution of this problem for the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR), a parametric systems model has been developed and applied. This model reduces key issues associted ith plasma performance, first-wall/blanket/shield (FW/B/S), and coil design to a simple relationship between beta, system geometry, and a number of indicators of overall plant performance. The results of this analysis can then be used to guide more detailed, multidimensional plasma, magnetics, and coil design efforts towards technically and economically viable operating regimes. In general, it is shown that beta values > 0.08 may be needed if the MSR approach is to be substantially competitive with other approaches to magnetic fusion in terms of system power density, mass utilization, and cost for total power output around 4.0 GWt; lower powers will require even higher betas

  4. 熔盐介质中制备镁橄榄石轻质材料的机理%Preparation Mechanism of Lightweight Forsterite Materials in Molten Salt Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁军; 邓承继; 祝洪喜; 员文杰; 李君

    2012-01-01

    以天然镁橄榄石和复合熔盐Na2 CO3+ NaCl为原料,经过900~ 1200℃反应烧结10 h以及蒸馏水溶解熔盐处理等过程,获得具有小尺寸气孔、较高强度的镁橄榄石轻质材料.采用X射线衍射(XRD)分析物相组成及变化,扫描电子显微镜( SEM)观察材料的显微结构包括气孔大小及分布情况.结果表明:反应制备的烧结体在由原始Na2 CO3-NaCl组成熔盐体系中,随着混合盐加入量的减少,经洗盐处理后的试样耐压强度增加,体积密度相应增加,而显气孔率减少;试样制备过程主要是盐熔化后,经过水溶解处理后,其占据的空间将形成气孔,而熔盐体系中Na2CO3会分解,CO2从烧结试样中逸出,从而烧结体中也形成了孔隙;混合盐与天然镁橄榄石中含铁杂质反应,生成可溶于水的化合物,在水处理阶段移出烧结体外.%High-strength lightweight materials with small-size pores were prepared using natural magnesium forsterite and composite Na2CO3 + NaCl molten salt as raw material. The specimens were treated at 900-1200 °C for 10 h,and then dissolved in distilled water. The phase composition and change were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) ,and pore size and distribution of microstructure of products were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the sintered body was prepared by the composition of the original Na2CO3-NaCl molten salt,with the addition of mixed salt reduction, the compressive strength and bulk density of distilled water treated samples were increased, but the porosity of samples were reduced. The space of sintered materials were occupied by molten salt, after water-soluble,its occupied space formed pores,Na2CO3 was also broken down in the molten salt system, CO2 escaped from the sintered samples, so that the same porous were formed. The natrium element of mixed salt and natural part of forsterite impurities reacted, and the water-soluble compounds was

  5. Quality assurance plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase 1 -- Interim corrective measures and Phase 2 -- Purge and trap reactive gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) identifies and describes the systems utilized by the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project (MSRERP) personnel to implement the requirements and associated applicable guidance contained in the Quality Program Description Y/QD-15 Rev. 2 (Energy Systems 1995f). This QAP defines the quality assurance (QA) requirements applicable to all activities and operations in and directly pertinent to the MSRERP Phase 1--Interim Corrective Measures and Phase 2--Purge and Trap objectives. This QAP will be reviewed, revised, and approved as necessary for Phase 3 and Phase 4 activities. This QAP identifies and describes the QA activities and procedures implemented by the various Oak Ridge National Laboratory support organizations and personnel to provide confidence that these activities meet the requirements of this project. Specific support organization (Division) quality requirements, including the degree of implementation of each, are contained in the appendixes of this plan.

  6. Molten salt extraction (MSE) of americium from plutonium metal in CaCl2-KCl-PuCl3 and CaCl2-PuCl3 salt systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten salt extraction (MSE) of americium-241 from reactor-grade plutonium has been developed using plutonium trichloride salt in stationary furnaces. Batch runs with oxidized and oxide-free metal have been conducted at temperature ranges between 750 and 945C, and plutonium trichloride concentrations from one to one hundred mole percent. Salt-to-metal ratios of 0.10, 0.15, and 0 30 were examined. The solvent salt was either eutectic 74 mole percent CaCl2 endash 26 mole percent KCl or pure CaCl2. Evidence of trivalent product americium, and effects of temperature, salt-to-metal ratio, and oxide contamination on the americium extraction efficiency are given. 24 refs, 20 figs, 13 tabs

  7. Phase analysis and dielectric properties of ceramics in PbO–MgO–ZnO–Nb2O5 system: A comparative study of materials obtained by ceramic and molten salt synthesis routes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Thirumal; A K Ganguli

    2000-08-01

    Compositions of the type 3PbO–MgO/ZnO–Nb2O5 were synthesized by the ceramic route at 1000°C and sintered at 1200°C. Powder X-ray diffraction studies of the 1000°C heated products show the presence of the cubic pyrochlore and the columbite (Mg/ZnNb2O6) type phase in the ratio of 3 : 1 for all possible combinations of MgO and ZnO. Further heating at 1200°C led to a decrease in the cubic pyrochlore phase and an increase in the columbite phase by around 10%. Compacted pellets sintered further showed the appearance of the perovskite phase. Similar compositions synthesized using the KCl–NaCl molten salt method at 900°C for 6 h gave a significant amount of the cubic perovskite related phase of the type Pb(Mg/Zn)1/3Nb2/3O3 for all compositions containing MgO. The amount of the perovskite phase was nearly 55% for the Mg rich compositions and decreased with increase in Zn content, the pure Zn composition yielding mainly the cubic pyrochlore phase. On sintering these phases at 1000°C the perovskite phase content decreased. The dielectric constant of the composite materials formed by the ceramic route was in the region of 14 to 20 and varied little with frequency. The composites obtained by the molten salt method, however, showed much larger dielectric constants in the region 40–150 at 500 kHz for various compositions. The dielectric loss tangent of these composites were lower by an order (0.005–0.03 at 500 kHz) compared to the ceramic route.

  8. MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oien, Derek B; Osterhaus, Greg L; Latif, Shaheen A; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-07-15

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA(-/-)) mouse. Here we show that MsrA(-/-) mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA(-/-) mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA(-/-) mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA(-/-) brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower levels of dopamine were observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA(-/-) mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathways are impaired in MsrA(-/-) mice, which may contribute to their abnormal behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  9. The MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oien, Derek B.; Osterhaus, Greg L.; Latif, Shaheen A.; Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA−/−) mouse. Here we show that MsrA−/− mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA−/− mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA−/− mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA−/− brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower level of dopamine was observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA−/− mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathway are impaired in MsrA−/− mice, which may contribute to their abnormal bio-behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18466776

  10. Preparation of High Titanium Ferroalloy by Molten Salt Electrolysis from Mixture of TiO2 and Ilmenite%熔盐电解法制备高钛铁合金

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晴宇; 杜继红; 奚正平; 李争显; 杨承本

    2011-01-01

    High titanium ferroalloy was prepared by electro-deoxidization method. Using CaCl2 molten as electrolyte, sintered TiO2 and ilmenite mixed oxides pallets as cathode, graphite rod as anode, the pallets were electrolyzed at 900 ℃ , 3.1 V for 6, 8 and 12 h. The phase structure of mixture of TiO2 + ilmenite after 950 t sintered and mechanism of electro-deoxidization of the mixture was studied. The result showed that after 950 t sintered, the structure of the TiO2 was transformed from anatase to ruble, and the ilmenite was transformed from thermodynamic stable phase Fe2TiO5 , which crystal structure was monoclinec. The contents of Ti and Fe of produced high titanium ferroalloy was 77.19% and 9.68% ( mass fraction) separately. The mechanism of electro-deoxidization of mixture of TiO2 and ilmenite in the molten salt was that TiO2 formed CaTiO3 firstly, then CaTiO3 was reducted to Ti. The deoxidizing of ilmenite generate Fe priority, once Ti metal was formed, the two kinds of metal soluted each other to form high titanium ferroalloy. Thus, molten salt electrolysis was a new way to produce high titanium ferroalloy from the mixture of TiO2 and ilmenite. Optimizing the electrolytic technology conditions to improve the efficiency of the electric current and increase the rate of the electrolysis, so high quality high titanium ferroalloy can be produced by molten salt electrolysis.%采用电化学还原法,温度为900℃,在CaCl2熔盐中以烧结的TiO2与钛铁矿混合物(Ti:Fe=1:1原子比)为阴极,石墨棒为阳极,制备出了高钛铁合金.探讨了混合物烧结后的相组成变化及高钛铁合金的合金化历程.实验结果表明,混合物烧结后,TiO2由锐钛矿结构转变为金红石结构,钛铁矿转化为热力学稳定的Fe2TiO5.钛铁矿的晶体结构由烧结前的三方晶系经950℃以上烧结后,转变为斜方晶系的Fe2TiO5.制备出的高钛铁中铁钛含量分别为:77.19%和9.68%(质量分数).其合金化历程为:TiO2

  11. Metasurface Reflector (MSR) Loading for High Performance Small Microstrip Antenna Design

    OpenAIRE

    Md Rezwanul Ahsan; Mohammad Tariqul Islam; Mohammad Habib Ullah; Mandeep Jit Singh; Mohd Tarmizi Ali

    2015-01-01

    A meander stripline feed multiband microstrip antenna loaded with metasurface reflector (MSR) structure has been designed, analyzed and constructed that offers the wireless communication services for UHF/microwave RFID and WLAN/WiMAX applications. The proposed MSR assimilated antenna comprises planar straight forward design of circular shaped radiator with horizontal slots on it and 2D metasurface formed by the periodic square metallic element that resembles the behavior of metamaterials. A c...

  12. A unified form of exact-MSR codes via product-matrix frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Sian Jheng

    2015-02-01

    Regenerating codes represent a class of block codes applicable for distributed storage systems. The [n, k, d] regenerating code has data recovery capability while possessing arbitrary k out of n code fragments, and supports the capability for code fragment regeneration through the use of other arbitrary d fragments, for k ≤ d ≤ n - 1. Minimum storage regenerating (MSR) codes are a subset of regenerating codes containing the minimal size of each code fragment. The first explicit construction of MSR codes that can perform exact regeneration (named exact-MSR codes) for d ≥ 2k - 2 has been presented via a product-matrix framework. This paper addresses some of the practical issues on the construction of exact-MSR codes. The major contributions of this paper include as follows. A new product-matrix framework is proposed to directly include all feasible exact-MSR codes for d ≥ 2k - 2. The mechanism for a systematic version of exact-MSR code is proposed to minimize the computational complexities for the process of message-symbol remapping. Two practical forms of encoding matrices are presented to reduce the size of the finite field.

  13. Dynamic Simulation Using Neutronics/Thermal-hydraulics Coupled 2D Model in Molten Salt Reactor with Space Effect%考虑空间效应的熔盐堆核热耦合二维动态模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙暖; 赵乐; 张海黔

    2012-01-01

    熔盐堆堆芯物理分析不同于传统的固体燃料反应堆,由于燃料流动的特点,堆芯中缓发中子先驱核浓度不仅与中子通量分布相关,还受到燃料盐流动的影响。针对熔盐堆堆芯中多物理场非线性耦合的特性,采用点堆模型方程与二维对流扩散方程、热流体动力学方程相结合建立耦合模型,求解二维稳态条件下熔盐堆堆芯主要物理参数分布,并在稳态条件基础上研究堆芯模型引入3种阶跃扰动后堆芯燃料盐温度在温度负反馈作用下的动态变化过程。结果表明,堆芯在温度负反馈作用下能够快速达到稳定,模型将燃料盐流动特性和缓发中子先驱核浓度空间效应考虑在内,更加接近熔盐堆堆芯真实情况。%Considering the fuel salt flow effect of the molten salt reactor, the delayed neutron precursors are drifted out of the core, which lead to a complex and highly coupled phyxical environment. A model of point-reactor neutron kinetics equation in combination with 2 - D kinetics equations is presented for de- scribing the stability in the molten salt reactor. In the steady-state operation conditions, dynamic response process of core temperature under the fuel negative feedback effect was simulated after introducing three step representation disturbances. The simulation results indicate that the core could quickly achieve stabil- ity under the negative feedback effect of temperature. Moreover, the flow characteristics of the fuel salt and the space effect of delayed neutron precursors were taken into consideration in this model, which was eln~r~r tn th~ ro~lit~ nf th~ mnh~. ~alt ~aoo~

  14. 玻璃电极在酸性室温融盐AlCl3—TMPAC中的电化学研究%Electrochemical Behaviour of Glassy Carbon Electrodes In Room Temperature AlCl3-TMPAC Molten Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓虹

    2001-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of glassy carbon electrodes in an acidic room temperature molten salt aluminium trichloride - trimethylphenylammonium chloride (AlCl3-TMPAC)were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The reduction of Al2Cl-7 ions was quasi-reversible and involved a nucleation and growth mechanism. Chronoamperometric analysis showed that the deposition of aluminium was instantaneous three-dimensional nucleation with hemispherical diffusion-controlled growth.%通过循环伏安法和电流分析法对玻璃电极在酸性室温融盐三氯三甲基苯氨铝中的 电化学特性进行了初步研究.铝离子的还原、沉积过程是可逆的,沉积过程包括晶核的形成和增长过程.电流分析法表明,以半球扩散增长方式瞬间形成的晶核导致了铝在玻璃电极上的沉积.

  15. The chemistry of molten salt mixtures: application to the reductive extraction of lanthanides and actinides by a liquid metal; Chimie des melanges de sels fondus. Application a l'extraction reductrice d'actinides et de lanthanides par un metal liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finne, J

    2005-10-15

    The design of a process of An/Ln separation by liquid - liquid extraction can be used for on-line purification of the molten salt in a molten salt nuclear reactor (Generation IV) as well as reprocessing various spent fuels. In order to establish the chemical properties of An and Ln in molten salt mediums, E - pO{sub 2} - diagrams were established for the relevant chemical elements. With the purpose of checking the possibilities of separating the An from Ln, the real activity coefficients in liquid metals were measured. An experimental protocol was developed and validated on the Gd/Ga system. It was then transferred to radioactive environment to measure the activity coefficient of Pu in Ga. The results made it possible to estimate the effectiveness of the Pu extraction and its separation from Gd and Ce. The selectivity was shown to decrease with the temperature and Al and Ga showed a good selectivity between Pu and the Ce in fluoride medium. (author)

  16. Metasurface Reflector (MSR) Loading for High Performance Small Microstrip Antenna Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Md Rezwanul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Ullah, Mohammad Habib; Singh, Mandeep Jit; Ali, Mohd Tarmizi

    2015-01-01

    A meander stripline feed multiband microstrip antenna loaded with metasurface reflector (MSR) structure has been designed, analyzed and constructed that offers the wireless communication services for UHF/microwave RFID and WLAN/WiMAX applications. The proposed MSR assimilated antenna comprises planar straight forward design of circular shaped radiator with horizontal slots on it and 2D metasurface formed by the periodic square metallic element that resembles the behavior of metamaterials. A custom made high dielectric bio-plastic substrate (εr = 15) is used for fabricating the prototype of the MSR embedded planar monopole antenna. The details of the design progress through numerical simulations and experimental results are presented and discussed accordingly. The measured impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns and gain of the proposed MSR integrated antenna are compared with the obtained results from numerical simulation, and a good compliance can be observed between them. The investigation shows that utilization of MSR structure has significantly broadened the -10 dB impedance bandwidth than the conventional patch antenna: from 540 to 632 MHz (17%), 467 to 606 MHz (29%) and 758 MHz to 1062 MHz (40%) for three distinct operating bands centered at 0.9, 3.5 and 5.5 GHz. Additionally, due to the assimilation of MSR, the overall realized gains have been upgraded to a higher value of 3.62 dBi, 6.09 dBi and 8.6 dBi for lower, middle and upper frequency band respectively. The measured radiation patterns, impedance bandwidths (S11<-10 dB) and gains from the MSR loaded antenna prototype exhibit reasonable characteristics that can satisfy the requirements of UHF/microwave (5.8 GHz) RFID, WiMAX (3.5/5.5 GHz) and WLAN (5.2/5.8 GHz) applications. PMID:26018795

  17. Metasurface Reflector (MSR) Loading for High Performance Small Microstrip Antenna Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Md Rezwanul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Ullah, Mohammad Habib; Singh, Mandeep Jit; Ali, Mohd Tarmizi

    2015-01-01

    A meander stripline feed multiband microstrip antenna loaded with metasurface reflector (MSR) structure has been designed, analyzed and constructed that offers the wireless communication services for UHF/microwave RFID and WLAN/WiMAX applications. The proposed MSR assimilated antenna comprises planar straight forward design of circular shaped radiator with horizontal slots on it and 2D metasurface formed by the periodic square metallic element that resembles the behavior of metamaterials. A custom made high dielectric bio-plastic substrate (εr = 15) is used for fabricating the prototype of the MSR embedded planar monopole antenna. The details of the design progress through numerical simulations and experimental results are presented and discussed accordingly. The measured impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns and gain of the proposed MSR integrated antenna are compared with the obtained results from numerical simulation, and a good compliance can be observed between them. The investigation shows that utilization of MSR structure has significantly broadened the -10dB impedance bandwidth than the conventional patch antenna: from 540 to 632 MHz (17%), 467 to 606 MHz (29%) and 758 MHz to 1062 MHz (40%) for three distinct operating bands centered at 0.9, 3.5 and 5.5 GHz. Additionally, due to the assimilation of MSR, the overall realized gains have been upgraded to a higher value of 3.62 dBi, 6.09 dBi and 8.6 dBi for lower, middle and upper frequency band respectively. The measured radiation patterns, impedance bandwidths (S11<-10 dB) and gains from the MSR loaded antenna prototype exhibit reasonable characteristics that can satisfy the requirements of UHF/microwave (5.8 GHz) RFID, WiMAX (3.5/5.5 GHz) and WLAN (5.2/5.8 GHz) applications. PMID:26018795

  18. Metasurface Reflector (MSR Loading for High Performance Small Microstrip Antenna Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanul Ahsan

    Full Text Available A meander stripline feed multiband microstrip antenna loaded with metasurface reflector (MSR structure has been designed, analyzed and constructed that offers the wireless communication services for UHF/microwave RFID and WLAN/WiMAX applications. The proposed MSR assimilated antenna comprises planar straight forward design of circular shaped radiator with horizontal slots on it and 2D metasurface formed by the periodic square metallic element that resembles the behavior of metamaterials. A custom made high dielectric bio-plastic substrate (εr = 15 is used for fabricating the prototype of the MSR embedded planar monopole antenna. The details of the design progress through numerical simulations and experimental results are presented and discussed accordingly. The measured impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns and gain of the proposed MSR integrated antenna are compared with the obtained results from numerical simulation, and a good compliance can be observed between them. The investigation shows that utilization of MSR structure has significantly broadened the -10 dB impedance bandwidth than the conventional patch antenna: from 540 to 632 MHz (17%, 467 to 606 MHz (29% and 758 MHz to 1062 MHz (40% for three distinct operating bands centered at 0.9, 3.5 and 5.5 GHz. Additionally, due to the assimilation of MSR, the overall realized gains have been upgraded to a higher value of 3.62 dBi, 6.09 dBi and 8.6 dBi for lower, middle and upper frequency band respectively. The measured radiation patterns, impedance bandwidths (S11<-10 dB and gains from the MSR loaded antenna prototype exhibit reasonable characteristics that can satisfy the requirements of UHF/microwave (5.8 GHz RFID, WiMAX (3.5/5.5 GHz and WLAN (5.2/5.8 GHz applications.

  19. The Multi-Spectral Reordering (MSR) technique for the narrow band modeling of the radiative properties of nonuniform gaseous paths: the correlated/uncorrelated approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general path averaging strategy is proposed to calculate the equivalent parameters to be used with the narrow band modeling of the radiative properties of gases in nonuniform media. Approximate formulas are in particular derived for the cases of correlated and uncorrelated gas spectra. These approximations are applied to the Narrow Band MSR-SLMB (Spectral-Line Moment-Based model together with the Multi-Spectral Reordering technique) model and assessed by comparison with LBL data. Both approximations are accurate with an absolute error less than 0.05 for transmission functions. This demonstrates the improvement that MSR modeling provides when compared to usual narrow band models, for which larger errors are observed.

  20. Metasurface Reflector (MSR) Loading for High Performance Small Microstrip Antenna Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Md Rezwanul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Ullah, Mohammad Habib; Singh, Mandeep Jit; Ali, Mohd Tarmizi

    2015-01-01

    A meander stripline feed multiband microstrip antenna loaded with metasurface reflector (MSR) structure has been designed, analyzed and constructed that offers the wireless communication services for UHF/microwave RFID and WLAN/WiMAX applications. The proposed MSR assimilated antenna comprises planar straight forward design of circular shaped radiator with horizontal slots on it and 2D metasurface formed by the periodic square metallic element that resembles the behavior of metamaterials. A custom made high dielectric bio-plastic substrate (εr = 15) is used for fabricating the prototype of the MSR embedded planar monopole antenna. The details of the design progress through numerical simulations and experimental results are presented and discussed accordingly. The measured impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns and gain of the proposed MSR integrated antenna are compared with the obtained results from numerical simulation, and a good compliance can be observed between them. The investigation shows that utilization of MSR structure has significantly broadened the -10 dB impedance bandwidth than the conventional patch antenna: from 540 to 632 MHz (17%), 467 to 606 MHz (29%) and 758 MHz to 1062 MHz (40%) for three distinct operating bands centered at 0.9, 3.5 and 5.5 GHz. Additionally, due to the assimilation of MSR, the overall realized gains have been upgraded to a higher value of 3.62 dBi, 6.09 dBi and 8.6 dBi for lower, middle and upper frequency band respectively. The measured radiation patterns, impedance bandwidths (S11WiMAX (3.5/5.5 GHz) and WLAN (5.2/5.8 GHz) applications.

  1. Nano-LiNiO2 as cathode material for lithium ion battery synthesized by molten salt method%熔融盐法合成锂离子电池正极材料纳米LiNiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白莹; 王蓓; 张伟风

    2011-01-01

    采用熔融盐法,在较低的温度和较短的时间制备了符合理论化学计量比的纳米LiNiO2.研究表明,经过空气中的低温预烧,可以使制备的纯相纳米LiNiO2具有更加优良的结晶性能和更佳的电化学特性.添加预烧步骤前后所得最终产物的初始容量分别为151和148 mAh·g-1,经过100周的循环,容量衰减到55和118 mAh·g-1,容量保持率分别为36.4%和79.7%.原因在于预烧后再进行煅烧降低了阳离子无序度,减少了混杂在Li层中的Ni离子,从而有利于Li离子的扩散,优化了电化学性能.%Molten salt method is applied to synthesis stoichiometric nano-LiNiO2 in rather low temperature and short time. Our results indicate that in the process of preheating the better-crystallized LiNiO2 powder with better electrochemical performances can be produced. The final samples before and after preheating exhibit the initial discharge capacities of 151 and 148 mAh·g-1 respectively. After 100 cycles, they decay to only 55 and 118 mAh·g-1 , with capacity retentions being 36. 4% and 79. 7% respectively. The lowered cation disordering is thought to be favorable for the diffusion of lithium ions, by which the enhanced electrochemial properties can be explained.

  2. 固态钍基熔盐堆概率安全评价始发事件分析研究%Research on initial event analysis for solid thorium molten salt reactor probabilistic safety assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅牡丹; 邵世威; 何兆忠; 陈堃

    2014-01-01

    始发事件分析是反应堆概率安全评价的起点.本文以10 MW固态钍基熔盐堆(Thorium Molten Salt Reactor,TMSR-SFl)为研究对象,采用主逻辑图分析方法,基于TMSR-SF1的最新概念设计,在参考已有氟盐冷却高温堆、高温气冷堆和钠冷快堆的始发事件清单和始发事件分析理论的基础上,针对TMSR-SF1始发事件分析进行初步探索研究,初步确定了TMSR-SF1的始发事件清单,共得到了TMSR-SF1的37个始发事件(功率运行情况下),并按照故障类型分类的方法对这些始发事件进行分组,共分为6组.为TMSR-SF1下一步的深入分析研究始发事件及其概率安全评价(Probabilistic safety assessment,PSA)中事故序列分析奠定了重要基础,也为安全分析的完整性提供了支持.

  3. Effect of Temperature on the Ti-Fe Alloy Prepared by Molten Salt Electrolysis%温度对钛精矿熔盐电解制备钛铁合金的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施瑞盟; 白晨光; 杜继红

    2011-01-01

    In the CaCl2 molten salt, TiFe alloy was prepared by electroanalysis using titanium concentrate as the cathode. XRD and SEM analyses of products were performed. The electrolytic products at different temperatures were compared. Results show that the temperature has significant effects on diffused alloying process, and the phases and structures of electrolytic products are different. At 850 °C, the final electrolytic product is the TiFe2 and Ti discrete ball-type structure with the particle size of 1 μm, while at 900 °C the final product is the TiFe space net structure with the particle size of 3 urn.%在CaCl2熔盐中,以钛精矿为阴极,电解制备了钛铁合金,并对产物进行了XRD和SEM检测.对比不同温度下电解产物的结果表明,温度对扩散合金化过程影响显著,不同温度下电解产物的物相和结构有明显不同.850℃下电解的最终产物是颗粒大小为1 μm的TiFe2和Ti离散球型结构,而900℃下电解的最终产物是颗粒大小为3 μm的TiFe空间网状结构.

  4. Solvent-assisted molten salt process: A new route to synthesise {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C nanocomposite and its electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Mohd Faiz, E-mail: mfh125@uow.edu.a [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Department of Science Physics, University of Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu 20522 (Malaysia); Rahman, M.M. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Guo, Zai Ping [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); School of Mechanical, Mechatronic and Materials Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Chen, Zhi Xin [School of Mechanical, Mechatronic and Materials Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Liu, Hua Kun [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Nanostructured {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was synthesised by a simple molten salt process using FeCl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O as a starting material and LiNO{sub 3}-LiOH.H{sub 2}O-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as a eutectic mixture at 300 {sup o}C. To synthesise {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C composite, both {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and malic acid were dispersed together in toluene, where malic acid was used as a carbon source. The morphology and microstructure of both compounds were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Electrochemical testing, including constant current charge-discharge and cyclic voltammetry (CV), was carried out. The {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C composite anode exhibited much better electrochemical performance than the bare {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The discharge capacities of the composite were measured to be 2112 mAh g{sup -1} at C/2 after 100 cycles and 584 mAh g{sup -1} at 20 C after 10 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C composite can be mainly attributed to the combined effects of the nanostructure, the carbon layering on the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles, and the porous ultra-fine carbon matrix, where the three factors would contribute to provide high electronic conductivity, reduce the traverse time of electrons and lithium-ions, and could also prevent high volume expansion of the anode film during cycling. Our results indicate that the prepared {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C nanocomposite is a very promising anode material for Li-ion power batteries.

  5. 直接还原含钛炉渣亚熔盐法制备钛白粉工艺研究%Study on Preparation of TiO2 Pigment with Sub-molten Salt Process from Titanium-bearing Slag Obtained in Direct-reduction Ironmaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑奕; 金英杰; 初景龙; 齐涛

    2013-01-01

    Using titaniferous slag from the process of ‘ coal-based direct reduction in rotary hearth furnace -further reduction and smelting and separation in electric furnace’ as raw material,TiO2 Pigment with a content of titanium dioxide over 98% was produced by sub-molten salt process.The optimum testing conditions for the production were studied,aiming to find out the optimum reaction time,alkaline ratio,reaction temperature,and granularity of the raw material.After multistage solid-state ion exchange and removal of impurities,titaniferous solution (CTio2 =80 g/L,effective acid coefficient F =2.0) was prepared from the intermediate product sodium metatitantate.Through hydrolysis,metatitanic acid with a particle size of D (0.5) =.2 μn was obtained,and then it could be calcined to anatase TiO2 products.%以“转底炉煤基直接还原一电炉深还原、熔分工艺”得到的含钛炉渣为原料,经过亚熔盐法钛白工艺得到纯度在98%以上的二氧化钛产品.研究了亚熔盐法钛白工艺中反应最佳试验条件,得到最优的反应时间、碱矿比、反应温度、原料粒度;中间产物偏钛酸钠经多级固态离子交换、除杂制得钛液(CTio2=180 g/L、有效酸系数F=2.0);水解后制得偏钛酸粒度D(0.5)=1.2μm;经煅烧得到锐钛型二氧化钛产品.

  6. Transcriptome analysis reveals physiological characteristics required for magnetosome formation in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yinjia; Zhou, Yuan; Zhang, Weijia; Wen, Tong; Li, Li; Zuo, Meiqing; Zhang, Ziding; Tian, Jiesheng; Jiang, Wei; Li, Ying; Wang, Lei; Li, Jilun

    2016-06-01

    Magnetosome synthesis ability of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 in an autofermentor can be precisely controlled through strict control of dissolved oxygen concentration. In this study, using transcriptome data we discovered gene transcriptional differences and compared physiological characteristics of MSR-1 cells cultured under aerobic (high-oxygen) and micro-aerobic (low-oxygen) conditions. The results showed that 77 genes were up-regulated and 95 genes were down-regulated significantly under micro-aerobic situation. These genes were involved primarily in the categories of cell metabolism, transport, regulation and unknown-function proteins. The nutrient transport and physiological metabolism were slowed down under micro-aerobic condition, whereas dissimilatory denitrification pathways were activated and it may supplemental energy was made available for magnetosome synthesis. The result suggested that the genes of magnetosome membrane proteins (Mam and Mms) are not directly regulated by oxygen level, or are constitutively expressed. A proposed regulatory network of differentially expressed genes reflects the complexity of physiological metabolism in MSR-1, and suggests that some yet-unknown functional proteins play important roles such as ferric iron uptake and transport during magnetosome synthesis. The transcriptome data provides a holistic view of the responses of MSR-1 cells to differing oxygen levels. This approach will give new insights into general principles of magnetosome formation. PMID:27043321

  7. Radiation protection guides RPG-76/87. Main sanitary regulation MSR-72/87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the third issue of the book, partailly revised and enlarged taking into account the experience in liquidation of accident aftereffects at Chernobyl NPP, Safety standards-ss-76, and main sanitary rules for work with radioactive materials and other sources of ionizing radiation MSR-72/80. Independent chapter main concepts and terms is prefaced with main documents. 19 tabs

  8. The use of electro-deoxidation in molten salts to reduce the energy consumption of solar grade silicon and increase the output of PV solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Coxon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar photovoltaics, based upon silicon, are the most popular form of solar cell with efficiencies around 20%. These efficiencies can be further increased by employing light trapping schemes to minimise optical losses through scattering and reflection which enhances the amount of light absorbed and number of photo-carriers generated. Typical approaches employ antireflection coatings (ARCs or texturise the surface of the silicon disks, so that the structure consists of an array of needles which can absorb most of the light. Usually, these structures are created by leaching the silicon with hydrofluoric-based acids or by reactive ion etching (RIE methods. This paper reviews some of the methods for improving the energy efficiency of silicon production, and describes the use of electro-deoxidation of SiO2 layers, on silicon, in molten calcium chloride to form nano-porous black silicon (b-Si structures. By coating b-Si surface with TiO2, a common ARC, extremely black surfaces with negligible reflectance of about 0.1%, are produced, which can have applications for low-cost high efficiency solar cells.

  9. Development of an anode structure consisting of graphite tubes and a SiC shroud for the electrowinning process in molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a molten chloride salt-based electrolysis, chloride evolution at an anode needs to be considered in terms of potential fluctuation, capture, and corrosion problems. Here, we demonstrate an anode structure consisting of graphite tubes and a SiC shroud to be applied to the electrowinning process. A large surface area as well as high corrosion resistivity was achieved through the use of inert graphite tubes. The Cl2 (g) capture was enhanced by the employment of a porous SiC shroud. It also allows an efficient contact of the electrode surface to the LiCl-KCl eutectic melt for an anodic evolution. No significant effects of the use of a SiC shroud on the anode overpotential and cell potential were found during the U deposition test. (author)

  10. Solubility of uranium oxide in molten salt electrolysis bath of LiF-BaF2 with LaF3 additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alangi, Nagaraj; Mukherjee, Jaya; Gantayet, L. M.

    2016-03-01

    The solubility of UO2 in the molten mixtures of equimolar LiF-BaF2(1:1) with LaF3 as additive was studied in the range of 1423 K-1523 K. The molten fluoride salt mixture LiF-BaF2 LaF3 was equilibrated with a sintered uranium oxide pellet at 1423 K, 1473 K, 1523 K and the salt samples were collected after equilibration. Studies were conducted in the range of 10%-50% by weight additions of LaF3 in the equimolar LiF-BaF2(1:1) base fluoride salt bath. Solubility of UO2 increased with rise in LaF3 concentration in the molten fluoride in the temperature range of 1423 K-1523 K. At a given concentration of LaF3, the UO2 solubility increased monotonously with temperature. With mixed solvent, when UF4 was added as a replacement of part of LaF3 in LiF-BaF2(1:1)-10 wt% LaF3 and LiF-BaF2(1:1)-30 wt% LaF3, there was an enhancement of solubility of UO2.

  11. Increased Lifetime for Biomass and Waste to Energy Power Plant Boilers with HVOF Coatings: High Temperature Corrosion Testing Under Chlorine-Containing Molten Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksa, Maria; Tuurna, Satu; Varis, Tommi

    2013-06-01

    Heat exchanger surfaces of waste to energy and biomass power plant boilers experience often severe corrosion due to very aggressive components in the used fuels. High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings offer excellent protection for boiler tubes against high temperature corrosion due to their high density and good adherence to the substrate material. Several thermal spray coatings with high chromium content were sprayed with HVOF technique. Their mechanical properties and high temperature corrosion resistance were tested and analyzed. The coating materials included NiCr, IN625, Ni-21Cr-10W-9Mo-4Cu, and iron-based partly amorphous alloy SHS9172 (Fe-25Cr-15W-12Nb-6Mo). High temperature corrosion testing was performed in NaCl-KCl-Na2SO4 salt with controlled H2O atmosphere at 575 and 625 °C. The corrosion test results of the coatings were compared to corrosion resistance of tube materials (X20, Alloy 263 and Sanicro 25).

  12. Ti Metallization of Cf/SiC Composites Surface by Molten Salt Reaction%熔盐法Cf/SiC复合材料表面钛金属化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文渊; 郑晓慧; 堵永国; 张为军; 芦玉峰

    2009-01-01

    Ti metallized coating was prepared on the surface of carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix (Cf/SiC) composite by molten salt reaction to make joining the composite with high melt point metals such as Ti. The morphologies and compositions of Ti metallized coating were analyzed by SEM and EDS. The phase components were assessed by XRD. The wettability of the solder was measured by quantitative metallography. The results show that Ti metallized coating is uniform and dense, and bound with the matrix closely. Ti can infiltrate into the gaps of the fibers, and cover the surfaces of the Cf/SiC composite. The main phases of the metalized coating consist of TiC and Ti5Si3. There are three transition layers between SiC and the metallized, I. E. Ti5Si3 layer, TiC layer and Ti5Si3 layer. The wettability of Cf/SiC composites surface to Ti is greatly improved by metallization, and the contact angle is deceased from 153.9° to 13.2° at 950 ℃.%为了实现C/SiC复合材料与难熔金属的连接,通过熔盐法在C/SiC复合材料表面沉积钛金属层.用SEM和EDS研究金属化层的形貌及成分;用X射线衍射分析金属化层的相组织:用定量金相法测量钎焊料的铺展特性.研究表明:钛金属化层均匀致密,与基体结合紧密,钛金属可渗入纤维间孔隙,比较完整地包覆在C/SiC复合材料外表面.金属化层主要成分为TiC、Ti5Si3.金属化层与SiC界面分为3层,由内到外主要成分为Ti5Si3、TiC和Ti5Si3.表面金属化后的C/SiC复合材料与钛合金钎焊料润湿性明显改善,润湿角从153.9°降低为13.2°.

  13. MsrA Overexpression Targeted to the Mitochondria, but Not Cytosol, Preserves Insulin Sensitivity in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JennaLynn Hunnicut

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that oxidative stress plays an integral role in the processes by which obesity causes type 2 diabetes. We previously identified that mice lacking the protein oxidation repair enzyme methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA are particularly prone to obesity-induced insulin resistance suggesting an unrecognized role for this protein in metabolic regulation. The goals of this study were to test whether increasing the expression of MsrA in mice can protect against obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction and to elucidate the potential underlying mechanisms. Mice with increased levels of MsrA in the mitochondria (TgMito MsrA or in the cytosol (TgCyto MsrA were fed a high fat/high sugar diet and parameters of glucose homeostasis were monitored. Mitochondrial content, markers of mitochondrial proteostasis and mitochondrial energy utilization were assessed. TgMito MsrA, but not TgCyto MsrA, mice remain insulin sensitive after high fat feeding, though these mice are not protected from obesity. This metabolically healthy obese phenotype of TgMito MsrA mice is not associated with changes in mitochondrial number or biogenesis or with a reduction of proteostatic stress in the mitochondria. However, our data suggest that increased mitochondrial MsrA can alter metabolic homeostasis under diet-induced obesity by activating AMPK signaling, thereby defining a potential mechanism by which this genetic alteration can prevent insulin resistance without affecting obesity. Our data suggest that identification of targets that maintain and regulate the integrity of the mitochondrial proteome, particular against oxidative damage, may play essential roles in the protection against metabolic disease.

  14. Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts; Determination par spectrometrie gamma de la teneur en plutonium et en americium de produits issus de separation Pu/Am. Application aux bains de sels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godot, A. [CEA Valduc, Dept. de Traitement des Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Perot, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Technologie Nucleaire, Service de Modelisation des Transferts et Mesures Nucleaires, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

  15. Characterization of the plant growth promoting bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae MSR1, isolated from roots of non-nodulating Medicago sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa, Ashraf Y.Z.; Alsyeeh, Abdel-Moneium; Almalki, Mohammed A.; Saleh, Farag A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the endophytic bacterial strain designated MSR1 that was isolated from inside the non-nodulating roots of Medicago sativa after surface-sterilization. MSR1 was identified as Enterobacter cloacae using both 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis and API20E biochemical identification system (Biomerieux, France). Furthermore, this bacterium was characterized using API50CH kit (Biomerieux, France) and tested for antibacterial activities against some food ...

  16. Electromigration in molten salts and application to isotopic separation of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements; Electromigration en sels fondus et application a la separation des isotopes des elements alcalins et alcalino-terreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menes, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The separation of the isotopes of the alkaline-earth elements has been studied using counter-current electromigration in molten bromides. The conditions under which the cathode operates as a bromine electrode for the highest possible currents have been examined. For the separation of calcium, it has been necessary to use a stable CaBr{sub 2} - (CaBr{sub 2} + KBr) 'chain'. In the case of barium and strontium, it was possible to employ the pure bromides. Enrichment factors of the order of 10 for {sup 48}Ca and of the order of 1.5 for the rare isotopes of barium and strontium have been obtained. In the case of magnesium the method is slightly more difficult to apply because of material loss due to the relatively high vapour pressure of the salt requiring the use of electrolyte chains, MgBr{sub 2} - CeBr{sub 3}. A study has been made that has led to a larger-scale application of the method. These are essentially the inhibition of reversible operation of the cathode by traces of water, limiting the intensity which can be tolerated; evacuation of the heat produced by the Joule effect, in the absence of which the separation efficiency is reduced by thermal gradients; corrosion of the materials by molten salts at high temperature. Several cells capable of treating a few kilograms of substance have been put into operation; none of these has lasted long enough to produce a satisfactory enrichment. The method is thus limited actually to yields of the order of a few grams. (author) [French] On a etudie la separation des isotopes des elements alcalino-terreux par electromigration a contre-courant en bromures fondus. On a etudie les conditions dans lesquelles la cathode fonctionne en electrode a brome pour des intensites les plus elevees possibles. Pour la separation du calcium, il a ete necessaire d'utiliser une chaine stable CaBr{sub 2} - (CaBr{sub 2} + KBr). Pour le baryum et le strontium, on a pu operer sur les bromures purs. On a obtenu des facteurs d

  17. Characterization of the metabolically modified heavy metal-resistant Cupriavidus metallidurans strain MSR33 generated for mercury bioremediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Rojas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mercury-polluted environments are often contaminated with other heavy metals. Therefore, bacteria with resistance to several heavy metals may be useful for bioremediation. Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 is a model heavy metal-resistant bacterium, but possesses a low resistance to mercury compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To improve inorganic and organic mercury resistance of strain CH34, the IncP-1β plasmid pTP6 that provides novel merB, merG genes and additional other mer genes was introduced into the bacterium by biparental mating. The transconjugant Cupriavidus metallidurans strain MSR33 was genetically and biochemically characterized. Strain MSR33 maintained stably the plasmid pTP6 over 70 generations under non-selective conditions. The organomercurial lyase protein MerB and the mercuric reductase MerA of strain MSR33 were synthesized in presence of Hg(2+. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (mM for strain MSR33 were: Hg(2+, 0.12 and CH(3Hg(+, 0.08. The addition of Hg(2+ (0.04 mM at exponential phase had not an effect on the growth rate of strain MSR33. In contrast, after Hg(2+ addition at exponential phase the parental strain CH34 showed an immediate cessation of cell growth. During exposure to Hg(2+ no effects in the morphology of MSR33 cells were observed, whereas CH34 cells exposed to Hg(2+ showed a fuzzy outer membrane. Bioremediation with strain MSR33 of two mercury-contaminated aqueous solutions was evaluated. Hg(2+ (0.10 and 0.15 mM was completely volatilized by strain MSR33 from the polluted waters in presence of thioglycolate (5 mM after 2 h. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A broad-spectrum mercury-resistant strain MSR33 was generated by incorporation of plasmid pTP6 that was directly isolated from the environment into C. metallidurans CH34. Strain MSR33 is capable to remove mercury from polluted waters. This is the first study to use an IncP-1β plasmid directly isolated from the environment, to generate a novel

  18. D-MSR: a distributed network management scheme for real-time monitoring and process control applications in wireless industrial automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Pouria; Dilo, Arta; Havinga, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Current wireless technologies for industrial applications, such as WirelessHART and ISA100.11a, use a centralized management approach where a central network manager handles the requirements of the static network. However, such a centralized approach has several drawbacks. For example, it cannot cope with dynamicity/disturbance in large-scale networks in a real-time manner and it incurs a high communication overhead and latency for exchanging management traffic. In this paper, we therefore propose a distributed network management scheme, D-MSR. It enables the network devices to join the network, schedule their communications, establish end-to-end connections by reserving the communication resources for addressing real-time requirements, and cope with network dynamicity (e.g., node/edge failures) in a distributed manner. According to our knowledge, this is the first distributed management scheme based on IEEE 802.15.4e standard, which guides the nodes in different phases from joining until publishing their sensor data in the network. We demonstrate via simulation that D-MSR can address real-time and reliable communication as well as the high throughput requirements of industrial automation wireless networks, while also achieving higher efficiency in network management than WirelessHART, in terms of delay and overhead.

  19. Magnetic and Transport Properties of Bi0.5Ca0.5-xLaxFe0.3Mn0.7O3 (x=0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25) Prepared by Molten Salt Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zhong-ping; HU Bin; CHEN Yan; YUAN Hong-ming; FENG Shou-hua

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystallines Bi0. 5Ca0.5-xLaxFe0.3Mn0.7O3(x=0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25) were prepared by molten salt method and showed perovskite orthorhombic structure with space group Pnma. The magnetic measurements indicate that the compounds exhibit antiferromagnetic behavior in a temperature range of 4-300 K. The measurements of transport properties suggest that the substitution of La for Ca enhanced the conductivity, and a kink appeared on the curve of temperature dependence of resistivity at 275 K, which is related to the spin-reorientation in the samples.

  20. Fluoride reactor for the destruction of actinides from spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor based on liquid salts (Molten Salt Reactor - MSR) is one of 6 prospective reactors, designed in the Generation IV initiative. Fluoride in the reactor fuel is dissolved in a mixture of fluoride salts. This technology was developed in the fifties and sixties of the twentieth century. New technologies associated with this research include the Brayton cycle, which eliminates several shortcomings related to the historical construction of fluoride reactor, mainly focusing on security. When compared with other reactors, the largest differences are in the MSR that uses less fissionable material and to maintain a controlled nuclear reaction in its radius has only a homogeneous liquid mixture of all the chemical components. (author)

  1. Characterization of the plant growth promoting bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae MSR1, isolated from roots of non-nodulating Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Ashraf Y Z; Alsyeeh, Abdel-Moneium; Almalki, Mohammed A; Saleh, Farag A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the endophytic bacterial strain designated MSR1 that was isolated from inside the non-nodulating roots of Medicago sativa after surface-sterilization. MSR1 was identified as Enterobacter cloacae using both 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis and API20E biochemical identification system (Biomerieux, France). Furthermore, this bacterium was characterized using API50CH kit (Biomerieux, France) and tested for antibacterial activities against some food borne pathogens. The results showed that E. cloacae consumed certain carbohydrates such as glycerol, d-xylose, d-maltose and esculin melibiose as a sole carbon source and certain amino acids such as arginine, tryptophan ornithine as nitrogen source. Furthermore, MSR1 possessed multiple plant-growth promoting characteristics; phosphate solubility, production of phytohormones acetoin and bioactive compounds. Inoculation of Pisum sativum with MSR1 significantly improved the growth parameters (the length and dry weight) of this economically important grain legume compared to the non-treated plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report addressing E. cloacae which exist in roots of alfalfa growing in Al-Ahsaa region. The results confirmed that E. cloacae exhibited traits for plant growth promoting and could be developed as an eco-friendly biofertilizer for P. sativum and probably for other important plant species in future. PMID:26858542

  2. Effect of molten salt and temperature on synthesized of hexagonal boron nitride powders by magnesiother-mic reduction process%熔盐介质和合成温度对镁热还原法合成h-BN粉体的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向涛

    2016-01-01

    In order to synthesize h-BN powder in short time at low temperature,the specimens were pre-pared using sodium borate and magnesium powder as raw materials,using NaCl-MgCl2 (molar ratio of NaCl to MgCl2 is 1 3,1 1 and 3 1,respectively)and KCl-MgCl2(molar ratio of KCl to MgCl2 is 1 1)as the molten salts,heated at 800,1 000 and 1 200 ℃ for 3 h under nitrogen atmosphere by magnesiothermic reduction method.Then the specimens were dipped in the HCl solution (5 mass%),filtrated,washed, dried,ground,and the final powders were obtained.Effects of different molten salts and temperatures on the phase composition and microstructure of the final powders were analyzed using XRD and SEM.The re-sults show that:(1)all the final products synthesized at different temperatures using different molten salts are composed of pure h-BN phase,but with the synthesis temperature rising,the crystallinity of h-BN grad-ually improves:using the NaCl-MgCl2,the final product fired at 1 000 ℃contains flake h-BN,and that fired at 1 200 ℃ contains stromatolite h-BN,however flake h-BN forms at 1 200 ℃ when using the KCl-MgCl2 molten salt.(2)Synthesis of h-BN powders by magnesiothermic reduction in NaCl-MgCl2 molten salt not only overcomes the disadvantage of high synthesis temperature of other methods,but also controls the grain size and morphology of h-BN crystals effectively.%为了在较低温度和较短时间内合成h-BN 粉体,以硼砂和镁粉为原料,以n(NaCl)n(MgCl2)分别为13、11和31的3种NaCl-MgCl2和n(KCl)n(MgCl2)为11的KCl-MgCl2为熔盐介质,在氮气气氛中分别于800、1000和1200℃保温3 h,采用镁热还原法合成h-BN,经5%(w)的盐酸溶液浸泡、抽滤、洗涤、干燥、研磨后得到产物粉体,并进行XRD和SEM分析,研究了不同种类和配比的熔盐介质及合成温度对合成产物的物相组成和显微结构的影响。结果表明:1)在本试验的不同熔盐介质和不同温度下合成

  3. The minimal gene set member msrA, encoding peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase, is a virulence determinant of the plant pathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouni, M E; Chambost, J P; Expert, D; Van Gijsegem, F; Barras, F

    1999-02-01

    Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase (MsrA), which repairs oxidized proteins, is present in most living organisms, and the cognate structural gene belongs to the so-called minimum gene set [Mushegian, A. R. & Koonin, E. V., (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10268-10273]. In this work, we report that MsrA is required for full virulence of the plant pathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi. The following differences were observed between the wild-type and a MsrA- mutant: (i) the MsrA- mutant was more sensitive to oxidative stress; (ii) the MsrA- mutant was less motile on solid surface; (iii) the MsrA- mutant exhibited reduced virulence on chicory leaves; and (iv) no systemic invasion was observed when the MsrA- mutant was inoculated into whole Saintpaulia ionantha plants. These results suggest that plants respond to virulent pathogens by producing active oxygen species, and that enzymes repairing oxidative damage allow virulent pathogens to survive the host environment, thereby supporting the theory that active oxygen species play a key role in plant defense. PMID:9927663

  4. The application of a modified stepwise regression (MSR) method to the estimation of aircraft stability and control derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hinds, H. A.

    1996-01-01

    A programme of research has now been completed in the College of Aeronautics (CoA) at Cranfield University to investigate the use of a Modified Stepwise Regression (MSR) procedure. The technique was applied to data obtained from a small BAe Hawk aircraft model flown in a dynamic wind tunnel facility in order to try to estimate the aerodynamic stability and control derivatives of the model. A variety of preliminary experiments were performed to enable the static stability ...

  5. Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing MsrA1, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, exhibit resistance to fungal phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Misra, Santosh; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2014-06-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) have shown potential against broad spectrum of phytopathogens. Synthetic versions with desirable properties have been modeled on these natural peptides. MsrA1 is a synthetic chimera of cecropin A and melittin CAPs with antimicrobial properties. We generated transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing the msrA1 gene aimed at conferring fungal resistance. Five independent transgenic lines were evaluated for resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, two of the most devastating pathogens of B. juncea crops. In vitro assays showed inhibition by MsrA1 of Alternaria hyphae growth by 44-62 %. As assessed by the number and size of lesions and time taken for complete leaf necrosis, the Alternaria infection was delayed and restricted in the transgenic plants with the protection varying from 69 to 85 % in different transgenic lines. In case of S. sclerotiorum infection, the lesions were more severe and spread profusely in untransformed control compared with transgenic plants. The sclerotia formed in the stem of untransformed control plants were significantly more in number and larger in size than those present in the transgenic plants where disease protection of 56-71.5 % was obtained. We discuss the potential of engineering broad spectrum biotic stress tolerance by transgenic expression of CAPs in crop plants.

  6. Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing MsrA1, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, exhibit resistance to fungal phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Misra, Santosh; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2014-06-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) have shown potential against broad spectrum of phytopathogens. Synthetic versions with desirable properties have been modeled on these natural peptides. MsrA1 is a synthetic chimera of cecropin A and melittin CAPs with antimicrobial properties. We generated transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing the msrA1 gene aimed at conferring fungal resistance. Five independent transgenic lines were evaluated for resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, two of the most devastating pathogens of B. juncea crops. In vitro assays showed inhibition by MsrA1 of Alternaria hyphae growth by 44-62 %. As assessed by the number and size of lesions and time taken for complete leaf necrosis, the Alternaria infection was delayed and restricted in the transgenic plants with the protection varying from 69 to 85 % in different transgenic lines. In case of S. sclerotiorum infection, the lesions were more severe and spread profusely in untransformed control compared with transgenic plants. The sclerotia formed in the stem of untransformed control plants were significantly more in number and larger in size than those present in the transgenic plants where disease protection of 56-71.5 % was obtained. We discuss the potential of engineering broad spectrum biotic stress tolerance by transgenic expression of CAPs in crop plants. PMID:24452332

  7. MBiO{sub 2}Cl (M=Sr, Ba) as novel photocatalysts: Synthesis, optical property and photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hongwei, E-mail: hhw@cugb.edu.cn; Wang, Shuobo; Zhang, Yihe, E-mail: zyh@cugb.edu.cn; Han, Xu

    2015-02-15

    Novel quaternary photocatalysts MBiO{sub 2}Cl (M=Sr, Ba) have been successfully developed for efficient photodecomposition of RhB. Their photocatalytic mechanism was also investigated. - Highlights: • Two Bi-based compounds SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl were explored as photocatalysts. • They were successfully synthesized by a solid-state reaction. • RhB can be effectively photodecomposed by SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl under UV light. • ·OH radicals serving as active species play important roles in degradation process. - Abstract: Two Bi-based compounds SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl were successfully synthesized by a solid-state reaction and investigated as new photocatalysts for the first time. Their microstructures and optical properties were characterized by XRD, SEM and DRS. The band gaps of SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl were separately determined to be 3.52 and 3.71 eV, and their E{sub CB} and E{sub VB} were also estimated. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared samples were evaluated by photodecomposition of rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solution. The results revealed that both SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl can be used as effective photocatalysts under UV irradiation, and SrBiO{sub 2}Cl exhibits a higher photocatalytic activity than BaBiO{sub 2}Cl, which was also verified by the PL spectra. Terephthalic acid photoluminescence probing technique (TA-PL) demonstrated that ·OH radicals serving as active species play an important role in photooxidative degradation of RhB over SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl. Moreover, a larger amount of ·OH radicals generation was observed over SrBiO{sub 2}Cl, which is in agreement with its higher photocatalytic activity.

  8. Design of the Natural Circulation Loop and Implementation of DOWTHERM A Properties into MARS-LMR Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yukyung; Park, Seong Dae; Kang, Sarah; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), which is one of the generation IV reactors, has an advantage in these requirements. MSR uses a molten salt mixture as the primary coolant, or the fuel itself and it operates on high temperature, so it doesn't need pressurizing. Also, liquid state fuel has an advantage for pyro-processing with easy separation of fission products. These fission products also have relatively short half-lives compared to those of the existing reactors. With these characteristics, MSR can have inherent safety in both direct and indirect sides. Also, MSR can operate at high temperature range, so that it can have the high efficiency to produce electricity. Therefore, research of MSR is meaningful for developing advanced nuclear reactors. FLiBe which is a mixture of lithium fluoride (LiF) and beryllium fluoride (BeF{sub 2}) is used as a primary coolant in MSR and LMR (Liquid Metal cooled Reactor). It has superiority over conventional liquid metal coolant like sodium, because it doesn't react with air or water. thermos-physical properties of DOWTHERM A for MARS-LMR code were made by modifying stg file of existing one. It was based on the process of Moore using 6 output parameters such as specific volume, internal energy, thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal compressibility, specific heat and entropy. With generated stg file (stgdowa.f90) and input file, tpf file (tpfdowa) which includes fluid property tables for MARS-LMR simulation was obtained. For the verification, this tpf file with execution file will be applied to the input deck of our natural circulation design. This work will contribute to researching and developing of MSR and LMR.

  9. Design of the Natural Circulation Loop and Implementation of DOWTHERM A Properties into MARS-LMR Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), which is one of the generation IV reactors, has an advantage in these requirements. MSR uses a molten salt mixture as the primary coolant, or the fuel itself and it operates on high temperature, so it doesn't need pressurizing. Also, liquid state fuel has an advantage for pyro-processing with easy separation of fission products. These fission products also have relatively short half-lives compared to those of the existing reactors. With these characteristics, MSR can have inherent safety in both direct and indirect sides. Also, MSR can operate at high temperature range, so that it can have the high efficiency to produce electricity. Therefore, research of MSR is meaningful for developing advanced nuclear reactors. FLiBe which is a mixture of lithium fluoride (LiF) and beryllium fluoride (BeF2) is used as a primary coolant in MSR and LMR (Liquid Metal cooled Reactor). It has superiority over conventional liquid metal coolant like sodium, because it doesn't react with air or water. thermos-physical properties of DOWTHERM A for MARS-LMR code were made by modifying stg file of existing one. It was based on the process of Moore using 6 output parameters such as specific volume, internal energy, thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal compressibility, specific heat and entropy. With generated stg file (stgdowa.f90) and input file, tpf file (tpfdowa) which includes fluid property tables for MARS-LMR simulation was obtained. For the verification, this tpf file with execution file will be applied to the input deck of our natural circulation design. This work will contribute to researching and developing of MSR and LMR

  10. 钶铁矿型MnNb2O6的熔盐法合成、钒掺杂与磁性研究%Molten salt synthesis, V-doped and magnetic properties of columbite MnNb2 O6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周传仓; 刘发民; 丁芃; 钟文武; 蔡鲁刚; 曾乐贵

    2011-01-01

    A novel molten salt synthsis technology is developed to prepare single phase and V-doped MnNb2O6 powder. The prepared samples are characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM, HRTEM and SAED. The results show that the MnNb2O6 powder has an orthorhombic structure and the samples prepared in different molten salts exhibit different shapes: flake shape, rod shape, and rectangular shape. The effects of temperature and doped on structure and morphology are discussed. HRTEM and SAED indicate the rod-shape MnNb2O6 has the properties of anisotropic growth and crystalline integrality. Magnetic properties are measured by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in a temperature range of 2-30 K under a magnetic field of 2T. The magnetic measurement results indicate that MnNb1.8V0.2O6 undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition with a Néel temperature of 5.4 K. Above 20 K, the inverse susceptibility is fitted well to the Curie-Weiss law θ = -33.9 K,C = 10. 52 K emu mol·f. u. -1 and effective moment 5.82μB can be obtained. With V doped amount increases, antiferromagnetic interaction increases. According to the Anderson model, the MnNb2-xVxO6is antiferromagnet in a low temperature range, which is induced by the superexchange interaction of Mn2+ -O2- -Mn2+.%采用了熔盐法新工艺制备了纯相与掺钒的MnNb2O6粉晶,利用X射线衍射仪(XRD),扫描电子显微镜(SEM),能谱分析(EDX),透射电子显微镜(TEM)、高分辨透射电镜(HRTEM)和电子衍射(SAED)分析了其物相、形貌及微结构.结果表明合成产物为正交晶系钶铁矿型MnNb2O6;在不同的熔盐中合成出了棒状、片状与长方体形貌的纯相产物.讨论了温度与掺杂对结构与形貌的影响,HRTEM与SAED分析表明了产物的各向异性生长与结晶完整性.利用超导量子干涉仪(SQUID)在2T磁场中,2-30 K温度范围内测试了掺钒的MnNb2O6粉末的变温磁化率,测量结果表明MnNb1.8V0.2O6材料在5.4K左右具有反铁磁性相变,20K以上

  11. Spectroelectrochemistry of EuCl3 in four molten salt eutectics; 3 LiCl – NaCl, 3 LiCl – 2 KCl, LiCl – RbCl, and 3 LiCl – 2 CsCl; at 873 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroll, Cynthia A.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Heineman, William R.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2016-05-17

    Key electrochemical properties affecting pyroprocessing of nuclear fuel were examined in four eutectic melts using using Eu3+/2+ as a representative probe. We report the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior of EuCl3 in four molten salt eutectics (3 LiCl – NaCl, 3 LiCl – 2 KCl, LiCl – RbCl and 3 LiCl – 2 CsCl) at 873 K. Cyclic voltammetry was used to determine the redox potential for Eu3+/2+ and the applied potentials for spectroelectrochemistry. Single step chronoabsorptometry and thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry were used to obtain the number of electrons transferred, redox potentials and diffusion coefficients for Eu3+ in each eutectic melt. The redox potentials determined by thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry were extremely close to those obtained using cyclic voltammetry. The redox potential for Eu3+/2+ was most positive in the 3 LiCl - NaCl melt, showed a negative shift in the 3 LiCl - 2 KCl melt, and was the most negative in the LiCl - RbCl and 3 LiCl - 2 CsCl eutectics. The diffusion coefficient for Eu3+ followed this same trend; it was the largest in the 3 LiCl - NaCl melt and the smallest in the LiCl - RbCl and 3 LiCl - 2 CsCl melts. The basic one-electron reversible electron transfer for Eu3+/2+ was not changed by melt composition.

  12. Some metallic materials and fluoride salts for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a special Ni base alloy MONICR for high temperature applications in fluoride salt environments developed in the framework of the complex R and D program for the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) - SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incinerator by Neutron fluX) concept development in the Czech Republic. Selected results of MONICR alloy tests and results of semi products fabrication from this alloy are discussed in the paper. The results of the structural materials tests are applied on semi-products and for the design of the testing devices as the autoclave in loop arrangement for high temperature fluoride salts applications. Material properties other Ni base alloys are compared to those of MONICR. Corrosion test results of the alloy A686 in the LiF - NaF - ZrF4 molten salt are provided and compared to the measured values of the polarizing resistance. (author)

  13. Intergranular tellurium cracking of nickel-based alloys in molten Li, Be, Th, U/F salt mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexander; Gnidoy, Ivan; Kulakov, Alexander; Uglov, Vadim; Vasiliev, Alexander; Presniakov, Mikhail

    2013-09-01

    In Russia, R&D on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) are concentrated now on fast/intermediate spectrum concepts which were recognized as long term alternative to solid fueled fast reactors due to their attractive features: strong negative feedback coefficients, easy in-service inspection, and simplified fuel cycle. For high-temperature MSR corrosion of the metallic container alloy in primary circuit is the primary concern. Key problem receiving current attention include surface fissures in Ni-based alloys probably arising from fission product tellurium attack. This paper summarizes results of corrosion tests conducted recently to study effect of oxidation state in selected fuel salt on tellurium attack and to develop means of controlling tellurium cracking in the special Ni-based alloys recently developed for molten salt actinide recycler and tranforming (MOSART) system. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys was tested at temperatures up to 750 °C in stressed and unloaded conditions in molten LiF-BeF2 salt mixture fueled by about 20 mol% of ThF4 and 2 mol% of UF4 at different [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratios: 0.7, 4, 20, 100 and 500. Following Ni-based alloys (in mass%): HN80М-VI (Mo—12, Cr—7.6, Nb—1.5), HN80МТY (Mo—13, Cr—6.8, Al—1.1, Ti—0.9), HN80МТW (Mo—9.4, Cr—7.0, Ti—1.7, W—5.5) and ЕМ-721 (W—25.2, Cr—5.7, Ti—0.17) were used for the study in the corrosion facility. If the redox state the fuel salt is characterized by uranium ratio [U(IV)]/[U(III)] construction alloys and carbon, are formed. In the melt with [U(IV)]/[U(III)] = 500 in all of the alloys tested the tellurium IGC took place. The HN80MTY alloy shows the maximum resistance to tellurium IGC. The intensity of tellurium IGC of the alloy (the K parameter) is by 3-5 times lower as compared to other alloys. The EM-721 alloy has the minimal resistance to tellurium IGC (K = 9200 pc m/cm, the depth of cracks is up to 434 μm). The studies have shown, that the intensity of the nickel alloys

  14. Low Temperature Molten-Salt Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of LiV3O8 Nanobelts%LiV3O8纳米带的低温熔盐合成及其电化学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高理升; 郑化桂

    2009-01-01

    To improve the electrochemical properties of lithium trivanadale as cathode active material for lithium ion battery, a facile low temperature molten-salt synthesis (LT-MSS) method was developed to prepare LiV3Og nanobelts at 250 X., using LiNO3, LiCl and NH4VO3 as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicate that the products are pure phase monoclinic LiV3O8. Scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) , transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy ( HRTEM) images show that the products are single crystalline nanobelts and grow along [001] direction. Electrochemical tests indicate that the products yield high li+ storage capacity and perform well in the electrochemical cycle testing. Experimental results demonstrate that the synthesis method contributes to the improvement in structural, morphological and electrochemical properties of the obtained lithium trivanadate.%为了改进三聚钒酸锂作为锂离子电池正极材料的电化学性能,以LiN03、LiCI和NH4VO3作为反应原料,通过一种简单的低温熔盐合成方法(LT-MSS)在250℃温度条件下制备得到带状LiV3O8纳米材料.X射线衍射(XRD)和X射线光电子能谱(XPS)分析结果表明所得产物为单斜相LiV3O8.扫描电镜(SEM)、透射电镜(TEM)和高分辨透射电镜(HRTEM)照片显示该产物为单晶纳米带形貌.沿[001]方向生长.电化学测试表明该产物储锂量高,循环性能良好.实验结果表明采用低温熔盐合成法制备LiV3O8能够有效提高所得产物的结构、形貌和电化学性能.

  15. 水稻多逆境诱导基因OsMsr4的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and Analysis of OsMsr4 Gene Concerning Multiple-stress in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曼玲; Rocha Pedro; 李落叶; 徐孟亮; 夏新界

    2009-01-01

    为深入了解水稻逆境反应的分子机理和发现新的耐逆相关功能基因,采用Affymetrix水稻表达芯片分析超级稻两优培九母本培矮64S(Oryza sativa L.)不同生长发育时期、不同组织器官全基因组在低温、干旱、高温逆境胁迫下的表达水平,筛选出多个多因子诱导高表达特异基因(待另文发表).OsMsr4是其中一个在多种逆境条件,各生长发育时期与组织器官,其表达量均显著上调的基因,用实时定量PCR方法对其表达水平进行了进一步的分析,所得结果与基因芯片结果基本吻合.用 PCR方法扩增获得长为550 bp全长基因序列,其编码的144个氨基酸残基形成Cys2His2型双锌指结构蛋白,并且锌指结构的α-螺旋区含有植物锌指蛋白特定的保守序列QALGGH.因此,OsMsr4有可能是TFⅢA型锌指蛋白,作为转录因子参与各种环境胁迫应答反应,调控多个逆境相关基因表达.%In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of stress responses, and the functions of genes involved in stress tolerance in rice(Oryza sativa L.),gene microarray technology was used to investigate the global genome expression profiles of a male-sterile cultivar, Pei′ai 64S, subjected to cold, drought or heat stresses.Gene expression profiles were obtained from leaf and panicle organs at seedling, booting and heading stages.OsMsr4 was one of the gene highly induced by all stresses in all the development stages and plant organs analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis confirmed the microarray-derived expression pattern. The gene was cloned and encoded a peptide of 144 amino acids residues. The predicted secondary structure of the peptide includes two Cys2His2 domains, which contain the plant-specific zinc finger motif with a highly conserved sequence: QALGGH. The spacer between the two zinc-finger domains was 32 amino acids. This type of structure was characteristic of DNA-binding zinc finger proteins. Thus, OsMsr4 could

  16. Automated ''float'' method for determination of densities of molten salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Helge A.; Bjerrum, Niels; Foverskov, Carl Erik

    1977-01-01

    wound with platinum wire, an amplifier, a digital voltmeter, an interface, a paper tape punch, and a recorder. The advantages of the system are its ease of operation compared to other ''float'' methods, and the possibility of looking at highly colored melts and also melts having a high vapor pressure....... Review of Scientific Instruments is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  17. Electrochemical reduction of actinides oxides in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactive metals are currently produced from their oxide by multiple steps reduction techniques. A one step route from the oxide to the metal has been suggested for metallic titanium production by electrolysis in high temperature molten chloride salts. In the so-called FFC process, titanium oxide is electrochemically reduced at the cathode, generating O2- ions, which are converted on a graphite anode into carbon oxide or dioxide. After this process, the spent salt can in principle be reused for several batches which is particularly attractive for a nuclear application in terms of waste minimization. In this work, the electrochemical reduction process of cerium oxide (IV) is studied in CaCl2 and CaCl2-KCl melts to understand the oxide reduction mechanism. Cerium is used as a chemical analogue of actinides. Electrolysis on 10 grams of cerium oxide are made to find optimal conditions for the conversion of actinides oxides into metals. The scale-up to hundred grams of oxide is also discussed. (author)

  18. Multi-functional sensor system for molten salt technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redey, Laszlo; Gourishankar, Karthick; Williamson, Mark A.

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates to a multi-functional sensor system that simultaneously measures cathode and anode electrode potentials, dissolved ion (i.e. oxide) concentration, and temperatures in an electrochemical cell. One embodiment of the invented system generally comprises: a reference(saturated) electrode, a reference(sensing) electrode, and a data acquisition system. Thermocouples are built into the two reference electrodes to provide important temperature information.

  19. Molten salt synthesis of acicular sodium strontium niobate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Acicular Na0.5Sr0.25NbO3 particles were synthesized in the KSr2Nb5O15 + NaCl system. • NaSr2Nb5O15 needles were prepared in the SrCO3 + Nb2O5 + NaCl + KCl system. • The results will be propitious to guide the fabrication of other templates. -- Abstract: Acicular particles of Na0.5Sr0.25NbO3 and NaSr2Nb5O15 were successfully synthesized in the KSr2Nb5O15 + NaCl system and SrCO3 + Nb2O5 + NaCl + KCl system, respectively. It was found that the anisometric particles could not be obtained in the SrCO3 + Nb2O5 + NaCl system. A facile ion-exchange approach was utilized to prepare acicular Na0.5Sr0.25NbO3 particles. Acicular NaSr2Nb5O15 particles with large aspect ratio could be obtained at the weight ratio of salt-to-mixture of 5:1, which were ideal template for fabricating textured ceramics. The growth process was researched and the synthesis method was suggested to be a self-precursor templating route. The results will be propitious to guide the fabrication of other templates with anisotropic morphology which were hard to prepare directly

  20. Electrodeposition of niobium and titanium in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrodeposition of niobium and titanium in molten fluorides from the additions of fluorine niobates and fluorine titanates of potassium is described in laboratory and pilot scale. The temperature influence, the current density and the time deposition over the current efficiency, the deposits structure and the deposits purity are studied. The conditions for niobium coating over copper and carbon steel and for titanium coating over carbon steel are also presented. (C.G.C.)

  1. Electrochemical behavior of U and Pu in the molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirai, Osamu; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Uozumi, Kohichi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    Thermodynamic evaluation are performed for the diffusion coefficient and oxidation redaction potential of U and Pu in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt through the measurements of their electrodeposition and solution by electric cyclic-voltammetry and potentiometry. On the electrode reaction of U and Pu at the liquid electrode (Cd, Bi) the positive-shift reaction mechanism of oxidation reduction potential is made clear, which is important in the development of dry reprocessing technology. The formation free energy of the metallic compound with Cd or Bi is also evaluated. (H. Katsuta)

  2. Development of Pyrochemical Reprocessing of the Spent Nuclear Fuel and Prospects of Closed Fuel Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tulackova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Molten-Salt Reactor (MSR is a design of an advanced reactor system from the GEN IV family working in thermal or epithermal neutron spectrum and using thorium or transuranium fuel in the form of molten fluorides. It is based on the experience with the development of the molten-salt reactor technology in the Oak-Ridge National Laboratory in the United States. The MSR fuel cycle with integrated reprocessing represents one of the potential ways both for significant decrease of total amount of radioactive wastes for final deposition and for utilization of nuclear energy for electricity and heat production as effectively as possible. There are two pyrochemical reprocessing techniques studied in NRI Rez plc which are considered to be applied both for reprocessing of already existing spent fuel and for preparation and „on-line“ reprocessing of MSR fuel: (i the Fluoride Volatility Method (FVM, which performs chemical conversion of spent thermal oxide fuel components into fluorides and their consequent separation by means of their different volatility, thermal stability and chemical affinity to various sorbents; and (ii electrochemical separation of the actinides (Ans and fission products (FP, represented mainly by lanthanides (Lns, from each other by electrolytic deposition method on solid cathode in molten fluoride media.

  3. Cost-based optimizations of power density and target-blanket modularity for {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U-based ADEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    A cost-based parametric systems model is developed for an Accelerator-Driven Energy Production (ADEP) system based on a {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U fuel cycle and a molten-salt (LiF/BeF{sub 2}/ThF{sub 3}) fluid-fuel primary system. Simplified neutron-balance, accelerator, reactor-core, chemical-processing, and balance-of-plant models are combined parametrically with a simplified costing model. The main focus of this model is to examine trade offs related to fission power density, reactor-core modularity, {sup 233}U breeding rate, and fission product transmutation capacity.

  4. MsrA在结直肠癌干细胞中的表达及意义%Expression of methionine sulfoxide reductase in colorectal cancer stem cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛芳沁; 杨国华; 黄若磊

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨MsrA在结直肠癌干细胞中的表达及与结直肠癌发生、发展的关系。方法免疫磁珠分选结直肠癌细胞株SW480细胞中CD133+/CD44+/ESA+亚群细胞,RT-PCR检测癌细胞、癌干细胞和正常大肠粘膜细胞中MsrA的表达以及MsrA过表达对VEGF、MMP-13和CXCR4表达的影响,MTT检测过表达MsrA对结直肠癌干细胞增殖的影响。结果癌干细胞中MsrA的表达水平明显高于癌细胞,癌细胞中MsrA的表达水平明显高于正常大肠粘膜细胞。MsrA过表达会抑制结直肠癌干细胞的增殖以及下调VEGF、MMP-13和CXCR4的表达。结论 MsrA可能通过下调VEGF、MMP-13和CXCR4的表达和抑制细胞增殖来抑制结直肠癌的发生、发展。%Objective To investigate the expression of methionine sulfoxide reductase (MsrA) in colorectal cancer stem cells and its association with the tumorigenesis and progression of colorectal cancer. Methods The CD133+/CD44+/ESA+subpopulation of colorectal cancer cell line SW480 was obtained by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS). The expression of MsrA, VEGF, MMP-13 and CXCR4 in the cancer cells, cancer stem cells and normal colon mucosa cells were detected using RT-PCR. The proliferation of colorectal cancer stem cells was evaluated with MTT assay. Results The expression of MsrA was significantly higher in cancer stem cells than in the cancer cells and normal mucosa cells. Overexpression of MsrA inhibited the proliferation of colorectal cancer stem cells and down-regulated the expression of VEGF, MMP-13 and CXCR4. Conclusions MsrA suppresses the tumorigenesis and progression of colorectal cancer cells possibly by inhibiting cell proliferation and down-regulating VEGF, MMP-13 and CXCR4.

  5. Using an international workshop to develop functional requirements and a Biohazard Assessment Protocol (BAP) with which to develop a preferred concept for a Mars Sample Return (MSR) Sample Receiving Facility (SRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevskis, John; Guest, Michael; Bennett, Allan; Walker, James; Smith, Caroline; Baker, Robert; Grant, Colin

    COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy places very stringent requirements on Sample Return missions and `breaking the chain of contact' between Earth and the celestial body from which the sample is returned. This must be continued after return to Earth and -at the same time-any contamination or damage to the sample must be avoided until such time as it can be confirmed as not presenting a biohazard and available for subsequent curation and scientific investigation. Such a facility has never before been built and an investigation has been made to determine the requirements for a Mars Sample Return (MSR) Sample Receiving Facility (SRF) from first principles based on a Biohazard Assessment Protocol (BAP) rather than the modification of an existing BSL-4 facility. This approach fully takes in to account cleanliness requirements to avoid sample contamination. This paper will present the results from the first part of an ESA funded study, which derived the top level functional requirements by reviewing published scientific literature from all expert domains i.e.; biocontainment, science curation, space technology, infrastructure and equipment. These functional requirements were then examined by invited attendees from all expert domains in a 2 day international workshop. From the results of the international workshop an existing Biohazard Assessment Protocol (BAP) was modified and a trade off was conducted to derive a preferred concept which allowed early indications of future technological direction of study. The results of the MSR SRF study by SEA (as well as the results of another parallel study) will be taken into account by ESA to define the requirements for a follow-on procurement action in the future. There will be a review of the results from both studies and an agreement on the requirements based on these parallel studies. Therefore, the views expressed herein should not be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Space Agency.

  6. Study on the Property of TiO2 Cathode for Preparation of Titanium by Electrolysis in Molten Salt%熔盐电解法制备金属钛工艺中TiO2电极性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍; 孙建科; 常鹏北; 罗志涛; 邢鹏飞; 彭晖

    2011-01-01

    采用模压成型法制备了TiO2电极.分别用扫描电镜(SEM)、X射线衍射仪(XRD)等测试手段分析了不同烧结温度下TiO2电极的形貌、物相.基于阿基米德定律和欧姆定律测定了不同烧结温度制备的TiO2电极的孔隙率和电阻率.分析结果表明,随烧结温度的升高,TiO2电极晶粒逐渐长大,柱状晶粒结晶程度越来越好,在1100℃和1200℃时平均粒径都在4μm左右;晶型随烧结温度的升高发生变化,温度高于1000℃时锐钛型TiO2全部转变为金红石型.孔隙率和电阻率随烧结温度的升高而减小,烧结温度越高,电极导电性能越好.1100℃和1200℃烧结后在1000~1050℃时电阻率约为0.14Ω·m并最终趋向于恒定.所制备的TiO2电极经熔盐电解实验后得到的金属钛含量高速99.69%.%The TiO2 cathode was prepared by the compaction molding. The morphology and phase composition of the TiO2 cathode from the sintered precursor at different temperatures were analyzed by SEM and XRD. Porosity and resistivity for TiO2 cathode were calculated on the basis of Archimedes' law and Ohm′s law. The results show that the grain coarsens with the sintering temperatures rising. The TiO2 cathode as-prepared at 1100~1200℃ consists of relatively homogeneous grains with the average diameter of 4μm The TiO2 crystalline structure is transforms anatase into rutile when the temperatures rise higher than 1000℃. Porosity and resistivity of TiO2 cathode are reduced with the sintering temperatures rising. The resistivity of TiO2 cathode from the sintered precursor at 1100℃ and 1200℃ is about 0. 14Ω · m and has a tendency to invariableness at measuring temperature of 1000~1050℃. Product for TiO2 cathode prepared at 1000℃ by electrolysis in molten salt is purity metal titanium with 99. 69mo1%.

  7. Application study of EPICS-based redundant method for reactor control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the reactor control system prototype development of TMSR (Thorium Molten Salt Reactor system, CAS) project, EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is adopted as Instrument and Control software platform. For the aim of IOC (Input/Output Controller) redundancy and data synchronization of the system, the EPICS-based RMT (Redundancy Monitor Task ) software package and its data-synchronization component CCE (Continuous Control Executive) were introduced. By the development of related IOC driver, redundant switch-over control of server IOC was implemented. The method of redundancy implementation using RMT in server and redundancy performance test for power control system are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  8. Cloning and functional analysis of the sequences flanking mini-Tn5 in the magnetosomes deleted mutant NM4 of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Feng; LI Ying; JIANG Wei; WANG Zhenfang; LI Jilun

    2005-01-01

    A magnetosome deleted mutant NM4 of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 was generated by mini-Tn5 transposon mutagenesis, and a 5045-bp fragment flanking mini-Tn5 in NM4 was cloned by Anchored PCR. Sequencing analysis showed that this fragment involved six putative open reading frames (ORFs); the mini-Tn5 was inserted into ORF4. Functional complementary test indicated that the 5045-bp fragment was required for biosynthesis of magnetosomes in M. gryphiswaldense MSR-1. The protein encoded by ORF4 had 25% of identity with the chemotaxis protein CheYIII of Caulobacter crescentus CB15, and the protein encoded by ORF4 contained a conserved signal receiver domain that can receive the signal from the sensor partner of the bacterial two-component systems. It was suggested that the protein encoded by ORF4 may take part in the signal transduction relating to biosynthesis of magnetosomes.

  9. Unstructured mesh based multi-physics interface for CFD code coupling in the Serpent 2 Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an unstructured mesh based multi-physics interface implemented in the Serpent 2 Monte Carlo code, for the purpose of coupling the neutronics solution to component-scale thermal hydraulics calculations, such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The work continues the development of a multi-physics coupling scheme, which relies on the separation of state-point information from the geometry input, and the capability to handle temperature and density distributions by a rejection sampling algorithm. The new interface type is demonstrated by a simplified molten-salt reactor test case, using a thermal hydraulics solution provided by the CFD solver in OpenFOAM. (author)

  10. Th and U fuel photofission study by NTD for AD-MSR subcritical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade a considerable effort has been devoted for developing energy generating systems based on advanced nuclear technology within the design concepts of GEN-IV. Thorium base fuel systems such as accelerator driven nuclear reactors are one of the often mentioned attractive and affordable options. Several radiotherapy linear accelerators are on the market and due to their reliability, they could be employed as drivers for subcritical liquid fuel assemblies. Bremsstrahlung photons with energies above 5.5MeV, induce (γ,n) and (e,e’n) reactions in the W-target. Resulting gamma radiation and photo or fission neutrons may be absorbed in target materials such as thorium and uranium isotopes to induce sustained fission or nuclear transmutation in waste radioactive materials. Relevant photo driven and photo-fission reaction cross sections are important for actinides 232Th, 238U and 237Np in the radiotherapy machines energy range of 10-20 MV. In this study we employ passive nuclear track detectors (NTD) to determine fission rates and neutron production rates with the aim to establish the feasibility for gamma and photo-neutron driven subcritical assemblies. To cope with these objectives a 20 MV radiotherapy machine has been employed with a mixed fuel target. Results will support further development for a subcritical assembly employing a thorium containing liquid fuel. It is expected that acquired technological knowledge will contribute to the Venezuelan nuclear energy program

  11. Th and U fuel photofission study by NTD for AD-MSR subcritical assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Greaves, Eduardo D.; Barros, Haydn; Pino, Felix; Barrera, Maria T.; Farina, Fulvio [Universidad Simón Bolívar, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Apdo 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Davila, Jesus [Física Médica C. A. and Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-07-23

    During the last decade a considerable effort has been devoted for developing energy generating systems based on advanced nuclear technology within the design concepts of GEN-IV. Thorium base fuel systems such as accelerator driven nuclear reactors are one of the often mentioned attractive and affordable options. Several radiotherapy linear accelerators are on the market and due to their reliability, they could be employed as drivers for subcritical liquid fuel assemblies. Bremsstrahlung photons with energies above 5.5MeV, induce (γ,n) and (e,e’n) reactions in the W-target. Resulting gamma radiation and photo or fission neutrons may be absorbed in target materials such as thorium and uranium isotopes to induce sustained fission or nuclear transmutation in waste radioactive materials. Relevant photo driven and photo-fission reaction cross sections are important for actinides {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 237}Np in the radiotherapy machines energy range of 10-20 MV. In this study we employ passive nuclear track detectors (NTD) to determine fission rates and neutron production rates with the aim to establish the feasibility for gamma and photo-neutron driven subcritical assemblies. To cope with these objectives a 20 MV radiotherapy machine has been employed with a mixed fuel target. Results will support further development for a subcritical assembly employing a thorium containing liquid fuel. It is expected that acquired technological knowledge will contribute to the Venezuelan nuclear energy program.

  12. Th and U fuel photofission study by NTD for AD-MSR subcritical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Greaves, Eduardo D.; Davila, Jesus; Barros, Haydn; Pino, Felix; Barrera, Maria T.; Farina, Fulvio

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade a considerable effort has been devoted for developing energy generating systems based on advanced nuclear technology within the design concepts of GEN-IV. Thorium base fuel systems such as accelerator driven nuclear reactors are one of the often mentioned attractive and affordable options. Several radiotherapy linear accelerators are on the market and due to their reliability, they could be employed as drivers for subcritical liquid fuel assemblies. Bremsstrahlung photons with energies above 5.5MeV, induce (γ,n) and (e,e'n) reactions in the W-target. Resulting gamma radiation and photo or fission neutrons may be absorbed in target materials such as thorium and uranium isotopes to induce sustained fission or nuclear transmutation in waste radioactive materials. Relevant photo driven and photo-fission reaction cross sections are important for actinides 232Th, 238U and 237Np in the radiotherapy machines energy range of 10-20 MV. In this study we employ passive nuclear track detectors (NTD) to determine fission rates and neutron production rates with the aim to establish the feasibility for gamma and photo-neutron driven subcritical assemblies. To cope with these objectives a 20 MV radiotherapy machine has been employed with a mixed fuel target. Results will support further development for a subcritical assembly employing a thorium containing liquid fuel. It is expected that acquired technological knowledge will contribute to the Venezuelan nuclear energy program.

  13. Photoluminescence properties of Pb{sup 2+} doped M{sub 2}Mg(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (M=Sr, Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergen, Ayhan [Marmara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Science Engineering, Istanbul 34722 (Turkey); Pekgoezlue, Ilhan, E-mail: ayhan.mergen@marmara.edu.tr [Bartin University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Bartin 74100 (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    Pure and Pb{sup 2+} doped M{sub 2}Mg(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (M=Sr, Ba) materials were synthesized at 900 Degree-Sign C for 12 h in air. The phases of the synthesized materials were determined using the powder XRD. The photoluminescence properties of the synthesized phosphors were investigated using a spectrofluorometer at room temperature. The emission and excitation bands of Sr{sub 2}Mg(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}: Pb{sup 2+} were observed at 330 and 260 nm, respectively. And, the emission and excitation bands of Ba{sub 2}Mg(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}: Pb{sup 2+} were observed at 381 and 293 nm, respectively. The dependence of the emission intensity on the Pb{sup 2+} concentration for the M{sub 2-x}Pb{sub x}Mg(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (M=Sr, Ba) was studied in detail. It was observed that the optimum concentrations of Pb{sup 2+} in Sr{sub 2}Mg(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Ba{sub 2}Mg(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} are 0.06 and 0.01 mol, respectively. The Stokes shifts of Sr{sub 2}Mg(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}: Pb{sup 2+} and Ba{sub 2}Mg(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}: Pb{sup 2+} phosphors were calculated to be 8159 and 7883 cm{sup -1}, respectively. The luminescence behavior of the Pb{sup 2+} ion in M{sub 2}Mg(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (M=Sr, Ba) is discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have synthesized two novel inorganic borate phosphors for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sr{sub 2}Mg(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}: Pb{sup 2+} and Ba{sub 2}Mg(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}: Pb{sup 2+} phosphors emit at 330 and 381 nm, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consequently, they are promising phosphors for UV lamp phosphors.

  14. Thermodynamics of amalgam cells {M-amalgam vertical bar MCl2 (m) vertical bar AgCl vertical bar Ag} (M=Sr, Ba) and primary medium effects in {methanol+water} and {ethanol+water} solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the amalgam cell {MxHg1-x vertical bar MCl2 (m) vertical bar AgCl vertical bar Ag} (with M=Sr, Ba) the potential difference E has been measured as a function of the mole fraction xM of the metal M in amalgams and of the molality m of MCl2 in {methanol+water} and {ethanol+water} solvent mixtures Z={A+W} with mass fractions of alcohol wA=+/- as functions of the MCl2 molality. The Em-bar dependence on the alcohol mole fraction in the solvent mixture within the ranges explored turns out to be linear for both of these two metals M in the amalgams studied. Of course, also the molal-scale standard Gibbs free energy change (ΔGW->Z-bar )m=2F(WEm-bar-ZEm-bar), which constitutes the 'primary medium effect' upon transferring MCl2 from pure water to the (alcohol+water) mixture, is linear in xA. In the same context, following Feakins and French's treatment, which implies volume fraction statistics, the relevant primary medium effects upon MCl2 on the mol.dm-3 scale have been analysed in terms of the expected linear relation of (ΔGW->Z-bar)c=2F(WEc-bar -ZEc-bar) against the logarithm of water volume fraction, leading to primary hydration numbers for SrCl2 and BaCl2, respectively, in acceptable agreement with Bockris' data based on different methods

  15. 熔融盐法合成镍系锂离子电池正极材料的研究进展%Research Progress in Preparation of Nickel-based Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Battery by Molten-salt Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤宏伟; 赵付双; 常照荣

    2008-01-01

    熔融盐法是利用熔融盐作反应物或兼作熔剂,在固液态间进行反应,可以有效降低反应温度和缩短反应时间,合成出符合计量比以及结晶发育良好的正极材料,是合成锂离子正极插层材料一种新的有效的方法.分析了镍系锂离子电池正极材料的结构特点和现阶段存在的问题,并就近年来国内外关于采用熔融盐法合成镍系锂离子电池正极材料的现状,结合实际的研究情况进行了综述.

  16. Study of CANDU thorium-based fuel cycles by deterministic and Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the Generation IV forum, there is a renewal of interest in self-sustainable thorium fuel cycles applied to various concepts such as Molten Salt Reactors [1, 2] or High Temperature Reactors [3, 4]. Precise evaluations of the U-233 production potential relying on existing reactors such as PWRs [5] or CANDUs [6] are hence necessary. As a consequence of its design (online refueling and D2O moderator in a thermal spectrum), the CANDU reactor has moreover an excellent neutron economy and consequently a high fissile conversion ratio [7]. For these reasons, we try here, with a shorter term view, to re-evaluate the economic competitiveness of once-through thorium-based fuel cycles in CANDU [8]. Two simulation tools are used: the deterministic Canadian cell code DRAGON [9] and MURE [10], a C++ tool for reactor evolution calculations based on the Monte Carlo code MCNP [11]. (authors)

  17. Calcium-based multi-element chemistry for grid-scale electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Takanari; Kim, Hojong; Spatocco, Brian L.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium is an attractive material for the negative electrode in a rechargeable battery due to its low electronegativity (high cell voltage), double valence, earth abundance and low cost; however, the use of calcium has historically eluded researchers due to its high melting temperature, high reactivity and unfavorably high solubility in molten salts. Here we demonstrate a long-cycle-life calcium-metal-based rechargeable battery for grid-scale energy storage. By deploying a multi-cation binary electrolyte in concert with an alloyed negative electrode, calcium solubility in the electrolyte is suppressed and operating temperature is reduced. These chemical mitigation strategies also engage another element in energy storage reactions resulting in a multi-element battery. These initial results demonstrate how the synergistic effects of deploying multiple chemical mitigation strategies coupled with the relaxation of the requirement of a single itinerant ion can unlock calcium-based chemistries and produce a battery with enhanced performance. PMID:27001915

  18. Calcium-based multi-element chemistry for grid-scale electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Takanari; Kim, Hojong; Spatocco, Brian L.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2016-03-01

    Calcium is an attractive material for the negative electrode in a rechargeable battery due to its low electronegativity (high cell voltage), double valence, earth abundance and low cost; however, the use of calcium has historically eluded researchers due to its high melting temperature, high reactivity and unfavorably high solubility in molten salts. Here we demonstrate a long-cycle-life calcium-metal-based rechargeable battery for grid-scale energy storage. By deploying a multi-cation binary electrolyte in concert with an alloyed negative electrode, calcium solubility in the electrolyte is suppressed and operating temperature is reduced. These chemical mitigation strategies also engage another element in energy storage reactions resulting in a multi-element battery. These initial results demonstrate how the synergistic effects of deploying multiple chemical mitigation strategies coupled with the relaxation of the requirement of a single itinerant ion can unlock calcium-based chemistries and produce a battery with enhanced performance.

  19. Study on the hot corrosion behavior of a cast Ni-base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Guo, J.T.; Zhang, J.; Yuan, C.; Zhou, L.Z.; Hu, Z.Q. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China). Inst. of Metal Research

    2010-07-01

    Hot corrosion behavior of Nickel-base cast superalloy K447 in 90% Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 10% NaCl melting salt at 850 C and 900 C was studied. The hot corrosion kinetic of the alloy follows parabolic rate law under the experimental conditions. The external layer is mainly Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale which is protective to the alloy, the intermediate layer is the Ti-rich phase, and the internal layer is mainly the international oxides and sulfides. With increased corrosion time and temperature, the oxide scales are gradually dissolved in the molten salt and then precipitate as a thick and non-protective scale. Chlorides cause the formation of volatile species, which makes the oxide scale disintegrate and break off. The corrosion kinetics and morphology examinations tend to support the basic dissolution model for hot corrosion mechanisms. (orig.)

  20. 基于支持向量机的人脸识别技术研究%Face Recognition Method Based on Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于真

    2011-01-01

    研究人脸识别优化问题,不同程度光照对人脸图像的采集具有不利影响,使图像中包含一些噪声信息,而当前人脸识别算法没有考虑不同程度光照对人脸图像的影响,仅在光照变化不大时,识别正确率高.为了解决光照条件对人脸识别不利影响,提高脸识别正确率,提出一种多尺度Retinex( MSR)和支持向量机(SVM)相结合的人脸识别算法(MSR - SVM).MSR - SVM首先采用MSR对人脸图像进行预处理,消除光照变化的不利影响,然后采用PCA提取人脸图像特征,消除一些噪声信息,最后利用SVM分类算法对人脸图像进行分类.采用Yale人脸库对MSR - SVM算法进行仿真测试,仿真结果表明,改进方法可以消除光照变化对人脸识别不利影响,加快了人脸识别速度,提高了人脸识别正确率.%Face recognition in the field of pattern recognition is an important research topic, and it includes two key steps: the feature extraction and classifier design. In order to solve the adverse effects of illumination conditions on the face recognition, the paper proposed a face recognition algorithm ( MSR - SVM) based on multi - scale Ret-inex (MSR) and support vector machine (SVM). Firstly, MSR - SVM adopted MSR to preprocess face image, and eliminated the harmful effects of light conditions. Then the PCA extracted facial image features, and finally face image was classified by classification algorithm SVM. Yale face library was used to test MSR - SVM algorithm. Simulation experiment results show that the MSR - SVM can eliminate the influences of illumination condition to face recognition, speed up the face recognition rate and improve the face recognition accuracy.