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Sample records for based msr molten-salt

  1. The molten salt reactors (MSR) pyro chemistry and fuel cycle for innovative nuclear systems; Congres sur les reacteurs a sels fondus (RSF) pyrochimie et cycles des combustibles nucleaires du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossard, Ph. [GEDEON, Groupement de Recherche CEA CNRS EDF FRAMATOME (France); Garzenne, C.; Mouney, H. [and others

    2002-07-01

    In the frame of the studies on next generation nuclear systems, and especially for the molten salt reactors and for the integrated fuel cycle (as IFR), the fuel cycle constraints must be taken into account in the preliminary studies of the system to improve the cycle and reactor optimisation. Among the purposes for next generation nuclear systems, sustainability and waste (radio-toxicity and mass) management are important goals. These goals imply reprocessing and recycling strategies. The objectives of this workshop are to present and to share the different strategies and scenarios, the needs based on these scenarios, the experimental facilities available today or in the future and their capabilities, the needs for demonstration. It aims at: identifying the needs for fuel cycle based on solid fuel or liquid fuel, and especially, the on-line reprocessing or clean up for the molten salt reactors; assessing the state-of-the-art on the pyro-chemistry applied to solid fuel and to present the research activities; assessing the state-of-the-art on liquid fuels (or others), and to present the research activities; expressing the R and D programs for pyro-chemistry, molten salt, and also to propose innovative processes; and proposing some joint activities in the frame of GEDEON and PRACTIS programs. This document brings together the transparencies of 18 contributions dealing with: scenario studies with AMSTER concept (Scenarios, MSR, breeders (Th) and burners); fuel cycle for innovative systems; current reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in molten salts (review of pyro-chemistry processes (non nuclear and nuclear)); high temperature NMR spectroscopies in molten salts; reductive extraction of An from molten fluorides (salt - liquid metal extraction); electrochemistry characterisation; characterisation with physical methods - extraction coefficient and kinetics; electrolytic extraction; dissolution-precipitation of plutonium in the eutectic LiCl-KCl (dissolution and

  2. Impact of thorium based molten salt reactor on the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Safwan Qasim Mohammad

    Molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of six reactors selected by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). The liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR) is a MSR concept based on thorium fuel cycle. LFTR uses liquid fluoride salts as a nuclear fuel. It uses 232Th and 233U as the fertile and fissile materials, respectively. Fluoride salt of these nuclides is dissolved in a mixed carrier salt of lithium and beryllium (FLiBe). The objective of this research was to complete feasibility studies of a small commercial thermal LFTR. The focus was on neutronic calculations in order to prescribe core design parameter such as core size, fuel block pitch (p), fuel channel radius, fuel path, reflector thickness, fuel salt composition, and power. In order to achieve this objective, the applicability of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) to MSR modeling was verified. Then, a prescription for conceptual small thermal reactor LFTR and relevant calculations were performed using MCNP to determine the main neutronic parameters of the core reactor. The MCNP code was used to study the reactor physics characteristics for the FUJI-U3 reactor. The results were then compared with the results obtained from the original FUJI-U3 using the reactor physics code SRAC95 and the burnup analysis code ORIPHY2. The results were comparable with each other. Based on the results, MCNP was found to be a reliable code to model a small thermal LFTR and study all the related reactor physics characteristics. The results of this study were promising and successful in demonstrating a prefatory small commercial LFTR design. The outcome of using a small core reactor with a diameter/height of 280/260 cm that would operate for more than five years at a power level of 150 MWth was studied. The fuel system 7LiF - BeF2 - ThF4 - UF4 with a (233U/ 232Th) = 2.01 % was the candidate fuel for this reactor core.

  3. A basic study on fluoride-based molten salt electrolysis technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Kwang Bum [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Byung Gi [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this project is to study on the physicochemical properties of fluoride molten salt, to develop numerical model for simulation of molten salt electrolysis, and to establish experimental technique of fluoride molten salt. Physicochemical data of fluoride molten salt are investigated and summarized. The numerical model, designated as REFIN is developed with diffusion-layer theory and electrochemical reaction kinetics. REFIN is benchmarked with published experimental data. REFIN has a capability to simulate multicomponent electrochemical system at transient conditions. Experimental device is developed to measure electrochemical properties of structural material for fluoride molten salt. Ni electrode is measured with cyclic voltammogram in the conditions of 600 .deg. C LiF-BeF{sub 2} and 700 .deg. C LiF-BeF{sub 2}. 74 refs., 23 figs., 57 tabs. (Author)

  4. Study of thorium-uranium based molten salt blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jing, E-mail: zhao_jing@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang Yongwei; Zhou Zhiwei [INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A molten salt blanket has been designed for the fusion-fission hybrid reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of Thorium in the molten salt fuels has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The molten salt was consisted of F-Li-Be and with the thickness of 40 cm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concentration of {sup 6}Li was chosen to be the natural enrichment ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result shows that TBR is greater than 1, M is about 15-16. - Abstract: Not only solid fuels, but also liquid fuels can be used for the fusion-fission symbiotic reactor blanket. The operational record of the molten salt reactor with F-Li-Be was very successful, so the F-Li-Be blanket was chosen for research. The molten salt has several features which are suited for the fusion-fission applications. The fuel material uranium and thorium were dissolved in the F-Li-Be molten salt. A combined program, COUPLE, was used for neutronics analysis of the molten salt blanket. Several cases have been calculated and compared. Not only the influence of the different fuels have been studied, but also the thickness of the molten salt, and the concentration of the {sup 6}Li in the molten salt. Preliminary studies indicate that when thorium-uranium-plutonium fuels were added into a F-Li-Be molten salt blanket and with a component of 71% LiF-2% BeF{sub 2}-13.5% ThF{sub 4}-8.5% UF{sub 4}-5% PuF{sub 3}, and also with the molten salt thickness of 40 cm and natural concentration of {sup 6}Li, the appropriate blanket energy multiplication factor and TBR can be obtained. The result shows that thorium-uranium molten salt can be used in the blanket of a fusion-fission symbiotic reactor. The research on the molten salt blanket must be valuable for the design of fusion-fission symbiotic reactor.

  5. Simulation tools and new developments of the molten salt fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Doligez, X.; Heuer, D.; Allibert, M.; Ghetta, V. [LPSC-IN2P3-CNRS / UJF / Grenoble INP, 53 avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    Starting from the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor project of Oak-Ridge, we have performed parametric studies in terms of safety coefficients, reprocessing requirements and breeding capabilities. In the frame of this major re-evaluation of the molten salt reactor (MSR), we have developed a new concept called Molten Salt Fast Reactor or MSFR, based on the Thorium fuel cycle and a fast neutron spectrum. This concept has been selected for further studies by the MSR steering committee of the Generation IV International Forum in 2009. Our reactor's studies of the MSFR concept rely on numerical simulations making use of the MCNP neutron transport code coupled with a code for materials evolution which resolves the Bateman's equations giving the population of each nucleus inside each part of the reactor at each moment. Because of MSR's fundamental characteristics compared to classical solid-fuelled reactors, the classical Bateman equations have to be modified by adding two terms representing the reprocessing capacities and the fertile or fissile alimentation. We have thus coupled neutronic and reprocessing simulation codes in a numerical tool used to calculate the extraction efficiencies of fission products, their location in the whole system (reactor and reprocessing unit) and radioprotection issues. (authors)

  6. Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Methodology in Molten Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    similar conditions. A manuscript based on this work has been published in the Journal of the Electrochemical Society (34). 2) Melt and co-solvent As...Temperature Molten Salt," In "Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Molten Salts," 3. Braunstein, Ed., published by The Electrochemical Society , in...Jones and L. G. Boxall, "Electrochemical Studies in Molten Chloroaluminates," Symposium on Fused Salt Tech- nology, Electrochemical Society Meeting

  7. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  8. Molten salt reactors - safety options galore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gat, U. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dodds, H.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Safety features and attributes of molten salt reactors (MSR) are described. The unique features of fluid fuel reactors of on-line continuous processing and the ability for so-called external cooling result in simple and safe designs with low excess reactivity, low fission product inventory, and small source term. These, in turn, make a criticality accident unlikely and reduce the severity of a loss of coolant to where they are no longer severe accidents. A melt down is not an accident for a reactor that uses molten fuel. The molten salts are stable, non-reactive and efficient heat transfer media that operate at high temperatures at low pressures and are highly compatible with selected structural materials. All these features reduce the accident plethora. Freeze valves can be used for added safety. An ultimate safe reactor (U.S.R) is described with safety features that are passive, inherent and non-tamperable (PINT).

  9. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia

    2012-05-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 C

  10. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia; Piyush Sabharwall

    2012-09-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 °C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700

  11. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a thor

  12. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Cioncolini, Andrea; Iacovides, Hector

    2015-04-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015.

  13. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  14. Hot corrosion resistance of high-velocity oxyfuel sprayed coatings on a nickel-base superalloy in molten salt environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, T. S.; Prakash, S.; Agrawal, R. D.

    2006-09-01

    No alloy is immune to hot corrosion attack indefinitely. Coatings can extend the lives of substrate materials used at higher temperatures in corrosive environments by forming protective oxides layers that are reasonably effective for long-term applications. This article is concerned with studying the performance of high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCrBSi, Cr3C2-NiCr, Ni-20Cr, and Stellite-6 coatings on a nickel-base superalloy at 900 °C in the molten salt (Na2SO4-60% V2O5) environment under cyclic oxidation conditions. The thermogravimetric technique was used to establish kinetics of corrosion. Optical microscope, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/electron dispersive analysis by x-ray (SEM/EDAX), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) techniques were used to characterize the as-sprayed coatings and corrosion products. The bare superalloy suffered somewhat accelerated corrosion in the given environmental conditions. whereas hot corrosion resistance of all the coated superalloys was found to be better. Among the coating studied, Ni-20Cr coated superalloy imparted maximum hot corrosion resistance, whereas Stellite-6 coated indicated minimum resistance. The hot corrosion resistance of all the coatings may be attributed to the formation of oxides and spinels of nickel, chromium, or cobalt.

  15. Investigation of molten salt fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kenichi; Konomura, Mamoru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    On survey research for practicability strategy of fast reactor (FR) (phase 1), to extract future practicability image candidates of FR from wide options, in addition to their survey and investigation objects of not only solid fuel reactors of conventional research object but also molten salt reactor as a flowing fuel reactor, investigation on concept of molten salt FR plant was carried out. As a part of the first step of the survey research for practicability strategy, a basic concept on plant centered at nuclear reactor facility using chloride molten salt reactor capable of carrying out U-Pu cycle was examined, to perform a base construction to evaluate economical potential for a practical FBR. As a result, a result could be obtained that because of inferior fuel inventory and heat transmission to those in Na cooling reactor in present knowledge, mass of reactor vessel and intermediate heat exchanger were to widely increased to expect reduction of power generation unit price even on considering cheapness of its fuel cycle cost. Therefore, at present step further investigation on concept design of the chloride molten salt reactor plant system is too early in time, and it is at a condition where basic and elementary researches aiming at upgrading of economical efficiency such as wide reduction of fuel inventory, a measure expectable for remarkable rationalization effect of reprocessing system integrating a reactor to a processing facility, and so on. (G.K.)

  16. An investigation into the electrochemical recovery of rare earth ions in a CsCl-based molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Shuqiang, E-mail: sjiao@ustb.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Zhu, Hongmin, E-mail: hzhu@metall.ustb.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China)

    2011-05-30

    A CsCl-based melt, was used as a supporting electrolyte for a fuel cycle in pyrochemical separation, as it has a high solubility for lanthanide oxide. Cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry were carried out to investigate the cathodic reduction of those rare earth ions. The results prove that the cathodic process of La(III) ions dissolved in a CsCl-based melt, with a one-step reduction La{sup 3+} + 3e{sup -} = La, and is similar to those of other reports which have utilised LiCl-KCl or CaCl{sub 2}-KCl molten salt systems. However, for the Ce(III) ions that dissolved in a CsCl-based melt, there is a significant difference when compared with published literature as there are two reduction steps instead of the reported single step Ce{sup 3+} + e{sup -} = Ce{sup 2+} and Ce{sup 2+} + 2e{sup -} = Ce. In order to explain the novel result, a detailed investigation was focused on the cathodic process of Ce(III) in a CsCl-based melt. The identification of the M-O (M = La, Ce) compounds that are stable in the electrolyte, as well as the determination of their solubility products, were carried out by potentiometric titration using an oxide ion sensor. Furthermore, the E-pO{sup 2-} (potential-oxide ion) diagram for the M-O stable compound was constructed by combining both theoretical and experimental data.

  17. Effect of nanoparticles on heat capacity of nanofluids based on molten salts as PCM for thermal energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieruzzi, Manila; Cerritelli, Gian F; Miliozzi, Adio; Kenny, José M

    2013-10-29

    In this study, different nanofluids with phase change behavior were developed by mixing a molten salt base fluid (selected as phase change material) with nanoparticles using the direct-synthesis method. The thermal properties of the nanofluids obtained were investigated. These nanofluids can be used in concentrating solar plants with a reduction of storage material if an improvement in the specific heat is achieved. The base salt mixture was a NaNO3-KNO3 (60:40 ratio) binary salt. The nanoparticles used were silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2), and a mix of silica-alumina (SiO2-Al2O3). Three weight fractions were evaluated: 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt.%. Each nanofluid was prepared in water solution, sonicated, and evaporated. Measurements on thermophysical properties were performed by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and the dispersion of the nanoparticles was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained show that the addition of 1.0 wt.% of nanoparticles to the base salt increases the specific heat of 15% to 57% in the solid phase and of 1% to 22% in the liquid phase. In particular, this research shows that the addition of silica-alumina nanoparticles has a significant potential for enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of the NaNO3-KNO3 binary salt. These results deviated from the predictions of the theoretical model used. SEM suggests a greater interaction between these nanoparticles and the salt.

  18. Effect of nanoparticles on heat capacity of nanofluids based on molten salts as PCM for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieruzzi, Manila; Cerritelli, Gian F.; Miliozzi, Adio; Kenny, José M.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, different nanofluids with phase change behavior were developed by mixing a molten salt base fluid (selected as phase change material) with nanoparticles using the direct-synthesis method. The thermal properties of the nanofluids obtained were investigated. These nanofluids can be used in concentrating solar plants with a reduction of storage material if an improvement in the specific heat is achieved. The base salt mixture was a NaNO3-KNO3 (60:40 ratio) binary salt. The nanoparticles used were silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2), and a mix of silica-alumina (SiO2-Al2O3). Three weight fractions were evaluated: 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt.%. Each nanofluid was prepared in water solution, sonicated, and evaporated. Measurements on thermophysical properties were performed by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and the dispersion of the nanoparticles was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained show that the addition of 1.0 wt.% of nanoparticles to the base salt increases the specific heat of 15% to 57% in the solid phase and of 1% to 22% in the liquid phase. In particular, this research shows that the addition of silica-alumina nanoparticles has a significant potential for enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of the NaNO3-KNO3 binary salt. These results deviated from the predictions of the theoretical model used. SEM suggests a greater interaction between these nanoparticles and the salt.

  19. Estimation of thermodynamic properties of the ternary molten salt system, LiF-NaF-BeF2, by the modified Peng-Robinson equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dalin; QIU Suizheng; SU Guanghui; JIA Dounan

    2007-01-01

    The molten salt reactor (MSR), which is one of the generation IV reactors, can meet the demand of transmutation and breeding. The thermodynamic properties of the molten salt system like LiF-NaF-BeF2 influence the design and construction of the fuel salt and coolant in the MSR for the new generation. In this paper, the equation of state of the ternary system 15%LiF-58%NaF-27%BeF2, over the temperature range from 873.15 to 1 073.15 K at one atmosphere pressure, is described using a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation. The densities of the ternary system and its components are estimated by this equation directly, and compared with the experimental data. Based on the equation of state, the other thermodynamic properties such as the enthalpy, entropyand heat capacity at constant pressure are estimated by the residual function method and the fugacity coefficient method respectively. The densities calculated by PR equation are highly in agr eement with the experimental data, and the enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity evaluated by the two different methods are consistent with each other. It can be concluded that the modified PR equation can be applied to evaluate the density of the molten salt system, and it is recommended that it be used as the basis to estimate the enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of the molten salt system.

  20. Preliminary Study of Single-Phase Natural Circulation for Lab-scaled Molten Salt Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yukyung; Kang, Sarah; Kim, In Guk; Seo, Seok Bin; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Dae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Advanced reactors such as MSR (FHR), VHTR and AHTR utilized molten salt as a coolant for efficiency and safety which has advantages in higher heat capacity, lower pumping power and scale compared to liquid metal. It becomes more necessary to study on the characteristics of molten salt. However, due to several characteristics such as high operating temperature, large-scale facility and preventing solidification, satisfying that condition for study has difficulties. Thus simulant fluid was used with scaling method for lab-scale experiment. Scaled experiment enables simulant fluid to simulate fluid mechanics and heat transfer behavior of molten salt on lower operating temperature and reduced scale. In this paper, as a proof test of the scaled experiment, simplified single-phase natural circulation loop was designed in a lab-scale and applied to the passive safety system in advanced reactor in which molten salt is considered as a major coolant of the system. For the application of the improved safety system, prototype was based on the primary loop of the test-scale DRACS, the main passive safety system in FHR, developed at the OSU. For preliminary experiment, single-phase natural circulation under low power was performed. DOWTHERM A and DOWTHERM RP were selected as simulant candidates. Then, study of feasibility with simulant was conducted based on the scaling law for heat transfer characteristics and geometric parameters. Additionally, simulation with MARS code and ANSYS-CFX with the same condition of natural circulation was carried out as verification. For the accurate code simulation, thermo-physical properties of DOWTHERM A and RP were developed and implemented into MARS code. In this study, single-phase natural circulation experiment was performed with simulant oil, DOWTHERM RP, based on the passive safety system of FHR. Feasibility of similarity experiment for molten salt with oil simulant was confirmed by scaling method. In addition, simulation with two

  1. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a thorough knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of molten fluorides salts, which are one of the best options for the reactor fuel. This dissertation presents the thermodynamic description of the ...

  2. Thermal-hydraulics of internally heated molten salts and application to the Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorina, Carlo; Cammi, Antonio; Luzzi, Lelio; Mikityuk, Konstantin; Ninokata, Hisashi; Ricotti, Marco E.

    2014-04-01

    The Molten Salt Reactors (MSR) are an innovative kind of nuclear reactors and are presently considered in the framework of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF-IV) for their promising performances in terms of low resource utilization, waste minimization and enhanced safety. A unique feature of MSRs is that molten fluoride salts play the distinctive role of both fuel (heat source) and coolant. The presence of an internal heat generation perturbs the temperature field and consequences are to be expected on the heat transfer characteristics of the molten salts. In this paper, the problem of heat transfer for internally heated fluids in a straight circular channel is first faced on a theoretical ground. The effect of internal heat generation is demonstrated to be described by a corrective factor applied to traditional correlations for the Nusselt number. It is shown that the corrective factor can be fully characterized by making explicit the dependency on Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. On this basis, a preliminary correlation is proposed for the case of molten fluoride salts by interpolating the results provided by an analytic approach previously developed at the Politecnico di Milano. The experimental facility and the related measuring procedure for testing the proposed correlation are then presented. Finally, the developed correlation is used to carry out a parametric investigation on the effect of internal heat generation on the main out-of-core components of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR), the reference circulating-fuel MSR design in the GIF-IV. The volumetric power determines higher temperatures at the channel wall, but the effect is significant only in case of large diameters and/or low velocities.

  3. Steady thermal hydraulic analysis for a molten salt reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dalin; QIU Suizheng; LIU Changliang; SU Guanghui

    2008-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) can meet the demand of transmutation and breeding. In this study, theoretical calculation of steady thermal hydraulic characteristics of a graphite-moderated channel type MSR is conducted. The DRAGON code is adopted to calculate the axial and radial power factor firstly. The flow and heat transfer model in the fuel salt and graphite are developed on basis of the fundamental mass, momentum and energy equations. The results show the detailed flow distribution in the core, and the temperature profiles of the fuel salt, inner and outer wall in the nine typical elements along the axial flow direction are also obtained.

  4. Development status and potential program for development of proliferation-resistant molten-salt reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, J.R.; Bauman, H.F.; Dearing, J.F.; Grimes, W.R.; McCoy, H.E. Jr.

    1979-03-01

    Preliminary studies of existing and conceptual molten-salt reactor (MSR) designs have led to the identification of conceptual systems that are technologically attractive when operated with denatured uranium as the principal fissile fuel. These denatured MSRs would also have favorable resource-utilization characteristics and substantial resistance to proliferation of weapons-usable nuclear materials. The report presents a summary of the current status of technology and a discussion of the major technical areas of a possible base program to develop commercial denatured MSRs. The general areas treated are (1) reactor design and development, (2) safety and safety related technology, (3) fuel-coolant behavior and fuel processing, and (4) reactor materials. A substantial development effort could lead to authorization for construction of a molten-salt test reactor about 5 years after the start of the program and operation of the unit about 10 years later. A prototype commercial denatured MSR could be expected to begin operating 25 years from the start of the program. The postulated base program would extend over 32 years and would cost about $700 million (1978 dollars, unescalated). Additional costs to construct the MSTR, $600 million, and the prototype commercial plant, $1470 million, would bring the total program cost to about $2.8 billion. Additional allowances probably should be made to cover contingencies and incidental technology areas not explicitly treated in this preliminary review.

  5. Design of a heterogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor with molten salts based on thorium; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico heterogeneo con sales fundidas a base de torio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina C, D.; Hernandez A, P.; Letechipia de L, C.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: dmedina_c@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents the design of a heterogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor with molten salts based on thorium, with graphite moderator and a {sup 252}Cf source, whose dose levels at the periphery allows its use in teaching and research activities. The design was realized by the Monte Carlo method, where the geometry, dimensions and the fuel was varied in order to obtain the best design. The result was a cubic reactor of 110 cm of side, with graphite moderator and reflector. In the central part having 9 ducts of 3 cm in diameter, eight of them are 110 cm long, which were placed on the Y axis; the separation between each duct is 10 cm. The central duct has 60 cm in length and this contains the {sup 252}Cf source, also there are two irradiation channels and the other six contain a molten salt ({sup 7}LiF - BeF{sub 2} - ThF{sub 4} - UF{sub 4}) as fuel. For the design the k{sub eff} was calculated, neutron spectra and ambient dose equivalent. In the first instance the above was calculated for a virgin fuel, was called case 1; then a percentage of {sup 233}U was used and the percentage of Th was decreased and was called case 2. This with the purpose of comparing two different fuels operating within the reactor. For the two irradiation ducts three positions are used: center, back and front, in each duct in order to have different flows. (Author)

  6. Dynamic modelling and simulation of linear Fresnel solar field model based on molten salt heat transfer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Elina; Tähtinen, Matti

    2016-05-01

    Demonstrations of direct steam generation (DSG) in linear Fresnel collectors (LFC) have given promising results related to higher steam parameters compared to the current state-of-the-art parabolic trough collector (PTC) technology using oil as heat transfer fluid (HTF). However, DSG technology lacks feasible solution for long-term thermal energy storage (TES) system. This option is important for CSP technology in order to offer dispatchable power. Recently, molten salts have been proposed to be used as HTF and directly as storage medium in both line-focusing solar fields, offering storage capacity of several hours. This direct molten salt (DMS) storage concept has already gained operational experience in solar tower power plant, and it is under demonstration phase both in the case of LFC and PTC systems. Dynamic simulation programs offer a valuable effort for design and optimization of solar power plants. In this work, APROS dynamic simulation program is used to model a DMS linear Fresnel solar field with two-tank TES system, and example simulation results are presented in order to verify the functionality of the model and capability of APROS for CSP modelling and simulation.

  7. Radionuclides release possibility analysis of MSR at various accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong Wie; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    There are some accidents which go beyond our expectation such as Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster and amounts of radionuclides release to environment, so more effort and research are conducted to prevent it. MSR (Molten Salt Reactor) is one of GEN-IV reactor types, and its coolant and fuel are mixtures of molten salt. MSR has a schematic like figure 1 and it has different features with the solid fuel reactor, but most important and interesting feature of MSR is its many safety systems. For example, MSR has a large negative void coefficient. Even though power increases, the reactor slows down soon. Radionuclides release possibility of MSR was analyzed at various accident conditions including Chernobyl and Fukushima ones. The MSR was understood to prevent the severe accident by the negative reactivity coefficient and the absence of explosive material such as water at the Chernobyl disaster condition. It was expected to contain fuel salts in the reactor building and not to release radionuclides into environment even if the primary system could be ruptured or broken and fuel salts would be leaked at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster condition of earthquake and tsunami. The MSR, which would not lead to the severe accident and therefore prevents the fuel release to the environment at many expected scenarios, was thought to have priority in the aspect of accidents. A quantitative analysis and a further research are needed to evaluate the possibility of radionuclide release to the environment at the various accident conditions based on the simple comparison of the safety feature between MSR and solid fuel reactor.

  8. Molten-salt synthesis and composition-dependent luminescent properties of barium tungsto-molybdate-based solid solution phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang-Hong, He; Zhao-Lian, Ye; Ming-Yun, Guan; Ning, Lian; Jian-Hua, Sun

    2016-02-01

    Pr3+-activated barium tungsto-molybdate solid solution phosphor Ba(Mo1-zWz)O4:Pr3+ is successfully fabricated via a facile molten-salt approach. The as-synthesized microcrystal is of truncated octahedron and exhibits deep-red-emitting upon blue light excitation. Powder x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy techniques are utilized to investigate the formation of solid solution phosphor. The luminescence behaviors depend on the resulting composition of the microcrystals with fixed Pr3+-doping concentration, while the host lattices remain in a scheelite structure. The forming solid solution via the substitution of [WO4] for [MoO4] can significantly enhance its luminescence, which may be due to the fact that Ba(Mo1-zWz)O4:Pr3+ owns well-defined facets and uniform morphologies. Owing to its properties of high phase purity, well-defined facets, highly uniform morphologies, exceptional chemical and thermal stabilities, and stronger emission intensity, the resulting solid solution phosphor is expected to find potential applications in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Project supported by the Construction Fund for Science and Technology Innovation Group from Jiangsu University of Technology, China, the Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, China (Grant No. KHK1409), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21373103).

  9. Processing method for molten salt waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shuichi; Sawa, Toshio; Hoshikawa, Tadahiro; Suzuoki, Akira

    1999-01-06

    The present invention concerns a processing method for selectively adsorbing and removing radioactive metal ingredients contained in high temperature molten salts by an inorganic ion exchanger and separating radioactive metal ingredients from the molten salts as high level radioactive wastes upon reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels by using molten salts. The molten salts occluded in the inorganic ion exchanger are desorbed with highly purified water. Successively, saturation adsorbed radioactive metal ingredients are desorbed by an aqueous solution of alkali metal salt or an aqueous solution of alkaline earth metal salt. The desorbed molten salts and radioactive metal ingredients are formed into at least two kinds of radioactive waste solidification materials depending on each of radioactivity level. As the inorganic ion exchanger, at least one of aluminosilicate and hydroxides is used. Then, molten salt wastes generated upon a dry-type reprocessing can be processed as a stable borosilicate glass solidification material or as a similar homogeneous solid material. (T.M.)

  10. Development of a Minichannel Compact Primary Heat Exchanger for a Molten Salt Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Lippy, Matthew Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The first Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) was designed and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1960â s, but recent technological advancements now allow for new components, such as heat exchangers, to be created for the next generation of MSRâ s and molten salt-cooled reactors. The primary (fuel salt-to-secondary salt) heat exchanger (PHX) design is shown here to make dramatic improvements over traditional shell-and-tube heat exchangers when changed to a compact heat exchanger de...

  11. Fast Thorium Molten Salt Reactors started with Plutonium

    OpenAIRE

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Heuer, D.; Le Brun, C.; Mathieu, L.; Brissot, R.; Liatard, E.; Méplan, O.; Nuttin, A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the pending questions concerning Molten Salt Reactors based on the 232Th/233U fuel cycle is the supply of the fissile matter, and as a consequence the deployment possibilities of a fleet of Molten Salt Reactors, since 233U does not exist on earth and is not yet produced in the current operating reactors. A solution may consist in producing 233U in special devices containing Thorium, in Pressurized Water or Fast Neutrons Reactors. Two alternatives to produce 233U are examined here: dire...

  12. Steady State Analysis of Small Molten Salt Reactor : Effect of Fuel Salt Flow on Reactor Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Takahisa; MITACHI, Koshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a thermal neutron reactor with graphite moderation and operates on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The feature of the MSR is that fuel salt flows inside the reactor during the nuclear fission reaction. In the previous study, the authors developed numerical model with which to simulate the effects of fuel salt flow on the reactor characteristics. In this study, we apply the model to the steady-state analysis of a small MSR system and estimate the effects of fue...

  13. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  14. Alloys compatibility in molten salt fluorides: Kurchatov Institute related experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, Victor, E-mail: ignatiev@vver.kiae.ru; Surenkov, Alexandr

    2013-10-15

    In the last several years, there has been an increased interest in the use of high-temperature molten salt fluorides in nuclear power systems. For all molten salt reactor designs, materials selection is a very important issue. This paper summarizes results, which led to selection of materials for molten salt reactors in Russia. Operating experience with corrosion thermal convection loops has demonstrated good capability of the “nickel–molybdenum alloys + fluoride salt fueled by UF{sub 4} and PuF{sub 3} + cover gas” system up to 750 °C. A brief description is given of the container material work in progress. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys in stressed and unloaded conditions studies was also tested in different molten salt mixtures at temperatures up to 700–750 °C, also with measurement of the redox potential. HN80MTY alloy with 1% added Al is the most resistant to tellurium intergranular cracking of Ni-base alloys under study.

  15. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  16. Effect of Halide Flux on Physicochemical Properties of MgCl2-Based Molten Salts for Accelerating Zirconium Production: Thermodynamic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Hong; Park, Joo Hyun

    2016-09-01

    The effective halide flux additive for increasing the density of MgCl2 mixture and for decreasing the activity of MgCl2 was investigated in order to improve the reaction efficiency between gaseous ZrCl4 and fresh Mg melt to produce zirconium sponge. Thermochemical computation using FactSageTM software was primarily carried out, followed by the experimental confirmation. The addition of CaCl2, BaCl2, MgF2, and CaF2 to the molten MgCl2 increases the density of the melts, indicating that these halide additives can be a candidate to increase the density of the MgCl2-based molten salts. Among them, BaCl2, MgF2, and CaF2 are the useful additives. The activity of MgCl2 can be reduced by the addition of BaCl2, KCl, NaCl, MgF2, and CaF2, among which the CaF2 is the most effective additive to reduce the activity of MgCl2 with the strongest negative deviation from an ideality. Thus, the addition of CaF2 to the MgCl2, forming the MgCl2-CaF2 binary melt, is the most effective way not only to increase the density of the melt but also to decrease the activity of MgCl2, which was experimentally confirmed. Consequently, the production rate of zirconium sponge by magnesiothermic reduction process can be accelerated by the addition of CaF2.

  17. Complete Sensitivity/Uncertainty Analysis of LR-0 Reactor Experiments with MSRE FLiBe Salt and Perform Comparison with Molten Salt Cooled and Molten Salt Fueled Reactor Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R [ORNL; Powers, Jeffrey J [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL

    2016-12-01

    In September 2016, reactor physics measurements were conducted at Research Centre Rez (RC Rez) using the FLiBe (2 7LiF + BeF2) salt from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) in the LR-0 low power nuclear reactor. These experiments were intended to inform on neutron spectral effects and nuclear data uncertainties for advanced reactor systems using FLiBe salt in a thermal neutron energy spectrum. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in collaboration with RC Rez, performed sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analyses of these experiments as part of the ongoing collaboration between the United States and the Czech Republic on civilian nuclear energy research and development. The objectives of these analyses were (1) to identify potential sources of bias in fluoride salt-cooled and salt-fueled reactor simulations resulting from cross section uncertainties, and (2) to produce the sensitivity of neutron multiplication to cross section data on an energy-dependent basis for specific nuclides. This report provides a final report on the S/U analyses of critical experiments at the LR-0 Reactor relevant to fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) and liquid-fueled molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts. In the future, these S/U analyses could be used to inform the design of additional FLiBe-based experiments using the salt from MSRE.

  18. Preparation and Molten Salt as Performances of Room Electrolyte carbon Capacitor Based on Trifluoroacetamide n CarbonLiPF6 and

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A novel room moRen salt with an eutectic temperature of about -62℃ is prepared using LiPF6 and trifluoroacetamide as precursors. And then its performance is evaluated in carbon-carbon electrochemical double layerdifferent molar ratios are characterized and then the liquid-solid phase diagram is presented. The electrochemical performance tests show that the as-prepared LiPF6/trifluoroacetamide molten salt is a promising electrolyte candidate for carboncarbon EDLCs.

  19. Status Report on Scoping Reactor Physics and Sensitivity/Uncertainty Analysis of LR-0 Reactor Molten Salt Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Mueller, Donald E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division

    2016-08-31

    Experiments are being planned at Research Centre Rež (RC Rež) to use the FLiBe (2 7LiF-BeF2) salt from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) to perform reactor physics measurements in the LR-0 low power nuclear reactor. These experiments are intended to inform on neutron spectral effects and nuclear data uncertainties for advanced reactor systems utilizing FLiBe salt in a thermal neutron energy spectrum. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analysis of these planned experiments as part of the ongoing collaboration between the United States and the Czech Republic on civilian nuclear energy research and development. The objective of these analyses is to produce the sensitivity of neutron multiplication to cross section data on an energy-dependent basis for specific nuclides. This report provides a status update on the S/U analyses of critical experiments at the LR-0 Reactor relevant to fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) and liquid-fueled molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts. The S/U analyses will be used to inform design of FLiBe-based experiments using the salt from MSRE.

  20. Studies on the acid-base properties of the ZnBr2NaBr molten salt system

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    The acid-base properties of the ZnBr2-NaBr melts at 623 K were investigated on the basis of the electromotive forcemeasurements of a zinc-zinc concentration cell. The following two chemical equilibria were postulated to describe theacid-base character of the melts.

  1. Molten salts and nuclear energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Brun, Christian [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble cedex (France)]. E-mail: christian.lebrun@lpsc.in2p3.fr

    2007-01-15

    Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed.

  2. 熔盐堆的安全性介绍%The Introduction of the Safety of Molten Salt Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左嘉旭; 张春明

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the GenerationⅣNuclear Energy Systems and molten salt reactor which is the only fluid fuel reactor in the Gen-Ⅳ.Safety features and attributes of MSR are described.The supply of fuel and the minimum of waste are described.The clean molten salt in the secondary heat transport system transfers the heat from the primary heat exchanger to a high-temperature Brayton cycle that converts the heat to electricity.With the Brayton cycle,the thermal efficiency of the system will be improved. Base on the MSR,the thorium-uranium fuel cycle is also introduced.%介绍了四代反应堆的分类与特点,简述了第四代反应堆中唯一使用液态燃料的熔盐堆工作原理。基于与其他使用固体芯块燃料反应堆的比较,主要简述了熔盐堆更高的固有安全性特点,以及熔盐堆在燃料供应、废料最小化、防止核扩散诸方面的安全性优点以及熔盐堆发展面临的问题和挑战。说明了由于熔盐堆较高的工作温度使用布雷顿循环,提高热效率的优点。基于熔盐堆的燃料循环,简要叙述了钍基熔盐堆在钍-铀燃料循环应用中的优点及面临的问题。

  3. Direct contact heat recovery from molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technological deficiencies associated with efficient and economical retrieval of heat energy from molten salt systems are addressed. The large latent heat of fusion stored in molten salt hydrates and other candidate phase change materials (PCM) is removed by internal boiling of a volatile heat transfer fluid (HTF). This procedure eliminates the conventional use of submerged heat exchangers which are costly and, in crystallizing salts, ineffective. The thermochemical conditions and material properties that are critical for application of this concept in environments that yield significant energy savings are investigated and defined.

  4. Conceptual design of Indian molten salt breeder reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Vijayan; A Basak; I V Dulera; K K Vaze; S Basu; R K Sinha

    2015-09-01

    The third stage of Indian nuclear power programme envisages the use of thorium as the fertile material with 233U, which would be obtained from the operation of Pu/Th-based fast reactors in the later part of the second stage. Thorium-based reactors have been designed in many configurations, from light water-cooled designs to high-temperature liquid metal-cooled options. Another option, which holds promise, is the molten salt-fuelled reactor, which can be configured to give significant breeding ratios. A crucial part for achieving reasonable breeding in such reactors is the need to reprocess the salt continuously, either online or in batch mode. India has recently started carrying out fundamental studies so as to arrive at a conceptual design of Indian molten salt breeder reactor (IMSBR). Presently, various design options and possibilities are being studied from the point of view of reactor physics and thermal hydraulic design. In parallel, fundamental studies on natural circulation and corrosion behaviour of various molten salts have also been initiated.

  5. Steady state investigation on neutronics of a molten salt reactor considering the flow effect of fuel salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Da-Lin; QIU Sui-Zheng; LIU Chang-Liang; SU Guang-Hui

    2008-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR),one of the‘Generation Ⅳ'concepts,is a liquid-fuel reactor,which is different from the conventional reactors using solid fissile materials due to the flow effect of fuel salt.The study on its neutronice considering the fuel salt flow,which is the base of the thermal-hydraulic calculation and safety analysis,must be done.In this paper,the theoretical model on neutronics under steady condition for a single-liquid-fueled MSR is conducted and calculated by numerical method.The neutronics model consists of two group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes,and balance equations for six-group delayed neutron precursors considering the flow effect of fuel salt. The spatial discretization of the above models is based on the finite volume method,and the discretization equations are computed by the source iteration method.The distributions of neutron fluxes and the distributions of the delayed neutron precursors in the core are obtained.The numerical calculated results show that,the fuel salt flow has little effect on the distribution of fast and thermal neutron fluxes and the effective multiplication factor;however,it affects the distribution of the delayed neutron precursors significantly,especially the long-lived one.In addition,it could be found that the delayed neutron precursors influence the nentronics slightly under the steady condition.

  6. Development of structural materials to enable the electrochemical reduction of spent oxide nuclear fuel in a molten salt electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, J. M.; Cho, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Seo, C. S.; Park, S. W

    2006-02-15

    For the development of the advanced spent fuel management process based on the molten salt technology, it is essential to choose the optimum material for the process equipment handling a molten salt. In this study, corrosion behavior of Fe-base superalloy, Ni-base superalloy, non-metallic material and surface modified superalloy were investigated in the hot molten salt under oxidation atmosphere. These experimental data will suggest a guideline for the selection of corrosion resistant materials and help to find the operation criteria of each equipment in aspects of high temperature characteristics and corrosion retardation.

  7. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  8. Renewable energy and the role of molten salts and carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fray D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molten carbonate fuel cells have been under development for a number of years and reliable units are successfully working at 250kW scale and demonstration units have produced up to 2 MW. Although these cells cannot be considered as renewable as the fuel, hydrogen or carbon monoxide is consumed and not regenerated, the excellent reliability of such a cell can act as a stimulus to innovative development of similar cells with different outcomes. Molten salt electrolytes based upon LiCl - Li2O can be used to convert carbon dioxide, either drawn from the output of a conventional thermal power station or from the atmosphere, to carbon monoxide or carbon. Recently, dimensionally stable anodes have been developed for molten salt electrolytes, based upon alkali or alkaline ruthenates which are highly electronically conducting and these may allow the concept of high temperature batteries to be developed in which an alkali or alkaline earth element reacts with air to form oxides when the battery is discharging and the oxide decomposes when the battery is being recharged. Batteries using these concepts may be based upon the Hall-Heroult cell, which is used worldwide for the production of aluminium on an industrial scale, and could be used for load levelling. Lithium ion batteries are, at present, the preferred energy source for cars in 2050 as there are sufficient lithium reserves to satisfy the world’s energy needs for this particular application. Graphite is used in lithium ion batteries as the anode but the capacity is relatively low. Silicon and tin have much higher capacities and the use of these materials, encapsulated in carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles will be described. This paper will review these interesting developments and demonstrate that a combination of carbon and molten salts can offer novel ways of storing energy and converting carbon dioxide into useful products.

  9. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Study for Thermal Molten Salt Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidaud, Adrien; Ivanona, Tatiana; Mastrangelo, Victor; Kodeli, Ivo

    2006-04-01

    The Thermal Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) using the thorium cycle can achieve the GEN IV objectives of economy, safety, non-proliferation and durability. Its low production of higher actinides, coupled with its breeding capabilities - even with a thermal spectrum - are very valuable characteristics for an innovative reactor. Furthermore, the thorium cycle is more flexible than the uranium cycle since only a small fissile inventory (reactor. The potential of these reactors is currently being extensively studied at the CNRS and EdF /1,2/. A simplified chemical reprocessing is envisaged compared to that used for the former Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR). The MSBR concept was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1970's based on the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE). The main goals of our current studies are to achieve a reactor concept that enables breeding, improved safety and having chemical reprocessing needs reduced and simplified as much as reasonably possible. The neutronic properties of the new TMSR concept are presented in this paper. As the temperature coefficient is close to zero, we will see that the moderation ratio cannot be chosen to simultaneously achieve a high breeding ratio, long graphite lifetime and low uranium inventory. It is clear that any safety margin taken due to uncertainty in the nuclear data will significantly reduce the capability of this concept, thus a sensitivity analysis is vital to propose measurements which would allow to reduce at present high uncertainties in the design parameters of this reactor. Two methodologies, one based on OECD/NEA deterministic codes and one on IPPE (Obninsk) stochastic code, are compared for keff sensitivity analysis. The uncertainty analysis of keff using covariance matrices available in evaluated files has been performed. Furthermore, a comparison of temperature coefficient sensitivity profiles is presented for the most important reactions. These results are used to review the

  10. Castable Cement Can Prevent Molten-Salt Corrosion in CSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    NREL's study demonstrated that castable cements on metals are a protective barrier that can prevent permeation of molten salts toward metallic surfaces. The silica-based castable cement Aremco 645-N, when sprayed with boron nitride, can protect containment metallic alloys from attack by molten chlorides at high temperatures (650 degrees C) in short-term tests. Improved thermal energy storage technology could increase the performance of CSP and reduce costs, helping to reach the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative to make solar cost-competitive with other non-renewable sources of electricity by 2020.

  11. Helium-cooled molten-salt fusion breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Fulton, F.J.; Huegel, F.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Sherwood, A.E.; Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Wong, C.P.C.; Devan, J.H.

    1984-12-01

    We present a new conceptual design for a fusion reactor blanket that is intended to produce fissile material for fission power plants. Fast fission is suppressed by using beryllium instead of uranium to multiply neutrons. Thermal fission is suppressed by minimizing the fissile inventory. The molten-salt breeding medium (LiF + BeF/sub 2/ + ThF/sub 4/) is circulated through the blanket and to the on-line processing system where /sup 233/U and tritium are continuously removed. Helium cools the blanket and the austenitic steel tubes that contain the molten salt. Austenitic steel was chosen because of its ease of fabrication, adequate radiation-damage lifetime, and low corrosion by molten salt. We estimate that a breeder having 3000 MW of fusion power will produce 6500 kg of /sup 233/U per year. This amount is enough to provide makeup for 20 GWe of light-water reactors per year or twice that many high-temperature gas-cooled reactors or Canadian heavy-water reactors. Safety is enhanced because the afterheat is low and blanket materials do not react with air or water. The fusion breeder based on a pre-MARS tandem mirror is estimated to cost $4.9B or 2.35 times a light-water reactor of the same power. The estimated cost of the /sup 233/U produced is $40/g for fusion plants costing 2.35 times that of a light-water reactor if utility owned or $16/g if government owned.

  12. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Numerical simulation and experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer of molten salt around fine wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; YuanWei; LI; XiaoLi; LI; Qiang; WU; YuTing; MA; ChongFang

    2013-01-01

    In order to get the natural convection heat transfer mechanism of molten salt, the experimental investigation of natural convective heat transfer of LiNO3was studied after it was simulated by numerical calculation. Experiment was carried out on the nat-ural convection heat transfer of air and water around the fine wire using the method of Joule heating. The results showed that the natural convection heat transfer of air and water around the fine wire agreed well with Fand’s correlation. Based on the aforementioned experiment, the natural convection heat transfer of molten salt LiNO3was studied by experiment and the same results were got. Therefore, the natural convection heat transfer of molten salt can be calculated by Fand’s correlation, which takes into consideration the effect of viscosity dissipation.

  14. Recent development in electrolytic formation of carbon nanotubes in molten salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen G.Z.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the recent research development in the electrolytic production of carbon nano-tubes in molten salts. The experimental procedure and product morphologies of the electrolytic method are described in details. Different hypotheses of the carbon nano-tube formation mechanism in molten salts, particularly it relation with the erosion of the cathode, are compared and discussed. It is anticipated that the electrolytic method can potentially become a cheap and continuous process for the production of curved carbon nano-tubes, carbon sheathed metal nanowires and other carbon based nano-structures.

  15. Transient simulation of molten salt central receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doupis, Dimitri; Wang, Chuan; Carcorze-Soto, Jorge; Chen, Yen-Ming; Maggi, Andrea; Losito, Matteo; Clark, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing concentrated solar power (CSP) utilizing 60/40wt% NaNO3-KNO3 molten salt as the working fluid in a tower receiver for the global renewable energy market. In the CSP power generation cycle, receivers undergo a daily cyclic operation due to the transient nature of solar energy. Development of robust and efficient start-up and shut-down procedures is critical to avoiding component failures due to mechanical fatigue resulting from thermal transients, thus maintaining the performance and availability of the CSP plant. The Molten Salt Central Receiver (MSCR) is subject to thermal transients during normal daily operation, a cycle that includes warmup, filling, operation, draining, and shutdown. This paper describes a study to leverage dynamic simulation and finite element analysis (FEA) in development of start-up, shutdown, and transient operation concepts for the MSCR. The results of the FEA also verify the robustness of the MSCR design to the thermal transients anticipated during the operation of the plant.

  16. DESAIN KONSEP TANGKI PENAMPUNG BAHAN BAKAR PASSIVE COMPACT MOLTEN SALT REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hadiwinata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR merupakan pengembangan dari reaktor MSR. Desain reaktor PCMSR membutuhkan tempat khusus penampung sementara bahan bakar pada saat terjadi insiden, misalnya kecelakaan yang menyebabkan peningkatan suhu bahan bakar. Tangki penampung bahan bakar tersusun dari 3 bagian yang saling terhubung yaitu bagian penampung cairan bahan bakar, cerobong (chimney, dan penukar kalor. Dalam penelitian ini, tangki dimodelkan secara lump dan dilakukan variasi daya awal reaktor dan ketinggian cerobong. Syarat batas model ditetapkan suhu bahan bakar maksimum 1400 °C, yang didasarkan pada titik didih larutan garam LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4. Analisis dilakukan dengan cara menghitung rugi tekanan total dan transfer kalor untuk variasi daya awal antara 1800-3000 MWth dan ketinggian cerobong antara 1-10 m. Hasil penelitian menunjukan semakin besar daya reaktor, maka tinggi tangki penampung bahan bakar dan tinggi alat penukar kalor yang dibutuhkan akan semakin besar, tejadi kenaikan suhu fluida pendingin dan suhu udara pendingin, dan menyebabkan kenaikan laju aliran masa fluida pendingin, sedangkan laju aliran masa udara menurun. Peningkatan ketinggian cerobong menyebabkan ketinggian tangki penampung bahan bakar dan ketinggian alat penukar kalor semakin menurun, penurunan suhu fluida pendingin, tetapi suhu udara meningkat, dan menyebabkan peningkatan laju aliran masa fluida pendingin, tetapi laju aliran masa udara akan semakin menurun. Kata kunci: PCMSR, cerobong, alat penukar kalor, variasi daya.   The Passsive Compact Molten Salat Reactor (PCMSR reactor is developed from MSR reactor. The PCMSR reactor design requires special place to temporarily storage for reactor fuel when incident occurs, such as when there is an accident which caused the temperature of the fuel increases. The tank consist of three interconnected parts, the reservoir liquid fuel, chimney, and the heat exchanger. In this research, the tank system is modeled based on

  17. Molten salts database for energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano-López, Roberto; Cuesta-López, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    The growing interest in energy applications of molten salts is justified by several of their properties. Their possibilities of usage as a coolant, heat transfer fluid or heat storage substrate, require thermo-hydrodynamic refined calculations. Many researchers are using simulation techniques, such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for their projects or conceptual designs. The aim of this work is providing a review of basic properties (density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity) of the most common and referred salt mixtures. After checking data, tabulated and graphical outputs are given in order to offer the most suitable available values to be used as input parameters for other calculations or simulations. The reviewed values show a general scattering in characterization, mainly in thermal properties. This disagreement suggests that, in several cases, new studies must be started (and even new measurement techniques should be developed) to obtain accurate values.

  18. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  19. Energetic materials destruction using molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

    1994-04-29

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. LLNL has built a small-scale unit to test the destruction of HE using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process. In addition to the high explosive HMX, destruction has been carried out on RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine, and TATB. Also destroyed was a liquid gun propellant comprising hydroxyammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate and water. In addition to these pure components, destruction has been carried out on a number of commonly used formulations, such as LX-10, LX-16, LX-17, and PBX-9404.

  20. Modelisation of the SECMin molten salts environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, M.; Slim, C.; Delpech, S.; di Caprio, D.; Stafiej, J.

    2014-06-01

    We develop a cellular automata modelisation of SECM experiments to study corrosion in molten salt media for generation IV nuclear reactors. The electrodes used in these experiments are cylindrical glass tips with a coaxial metal wire inside. As the result of simulations we obtain the current approach curves of the electrodes with geometries characterized by several values of the ratios of glass to metal area at the tip. We compare these results with predictions of the known analytic expressions, solutions of partial differential equations for flat uniform geometry of the substrate. We present the results for other, more complicated substrate surface geometries e. g. regular saw modulated surface, surface obtained by Eden model process, ...

  1. Electrochemical studies on plutonium in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourges, G. [CEA-Centre d' etudes de Valduc, 21 120 Is sur Tille (France)], E-mail: gilles.bourges@cea.fr; Lambertin, D.; Rochefort, S. [CEA-Centre d' etudes de Valduc, 21 120 Is sur Tille (France); Delpech, S.; Picard, G. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique (UMR7575, CNRS), ENSCP, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France)

    2007-10-11

    Electrochemical studies on plutonium have been supporting the development of pyrochemical processes involving plutonium at CEA. The electrochemical properties of plutonium have been studied in molten salts - ternary eutectic mixture NaCl-KCl-BaCl{sub 2}, equimolar mixture NaCl-KCl and pure CaCl{sub 2} - and in liquid gallium at 1073 K. The formal, or apparent, standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu redox couple in eutectic mixture of NaCl-KCl-BaCl{sub 2} at 1073 K determined by potentiometry is equal to -2.56 V (versus Cl{sub 2}, 1 atm/Cl{sup -} reference electrode). In NaCl-KCl eutectic mixture and in pure CaCl{sub 2} the formal standard potentials deduced from cyclic voltammetry are respectively -2.54 V and -2.51 V. These potentials led to the calculation of the activity coefficients of Pu(III) in the molten salts. Chronoamperometry on plutonium in liquid gallium using molten chlorides - CaCl{sub 2} and equimolar NaCl/KCl - led to the determination of the activity coefficient of Pu in liquid Ga, log {gamma} = -7.3. This new data is a key parameter to assess the thermodynamic feasibility of a process using gallium as solvent metal. By comparing gallium with other solvent metals - cadmium, bismuth, aluminum - gallium appears to be, with aluminum, more favorable for the selectivity of the separation at 1073 K of plutonium from cerium. In fact, compared with a solid tungsten electrode, none of these solvent liquid metals is a real asset for the selectivity of the separation. The role of a solvent liquid metal is mainly to trap the elements.

  2. Molten salt reactors and the oil sands: odd couple or key to north american energy independence?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, D., E-mail: d_leblanc@rogers.com [Ottawa Valley Research Associates Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Quesada, M.; Popoff, C.; Way, D. [Penumbra Energy, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The use of nuclear power to aid oil sands development has often been proposed largely due to the virtual elimination of natural gas use and thus a large reduction in GHG emissions. Nuclear power can replace natural gas for process steam production (SAGD) and electricity generation but also potentially for hydrogen production to upgrade bitumen for pipeline transit, synthetic crude production and even at the final refinery stage. Prior candidates included CANDU and gas cooled Pebble Bed Reactors. The case for CANDU use can be shown to be marginally economic with a proven technology but with an uncertainty of current construction costs and too large a unit size (~2400 MWth). PBRs offered modest theoretical cost savings, smaller unit size and the ability to offer higher temperatures needed for thermochemical hydrogen production from water. Interest in PBRs however has greatly waned with the cancellation of their major South African development program which highlighted the severe challenges of helium as a coolant and TRISO fuel manufacturing. More recently, Small Modular Reactors based on scaled down light water reactor technology have attracted interest but are unlikely to compete economically outside of niche applications. However, a 'new' reactor option, the Molten Salt Reactor, has been rapidly gaining momentum over the past decade. This 'new' technology was actually developed over 50 years ago as a thorium breeder reactor to compete with the sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (U-Pu cycle). During this time two molten salt test reactors were constructed. A modern version however would likely be a simpler converter design using Low Enriched Uranium but needing only a small fraction the uranium resources of LWRs or CANDUs. Besides resource sustainability, these unique designs offer large potential improvements in the areas of capital costs, safety and nuclear waste. This presentation will explain the unique attributes and advantages of these

  3. Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneda, C. O., LLNL

    1996-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX (octogen). MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic materials waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a vessel containing molten salt (a eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium carbonates). The following pure explosives have been destroyed in our bench-scale experimental unit located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K- 6 (keto-RDX), NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following compositions were also destroyed: Comp B, LX- IO, LX- 1 6, LX- 17, PBX-9404, and XM46 (liquid gun propellant). In this 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NO{sub x} were found to be well below 1%. In addition to destroying explosive powders and compositions we have also destroyed materials that are typical of residues which result from explosives operations. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic-bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the process data obtained on the bench-scale unit we designed and constructed a next-generation 5 kg/hr pilot-scale unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. The pilot unit has completed process implementation operations and explosives safety reviews. To date, in this

  4. Three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled simulation of MSR in steady state condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianjun; Wang, Chenglong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); An, Hongzhen [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100082 (China); Zhang, Daling, E-mail: dlzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui; Tian, Wenxi; Wu, Yingwei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Developed a three dimensional coupled code for MSR. • Investigated the neutron distribution and thermal-hydraulic characters of the core under steady state condition. • Analyzed the influence of inlet temperature and inlet velocity to thermal-hydraulics characteristics of the reactor. - Abstract: MSR (molten salt reactor) uses liquid molten salt as the coolant and fuel solvent, making it the only liquid reactor among the six generation IV reactor types. As a liquid reactor the physical properties of the reactor are significantly influenced by the fuel salt flow therefore conventional analysis methods applied in solid fuel reactors are not applicable for this type of reactors. The present work developed a three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled code and applied it to investigate the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the core in steady state condition based on neutron diffusion theory and numerical heat transfer. The code consists of two group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes and six group balance equations for delayed neutron precursors. The temperature distribution, neutron fluxes and delayed neutron precursors distribution of the core in steady state conditions was studied, and the result analyzed when inlet temperature and velocity were changed. From simulation it was found that the inlet temperature has little influence to neutron distribution however inlet velocity affects the delayed neutron distribution in steady state condition. The results provide some valuable information in design and research of this kind of reactor.

  5. Three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled simulation of MSR in transient state condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianjun [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xianning Road, 28, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); College of Mechanical and Power Engineering, China Three Gorges University, No 8, Daxue road, Yichang, Hubei 443002 (China); Zhang, Daling, E-mail: dlzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xianning Road, 28, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui; Tian, Wenxi; Wu, Yingwei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xianning Road, 28, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Developed a three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled transient analysis code for MSR. • Investigated the neutron distribution and thermal-hydraulic characters of the core under transient condition. • Analyzed three different transient conditions of inlet temperature drop, reactivity jump and pump coastdown. - Abstract: MSR (molten salt reactor) use liquid molten salt as coolant and fuel solvent, which was the only one liquid reactor of six Generation IV reactor types. As a liquid reactor the physical property of reactor was significantly influenced by fuel salt flow and the conventional analysis methods applied in solid fuel reactors are not applicable for this type of reactors. The present work developed a three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled code investigated the neutronics and thermo-hydraulics characteristics of the core in transient condition based on neutron diffusion theory and numerical heat transfer. The code consists of two group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes and six group balance equations for delayed neutron precursors. The code was separately validated by neutron benchmark and flow and heat transfer benchmark. Three different transient conditions was analyzed with inlet temperature drop, reactivity jump and pump coastdown. The results provide some valuable information in design and research this kind of reactor.

  6. A Novel Modeling of Molten-Salt Heat Storage Systems in Thermal Solar Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Peón Menéndez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many thermal solar power plants use thermal oil as heat transfer fluid, and molten salts as thermal energy storage. Oil absorbs energy from sun light, and transfers it to a water-steam cycle across heat exchangers, to be converted into electric energy by means of a turbogenerator, or to be stored in a thermal energy storage system so that it can be later transferred to the water-steam cycle. The complexity of these thermal solar plants is rather high, as they combine traditional engineering used in power stations (water-steam cycle or petrochemical (oil piping, with the new solar (parabolic trough collector and heat storage (molten salts technologies. With the engineering of these plants being relatively new, regulation of the thermal energy storage system is currently achieved in manual or semiautomatic ways, controlling its variables with proportional-integral-derivative (PID regulators. This makes the overall performance of these plants non optimal. This work focuses on energy storage systems based on molten salt, and defines a complete model of the process. By defining such a model, the ground for future research into optimal control methods will be established. The accuracy of the model will be determined by comparing the results it provides and those measured in the molten-salt heat storage system of an actual power plant.

  7. Control strategies in a thermal oil - Molten salt heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Lidia; Bonilla, Javier; Rodríguez-García, Margarita M.; Palenzuela, Patricia; de la Calle, Alberto; Valenzuela, Loreto

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a preliminary control scheme for a molten salt - thermal oil heat exchanger. This controller regulates the molten salt mass flow rate to reach and maintain the desired thermal oil temperature at the outlet of the heat exchanger. The controller architecture has been tested using an object-oriented heat exchanger model that has been validated with data from a molten salt testing facility located at CIEMAT-PSA. Different simulations are presented with three different goals: i) to analyze the controller response in the presence of disturbances, ii) to demonstrate the benefits of designing a setpoint generator and iii) to show the controller potential against electricity price variations.

  8. Apparatus and method for stripping tritium from molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David E.; Wilson, Dane F.

    2017-02-07

    A method of stripping tritium from flowing stream of molten salt includes providing a tritium-separating membrane structure having a porous support, a nanoporous structural metal-ion diffusion barrier layer, and a gas-tight, nonporous palladium-bearing separative layer, directing the flowing stream of molten salt into contact with the palladium-bearing layer so that tritium contained within the molten salt is transported through the tritium-separating membrane structure, and contacting a sweep gas with the porous support for collecting the tritium.

  9. Transient analysis of a molten salt central receiver (MSCR) in a solar power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, A.; Wang, C.; Akinjiola, O.; Lou, X.; Neuschaefer, C.; Quinn, J.

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing solar power tower plants utilizing molten salt as the working fluid. In solar power tower, the molten salt central receiver (MSCR) atop of the tower is constructed of banks of tubes arranged in panels creating a heat transfer surface exposed to the solar irradiation from the heliostat field. The molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF), in this case 60/40%wt NaNO3-KNO3, flows in serpentine flow through the surface collecting sensible heat thus raising the HTF temperature from 290°C to 565°C. The hot molten salt is stored and dispatched to produce superheated steam in a steam generator, which in turn produces electricity in the steam turbine generator. The MSCR based power plant with a thermal energy storage system (TESS) is a fully dispatchable renewable power plant with a number of opportunities for operational and economic optimization. This paper presents operation and controls challenges to the MSCR and the overall power plant, and the use of dynamic model computer simulation based transient analyses applied to molten salt based solar thermal power plant. This study presents the evaluation of the current MSCR design, using a dynamic model, with emphasis on severe events affecting critical process response, such as MS temperature deviations, and recommend MSCR control design improvements based on the results. Cloud events are the scope of the transient analysis presented in this paper. The paper presents results from a comparative study to examine impacts or effects on key process variables related to controls and operation of the MSCR plant.

  10. An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattrick Calderoni

    2010-09-01

    Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R&D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part of the

  11. Study of the pyrochemical treatment-recycling process of the Molten Salt Reactor fuel; Estudio de sistema de un proceso de tratamiento-reciclaje piroquimico del combustible de un reactor de sales fundidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussier, H.; Heuer, D.

    2010-07-01

    The Separation Processes Studies Laboratory (Commissariat a l'energie Atomique) has made a preliminary assessment of the reprocessing system associated with Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). The scheme studied in this paper is based on the principle of reductive extraction and metal transfer that constituted the core process designed for the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR), although the flow diagram has been adapted to the current needs of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR).

  12. System Requirements Document for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, R.D.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the conversion process is to convert the {sup 233}U fluoride compounds that are being extracted from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) equipment to a stable oxide for long-term storage at Bldg. 3019.

  13. Segregation of Molten Salt on Chromizing in Thermal Diffusion Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongfu; WANG Junyuan; WANG Huachang

    2011-01-01

    The segregation of thermal diffusion salt bath chromizing process was analyzed.The experimental chromizing ingredients were prepared by the four groups A,B,C,and D.In order to study the segregation status of this case,the cooling molten salt in the crucible was removed by drilling from the heart core of molten salt.The core of molten salt was analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and XRD.Through the analysis,we can conclude that the Cr element deposited in the bottom was 4.51 times than the top.Chloride added to the molten salt will reduce segregation.Meantime we proposed some measures to overcome the segregation problem.

  14. Minimizing the fissile inventory of the molten salt fast reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Heuer, D.; Allibert, M.; Doligez, X.; Ghetta, V.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Molten salt reactors in the configurations presented here, called Molten Salt Fast Reactors (MSFR), have been selected for further studies by the Generation IV International Forum. These reactors may be operated in simplified and safe conditions in the Th/233U fuel cycle with fluoride salts. We present here the concept, before focusing on a possible optimization in term of minimization of the initial fissile inventory. Our studies demonstrate that an inventory of 233U ...

  15. Analysis of fluid fuel flow to the neutron kinetics on molten salt reactor FUJI-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro, E-mail: indartaaji@s.itb.ac.id [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Waris, Abdul, E-mail: awaris@fi.itb.ac.id; Permana, Sidik [Nuclear Physics & Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Molten Salt Reactor is a reactor are operating with molten salt fuel flowing. This condition interpret that the neutron kinetics of this reactor is affected by the flow rate of the fuel. This research analyze effect by the alteration velocity of the fuel by MSR type Fuji-12, with fuel composition LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ThF{sub 4}-{sup 233}UF{sub 4} respectively 71.78%-16%-11.86%-0.36%. Calculation process in this study is performed numerically by SOR and finite difference method use C programming language. Data of reactivity, neutron flux, and the macroscopic fission cross section for calculation process obtain from SRAC-CITATION (Standard thermal Reactor Analysis Code) and JENDL-4.0 data library. SRAC system designed and developed by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). This study aims to observe the effect of the velocity of fuel salt to the power generated from neutron precursors at fourth year of reactor operate (last critical condition) with number of multiplication effective; 1.0155.

  16. Analysis of fluid fuel flow to the neutron kinetics on molten salt reactor FUJI-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2015-09-01

    Molten Salt Reactor is a reactor are operating with molten salt fuel flowing. This condition interpret that the neutron kinetics of this reactor is affected by the flow rate of the fuel. This research analyze effect by the alteration velocity of the fuel by MSR type Fuji-12, with fuel composition LiF-BeF2-ThF4-233UF4 respectively 71.78%-16%-11.86%-0.36%. Calculation process in this study is performed numerically by SOR and finite difference method use C programming language. Data of reactivity, neutron flux, and the macroscopic fission cross section for calculation process obtain from SRAC-CITATION (Standard thermal Reactor Analysis Code) and JENDL-4.0 data library. SRAC system designed and developed by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). This study aims to observe the effect of the velocity of fuel salt to the power generated from neutron precursors at fourth year of reactor operate (last critical condition) with number of multiplication effective; 1.0155.

  17. Coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and safety characteristics of liquid-fueled molten salt reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Dalin; Liu, Minghao; Liu, Limin; Xu, Rongshuan; Gong, Cheng; Su, Guanghui [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering

    2016-05-15

    Molten salt reactor (MSR) as one candidate of the Generation IV advanced nuclear power systems is attracted more attention in China due to its top ranked fuel cycle and thorium utilization. The MSRs are characterized by using liquid-fuel, which offers complicated coupling problem of neutronics and thermal hydraulics. In this paper, the fundamental model and numerical method are established to calculate and analyze the safety characteristics for liquid-fuel MSRs. The theories and methodologies are applied to the MOSART concept. The liquid-fuel flow effects on neutronics, reactivity coefficients and three operation parameters' influences at steady state are obtained, which provide the basic information for safety analysis. The unprotected loss of flow transient is calculated, the results of which shows the inherent safety characteristics of MOSART due to its strong negative reactivity feedbacks.

  18. 钍基熔盐堆核能系统%Thorium molten salt reactor nuclear energy system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡翔舟; 戴志敏; 徐洪杰

    2016-01-01

    裂变核能是保障能源增长需求和促进节能减排的重要手段。钍基核能具有中子增殖性能好、产生高放废料少和储量丰富等特点;熔盐堆作为第四代先进反应堆的6个候选堆之一,具有钍高效利用、高温制氢、无水冷却、适合小型模块化设计等优势和潜力。发展钍基熔盐堆,对中国的核能战略发展具有重要意义,将会有助于解决中国的能源和环境双重挑战。2011年1月,中国科学院启动战略性先导科技专项——钍基熔盐堆核能系统(TMSR),采取液态熔盐堆和固态熔盐堆两种堆型研发同时部署和相继发展的技术路线,致力于实现基于熔盐堆的钍资源高效利用和核能综合利用,为我国核能发展赢得先机。%Nuclear fission energy has incomparable advantages in satisfying our ever grow-ing need for energy and environmental protection. The importance of thorium-based nuclear fuel has become increasingly prominent because of its excellent breeding capability in both thermal and fast reactors, lesser long-lived minor actinides resulting from fission, and abundant reserves of tho-rium. One of the six IVth-generation reactor candidates, the molten salt reactor (MSR), has charac-teristics including high thorium energy conversion, hydrogen production at high temperature, wa-ter-free cooling, and small modular design. These properties make MSRs one of the best approach-es to solve the energy and environment issues of China. In January 2011 the Chinese Academy of Sciences launched the“Thorium molten salt reactor nuclear energy system”project of the Strategic Priority Program, which will develop both liquid and solid fuel MSR. It will aim to realize effective thorium energy utilization and comprehensive utilization of nuclear energy in twenty to thirty years. Research has already commenced and achieved some results in key technologies. Although there are still several challenges for Th-U fuel cycle

  19. Study of trans-uranian incineration in molten salt reactor; Etude de l'incineration des transuraniens en reacteur a sel fondu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valade, M

    2000-10-27

    With the emergence of new options for nuclear power, molten salt reactors are envisaged for waste management. The aim of this thesis is to show how molten salt reactors can help to solve the transuranics issue. Their high versatility regarding to isotopic vector allows to accommodate large fractions of minor actinides as compared to solid fuel system. In this thesis, a neutronics study of molten salt reactors, MSR, has been conducted. For this purpose, two reference systems were considered, TIER1 and AMSTER. In the case of TIER1, an optimisation was made to reach an equilibrium. The analysis of both systems showed the main characteristics of MSR: their link to chemistry and on line reprocessing. In this work, several methods to drive the system to a state of equilibrium have been implemented and compared. During this process the isotopic composition and neutron spectrum, thus the nuclear reaction cross sections, vary tremendously. It is essential to take these evolutions into account in order to accurately estimate the equilibrium state. This has been accomplished inside the multi-recycling procedure we set with ERANOS. A dedicated calculation schema has been realized to simulate superthermal systems with this computation code. These results were checked through a benchmark against other computer codes. Then, with multi-recycling method, several molten salt systems have been compared in order to define the optimal reactor for transuranics incineration. Nevertheless, a final choice can not only be done using only neutronics characteristics since chemistry and thermal-hydraulics constraints are really important for MSR. Moreover, a complete safety study would be required. (author)

  20. Molten Salt: Concept Definition and Capital Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, Larry [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Andrew, Daniel [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Adams, Shannon [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Galluzzo, Geoff [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Renewable Power (ORP) has been tasked to provide effective program management and strategic direction for all of the DOE’s Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy’s (EERE’s) renewable power programs. The ORP’s efforts to accomplish this mission are aligned with national energy policies, DOE strategic planning, EERE’s strategic planning, Congressional appropriation, and stakeholder advice. ORP is supported by three renewable energy offices, of which one is the Solar Energy Technology Office (SETO) whose SunShot Initiative has a mission to accelerate research, development and large scale deployment of solar technologies in the United States. SETO has a goal of reducing the cost of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) by 75 percent of 2010 costs by 2020 to reach parity with base-load energy rates, and to reduce costs 30 percent further by 2030. The SunShot Initiative is promoting the implementation of high temperature CSP with thermal energy storage allowing generation during high demand hours. The SunShot Initiative has funded significant research and development work on component testing, with attention to high temperature molten salts, heliostats, receiver designs, and high efficiency high temperature supercritical CO2 (sCO2) cycles. DOE retained Black & Veatch to support SETO’s SunShot Initiative for CSP solar power tower technology in the following areas: 1. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of a flexible test facility to be used to test and prove components in part to support financing. 2. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of an integrated high temperature molten salt (MS) facility with thermal energy storage and with a supercritical CO2 cycle generating approximately 10MWe. 3. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of an integrated high temperature falling particle facility with thermal energy storage and with a supercritical CO2

  1. Molten-Salt Batteries for Medium and Large-Scale Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, Zhenguo (Gary)

    2014-12-01

    This chapter discusses two types of molten salt batteries. Both of them are based on a beta-alumina solid electrolyte and molten sodium anode, i.e., sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries. The chapter first reviews the basic electrochemistries and materials for various battery components. It then describes the performance of state-of-the-art batteries and future direction in material development for these batteries.

  2. Preparation and characterizations of heat storage material combining porous metal with molten salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 何方; 戴永年; 胡建杭

    2003-01-01

    A new type of heat storage materials combining high temperature molten salts phases change latent heat thermal storage materials, PCM with porous metals sensible heat thermal storage materials was developed. The process was expressed as following: firstly, it is necessary to heat up the molten salts phases change materials to molten; and then the porous metals are put into the molten bath; after being held for 1-3 h, the composite heat thermal storage materials lumps are taken out of the molten bath and cooled to atmospheric temperature; the last step is to electrodeposit a layer metal coat on the surface of the material lumps. The new type of heat storage material integrates the advantages of both solid sensible heat thermal storage materials and high temperature phases change latent heat thermal storage materials. The metal-base heat storage materials enjoy some favorable characteristics such as higher heat charge-discharge rate, higher heat storage density and better mechanical strength.

  3. 球床型固体燃料熔盐堆计算软件开发%Software Development for Pebble-bed MSR Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄坤; 曹良志; 吴宏春; 郑友琦

    2013-01-01

    Molten salt reactor (MSR ) , the unique liquid fuel reactor in the fourth generation nuclear power system , has great advantages in terms of inherent safety , neutron economy ,nuclear non-proliferation ,nuclear waste transmutation and thorium fuel breeding ,compared with other solid fuel reactors .At present ,there are two main types of molten salt reactor in domestic:Hexagonal assembly MSR and pebble-bed MSR .In this paper , the pebble-bed MSR fuel sphere homogenization method was studied with double heterogeneity characteristics taken into consideration ,and the core fuel management code BORAGE was developed based on SIXTUS 3-D hexagonal node diffusion code . Numerical results suggest that the developed code achieves good accuracy ,efficiency and can be used in MSR steady analytical calculation .%熔盐堆是第四代核能系统中唯一的液体燃料反应堆,在安全性、经济性、核不扩散、核废料嬗变和钍燃料增殖特性方面与其他反应堆相比具有很大的优势。目前国内的熔盐堆主要有两种堆型:液态燃料熔盐堆和球床式固体燃料熔盐堆。本文考虑到球床熔盐堆燃料球的双重非均匀性特点研究了其组件均匀化方法。基于SISXTUS三维六角形节块程序开发了堆芯燃料管理程序BORAGE ,并进行了数值验证。验证结果表明,本文所开发的程序具有很好的精度和效率,可用于熔盐堆稳态计算。

  4. The electrochemical reduction processes of solid compounds in high temperature molten salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Wang, Dihua

    2014-05-21

    Solid electrode processes fall in the central focus of electrochemistry due to their broad-based applications in electrochemical energy storage/conversion devices, sensors and electrochemical preparation. The electrolytic production of metals, alloys, semiconductors and oxides via the electrochemical reduction of solid compounds (especially solid oxides) in high temperature molten salts has been well demonstrated to be an effective and environmentally friendly process for refractory metal extraction, functional materials preparation as well as spent fuel reprocessing. The (electro)chemical reduction of solid compounds under cathodic polarizations generally accompanies a variety of changes at the cathode/melt electrochemical interface which result in diverse electrolytic products with different compositions, morphologies and microstructures. This report summarizes various (electro)chemical reactions taking place at the compound cathode/melt interface during the electrochemical reduction of solid compounds in molten salts, which mainly include: (1) the direct electro-deoxidation of solid oxides; (2) the deposition of the active metal together with the electrochemical reduction of solid oxides; (3) the electro-inclusion of cations from molten salts; (4) the dissolution-electrodeposition process, and (5) the electron hopping process and carbon deposition with the utilization of carbon-based anodes. The implications of the forenamed cathodic reactions on the energy efficiency, chemical compositions and microstructures of the electrolytic products are also discussed. We hope that a comprehensive understanding of the cathodic processes during the electrochemical reduction of solid compounds in molten salts could form a basis for developing a clean, energy efficient and affordable production process for advanced/engineering materials.

  5. Nuclear Hybrid energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Sabharwall, P.; Yoon, S. J.; Bragg-Sitton, S. B.; Stoot, C.

    2014-07-01

    Without growing concerns in reliable energy supply, the next generation in reliable power generation via hybrid energy systems is being developed. A hybrid energy system incorporates multiple energy input source sand multiple energy outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these combined systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilization because stored excess energy is used later to meet peak energy demands. With high thermal energy production the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct thermal properties. This paper discusses the criteria for efficient energy storage and molten salt energy storage system options for hybrid systems. (Author)

  6. LIFE Materails: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R; Brown, N; Caro, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Kaufman, L; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Powers, J; Shaw, H; Turchi, P

    2008-12-11

    The goals of the Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) is to use fusion neutrons to fission materials with no enrichment and minimum processing and have greatly reduced wastes that are not of interest to making weapons. Fusion yields expected to be achieved in NIF a few times per day are called for with a high reliable shot rate of about 15 per second. We have found that the version of LIFE using TRISO fuel discussed in other volumes of this series can be modified by replacing the molten-flibe-cooled TRISO fuel zone with a molten salt in which the same actinides present in the TRISO particles are dissolved in the molten salt. Molten salts have the advantage that they are not subject to radiation damage, and hence overcome the radiation damage effects that may limit the lifetime of solid fuels such as TRISO-containing pebbles. This molten salt is pumped through the LIFE blanket, out to a heat exchanger and back into the blanket. To mitigate corrosion, steel structures in contact with the molten salt would be plated with tungsten or nickel. The salt will be processed during operation to remove certain fission products (volatile and noble and semi-noble fission products), impurities and corrosion products. In this way neutron absorbers (fission products) are removed and neutronics performance of the molten salt is somewhat better than that of the TRISO fuel case owing to the reduced parasitic absorption. In addition, the production of Pu and rare-earth elements (REE) causes these elements to build up in the salt, and leads to a requirement for a process to remove the REE during operation to insure that the solubility of a mixed (Pu,REE)F3 solid solution is not exceeded anywhere in the molten salt system. Removal of the REE will further enhance the neutronics performance. With molten salt fuels, the plant would need to be safeguarded because materials of interest for weapons are produced and could potentially be removed.

  7. A Possible Regenerative, Molten-Salt, Thermoelectric Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jacob; Thaller, Lawrence H.; Weber, Donald E.

    1964-01-01

    Molten or fused salts have been evaluated as possible thermoelectric materials because of the relatively good values of their figures of merit, their chemical stability, their long liquid range, and their ability to operate in conjunction with a nuclear reactor to produce heat. In general, molten salts are electrolytic conductors; therefore, there will be a transport of materials and subsequent decomposition with the passage of an electric current. It is possible nonetheless to overcome this disadvantage by using the decomposition products of the molten-salt electrolyte in a fuel cell. The combination of a thermoelectric converter and a fuel cell would lead to a regenerative system that may be useful.

  8. Renewing Liquid Fueled Molten Salt Reactor Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towell, Rusty; NEXT Lab Team

    2016-09-01

    Globally there is a desperate need for affordable, safe, and clean energy on demand. More than anything else, this would raise the living conditions of those in poverty around the world. An advanced reactor that utilizes liquid fuel and molten salts is capable of meeting these needs. Although, this technology was demonstrated in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL in the 60's, little progress has been made since the program was cancelled over 40 years ago. A new research effort has been initiated to advance the technical readiness level of key reactor components. This presentation will explain the motivation and initial steps for this new research initiative.

  9. Gasification characteristics of organic waste by molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Kimihiko; Minami, Keishi; Yamauchi, Makoto; Morimitsu, Shinsuke; Tanimoto, Kazumi

    Recently, along with the growth in economic development, there has been a dramatic accompanying increase in the amount of sludge and organic waste. The disposal of such is a significant problem. Moreover, there is also an increased in the consumption of electricity along with economic growth. Although new energy development, such as fuel cells, has been promoted to solve the problem of power consumption, there has been little corresponding promotion relating to the disposal of sludge and organic waste. Generally, methane fermentation comprises the primary organic waste fuel used in gasification systems. However, the methane fermentation method takes a long time to obtain the fuel gas, and the quality of the obtained gas is unstable. On the other hand, gasification by molten salt is undesirable because the molten salt in the gasification gas corrodes the piping and turbine blades. Therefore, a gasification system is proposed by which the sludge and organic waste are gasified by molten salt. Moreover, molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are needed to refill the MCFC electrolyte volatilized in the operation. Since the gasification gas is used as an MCFC fuel, MCFC electrolyte can be provided with the fuel gas. This paper elucidates the fundamental characteristics of sludge and organic waste gasification. A crucible filled with the molten salt comprising 62 Li 2CO 3/38 K 2CO 3, is installed in the reaction vessel, and can be set to an arbitrary temperature in a gas atmosphere. In this instance, the gasifying agent gas is CO 2. Sludge or the rice is supplied as organic waste into the molten salt, and is gasified. The chemical composition of the gasification gas is analyzed by a CO/CO 2 meter, a HC meter, and a SO x meter gas chromatography. As a result, although sludge can generate CO and H 2 near the chemical equilibrium value, all of the sulfur in the sludge is not fixed in the molten salt, because the sludge floats on the surface of the carbonate by the specific

  10. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  11. Assessment Of Usability Of Molten Salt Mixtures In Metallurgy Of Aluminum Alloys And Recycling Of Composite Materials Based On The Matrix Of Al Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackowski J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of the slags used in metallurgy of aluminum alloys and in recycling of composite materials containing these alloys depends on their surface properties at the phase boundaries they are in contact with. An index of surface properties of molten mixtures of slag-forming salts has been formulated. Its calculated values are compared with measured results of surface tension (liquid – atmosphere and interfacial tension (liquid – liquid in the considered systems. It was found that the index can be helpful for purposes of proper choice of the mixtures of slag-forming salts used both in Al alloys metallurgy and in recycling of composite materials based on the matrix of Al alloys.

  12. Castable cements to prevent corrosion of metals in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Vidal, J. C.; Morton, E.

    2016-08-01

    Castable cements on metals form a protective barrier that is able to prevent permeation of molten salts towards metallic surfaces. Silica-based castable cements are capable of protecting containment metallic alloys from the corrosive attack of molten chlorides at temperatures as high as 650 degrees C. Boron nitride (BN) blocking the pores in the cured cement prevents permeation of the molten chloride towards the metal surface. The cements tested are not chemically stable in molten carbonates, because the bonding components dissolved into molten carbonates salt. The corrosion rate is 7.72+/-0.32 mm/year for bare stainless steel 347 in molten eutectic NaCl - 65.58 wt% LiCl at 650 degrees C, which is the baseline used for determining how well the cement protects the metallic surfaces from corrosion. In particular the metal fully encapsulated with Aremco 645-N with pores filled with boron nitride immersed in molten eutectic NaCl - 65.58 wt% LiCl at 650 degrees C shows a corrosion rate of 9E-04 mm/year. The present study gives initial corrosion rates. Long-term tests are required to determine if Aremco 645-N with BN coating on metal has long term chemical stability for blocking salt permeation through coating pores.

  13. An evaluation of possible next-generation high temperature molten-salt power towers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, Gregory J.

    2011-12-01

    Since completion of the Solar Two molten-salt power tower demonstration in 1999, the solar industry has been developing initial commercial-scale projects that are 3 to 14 times larger. Like Solar Two, these initial plants will power subcritical steam-Rankine cycles using molten salt with a temperature of 565 C. The main question explored in this study is whether there is significant economic benefit to develop future molten-salt plants that operate at a higher receiver outlet temperature. Higher temperatures would allow the use of supercritical steam cycles that achieve an improved efficiency relative to today's subcritical cycle ({approx}50% versus {approx}42%). The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of a 565 C subcritical baseline plant was compared with possible future-generation plants that operate at 600 or 650 C. The analysis suggests that {approx}8% reduction in LCOE can be expected by raising salt temperature to 650 C. However, most of that benefit can be achieved by raising the temperature to only 600 C. Several other important insights regarding possible next-generation power towers were also drawn: (1) the evaluation of receiver-tube materials that are capable of higher fluxes and temperatures, (2) suggested plant reliability improvements based on a detailed evaluation of the Solar Two experience, and (3) a thorough evaluation of analysis uncertainties.

  14. Sorbitol dehydration into isosorbide in a molten salt hydrate medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Spina, A.; Moulijn, J.A.; Makkee, M.

    2013-01-01

    The sorbitol conversion in a molten salt hydrate medium (ZnCl2; 70 wt% in water) was studied. Dehydration is the main reaction, initially 1,4- and 3,6-anhydrosorbitol are the main products that are subsequently converted into isosorbide; two other anhydrohexitols, (1,5- and 2,5-), formed are in less

  15. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heslop, M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (United States). Indian Head Div.; Wernly, K. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp. (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  16. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  17. CO2 decomposition using electrochemical process in molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Koya; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2012-08-01

    The electrochemical decomposition of CO2 gas to carbon and oxygen gas in LiCl-Li2O and CaCl2-CaO molten salts was studied. This process consists of electrochemical reduction of Li2O and CaO, as well as the thermal reduction of CO2 gas by the respective metallic Li and Ca. Two kinds of ZrO2 solid electrolytes were tested as an oxygen ion conductor, and the electrolytes removed oxygen ions from the molten salts to the outside of the reactor. After electrolysis in both salts, the aggregations of nanometer-scale amorphous carbon and rod-like graphite crystals were observed by transmission electron microscopy. When 9.7 %CO2-Ar mixed gas was blown into LiCl-Li2O and CaCl2-CaO molten salts, the current efficiency was evaluated to be 89.7 % and 78.5 %, respectively, by the exhaust gas analysis and the supplied charge. When a solid electrolyte with higher ionic conductivity was used, the current and carbon production became larger. It was found that the rate determining step is the diffusion of oxygen ions into the ZrO2 solid electrolyte.

  18. Advances in electroanalysis, sensing and monitoring in molten salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Damion K; Elliott, Justin P; Blair, Ewen O; Reeves, Simon J; Schmüser, Ilka; Walton, Anthony J; Mount, Andrew R

    2016-08-15

    Microelectrodes have a number of advantages over macroelectrodes for quantitative electroanalysis and monitoring, including reduced iR drop, a high signal-to-noise ratio and reduced sensitivity to convection. Their use in molten salts has been generally precluded by the combined materials challenges of stresses associated with thermal cycling and physical and corrosive chemical degradation at the relatively high temperatures involved. We have shown that microfabrication, employing high precision photolithographic patterning in combination with the controlled deposition of materials, can be used to successfully address these challenges. The resulting molten salt compatible microelectrodes (MSMs) enable prolonged quantitative microelectrode measurements in molten salts (MSs). This paper reports the fabrication of novel MSM disc electrodes, chosen because they have an established ambient analytical response. It includes a detailed set of electrochemical characterisation studies which demonstrate both their enhanced capability over macroelectrodes and over commercial glass pulled microelectrodes, and their ability to extract quantitative electroanalytical information from MS systems. MSM measurements are then used to demonstrate their potential for shedding new light on the fundamental properties of, and processes in, MSs, such as mass transport, charge transfer reaction rates and the selective plating/stripping and alloying reactions of liquid Bi and other metals; this will underpin the development of enhanced MS industrial processes, including pyrochemical spent nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  19. Molten Salts for High Temperature Reactors: University of Wisconsin Molten Salt Corrosion and Flow Loop Experiments -- Issues Identified and Path Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Matt Ebner; Manohar Sohal; Phil Sharpe; Thermal Hydraulics Group

    2010-03-01

    Considerable amount of work is going on regarding the development of high temperature liquid salts technology to meet future process needs of Next Generation Nuclear Plant. This report identifies the important characteristics and concerns of high temperature molten salts (with lesson learned at University of Wisconsin-Madison, Molten Salt Program) and provides some possible recommendation for future work

  20. Thermo-mechanical and optical optimization of the molten salt receiver for a given heliostat field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augsburger, Germain; Das, Apurba K.; Boschek, Erik; Clark, Michael M.

    2016-05-01

    The tower type molten salt solar thermal power plant has proven to be advantageous over other utility scale solar power plant configurations due to its scalability and provision of storage, thereby improving the dispatchability. The configuration consists of a molten salt central receiver (MSCR) located atop an optimally located tower within a heliostat field with thousands of mirrors. The MSCR receives the concentrated energy from the heliostat field which heats a molten salt heat transfer fluid for thermal storage and utilization in producing steam as and when required for power generation. The MSCR heat transfer surface consists of banks of tangent tubes arranged in panels. The combined cost of the heliostat field and the receiver is 40%-50% of the total plant cost, which calls for optimization to maximize their utilization. Several previous studies have looked into the optimum solar power plant size based on various site conditions. However, the combined optimization of the receiver and the heliostat field has not been reported before. This study looks into the optimum configuration of the receiver for a given heliostat field. An in-house tool has been developed to select and rank a few receiver surface configurations (typically <50) from a list of hundreds of thousands of possible options. The operating limits which the heliostat field needs to obey are defined for the ranked surface configurations based on several different design considerations (e.g. mechanical integrity, corrosion limits). The thermal output of the receiver configurations for a given heliostat field is maximized. A combined rank indicating the optimum configurations in descending order of preference is presented based on the performance and various other practical considerations (e.g. total surface area, cost of material, ability of aiming strategies to distribute the flux). The methodology thus provided can be used as a guideline to arrive at an optimum receiver configuration for a given

  1. Two Fluid Design Improvement of Molten Salt Reactors%熔盐堆的双流设计改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩东; 王文林

    2011-01-01

    熔盐堆(MSR)是六种第四代反应堆中唯一的液体燃料反应堆,在很多方面具有其它反应堆无法比拟的优点.相对于传统的单流熔盐堆设计,一个重大的有前途的变化就是回归到了橡树岭实验室曾经为绝大多数熔盐堆而提出双流设计模型,通过对反应堆活性区设计的改进,解决所谓的“管道问题”,使熔盐堆双流设计的各种优势得以实现.%The molten salt reactor (MSR) is the only liquid fuels reactor in the six candidates of the Gen-eration IV advanced nuclear reactor, which is characterized by remarkable advantages in many ways. A major potential change to the traditional Single Fluid, MSBR design and a subject of this presentation is a return to the mode of operation that ORNL proposed for the majority of its MSR program - the Two Fluid design. Through the improvement of core, this article aims to solve so -called "plumbing problem" and to enable the many advantages of the Two Fluid design.

  2. Recent advances in the molten salt technology for the destruction of energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-11-01

    The DOE has thousands of pounds of energetic materials which result from dismantlement operations at the Pantex Plant. The authors have demonstrated the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for the treatment of explosives and explosive-containing wastes on a 1.5 kilogram of explosive per hour scale and are currently building a 5 kilogram per hour unit. MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as binders and metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic material waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a crucible containing a molten salt, in this case a eutectic mixture of Na, K, and Li carbonates. The following pure component DOE and DoD explosives have been destroyed in LLNL`s experimental unit at their High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K-6, NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following formulations were also destroyed: Comp B, LX-10, LX-16, LX-17, PBX-9404, and XM46, a US Army liquid gun propellant. In this 1.5 kg/hr unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NOx were found to be well below 1T. In addition to destroying explosive powders and molding powders the authors have also destroyed materials that are typical of real world wastes. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the information obtained on the smaller unit, the authors have constructed a 5 kg/hr MSD unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. This unit is currently under shakedown tests and evaluation.

  3. Recent Research of Thorium Molten-Salt Reactor from a Sustainability Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kamei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important target of the concept “sustainability” is to achieve fairness between generations. Its expanding interpolation leads to achieve fairness within a generation. Thus, it is necessary to discuss the role of nuclear power from the viewpoint of this definition. The history of nuclear power has been the control of the nuclear fission reaction. Once this is obtained, then the economy of the system is required. On the other hand, it is also necessary to consider the internalization of the external diseconomy to avoid damage to human society caused by the economic activity itself, due to its limited capacity. An extreme example is waste. Thus, reducing radioactive waste resulting from nuclear power is essential. Nuclear non-proliferation must be guaranteed. Moreover, the FUKUSHIMA accident revealed that it is still not enough that human beings control nuclear reaction. Further, the most essential issue for sustaining use of one technology is human resources in manufacturing, operation, policy-making and education. Nuclear power will be able to satisfy the requirements of sustainability only when these subjects are addressed. The author will review recent activities of a thorium molten-salt reactor (MSR as a cornerstone for a sustainable society and describe its objectives and forecasts.

  4. Implementation of Molten Salt Properties into RELAP5-3D/ATHENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cliff Davis

    2005-01-01

    Molten salts are being considered as coolants for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) in both the reactor and the heat transport loop between the reactor and the hydrogen production plant because of their superior thermophysical properties compared to helium. Because specific molten salts have not been selected for either application, four separate molten salts were implemented into the RELAP5-3D/ATHENA computer program as working fluids. The implemented salts were LiF-BeF2 in a molar mixture that is 66% LiF and 34% BeF2, respectively, NaBF4-NaF (92% and 8%), LiF-NaF-KF (11.5%, 46.5%, and 42%), and NaF-ZrF4 (50% and 50%). LiF-BeF2 is currently the first choice for the primary coolant for the Advanced High- Temperature Reactor, while NaF-ZrF4 is being considered as an alternate. NaBF4-NaF and LiFNaF- KF are being considered as possible coolants for the heat transport loop. The molten salts were implemented into ATHENA using a simplified equation of state based on data and correlations obtained from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The simplified equation of state assumes that the liquid density is a function of temperature and pressure and that the liquid heat capacity is constant. The vapor is assumed to have the same composition as the liquid and is assumed to be a perfect gas. The implementation of the thermodynamic properties into ATHENA for LiF-BeF2 was verified by comparisons with results from a detailed equation of state that utilized a soft-sphere model. The comparisons between the simplified and soft-sphere models were in reasonable agreement for liquid. The agreement for vapor properties was not nearly as good as that obtained for liquid. Large uncertainties are possible in the vapor properties because of a lack of experimental data. The simplified model used here is not expected to be accurate for boiling or single-phase vapor conditions. Because neither condition is expected during NGNP applications, the simplified equation of state is considered

  5. 2 MW液态钍基熔盐实验堆主屏蔽温度场分析%Temperature field analysis for the main shielding of the 2-MW thorium-based molten salt experimental reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何杰; 夏晓彬; 蔡军; 潘登; 彭玉; 黄建平; 张国庆

    2016-01-01

    Background:Molten salt reactor is a fourth generation advanced reactor. The concrete wall is the key part of this high-temperature reactor shielding, so temperature field analysis is important. Purpose: This study attempts to calculate the temperature field of the TMSR-LF1 (2-MW liquid-fueled molten salt experimental reactor) shielding, and judge if it meets the design requirements. Methods: In accordance with the problem that MCNP (Monte Carlo N Particle Transport Code) results cannot be directly imported into Fluent, a program which converts MCNP results to the spatial distribution of power density, and imports the spatial distribution of power density into the Fluent in the form of User-Defined Function (UDF) was developed by using Python programming language to realize the coupling of the two. According to TMSR-LF1 design parameters, a one-eight physical and thermal model of the whole reactor is established, using code MCNP and Fluent. Reactor radiation shielding thermal analysis adopts the assumptions that the different environment temperatures are 5°C, 18°C, 25°C, 30°C, 35°C and 40°C, respectively.Results: The maximal values of temperature and temperature gradient in the radiation shielding concrete wall are 67.42 °C and 78.40 °C·m?1, which are lower than limit values.Conclusion: The radiation shielding concrete wall can meet the design requirements.%反应堆主屏蔽是核反应堆的重要组成部分,用来有效降低反应堆运行时屏蔽体外的辐射剂量水平,以满足反应堆部件材料对辐射限制的要求.温度是影响反应堆主屏蔽性能的重要因素.针对2 MWth液态熔盐堆(2-MW liquid-fueled molten salt experimental reactor,TMSR-LF1),采用MCNP软件获得功率分布后,利用Fluent软件对主屏蔽进行温度场计算.计算过程中利用Python语言编写了程序(MCNP to Fluent,MTF)来实现将MCNP(Monte Carlo N Particle Transport Code)计算结果转换为功率密度的空间分布,

  6. Role of molten salt flux in melting of used beverage container (UBC) scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, J.; Sahai, Y. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Recycling of aluminum scrap, such as Used Beverage Container (UBC) scrap is steadily increasing. In secondary remelting of such scrap, it is a common practice to use protective molten salt cover. An appropriate salt protects metal from oxidation, promotes coalescence of the suspended metal droplets, and separates clean metal from the oxide contamination. The molten salt also reacts with metal. This causes metal loss and change of resulting metal composition. In this paper, role of molten salt fluxes in melting of UBC scrap is discussed, and selection criteria for molten salt are provided.

  7. Technical review of Molten Salt Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The process was reviewed for destruction of mixed low-level radioactive waste. Results: extensive development work and scaleup has been documented on coal gasification and hazardous waste which forms a strong experience base for this MSO process; it is clearly applicable to DOE wastes such as organic liquids and low-ash wastes. It also has potential for processing difficult-to-treat wastes such as nuclear grade graphite and TBP, and it may be suitable for other problem waste streams such as sodium metal. MSO operating systems may be constructed in relatively small units for small quantity generators. Public perceptions could be favorable if acceptable performance data are presented fairly; MSO will likely require compliance with regulations for incineration. Use of MSO for offgas treatment may be complicated by salt carryover. Figs, tabs, refs.

  8. Evaporation of Molten Salts by Plasma Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putvinski, S.; Agnew, S. F.; Chamberlain, F.; Freeman, R. L.; Litvak, A.; Meekins, M.; Schwedock, T.; Umstadter, K. R.; Yung, S.; Bakharev, V.; Dresvin, S.; Egorov, S.; Feygenson, O.; Gabdullin, P.; Ivanov; Kizevetter, D.; Kostrukov, A.; Kuteev, B.; Malugin, V.; Zverev, S.

    2003-10-01

    Archimedes Technology Group is developing a plasma nuclear waste separation technology, called the Plasma Mass Filter. The experimental results on thermal evaporation of molten NaOH based surrogates for the Filter are presented. The main goal of the experiments was the study of high-density plasma discharges in NaOH vapor with the aim to minimize injection of additional working gas in the plasma torch. In these experiments NaOH vapor has been produced either by evaporation of the melt from a crucible introduced inside the plasma torch, or by injection of the melt droplets inside the torch. In the latter case, the melt was first atomized by an ultrasonic nebulizer at a flow rate of up to 2g/s with a droplet size of ˜50um. Plasma composition has been monitored by optical measurements. An optical diagnostic for droplet size measurement is presented together with results of the measurements of the size spectrum of the NaOH droplets.

  9. Can the Transport Properties of Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids Be Used To Determine Ion Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kenneth R

    2016-12-01

    There have long been arguments supporting the concept of ion association in molten salts and ionic liquids, largely based on differences between the conductivity and that predicted from self-diffusion coefficients by the Nernst-Einstein equation for noninteracting ions. It is known from molecular dynamics simulations that even simple models based on charged hard spheres show such a difference due to the (anti)-correlation of ion motions. Formally this is expressed as a difference between the velocity cross-correlation coefficient of the oppositely charged ions and the mean of those for the two like-charged ions. This article examines molten salt and ionic liquid transport property data, comparing simple and model associated salts (ZnCl2, PbCl2, and TlCl) including weakly dissociated molecular liquids (H2O, HCOOH, H2SO4). Analysis employing Laity resistance coefficients (rij) shows that the common ion-association rationalization is flawed, consistent with recent direct measurements of the degree of ionicity in ionic liquid chlorides and with theoretical studies. However, the protic ionic liquids [PyrOMe][BF4] and [DBUH][CH3SO3] have larger than usual NE deviation parameters (>0.5), and large negative like-ion rii, analogous to those of ZnCl2. Structural, spectroscopic, and theoretical studies are suggested to determine whether these are indeed genuine examples of association.

  10. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-15

    The sodium–nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250–350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. Finally, the cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  11. Molten Salt Power Tower Cost Model for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2013-02-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for molten-salt power tower solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), using data from several prior studies, including a contracted analysis from WorleyParsons Group, which is included herein as an Appendix. The WorleyParsons' analysis also estimated material composition and mass for the plant to facilitate a life cycle analysis of the molten salt power tower technology. Details of the life cycle assessment have been published elsewhere. The cost model provides a reference plant that interfaces with NREL's System Advisor Model or SAM. The reference plant assumes a nominal 100-MWe (net) power tower running with a nitrate salt heat transfer fluid (HTF). Thermal energy storage is provided by direct storage of the HTF in a two-tank system. The design assumes dry-cooling. The model includes a spreadsheet that interfaces with SAM via the Excel Exchange option in SAM. The spreadsheet allows users to estimate the costs of different-size plants and to take into account changes in commodity prices. This report and the accompanying Excel spreadsheet can be downloaded at https://sam.nrel.gov/cost.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis on the direct preparation of metallic vanadium from NaVO3 by molten salt electrolysis☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Weng; Mingyong Wang; Xuzhong Gong; Zhi Wang; Zhancheng Guo

    2016-01-01

    A novel and environmentally friendly route to directly prepare metallic vanadium from NaVO3 by molten salt electrolysis is proposed. The feasibility about the direct electro-reduction of NaVO3 to metallic vanadi-um is analyzed based on the thermodynamic calculations and experimental verifications. The theoretical decomposition voltage of NaVO3 to metallic vanadium is only 0.47 V at 800 °C and much lower than that of the alkali and alkali earth metal chloride salts. The value is slightly higher than that of low-valence vanadium oxides such as V2O3, V3O5 and VO. However, the low-valence vanadium oxides can be further electro-reduced to metallic vanadium thermodynamically. The thermodynamic analysis is verified by the experimental results. The direct preparation of metallic vanadium from NaVO3 by molten salt electrolysis is feasible.

  13. Preliminary analysis of Th-U conversion performance in a ZrH-moderated molten salt reactor%氢化锆慢化熔盐堆钍铀转换性能初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴攀; 蔡翔舟; 余呈刚; 陈金根; 徐刚

    2016-01-01

    中子能谱对钍基燃料在熔盐堆中的利用效率及温度反馈系数等安全问题有较大影响,所以对熔盐堆新型慢化剂的研究具有重要意义。本工作基于 SCALE6计算程序,对不同几何栅元结构的氢化锆栅元组件在熔盐堆的物理性能进行了研究,分别计算了中子能谱、钍铀转换比、233U 浓度、总温度反馈系数以及燃耗等中子物理参量。结果表明,减小六边形栅元对边距或者增加熔盐占栅元体积比可以增加钍铀转换比和改善温度反应性系数;当加入的氢化锆慢化剂体积份额为0.1时就可以将熔盐堆233U初始浓度降低到2.5×10−2以内;氢化锆慢化熔盐堆在超热谱条件下,其233U初装载量和超铀核素产量较小,同时堆芯较为紧凑。%Background: The neutron spectrum plays an important role in thorium-based fuel utilization efficiency and temperature feedback coefficient concerning reactor operation safety, so it is very important to study the new moderator material used in molten salt reactor (MSR).Purpose: This study aims to analyze thethorium-uranium conversion performance of a ZrH-moderated molten salt reactor and analyze the feasibility of ZrH as moderator in molten salt reactor.Methods: SCALE program is used to calculate neutron spectrum, thorium uranium conversion ratio,233U concentration, total temperature feedback coefficient and burnup calculation with different lattice parameters.Results: The thorium uranium conversion ratio and total temperature feedback coefficient can be improved significantly by reducing lattice size or increasing salt volume ratio; the initial233U concentration for start reactor can be easily controlled under 2.5×10−2 when the volume share of added ZrH is 0.1.Conclusion:Compared to the graphite-moderated MSR, ZrH-moderated MSR reduces initial233U inventory and transuraniums (TRUs) production, and makes its core more compact.

  14. Chlorination and Dissolution Process of CeO2 in Molten Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG; Zhao-kai; LIN; Ru-shan; CHEN; Hui; ZHANG; Kai; JIA; Yan-hong; WANG; Chang-shui; SONG; Peng; HE; Hui

    2015-01-01

    Molten salt electrolysis is considered as a promising technology in pyrochemical process in recent years.In the pyrochemical process of oxides fuel,dissolution of the oxides is a significant issue for study.Oxides cannot be reduced,as the solubility is small in molten salt.The chlorination of oxides can improve the solubility

  15. Absorbance of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} ion in NaCl-2CsCl molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Fuminori; Tayama, Toshimitsu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Nagai, Takayuki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Innovative Research Promotion Office, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    In Feasibility Studies (FS) for the commercialized fast breeder reactor (FBR) cycle system, the oxide electrowinning process is being developed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). In the oxide electrowinning process, spent nuclear fuel is dissolved into molten salt and U and Pu are recovered as MOX by MOX-electrolysis. MOX-electrolysis has many requirements such as U/Pu ratio controls and separation from FP of U-Pu. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the amounts of nuclear material (U and Pu) in the molten salt and control MOX-electrolysis based on this analysis result. This report considers the optical method as one candidate for process analysis technology. Absorbance of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} ion, the basic data for optical analysis, was measured in NaCl-2CsCl molten salt. Although Khokhryakov reported on UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} absorbance using the Reflection-Absorption method no detailed report exists on the relation between absorbance and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} concentration. Therefore, necessary spectral data for the process analysis technology were collected by the experiment. (author)

  16. ANALISIS TRANSIEN PADA PASSIVE COMPACT MOLTEN SALT REACTOR (PCMSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Makrus Imron

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan bahan bakar cair berupa garam LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 pada Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR meyebabkan pengendalian daya pada PCMSR dapat dilakukan dengan mengendalikan laju aliran bahan bakar dan pendingin. Sedangkan dari sistem keselamatan, penggunaan bahan bakar cair menjadikan PCMSR memiliki karakter keselamatan melekat (inherent safety yang baik. Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan analisis transien PCMSR pada tiga kondisi, yaitu: ketika terjadi perubahan laju aliran bahan bakar, ketika terjadi perubahan laju aliran pendingin dan ketika terdapat kegagalan pada sistem pelepasan panas (loss of heat sink. Penelitian dilakukan dengan memodelkan reaktor pada kondisi tunak menggunakan paket program. Standart Reactor Analysis Code (SRAC. Selanjutnya dari keluaran paket program SRAC diperoleh data data yang meliputi fluks netron,konstanta grup, kontanta peluran prekusor netron, fraksi netron kasip untuk perhitungan transien. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penurunan laju aliran bahan bakar sebesar 50 % dari laju bahan bakar sebelumnya, menyebabkan daya pada PCMSR turun menjadi 78 % dari daya sebelumnya. Dan penurunan laju aliran pendingin sebesar 50 % dari laju pendingin sebelumnya, menyebabkan daya pada PCMSR turun menjadi 63 % dari daya sebelumnya. Sedangkan pada saat terjadi loss of heat sink daya PCMSR menunjukkan penurunan. Kata kunci: PCMSR, transien, daya, laju aliran.   The use of liquid fuels in the form of molten salts LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 in Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR makes power control at PCMSR can be done by controlling the flow rate of fuel and coolant. In addition, from safety systems aspect, the use of liquid fuels makes PCMSR has good inherent safety characteristics. In this study transient analysis has been carried out on three conditions of PCMSR, namely when the fuel flow rate is changing, when the coolant flow rate is changing and when there is loss of heat sink condition. This research is

  17. REAKTOR INNOVATIVE MOLTEN SALT (IMSR DENGAN SISTEM KESELAMATAN PASIF MENYELURUH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andang Widiharto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan Teknologi Reaktor Nuklir pada masa mendatang mengarah pada peningkatan aspek keselamatan, peningkatan pendayagunaan bahan bakar, reduksi limbah radioaktif, ketahanan terhadap proliferasi bahan-bakar nuklir dan peningkatan aspek ekonomi. reaktor Innovative Molten Salt (IMSR adalah reaktor nuklir yang menggunakan bahan bakar cair berupa garam lebur fluoride (7LiF-ThF4-UF4-MaFx. Reaktor IMSR didesain sebagai reaktor pembiak termal, yaitu membiakkan U-233 dari Th-232. Hal ini untuk menjawab permasalahan sustainabilitas ketersedian sumber daya bahan bakar nuklir dan reduksi limbah radioaktif. Dalam aspek keselamatan, desain reaktor IMSR memiliki sifat inherent safe, yaitu koefisien umpan balik daya yang negatif serta memiliki fitur-fitur keselamatan pasif. Fitur-fitur keselamatan pasif terdiri dari sistem shutdown pasif, sistem pendinginan pasif pasca shutdown serta sistem pendinginan pasif untuk produk fisi. Kecelakaan yang berpotensi terjadi pada IMSR, yaitu kecelakaan kehilangan aliran bahan bakar, kecelakaan kehilangan aliran pendingin, kecelakaan kehilangan kemampuan pengambilan kalor serta kecelakaan kerusakan integritas sistem reaktor, dapat ditangani sepenuhnya secara pasif hingga mencapai kondisi shutdown selamat. Kata kunci: keselamatan pasif, inherent safe, IMSR   The next Nuclear Reactor Technology developments are directed to the increasing of the aspects of safety, fuel utility, radioactive waste reduction, proliferation retention and economy. Innovative Molten Salt Reactor (IMSR is a nuclear reactor design that uses fluoride molten salt (7LiF-ThF4-UF4-MaFx. IMSR is designed as a thermal breeder reactor, i.e. to produce U-233 from Th-232. This is the answer of natural nuclear fuel sustainability and radioactive waste problems. In term of safety aspect, IMSR design has inherent safe characteristics, i.e. negative power feedback coefficient, and passive safety features. The passive safety features are passive shutdown

  18. Maritime Security Regimes (MSR): The Enterprise Implementation Proposal and MSR Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    MSR capabilities change they may require updating and enhancement. MSR Global Approach The Case Studies, the Base Line Assessment and the MSR... Maersk , Baltic and International Maritime Council (BIMCO) and Lloyds of London. 20 • Initiate reviews of the Enterprise proposal by national and... lines of communication and systems. Because differing national regulations and policies regarding the dissemination of information and related

  19. Electrodeposition of aluminum on aluminum surface from molten salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenmao HUANG; Xiangyu XIA; Bin LIU; Yu LIU; Haowei WANG; Naiheng MA

    2011-01-01

    The surface morphology,microstructure and composition of the aluminum coating of the electrodeposition plates in AlC13-NaC1-KC1 molten salt with a mass ratio of 8:1:1 were investigated by SEM and EDS.The binding force was measured by splat-cooling method and bending method.The results indicate that the coatings with average thicknesses of 12 and 9 μm for both plates treated by simple grinding and phosphating are compacted,continuous and well adhered respectively. Tetramethylammonium chloride (TMAC) can effectively prevent the growth of dendritic crystal,and the anode activation may improve the adhesion of the coating. Binding force analysis shows that both aluminum coatings are strongly adhered to the substrates.

  20. Electrodeposition of alloys or compounds in molten salts and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taxil P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the different modes of preparation of alloys or intermetallic compounds using the electrodeposition in molten salts, more particularly molten alkali fluorides. The interest in this process is to obtain new materials for high technology, particularly the compounds of reactive components such as actinides, rare earth and refractory metals. Two ways of preparation are considered: (i electrocoating of the more reactive metal on a cathode made of the noble one and reaction between the two metals in contact, and (ii electrocoating on an inert cathode of the intermetallic compound by coreduction of the ions of each elements. The kinetic is controlled by the reaction at the electrolyte interface. A wide bibliographic survey on the preparation of various compounds (intermetallic compounds, borides, carbides… is given and a special attention is paid to the own experience of the authors in the preparation of these compounds and interpretation of their results.

  1. Molten Salt Fuel Cycle Requirements for ADTT Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Del Cul, G. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Toth, L. M. [Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1999-06-07

    The operation of an ADT system with the associated nuclear reactions has a profound effect upon the chemistry of the fuel - especially with regards to container compatibility and the chemical separations that may be required. The container can be protected by maintaining the redox chemistry within a relatively narrow, non-corrosive window. Neutron economy as well as other factors require a sophisticated regime of fission product separations. Neither of these control requirements has been demonstrated on the scale or degree of sophistication necessary to support an ADT device. We review the present situation with respect to fluoride salts, and focus on the critical issues in these areas which must be addressed. One requirement for advancement in this area - a supply of suitable materials - will soon be fulfilled by the remediation of ORNL's Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, and the removal of a total of 11,000 kg of enriched (Li-7 > 99.9%) coolant, flush, and fuel salts.

  2. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System: Molten Salt Energy Storage (Summer Report 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); mckellar, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yoon, Su-Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Effective energy use is a main focus and concern in the world today because of the growing demand for energy. The nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) is a valuable technical concept that can potentially diversify and leverage existing energy technologies. This report considers a particular NHES design that combines multiple energy systems including a nuclear reactor, energy storage system (ESS), variable renewable generator (VRG), and additional process heat applications. Energy storage is an essential component of this particular NHES because its design allows the system to produce peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant power output. Many energy storage options are available, but this study mainly focuses on a molten salt ESS. The primary purpose of the molten salt ESS is to enable the nuclear reactor to be a purely constant heat source by acting as a heat storage component for the reactor during times of low demand, and providing additional capacity for thermo-electric power generation during times of peak electricity demand. This report will describe the rationale behind using a molten salt ESS and identify an efficient molten salt ESS configuration that may be used in load following power applications. Several criteria are considered for effective energy storage and are used to identify the most effective ESS within the NHES. Different types of energy storage are briefly described with their advantages and disadvantages. The general analysis to determine the most efficient molten salt ESS involves two parts: thermodynamic, in which energetic and exergetic efficiencies are considered; and economic. Within the molten salt ESS, the two-part analysis covers three major system elements: molten salt ESS designs (two tank direct and thermocline), the molten salt choice, and the different power cycles coupled with the molten salt ESS. Analysis models are formulated and analyzed to determine the most effective ESS. The results show that the most

  3. PERFORMANCE SIMULATION OF PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR COLLECTOR USING TWO FLUIDS (THERMIC OIL AND MOLTEN SALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Boukelia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Parabolic trough solar collector is considered as one of the most proven, mature and commercial concentrating solar systems implemented in arid and semi-arid regions for energy production. It focuses sunlight onto a solar receiver by using mirrors and is finally converted to a useful thermal energy by means of a heat transfer fluid. The aims of this study are (i to develop a new methodology for simulation and performance evaluation of parabolic trough solar collector, in addition (i to compare the efficiencies of this system using two different fluids; thermic oil and molten solar salt. The validation of obtained results using this methodology shows a good agreement with those obtained by the experimental tests. Furthermore, this study favors the using of thermic oil as heat transfer fluid in the receiver instead of molten salt due to the high efficiency of the concentrator based on the first fluid in comparison to the second one.

  4. Synthesis of TiNi/Ti2Ni Composite Particles in Molten Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Rui-song; CUI Li-shan; ZHENG Yan-jun

    2006-01-01

    A new process of synthesizing TiNi/Ti2Ni composite particles, high temperature molten salts method, is introduced. This method uses molten salts as a reaction medium that does not take part in the chemical reaction and can be easily dissolved in rinsing water. According this method, the composite particles were prepared in molten salts at 700 ℃-900 ℃. By means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the reversible martensitic transformation of TiNi particles in these composite particles was confirmed.

  5. Magneto-hydrodynamic detection of vortex shedding for molten salt flow sensing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Crocker, Robert W.

    2012-09-01

    High temperature flow sensors must be developed for use with molten salts systems at temperatures in excess of 600ÀC. A novel magneto-hydrodynamic sensing approach was investigated. A prototype sensor was developed and tested in an aqueous sodium chloride solution as a surrogate for molten salt. Despite that the electrical conductivity was a factor of three less than molten salts, it was found that the electrical conductivity of an electrolyte was too low to adequately resolve the signal amidst surrounding noise. This sensor concept is expected to work well with any liquid metal application, as the generated magnetic field scales proportionately with electrical conductivity.

  6. Transient analyses for a molten salt fast reactor with optimized core geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, R., E-mail: rui.li@kit.edu [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies (IKET), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Wang, S.; Rineiski, A.; Zhang, D. [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies (IKET), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Merle-Lucotte, E. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie – IN2P3 – CNRS/Grenoble INP/UJF, 53, rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • MSFR core is analyzed by fully coupling neutronics and thermal-hydraulics codes. • We investigated four types of transients intensively with the optimized core geometry. • It demonstrates MSFR has a high safety potential. - Abstract: Molten salt reactors (MSRs) have encountered a marked resurgence of interest over the past decades, highlighted by their inclusion as one of the six candidate reactors of the Generation IV advanced nuclear power systems. The present work is carried out in the framework of the European FP-7 project EVOL (Evaluation and Viability Of Liquid fuel fast reactor system). One of the project tasks is to report on safety analyses: calculations of reactor transients using various numerical codes for the molten salt fast reactor (MSFR) under different boundary conditions, assumptions, and for different selected scenarios. Based on the original reference core geometry, an optimized geometry was proposed by Rouch et al. (2014. Ann. Nucl. Energy 64, 449) on thermal-hydraulic design aspects to avoid a recirculation zone near the blanket which accumulates heat and very high temperature exceeding the salt boiling point. Using both fully neutronics thermal-hydraulic coupled codes (SIMMER and COUPLE), we also re-confirm the efforts step by step toward a core geometry without the recirculation zone in particular as concerns the modifications of the core geometrical shape. Different transients namely Unprotected Loss of Heat Sink (ULOHS), Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF), Unprotected Transient Over Power (UTOP), Fuel Salt Over Cooling (FSOC) are intensively investigated and discussed with the optimized core geometry. It is demonstrated that due to inherent negative feedbacks, an MSFR plant has a high safety potential.

  7. Pyrochemical reprocessing of molten salt fast reactor fuel: focus on the reductive extraction step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Davide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fuel reprocessing is a prerequisite for nuclear energy to be a clean and sustainable energy. In the case of the molten salt reactor containing a liquid fuel, pyrometallurgical way is an obvious way. The method for treatment of the liquid fuel is divided into two parts. In-situ injection of helium gas into the fuel leads to extract the gaseous fission products and a part of the noble metals. The second part of the reprocessing is performed by ‘batch’. It aims to recover the fissile material and to separate the minor actinides from fission products. The reprocessing involves several chemical steps based on redox and acido-basic properties of the various elements contained in the fuel salt. One challenge is to perform a selective extraction of actinides and lanthanides in spent liquid fuel. Extraction of actinides and lanthanides are successively performed by a reductive extraction in liquid bismuth pool containing metallic lithium as a reductive reagent. The objective of this paper is to give a description of the several steps of the reprocessing retained for the molten salt fast reactor (MSFR concept and to present the initial results obtained for the reductive extraction experiments realized in static conditions by contacting LiF-ThF4-UF4-NdF3 with a lab-made Bi-Li pool and for which extraction efficiencies of 0.7% for neodymium and 14.0% for uranium were measured. It was concluded that in static conditions, the extraction is governed by a kinetic limitation and not by the thermodynamic equilibrium.

  8. Incorporating supercritical steam turbines into molten-salt power tower plants :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, James Edward; Wolf, Thorsten; Muley, Nishant

    2013-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Siemens Energy, Inc., examined 14 different subcritical and supercritical steam cycles to determine if it is feasible to configure a molten-salt supercritical steam plant that has a capacity in the range of 150 to 200 MWe. The effects of main steam pressure and temperature, final feedwater temperature, and hot salt and cold salt return temperatures were determined on gross and half-net efficiencies. The main steam pressures ranged from 120 bar-a (subcritical) to 260 bar-a (supercritical). Hot salt temperatures of 566 and 600ÀC were evaluated, which resulted in main steam temperatures of 553 and 580ÀC, respectively. Also, the effects of final feedwater temperature (between 260 and 320ÀC) were evaluated, which impacted the cold salt return temperature. The annual energy production and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated using the System Advisory Model on 165 MWe subcritical plants (baseline and advanced) and the most promising supercritical plants. It was concluded that the supercritical steam plants produced more annual energy than the baseline subcritical steam plant for the same-size heliostat field, receiver, and thermal storage system. Two supercritical steam plants had the highest annual performance and had nearly the same LCOE. Both operated at 230 bar-a main steam pressure. One was designed for a hot salt temperature of 600ÀC and the other 565ÀC. The LCOEs for these plants were about 10% lower than the baseline subcritical plant operating at 120 bar-a main steam pressure and a hot salt temperature of 565ÀC. Based on the results of this study, it appears economically and technically feasible to incorporate supercritical steam turbines in molten-salt power tower plants.

  9. Molten-salt reactor program. Semiannual progress report for period ending February 29, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1976-08-01

    Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for sections dealing with MSBR design and development; chemistry of fuel-salt and coolant-salt systems and analytical methods; materials development; fuel processing for molten-salt reactors; and salt production. (DG)

  10. Proceedings of the workshop on molten salts technology and computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Hirokazu; Minato, Kazuo (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    Applications of molten salts technology to separation and synthesis of materials have been studied eagerly, which would develop new fields of materials science. Research Group for Actinides Science, Department of Materials Science, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), together with Reprocessing and Recycle Technology Division, Atomic Energy Society of Japan, organized the Workshop on Molten Salts Technology and Computer Simulation at Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI on July 18, 2001. In the workshop eleven lectures were made and lively discussions were there on the fundamentals and applications of the molten salts technology that covered the structure and basic properties of molten salts, the pyrochemical reprocessing technology and the relevant computer simulation. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Thermal Energy Storage in Molten Salts: Overview of Novel Concepts and the DLR Test Facility (TESIS)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    At present, two-tank molten salt storage systems are the established commercially available concept for solar thermal power plants. Due to their very low vapour pressure and comparatively high thermal stability, molten salts are preferred as the heat transfer fluid and storage medium. Therefore, the development of alternative, more cost-effective concepts is an important step in making thermal energy storage more competitive for industrial processes and solar thermal applications. The pape...

  12. Advanced Thermal Storage System with Novel Molten Salt: December 8, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonemann, M.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Halotechnics Subcontract No. NEU-2-11979-01. Halotechnics has demonstrated an advanced thermal energy storage system with a novel molten salt operating at 700 degrees C. The molten salt and storage system will enable the use of advanced power cycles such as supercritical steam and supercritical carbon dioxide in next generation CSP plants. The salt consists of low cost, earth abundant materials.

  13. Electrochemical interaction between graphite and molten salts to produce nanotubes, nanoparticles, graphene and nanodiamonds

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10853-015-9340-2 The electrochemical interaction between graphite and molten salts to produce carbon nanostructures is reviewed. It is demonstrated that, depending on the conditions, it is possible to electrochemically convert graphite in molten salts to either carbon nanoparticles and nanotubes, metal filled carbon nanoparticles and nanotubes, graphene or nanodiamonds. The...

  14. Electrochemical reduction of metal oxides in molten salts for nuclear reprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz, R.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the electrochemical reduction of metal oxides in molten salts for nuclear reprocessing applications. The objective of this research is to characterise and understand the direct electrochemical reduction of UO₂ to U metal in a LiCl-KCl molten salt eutectic, as part of the nuclear pyroprocessing scheme, following a similar approach to the FFC Cambridge for the reduction of TiO₂ to Ti metal. The voltammetric behaviour of reduction processes of metal oxides were evaluated usi...

  15. Molten salt synthesis of mullite nanowhiskers using different silica sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yang; Peng-long Qiu; Mei Zhang; Kuo-Chih Chou; Xin-mei Hou; Bai-jun Yan

    2015-01-01

    Mullite nanowhiskers with Al-rich structure were prepared by molten salt synthesis at 1000°C for 3 h in air using silica, amor-phous silica, and ultrafine silica as the silica sources. The phase and morphology of the synthesized products were investigated by X-ray dif-fraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. A thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis was carried out to determine the reaction mechanism. The results reveal that the silica sources play an important role in determining the morphology of the obtained mullite nanowhiskers. Clusters and disordered arrangements are obtained using common silica and amorphous silica, respectively, whereas the use of ultrafine silica leads to highly ordered mullite nanowhiskers that are 80−120 nm in diameter and 20−30μm in length. Considering the growth mechanisms, mullite nanowhiskers in the forms of clusters and highly ordered arrangements can be attributed to heterogeneous nucleation, whereas disordered mullite nanowhiskers are obtained by homogenous nuclea-tion.

  16. Decommissioning of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment: A technical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    This report completes a technical evaluation of decommissioning planning for the former Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, which was shut down in December, 1969. The key issues revolve around the treatment and disposal of some five tons of solid fuel salt which contains over 30 kg of fissionable uranium-233 plus fission products and higher actinides. The chemistry of this material is complicated by the formation of elemental fluorine via a radiolysis reaction under certain conditions. Supporting studies carried out as part of this evaluation include (a) a broad scope analysis of possible options for storage/disposal of the salts, (b) calculation of nuclide decay in future years, (c) technical evaluation of the containment facility and hot cell penetrations, (d) review and update of surveillance and maintenance procedures, (e) measurements of facility groundwater radioactivity and sump pump operation, (f) laboratory studies of the radiolysis reaction, and (g) laboratory studies which resulted in finding a suitable getter for elemental fluorine. In addition, geologic and hydrologic factors of the surrounding area were considered, and also the implications of entombment of the fuel in-place with concrete. The results of this evaluation show that the fuel salt cannot be left in its present form and location permanently. On the other hand, extended storage in its present form is quite acceptable for 20 to 30 years, or even longer. For continued storage in-place, some facility modifications are recommended. 30 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Optimized molten salt receivers for ultimate trough solar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffelmann, Klaus-J.; Richert, Timo; Kuckelkorn, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Today parabolic trough collectors are the most successful concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. For the next development step new systems with increased operation temperature and new heat transfer fluids (HTF) are currently developed. Although the first power tower projects have successfully been realized, up to now there is no evidence of an all-dominant economic or technical advantage of power tower or parabolic trough. The development of parabolic trough technology towards higher performance and significant cost reduction have led to significant improvements in competitiveness. The use of molten salt instead of synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid will bring down the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) even further while providing dispatchable energy with high capacity factors. FLABEG has developed the Ultimate TroughTM (UT) collector, jointly with sbp Sonne GmbH and supported by public funds. Due to its validated high optical accuracy, the collector is very suitable to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C. SCHOTT will drive the key-innovations by introducing the 4th generation solar receiver that addresses the most significant performance and cost improvement measures. The new receivers have been completely redesigned to provide a product platform that is ready for high temperature operation up to 550 °C. Moreover distinct product features have been introduced to reduce costs and risks in solar field assembly and installation. The increased material and design challenges incurred with the high temperature operation have been reflected in sophisticated qualification and validation procedures.

  18. Simulation of radiation dose distribution and thermal analysis for the bulk shielding of an optimized molten salt reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志宏; 夏晓彬; 蔡军; 王建华; 李长园; 葛良全; 张庆贤

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese Academy of Science has launched a thorium-based molten-salt reactor (TMSR) research project with a mission to research and develop a fission energy system of the fourth generation. The TMSR project intends to construct a liquid fuel molten-salt reactor (TMSR-LF), which uses fluoride salt as both the fuel and coolant, and a solid fuel molten-salt reactor (TMSR-SF), which uses fluoride salt as coolant and TRISO fuel. An optimized 2 MWth TMSR-LF has been designed to solve major technological challenges in the Th-U fuel cycle. Preliminary conceptual shielding design has also been performed to develop bulk shielding. In this study, the radiation dose and temperature distribution of the shielding bulk due to the core were simulated and analyzed by performing Monte Carlo simulations and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The MCNP calculated dose rate and neutron and gamma spectra indicate that the total dose rate due to the core at the external surface of the concrete wall was 1.91 µSv/h in the radial direction, 1.16 µSv/h above and 1.33 µSv/h below the bulk shielding. All the radiation dose rates due to the core were below the design criteria. Thermal analysis results show that the temperature at the outermost surface of the bulk shielding was 333.86 K, which was below the required limit value. The results indicate that the designed bulk shielding satisfies the radiation shielding requirements for the 2 MWth TMSR-LF.

  19. Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system customer interface document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald D.

    2013-09-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL is a test capability that allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt. The components tested can range from materials samples, to individual components such as flex hoses, ball joints, and valves, up to full solar collecting systems such as central receiver panels, parabolic troughs, or linear Fresnel systems. MSTL provides realistic conditions similar to a portion of a concentrating solar power facility. The facility currently uses 60/40 nitrate %E2%80%9Csolar salt%E2%80%9D and can circulate the salt at pressure up to 40 bar (600psi), temperature to 585%C2%B0C, and flow rate of 44-50kg/s(400-600GPM) depending on temperature. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for customers to evaluate the applicability to their testing needs, and to provide an outline of expectations for conducting testing on MSTL. The document can serve as the basis for testing agreements including Work for Others (WFO) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA). While this document provides the basis for these agreements and describes some of the requirements for testing using MSTL and on the site at Sandia, the document is not sufficient by itself as a test agreement. The document, however, does provide customers with a uniform set of information to begin the test planning process.

  20. Trapping of Li(+) Ions by [ThFn](4-n) Clusters Leading to Oscillating Maxwell-Stefan Diffusivity in the Molten Salt LiF-ThF4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Brahmananda; Kidwai, Sharif; Ramaniah, Lavanya M

    2016-08-18

    A molten salt mixture of lithium fluoride and thorium fluoride (LiF-ThF4) serves as a fuel as well as a coolant in the most sophisticated molten salt reactor (MSR). Here, we report for the first time dynamic correlations, Onsager coefficients, Maxwell-Stefan (MS) diffusivities, and the concentration dependence of density and enthalpy of the molten salt mixture LiF-ThF4 at 1200 K in the composition range of 2-45% ThF4 and also at eutectic composition in the temperature range of 1123-1600 K using Green-Kubo formalism and equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We have observed an interesting oscillating pattern for the MS diffusivity for the cation-cation pair, in which ĐLi-Th oscillates between positive and negative values with the amplitude of the oscillation reducing as the system becomes rich in ThF4. Through the velocity autocorrelation function, vibrational density of states, radial distribution function analysis, and structural snapshots, we establish an interplay between the local structure and multicomponent dynamics and predict that formation of negatively charged [ThFn](4-n) clusters at a higher ThF4 mole % makes positively charged Li(+) ions oscillate between different clusters, with their range of motion reducing as the number of [ThFn](4-n) clusters increases, and finally Li(+) ions almost get trapped at a higher ThF4% when the electrostatic force on Li(+) exerted by various surrounding clusters gets balanced. Although reports on variations of density and enthalpy with temperature exist in the literature, for the first time we report variations of the density and enthalpy of LiF-ThF4 with the concentration of ThF4 (mole %) and fit them with the square root function of ThF4 concentration, which will be very useful for experimentalists to obtain data over a range of concentrations from fitting the formula for design purposes. The formation of [ThFn](4-n) clusters and the reduction in the diffusivity of the ions at a higher ThF4% may limit the

  1. Resistance of Nanostructured Environmental Barrier Coatings to the Movement of Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S.; Frederick, L.; McDonald, A.

    2012-09-01

    Corrosion of components in a recovery boiler is a major problem faced by the pulp and paper industry. The superheater tubes become severely corroded due to the presence of sulfidic gases in the boiler and molten salts which are deposited on the surface of the tubes. As a result, the boiler must be decommissioned for expensive maintenance and repairs. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings have been shown to provide corrosion resistance when applied on gas turbines operating at high temperatures. Air plasma-sprayed YSZ environmental barrier coatings on Type 309 stainless steel were exposed to three different corrosive environments: Test A—600 °C, salt vapors, flue gases, 168 h; Test B—600 °C, molten salt, air, 168 h; and Test C—600 °C, molten salt, flue gases, 168 h. Two different types of YSZ coatings—conventional YSZ and nanostructured YSZ—were tested to study their resistance to corrosion and molten salt penetration. The performances of both types of coatings were evaluated, and a comparative study was conducted. It was found that the nanostructured YSZ samples protected the stainless steel substrate better than their conventional counterparts. This superior performance was attributed to the presence of semi-molten nano-agglomerates present in the coating microstructure, which acted as collection points for the penetrating molten salts.

  2. Space Molten Salt Reactor Concept for Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Surface Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, M.; Flanders, J.; McMurray, N.; Denning, R.; Sun, X.; Windl, W.; Blue, T.

    Students at The Ohio State University working under the NASA Steckler Grant sought to investigate how molten salt reactors with fissile material dissolved in a liquid fuel medium can be applied to space applications. Molten salt reactors of this kind, built for non-space applications, have demonstrated high power densities, high temperature operation without pressurization, high fuel burn up and other characteristics that are ideal for space fission systems. However, little research has been published on the application of molten salt reactor technology to space fission systems. This paper presents a conceptual design of the Space Molten Salt Reactor (SMSR), which utilizes molten salt reactor technology for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and surface power at the 100 kWe to 15 MWe level. Central to the SMSR design is a liquid mixture of LiF, BeF2 and highly enriched U235F4 that acts as both fuel and core coolant. In brief, some of the positive characteristics of the SMSR are compact size, simplified core design, high fuel burn up percentages, proliferation resistant features, passive safety mechanisms, a considerable body of previous research, and the possibility for flexible mission architecture.

  3. Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, Anoop [Terrafore Inc.

    2013-08-14

    A key technological issue facing the success of future Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants is creating an economical Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. Current TES systems use either sensible heat in fluids such as oil, or molten salts, or use thermal stratification in a dual-media consisting of a solid and a heat-transfer fluid. However, utilizing the heat of fusion in inorganic molten salt mixtures in addition to sensible heat , as in a Phase change material (PCM)-based TES, can significantly increase the energy density of storage requiring less salt and smaller containers. A major issue that is preventing the commercial use of PCM-based TES is that it is difficult to discharge the latent heat stored in the PCM melt. This is because when heat is extracted, the melt solidifies onto the heat exchanger surface decreasing the heat transfer. Even a few millimeters of thickness of solid material on heat transfer surface results in a large drop in heat transfer due to the low thermal conductivity of solid PCM. Thus, to maintain the desired heat rate, the heat exchange area must be large which increases cost. This project demonstrated that the heat transfer coefficient can be increase ten-fold by using forced convection by pumping a hyper-eutectic salt mixture over specially coated heat exchanger tubes. However,only 15% of the latent heat is used against a goal of 40% resulting in a projected cost savings of only 17% against a goal of 30%. Based on the failure mode effect analysis and experience with pumping salt at near freezing point significant care must be used during operation which can increase the operating costs. Therefore, we conclude the savings are marginal to justify using this concept for PCM-TES over a two-tank TES. The report documents the specialty coatings, the composition and morphology of hypereutectic salt mixtures and the results from the experiment conducted with the active heat exchanger along with the lessons learnt during

  4. Room temperature inorganic ``quasi-molten salts`` as alkali-metal electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, K.; Zhang, S.; Angell, C.A. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-11-01

    Room temperature inorganic liquids of high ionic conductivity have been prepared by reacting Lewis acid AlCl with sulfonyl chlorides. The mechanism is not clear at this time since a crystal structure study of the 1:1 complex with CH{sub 3}SO{sub 2}Cl (T{sub m} = 30 C) is not consistent with a simple chloride transfer to create AlClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} anions. The liquid is in a state somewhere between ionic and molecular. A new term quasi-molten salt is adopted to describe this state. A comparably conducting liquid can be made using BCL{sub 3} in place of AlCl{sub 3}. Unlike their organic counterparts based on ammonium cations (e.g., pyridinium or imidazolium) which reduce in the presence of alkali metals, this inorganic class of cation shows great stability against electrochemical reduction (ca. {minus}1.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li), with the useful consequence that reversible lithium and sodium metal deposition/stripping can be supported. The electrochemical window for these quasi-salts with AlCl{sub 3} ranges up to 5.0 V, and their room temperature conductivities exceed 10{sup {minus}4} S/cm. They dissolve lithium and sodium tetrachloroaluminates up to mole fraction {approximately} 0.6 at 100 C and intermediate compositions are permanently stable at ambient. The resultant lithium or sodium salt solutions exhibit electrochemical windows of 4.5--5.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li or Na{sup +}/Na and show room temperature conductivities of 10{sup {minus}3.0}--10{sup {minus}2.5} S/cm. In preliminary charge/discharge tests, the cell Li/``quasi-ionic liquid electrolyte``/Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed a discharge capacity of ca. 110 mAh/(g of cathode) and sustained 80% of the initial capacity after 60 cycles, indicating that these quasi-molten salt-based electrolytes are promising candidates for alkali-metal batteries.

  5. Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Remote Surveillance of Actinides in Molten Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natalie J. Gese; Jan-Fong Jue; Brenda E. Serrano; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2012-07-01

    A potentiometric sensor is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for real-time remote surveillance of actinides during electrorefining of spent nuclear fuel. During electrorefining, fuel in metallic form is oxidized at the anode while refined uranium metal is reduced at the cathode in a high temperature electrochemical cell containing LiCl-KCl-UCl3 electrolyte. Actinides present in the fuel chemically react with UCl3 and form stable metal chlorides that accumulate in the electrolyte. This sensor will be used for process control and safeguarding of activities in the electrorefiner by monitoring the concentrations of actinides in the electrolyte. The work presented focuses on developing a solid-state cation conducting ceramic sensor for detecting varying concentrations of trivalent actinide metal cations in eutectic LiCl-KCl molten salt. To understand the basic mechanisms for actinide sensor applications in molten salts, gadolinium was used as a surrogate for actinides. The ß?-Al2O3 was selected as the solid-state electrolyte for sensor fabrication based on cationic conductivity and other factors. In the present work Gd3+-ß?-Al2O3 was prepared by ion exchange reactions between trivalent Gd3+ from GdCl3 and K+-, Na+-, and Sr2+-ß?-Al2O3 precursors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for characterization of Gd3+-ß?-Al2O3 samples. Microfocus X-ray Diffraction (µ-XRD) was used in conjunction with SEM energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to identify phase content and elemental composition. The Gd3+-ß?-Al2O3 materials were tested for mechanical and chemical stability by exposing them to molten LiCl-KCl based salts. The effect of annealing on the exchanged material was studied to determine improvements in material integrity post ion exchange. The stability of the ß?-Al2O3 phase after annealing was verified by µ-XRD. Preliminary sensor tests with different assembly designs will also be presented.

  6. Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt

  7. Preparation and luminescence characteristics of monazite Eu3+:LaPO4 nanocrystals in NH4NO3 molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyang

    2015-12-01

    Molten-salt method and NH4NO3 flux were developed to fabricate monoclinic monazite Eu3+:LaPO4 nanocrystals for the first time. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, excitation spectra, emission spectra and luminescence decay curves. The as-obtained products were quasihexagonal Eu3+:LaPO4 nanocrystals with the mean size of 30 nm. The room temperature charge transfer bands (CTB) exhibited red-shift and spectral broadening in comparison with 10 K CTB. The optimal Eu3+ concentration was determined to be 8 mol% by a comparative study of the relative emission intensities for different Eu3+ doping concentrations. The higher concentration quenching could be caused by the possible nonradiative energy transfer (electric multipole-multipole interaction). The relationship between the FL lifetime of 5D0 energy level and Eu3+ concentration was investigated based on Auzel's model. This work is important not only to understand the unique physical properties of Eu3+:LaPO4 nanocrystals but also to bring an opportunity for the development of the other nanocrystals via the molten salt synthesis in NH4NO3 flux.

  8. Thermodynamic Assessment of Hot Corrosion Mechanisms of Superalloys Hastelloy N and Haynes 242 in Eutectic Mixture of Molten Salts KF and ZrF4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael V. Glazoff

    2012-02-01

    The KF - ZrF4 system was considered for the application as a heat exchange agent in molten salt nuclear reactors (MSRs) beginning with the work carried out at ORNL in early fifties. Based on a combination of excellent properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity in the molten state, and other thermo-physical and rheological properties, it was selected as one of possible candidates for the nuclear reactor secondary heat exchanger loop.

  9. Application of annexation principle to the study of thermodynamic properties of ternary molten salts CaCl2-MgCl2-NaCl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian

    2004-01-01

    Based on the practical basis of measured activities and phase diagrams as well as in the light of the mass action law, the model of inseparable cations and anions of molten salts and mattes, and the annexation principle of two kinds of solutions in binary melts, the calculating model of mass action concentrations of molten salts CaC12-MgCl2-NaCl was formulated. The results of calculation not only agree with experimental values, but also obey the mass action law, testifying that the model formulated can embody the sauctural characteristics of these temary salts, and that the model of inseparable cations and anions as well as the annexation principle of two kinds of solutions in binary melts are also applicable to these ternary salts.

  10. Preparation of Ferrotitanium Alloy from Ilmenite by Electrochemical Reduction in Chloride Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Can-can; Hua, Yi-xin; Chen, Kong-hao; Jie, Ya-fei; Zhou, Zhong-ren; Ru, Juan-jian; Xiong, Li; Gong, Kai

    2016-02-01

    Ferrotitanium alloy is prepared by electrochemical reduction from ilmenite in LiCl-KCl and LiCl-KCl-CaCl2 molten salts, respectively. The products prepared are observed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). It is shown that Fe2Ti can be prepared from ilmenite in LiCl-KCl molten salt at 1073 K with a cell voltage of 3.2 V. Ilmenite can be electrochemically reduced to FeTi in LiCl-KCl-CaCl2 molten salt under the same condition. It is indicated that CaCl2 can promote the reaction and is favors the deoxidization of the FeTiO3.

  11. Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Multivalent Ion Concentrations in Molten Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter A. Zink; Jan-Fong Jue; Brenda E. Serrano; Guy L. Fredrickson; Ben F. Cowan; Steven D. Herrmann; Shelly X. Li

    2010-07-01

    Electrorefining of spent metallic nuclear fuel in high temperature molten salt systems is a core technology in pyroprocessing, which in turn plays a critical role in the development of advanced fuel cycle technologies. In electrorefining, spent nuclear fuel is treated electrochemically in order to effect separations between uranium, noble metals, and active metals, which include the transuranics. The accumulation of active metals in a lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt electrolyte occurs at the expense of the UCl3-oxidant concentration in the electrolyte, which must be periodically replenished. Our interests lie with the accumulation of active metals in the molten salt electrolyte. The real-time monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte is highly desirable for controlling electrochemical operations and assuring materials control and accountancy. However, real-time monitoring is not possible with current methods for sampling and chemical analysis. A new solid-state electrochemical sensor is being developed for real-time monitoring of actinide ion concentrations in a molten salt electrorefiner. The ultimate function of the sensor is to monitor plutonium concentrations during electrorefining operations, but in this work gadolinium was employed as a surrogate material for plutonium. In a parametric study, polycrystalline sodium beta double-prime alumina (Na-ß?-alumina) discs and tubes were subject to vapor-phase exchange with gadolinium ions (Gd3+) using a gadolinium chloride salt (GdCl3) as a precursor to produce gadolinium beta double-prime alumina (Gd-ß?-alumina) samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were performed on the ion-exchanged discs to determine the relationship between ion exchange and Gd3+ ion conductivity. The ion-exchanged tubes were configured as potentiometric sensors in order to monitor real-time Gd3+ ion concentrations in mixtures of gadolinium

  12. CeO2-Y2O3-ZrO2 Membrane with Enhanced Molten Salt Corrosion Resistance for Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xingli; Li, Xin; Shen, Bin; Lu, Xionggang; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu; Ding, Weizhong

    2017-02-01

    Innovative CeO2-Y2O3-ZrO2 membrane has been successfully developed and used in the solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process for green metallic materials production. The x mol pct ceria/(8- x) mol pct yttria-costabilized zirconia ( xCe(8- x)YSZ, x = 0, 1, 4, or 7) membranes have been fabricated and investigated as the membrane-based inert anodes to control the SOM electroreduction process in molten salt. The characteristics of these fabricated xCe(8- x)YSZ membranes including their corrosion resistances in molten salt and their degradation mechanisms have been systematically investigated and compared. The results show that the addition of ceria in the YSZ-based membrane can inhibit the depletion of yttrium during the SOM electrolysis, which thus makes the ceria-reinforced YSZ-based membranes possess enhanced corrosion resistances to molten salt. The ceria/yttria-costabilized zirconia membranes can also provide reasonable oxygen ion conductivity during electrolysis. Further investigation shows that the newly modified 4Ce4YSZ ceramic membrane has the potential to be used as novel inert SOM anode for the facile and sustainable production of metals/alloys/composites materials such as Si, Ti5Si3, TiC, and Ti5Si3/TiC from their metal oxides precursors in molten CaCl2.

  13. CeO2-Y2O3-ZrO2 Membrane with Enhanced Molten Salt Corrosion Resistance for Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xingli; Li, Xin; Shen, Bin; Lu, Xionggang; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu; Ding, Weizhong

    2016-10-01

    Innovative CeO2-Y2O3-ZrO2 membrane has been successfully developed and used in the solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process for green metallic materials production. The x mol pct ceria/(8-x) mol pct yttria-costabilized zirconia (xCe(8-x)YSZ, x = 0, 1, 4, or 7) membranes have been fabricated and investigated as the membrane-based inert anodes to control the SOM electroreduction process in molten salt. The characteristics of these fabricated xCe(8-x)YSZ membranes including their corrosion resistances in molten salt and their degradation mechanisms have been systematically investigated and compared. The results show that the addition of ceria in the YSZ-based membrane can inhibit the depletion of yttrium during the SOM electrolysis, which thus makes the ceria-reinforced YSZ-based membranes possess enhanced corrosion resistances to molten salt. The ceria/yttria-costabilized zirconia membranes can also provide reasonable oxygen ion conductivity during electrolysis. Further investigation shows that the newly modified 4Ce4YSZ ceramic membrane has the potential to be used as novel inert SOM anode for the facile and sustainable production of metals/alloys/composites materials such as Si, Ti5Si3, TiC, and Ti5Si3/TiC from their metal oxides precursors in molten CaCl2.

  14. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  15. Emissions from energetic material waste during the Molten Salt Destruction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, B.E.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

    1994-07-05

    The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process is an alternative to open burn/open detonation for destroying energetic materials; MSD has inherently low gaseous emissions, and the salt bath can scrub both acidic gases and particulates. It was demonstrated that high explosives and a liquid propellant can be safely and completely destroyed using MSD. Gaseous emissions of NOx and CO are very low. Nitrate builds up in the salt bath when nitrate-rich materials are destroyed, but addition fuel reduces the nitrate to NO. A program has been begun to add catalytic materials to the bed to further reduce emissions; a small molten salt bath has been constructed for chemical kinetic studies.

  16. Electrodeposition of Ca Metal in CaCl2-CaO Molten Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Jun-kang; WANG; Chang-shui; CAO; Long-hao; OUYANG; Ying-gen

    2013-01-01

    To realize the continuouscalciothermic reduction in molten salts,the electrodeposition behavior of Ca metal in CaCl2-CaO molten salt was investigated by cylic voltammetry.The cyclic voltammograms at the scan rate of 100 mV/s are shown in Fig.1.As is shown,the electrodeposition potential of Ca deviated from-1.66 V to-0.97 V after CaO was added to molten CaCl2 and the decomposition of CaO

  17. Fluoride partitioning R and D programme for molten salt transmutation reactor systems in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, J. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc, CZ (Czech Republic); Priman, V.; Vanicek, J. [Czech Power Company, Praha (Czech Republic)

    2001-07-01

    The transmutation of spent nuclear fuel is considered a prospective alternative conception to the current conception based on the non-reprocessed spent fuel disposal into underground repository. The Czech research and development programme in the field of partitioning and transmutation is founded on the Molten Salt Transmutation Reactor system concept with fluoride salts based liquid fuel, the fuel cycle of which is grounded on pyrochemical / pyrometallurgical fluoride partitioning of spent fuel. The main research activities in the field of fluoride partitioning are oriented mainly towards technological research of Fluoride Volatility Method and laboratory research on electro-separation methods from fluoride melts media. The Czech national conception in the area of P and T research issues from the national power industry programme and from the Czech Power Company intentions of the extensive utilization of nuclear power in our country. The experimental R and D work is concentrated mainly in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc that plays a role of main nuclear research workplace for the Czech Power Company. (author)

  18. Molten salt CO2 capture and electro-transformation (MSCC-ET) into capacitive carbon at medium temperature: effect of the electrolyte composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bowen; Chen, Zhigang; Gao, Muxing; Song, Yuqiao; Zheng, Kaiyuan; Tang, Juanjuan; Xiao, Wei; Mao, Xuhui; Wang, Dihua

    2016-08-15

    Electrochemical transformation of CO2 into functional materials or fuels (i.e., carbon, CO) in high temperature molten salts has been demonstrated as a promising way of carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) in recent years. In a view of continuous operation, the electrolysis process should match very well with the CO2 absorption kinetics. At the same time, in consideration of the energy efficiency, a molten salt electrochemical cell running at lower temperature is more beneficial to a process powered by the fluctuating renewable electricity from solar/wind farms. Ternary carbonates (Li : Na : K = 43.5 : 31.5 : 25.0) and binary chlorides (Li : K = 58.5 : 41.5), two typical kinds of eutectic melt with low melting points and a wide electrochemical potential window, could be the ideal supporting electrolyte for the molten salt CO2 capture and electro-transformation (MSCC-ET) process. In this work, the CO2 absorption behaviour in Li2O/CaO containing carbonates and chlorides were investigated on a home-made gas absorption testing system. The electrode processes as well as the morphology and properties of carbon obtained in different salts are compared to each other. It was found that the composition of molten salts significantly affects the absorption of CO2, electrode processes and performance of the product. Furthermore, the relationship between the absorption and electro-transformation kinetics are discussed based on the findings.

  19. Core scheme and depletion analysis of new thorium molten salt reactor%新型钍基熔盐堆堆芯方案及燃耗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卑华; 司胜义; 陈其昌; 赵金坤

    2017-01-01

    Core layout and depletion features of thorium molten salt reactor(TMSR)are analyzed using the self-developed lattice and core code SONG/TANG-MSR.Based on the results of previous lattice optimization research,fuel salt that contains no BeF2 is adopted,BeO is introduced as moderator instead of graphite,and SiC is chosen as cladding material.According to further lattice analysis at core level,the optimized three-zone layout of core is obtained,with high breeding ratio,negative power coeffi-cient,flat temperature distribution.Thereafter,the depletion calculation and analysis is performed considering the online process-ing of fuel salt.The results show that the core has high breeding ratio,short doubling time,and long term stable operation. Thus,the design of TMSR has been greatly improved with increased breeding ability and sufficient safety margins.%采用自主开发的 SONG/TANG-MSR栅格/堆芯分析程序对新型钍基熔盐堆(TMSR)进行堆芯布置与燃耗分析计算。根据前期的栅格分析相关工作,TMSR 采用了无铍(BeF2)燃料熔盐、氧化铍慢化剂以及碳化硅包壳,并在组件栅格初步优化分析的基础上,通过全堆芯计算对熔盐栅格进一步优化和分析,给出了堆芯三区布置方案。该方案具有较高的增殖比,负的功率系数,以及较平的温度分布。根据该堆芯方案,在考虑熔盐在线处理情况下进行了熔盐燃耗计算分析。结果表明,堆芯具有较高的增殖比、较短的倍增时间以及长期稳定运行能力。新型的钍基熔盐设计大大提高了增殖性能,同时又确保堆芯具有足够的安全性能。

  20. Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P.C.

    1997-11-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  1. Validation of electro-thermal simulation with experimental data to prepare online operation of a molten salt target at ISOLDE for the Beta Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Cimmino, S; Marzari, S; Stora, T

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the Beta Beams is to study oscillation property of pure electrons neutrinos. It produces high energy beams of pure electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos for oscillation experiments by beta decay of He-6 and Ne-18 radioactive ion beams, stored in a decay ring at gamma = 100. The production of He-6 beam has already been accomplished using a thick beryllium oxide target. However, the production of the needed rate of Ne-18 has proven to be more challenging. In order to achieve the requested yield for Ne-18 a new high power target design based on a circulating molten salt loop has been proposed. To verify some elements of the design, a static molten salt target prototype has been developed at ISOLDE and operated successfully. This paper describes the electro-thermal study of the molten salt target taking into account the heat produced by Joule effect, radiative heat exchange, active water cooling due to forced convection and air passive cooling due to natural convection. The numerical results...

  2. Preliminary Study on LiF4-ThF4-PuF4 Utilization as Fuel Salt of miniFUJI Molten Salt Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waris, Abdul; Aji, Indarta K.; Pramuditya, Syeilendra; Widayani; Irwanto, Dwi

    2016-08-01

    miniFUJI reactor is molten salt reactor (MSR) which is one type of the Generation IV nuclear energy systems. The original miniFUJI reactor design uses LiF-BeF2-ThF4-233UF4 as a fuel salt. In the present study, the use of LiF4-ThF4-PuF4 as fuel salt instead of LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 will be discussed. The neutronics cell calculation has been performed by using PIJ (collision probability method code) routine of SRAC 2006 code, with the nuclear data library is JENDL-4.0. The results reveal that the reactor can attain the criticality condition with the plutonium concentration in the fuel salt is equal to 9.16% or more. The conversion ratio diminishes with the enlarging of plutonium concentration in the fuel. The neutron spectrum of miniFUJI MSR with plutonium fuel becomes harder compared to that of the 233U fuel.

  3. Stability of catalytic foam diesel-soot filters based on Cs{sub 2}O, MoO{sub 3}, and Cs{sub 2}SO{sub 4} molten-salt catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Setten, B.A.A.L.; Spitters, C.G.M.; Bremmer, J.; Mulders, A.M.M.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A. [Section Reactor and Catalysis Engineering, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)

    2003-06-10

    The durability of catalytic alumina and zirconia-toughened mullite ceramic foam diesel-soot filters was tested by exposing them to severe, artificial exhaust conditions. The catalytic performance, composition, and mechanical strength were constantly monitored. It was concluded that the mechanical strength of the catalytic filters may be reduced by an interaction of the catalyst with certain compounds of ceramic filters. In practice, it should be possible to minimize the effect by carefully controlling the composition of the ceramic filter. For instance, the presence of phosphorous in alumina-based filters support should be avoided. The stability of the current catalyst phases, based on Cs{sub 2}O, MoO{sub 3}, and Cs{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, is too low for application. Due to partial evaporation, emission of catalyst compounds into the environment is likely and when that happens significant deactivation of the catalytic phase is unavoidable. The catalyst was also found to be soluble in water, which might be disastrous in the case of condensation occurring in the exhaust pipe.

  4. Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Ramana G. [The University of Alabama

    2013-10-23

    The explicit UA program objective is to develop low melting point (LMP) molten salt thermal energy storage media with high thermal energy storage density for sensible heat storage systems. The novel Low Melting Point (LMP) molten salts are targeted to have the following characteristics: 1. Lower melting point (MP) compared to current salts (<222ºC) 2. Higher energy density compared to current salts (>300 MJ/m3) 3. Lower power generation cost compared to current salt In terms of lower power costs, the program target the DOE's Solar Energy Technologies Program year 2020 goal to create systems that have the potential to reduce the cost of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) to less than $15/kWh-th and achieve round trip efficiencies greater than 93%. The project has completed the experimental investigations to determine the thermo-physical, long term thermal stability properties of the LMP molten salts and also corrosion studies of stainless steel in the candidate LMP molten salts. Heat transfer and fluid dynamics modeling have been conducted to identify heat transfer geometry and relative costs for TES systems that would utilize the primary LMP molten salt candidates. The project also proposes heat transfer geometry with relevant modifications to suit the usage of our molten salts as thermal energy storage and heat transfer fluids. The essential properties of the down-selected novel LMP molten salts to be considered for thermal storage in solar energy applications were experimentally determined, including melting point, heat capacity, thermal stability, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, vapor pressure, and corrosion resistance of SS 316. The thermodynamic modeling was conducted to determine potential high temperature stable molten salt mixtures that have thermal stability up to 1000 °C. The thermo-physical properties of select potential high temperature stable (HMP) molten salt mixtures were also experimentally determined. All the salt mixtures align with the

  5. PERFORMA NEUTRONIK BAHAN BAKAR LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 PADA SMALL MOBILE-MOLTEN SALT REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Rokhman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan analisis terhadap performa neutronik bahan bakar garam lebur LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 pada Small Mobile-Molten Salt Reactor (SM-MSR. Penyesuaian konfigurasi teras dan temperatur operasi harus dilakukan untuk penggunaan bahan bakar baru tersebut agar mencapai keff > 1 dan CR (conversion ratio > 1 pada fraksi 0,5% 233U, 20% 232Th, 28% Li, 51,5% Be. Setelah didapat nilai keff ≈ 1 dan CR ≈ 1, dilakukan analisis pengaruh perubahan Th terhadap Be dan Be terhadap Li yang terlihat dalam perubahan parameter keff dan CR. Setelah itu fraksi 233U divariasi antara 0,5–0,46% untuk memperoleh keff > 1 dan CR > 1. Dalam perhitungan koefisien reaktifitas temperatur (αT, temperatur teras dinaikkan sebesar +25K dan +50K., dan untuk koefisien reaktifitas void (αV, densitas bahan bakar dikurangi hingga 90%. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa pengurangan Th terhadap Be menyebabkan penurunan nilai CR dan naiknya keff akibat berkurangnya material fertil. Sebaliknya penambahan Be terhadap Li mengakibatkan terjadi kenaikan nilai keff dan menurunkan CR, akibat laju serapan Li lebih besar dari Be. Pada 5 (lima fraksi 233U dalam rentang 0,5–0,49%, hasil perhitungan keff dan CR masing-masing bervariasi dalam rentang 1,00001 - 1,00327 dan 1,00016 - 1,00731. Untuk faktor puncak daya (PPF, hasil perhitungan memberikan nilai dalam rentang 2,4311 -2,4714. Sedangkan untuk parameter keselamatan, koefisien reaktivitas temperatur (αT dan reaktivitas void (αV masingmasing bernilai negatif dalam rentang 4,972×10-5 - 5,909×10-5 dan 2,596×10-2- 2,8287×10-2 ∆k/k/K. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa teras SM-MSR memberikan nilai negatif di kedua koefisien reaktivitas tersebut untuk setiap fraksi,, sehingga memenuhi kriteria keselamatan dan keselamatan melekat. Kata kunci: SM-MSR (small mobile-molten salt reactor, bahan bakar LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4, keselamatan melekat, koefisien reaktivitas temperatur, koefisien reaktivitas void   The analysis of neutronic performance has

  6. Pore Scale Thermal Hydraulics Investigations of Molten Salt Cooled Pebble Bed High Temperature Reactor with BCC and FCC Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixiong Song

    2014-01-01

    CFD results and empirical correlations’ predictions of pressure drop and local Nusselt numbers. Local pebble surface temperature distributions in several default conditions are investigated. Thermal removal capacities of molten salt are confirmed in the case of nominal condition; the pebble surface temperature under the condition of local power distortion shows the tolerance of pebble in extreme neutron dose exposure. The numerical experiments of local pebble insufficient cooling indicate that in the molten salt cooled pebble bed reactor, the pebble surface temperature is not very sensitive to loss of partial coolant. The methods and results of this paper would be useful for optimum designs and safety analysis of molten salt cooled pebble bed reactors.

  7. Solid oxide membrane-assisted controllable electrolytic fabrication of metal carbides in molten salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xingli; Zheng, Kai; Lu, Xionggang; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu

    2016-08-15

    Silicon carbide (SiC), titanium carbide (TiC), zirconium carbide (ZrC), and tantalum carbide (TaC) have been electrochemically produced directly from their corresponding stoichiometric metal oxides/carbon (MOx/C) precursors by electrodeoxidation in molten calcium chloride (CaCl2). An assembled yttria stabilized zirconia solid oxide membrane (SOM)-based anode was employed to control the electrodeoxidation process. The SOM-assisted controllable electrochemical process was carried out in molten CaCl2 at 1000 °C with a potential of 3.5 to 4.0 V. The reaction mechanism of the electrochemical production process and the characteristics of these produced metal carbides (MCs) were systematically investigated. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analyses clearly identify that SiC, TiC, ZrC, and TaC carbides can be facilely fabricated. SiC carbide can be controlled to form a homogeneous nanowire structure, while the morphologies of TiC, ZrC, and TaC carbides exhibit porous nodular structures with micro/nanoscale particles. The complex chemical/electrochemical reaction processes including the compounding, electrodeoxidation, dissolution-electrodeposition, and in situ carbonization processes in molten CaCl2 are also discussed. The present results preliminarily demonstrate that the molten salt-based SOM-assisted electrodeoxidation process has the potential to be used for the facile and controllable electrodeoxidation of MOx/C precursors to micro/nanostructured MCs, which can potentially be used for various applications.

  8. On the potential use of F{sub 2}Be-molten-salt for hybrid reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A., E-mail: anlafuente@etsii.upm.e [ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Breeder reactors are considered a unique tool for fully exploiting natural nuclear resources. In current Light Water Reactors (LWR), only 0.5% of the primary energy contained in the nuclei removed from a mine is converted into useful heat. The rest remains in the depleted uranium or spent fuel. This evident need to improve resource-efficiency has stimulated interest in Fast-reactors, and with it, boosted the need to answer many of the remaining safety issues attached to such systems (i.e. coolant positive void coefficients). Among the existing candidates to overcome this fundamental drawback, the F{sub 2}Be-molten-salt, has proved to feature outstanding neutronic properties. In previous studies, in an analysis that took into account requirements for criticality, for breeding, and for safety, it was demonstrated that a design window could be found in the definition of an F{sub 2}Be-cooled system, where the safety requirement was met for a critical breeder reactor. In this paper we give a deeper insight on the neutronic features of F{sub 2}Be coolant by comparing it with the moderator par excellence; light water. Its potential use on a thorium-fuel based system will be completed by a resilience analysis of the design window along the burn-up cycle. The ultimate goal is to give a sound answer to how a F{sub 2}Be-cooled system could contribute to improve the resource-efficiency of nuclear systems without overlooking the main safety aspects. This is one of the main pending questions in the quest to sustainability.

  9. Tungsten coatings electro-deposited on CFC substrates from oxide molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ningbo; Zhang, Yingchun; Lang, Shaoting; Jiang, Fan; Wang, Lili

    2014-12-01

    Tungsten is considered as plasma facing material in fusion devices because of its high melting point, its good thermal conductivity, its low erosion rate and its benign neutron activation properties. On the other hand, carbon based materials like C/C fiber composites (CFC) have been used for plasma facing materials (PFMs) due to their high thermal shock resistance, light weight and high strength. Tungsten coatings on CFC substrates are used in the JET divertor in the frame of the JET ITER-like wall project, and have been prepared by plasma spray (PS) and other techniques. In this study, tungsten coatings were electro-deposited on CFC from Na2WO4-WO3 molten salt under various deposition parameters at 900 °C in air. In order to obtain tungsten coatings with excellent performance, the effects of pulse duration ratio and pulse current density on microstructures and crystal structures of tungsten coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Rigaku Industrial Co., Ltd., D/MAX-RB) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM, JSM 6480LV). It is found that the pulsed duration ratio and pulse current density had a significant influence on tungsten nucleation and electro-crystallization phenomena. SEM observation revealed that intact, uniform and dense tungsten coatings formed on the CFC substrates. Both the average grain size and thickness of the coating increased with the pulsed current density. The XRD results showed that the coatings consisted of a single phase of tungsten with the body centered cubic (BCC) structure. The oxygen content of electro-deposited tungsten coatings was lower than 0.05%, and the micro-hardness was about 400 HV.

  10. Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

    2009-09-30

    This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material

  11. Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2014-05-27

    Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

  12. Prediction of the thermophysical properties of molten salt fast reactor fuel from first-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheribi, A. E.; Corradini, D.; Dewan, L.; Chartrand, P.; Simon, C.; Madden, P. A.; Salanne, M.

    2014-05-01

    Molten fluorides are known to show favourable thermophysical properties which make them good candidate coolants for nuclear fission reactors. Here we investigate the special case of mixtures of lithium fluoride and thorium fluoride, which act both as coolant and as fuel in the molten salt fast reactor concept. By using ab initio parameterised polarisable force fields, we show that it is possible to calculate the whole set of properties (density, thermal expansion, heat capacity, viscosity and thermal conductivity) which are necessary for assessing the heat transfer performance of the melt over the whole range of compositions and temperatures. We then deduce from our calculations several figures of merit which are important in helping the optimisation of the design of molten salt fast reactors.

  13. Prediction of the thermophysical properties of molten salt fast reactor fuel from first-principles

    OpenAIRE

    Gheribi, Aimen; Corradini, D; Dewan, L. (Lawrence); Chartrand, P; Simon, C.; Madden, Paul,; M. Salanne

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Molten fluorides are known to show favorable thermophysical properties which make them good candidate coolants for nuclear fission reactors. Here we investigate the special case of mixtures of lithium fluoride and thorium fluoride, which act both as coolant and fuel in the molten salt fast reactor concept. By using ab initio parameterized polarizable force fields, we show that it is possible to calculate the whole set of properties (density, thermal expansion, heat cap...

  14. Evaluation of thermal cycling creep-fatigue damage for a molten salt receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, James W.; Jones, Wendell B.; Veers, Paul S.

    1990-01-01

    A molten salt cavity receiver was solar tested at Sandia National Laboratories during a year-long test program. Upon completion of testing, an analysis was performed to determine the effect of thermal cycling on the receiver. The results indicate a substantial fatigue damage accumulation for the receiver when the relatively short test time is considered. This paper describes the methodology used to analyze the cycling, the results as they pertain to this receiver, and how they affect future receiver design.

  15. Preparation of Y2O3: Eu3+ phosphor by molten salt assisted method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan; YE Hong-qi; ZHUANG Wei-dong; HU Yun-sheng; ZHAO Chun-lei; LI Cui; GUO Song-xia

    2007-01-01

    A kind of fine and quasi-spherical Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor was prepared by firing a preparative precursor at 1 200 ℃ for 2 h with the molten salts of Na2CO3, S and NaCl. The precursor was obtained by homogeneous precipitation of yttrium and europium with oxalic acid when using EDTA, citric acid or starch as complexant. The structure and morphology of the phosphors were characterized by XRD and SEM, respectively. The influence of complexing environment, firing temperature and molten salts on formation of the phosphor Y2O3: Eu3+ was discussed. The result show that the prepared Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor is of quasi-spherical structure with size of 2-3 μm. Its luminescent intensity is 30% higher than that of the same phosphor prepared by the same procedure but without molten salts, and is 5% higher than that of commercial Y2O3:Eu3+ red phosphor.

  16. Concentrating Solar Power - Molten Salt Pump Development, Final Technical Report (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael McDowell; Alan Schwartz

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long shafted pump to operate at high temperatures for the purpose of producing energy with renewable resources. In Phase I of this three phase project we developed molten salt pump requirements, evaluated existing hardware designs for necessary modifications, developed a preliminary design of the pump concept, and developed refined cost estimates for Phase II and Phase III of the project. The decision has been made not to continue the project into Phases II and III. There is an ever increasing world-wide demand for sources of energy. With only a limited supply of fossil fuels, and with the costs to obtain and produce those fuels increasing, sources of renewable energy must be found. Currently, capturing the sun's energy is expensive compared to heritage fossil fuel energy production. However, there are government requirements on Industry to increase the amount of energy generated from renewable resources. The objective of this project is to design, build and test a long-shafted, molten salt pump. This is the type of pump necessary for a molten salt thermal storage system in a commercial-scale solar trough plant. This project is under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program, managed by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. To reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and to meet the requirements of 'tomorrows' demand, technical innovations are needed. The DOE is committed to reducing the LCOE to 7-10 cents/kWh by 2015, and to 5-7 cents/kWh by 2020. To accomplish these goals, the performance envelope for commercial use of long-shafted molten salt pumps must be expanded. The intent of this project is to verify acceptable operation of pump components in the type of molten salt (thermal storage medium) used in commercial power plants today. Field testing will be necessary to verify the integrity of the pump design, and thus reduce the risk to industry. While the primary

  17. Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

    2012-04-01

    This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was

  18. 几种典型熔盐冷却剂的热物性研究%Research on thermo-physical properties of several typical molten salt coolants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金愿; 程进辉; 王坤; 安学会; 马国宏; 张鹏; 黎忠

    2016-01-01

    Background: As an ideal coolant, molten salt has been successfully used in molten salt reactor, and its thermo-physical properties have dramatic impact on heat transfer performances. However, the diversity in molten salt pretreatment and preparation induce discrepancies among the existing data which may cause puzzle in its applications. Purpose:The aim is to systematically investigate and evaluate thermo-physical properties of FLiNaK and HTS, especially viscosity in abnormal operation temperature range, and measure thermo-physical properties of CloKmag salt accurately.Methods: Molten salt coolants were prepared normatively, and their thermo-physical properties were systematically measured through testing instruments including the differential scanning calorimetry, self-developed Archimedes density device, improved thermal conductivity meter based on laser flash method, and self-developed rotating viscometer.Results: Through the measurement and analysis above, we have systematically obtained the thermo-physical properties of FLiNaK, CloKmag and HTS accurately, especially viscosity in abnormal operation temperature range.Conclusion: Heat capacity and thermal conductivity of molten salt are almost unaffected by temperature and can be regarded as constants. Viscosity at 80 K above melting point decreases with the increase of temperature and tends to that of room-temperature water in high temperature range. The thermo-physical properties of FLiNaK, CloKmag and HTS can provide accurate and reliable basic data for the application of molten salt.%熔盐是一种优异的传热介质。热物性数据是熔盐传热应用过程中的关键基础数据。按照制定的样品制备规范、样品测试操作流程和数据处理分析方法,采用差示扫描量热仪(Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC)、自主研制的阿基米德法密度仪和旋转柱体式粘度仪、改进的激光闪光法导热仪对 FLiNaK、CloKmag 和 HTS熔盐的熔点、比热容、密

  19. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15

    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50

  20. Application of Proton Conductors to Hydrogen Monitoring for Liquid Metal and Molten Salt Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Muroga, Takeo; Katahira, Koji; Oshima, Tomoko

    The chemical control of impurity such as hydrogen and oxygen in coolants is one of the critical issues for the development of liquid metal cooled fast reactors and self-cooled liquid breeder blankets for fusion reactors. Especially, hydrogen (isotopes) level is the key parameter for corrosion and mechanical properties of the in-reactor components. For fission reactors, the monitor of hydrogen level in the melt is important for safety operation. The control of tritium is essential for the tritium breeding performance of the fusion reactors. Therefore, on-line hydrogen sensing is a key technology for these systems. In the present study, conceptual design for the on-line hydrogen sensor to be used in liquid sodium (Na), lead (Pb), lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi), lithium (Li), lead-lithium (Pb-17Li) and molten salt LiF-BeF2 (Flibe) was performed. The cell of hydrogen sensor is made of a solid electrolyte. The solid electrolyte proposed in this study is the CaZrO3-based ceramics, which is well-known as proton conducting ceramics. In this concept, the cell is immersed into the melt which is containing the hydrogen at the activity of PH1 of ambient atmosphere. Then, the cell is filled with Ar-H2 mixture gas at regulated hydrogen activity of PH2. The electromotive force (EMF) is obtained by the proton conduction in the electro chemical system expressed as Pt, Melt(PH1) | Proton conductor | PH2, Pt. The Nernst equation is used for the evaluation of the hydrogen activity from the obtained EMF. The evaluations of expected performance of the sensor in liquid Na, Pb, Pb-Bi, Pb-17Li, Li and Flibe were carried out by means of the measurement test in gas atmosphere at hydrogen activities equivalent to those for the melts in the reactor conditions. In the test, the hydrogen activity in the gas varied from 2.2x10-14 to 1. The sensor exhibited good response, stability and reproducibility.

  1. Electrochemical Deposition of Uranium Metal in Molten Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Based on the studies in the electrode process of uranium ions in the molten LiCl-KCl, we carried out the electrochemical deposition of uranium in two kinds of melts, LiCl-KCl-UCl3 and LiCl- KCl-UCl3-

  2. Multi-physics approach to the analysis of molten salt reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolino, Claudio; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero [Politecnico di Torino, DENER, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 - 10129 Torino (Italy); Lapenta, Giovanni [Departement Wiskunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, Heverlee, B-3001 (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    A fully-coupled multi-physics non-linear model for the dynamic description of liquid-fuel multiplying fast systems is presented. Different physical variables are considered in the model, such as neutron flux, precursor concentration, velocity field and temperature. The corresponding set of equations is implemented in a code solved by a Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov algorithm. The results presented enlighten the presence of unusual connections among the different aspects of the problem treated. A particular accent is posed on the description of those special features that need to be taken into account when dealing with a realistic analysis of a molten salt fast reactor. (authors)

  3. Preparation of Mg-Li-Sm alloys by electrocodeposition in molten salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟; 田阳; 张密林; 颜永得; 景晓燕

    2009-01-01

    Electrocodeposition of Mg-Li-Sm alloys was investigated in molten KCl-LiCl-MgCl2-SmCl3-KF system.The effects of electrolytic temperature and cathodic current density on current efficiency were studied and optimal electrolysis parameters were obtained.The optimum electrolysis condition was a molten salt mixture of LiCl:KCl =50:50(wt.%),electrolytic temperature:660 oC,cathode current density:9.5 A/cm2 and electrolysis time of 40 min.The current efficiency reached 77.3%.X-ray diffraction(XRD) and scanning elec...

  4. Preparation of Mg-Li alloys by electrolysis in molten salt at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi Lin Zhang; Yong De Yan; Zhi Yao Hou; Lu An Fan; Zeng Chen; Ding Xiang Tang

    2007-01-01

    A new technology for preparation of low cost Mg-Li alloys was studied. The alloys were prepared by electrolysis in molten were investigated, and optimal electrolysis parameters were obtained. Mg-Li alloys with low lithium content (about 25%) were prepared by the unique method of a higher post-thermal treatment temperature after electrolysis at low temperature. The results showed that the electrolysis can be carried out at low temperature, which resulted in reducing preparation cost due to energy saving.The new technology for the preparation of Mg-Li alloy by electrolysis in molten salt was proved to be feasible.

  5. Preparation of niobium nanoparticles by sodiothermic reduction of Nb_2O_5 in molten salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Niobium nanoparticles with high purity were prepared by a sodiothermic reduction process using Nb2O5 as the raw material, LiCl, NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 as the diluents and sodium as the reducing reagent. The effects of the different molten salt systems, CaCl2 content, reaction time, excessive sodium and reaction temperature on the characteristics of the obtained niobium powder were discussed. The as-prepared niobium nanoparticles under the optimum experimental conditions were obtained by sodiothermic reduction ...

  6. Conceptual Design of Forced Convection Molten Salt Heat Transfer Testing Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Piyush Sabharwall; Pattrick Calderoni; Alan K. Wertsching; S. Brandon Grover

    2010-09-01

    This report develops a proposal to design and construct a forced convection test loop. A detailed test plan will then be conducted to obtain data on heat transfer, thermodynamic, and corrosion characteristics of the molten salts and fluid-solid interaction. In particular, this report outlines an experimental research and development test plan. The most important initial requirement for heat transfer test of molten salt systems is the establishment of reference coolant materials to use in the experiments. An earlier report produced within the same project highlighted how thermophysical properties of the materials that directly impact the heat transfer behavior are strongly correlated to the composition and impurities concentration of the melt. It is therefore essential to establish laboratory techniques that can measure the melt composition, and to develop purification methods that would allow the production of large quantities of coolant with the desired purity. A companion report describes the options available to reach such objectives. In particular, that report outlines an experimental research and development test plan that would include following steps: •Molten Salts: The candidate molten salts for investigation will be selected. •Materials of Construction: Materials of construction for the test loop, heat exchangers, and fluid-solid corrosion tests in the test loop will also be selected. •Scaling Analysis: Scaling analysis to design the test loop will be performed. •Test Plan: A comprehensive test plan to include all the tests that are being planned in the short and long term time frame will be developed. •Design the Test Loop: The forced convection test loop will be designed including extensive mechanical design, instrument selection, data acquisition system, safety requirements, and related precautionary measures. •Fabricate the Test Loop. •Perform the Tests. •Uncertainty Analysis: As a part of the data collection, uncertainty analysis will

  7. Pyrochemical reprocessing of molten salt fast reactor fuel: focus on the reductive extraction step

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues Davide; Durán-Klie Gabriela; Delpech Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear fuel reprocessing is a prerequisite for nuclear energy to be a clean and sustainable energy. In the case of the molten salt reactor containing a liquid fuel, pyrometallurgical way is an obvious way. The method for treatment of the liquid fuel is divided into two parts. In-situ injection of helium gas into the fuel leads to extract the gaseous fission products and a part of the noble metals. The second part of the reprocessing is performed by ‘batch’. It aims to recover the fissile...

  8. Glovebox design requirements for molten salt oxidation processing of transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, K.B.; Acosta, S.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wernly, K.D. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp., Bensalem, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated combustible waste. Molten salt oxidation (MSO) provides a method for removing greater than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible waste. Implementation of MSO processing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility will eliminate the combustible matrix from {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste and consequently reduce the cost of TRU waste disposal operations at LANL. The glovebox design requirements for unit operations including size reduction and MSO processing will be presented.

  9. Preparation and Performances of Room Molten Salt as Electrolyte in Carbon-carbon Capacitor Based on LiPFe and Trifluoroacetamide%LiPF6/三氟乙酰胺室温熔盐的制备及在碳-碳电容器中的性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左晓希; 李奇; 刘建生; 肖信; 范成杰; 南俊民

    2012-01-01

    利用LiPF6和三氟乙酰胺为前驱物,制备了低共熔温度约为-62℃的室温熔盐,并测试了该熔盐作为碳-碳电化学电容器(EDLCs)电解液时的性能。其中,使用差示扫描量热法(DSC)和红外光谱法(FTIR)分析了不同LiPF6和三氟乙酰胺配比熔盐的热稳定性,拟制了该二元组分的共熔相图,认为LiPF6和三氟乙酰胺极性基团间的氢键作用促成了室温熔盐的形成。循环伏安(CV)、交流阻抗(EIS)和电导等测定结果表明,所制备的LiPF6/三氟乙酰胺电解液的室温电导率为1.30mS/cm,电化学窗口大于5.6V,大于60℃的使用温度,作为电解液可满足碳-碳EDLCs的使用要求。%A novel room molten salt with an eutectic temperature of about -62℃ is prepared using LiPF6 and trifluoroacetamide as precursors. And then its performances are evaluated in carbon-carbon electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) as electrolyte. The thermal properties of the complex electrolyte with different molar ratios are characterized and then the liquid-solid phase diagram is presented by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The hydrogen bonding interaction between LiPF6 and trifluoroacetamide molecules is attributed to the formation of the as-prepared molten salt. In addition, the results of cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and conductance tests show that the as-prepared LiPF6/trifluoroacetamide electrolyte has a maximum conductance at room temperature, i.e. 1.30 mS/cm, a stable electrochemical window of ca. 5.6 V, an applicable temperature of more than 60℃, suggesting it is a promising electrolyte candidate for carbon-carbon EDLCs.

  10. Calculation of activities of ions in molten salts with potential application to the pyroprocessing of nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanne, Mathieu; Simon, Christian; Turq, Pierre; Madden, Paul A

    2008-01-31

    The ability to separate fission products by electrodeposition from molten salts depends, in part, on differences between the interactions of the different fission product cations with the ions present in the molten salt "solvent". These differences may be expressed as ratios of activity coefficients, which depend on the identity of the solvent and other factors. Here, we demonstrate the ability to calculate these activity coefficient ratios using molecular dynamics simulations with sufficient precision to guide the choice of suitable solvent systems in practical applications. We use polarizable ion interaction potentials which have previously been shown to give excellent agreement with structural, transport, and spectroscopic information of the molten salts, and the activity coefficients calculated in this work agree well with experimental data. The activity coefficients are shown to vary systematically with cation size for a set of trivalent cations.

  11. High Flux Central Receivers of Molten Salts for the New Generation of Commercial Stand-Alone Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lata, J. M.; Rodriguez, M.; Alvarez de Lara, M.

    2006-07-01

    Molten salt technology represents nowadays the most cost-effective technology for electricity generation for stand-alone Solar Power Plants. Although this technology can be applied to both concentrating technologies, Parabolic TROUGH and Central Receiver Systems (CRS), CRS technology can take advantages from its high concentration, allowing to work at high temperatures and therefore with a reduction in the size and cost of the storage system. The Receiver System is the door for which the energy passes from the field collector to the thermal-electric cycle; it represents, therefore, the core of the CRS System. SENER and CIEMAT are joining forces to face up the challenge of sizing and designing a molten salt Receiver of high thermal efficiency, able to operate at high fluxes without compromising its durability (at least 25 years). The advances in design and studies of different materials, to operate at high fluxes using molten salts as heat transfer fluid, will be presented hereafter. (Author)

  12. Corrosion Behavior of Pure Cr, Ni, and Fe Exposed to Molten Salts at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sotelo-Mazón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion resistance of pure Fe, Cr, and Ni materials exposed in NaVO3 molten salt at 700°C was evaluated in static air during 100 hours. The corrosion resistance was determined using potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential, and lineal polarization resistance. The conventional weight loss method (WLM was also used during 100 hours. The electrochemical results showed that Fe and Cr have a poor corrosion resistance, whereas pure Ni showed the best corrosion performance, which was supported by the passive layer of NiO formed on the metallic surface and the formation of Ni3V2O8 during the corrosion processes, which is a refractory compound with a higher melting point than that of NaVO3, which reduces the corrosivity of the molten salt. Also, the behavior of these materials was associated with the way in which their corresponding oxides were dissolved together with their type of corrosion attack. Through this study, it was confirmed that when materials suffer corrosion by a localized processes such as pitting, the WLM is not reliable, since a certain amount of corrosion products can be kept inside the pits. The corroded samples were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Preliminary safety calculations to improve the design of Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brovchenko, M.; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Allibert, M.; Capellan, N.; Ghetta, V.; Laureau, A. [LPSC, CNRS/IN2P3, Grenoble INP, 53,rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2012-07-01

    Molten salt reactors are liquid fuel reactors so that they are flexible in operation but very different in the safety approach from solid fuel reactors. This study bears on the specific concept named Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). Since this new nuclear technology is in development, safety is an essential point to be considered all along the R and D studies. This paper presents the first step of the safety approach: the systematic description of the MSFR, limited here to the main systems surrounding the core. This systematic description is the basis on which we will be able to devise accidental scenarios. Thanks to the negative reactivity feedback coefficient, most accidental scenarios lead to reactor shut down. Because of the decay heat generated in the fuel salt, it must be cooled. After the description of the tools developed to calculate the residual heat, the different contributions are discussed in this study. The decay heat of fission products in the MSFR is evaluated to be low (3% of nominal power), mainly due to the reprocessing that transfers the fission products to the gas reprocessing unit. As a result, the contribution of the actinides is significant (0.5% of nominal power). The unprotected loss of heat sink transients are studied in this paper. It appears that slow transients are favorable (> 1 min) to minimize the temperature increase of the fuel salt. This work will be the basis of further safety studies as well as an essential parameter for the design of the draining system. (authors)

  14. Simulation tools and new developments of the molten salt fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Allibert, M.; Doligez, X.; Ghetta, V. [LPSC-IN2P3-CNRS/UJF, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2010-11-15

    In the MSFR (Molten Salt Fast Reactor), the liquid fuel processing is part of the reactor where a small side stream of the molten salt is processed for fission product removal and then returned to the reactor. Because of this design characteristic, the MSFR can thus operate with a widely varying fuel composition. Our reactor's studies of the MSFR concept rely on numerical simulations making use of the MCNP neutron transport code coupled with a code for Bateman's equations computing the population of any nucleus inside any part of the reactor at any moment. The classical Bateman's equations have been modified by adding 2 terms representing the reprocessing capacities and an online addition. We have thus coupled neutronic and reprocessing simulation codes in a numerical tool used to calculate the extraction efficiencies of fission products, their location in the whole system and radioprotection issues. The very preliminary results show the potential of the neutronic-reprocessing coupling we have developed. We also show that these studies are limited by the uncertainties on the design and the knowledge of the chemical reprocessing processes. (A.C.)

  15. Conceptual Design of a 100 MWe Modular Molten Salt Power Tower Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Pacheco; Carter Moursund, Dale Rogers, David Wasyluk

    2011-09-20

    A conceptual design of a 100 MWe modular molten salt solar power tower plant has been developed which can provide capacity factors in the range of 35 to 75%. Compared to single tower plants, the modular design provides a higher degree of flexibility in achieving the desired customer's capacity factor and is obtained simply by adjusting the number of standard modules. Each module consists of a standard size heliostat field and receiver system, hence reengineering and associated unacceptable performance uncertainties due to scaling are eliminated. The modular approach with multiple towers also improves plant availability. Heliostat field components, receivers and towers are shop assembled allowing for high quality and minimal field assembly. A centralized thermal-storage system stores hot salt from the receivers, allowing nearly continuous power production, independent of solar energy collection, and improved parity with the grid. A molten salt steam generator converts the stored thermal energy into steam, which powers a steam turbine generator to produce electricity. This paper describes the conceptual design of the plant, the advantages of modularity, expected performance, pathways to cost reductions, and environmental impact.

  16. Metals recovering from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) using molten salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandinet, L; Tedjar, F; Ghetta, V; Fouletier, J

    2012-04-30

    Recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) has been taken into consideration in the literature due to the large quantity of concerned wastes and their hazardous contents. The situation is so critical that EU published European Directives imposing collection and recycling with a minimum of material recovery [1]. Moreover, WEEEs contain precious metals, making the recycling of these wastes economically interesting, but also some critical metals and their recycling leads to resource conservation. This paper reports on a new approach for recycling waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). Molten salts and specifically molten KOH-NaOH eutectic is used to dissolve glasses, oxides and to destruct plastics present in wastes without oxidizing the most valuable metals. This method is efficient for recovering a copper-rich metallic fraction, which is, moreover, cleared of plastics and glasses. In addition, analyses of gaseous emission show that this method is environmentally friendly since most of the process gases, such as carbon monoxide and dioxide and halogens, are trapped in the highly basic molten salt. In other respects, under operation without oxygen, a large quantity of hydrogen is produced and might be used as fuel gas or as synthesis gas, leading to a favourable energy balance for this new process.

  17. Operation of large-scale pumps and valves in molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.C. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Rush, E.E.; Matthews, C.W.; Chavez, J.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Bator, P.A. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States))

    1994-08-01

    The molten salt pump and valve (P and V) test loops at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) operated between Jan. 1988 and Oct. 1990. The purpose of the P and V test was to demonstrate the performance, reliability, and service life of full-scale hot and cold salt pumps and valves for use in commercial central receiver solar power plants. The P and V test hardware consists of two pumped loops; the Hot Loop'' to simulate the hot (565 C) side of the receiver and the Cold Loop'' to simulate the receiver's cold (285 C) side. Each loop contains a pump and five valves sized to be representative of a conceptual 60-MW(e) commercial solar power plant design. The hot loop accumulated over 6,700 hours of operation and the cold loop over 2,500 hours of operation. This project has demonstrated that standard commercial scale pump and valve designs will work in molten salt. The test also exposed some pitfalls that must be avoided in specifying such equipment. Although certainly not all of the pitfalls were discovered, careful design and specification should result in reliable or at least workable equipment.

  18. Archimede solar energy molten salt parabolic trough demo plant: Improvements and second year of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Augusto; Donnola, Sandro; Matino, Francesca; Tamano, Shiro

    2016-05-01

    Since July 2013, the first stand-alone Molten Salt Parabolic Trough (MSPT) demo plant, which was built in collaboration with Archimede Solar Energy and Chiyoda Corporation, is in operation, located adjacent to the Archimede Solar Energy (ASE) manufacturing plant in Massa Martana (Italy). During the two year's operating time frame, the management of the demo plant has shown that MSPT technology is a suitable and reliable option. Several O&M procedures and tests have been performed, as Heat Loss and Minimum Flow Test, with remarkable results confirming that this technology is ready to be extended to standard size CSP plant, if the plant design takes into account molten salt peculiarities. Additionally, the plant has been equipped on fall 2014 with a Steam Generator system by Chiyoda Corporation, in order to test even this important MSPT plant subsystem and to extend the solar field active time, overcoming the previous lack of an adequate thermal load. Here, a description of the plant improvements and the overall plant operation figures will be presented.

  19. Preparation of niobium carbide powder by electrochemical reduction in molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Qiushi [School of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Xu, Qian, E-mail: qianxu201@mail.neu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Meng, Jingchun; Lou, Taiping; Ning, Zhiqiang [School of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Qi, Yang [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Yu, Kai [School of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-10-25

    The niobium carbide powder was prepared via electrochemical reduction of the mixture of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and carbon in molten CaCl{sub 2}–NaCl. The reaction pathway from the sintered precursor to the final product has been investigated. The effect of the working temperature on the reduction of the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/C composite precursor was considered. The role of carbon during the electrochemical reduction of the composite pellet was discussed. The samples were analysed by XRD and SEM. The results indicated that the NbC powder was approximately 200 nm after the reduction. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} was gradually reduced to Nb, and NbC was subsequently obtained by the reaction of carbon with Nb metal. In addition, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} could spontaneously react with CaO in the melt to form a serious of calcium niobates. The participation of carbon was available for the efficiency of electro-reduction of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. - Graphical abstract: Niobium carbide powder was electrochemically prepared in molten salt, and the reduction pathway was illustrated schematically. - Highlights: • NbC powder was prepared electrochemically in molten salt. • The working temperature was lower than that of carbothermic reduction. • The reduction pathway was discussed compared to direct electro-deoxidation of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}.

  20. Two-Dimensional Neutronic and Fuel Cycle Analysis of the Transatomic Power Molten Salt Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Robertson, Sean [Transatomic Power Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dewan, Leslie [Transatomic Power Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States); Massie, Mark [Transatomic Power Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    This status report presents the results from the first phase of the collaboration between Transatomic Power Corporation (TAP) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide neutronic and fuel cycle analysis of the TAP core design through the Department of Energy Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear, Nuclear Energy Voucher program. The TAP design is a molten salt reactor using movable moderator rods to shift the neutron spectrum in the core from mostly epithermal at beginning of life to thermal at end of life. Additional developments in the ChemTriton modeling and simulation tool provide the critical moderator-to-fuel ratio searches and time-dependent parameters necessary to simulate the continuously changing physics in this complex system. Results from simulations with these tools show agreement with TAP-calculated performance metrics for core lifetime, discharge burnup, and salt volume fraction, verifying the viability of reducing actinide waste production with this design. Additional analyses of time step sizes, mass feed rates and enrichments, and isotopic removals provide additional information to make informed design decisions. This work further demonstrates capabilities of ORNL modeling and simulation tools for analysis of molten salt reactor designs and strongly positions this effort for the upcoming three-dimensional core analysis.

  1. High Temperature Corrosion studies on Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welded Alloy C-276 in Molten Salt Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, M.; Arivarasu, M.; Arivazhagan, N.; Puneeth, T.; Sivakumar, N.; Murugan, B. Arul; Sathishkumar, M.; Sivalingam, S.

    2016-09-01

    Alloy C-276 is widely used in the power plant environment due to high strength and corrosion in highly aggressive environment. The investigation on high- temperature corrosion resistance of the alloy C-276 PCGTA weldment is necessary for prolonged service lifetime of the components used in corrosive environments. Investigation has been carried out on Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding by autogenous and different filler wires (ERNiCrMo-3 and ERNiCrMo-4) under molten state of K2SO4-60% NaCl environment at 675oC under cyclic condition. Thermogravimetric technique was used to establish the kinetics of corrosion. Weight gained in the molten salt reveals a steady-state parabolic rate law while the kinetics with salt deposits displays multi-stage growth rates. PCGTA ERNiCrMo-3 shows the higher parabolic constant compared to others. The scale formed on the weldment samples upon hot corrosion was characterized by using X-ray diffraction, SEM and EDAX analysis to understand the degradation mechanisms. From the results of the experiment the major phases are identified as Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and NiCr2O4. The result showed that weld fabricated by ERNiCrMo-3 found to be more prone to degradation than base metal and ERNiCrMo-4 filler wire due to higher segregation of alloying element of Mo and W in the weldment

  2. The mechanics of pressed-pellet separators in molten salt batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin Nicholas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine Cardinal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Scott Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological constitutive model that describes the macroscopic behavior of pressed-pellet materials used in molten salt batteries. Such materials include separators, cathodes, and anodes. The purpose of this model is to describe the inelastic deformation associated with the melting of a key constituent, the electrolyte. At room temperature, all constituents of these materials are solid and do not transport cations so that the battery is inert. As the battery is heated, the electrolyte, a constituent typically present in the separator and cathode, melts and conducts charge by flowing through the solid skeletons of the anode, cathode, and separator. The electrochemical circuit is closed in this hot state of the battery. The focus of this report is on the thermal-mechanical behavior of the separator, which typically exhibits the most deformation of the three pellets during the process of activating a molten salt battery. Separator materials are composed of a compressed mixture of a powdered electrolyte, an inert binder phase, and void space. When the electrolyte melts, macroscopically one observes both a change in volume and shape of the separator that depends on the applied boundary conditions during the melt transition. Although porous flow plays a critical role in the battery mechanics and electrochemistry, the focus of this report is on separator behavior under flow-free conditions in which the total mass of electrolyte is static within the pellet. Specific poromechanics effects such as capillary pressure, pressure-saturation, and electrolyte transport between layers are not considered. Instead, a phenomenological model is presented to describe all such behaviors including the melting transition of the electrolyte, loss of void space, and isochoric plasticity associated with the binder phase rearrangement. The model is appropriate for use finite element analysis under finite deformation and finite temperature change conditions. The model

  3. The mechanics of pressed-pellet separators in molten salt batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin Nicholas; Roberts, Christine Cardinal; Roberts, Scott Alan; Grillet, Anne

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological constitutive model that describes the macroscopic behavior of pressed-pellet materials used in molten salt batteries. Such materials include separators, cathodes, and anodes. The purpose of this model is to describe the inelastic deformation associated with the melting of a key constituent, the electrolyte. At room temperature, all constituents of these materials are solid and do not transport cations so that the battery is inert. As the battery is heated, the electrolyte, a constituent typically present in the separator and cathode, melts and conducts charge by flowing through the solid skeletons of the anode, cathode, and separator. The electrochemical circuit is closed in this hot state of the battery. The focus of this report is on the thermal-mechanical behavior of the separator, which typically exhibits the most deformation of the three pellets during the process of activating a molten salt battery. Separator materials are composed of a compressed mixture of a powdered electrolyte, an inert binder phase, and void space. When the electrolyte melts, macroscopically one observes both a change in volume and shape of the separator that depends on the applied boundary conditions during the melt transition. Although porous flow plays a critical role in the battery mechanics and electrochemistry, the focus of this report is on separator behavior under flow-free conditions in which the total mass of electrolyte is static within the pellet. Specific poromechanics effects such as capillary pressure, pressure-saturation, and electrolyte transport between layers are not considered. Instead, a phenomenological model is presented to describe all such behaviors including the melting transition of the electrolyte, loss of void space, and isochoric plasticity associated with the binder phase rearrangement. The model is appropriate for use finite element analysis under finite deformation and finite temperature change conditions. The model

  4. Thermal performance analysis of a thermocline thermal energy storage system with FLiNaK molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Cheng, M. S.; Zhao, B. C.; Dai, Z. M.

    2017-01-01

    A thermocline thermal storage unit with a heat transfer fluid (HTF) of high-temperature molten salt is considered as one of the most promising methods of thermal storage due to its lower cost and smaller size. The main objective of this work is to analyze the transient behavior of the available molten salt FLiNaK used as the HTF in heat transfer and heat storage in a thermocline thermal energy storage (TES) system. Thermal characteristics including temperature profiles influenced by different inlet velocities of HTF and different void fractions of porous heat storage medium are analyzed. The numerical investigation on the heat storage and heat transfer characteristics of FLiINaK has been carried out. A comparison between two different molten salts, FLiNaK and Hitec, has been explored in this paper with regards to their charging and discharging operations. The results indicate the system with FLiNaK has a greater energy storage capability, a shorter charging time and a higher output power. The numerical investigation reveals heat storage and heat transfer characteristics of the thermocline TES system with FLiNaK, and provide important references for molten salt selection of the TES system in the future.

  5. Status of benchmark calculations of the neutron characteristics of the cascade molten salt ADS for the nuclear waste incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, A.A.; Alekseev, P.N.; Subbotin, S.A.; Vasiliev, A.V.; Abagyan, L.P.; Alexeyev, N.I.; Gomin, E.A.; Ponomarev, L.I.; Kolyaskin, O.E.; Men' shikov, L.I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Kolesov, V.F.; Ivanin, I.A.; Zavialov, N.V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, RFNC-VNIIEF, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The facility for incineration of long-lived minor actinides and some dangerous fission products should be an important feature of the future nuclear power (NP). For many reasons the liquid-fuel reactor driven by accelerator can be considered as the perspective reactor- burner for radioactive waste. The fuel of such reactor is the fluoride molten salt composition with minor actinides (Np, Cm, Am) and some fission products ({sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, etc.). Preliminary analysis shows that the values of keff, calculated with different codes and nuclear data differ up to several percents for such fuel compositions. Reliable critical and subcritical benchmark experiments with molten salt fuel compositions with significant quantities of minor actinides are absent. One of the main tasks for the numerical study of this problem is the estimation of nuclear data for such fuel compositions and verification of the different numerical codes used for the calculation of keff, neutron spectra and reaction rates. It is especially important for the resonance region where experimental data are poor or absent. The calculation benchmark of the cascade subcritical molten salt reactor is developed. For the chosen nuclear fuel composition the comparison of the results obtained by three different Monte-Carlo codes (MCNP4A, MCU, and C95) using three different nuclear data libraries are presented. This report concerns the investigation of subcritical molten salt reactor unit main peculiarities carried out at the beginning of ISTC project 1486. (author)

  6. Molten Salt Heat Transport Loop: Materials Corrosion and Heat Transfer Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Kumar Sridharan; Dr. Mark Anderson; Dr. Michael Corradini; Dr. Todd Allen; Luke Olson; James Ambrosek; Daniel Ludwig

    2008-07-09

    An experimental system for corrosion testing of candidate materials in molten FLiNaK salt at 850 degree C has been designed and constructed. While molten FLiNaK salt was the focus of this study, the system can be utilized for evaluation of materials in other molten salts that may be of interest in the future. Using this system, the corrosion performance of a number of code-certified alloys of interest to NGNP as well as the efficacy of Ni-electroplating have been investigated. The mechanisums underlying corrosion processes have been elucidated using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the materials after the corrosion tests, as well as by the post-corrosion analysis of the salts using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques.

  7. A new form of MgTa2O6 obtained by the molten salt method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok K Ganguli; Shikha Nangia; A Meganathan Thirumala; Pratibha L Gai

    2006-01-01

    Using molten salt route (with NaCl/KCl as the salt) we have been able to synthesize a new form of magnesium tantalate at 850°C. Powder X-ray diffraction data could be indexed on an orthorhombic unit cell with lattice parameters, `' = 15.36(1) Å, ‘’ = 13.38(1) Å and ‘’ = 12.10(1) Å. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction studies confirm the results obtained by X-ray studies. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy helps ascertain the composition of MgTa2O6. The title compound shows a dielectric constant of ∼ 24 with a low dielectric loss of 0.006 at 100 kHz at room temperature. Dielectric constant is nearly unchanged with rise in temperature while the loss shows a very marginal increase (0.007 at 300°C).

  8. Molten salt considerations for accelerator-driven subcritical fission to close the nuclear fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooby, Elizabeth; Adams, Marvin; Baty, Austin; Gerity, James; McIntyre, Peter; Melconian, Karie; Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Pogue, Nathaniel; Sattarov, Akhdiyor; Simpson, Michael; Tripathy, Prabhat; Tsevkov, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    The host salt selection, molecular modeling, physical chemistry, and processing chemistry are presented here for an accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS). The core is fueled solely with the transuranics (TRU) and long-lived fission products (LFP) from used nuclear fuel. The neutronics and salt composition are optimized to destroy the transuranics by fission and the long-lived fission products by transmutation. The cores are driven by proton beams from a strong-focusing cyclotron stack. One such ADSMS system can destroy the transuranics in the used nuclear fuel produced by a 1GWe conventional reactor. It uniquely provides a method to close the nuclear fuel cycle for green nuclear energy.

  9. Determination of Stoichiometry of Solutes in Molten Salt Solvents by Correlations of Relative Raman Band Intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boghosian, Soghomon; Berg, Rolf W.

    1999-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been used to determine the stoichiometry of solute complexes in molten salts at high temperatures under static equilibrium conditions, A simple formalism is derived for correlating relative Raman band intensities with stoichiometric coefficients. The experimental procedures......); (2) Nb2O5 + nS(2)O(7)(2-) (1) --> Y2n- (1); (3) MoO3 + nS(2)O(7)(2-) (1) --> Z(2n)- (1). It is shown that the solute complex species formed in the studied reactions have, respectively, the following stoichiometries: (1) n = 2, (VO)(2)O(SO4)(4)(4-); (2) n = 3, NbO(SO4)(3)(3-); (3) n = 1, MoO(SO4)(2)(2-)....

  10. Treatment of waste by the Molten Salt Oxidation process at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosley, S.M.; Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gay, R.L.; Barclay, K.M.; Newcomb, J.C.; Yosim, S.J.

    1993-12-31

    The Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) process has been under development by Rockwell International to treat hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste. Testing of the system was done on a number of wastes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the process. This testing included simulated intermediate level waste (ILW) from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The intermediate level waste stream consisted of a slurry of concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate, with a small amount of miscellaneous combustible components (PVC, TBP, kerosene, and ion exchange resins). The purpose of these tests was to evaluate the destruction of the organics, evaporation of the water, and conversion of the hazardous salts (hydroxide and nitrate) to non-hazardous sodium carbonate. Results of the tests are discussed and analyzed, and the possibilities of applying the MSO process to different waste streams at ORNL in the future are explored.

  11. Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, Andang Widi [Engineering Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)

    2012-06-06

    Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

  12. Molten Salt Electrolytically Produced Carbon/Tin Nanomaterial as the Anode in a Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, Rajshekar; Schwandt, Carsten; Fray, Derek J.

    2017-03-01

    A carbon/tin nanomaterial, consisting of predominantly Sn-filled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles, is prepared by molten salt electrochemistry, using electrodes of graphite and an electrolyte of LiCl salt containing a small admixture of SnCl2. The C/Sn hybrid material generated is incorporated into the active anode material of a lithium ion battery and tested with regard to storage capacity and cycling behavior. The results demonstrate that the C/Sn material has favorable properties, in terms of energy density and in particular long-term stability, that exceed those of the individual components alone. The initial irreversible capacity of the material is somewhat larger than that of conventional battery graphite which is due to its unique nanostructure. Overall the results would indicate the suitability of this material for use in the anodes of lithium ion batteries with high rate capability.

  13. Molten salt synthesis and luminescent properties of YVO4:Eu nanocrystalline phosphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang; LIU Chenglu; ZHOU Zhiqiang; JIA Peiyun; LIN Jun

    2012-01-01

    YVO4:Eu nanocrystalline phosphors were successfully prepared at 400 ℃ in equal moles of NaNO3 and KNO3 molten salts.NaOH concentration and annealing temperature played important roles in phase purity and crystallinity of the nanocrystallines,and the optimum NaOH concentration and annealing temperature were 6∶40 and 400 ℃,respectively.The nanocrystallines were well crystallized with a cubic morphology in an average grain size of 18 nm.Upon excitation of the vanadate groups at 314 nm,YVO4:Eu nanocrystallines exhibited the characteristic emission of Eu3+,which indicated that there was an energy transfer from vanadate groups to Eu3+.Moreover,the influence of superficial effect,especially the dangling bonds on the structure and luminescent properties of the nanocrystallines was discussed in detail.

  14. Numerical Modelling of Induction Heating for a Molten Salts Pyrochemical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Xuan-Tuyen; Feraud, Jean-Pierre; Ode, Denis [CEA Marcoule: DTEC/SGCS/LGCI Bat. 57 B17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France); Du Terrail Couvat, Yves [SIMaP, Grenoble INP, CNRS: ENSEEG, BP 75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Technological developments in the pyro-chemistry program are required to allow choices for a reprocessing experiment on 100 g of spent nuclear fuel. In this context, a special device must be designed for the solid/gas reaction phases followed by actinide extraction and stripping in molten salt. This paper discusses a modelling approach for designing an induction furnace. Using this numerical approach is a good way to improve thermal performance of the device in terms of magnetic/thermal coupling phenomena. The influence of current frequency is also studied to give another view of the possibilities of an induction furnace. Electromagnetic forces are taken into account in a computational fluid dynamics code derived from a specifically developed exchange library. Induction heating systems are an example of a typical multi-physics problem involving numerically coupled equations. (authors)

  15. Molten-salt Synthesis and Properties of ZnS with Hexagonal Prism Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU, Jin-Song; JI, Guang-Bin; LI, Zi-Quan; CAO, Jie-Ming; ZHENG, Ming-Bo; KE, Xing-Fei

    2007-01-01

    ZnS with hexagonal prism morphology has been synthesized successfully by molten-salt method with ZnS nanoparticles as precursors, and the ZnS nanoparticles were prepared by one-step solid-state reaction of Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O with Na2S·9H2O at ambient temperature. Crystal structure and morphology of the product were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and HRTEM. Ultraviolet-visible optical absorption spectrum of the ZnS hexagonal prism shows a distinct red shift from that of bulk ZnS crystals and photoluminescence spectrum exhibits strong emissions at 380 and 500 nm, respectively. Further experiments were designed and the formation mechanism of the ZnS hexagonal prism has been also discussed in brief.

  16. Determination and correlation of mass transfer coefficients in a stirred cell. [Molten Salt Breeder Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, J.; Bloxom, S.R.; Keeler, J.B.; Roth, S.R.

    1975-12-17

    In the proposed Molten Salt Breeder Reactor flowsheet, a fraction of the rare earth fission products is removed from the fuel salt in mass transfer cells. To obtain design parameters for this extraction, the effect of cell size, blade diameter, phase volume, and agitation rate on the mass transfer for a high density ratio system (mercury/water) in nondispersing square cross section contactors was determined. Aqueous side mass transfer coefficients were measured by polarography over a wide range of operating conditions. Correlations for the experimental mass transfer coefficients as functions of the operating parameters are presented. Several techniques for measuring mercury-side mass transfer coefficients were evaluated and a new one is recommended. (auth)

  17. Electrochemical behavior of Cu in the (NaCl-KCl-CuCl)molten salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yungang LI; Jie LI; Kuai ZHANG; Limin LIU

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction mechanism and electrocrystallization process of Cu on copper electrode in the eutectic NaC1-KC1-CuC1 molten salt were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry,chronopotentiometry and chronoamperometry technique at 710 ℃.The results show that the electrochemical reaction process of Cu is a quasi-reversible process mix-controlled by Cu+ diffusion rate and electron transport rate; the electrochemical reduction mechanism is Cu++e→Cu; the electrocrystallization process of copper is an instantaneous hemispheroid three-dimensional nucleation process; the Cu+ diffusion coefficient is 4.3×10-4 cm2·s-1 under the experimental conditions.

  18. Molten Salt Electrolytically Produced Carbon/Tin Nanomaterial as the Anode in a Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, Rajshekar; Schwandt, Carsten; Fray, Derek J.

    2016-12-01

    A carbon/tin nanomaterial, consisting of predominantly Sn-filled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles, is prepared by molten salt electrochemistry, using electrodes of graphite and an electrolyte of LiCl salt containing a small admixture of SnCl2. The C/Sn hybrid material generated is incorporated into the active anode material of a lithium ion battery and tested with regard to storage capacity and cycling behavior. The results demonstrate that the C/Sn material has favorable properties, in terms of energy density and in particular long-term stability, that exceed those of the individual components alone. The initial irreversible capacity of the material is somewhat larger than that of conventional battery graphite which is due to its unique nanostructure. Overall the results would indicate the suitability of this material for use in the anodes of lithium ion batteries with high rate capability.

  19. Molten salt synthesis of sodium lithium titanium oxide anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, S.Y., E-mail: yshy2004@hotmail.com [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Feng, C.Q. [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wu, S.J.; Liu, H.L.; Ke, B.Q. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Zhang, K.L. [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, D.H. [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Catalysis and Material Science, College of Chemistry and Material Science, South Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} has been successfully synthesized via a molten salt route. • Calcination temperature is an important effect on the component and microstructure of the product. • Pure phase Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 12} could be obtained at 700 °C for 2 h. - Abstract: The sodium lithium titanium oxide with composition Na{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 14} has been synthesized by a molten salt synthesis method using sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixture as a flux medium. Synthetic variables on the synthesis, such as sintering temperature, sintering time and the amount of lithium carbonate, were intensively investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy images of the reaction products indicates that pure phase sodium lithium titanium oxide has been obtained at 700 °C, and impure phase sodium hexatitanate with whiskers produced at higher temperature due to lithium evaporative losses. The results of cyclic voltammetry and discharge–charge tests demonstrate that the synthesized products prepared at various temperatures exhibited electrochemical diversities due to the difference of the components. And the sample obtained at 700 °C revealed highly reversible insertion and extraction of Li{sup +} and displayed a single potential plateau at around 1.3 V. The product obtained at 700 °C for 2 h exhibits good cycling properties and retains the specific capacity of 62 mAh g{sup −1} after 500 cycles.

  20. Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Simpson, Mike [Idaho National Lab., (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500 deg C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal.

  1. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wishau, R.

    1998-05-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

  2. 1 GW固态燃料熔盐堆运行瞬态分析%Transient analysis with 1-GW solid fuel molten salt reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 李明海; 何龙; 杨洋; 戴叶; 蔡翔舟

    2016-01-01

    Background:As a new type of reactor, thorium-based molten salt reactor (TMSR) has unique safety and operation characteristics. Its thermal-hydraulic features are enormously different from other reactors, thus worth doing transient analysis. Purpose:This study aims at disturbed transient analysis of TMSR for fundamental comprehension of its safety and operation characteristics. Methods:The structure and design scheme of the core of 1-GW solid fuel thorium-based molten salt reactor (TMSR-SF) have been presented. Structural emulation platform for transient analysis is proposed with the thermo-hydraulic model being developed on the basis of RELAP5, and the control system model being constructed by using the MATLAB/Simulink software. Results:The results of emulation test for operational transient, such as rapid power reduction, step load reducing, linear load reducing and temperature of secondary loop inlet reducing show that the reactor control system is effective to bring the reactor into a safe and steady state without actuation of reactor protection system. Conclusion: Analysis results show that the design satisfied the requirements of 1-GW TMSR-SF operational transient. It also indicates that the platform can perfectly simulate the variable power transient conditions.%钍基熔盐堆(Thorium-based Molten Salt Reactor, TMSR)作为一种新的堆型,具有独特的安全与运行特性。研究其热工水力特性,对其进行瞬态分析,将有助于深刻理解该反应堆。本文介绍了1 GW固态熔盐堆的堆芯设计方案,并描述了用于瞬态分析的详细程序结构。其中,利用 RELAP5对其热工水力模型进行模拟;利用 Simulink 对其控制系统模型进行模拟。通过预期运行瞬态,例如功率降低、堆芯反应性引入、二回路温度变化等工况显示了其运行特性,并验证了控制系统可以使反应堆达到安全稳定状态,而不触发保护系统动作。

  3. Thermodynamic assessment of the LiF-CeF3-ThF4 system: Prediction of PuF3 concentration in a molten salt reactor fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneš, O.; Konings, R. J. M.

    2013-04-01

    A thermodynamic description of the LiF-CeF3-ThF4 system is made in this study using a two-sublattice model for the description of the solid solution and a quasi-chemical model based on quadruplet approximation for the liquid phase. New calorimetric experimental data of the binary LiF-CeF3, CeF3-ThF4 and ternary LiF-CeF3-ThF4 systems have been obtained in this work justifying the calculated phase diagrams. Using the obtained thermodynamic assessment the concentration of PuF3 in the LiF-ThF4 melt was estimated based on the similarities with CeF3 and the melting behaviour of the initial molten salt fast reactor fuel was discussed.

  4. Evaluation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment drain tanks for reuse in salt disposal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This report was prepared to identify the source documentation used to evaluate the drain tanks in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The evaluation considered the original quality of the tanks, their service history, and their intended use during the removal of fluoride salts. It also includes recommendations for a quality verification plan. The estimates of corrosion damage to the salt containing system at the MSRE are low enough to lend optimism that the system will be fit for its intended use, which is disposal of the salt by transferring it to transport containers. The expected corrosion to date is estimated between 10 and 50 mil, or 2 to 10% of the shell wall. The expected corrosion rate when the tanks are used to remove the salt at 110 F is estimated to be .025 to 0.1 mil per hour of exposure to HF and molten salt. To provide additional assurance that the estimates of corrosion damage are accurate, cost effective nondestructive examination (NDE) has been recommended. The NDE procedures are compared with industry standards and give a perspective for the extent of additional measures taken in the recommendation. A methodology for establishing the remaining life has been recommended, and work is progressing towards providing an engineering evaluation based upon thickness and design conditions for the future use of the tanks. These extra measures and the code based analysis will serve to define the risk of salt or radioactive gases leaking during processing and transfer of the salt as acceptable.

  5. Neutron Flux and Th-U Conversion Ratio for Graphite-Molten Salt Reactor%石墨-熔盐反应堆堆芯中子通量与钍铀转换比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓斌; 谢芹; 姚泽恩; 陈达

    2012-01-01

    作为获国际认可的第四代核电站反应堆堆型之一的熔盐堆(Molten salt reactor,MSR),具有固有安全性高、经济性好、核资源可持续发展以及易于防止核扩散等优点.针对石墨-熔盐零功率堆的几何参数,利用蒙特卡罗计算程序MCNP5建立了物理计算模型,计算临界情况下堆芯径向、轴向中子通量及增殖区厚度与Th-U转换比(Conversion ratio,CR)的关系.结果表明,(1)石墨-熔盐零功率堆堆芯中子通量密度分布较为平坦;(2)石墨-熔盐零功率堆反射层厚度和增殖区厚度在一定范围内,CR随反射层厚度或增殖区厚度的增加而增加,当超出该范围,CR不再随反射层厚度或增殖区厚度的增加而明显增加.%The molten salt reactor (MSR) is the only one liquid-fuel reactor in six candidates of Generation IV advanced nuclear reactor, which is characterized by remarkable advantages in safety, economics and sustainable development of the fissile resource and proliferation resistance of nuclear energy. A detailed computational model using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 is set up, in order to study about radical/axis neutron flux and the influences of the reflect thickness or blanket thickness on the conversion ratio (CR) of the Th-U fuel cycle. Main results obtained in this calculation show that: (1) The neutron flux distribution of the graphite-molten zero power reactor core is relatively smooth. (2) CR will increase with the increasing of the thickness of reflector and/or the thickness of breeding region in a certain range and when it exceeds this range CR cannot get increased significantly.

  6. Preliminary study of the electrolysis of aluminum sulfide in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1983-02-01

    A preliminary laboratory-scale study of the electrolysis of aluminum sulfide in molten salts investigated the (1) solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ in molten salts, (2) electrochemical behavior of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/, and (3) electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ with the determination of current efficiency as a function of current density. The solubility measurements show that MgCl/sub 2/-NaCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte at 1023 K can dissolve up to 3.3 mol % sulfide. The molar ratio of sulfur to aluminum in the eutectic is about one, which suggests that some sulfur remains undissolved, probably in the form of MgS. The experimental data and thermodynamic calculations suggest that Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ dissolves in the eutectic to form AlS/sup +/ species in solution. Addition of AlCl/sub 3/ to the eutectic enhances the solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/; the solubility increases with increasing AlCl/sub 3/ concentration. The electrode reaction mechanism for the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ was elucidated by using linear sweep voltammetry. The cathodic reduction of aluminum-ion-containing species to aluminum proceeds by a reversible, diffusion-controlled, three-electron reaction. The anodic reaction involves the two-electron discharge of sulfide-ion-containing species, followed by the fast dimerization of sulfur atoms to S/sub 2/. Electrolysis experiments show that Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ dissolved in molten MgCl/sub 2/-NaCl-KCl eutectic or in eutectic containing AlCl/sub 3/ can be electrolyzed to produce aluminum and sulfur. In the eutectic at 1023 K, the electrolysis can be conducted up to about 300 mA/cm/sup 2/ for the saturation solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/. Although these preliminary results are promising, additional studies are needed to elucidate many critical operating parameters before the technical potential of the electrolysis can be accurately assessed. 20 figures, 18 tables.

  7. Surface Morphology and Microstructure of Zinc Deposit From Imidazole with Zinc Chloride Low Temperature Molten Salt Electrolyte in The Presence of Aluminium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugasigamani Srinivasan, M. Selvam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature molten salts have variety of applications in organic synthesis, catalytic processing, batteries and electrode position due to their air and water stability. They have wide potential window for their applications in voltage and temperature and hence there is a possibility to deposit metals which could not be deposited from aqueous electrolytes. Our aim and scope of our research was to deposit zinc from low temperature molten salt electrolyte (LTMS containing zinc salt in the presence of aluminium chloride at different current densities and to qualify the nature of deposits. We could identify the effect of current density on the deposit at low temperature molten salt electrolyte by analysing the nature of deposits using different instrumental techniques. Compact, adherent, dense fine grained deposits of zinc with average grain size of 40-150 nm could be obtained from low temperature molten salt electrolyte. (LTMS

  8. The procedure and results of calculations of the equilibrium isotopic composition of a demonstration subcritical molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevinitsa, V. A., E-mail: Neviniza-VA@nrcki.ru; Dudnikov, A. A.; Blandinskiy, V. Yu.; Balanin, A. L.; Alekseev, P. N. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu., E-mail: yuri.titarenko@itep.ru [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A subcritical molten salt reactor with an external neutron source is studied computationally as a facility for incineration and transmutation of minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel of reactors of VVER-1000 type and for producing {sup 233}U from {sup 232}Th. The reactor configuration is chosen, the requirements to be imposed on the external neutron source are formulated, and the equilibrium isotopic composition of heavy nuclides and the key parameters of the fuel cycle are calculated.

  9. Effects assessment of 10 functioning years on the main components of the molten salt PCS experimental facility of ENEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Walter; Di Ascenzi, Primo; Rinaldi, Luca; Tarquini, Pietro; Fabrizi, Fabrizio

    2016-05-01

    In the frame of the Solar Thermodynamic Laboratory, ENEA has improved CSP Parabolic Trough technologies by adopting new advanced solutions for linear tube receivers and by implementing a binary mixture of molten salt (60% NaNO3 and 40% KNO3) [1] as both heat transfer fluid and heat storage medium in solar field and in storage tanks, thus allowing the solar plants to operate at high temperatures up to 550°C. Further improvements have regarded parabolic mirror collectors, piping and process instrumentation. All the innovative components developed by ENEA, together with other standard parts of the plant, have been tested and qualified under actual solar operating conditions on the PCS experimental facility at the ENEA Casaccia Research Center in Rome (Italy). The PCS (Prova Collettori Solari, i.e. Test of Solar Collectors) facility is the main testing loop built by ENEA and it is unique in the world for what concerns the high operating temperature and the fluid used (mixture of molten salt). It consists in one line of parabolic trough collectors (test section of 100 m long life-size solar collectors) using, as heat transfer fluid, the aforesaid binary mixture of molten salt up to 10 bar, at high temperature in the range 270° and 550°C and a flow rate up to 6.5 kg/s. It has been working since early 2004 [2] till now; it consists in a unique closed loop, and it is totally instrumented. In this paper the effects of over ten years qualification tests on the pressurized tank will be presented, together with the characterization of the thermal losses of the piping of the molten salt circuit, and some observations performed on the PCS facility during its first ten years of operation.

  10. The procedure and results of calculations of the equilibrium isotopic composition of a demonstration subcritical molten salt reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevinitsa, V. A.; Dudnikov, A. A.; Blandinskiy, V. Yu.; Balanin, A. L.; Alekseev, P. N.; Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    A subcritical molten salt reactor with an external neutron source is studied computationally as a facility for incineration and transmutation of minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel of reactors of VVER-1000 type and for producing 233U from 232Th. The reactor configuration is chosen, the requirements to be imposed on the external neutron source are formulated, and the equilibrium isotopic composition of heavy nuclides and the key parameters of the fuel cycle are calculated.

  11. Estimating steady state and transient characteristics of molten salt natural circulation loop using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudariyawar, J.Y. [Homi Bhabha National Institue, Mumbai (India); Vaidya, A.M.; Maheshwari, K.K.; Srivastava, A.K. [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India); Satyamurthy, P. [ATDS, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India)

    2015-03-15

    The steady state and transient characteristics of a molten salt natural circulation loop (NCL) are obtained by 3D CFD simulations. The working fluid is a mixture of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} in 60:40 ratio. Simulation is performed using PHOENICS CFD software. The computational domain is discretized by a body fitted grid generated using in-built mesh generator. The CFD model includes primary side. Primary side fluid is subjected to heat addition in heater section, heat loss to ambient (in piping connecting heater and cooler) and to secondary side (in cooler section). Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations are solved along with the standard k-ε turbulence model. Validation of the model is done by comparing the computed steady state Reynolds number with that predicted by various correlations proposed previously. Transient simulations were carried out to study the flow initiations transients for different heater powers and different configurations. Similarly the ''power raising'' transient is computed and compared with in-house experimental data. It is found that, using detailed information obtained from 3D transient CFD simulations, it is possible to understand the physics of oscillatory flow patterns obtained in the loop under certain conditions.

  12. Molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood using an electrostatic precipitator for oil collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi S. Nygård

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A tubular electrostatic precipitator (ESP was designed and tested for collection of pyrolysis oil in molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood (0.5-2 mm. The voltage-current (V-I characteristics were studied, showing most stable performance of the ESP when N2 was utilized as inert gas. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out in FLiNaK and (LiNaK2CO3 over the temperature range of 450-600 ℃. The highest yields of pyrolysis oil were achieved in FLiNaK, with a maximum of 34.2 wt% at 500 ℃, followed by a decrease with increasing reactor temperature. The temperature had nearly no effect on the oil yield for pyrolysis in (LiNaK2CO3 (19.0-22.5 wt%. Possible hydration reactions and formation of HF gas during FLiNaK pyrolysis were investigated by simulations (HSC Chemistry software and measurements of the outlet gas (FTIR, but no significant amounts of HF were detected.

  13. Customer interface document for the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettit, Kathleen; Kolb, William J.; Gill, David Dennis; Briggs, Ronald D.

    2012-03-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL is a test capability that allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt. The components tested can range from materials samples, to individual components such as flex hoses, ball joints, and valves, up to full solar collecting systems such as central receiver panels, parabolic troughs, or linear Fresnel systems. MSTL provides realistic conditions similar to a portion of a concentrating solar power facility. The facility currently uses 60/40 nitrate 'solar salt' and can circulate the salt at pressure up to 600psi, temperature to 585 C, and flow rate of 400-600GPM depending on temperature. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for customers to evaluate the applicability to their testing needs, and to provide an outline of expectations for conducting testing on MSTL. The document can serve as the basis for testing agreements including Work for Others (WFO) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA). While this document provides the basis for these agreements and describes some of the requirements for testing using MSTL and on the site at Sandia, the document is not sufficient by itself as a test agreement. The document, however, does provide customers with a uniform set of information to begin the test planning process.

  14. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery with molten salt electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuzhi; Han, Wei; Cui, Baochen; Liu, Xianjun; Zhao, Fulin; Stuart, Jessica; Licht, Stuart

    2017-02-01

    Zinc-air batteries have been proposed for EV applications and large-scale electricity storage such as wind and solar power. Although zinc-air batteries are very promising, there are numerous technological barriers to overcome. We demonstrate for the first time, a new rechargeable zinc-air battery that utilizes a molten Li0.87Na0.63K0.50CO3 eutectic electrolyte with added NaOH. Cyclic voltammetry reveals that a reversible deposition/dissolution of zinc occurs in the molten Li0.87Na0.63K0.50CO3 eutectic. At 550 °C, this zinc-air battery performs with a coulombic efficiency of 96.9% over 110 cycles, having an average charging potential of ∼1.43 V and discharge potential of ∼1.04 V. The zinc-air battery uses cost effective steel and nickel electrodes without the need for any precious metal catalysts. Moreover, the molten salt electrolyte offers advantages over aqueous electrolytes, avoiding the common aqueous alkaline electrolyte issues of hydrogen evolution, Zn dendrite formation, ;drying out;, and carbonate precipitation.

  15. Electrochemistry of LiCl-Li2O-H2O Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natalie J. Gese; Batric Pesic

    2013-03-01

    Uranium can be recovered from uranium oxide (UO2) spent fuel through the combination of the oxide reduction and electrorefining processes. During oxide reduction, the spent fuel is introduced to molten LiCl-Li2O salt at 650 degrees C and the UO2 is reduced to uranium metal via two routes: (1) electrochemically, and (2) chemically by lithium metal (Li0) that is produced electrochemically. However, the hygroscopic nature of both LiCl and Li2O leads to the formation of LiOH, contributing hydroxyl anions (OH-), the reduction of which interferes with the Li0 generation required for the chemical reduction of UO2. In order for the oxide reduction process to be an effective method for the treatment of uranium oxide fuel, the role of moisture in the LiCl-Li2O system must be understood. The behavior of moisture in the LiCl-Li2O molten salt system was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and chronoamperometry, while reduction to hydrogen was confirmed with gas chromatography.

  16. Molten-salt reactors for efficient nuclear fuel utilization without plutonium separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, J.R.; Grimes, W.R.; Rhoades, W.A.; Dearing, J.F.

    1978-08-01

    Research and development studies of molten-salt reactors (MSRs) for special purposes have been under way since 1947 and for possible application as possible commercial nuclear electric power generators since 1956. For the latter, the previous emphasis has been on breeding performance and low fissile inventory to help limit the demand on nonrenewable natural resources (uranium) in an expanding nuclear economy; little or no thought has been given to alternative uses of nuclear fuels such as proliferation of nuclear explosives. As a consequence, the conceptual designs that evolved (e.g., the ORNL reference design MSBR) all favored enriched /sup 233/U as fuel with an on-site chemical processing facility from which portions of that fuel could be diverted fairly easily. With the current interest in limiting the proliferation potential of nuclear electric power systems, a redirected study of MSRs was undertaken in an effort to identify conceptual systems that would be attractive in this situation. It appears that practical proliferation-resistant MSRs could be designed and built, and the report describes a particularly attractive break-even breeder that includes an on-site chemical reprocessing facility within the reactor primary containment.

  17. Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schuller; Frank Little; Darren Malik; Matt Betts; Qian Shao; Jun Luo; Wan Zhong; Sandhya Shankar; Ashwin Padmanaban

    2012-03-30

    We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials, including the specific heat, thermal conductivity, latent heat, and melting point. We also assessed the stability of the composite material with repeated thermal cycling and the effects of adding the nanoparticles on the corrosion of stainless steel by the composite salt. Our results indicate that stable, repeatable 25-50% improvements in specific heat are possible for these materials. We found that using these composite salts as the thermal energy storage material for a concentrating solar thermal power system can reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 10-20%. We conclude that these materials are worth further development and inclusion in future concentrating solar power systems.

  18. Grand canonical Monte Carlo investigations of electrical double layer in molten salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamperski, Stanisław; Kłos, Jacek

    2008-10-28

    Results of the Monte Carlo simulation of the electrode/molten salt interface are reported. The system investigated was modeled by the restricted primitive model of electrolyte being in contact with the charged hard wall (hard spheres of diameter d=400 pm and relative permittivity epsilon(r)=10). The temperature analysis of the mean activity coefficient gamma(+/-), heat capacity C(v) and radial distribution function, g, indicated the range of temperatures of the study. Calculations for the electrode/electrolyte interface were carried out for temperatures 1300, 1400, and 1500 K and in the range of the electrode charge densities sigma from 0.025 to 0.5 C m(-2). Singlet distribution functions showed a multilayer structure of the electrolyte in the vicinity of the electrode surface. The structure depended on the electrode charge, but not much on temperature. The capacitance curves had a parabolalike shape with the maximum located at sigma=0. This result is not consistent with the Gouy-Chapman theory, but has been confirmed by the modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory, which includes the correlation and exclusion volume effects.

  19. A final report on the Phase 1 testing of a molten-salt cavity receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, J M [ed.; Smith, D C [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States). Nuclear Equipment Div.

    1992-05-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and testing of a solar central receiver using molten nitrate salt as a heat exchange fluid. Design studies for large commercial plants (30--100 MWe) have shown molten salt to be an excellent fluid for solar thermal plants as it allows for efficient thermal storage. Plant design studies concluded that an advanced receiver test was required to address uncertainties not covered in prior receiver tests. This recommendation led to the current test program managed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy. The 4.5 MWt receiver is installed at Sandia National Laboratories' Central Receiver Test Facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The receiver incorporates features of large commercial receiver designs. This report describes the receiver's configuration, heat absorption surface (design and sizing), the structure and supporting systems, and the methods for control. The receiver was solar tested during a six-month period at the Central Receiver Test Facility in Albuquerque, NM. The purpose of the testing was to characterize the operational capabilities of the receiver under a number of solar operating and stand-by conditions. This testing consisted of initial check-out of the systems, followed by steady-state performance, transient receiver operation, receiver operation in clouds, receiver thermal loss testing, receiver start-up operation, and overnight thermal conditioning tests. This report describes the design, fabrication, and results of testing of the receiver.

  20. A descriptive model of the molten salt reactor experiment after shutdown: Review of FY 1995 progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.; Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    During FY 1995 considerable progress was made toward gaining a better understanding of the chemistry and transport processes that continue to govern the behavior of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE). As measurements in the MSRE proceed, laboratory studies continue, and better analyses are available, our understanding of the state of the MSRE and the best path toward remediation improves. Because of the immediate concern about the deposit in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB), laboratory studies in the past year focused on carbon-fluorine chemistry. Secondary efforts were directed toward investigation of gas generation from MSRE salts by both radiolytic and nonradiolytic pathways. In addition to the laboratory studies, field measurements at the MSRE provided the basis for estimating the inventory of uranium and fluorine in the ACB. Analysis of both temperature and radiation measurements provided independent and consistent estimates of about 2.6 kg of uranium deposited in the top of the ACB. Further analysis efforts included a refinement in the estimates of the fuel- salt source term, the deposited decay energy, and the projected rate of radiolytic gas generation. This report also provides the background material necessary to explain new developments and to review areas of particular interest. The detailed history of the MSRE is extensively documented and is cited where appropriate. This work is also intended to update and complement the more recent MSRE assessment reports.

  1. Thermal analysis to support decommissioning of the molten salt reactor experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulfredge, C.D.; Morris, D.G.; Park, J.E.; Williams, P.T.

    1996-06-01

    As part of the decommissioning process for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, several thermal-sciences issues were addressed. Apparently a mixture of UF{sub 6} and F{sub 2} had diffused into the upper portion of one charcoal column in the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB), leading to radiative decay heating and possible chemical reaction sources. A proposed interim corrective action was planned to remove the water from the ACB cell to reduce criticality and reactivity concerns and then fill the ACB cell with an inert material. This report describes design of a thermocouple probe to obtain temperature measurements for mapping the uranium deposit, as well as development of steady-state and transient numerical models for the heat transfer inside the charcoal column. Additional numerical modeling was done to support filling of the ACB cell. Results from this work were used to develop procedures for meeting the goals of the MSRE Remediation Project without exceeding appropriate thermal limits.

  2. Tungsten coating prepared on molybdenum substrate by electrodeposition from molten salt in air atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Yingchun, E-mail: zycustb@163.com; Sun, Ningbo; Leng, Jiaxun

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings were electroplated on molybdenum substrate for the first time. • The electrodeposition was studied in the air atmosphere. • The coating has columnar structure with preferential growth orientation of (1 1 0). • The columnar structure was disappeared after high-temperature annealing. • The coating has an extremely low oxygen content with the value of 0.032 wt%. - Abstract: Compact and smooth tungsten coating on molybdenum substrate was obtained by electrodeposition from Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt at 1173 K in atmosphere. Microstructure, morphology and properties were performed on the tungsten coating. The tungsten coating had columnar structure with the preferential growth orientation of (2 0 0). There was about 2 μm thick diffusion layer of tungsten in the molybdenum substrate. The bending test and thermal shock test showed the tungsten coating had good adhesion with the molybdenum substrate. The microhardness of the coating was about 492 HV and the oxygen content of the coating was 0.032 wt%. The high-temperature could enhance the high-temperature oxidation resistance and bond strength of the tungsten coating.

  3. Optimal spacing within a tubed, volumetric, cavity receiver suitable for modular molten salt solar towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Peter

    2016-05-01

    A 2-dimensional radiation analysis has been developed to analyse the radiative efficiency of an arrangement of heat transfer tubes distributed in layers but spaced apart to form a tubed, volumetric receiver. Such an arrangement could be suitable for incorporation into a cavity receiver. Much of the benefit of this volumetric approach is gained after using 5 layers although improvements do continue with further layers. The radiation analysis splits each tube into multiple segments in which each segment surface can absorb, reflect and radiate rays depending on its surface temperature. An iterative technique is used to calculate appropriate temperatures depending on the distribution of the net energy absorbed and assuming that the cool heat transfer fluid (molten salt) starts at the front layer and flows back through successive layers to the rear of the cavity. Modelling the finite diameter of each layer of tubes increases the ability of a layer to block radiation scattered at acute angles and this effect is shown to reduce radiation losses by nearly 25% compared to the earlier 1-d analysis. Optimum efficient designs tend to occur when the blockage factor is 0.2 plus the inverse of the number of tube layers. It is beneficial if the distance between successive layers is ≥ 2 times the diameter of individual tubes and in this situation, if the incoming radiation is spread over a range of angles, the performance is insensitive to the degree of any tube positional offset or stagger between layers.

  4. TiB2 coating formed on nickel substrates by electroplating in molten salt of fluoride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Jin-ming; GUO Zhong-cheng; HAN Xia-yun

    2004-01-01

    The TiB2 coatings deposited over nickel substrate by electroplating was investigated, which is in molten salt of a fluoride mixture involving KF, NaF, K2 TiF6 and KBF4. Effects of temperature, cathodic current density (Jc) and duration on the coating's formation were examined. The composition, morphology and structure of the coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the coatings, with black, smooth and uniform appearance, are composed of predominating TiB2 and small amounts of nickel titanium oxide (Ni0.75 Ti0.125 O). The coatings show a nodular morphology and the grain size is dependent on the Jc and ranges about 1 - 10 μm. There is a linear relationship between the coating's thickness and the time of electrolysis within certain duration range. The reduction of the potassium can take place simultaneously with the electrochemical synthesis of TiB2 as the Jc is in excess of certain level. The hardness of the TiB2 coatings is likely to be deteriorated due to the presence of potassium and Ni0.75Ti0.125 O in the coatings.

  5. Comparative study of dielectric properties of MgNb2O6 prepared by molten salt and ceramic method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vishnu Shanker; Ashok K Ganguli

    2003-12-01

    Magnesium niobate (MgNb2O6) powder was synthesized by the conventional ceramic route as well as by the molten salt route using a eutectic mixture of NaCl–KCl as the salt and Mg(NO3)$_2\\cdot$6H2O and TiO2 as the starting materials. Pure phase of MgNb2O6 could be obtained by the molten salt method at 1100°C. However, in ceramic method the pure phase of MgNb2O6 was obtained by heating at 1025°C for 20 h. On sintering at 1100°C the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of MgNb2O6 obtained by the molten salt method was found to be 19.5 and 0.004 at 100 kHz at room temperature. Lower values were obtained for these oxides prepared by the ceramic route, 16.6 and 0.000518, respectively. In both cases the dielectric constant was quite stable with frequency.

  6. 液态熔盐堆运行安全特性初步研究%Preliminary Study on Safety Characteristics of Molten Salt Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏泉; 梅龙伟; 战志超; 郭威; 陈金根; 蔡翔舟

    2014-01-01

    Compared with solid fuel reactors ,there are differences in physics for liquid fuel reactor .As for molten salt reactor (MSR) ,due to fuel flow in primary loop ,the delayed neutron precursors and fission product partly decay out of core , resulting in reactivity loss as well as heat generation in the primary loop .In this paper ,the critical dynamics and safety characteristics of MSR were investigated using Cinsf 1D code .Con‐sidering the loss of delayed neutrons under different fuel flow speeds at zero‐power ,the corresponding control rod positions were calculated under pump start and stop condi‐tions .Keeping reactor power at 2 MW ,the temperature and power were computed for the primary loop system . Finally , the pump stop accident was simulated from rated power 2 MW . After pump stop , the reactor power increases slightly due to the reduction of delayed neutron loss at initial time and then it decreases to approach the decay heat power level quickly .The temperature in core increases slowly and reaches to a balance within safety range .It can be concluded that MSR has intrinsic safety .%液态燃料反应堆与固态燃料反应堆相比,原理上有较大不同。液态熔盐堆中由于燃料流动带走缓发中子先驱核在堆外衰变导致堆芯反应性降低,且裂变产物在堆外回路中衰变也会引起一回路发热。本文使用熔盐堆中子动力学程序Cinsf1D探讨2 M W熔盐堆的临界动力学特性和安全特性,研究零功率临界下不同熔盐流速启泵和停泵导致的缓发中子先驱核流失所需改变的控制棒棒位。同时还计算了2 MW恒定功率情况下稳态运行及降低流速时一回路温度分布,并模拟了2 MW额定功率下停泵事件。停泵后由于缓发中子损失减少反应堆功率先缓慢增加,然后迅速降低到接近余热水平。停泵后堆芯温度缓慢增加后稳定在安全值以内,说明熔盐堆具有本征安全性。

  7. Thorium cycle and molten salt reactors: field parameters and field constraints investigations toward 'thorium molten salt reactor' definition; Cycle thorium et reacteurs a sel fondu: exploration du champ des parametres et des contraintes definissant le 'Thorium Molten Salt Reactor'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, L

    2005-09-15

    Producing nuclear energy in order to reduce the anthropic CO{sub 2} emission requires major technological advances. Nuclear plants of 4. generation have to respond to several constraints, as safety improvements, fuel breeding and radioactive waste minimization. For this purpose, it seems promising to use Thorium Cycle in Molten Salt Reactors. Studies on this domain have already been carried out. However, the final concept suffered from serious issues and was discontinued. A new reflection on this topic is being led in order to find acceptable solutions, and to design the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor concept. A nuclear reactor is simulated by the coupling of a neutron transport code with a materials evolution code. This allows us to reproduce the reactor behavior and its evolution all along its operation. Thanks to this method, we have studied a large number of reactor configurations. We have evaluated their efficiency through a group of constraints they have to satisfy. This work leads us to a better understanding of many physical phenomena controlling the reactor behavior. As a consequence, several efficient configurations have been discovered, allowing the emergence of new points of view in the research of Molten Salt Reactors. (author)

  8. Research Fog- Degraded Images Clearness Algorithm Based on the MSR%基于MSR的雾天图像清晰化算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程娅荔; 张也驰

    2012-01-01

    Research the fog - degraded images clearness problem to improve the uniformity of the image enhancement. In foggy weather conditions, fog makes images contrast low and image local details not clear. The traditional fog-degraded images clearness algorithm based on histogram equalization can enhance image contrast, but the enhancement of image local details is insufficient, causing image enhancement uniformity is not high. This paper proposed a fog - degraded image clearness algorithm based on MSR. Through the Sigmoid function, the image was mapped and the image contrast was stretched. Then, the MSR algorithm was used to get the image wavelet decomposition for high frequency components and low frequency components. The high frequency components were calculate for the largest absolute value and the low frequency components were calculate for the weighted average. Experiments show that the algorithm can enhance the image contrast and get high - definition images.%研究雾天图像清晰化的问题,需提高图像增强的均匀性.针对雾天情况下,由于雾气的遮挡使得拍摄图像对比度降低,图像局部细节处不清晰,传统的直方图均衡化的雾天图像清晰化方法虽然能够增强图像对比度,但是图像局部细节增强不足,造成图像增强均匀性不高的问题.提出一种MSR的雾天图像清晰化算法,通过Sigmoid函数对图像作映射,拉伸图像的对比度,然后利用MSR算法,将图像小波分解为高频分量和低频分量,对高频分量取绝对值最大运算,低频分量加权平均,并避免了对图像进行全局直方图均衡化造成的图像增强不均匀,局部细节增强不足的问题.实验证明,提出的算法能够将雾天图像均匀增强,得到高清晰的图像,取得了满意的效果.

  9. Molten salt oxidation of mixed waste: Preliminary bench-scale experiments without radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, P.A.; Rudolph, J.C.; Bell, J.T.

    1994-06-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a process in which organic wastes are oxidized by sparging them with air through a bed of molten sodium carbonate (bp 851 {degrees}C) at {ge} 900{degrees}C. This process is readily applicable to the mixed waste because acidic products from Cl, S, P, etc., in the waste, along with most metals and most radionuclides, are retained within the melt as oxides or salts. Rockwell International has studied the application of MSO to various wastes, including some mixed waste. A unit used by Rockwell to study the mixed waste treatment is presently in use at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL`s studies to date have concentrated on chemical flowsheet questions. Concerns that were studied included carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, NO{sub x}, emissions, and metal retention under a variety of conditions. Initial experiments show that CO emissions increase with increasing NaCl content in the melt, increasing temperature, and increasing airflow. Carbon monoxide content is especially high (> 2000 ppm) with high chlorine content (> 10%). Thermal NO{sub x}, emissions are relatively low ( < 5 ppm) at temperatures < 1000{degrees}C. However, most (85--100%) of the nitrogen in the feed as organic nitrate or amine was released as NO{sub x}, The metal contents of the melt and of knockout pot samples of condensed salt show high volatilities of Cs as CsCl. Average condensed salt concentrations were 60% for barium and 100% for strontium and cobalt. The cerium disappeared -- perhaps from deposition on the alumina reactor walls.

  10. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  11. Molten salts activated by high-energy milling: A useful, low-temperature route for the synthesis of multiferroic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández-Ramírez, Anayantzin; Martínez-Luévanos, Antonia [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, V. Carranza s/n, Saltillo, Coahuila 25280 (Mexico); Fuentes, Antonio F. [CINVESTAV Unidad Saltillo, Apdo. Postal 663, Saltillo, Coahuila 25000 (Mexico); Earth and Environmental Science, University of Michigan, 3514 C.C. Little Building, 1100 N. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States); Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Ewing, Rodney C. [Earth and Environmental Science, University of Michigan, 3514 C.C. Little Building, 1100 N. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States); Montemayor, Sagrario M., E-mail: smmontemayor@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, V. Carranza s/n, Saltillo, Coahuila 25280 (Mexico); Earth and Environmental Science, University of Michigan, 3514 C.C. Little Building, 1100 N. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • The synthesis route purposed demonstrates the formation of BiFeO{sub 3} at only 500 °C. • The magnetic and ferroelectric properties are comparable to those of bulk BiFeO{sub 3}. • By this route, several phases in Bi{sub 1−x}La{sub x}FeO{sub 3} system are obtained at only 500 °C. • The route developed here could be useful to synthesize other perovskite-type oxides. -- Abstract: There are only a few multiferroic compounds, among which BiFeO{sub 3} is the most important. Research the synthesis of bismuth ferrite, with novel and improved magnetic and electrical properties, has been mainly based on the use of hydrothermal or sol gel methods. However, these methods require either rather extreme conditions or several steps for synthesis. We demonstrate that the use of molten salts, activated by high energy milling, results in pure nanometric BiFeO{sub 3}, LaFeO{sub 3} and intermediate phases in the Bi{sub 1−x}La{sub x}FeO{sub 3} system. The chemical reagents used are Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅5H{sub 2}O, La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅6H{sub 2}O, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅9H{sub 2}O and NaOH. A brief milling process of the reagents creates an amorphous precursor and crystalline NaNO{sub 3}. The thermal treatment of the precursors, at 500 °C for two hours, produces a crystalline mixture of Bi{sub 1−x}La{sub x}FeO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3}. Simple washing eliminates the NaNO{sub 3}. The characterization of intermediates and final products, through thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy, allows the inference of possible mechanism. In addition, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and ferroelectric tests show the typical magnetic and electric polarization loops characteristic of these materials even when formed at the nano-scale.

  12. Synthesis of LiSm_(0.01)Mn_(1.99)O_4 by molten salt technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M; Helan; L; John; Berchmans

    2010-01-01

    Samarium substituted lithium manganese oxide powders were successfully prepared by molten-salt synthesis(MSS) using eutectic mixture of LiCl,SmCl3.6H2O and MnO2 salt at 700 °C.The synthesis was carried out in open atmosphere.The crystalline powders were characterized for their phase identification using X-ray diffraction(XRD) analysis.The physico-chemical properties of the samarium substituted lithium manganese oxide powders were investigated by thermal analysis(TGA/DTA),FT-IR spectroscopy,EDAX,electron par...

  13. Core flow distribution design of molten salt reactor with liquid fuel%一种液态燃料熔盐堆堆芯流量分配设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振华; 潘登; 陈玉爽; 黄建平; 余笑寒; 王纳秀

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the thermal-hydraulic design of molten salt reactor (MSR) with liquid fuel, the structure and the flow field distribution of lower plenum play a decisive role for the core flow distribution.Purpose: The mass flow distribution of core inlet is designed to match with the release heat distribution, so that the core power distribution will be flattened in radical.Methods: To realize the reasonable distribution of core flow, the flow field of lower plenum is optimized through adjusting the geometry of core lower plenum and flow distribution device using FLUENT software to simulate three-dimensional flow field of core.Results: The simulation results showed that the mass flow rate standard deviation of salt channels of trumpet-shape lower plenum is reduced by 4.2% compared with that of the ellipsoid-shape. The mass flow rate standard deviation of salt channel is reduced by 29.2% by setting the flow distribution plate.Conclusion:Changing the structure of lower plenum andsetting the flow distribution plate are useful measures to adjust the mass flow distribution and power matching. The results can provide the basis for the optimization design of MSR with liquid fuel.%在液态燃料熔盐堆(Molten salt reactor, MSR)热工水力设计中,为实现堆芯径向功率展平需对堆芯流量分配进行设计,使得堆芯进口流量分布正比于释热量分布,而下腔室结构和流场分布对堆芯流量分配起决定性作用。利用FLUENT软件对堆芯三维流场进行模拟,通过调节下腔室结构和流量分配装置,对下腔室流场分布进行优化,最终实现堆芯流量合理分配。数值模拟结果表明,喇叭状下腔室比椭球形下腔室熔盐通道流量标准差降低4.2%,设置流量分配板熔盐通道流量标准差降低29.2%;改变下腔室结构和设置流量分配装置能够较好调节流量分配和功率分布匹配性,该结果可为液态熔盐堆堆芯优化设计提供依据。

  14. Extending and Verification of RELAP5 Code for Liquid Fueled Molten Salt Reactor%RELAP5应用于液态燃料熔盐堆的扩展及验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施承斌; 程懋松; 刘桂民

    2016-01-01

    为将RELAP5程序应用于液态燃料熔盐堆的建模分析,需要对RELAP5的模型进行扩展.基于RELAP5原有的点堆模型和热工水力模型,新增了液态燃料熔盐堆点堆模型和相应的带有内热源的热工水力模型,并通过熔盐实验堆(MSRE)实验数据进行验证.结果表明,扩展后的RELAP5程序能够适用于液态燃料熔盐堆系统建模分析.%In order to analyze the liquid fueled molten salt reactor using RELAP5 code,models in RELAP5 code need to be extended.This paper attempts to add new point kinetic model of liquid fueled reactor and thermo-hydraulics model with internal heat source based on the original RELAP5 models,then the code is verified using MSRE experimental datum.The results indicate that the extended RELAP5 code can be applied to model and analyze the liquid fueled molten salt reactor.

  15. Uncertainty analysis and flow measurements in an experimental mock-up of a molten salt reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaji, Bogdan; Aszodi, Attila [Budapest University of Technology and Economics (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Techniques

    2016-09-15

    In the paper measurement results from the experimental modelling of a molten salt reactor concept will be presented along with detailed uncertainty analysis of the experimental system. Non-intrusive flow measurements are carried out on the scaled and segmented mock-up of a homogeneous, single region molten salt fast reactor concept. Uncertainty assessment of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement system applied with the scaled and segmented model is presented in detail. The analysis covers the error sources of the measurement system (laser, recording camera, etc.) and the specific conditions (de-warping of measurement planes) originating in the geometry of the investigated domain. Effect of sample size in the ensemble averaged PIV measurements is discussed as well. An additional two-loop-operation mode is also presented and the analysis of the measurement results confirm that without enhancement nominal and other operation conditions will lead to strong unfavourable separation in the core flow. It implies that use of internal flow distribution structures will be necessary for the optimisation of the core coolant flow. Preliminary CFD calculations are presented to help the design of a perforated plate located above the inlet region. The purpose of the perforated plate is to reduce recirculation near the cylindrical wall and enhance the uniformity of the core flow distribution.

  16. Interaction of molten salts with a semi-anthracite char at 743 K. Influence on the gasification in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Serrano, V.; Alfaro-Dominguez, M.; Higes-Rolando, F.J. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica; Martin-Aranda, M.; Rojas-Cervantes, M.L.; Lopez-Peinado, A.J. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica

    1997-12-31

    The treatments of a semi-anthracite char (AC) with molten salts followed by washing of the intermediate products with distilled water as a rule produce an increase in the surface area of micropores (S{sub mi}) and in the mean equivalent pore diameter (MEPD), which is greater for AC-MgO. The variation of MEPD is only slight for AC-CaO and AC-CoO. The reactivity of the carbon in air at 823 K enhances for a number of samples but especially for AC-CaO and AC-MgO. Washing with HCl generally results in a small increase in S{sub mi} and in a more uniform MEPD. The reactivity of the carbon decreases for most samples including AN and AC. This suggests that mineral components of the starting materials and chemical species present in distilled waterwashed samples (i.e. metal oxides in excess and reaction products of molten salts with the mineral fraction of AC) are catalytically active and that their removal from such samples occurs by washing with HCl. The presence of catalytic species seems to be greater for AC-MgO and AC-CaO than for the other samples. (orig.)

  17. Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fission in a Molten Salt Core: Green Nuclear Power for the New Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Scientists at Texas A&M University, Brookhaven National Lab, and Idaho National Lab are developing a design for accelerator-drive subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS). Three high-power proton beams are delivered to spallation targets in a molten salt core, where they provide ˜3% of the fast neutrons required to sustain 600 MW of fission. The proton beams are produced by a flux-coupled stack of superconducting strong-focusing cyclotrons. The fuel consists of a eutectic of sodium chloride with either spent nuclear fuel from a conventional U power reactor (ADSMS-U) or thorium (ADSMS-Th). The subcritical core cannot go critical under any failure mode. The core cannot melt down even if all power is suddenly lost to the facility for a prolonged period. The ultra-fast neutronics of the core makes it possible to operate in an isobreeding mode, in which neutron capture breeds the fertile nuclide into a fissile nuclide at the same rate that fission burns the fissile nuclide, and consumes 90% of the fertile inventory instead of the 5% consumed in the original use in a conventional power plant. The ultra-fast neutronics produces a very low equilibrium inventory of the long-lived minor actinides, ˜10^4 less than what is produced in conventional power plants. ADSMS offers a method to safely produce the energy needs for all mankind for the next 3000 years.

  18. Safe and Cheap and Abundant and Clean Fission Energy Resource:Perfect and Feasible Gen-Ⅴ Molten-salt Depleted-uranium Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG; Bao-guo; DONG; Pei; GU; Ji-yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical,reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades,and greatly limit their extensive applications.Now these troubles are still open.Here we first show a possible perfect reactor,Molten-salt Depleted-uranium Reactor

  19. Effect of using FLiBe and FLiNaBe molten salts bearing plutonium fluorides on the neutronic performance of PACER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acir, Adem [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Energy Systems Engineering

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, the effects of using FLiBe and FLiNaBe Molten Salts Bearing Plutonium Fluorides on the neutronic performance of the PACER are investigated. The optimum radial thickness for tritium self-sufficiency of the blankets addition of plutonium fluorides to FLiNaBe (LiF-/NaF BeF{sub 2}) and FLiBe (LiF-/BeF{sub 2}) of a dual purpose modified PACER concept are determined. The calculations are carried out with the one dimensional transport code XSDRNPM/SCALE5. The tritium breeding capacities of FLiNaBe and FLiBe with addition of plutonium fluorides in molten salt zone are investigated and compared. The optimum molten salt zone thickness is computed as 155 cm for tritium self-sufficiency of the blankets using FLiBe +1% PuF{sub 4} whereas, the optimum thickness with FLiNaBe +1% PuF{sub 4} is calculated as 170 cm. In addition, neutron transport calculations have been performed to evaluate the energy multiplication factor, total fission rate, displacement per atom and helium gas generation for optimal radial thickness in the blanket. Also, the tritium production and the radiation damage limits should be evaluated together in a fusion blanket for determining the optimum thickness of molten salt layer. (orig.)

  20. Delayed Neutrons Effect on Power Reactor with Variation of Fluid Fuel Velocity at MSR Fuji-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncoro Aji, Indarta; Pramuditya, Syeilendra; Novitrian; Irwanto, Dwi; Waris, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    As the nuclear reactor operate with liquid fuel, controlling velocity of the fuel flow on the Molten salt reactor very influence on the neutron kinetics in that reactor system. The effect of the pace fuel changes to the populations number of neutrons and power density on vertical direction (1 dimension) from the first until fifth year reactor operating had been analyzed on this research. This research had been conducted on MSR Fuji-12 with a two meters core high, and LiF-BeF2-ThF4-233UF4 as fuel composition respectively 71.78%-16%-11.86%-0.36%. Data of reactivity, neutron flux, and the macroscopic fission cross section obtained from ouput of SRAC (neutronic calculation code has been developed by JAEA, with JENDL-4.0 as data library on the SRAC calculation) was being used for the calculation process of this research. The calculation process of this research had been performed numerically by SOR (successive over relaxation) and finite difference methode, as well as using C programing language. From the calculation, regarding to the value of power density resulting from delayed neutrons, concluded that 20 m/s is the optimum fuel flow velocity in all the years reactor had operated. Where the increases number of power are inversely proportional with the fuel flow speed.

  1. In situ optical microscopy investigations of lithium and sodium film formation in buffered room temperature molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, J.; Carlin, R.T. [Covalent Associates, Incorporated, Woburn, MA (United States); Osteryoung, R.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-07-01

    Previous work performed in both sodium and lithium buffered chloroaluminate molten salts have shown that the addition of small amounts of SOCl{sub 2} promotes the reversible stripping behavior of lithium and sodium metal with cycling efficiencies between 80 and 90%. The authors have performed a series of optical studies in conjunction with electrochemical experiments at varying SOCl{sub 2} concentrations in both lithium and sodium chloride buffered melts. On investigation, the lithium deposit is dendritic in nature and does not form a uniform film on the tungsten electrode. After discharging at moderate current densities, disconnected lithium metal is observed at the electrode surface. In contrast, the sodium deposits as a uniform, flat film on the tungsten electrode with little or no dendritic growth. The sodium electrodeposits undergo complete stripping from the tungsten electrode without dendritic or disconnected sodium metal left on the electrode surface.

  2. Molten salt oxidation of mixed wastes: Separation of radioactive materials and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.T.; Haas, P.A.; Rudolph, J.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in a program to apply a molten salt oxidation (MSO) process to the treatment of mixed wastes at Oak Ridge and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Mixed wastes are defined as those wastes that contain both radioactive components, which are regulated by the atomic energy legislation, and hazardous waste components, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A major part of our ORNL program involves the development of separation technologies that are necessary for the complete treatment of mixed wastes. The residues from the MSO treatment of the mixed wastes must be processed further to separate the radioactive components, to concentrate and recycle residues, or to convert the residues into forms acceptable for final disposal. This paper is a review of the MSO requirements for separation technologies, the information now available, and the concepts for our development studies.

  3. A view of treatment process of melted nuclear fuel on a severe accident plant using a molten salt system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Mizuguchi, K. [Power and Industrial Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0862 (Japan); Oomori, T. [Chemical System Design and Engineering Department, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    At severe accident such as Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the nuclear fuels in the reactor would melt and form debris which contains stable UO2-ZrO2 mixture corium and parts of vessel such as zircaloy and iron component. The requirements for solution of issues are below; -) the reasonable treatment process of the debris should be simple and in-situ in Fukushima Daiichi power plant, -) the desirable treatment process is to take out UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} or metallic U and TRU metal, and dispose other fission products as high level radioactive waste; and -) the candidate of treatment process should generate the smallest secondary waste. Pyro-process has advantages to treat the debris because of the high solubility of the debris and its total process feasibility. Toshiba proposes a new pyro-process in molten salts using electrolysing Zr before debris fuel being treated.

  4. Effect of Salt on Crystal Growth of Plate-like Alumina Particles by Molten-salt Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Yeon; Lee, Yoon Joo; Kim, Soo Ryong; Kwon, Woo Teck; Shin, Dong Geun; Kim, Young Hee [Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Duck Kyun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Alumina powder have been expanded its application in industry and required to control its morphology such as powder size and aspect ratio of single particle. It can be synthesized by molten - salt method which is possible to obtain various shapes of ceramic particles by controlling the growth direction because each crystal face has different growth rate. In this study, various combinations of salts such as NaCl, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and their mixture were used for control the growth of plate like alumina particle from the initial stage of synthesis because salt having different ionic strength can control the growth direction of ceramic particle under its melting condition around 800-900 .deg. C, and growth behavior of plate-like alumina particle with different reaction conditions such as temperature and concentration on the crystal size and shape was studied.

  5. Program management plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The primary mission of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Project is to effectively implement the risk-reduction strategies and technical plans to stabilize and prevent further migration of uranium within the MSRE facility, remove the uranium and fuel salts from the system, and dispose of the fuel and flush salts by storage in appropriate depositories to bring the facility to a surveillance and maintenance condition before decontamination and decommissioning. This Project Management Plan (PMP) for the MSRE Remediation Project details project purpose; technical objectives, milestones, and cost objectives; work plan; work breakdown structure (WBS); schedule; management organization and responsibilities; project management performance measurement planning, and control; conduct of operations; configuration management; environmental, safety, and health compliance; quality assurance; operational readiness reviews; and training.

  6. Structural characteristics of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bifluoride: HF-deficient form of a highly conductive room temperature molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Hagiwara, Rika; Ito, Yasuhiko; Tamada, Osamu

    2002-01-01

    EMIF·HF, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bifluoride, has been obtained by eliminating HF from a room temperature molten salt EMIF·2.3HF at around 400 K. EMIF·HF crystallizes in space group P2 1/m with a=7.281(1) Å, b=6.762(1) Å, c=8.403(1) Å, β=107.26(1)°, V=395.09(18) Å 3, Z=2 at room temperature. The cations are stacked in pillars via the hydrogen bonding between the C4 proton and the ring π-electrons of the adjacent cation. The cations and the anions coupled by strong hydrogen bondings are co-planar.

  7. Chemical Stability of Conductive Ceramic Anodes in LiCl–Li2O Molten Salt for Electrolytic Reduction in Pyroprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Wook Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conductive ceramics are being developed to replace current Pt anodes in the electrolytic reduction of spent oxide fuels in pyroprocessing. While several conductive ceramics have shown promising electrochemical properties in small-scale experiments, their long-term stabilities have not yet been investigated. In this study, the chemical stability of conductive La0.33Sr0.67MnO3 in LiCl–Li2O molten salt at 650°C was investigated to examine its feasibility as an anode material. Dissolution of Sr at the anode surface led to structural collapse, thereby indicating that the lifetime of the La0.33Sr0.67MnO3 anode is limited. The dissolution rate of Sr is likely to be influenced by the local environment around Sr in the perovskite framework.

  8. Molten salt oxidation of chloro-organic compounds: Experimental results for product gas compositions and final forms studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, J.C.; Haas, P.A.; Bell, J.T.; Crosley, S.M.; Calhoun, C.L. Jr.; Gorin, A.H.; Nulf, L.E.

    1995-04-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) has been selected as a promising technology for treatment of some US Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes. Mixed wastes are defined as those wastes that contain both radioactive components, which are regulated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, and hazardous waste components, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has installed and operated a bench-scale MSO apparatus to obtain experimental information needed before the design and construction of an MSO pilot plant. The primary objective of the experiments performed was to show that dioxin and furan emissions from a molten salt oxidation (MSO) unit were below the proposed regulatory limit of 0.1 ng/m{sup 3} as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin equivalents or toxic equivalence quotient. The feed stream was to contain 2,4-dichlorophenol, a suspected precursor to the formation of dioxin and furans. The tests were to be done over a range of salt compositions and flow rates expected in a pilot- or full-scale MSO unit. Two other objectives were to demonstrate destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) greater than US Environmental Protection Agency requirements and to show that levels of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) are the same as, or lower than, those observed in incinerators for two common waste constituents [carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) and CH{sub 3}CCl{sub 3}]. A final objective was to perform some initial studies of final waste forms using sulfur polymer cement (SPC). This report presents the results from the operation of the bench-scale MSO system.

  9. Novel band gap-tunable K–Na co-doped graphitic carbon nitride prepared by molten salt method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jiannan [Institute of Eco-environmental Sciences, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Ma, Lin [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Wang, Haoying; Zhao, Yanfeng [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Zhang, Jian [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Hu, Shaozheng, E-mail: hushaozhenglnpu@163.com [Institute of Eco-environmental Sciences, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: K and Na ions co-doped into g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} crystal lattice can tune the position of CB and VB potentials, influence the structural and optical properties, and thus improve the photocatalytic degradation and mineralization ability. - Highlights: • K, Na co-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared in KCl/NaCl molten salt system. • The structural and optical properties of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} were greatly influenced by co-doping. • The position of VB and CB can be tuned by controlling the weight ratio of eutectic salts to melamine. • Co-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} showed outstanding photodegradation ability, mineralization ability, and catalytic stability. - Abstract: Novel band gap-tunable K–Na co-doped graphitic carbon nitride was prepared by molten salt method using melamine, KCl, and NaCl as precursor. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV–vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The CB and VB potentials of graphitic carbon nitride could be tuned from −1.09 and +1.55 eV to −0.29 and +2.25 eV by controlling the weight ratio of eutectic salts to melamine. Besides, ions doping inhibited the crystal growth of graphitic carbon nitride, enhanced the surface area, and increased the separation rate of photogenerated electrons and holes. The visible-light-driven Rhodamine B (RhB) photodegradation and mineralization performances were significantly improved after K–Na co-doping.

  10. Concept of a demonstrational hybrid reactor—a tokamak with molten-salt blanket for {sup 233}U fuel production: 1. Concept of a stationary Tokamak as a neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizov, E. A.; Gladush, G. G., E-mail: gladush@triniti.ru; Dokuka, V. N.; Khayrutdinov, R. R. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation, Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    On the basis of current understanding of physical processes in tokamaks and taking into account engineering constraints, it is shown that a low-cost facility of a moderate size can be designed within the adopted concept. This facility makes it possible to achieve the power density of neutron flux which is of interest, in particular, for solving the problem of {sup 233}U fuel production from thorium. By using a molten-salt blanket, the important task of ensuring the safe operation of such a reactor in the case of possible coolant loss is accomplished. Moreover, in a hybrid reactor with the blanket based on liquid salts, the problem of periodic refueling that is difficult to perform in solid blankets can be solved.

  11. Concept of a demonstrational hybrid reactor—a tokamak with molten-salt blanket for 233U fuel production: 1. Concept of a stationary Tokamak as a neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizov, E. A.; Gladush, G. G.; Dokuka, V. N.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    On the basis of current understanding of physical processes in tokamaks and taking into account engineering constraints, it is shown that a low-cost facility of a moderate size can be designed within the adopted concept. This facility makes it possible to achieve the power density of neutron flux which is of interest, in particular, for solving the problem of 233U fuel production from thorium. By using a molten-salt blanket, the important task of ensuring the safe operation of such a reactor in the case of possible coolant loss is accomplished. Moreover, in a hybrid reactor with the blanket based on liquid salts, the problem of periodic refueling that is difficult to perform in solid blankets can be solved.

  12. Intergranular tellurium cracking of nickel-based alloys in molten Li, Be, Th, U/F salt mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, Victor, E-mail: ignatiev@vver.kiae.ru; Surenkov, Alexander; Gnidoy, Ivan; Kulakov, Alexander; Uglov, Vadim; Vasiliev, Alexander; Presniakov, Mikhail

    2013-09-15

    In Russia, R and D on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) are concentrated now on fast/intermediate spectrum concepts which were recognized as long term alternative to solid fueled fast reactors due to their attractive features: strong negative feedback coefficients, easy in-service inspection, and simplified fuel cycle. For high-temperature MSR corrosion of the metallic container alloy in primary circuit is the primary concern. Key problem receiving current attention include surface fissures in Ni-based alloys probably arising from fission product tellurium attack. This paper summarizes results of corrosion tests conducted recently to study effect of oxidation state in selected fuel salt on tellurium attack and to develop means of controlling tellurium cracking in the special Ni-based alloys recently developed for molten salt actinide recycler and tranforming (MOSART) system. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys was tested at temperatures up to 750 °C in stressed and unloaded conditions in molten LiF–BeF{sub 2} salt mixture fueled by about 20 mol% of ThF{sub 4} and 2 mol% of UF{sub 4} at different [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratios: 0.7, 4, 20, 100 and 500. Following Ni-based alloys (in mass%): HN80M-VI (Mo—12, Cr—7.6, Nb—1.5), HN80MTY (Mo—13, Cr—6.8, Al—1.1, Ti—0.9), HN80MTW (Mo—9.4, Cr—7.0, Ti—1.7, W—5.5) and EM-721 (W—25.2, Cr—5.7, Ti—0.17) were used for the study in the corrosion facility.

  13. A computational tool for selective pyrochemical processes based on molten salts in nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walle, Eric [EDF R and D - MMC, Site des Renardieres, Avenue des Renardieres, Ecuelles, 77818 Moret Sur Loing cedex (France)]. E-mail: eric.walle@edf.fr; Finne, Jorgen [LECA - CNRS - UMR 7575, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Picard, Gerard [LECA - CNRS - UMR 7575, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sanchez, Sylvie [LECA - CNRS - UMR 7575, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Boursier, Jean-Marie [EDF R and D - MMC, Site des Renardieres, Avenue des Renardieres, Ecuelles, 77818 Moret Sur Loing cedex (France); Noel, Didier [EDF R and D - MMC, Site des Renardieres, Avenue des Renardieres, Ecuelles, 77818 Moret Sur Loing cedex (France)

    2005-09-01

    In the framework of the development of pyrochemical techniques for future nuclear systems, we propose to investigate the development of computational tools in order to optimise the control of chemical parameters for pyrochemical processes (electrodeposition, oxide selective precipitation, liquid/liquid reductive extraction). This paper discusses how potential-oxoacidity diagrams can be automatically constructed and gives illustrative examples on how these diagrams may help in the choice and the optimisation of pyrochemical processes.

  14. Development of Pyro-separation Technology Based on Molten Salt Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Joon Bo; Kim, E. H.; Yoo, J. H. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The focus of this study was to develop recovery technologies in the pyroprocessing. The unit processes of the project can be classified into two groups; electro-refining process to recover uranium and long-lived nuclides, and cathode processing to produce a metal ingot both from a salt-contained metal and from Cd-contained metal. This project has been carried out for the third phase period of the long-term nuclear R and D program, and focused on the development of key technologies of the pyroprocessing such as electrorefining, draw down and cathode processing. Mock-up system of 1 kg-U/batch was built for performance tests which were conducted to ensure the adequacy of the research and development of the pyroprocessing technology. The experiments were carried out through bench-scale inactive tests except for uranium. In particular, the sticking problem was inevitable in the US's Mark-V and PEER electrorefiner. As a result of this study, a graphite cathode was developed, which exhibited self-scraping behavior and did not need scraping step. The design of an electrorefiner could be simplified, and the throughput was enhanced due to an increased cathode area. A long-term R and D plan was established to develop pyroprocessing technology. In the near term, the results of the current project will be utilized in the next phase of the R and D plan ('07 - '10), and long-term wise, is expected to contribute to recovering fuel materials for transmutation in a Gen-IV reactor.

  15. An extended version of the SERPENT-2 code to investigate fuel burn-up and core material evolution of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufiero, M.; Cammi, A.; Fiorina, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, CeSNEF (Enrico Fermi Center for Nuclear Studies), via Ponzio, 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Leppänen, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Luzzi, L., E-mail: lelio.luzzi@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, CeSNEF (Enrico Fermi Center for Nuclear Studies), via Ponzio, 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ricotti, M.E. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, CeSNEF (Enrico Fermi Center for Nuclear Studies), via Ponzio, 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    In this work, the Monte Carlo burn-up code SERPENT-2 has been extended and employed to study the material isotopic evolution of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). This promising GEN-IV nuclear reactor concept features peculiar characteristics such as the on-line fuel reprocessing, which prevents the use of commonly available burn-up codes. Besides, the presence of circulating nuclear fuel and radioactive streams from the core to the reprocessing plant requires a precise knowledge of the fuel isotopic composition during the plant operation. The developed extension of SERPENT-2 directly takes into account the effects of on-line fuel reprocessing on burn-up calculations and features a reactivity control algorithm. It is here assessed against a dedicated version of the deterministic ERANOS-based EQL3D procedure (PSI-Switzerland) and adopted to analyze the MSFR fuel salt isotopic evolution. Particular attention is devoted to study the effects of reprocessing time constants and efficiencies on the conversion ratio and the molar concentration of elements relevant for solubility issues (e.g., trivalent actinides and lanthanides). Quantities of interest for fuel handling and safety issues are investigated, including decay heat and activities of hazardous isotopes (neutron and high energy gamma emitters) in the core and in the reprocessing stream. The radiotoxicity generation is also analyzed for the MSFR nominal conditions. The production of helium and the depletion in tungsten content due to nuclear reactions are calculated for the nickel-based alloy selected as reactor structural material of the MSFR. These preliminary evaluations can be helpful in studying the radiation damage of both the primary salt container and the axial reflectors.

  16. Improving Dielectric Properties of PVDF Composites by Employing Surface Modified Strong Polarized BaTiO₃ Particles Derived by Molten Salt Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Hou, Yudong; Zheng, Mupeng; Wei, Qiaoyi; Zhu, Mankang; Yan, Hui

    2015-11-11

    BaTiO3/polyvinylidene fluoride (BT/PVDF) is the extensive reported composite material for application in modern electric devices. However, there still exists some obstacles prohibiting the further improvement of dielectric performance, such as poor interfacial compatibility and low dielectric constant. Therefore, in depth study of the size dependent polarization and surface modification of BT particle is of technological importance in developing high performance BT/PVDF composites. Here, a facile molten-salt synthetic method has been applied to prepare different grain sized BT particles through tailoring the calcination temperature. The size dependent spontaneous polarizationof BT particle was thoroughly investigated by theoretical calculation based on powder X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinement data. The results revealed that 600 nm sized BT particles possess the strong polarization, ascribing to the ferroelectric size effect. Furthermore, the surface of optimal BT particles has been modified by water-soluble polyvinylprrolidone (PVP) agent, and the coated particles exhibited fine core-shell structure and homogeneous dispersion in the PVDF matrix. The dielectric constant of the resulted composites increased significantly, especially, the prepared composite with 40 vol % BT loading exhibited the largest dielectric constant (65, 25 °C, 1 kHz) compared with the literature values of BT/PVDF at the same concentration of filler. Moreover, the energy storage density of the composites with tailored structure was largely enhanced at the low electric field, showing promising application as dielectric material in energy storage device. Our work suggested that introduction of strong polarized ferroelectric particles with optimal size and construction of core-shell structured coated fillers by PVP in the PVDF matrix are efficacious in improving dielectric performance of composites. The demonstrated approach can also be applied to the design and preparation of other polymers-based

  17. An extended version of the SERPENT-2 code to investigate fuel burn-up and core material evolution of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufiero, M.; Cammi, A.; Fiorina, C.; Leppänen, J.; Luzzi, L.; Ricotti, M. E.

    2013-10-01

    In this work, the Monte Carlo burn-up code SERPENT-2 has been extended and employed to study the material isotopic evolution of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). This promising GEN-IV nuclear reactor concept features peculiar characteristics such as the on-line fuel reprocessing, which prevents the use of commonly available burn-up codes. Besides, the presence of circulating nuclear fuel and radioactive streams from the core to the reprocessing plant requires a precise knowledge of the fuel isotopic composition during the plant operation. The developed extension of SERPENT-2 directly takes into account the effects of on-line fuel reprocessing on burn-up calculations and features a reactivity control algorithm. It is here assessed against a dedicated version of the deterministic ERANOS-based EQL3D procedure (PSI-Switzerland) and adopted to analyze the MSFR fuel salt isotopic evolution. Particular attention is devoted to study the effects of reprocessing time constants and efficiencies on the conversion ratio and the molar concentration of elements relevant for solubility issues (e.g., trivalent actinides and lanthanides). Quantities of interest for fuel handling and safety issues are investigated, including decay heat and activities of hazardous isotopes (neutron and high energy gamma emitters) in the core and in the reprocessing stream. The radiotoxicity generation is also analyzed for the MSFR nominal conditions. The production of helium and the depletion in tungsten content due to nuclear reactions are calculated for the nickel-based alloy selected as reactor structural material of the MSFR. These preliminary evaluations can be helpful in studying the radiation damage of both the primary salt container and the axial reflectors.

  18. Investigation of concentration-dependence of thermodynamic properties of lanthanum, yttrium, scandium and terbium in eutectic LiCl-KCl molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafei; Zhou, Wentao; Zhang, Jinsuo

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamic properties of rare earth metals in LiCl-KCl molten salt electrolyte are crucial to the development of electrochemical separation for the treatment of used nuclear fuels. In the present study, activity coefficient, apparent potential, and diffusion coefficient of lanthanum, yttrium, scandium, and terbium in the molten salt (58 at% LiCl and 42 at% KCl) were calculated by the method of molecular dynamics simulation up to a concentration around 3 at% at temperatures of 723 K and 773 K. It was found that the activity coefficient and the apparent potential increase with the species concentration while diffusion coefficient shows a trend of increase followed by decrease. The calculated results were validated by available measurement data of dilution cases. This research extends the range of data to a wide component and would provide further insight to the pyroprocessing design and safeguards.

  19. Progress in the Application of Molten Salts for New Energy Production%熔盐在新能源领域的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨武龙; 姜洪涛; 吴靥汝; 樊皓; 华炜; 计建炳

    2012-01-01

    The applications of molten salts in electrolyte cell (including fuel cell, lithium battery and thermal battery), solar thermal power generation and biomass pyrolysis are reviewed. The working characteristics, conversion efficiency and service life of fuel cells with molten salts are evaluated. It is also pointed out that the development of fuel cells will focus on molten carbonate fuel cells. Compared with the cathode material of lithium battery, prepared by high temperature solid phase method, the material by molten salt method is improved on crystalline structure and performance. And in solar thermal power generation field, high temperature molten salt as a low cost and high efficiency heat transfer and storage medium has been also applied, Furthermore, recent research progress in pyrolysis of biomass to bio-oil or hydrogen-rich gas in molten salt media is summarized. By examining molten salt composition and reaction temperature, and referring pyrolysis mechanism and kinetics, it is concluded that pyrolysis of biomass in molten salts is practicable. Finally, in order to enhance the development of molten salts application forward, problems to be solved are listed.%综述了熔盐在电池(燃料电池、锂电池和热电池)、太阳能热发电等新能源领域的应用及其在生物质热裂解领域的研究动态,评价了熔盐为电解质的燃料电池的工作特点、转换效率和使用寿命,指出了熔融碳酸盐电池是燃料电池的发展方向.相对于高温固相法制备的锂电池正极材料,熔盐法制备的正极材料的晶体结构和性能得到改善.在太阳能热发电领域,高温熔盐作为一种低成本、高效率的传热蓄热介质得到了一定的应用.介绍了熔盐热裂解生物质制取生物油或富氢气体的过程,对比了熔盐组成、裂解条件对产物产率的影响,分析了热裂解机理和动力学,指出熔盐裂解生物质技术的可行性.最后对熔盐在新能源领域的应用存在

  20. In situ NMR spectroscopy: inulin biomass conversion in ZnCl₂ molten salt hydrate medium-SnCl₄ addition controls product distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingxiong; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Qiao, Yan; Deng, Tiansheng; Shi, Jing; Hou, Xianglin

    2015-01-22

    The dehydration of inulin biomass to the platform chemicals, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and levulinic acid (LA), in ZnCl2 molten salt hydrate medium was investigated. The influence of the Lewis acid catalyst, SnCl4, on the product distribution was examined. An in situ(1)H NMR technique was employed to follow the reaction at the molecular level. The experimental results revealed that only 5-HMF was obtained from degradation of inulin biomass in ZnCl2 molten salt hydrate medium, while the LA was gradually becoming the main product when the reaction temperature was increased in the presence of the Lewis acid catalyst SnCl4. In situ NMR spectroscopy could monitor the reaction and give valuable insight.

  1. On the Burning of Plutonium Originating from Light Water Reactor Use in a Fast Molten Salt Reactor—A Neutron Physical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Merk; Dzianis Litskevich

    2015-01-01

    An efficient burning of the plutonium produced during light water reactor (LWR) operation has the potential to significantly improve the sustainability indices of LWR operations. The work offers a comparison of the efficiency of Pu burning in different reactor configurations—a molten salt fast reactor, a LWR with mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and a sodium cooled fast reactor. The calculations are performed using the HELIOS 2 code. All results are evaluated against the plutonium burning efficiency d...

  2. Cyclic Voltammetric Experiment - Simulation. Comparisons of the Complex Mechanism Associated with Electrochemical Reduction of Zr4+ in LiCl-KCl Eutectic Molten Salt

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, Cesimiro P.; Luca, Vittorio; Le, Than H.; Bond, Alan M.; Chamelot, Pierre; Massot, Laurent; Caravaca, Concepción; Hanley, Tracey L.; Lumpkin, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Nuclear energy increasingly represents an important option for generating largely clean CO2-free electricity and zirconium is a fission product that is expected to be present in irradiated fuels. The present investigation addresses the electrochemical reduction of Zr4+ to Zro in LiCl - KCl eutectic molten salt in the temperature range 425-550◦C using cyclic voltammetry (CV), square-wave voltammetry (SWV) and bulk electrolysis. Simulations of the CV data indicate that t...

  3. Synthesis of Bi25FeO39 by molten salts method and its mössbauer spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Morales, Shirley Saraí; León Flores, Jesús A.; Pérez Mazariego, José Luis; Marquina Fábrega, Vivianne; Gómez González, Raúl W.

    2017-01-01

    A sample of Bi25FeO39 was synthesized by the molten salts method in 2 h at 750 °C with KCl-KBr as reaction media. The sample was characterized with X-ray powder diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction confirms that a sillenite type structure with a cell parameter a=10.190(4) Å was achieved, with only small traces of Bi2O3. In order to get a Mössbauer spectrum with a good signal to noise ratio, the synthesis was made using 95% enriched α-57Fe2O3. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a Mössbauer spectrum for the Bi25FeO39 has been recorded. The nonappearance of a magnetic sextet confirms its paramagnetic behavior. The measured Mössbauer parameters (IS=0.20±0.004 mm/s and QS=0.2±0.07 mm/s) correspond to Fe+3 in very symmetric surroundings, and rule out some interpretations given to the doublet observed in some Mössbauer spectra of BiFeO3.

  4. Structures and magnetic anisotropy of β-Mn_2V_2O_7 crystals synthesized by the molten salt method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Chuan-Cang; Liu Fa-Min; Ding Peng

    2009-01-01

    β-Mn_2V_2O_7 crystals with strip shape are successfully prepared by the molten salt method in a closed crucible, and are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area of electron diffraction (SAED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results indicate that the sample is of the β-Mn_2V_2O_7 crystal with monoclinic symmetry, level natural cleavage facets and directional growth. Magnetic properties are measured by vibration sample magnetometry (VSM) at room temperature, and the magnetic hysteresis loop indicates that the β-Mn_2V_2O_7 has anti-ferromagnetic properties with low coercive force and remnant magnetization. The magnetic measurement results in different directions exhibit that the β-Mn_2V_2O_7 has magnetic anisotropy, which is due to the fact that the magnetic interaction energy of the β-Mn_2V_2O_7 is lowest only when the electron configuration is in a certain direction.

  5. Health and safety plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment remediation project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Uziel, M.S.

    1995-12-01

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of the policy requires that operations at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to safety and health (S and H) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all MSRE operations. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated at the MSRE that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and the best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air.

  6. A novel process for recovery of iron, titanium, and vanadium from titanomagnetite concentrates: NaOH molten salt roasting and water leaching processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Longsheng; Liu, Yahui; Qi, Tao; Wang, Jianchong; Wang, Lina

    2013-01-15

    A novel process for recovering iron, titanium, and vanadium from titanomagnetite concentrates has been developed. In the present paper, the treatment of rich titanium-vanadium slag by NaOH molten salt roasting and water leaching processes is investigated. In the NaOH molten salt roasting process, the metallic iron is oxidized into ferriferous oxide, MgTi(2)O(5) is converted to NaCl-type structure of Na(2)TiO(3), and M(3)O(5) (M=Ti, Mg, Fe) is converted to α-NaFeO(2)-type structure of NaMO(2), respectively. Roasting temperature and NaOH-slag mass ratio played a considerable role in the conversion of titanium in the rich titanium-vanadium slag during the NaOH molten salt roasting process. Roasting at 500 °C for 60 min and a 1:1 NaOH-slag mass ratio produces 96.3% titanium conversion. In the water leaching process, the Na(+) was exchanged with H(+), Na(2)TiO(3) is converted to undefined structure of H(2)TiO(3), and NaMO(2) is converted to α-NaFeO(2)-type structure of HMO(2). Under the optimal conditions, 87.3% of the sodium, 42.3% of the silicon, 43.2% of the aluminum, 22.8% of the manganese, and 96.6% of the vanadium are leached out.

  7. 熔盐炉余热回收系统分析研究%Analysis of Waste Heat Recovery System for Molten Salt Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雁; 闫博

    2016-01-01

    Molten salt furnace is applied to heat process whose temperature is above 400 ℃. Molten salt furnace has high outlet temperature flue gas. Applying waste heat recovery system recycling energy can achieve remarkable energy saving effect. In view of the waste heat recovery system forms and thermodynamic parameters, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of all kinds of waste heat recovery system, provides the theory basis for molten salt furnace waste heat recovery system design.%熔盐炉经常用于400℃以上的介质换热,熔盐炉出炉烟气温度较高,应用余热回收系统回收能量可取得显著的节能效果。本文针对余热回收系统形式及热力参数,分析各种余热回收系统的优缺点,为熔炉盐炉余热回收系统设计提供理论依据。

  8. Cation and anion dependence of stable geometries and stabilization energies of alkali metal cation complexes with FSA(-), FTA(-), and TFSA(-) anions: relationship with physicochemical properties of molten salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Kubota, Keigo; Matsumoto, Hajime

    2013-12-19

    Stable geometries and stabilization energies (Eform) of the alkali metal complexes with bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide, (fluorosulfonyl)(trifluoromethylslufonyl)amide and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (FSA(-), FTA(-) and TFSA(-)) were studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The FSA(-) complexes prefer the bidentate structures in which two oxygen atoms of two SO2 groups have contact with the metal cation. The FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with Li(+) and Na(+) prefer the bidentate structures, while the FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with Cs(+) prefer tridentate structures in which the metal cation has contact with two oxygen atoms of an SO2 group and one oxygen atom of another SO2 group. The two structures are nearly isoenergetic in the FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with K(+) and Rb(+). The magnitude of Eform depends on the alkali metal cation significantly. The Eform calculated for the most stable TFSA(-) complexes with Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+) and Cs(+) cations at the MP2/6-311G** level are -137.2, -110.5, -101.1, -89.6, and -84.1 kcal/mol, respectively. The viscosity and ionic conductivity of the alkali TFSA molten salts have strong correlation with the magnitude of the attraction. The viscosity increases and the ionic conductivity decreases with the increase of the attraction. The melting points of the alkali TFSA and alkali BETA molten salts also have correlation with the magnitude of the Eform, which strongly suggests that the magnitude of the attraction play important roles in determining the melting points of these molten salts. The anion dependence of the Eform calculated for the complexes is small (less than 2.9 kcal/mol). This shows that the magnitude of the attraction is not the cause of the low melting points of alkali FTA molten salts compared with those of corresponding alkali TFSA molten salts. The electrostatic interactions are the major source of the attraction in the complexes. The electrostatic energies for the most stable TFSA

  9. Study on hot corrosion behavior of Yb{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} ceramic against Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + V{sub 2}O{sub 5} molten salts at temperatures of 900-1200 C in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.; Liu, Z.G.; Ouyang, J.H. [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Department of Materials Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92 West Da-Zhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Yb{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} ceramic powders synthesized by chemical-coprecipitation and calcination method were pressureless-sintered at 1700 C for 10 h in air to fabricate dense bulk materials. Hot corrosion studies were performed on Yb{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} against Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (molar ratio = 1:1) molten salts in a temperature range of 900-1200 C for 8 h in air, respectively. Chemical reactions were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Yb{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} ceramic was severely corroded by Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + V{sub 2}O{sub 5} molten salt, however, no chemical reaction was found between individual Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Yb{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Yb{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} reacted with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + V{sub 2}O{sub 5} molten salt to form YbVO{sub 4} and m-ZrO{sub 2}. The thickness of hot corrosion scales formed at different temperatures was investigated to evaluate hot corrosion behavior based on fluxing mechanism. The introduction of vanadium into sulfate led to subsequent formation of NaVO{sub 3}, which was acidic enough to dissolve Yb{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} by acidic fluxing. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. On the use of a molten salt fast reactor to apply an idealized transmutation scenario for the nuclear phase out.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Merk

    Full Text Available In the view of transmutation of transuranium (TRU elements, molten salt fast reactors (MSFRs offer certain advantages compared to solid fuelled reactor types like sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs. In the first part these advantages are discussed in comparison with the SFR technology, and the research challenges are analyzed. In the second part cycle studies for the MSFR are given for different configurations--a core with U-238 fertile, a fertile free core, and a core with Th-232 as fertile material. For all cases, the transmutation potential is determined and efficient transmutation performance for the case with thorium as a fertile material as well as for the fertile free case is demonstrated and the individual advantages are discussed. The time evolution of different important isotopes is analyzed. In the third part a strategy for the optimization of the transmutation efficiency is developed. The final aim is dictated by the phase out decision of the German government, which requests to put the focus on the determination of the maximal transmutation efficiency and on an as much as possible reduced leftover of transuranium elements at the end of the reactor life. This minimal leftover is achieved by a two step procedure of a first transmuter operation phase followed by a second deep burning phase. There the U-233, which is bred in the blanket of the core consisting of thorium containing salt, is used as feed. It is demonstrated, that transmutation rates up to more than 90% can be achieved for all transuranium isotopes, while the production of undesired high elements like californium is very limited. Additionally, the adaptations needed for the simulation of a MSFR, and the used tool HELIOS 1.10 is described.

  11. On the use of a molten salt fast reactor to apply an idealized transmutation scenario for the nuclear phase out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Bruno; Rohde, Ulrich; Glivici-Cotruţă, Varvara; Litskevich, Dzianis; Scholl, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In the view of transmutation of transuranium (TRU) elements, molten salt fast reactors (MSFRs) offer certain advantages compared to solid fuelled reactor types like sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). In the first part these advantages are discussed in comparison with the SFR technology, and the research challenges are analyzed. In the second part cycle studies for the MSFR are given for different configurations--a core with U-238 fertile, a fertile free core, and a core with Th-232 as fertile material. For all cases, the transmutation potential is determined and efficient transmutation performance for the case with thorium as a fertile material as well as for the fertile free case is demonstrated and the individual advantages are discussed. The time evolution of different important isotopes is analyzed. In the third part a strategy for the optimization of the transmutation efficiency is developed. The final aim is dictated by the phase out decision of the German government, which requests to put the focus on the determination of the maximal transmutation efficiency and on an as much as possible reduced leftover of transuranium elements at the end of the reactor life. This minimal leftover is achieved by a two step procedure of a first transmuter operation phase followed by a second deep burning phase. There the U-233, which is bred in the blanket of the core consisting of thorium containing salt, is used as feed. It is demonstrated, that transmutation rates up to more than 90% can be achieved for all transuranium isotopes, while the production of undesired high elements like californium is very limited. Additionally, the adaptations needed for the simulation of a MSFR, and the used tool HELIOS 1.10 is described.

  12. On the Use of a Molten Salt Fast Reactor to Apply an Idealized Transmutation Scenario for the Nuclear Phase Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Bruno; Rohde, Ulrich; Glivici-Cotruţă, Varvara; Litskevich, Dzianis; Scholl, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In the view of transmutation of transuranium (TRU) elements, molten salt fast reactors (MSFRs) offer certain advantages compared to solid fuelled reactor types like sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). In the first part these advantages are discussed in comparison with the SFR technology, and the research challenges are analyzed. In the second part cycle studies for the MSFR are given for different configurations – a core with U-238 fertile, a fertile free core, and a core with Th-232 as fertile material. For all cases, the transmutation potential is determined and efficient transmutation performance for the case with thorium as a fertile material as well as for the fertile free case is demonstrated and the individual advantages are discussed. The time evolution of different important isotopes is analyzed. In the third part a strategy for the optimization of the transmutation efficiency is developed. The final aim is dictated by the phase out decision of the German government, which requests to put the focus on the determination of the maximal transmutation efficiency and on an as much as possible reduced leftover of transuranium elements at the end of the reactor life. This minimal leftover is achieved by a two step procedure of a first transmuter operation phase followed by a second deep burning phase. There the U-233, which is bred in the blanket of the core consisting of thorium containing salt, is used as feed. It is demonstrated, that transmutation rates up to more than 90% can be achieved for all transuranium isotopes, while the production of undesired high elements like californium is very limited. Additionally, the adaptations needed for the simulation of a MSFR, and the used tool HELIOS 1.10 is described. PMID:24690768

  13. Preparation of Al-Si Master Alloy by Electrochemical Reduction of Volcanic Rock in Cryolite Molten Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aimin; Shi, Zhongning; Xu, Junli; Hu, Xianwei; Gao, Bingliang; Wang, Zhaowen

    2016-06-01

    Volcanic rock found in the Longgang Volcano Group in Jilin Province of China has properties essentially similar to Apollo lunar soils and previously prepared lunar soil simulants, such as Johnson Space Center Lunar simulant and Minnesota Lunar simulant. In this study, an electrochemical method of preparation of Al-Si master alloy was investigated in 52.7 wt.%NaF-47.3 wt.%AlF3 melt adding 5 wt.% volcanic rock at 1233 K. The cathodic electrochemical process was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the results showed that the cathodic reduction of Si(IV) is a two-step reversible diffusion-controlled reaction. Si(IV) is reduced to Si(II) by two electron transfers at -1.05 V versus platinum quasi-reference electrode in 52.7 wt.%NaF-47.3 wt.%AlF3 molten salt adding 5 wt.% volcanic rock, while the reduction peak at -1.18 V was the co-deposition of aluminum and silicon. In addition, the cathodic product obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis for 4 h was analyzed by means of x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. The results showed that the phase compositions of the products are Al, Si, Al5FeSi, and Al3.21Si0.47, while the components are 90.5 wt.% aluminum, 4.4 wt.% silicon, 1.9 wt.% iron, and 0.2 wt.% titanium.

  14. Important roles of multiple Sp1 binding sites and epigenetic modifications in the regulation of the methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1 promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favaloro Bartolo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs are enzymes that catalyze the reduction of oxidized methionine residues. Most organisms that were genetically modified to lack the MsrA gene have shown shortening of their life span. Methionine sulfoxide reductases B (MsrB proteins codified by three separate genes, named MsrB1, MsrB2, and MsrB3, are included in the Msrs system. To date, the mechanisms responsible for the transcriptional regulation of MsrB genes have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of MsrB1 selenoprotein levels through transcriptional regulation of the MsrB1 gene in MDA-MB231 and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cell lines. Results A MsrB1 gene promoter is located 169 base pairs upstream from the transcription start site. It contains three Sp1 binding sites which are sufficient for maximal promoter activity in transient transfection experiments. High levels of MsrB1 transcript, protein and promoter activity were detected in low metastatic MCF7 human breast cancer cells. On the contrary, very low levels of both MsrB1 transcript and promoter activity were detected in the highly metastatic counterpart MDA-MB231 cells. A pivotal role for Sp1 in the constitutive expression of the MsrB1 gene was demonstrated through transient expression of mutant MsrB1 promoter-reporter gene constructs and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. Since Sp1 is ubiquitously expressed, these sites, while necessary, are not sufficient to explain the patterns of gene expression of MsrB1 in various human breast cancer cells. MDA-MB231 cells can be induced to express MsrB1 by treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent. Therefore, the MsrB1 promoter is controlled by epigenetic modifications. Conclusion The results of this study provide the first insights into the transcriptional regulation of the human MsrB1 gene, including the discovery that the Sp1 transcription factor may play a central role in its

  15. Low-Temperature Molten Salt Electrolytes for Membrane-Free Sodium Metal Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Spatocco, Brian L.; Ouchi, Takanari; Lambotte, Guillaume; Paul J Burke; Sadoway, Donald Robert

    2015-01-01

    The liquid metal battery (LMB) is attractive due to its simple construction, its circumvention of solid-state failure mechanisms and resultantly long lifetimes, and its particularly low levelized cost of energy. Here, we provide a study of a unique binary electrolyte, NaOH-NaI, in order to pursue a low-cost and low-temperature sodium-based liquid metal battery (LMB) for grid-scale electricity storage. Thermodynamic studies have confirmed a low eutectic melting temperature (220°C) as well as p...

  16. Electrochemical production of Sn-filled carbon nanotubes in molten salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄辉; 张文魁; 李美超; 甘永平; 马淳安; 张孝彬

    2004-01-01

    Sn-filled carbon nanotubes(CNTs) were prepared in situ by electrolysis of graphite in molten LiCl/SnCl2mixtures. Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) investigation shows that the as-made products contain abundance of carbon nanotubes and most of them are filled with metal nanoparticles or nanorods. Some nanotubes are even inserted with long continuous nanowires more than several micrometers in length. Selected area electron diffraction(SAED) patterns and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDS) of the filled nanotubes confirm the presence ofSn inside the nanotubes. The encapsulated Sn was further identified asβ-Sn with tetragonal structure. Based on theexperimental results, a possible growth mechanism of the Sn-filled nanotubes was also discussed.

  17. Molten Salt Catalysts for Sulfuric Acid Production and SO2 Removal From Flue Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    1996-01-01

    The report summarises the results obtained during 3 years of collaboration between ICE/HT,University of Patras,GR and Department of Chemistry,DTU,DK , supported by EU through a BRITE/EURAM project.The project has been concerned with fundamental investigations on the complex , redox and compound c...... chemistry of the V2O5 based sulfuric acid catalysts and model systems......The report summarises the results obtained during 3 years of collaboration between ICE/HT,University of Patras,GR and Department of Chemistry,DTU,DK , supported by EU through a BRITE/EURAM project.The project has been concerned with fundamental investigations on the complex , redox and compound...

  18. A novel Beam-Down System for Solar Power Generation with Multi-Ring Central Reflectors and Molten Salt Thermal Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaura, Y.; Utamura, M.; Kaneko, H.; Hasuike, H.; Domingo, M.; Relloso, S.

    2006-07-01

    A new concept of beam-down solar power with thermal storage is proposed. The system is featured in an optical system with multi-ring central reflectors and a liquid film molten salt thermal receiver installed near ground level. Its feasibility study has been carried out and power generation cost as well as EPC cost has been estimated. To compensate the drawback to a beam-down solar concentrating system in optical losses, a new receiver concept of liquid film molten salt thermal receiver is designed to aim at higher thermal efficiency than that of tubular receiver. Molten salt liquid film is formed along the inner surface of the receiver wall. The liquid film flows down by gravity. It is shown that the liquid film receiver has a high heat exchange potential up to 2MW/m2 of solar beam flux on the inner wall surface and proved to be feasible. Assuming 24 hour continuous power generation located at Almeria Spain, conceptual designs for two capacities of 120MWt (commercial plant) and 20MWt (pilot plant) have been made. The height and the radius of the central receiver have been optimized as a result of trade off of optical loss and the cost of the central reflector and its support structure. The total cost of the Beam-Down will become 8.37 US cents/kWh, which will be competitive with coal and natural gas, when crude oil cost increases. TITECH (Tokyo Institute of Technology) plans to launch an international program to develop the innovative/cheaper solar tower beam--down concentrating system. (Author)

  19. Assessment of Candidate Molten Salt Coolants for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.

    2006-03-24

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a novel reactor design that utilizes the graphite-matrix high-temperature fuel of helium-cooled reactors, but provides cooling with a high-temperature fluoride salt. For applications at temperatures greater than 900 C the AHTR is also referred to as a Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This report provides an assessment of candidate salts proposed as the primary coolant for the AHTR based upon a review of physical properties, nuclear properties, and chemical factors. The physical properties most relevant for coolant service were reviewed. Key chemical factors that influence material compatibility were also analyzed for the purpose of screening salt candidates. Some simple screening factors related to the nuclear properties of salts were also developed. The moderating ratio and neutron-absorption cross-section were compiled for each salt. The short-lived activation products, long-lived transmutation activity, and reactivity coefficients associated with various salt candidates were estimated using a computational model. Table A presents a summary of the properties of the candidate coolant salts. Certain factors in this table, such as melting point, vapor pressure, and nuclear properties, can be viewed as stand-alone parameters for screening candidates. Heat-transfer properties are considered as a group in Sect. 3 in order to evaluate the combined effects of various factors. In the course of this review, it became apparent that the state of the properties database was strong in some areas and weak in others. A qualitative map of the state of the database and predictive capabilities is given in Table B. It is apparent that the property of thermal conductivity has the greatest uncertainty and is the most difficult to measure. The database, with respect to heat capacity, can be improved with modern instruments and modest effort. In general, ''lighter'' (low-Z) salts tend to

  20. 熔融盐斜温层蓄热的热特性研究%THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS ANALYSIS ON THE MOLTEN SALT THERMOCLINE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左远志; 杨晓西; 丁静; 邵友元

    2012-01-01

    对熔融盐高温斜温层蓄热过程进行较深入的理论与实验研究,建立熔融盐单相流体斜温层蓄热的瞬态热分析模型,模型考虑熔融盐的变物性.利用Fluent软件,通过求解N-S方程与能量方程,对熔融盐单相流体斜温层蓄热罐在各工况条件下的传热蓄热过程进行数值模拟.研究时间进程、初始条件以及结构尺寸等对蓄热性能的影响.结果表明:斜温层的厚度随时间的推移而增加,达到一定厚度后增加量趋缓;流体进口流速、长径比等是影响有效蓄热容量的主要因素,当进口速度为0.001 m/s级、长径比为2∶1时,将减少斜温层厚度.%The numerical simulation and experimental investigation on the heat storage and heat transfer characteristics of the high-temperature thermocline molten salt thermocline thermal energy storage (TES) were presented. The transient thermal analysis model of the single-phase flow molten salt thermocline TES system was set up, which considers the property variations of molten salt. Through solving the N-S equations and energy equation with the Fluent software, the processes of heat storage and heat transfer for the single-phase flow molten salt thermocline TES system under various operating conditions were simulated, and the influences of the time progress, initial conditions and structural dimensions on the TES performance were analyzed. The results showed the thickness of thermocline layer increases with the passage of time at the initial stage and then the increasing rate drops gradually, the inlet velocity and the length to diameter ratio are the main factors to affect the effective TES capacity, and adopting the inlet velocity at the level of 0.001m/s and the length to diameter ratio of 2:1 is favorable to the TES performance.

  1. Electrochemical reduction and electrocrystallization process of B(Ⅲ) in the LiF-NaF-KF-KBF4 molten salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; LI Bing

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of the electrochemical reduction and nucleation process of B(Ⅲ) on the platinum electrode in the LiF-NaF-KF-KBF4 molten salt at 700℃ were first investigated using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques.It was found that the electrochemical reduction of B(Ⅲ) occurs in single-step charge transfer: B(Ⅲ) + 3e → B,and the cathode process is reversible.The electrocrystallization process of B(Ⅲ) is instantaneous.

  2. Identification and evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of fluoride fuel and flush salts from the molten salt reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-15

    This document presents an initial identification and evaluation of the alternatives for disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts stored in the drain tanks at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It will serve as a resource for the U.S. Department of Energy contractor preparing the feasibility study for this activity under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). This document will also facilitate further discussion on the range of credible alternatives, and the relative merits of alternatives, throughout the time that a final alternative is selected under the CERCLA process.

  3. Synthesis by molten salt method of the AFeO{sub 3} system (A=La, Gd) and its structural, vibrational and internal hyperfine magnetic field characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M.; Gómez, R.W. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-399, México D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Marquina, V., E-mail: marquina@unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-399, México D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Pérez-Mazariego, J.L. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-399, México D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Escamilla, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, México D. F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2014-06-15

    Polycrystalline samples of LaFeO{sub 3} and GdFeO{sub 3} were synthesized by the molten salt method. Some properties and the quality of the resulting compounds were investigated. The crystal structure and purity of the samples were determined through X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis. The vibrational properties were characterized by Raman and IR spectroscopy. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the ionic state of the Fe ions and the internal hyperfine magnetic fields. Considerable reduction of the heat treatment (temperature and time) for the reaction to take place was achieved without detriment of the quality of the compounds.

  4. 固态钍基熔盐堆堆芯核设计安全限值研究%Safety Margin Analysis of Thorium Molten Salt Reactor with Solid Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昆鹏; 左嘉旭; 靖剑平; 攸国顺; 张大林; 刘利民

    2016-01-01

    Thorium molten salt reactor has been listed as a key development of the fourth generation nuclear power system because of its advantages in safety , economy and sustainability .China has carried out the relevant re-search , however , the domestic regulations on the research reactor is not complete .The problem of the nuclear safe-ty review is analyzed in depth from the point of view of the nuclear safety review .This study is based on NRC ’ s re-view of the next generation of advanced nuclear energy systems , fully research light water power reactor ( PWR, BWR) , running research reactor , sodium cooled fast reactor , and high temperature gas cooled reactor .On the ba-sis of the determination of the design limits of the core design , the key safety margins for the design of the thorium molten salt reactor are given.%钍基熔盐堆因其在安全性、经济性及可持续性方面的优势被列为第四代核能系统重点发展的堆型。我国已经开展了相关的研究,然而国内关于研究堆的法规导则不完整,相关规定和要求比较原则,必须结合钍基熔盐研究堆的特点进行具体研究。针对固态燃料钍基熔盐实验堆,从核安全评审的角度,对核安全评审相关的问题进行深入研究分析。依据NRC针对下一代先进核能系统制定的评审方法,充分调研轻水动力堆(压水堆、沸水堆)、正在运行的研究堆、以及同样被列为第四代反应堆重点发展堆型的钠冷快堆、高温气冷堆,参考国内外对上述堆型堆芯核设计限值的确定原则及相关依据,初步给出钍基熔盐堆堆芯核设计关键安全限值。

  5. A novel molten-salt electrochemical cell for investigating the reduction of uranium dioxide to uranium metal by lithium using in situ synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Leon D.; Abdulaziz, Rema; Jervis, Rhodri; Bharath, Vidal; Mason, Thomas J.; Reinhard, Christina; Connor, Leigh D.; Inman, Douglas; Brett, Daniel J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    A novel electrochemical cell has been designed and built to allow for in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements to be made during reduction of UO2 to U metal in LiCl–KCl at 500°C. The electrochemical cell contains a recessed well at the bottom of the cell into which the working electrode sits, reducing the beam path for the X-rays through the molten-salt and maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio from the sample. Lithium metal was electrodeposited onto the UO2 working electrode by exposing the working electrode to more negative potentials than the Li deposition potential of the LiCl–KCl eutectic electrolyte. The Li metal acts as a reducing agent for the chemical reduction of UO2 to U, which appears to proceed to completion. All phases were fitted using Le Bail refinement. The cell is expected to be widely applicable to many studies involving molten-salt systems. PMID:28244437

  6. Testing thermocline filler materials and molten-salt heat transfer fluids for thermal energy storage systems used in parabolic trough solar power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Michael James; Hlava, Paul Frank; Brosseau, Douglas A.

    2004-07-01

    Parabolic trough power systems that utilize concentrated solar energy to generate electricity are a proven technology. Industry and laboratory research efforts are now focusing on integration of thermal energy storage as a viable means to enhance dispatchability of concentrated solar energy. One option to significantly reduce costs is to use thermocline storage systems, low-cost filler materials as the primary thermal storage medium, and molten nitrate salts as the direct heat transfer fluid. Prior thermocline evaluations and thermal cycling tests at the Sandia National Laboratories' National Solar Thermal Test Facility identified quartzite rock and silica sand as potential filler materials. An expanded series of isothermal and thermal cycling experiments were planned and implemented to extend those studies in order to demonstrate the durability of these filler materials in molten nitrate salts over a range of operating temperatures for extended timeframes. Upon test completion, careful analyses of filler material samples, as well as the molten salt, were conducted to assess long-term durability and degradation mechanisms in these test conditions. Analysis results demonstrate that the quartzite rock and silica sand appear able to withstand the molten salt environment quite well. No significant deterioration that would impact the performance or operability of a thermocline thermal energy storage system was evident. Therefore, additional studies of the thermocline concept can continue armed with confidence that appropriate filler materials have been identified for the intended application.

  7. Computational Thermodynamic Modeling of Hot Corrosion of Alloys Haynes 242 and HastelloyTM N for Molten Salt Service in Advanced High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Glazoff, Michael; Charit, Indrajt; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-09-17

    An evaluation of thermodynamic aspects of hot corrosion of the superalloys Haynes 242 and HastelloyTM N in the eutectic mixtures of KF and ZrF4 is carried out for development of Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). This work models the behavior of several superalloys, potential candidates for the AHTR, using computational thermodynamics tool (ThermoCalc), leading to the development of thermodynamic description of the molten salt eutectic mixtures, and on that basis, mechanistic prediction of hot corrosion. The results from these studies indicated that the principal mechanism of hot corrosion was associated with chromium leaching for all of the superalloys described above. However, HastelloyTM N displayed the best hot corrosion performance. This was not surprising given it was developed originally to withstand the harsh conditions of molten salt environment. However, the results obtained in this study provided confidence in the employed methods of computational thermodynamics and could be further used for future alloy design efforts. Finally, several potential solutions to mitigate hot corrosion were proposed for further exploration, including coating development and controlled scaling of intermediate compounds in the KF-ZrF4 system.

  8. 熔盐冷冻壁形成及控制实验研究%Experimental research on the formation and controlling of molten salt frozen-wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金豪; 孙波; 佘长锋; 窦强; 龙德武; 李晴暖; 吴国忠

    2015-01-01

    Background:As corrosion of processing equipment from the high aggressive reagent is a serious problem during the pyroprocessing, the molten salt frozen-wall is proposed as an option for protecting the metallic walls from corrosion by a layer of frozen salt.Purpose:In order to study this means of corrosion protection, the research on the formation and controlling of molten salt frozen-wall was carried out.Methods: Nitrate molten salt (melt point: 142 ºC) was used as the research medium and heat transfer oil was adopted as coolant. An experimental platform for the research of molten salt frozen-wall was built, which contains an up-flow tapered test tank covered with heat exchange jacket. The frozen-wall was formed and maintained by controlling the internally heating and the cooling of outer part of the test tank. The thickness of frozen wall was directly measured by caliper and also figured out by the measured temperatures.Results:The operation temperature of molten salt ranges from 150 ºC to 250 ºC; the maximum flowrate of molten salt is 500 L·h−1; the operation temperature of heat transfer oil ranges from 5 ºC to 120 ºC; and the flowrate of oil ranges from 1.5 m3·h−1 to 15 m3·h−1. Under the expected operating conditions, a layer of frozen can be easily and predictably deposited and maintained on surfaces contacted by the salt. The molten salt frozen-wall was adherent and stable. The average formation rate ranges from 0.2 mm·min−1 to 0.5 mm·min−1. The heat flow decreases with the thickness increasing during the process of formation, at the same time temperature difference through frozen-wall layer gradually increased, and the change trends are all damped. The frozen-wall could reach static equilibrium by controlling the heat transfer rate. When frozen-wall is in a state of balance, the temperature gradient and the thickness of frozen-wall are constant; the decay heat of fission produces simulated by heating rod is equal to the heat flow through

  9. Aluminizing and boroaluminizing treatments of Mar-M247 and their effect on hot corrosion resistance in Na2SO4-NaCl molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J. H.; Kim, T. W.; Son, K. S.; Yoon, J. H.; Kim, H. S.; Leisk, G. G.; Mitton, D. B.; Latanision, R. M.

    2003-06-01

    The effect of surface modifications of Mar-M247 superalloy on hot corrosion resistance was examined in Na2SO4-NaCl molten salt. The Mar-M247 was aluminized and boroaluminized by pack cementation in Ar and underwent a cyclic hot corrosion test in Na2SO4-NaCl molten salt. The XRD results showed that a Ni2Al3 phase was formed between the aluminized layer and the substrate when the surface modification temperature was below 1273 K. However, a NiAl phase formed when the temperature was above 1273 K. The intensity of the XRD peak in the NiAl phase increased after post heat treatment. Hot corrosion resistance increased for the specimens containing NiAl rather than Ni2Al3 phase. The ductile NiAl phase suppressed the potential for crack initiation during thermal cycling. Post heat treatment increased the corrosion resistance of the aluminized layer for Mar-M247, which underwent surface modification at 1273 K and above. In the boroaluminized Mar-M247 specimens, corrosion resistance decreased as a result of the blocking of outward diffusion of Cr by boron and decreased cohesion between the oxide scale and the aluminized layer during thermal cycling.

  10. Chemical stability of conductive ceramic anodes in LiCl–Li{sub 2}O molten salt for electrolytic reduction in pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Wook; Kang, Hyun Woo; Jeon, Min Ku; Lee, Sang Kwon; Choi, Eun Young; Park, Woo Shin; Hong, Sun Seok; Oh, Seung Chul; Hur, Jin Mok [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Process Development Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Conductive ceramics are being developed to replace current Pt anodes in the electrolytic reduction of spent oxide fuels in pyroprocessing. While several conductive ceramics have shown promising electrochemical properties in small-scale experiments, their long-term stabilities have not yet been investigated. In this study, the chemical stability of conductive La{sub 0.33}Sr{sub 0.67}MnO{sub 3} in LiCl–Li{sub 2}O molten salt at 650°C was investigated to examine its feasibility as an anode material. Dissolution of Sr at the anode surface led to structural collapse, thereby indicating that the lifetime of the La{sub 0.33}Sr{sub 0.67}MnO{sub 3} anode is limited. The dissolution rate of Sr is likely to be influenced by the local environment around Sr in the perovskite framework.

  11. Study on electrochemical preparation of Al-Li-Y alloys from Y2O3 in LiCl-KCl-AlCl3 molten salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yaming; WANG Fengli; ZHANG Milin; HAN Wei; TIAN Yang

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical preparaton of Al-Li-Y alloys from LiCl-KCl-A1Cl3-Y2O3 system was studied. The chlorination of Y2O3 by AlCl3 led to the formation of Y (Ⅲ) ions in the molten salts. Cyclic voltammogram (CV) showed that the underpotential deposition (UPD) of yttrium on pre-deposited aluminum caused the formation of Al-Y alloy. Al-Li-Y alloys with different yttriurn contents were obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis and analysed by SEM-EDS and ICP. The ICP results showed that the lithium and yttrium contents in Al-Li-Y alloysdepended on the addition of AlCl3 into the melts.

  12. Molten Salt Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Optical Properties of a Novel Quaternary Metal Selenide, K2AgIn3Se6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo, Hong-You(郭洪猷); Wang, Zhi-Xia(王志霞); Shu, Gui-Ming(舒桂明); Wang, Ru-Ji(王如骥); Zhang, Li-Dan(张丽丹); Wang, Ping(王平)

    2004-01-01

    K2AgIn3Se6 was synthesized by a molten-salt (alkali-metal polyselenide flux) reaction at 500 ℃. The orange red granular crystal crystallizes in monoclinic space group C2/c with cell parameters, a=1.16411(7) nm, b=1.16348(8) nm, c=2.14179(12) nm, V=2.8740(9) nm3, and Z=8. The crystal has a new two-dimensional structure containing 2∞[AgIn3Se6]2- anionic layers separated by K+ cations and the 2∞[AgIn3Se6]2- layer is constructed with corner-shared [AgSe4] and [InSe4] tetrahedra. The optical band gap of K2AgIn3Se6 was determined to be ca. 2.9 eV by UV/vis/NIR diffuse reflectance spectra.

  13. Dielectric relaxation behaviour of Sr2SbMnO6 ceramics fabricated from nanocrystalline powders prepared by molten salt synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antara Baral; K R S Preethi Meher; K B R Varma

    2011-02-01

    Double perovskite polycrystalline single phase and dense Sr2SbMnO6 (SSM) ceramics, fabricated using the nanocrystalline powders synthesized by molten salt method, exhibited high dielectric constant with low dielectric loss as compared to that of SSM ceramics obtained from the powders prepared by solid-state synthesis method. The dielectric data obtained over a wide frequency (100 Hz–1 MHz) and temperature (190 K–300 K) ranges exhibited distinct relaxations owing to both the grain and grain boundary. The dielectric dispersion was modeled using the Cole–Cole equation consisting of two separate relaxation terms corresponding to the grain and grain boundary. The grain and grain boundary relaxations observed in the Nyquist plots (' and ) were modeled by an equivalent circuit consisting of two parallel RC circuits connected in series with each other. A careful analysis of both the impedance ('' vs) and modulus ('' vs) behaviour corroborated the conclusions drawn fromthe dielectric data.

  14. On the Burning of Plutonium Originating from Light Water Reactor Use in a Fast Molten Salt Reactor—A Neutron Physical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Merk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient burning of the plutonium produced during light water reactor (LWR operation has the potential to significantly improve the sustainability indices of LWR operations. The work offers a comparison of the efficiency of Pu burning in different reactor configurations—a molten salt fast reactor, a LWR with mixed oxide (MOX fuel, and a sodium cooled fast reactor. The calculations are performed using the HELIOS 2 code. All results are evaluated against the plutonium burning efficiency determined in the Consommation Accrue de Plutonium dans les Réacteurs à Neutrons RApides (CAPRA project. The results are discussed with special view on the increased sustainability of LWR use in the case of successful avoidance of an accumulation of Pu which otherwise would have to be forwarded to a final disposal. A strategic discussion is given about the unavoidable plutonium production, the possibility to burn the plutonium to avoid a burden for the future generations which would have to be controlled.

  15. Thermal decomposition of organic wastes with radionuclides by using molten salt oxidation; Decomposicao termica de residuos organicos contendo radionuclideos por meio de oxidacao em sais fundidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lainetti, Paulo Ernesto O.; Abrao, Alcidio [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    During the last decades, IPEN has performed different research developments to dominate the nuclear fuel cycle. The production processes, the development activities and the physical-chemical characterization methods have generated some effluents in the form of aqueous solutions containing radioactive elements that could be discarded after radioactive decay. Nevertheless, in spite of the possibility of waste discharging from a radiological point of view, as consequence of the low activity , some wastes containing organic solvents cannot be discarded in the sewerage system due to legislation restrictions. Some wastes, with high potential risk, such as pyridine or toluene, should be destroyed. However, their destruction in incinerators is not permitted since the presence of radioactive elements. An alternative process would be the oxidative decomposition in molten salts that is not considered incineration, because there is no flame. This work describes the developments conducted in IPEN, in bench scale, to perform tests of thermal decomposition of different hazardous wastes. (author)

  16. Results of molten salt panel and component experiments for solar central receivers: Cold fill, freeze/thaw, thermal cycling and shock, and instrumentation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, J.E.; Ralph, M.E.; Chavez, J.M.; Dunkin, S.R.; Rush, E.E.; Ghanbari, C.M.; Matthews, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted with a molten salt loop at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM to resolve issues associated with the operation of the 10MW{sub e} Solar Two Central Receiver Power Plant located near Barstow, CA. The salt loop contained two receiver panels, components such as flanges and a check valve, vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters, and an impedance pressure transducer. Tests were conducted on procedures for filling and thawing a panel, and assessing components and instrumentation in a molten salt environment. Four categories of experiments were conducted: (1) cold filling procedures, (2) freeze/thaw procedures, (3) component tests, and (4) instrumentation tests. Cold-panel and -piping fill experiments are described, in which the panels and piping were preheated to temperatures below the salt freezing point prior to initiating flow, to determine the feasibility of cold filling the receiver and piping. The transient thermal response was measured, and heat transfer coefficients and transient stresses were calculated from the data. Freeze/thaw experiments were conducted with the panels, in which the salt was intentionally allowed to freeze in the receiver tubes, then thawed with heliostat beams. Slow thermal cycling tests were conducted to measure both how well various designs of flanges (e.g., tapered flanges or clamp type flanges) hold a seal under thermal conditions typical of nightly shut down, and the practicality of using these flanges on high maintenance components. In addition, the flanges were thermally shocked to simulate cold starting the system. Instrumentation such as vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters were tested alongside each other, and compared with flow measurements from calibration tanks in the flow loop.

  17. Synthesis of Polyacene Quinone Radical Polymers with the New Method of Molten Salt%新型熔盐法合成多省并醌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪云龙; 唐先忠; 赵波; 张怡

    2011-01-01

    PAQRs (Polyacene quinone radical polymers) with certain dielectr/c constant were synthesized by anthraquinone (AQ) and pyromellitic dianhydride (PMA) with the aluminum chloride as catalyst, compared with the solution (nitrobenzene) method and the molten salt ( NaCl - AlCl3 ) method. The structures of products were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR) , and Thermo Gravimetric (TG) Analysis were done, finally the dielectrle constant of the PAQRs were tested. Results showed the thermal properties of both kind of PAQRs was good, and the dielectric constant was 4350 at 20 Hz with the molten salt method, while the dielectric constant was only 48.5.%以蒽醌(AQ)和均苯四甲酸酐(PMA)为原料在三氯化铝的催化作用下,对比采用溶液(硝基苯)法和熔盐(NaCl-AlCl3)法合成了具有一定介电常数的多省并醌聚合物(PAQR)。通过红外对产物进行结构表征,然后对产物进行热失重(TC)分析测试,最后测量两种方岳PAQR的介电常数。结果显示两种方法合成的PAQR热稳定性均良好:采用熔盐法得到了在20Hz频率下,介电常数为4350的PAQR,而溶液法的介电常数仅为48.5。

  18. [download] (941Data Analysis with the Morse-Smale Complex: The msr Package for R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gerber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In many areas, scientists deal with increasingly high-dimensional data sets. An important aspect for these scientists is to gain a qualitative understanding of the process or system from which the data is gathered. Often, both input variables and an outcome are observed and the data can be characterized as a sample from a high-dimensional scalar function. This work presents the R package msr for exploratory data analysis of multivariate scalar functions based on the Morse-Smale complex. The Morse-Smale complex provides a topologically meaningful decomposition of the domain. The msr package implements a discrete approximation of the Morse-Smale complex for data sets. In previous work this approximation has been exploited for visualization and partition-based regression, which are both supported in the msr package. The visualization combines the Morse-Smale complex with dimension-reduction techniques for a visual summary representation that serves as a guide for interactive exploration of the high-dimensional function. In a similar fashion, the regression employs a combination of linear models based on the Morse-Smale decomposition of the domain. This regression approach yields topologically accurate estimates and facilitates interpretation of general trends and statistical comparisons between partitions. In this manner, the msr package supports high-dimensional data understanding and exploration through the Morse-Smale complex.

  19. Data Analysis with the Morse-Smale Complex: The msr Package for R

    KAUST Repository

    Gerber, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    In many areas, scientists deal with increasingly high-dimensional data sets. An important aspect for these scientists is to gain a qualitative understanding of the process or system from which the data is gathered. Often, both input variables and an outcome are observed and the data can be characterized as a sample from a high-dimensional scalar function. This work presents the R package msr for exploratory data analysis of multivariate scalar functions based on the Morse-Smale complex. The Morse-Smale complex provides a topologically meaningful decomposition of the domain. The msr package implements a discrete approximation of the Morse-Smale complex for data sets. In previous work this approximation has been exploited for visualization and partition-based regression, which are both supported in the msr package. The visualization combines the Morse-Smale complex with dimension-reduction techniques for a visual summary representation that serves as a guide for interactive exploration of the high-dimensional function. In a similar fashion, the regression employs a combination of linear models based on the Morse-Smale decomposition of the domain. This regression approach yields topologically accurate estimates and facilitates interpretation of general trends and statistical comparisons between partitions. In this manner, the msr package supports high-dimensional data understanding and exploration through the Morse-Smale complex.

  20. Development of electrolytic process in molten salt media for light rare-earth metals production. The metallic cerium electrodeposition; Desenvolvimento de processo de eletrolise em meio de sais fundidos para a producao de metais de terras-raras leves. A obtencao do cerio metalico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, T.A.G.

    1994-12-31

    The development of molten salt process and the respective equipment aiming rare-earth metals recovery was described. In the present case, the liquid cerium metal electrodeposition in a molten electrolytes of cerium chloride and an equimolar mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides in temperatures near 800{sup C} was studied. Due the high chemical reactivity of the rare-earth metals in the liquid state and their molten halides, an electrolytic cell was constructed with controlled atmosphere, graphite crucibles and anodes and a tungsten cathode. The electrolytic process variables and characteristics were evaluated upon the current efficiency and metallic product purity. Based on this evaluations, were suggested some alterations on the electrolytic reactor design and upon the process parameters. (author). 90 refs, 37 figs, 20 tabs.

  1. Temperature field analysis in tungsten-copper alloy powder preparation by molten salt electrolysis%熔盐电解制备钨铜合金粉体槽内温场条件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 周才英; 廖春发

    2014-01-01

    在熔盐电解法由Na2WO4和CuO制取钨铜合金粉体的研究基础上,分析电解槽内的温度场分布,特别是电极区域的温度分布情况对电解行为的影响。通过位移法测量,采取比较法分析实验误差,结果表明:电解过程中2个主要的外部条件,即电解槽内温场分布与电场分布是联动的;温度条件影响着电极电位;同时,外部槽电压通过电流扰动槽内温场,使电极区域温场分布不均。%Based on the research of preparing tungsten copper alloy powder from Na 2WO4 and CuO by molten salt electrolysis method, the temperature field distribution of the electrolysis cell and the influence of the electrochemical behavior around temperature distribution nearby the electrode area are analyzed. Temperature is measured by the displacement method and the experimental error is analyzed. The results show that temperature field distribution and electric field distribution in the electrolytic cell interact with each other, and the electrode potential is affected by temperature conditions. In the meanwhile, the external electric field disturbs the temperature field in electrolysis cell to make the uneven distribution of temperature field around electrode area.

  2. Contribution of the stereospecific methionine sulphoxide reductases MsrA and MsrB to oxidative and nitrosative stress resistance in the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atack, John M; Kelly, David J

    2008-08-01

    The microaerophilic food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is exposed to highly variable oxygen concentrations during its life cycle and employs a variety of protection mechanisms to resist oxidative stress. However, not all of the enzymes that mediate such protection have yet been identified. Two genes in strain NCTC 11168, Cj0637c and Cj1112c, are predicted to encode unrelated methionine sulphoxide reductases, which may repair oxidized methionine residues in proteins and thus contribute to oxidative stress defence. Cj0637 and Cj1112 were overexpressed, purified and shown by a coupled thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase-NADPH assay to catalyse the stereospecific reduction of the S and R diastereoisomers, respectively, of the model compound methyl p-tolyl sulphoxide. Cj0637 is thus identified as MsrA and Cj1112 as MsrB. The contribution of these enzymes to oxidative and nitrosative stress resistance in C. jejuni was assessed by phenotypic analysis of a set of isogenic msrA, msrB and msrA/B insertion mutants. As RT-PCR data suggested a polar effect on Cj1111c in the msrB mutant, an msrB/msrB(+) merodiploid complementation strain was also constructed. The msrA/B strain was severely growth inhibited under standard microaerobic conditions, whereas the msrA and msrB strains grew normally. Agar plate disc diffusion assays showed that all mutants displayed increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, organic peroxide, superoxide, and nitrosative and disulphide stress, but quantitative cell viability assays showed that the msrA/B double mutant was markedly more sensitive to both oxidative and nitrosative stress. All of the stress-sensitivity phenotypes observed for the msrB mutant were restored to wild-type in the msrB/msrB(+) merodiploid. It is concluded that MsrA and MsrB make a significant contribution to the protection of C. jejuni against oxidative and nitrosative stress.

  3. Orientation control of (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics using platelike NaNbO3 templates prepared by single-step molten salt synthesis with mixed salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Keisuke; Tashiro, Shinjiro

    2016-10-01

    In order to shorten the firing time for sintering textured (K,Na)NbO3 system ceramics, the fabrication method of the single-step molten salt synthesis for preparing platelike NaNbO3 single-crystal particles was improved. An uneven shape was formed on the surfaces of platelike NaNbO3 single-crystal particles obtained by single-step molten salt synthesis in the mixed salts of KCl and NaCl. Using these single-crystal particles as the templates, textured (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics were fabricated. The sinterability of the textured ceramics and their piezoelectricity were compared between two kinds of templates synthesized in the mixed salt and in the conventional NaCl salt. The diffusivity of K atoms into these templates from the matrix powder of (K,Na)NbO3 during firing was also compared.

  4. Studies on Hot Corrosion of the 2.25 Cr-1Mo Boiler Tube Steel and Its Weldments in the Molten Salt Na2SO4-60 pct V2O5 Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravindra; Tewari, V. K.; Prakash, S.

    2007-01-01

    Hot corrosion is mainly due to the dissolution of protective oxides in the molten salt at the metal surface and their reprecipitation at some other sites as nonprotective porous mass. The hot corrosion attack along the grain boundaries leading to subsurface precipitation of oxides and sulfides also contributes to weakening of material. Ferritic steel with 2.25Cr 1Mo is used widely as a candidate material in the steam generating system of power plants. Hot corrosion studies were conducted on 2.25Cr-1Mo unwelded as well as welded steel specimens with molten salt coated after exposure at 900 °C under cyclic conditions. The thermogravimetric technique was used to establish the kinetics of corrosion X-ray diffraction (XRD); scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive analysis (SEM/EDAX) was used to analyze the corrosion products.

  5. CeO2 as the Oxygen Carrier for Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas in Molten Salts: Thermodynamic Analysis and Experimental Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new technique - the direct partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas using lattice oxygen in molten salts medium has been introduced. Using CeO2 as the oxygen carrier, thermodynamic data were calculated in the reaction process, and the results indicated that direct partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas using lattice oxygen of cerium oxide is feasible in theory. In a stainless steel reactor, the effects of temperature and varying amounts of γ-Al2O3 supported CeO2 on CH4 conversion,H2 and CO selectivity, were investigated, respectively. The results show that 10% CeO2/γ-Al2O3 has the maximal reaction activity at a temperature of 865 ℃ and above, the H2/CO ratio in the gas that has been produced reaches 2 and the CH4 conversion, H2 and CO selectivity reached the following percentages: i.e.61%, 89%, and 91% at 870 ℃, respectively. In addition, increase of reaction temperature is favorable for the partial oxidation of methane.

  6. Corrosion Performance of AISI-309 Exposed to Molten Salts V2O5-Na2SO4 at 700°C Applying EIS and Rp Electrochemical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Diaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion performance of AISI-309 exposed 5 days to molten salts 50 mol% V2O5-50 mol% Na2SO4 at 700°C is reported in this paper. Such evaluation was made using three electrochemical techniques: potentiodynamic polarization curve (PC, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and linear polarization resistance (Rp. From PC, the Tafel slopes, Icorr, and Ecorr were obtained. From Nyquist and Bode plots, it was possible to determine two different stages; the first one showed just one loop, which indicated the initial formation of Cr2O3 layer over the metallic surface; after that, the dissolution of Cr2O3 formed a porous layer, which became part of the corrosion products; at the same time a NiO layer combined with sulfur was forming, which was suggested as the second stage, represented by two capacitive loops. EIS plots were in agreement with the physical characterization made from SEM and EDS analyses. Fitting of EIS experimental data allowed us to propose two electrical circuits, being in concordance with the corrosion stages. Parameters obtained from the simulation of EIS data are also reported. From the results, it was stated that AISI-309 suffered intergranular corrosion due to the presence of sulfur, which diffused to the metallic surface through a porous Cr2O3 layer.

  7. Interplay between structure and transport properties of molten salt mixtures of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl: A molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Venkateswara Rao; Swinteck, Nichlas; Bringuier, Stefan; Lucas, Pierre; Deymier, Pierre; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Molten mixtures of network-forming covalently bonded ZnCl2 and network-modifying ionically bonded NaCl and KCl salts are investigated as high-temperature heat transfer fluids for concentrating solar power plants. Specifically, using molecular dynamics simulations, the interplay between the extent of the network structure, composition, and the transport properties (viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion) of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl molten salts is characterized. The Stokes-Einstein/Eyring relationship is found to break down in these network-forming liquids at high concentrations of ZnCl2 (>63 mol. %), while the Eyring relationship is seen with increasing KCl concentration. Further, the network modification due to the addition of K ions leads to formation of non-bridging terminal Cl ions, which in turn lead to a positive temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in these melts. This new understanding of transport in these ternary liquids enables the identification of appropriate concentrations of the network formers and network modifiers to design heat transfer fluids with desired transport properties for concentrating solar power plants.

  8. Preparation of Ferrotitanium from Ilmenite by Electrolysis-Assisted Calciothermic Reduction in CaCl2-NaCl Molten Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongren; Hua, Yixin; Xu, Cunying; Li, Jian; Li, Yan; Gong, Kai; Ru, Juanjian; Xiong, Li

    2016-02-01

    Electrolysis-assisted calciothermic reduction method is proposed and successfully used to prepare ferrotitanium alloy from ilmenite by using equal-molar CaCl2-NaCl molten salt as electrolyte, molybdenum rod as cathode, and graphite as anode at 973 K with cell voltages of 3.2-4.4 V under inert atmosphere. Thermodynamics analysis of the process is presented, and the products obtained are examined with x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the calciothermic reduction of ilmenite is a stepwise process since intermediate CaTiO3 is observed in the products partially reduced. In the calciothermic reduction process, the reduction of FeTiO3 first gives rise to the formation of Fe and CaTiO3, which as intermediates will further react with calcium metal to form ferrotitanium alloys. This is in good agreement with the prediction of thermodynamics. Experimental results also show that increasing cell voltage can accelerate the formation of calcium metal through electrolysis of CaO and CaCl2 and, hence, promote the calciothermic reduction of ilmenite. As the electrolytic zone and reduction zone are combined in the same bath, the theoretical energy requirement for the production of FeTi in the calciothermic process is lower than that in the aluminothermic process.

  9. Underpotential and overpotential deposition of Al onto Cu(111 from the AlCl3–EtMeImCl room temperature molten salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. JOVIC

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The processes of underpotential (UPD and overpotential (OPD deposition ofAl onto Cu(111, from the room temperature molten salt AlCl3–EtMeImCl of different compositions, has been investigated by the cyclic volatmmetry (CV and potentiostatic pulse techniques. It was shown that the CVs of the UPD are characterized by two sharp peaks, while the potentiostatic cathodic and anodic j–t-transients of this process are characterized by two waves, indicating that the UPD of Al results in the formation of two structures. The first, less dense one,most probably the (sqrt3 x sqrt3 R30 º ordered structure of Al, is formed at a more positive potential of about 200 mV vs. Al, while the second one, a complete momolayer of Al, is formed at about 20 mV vs. Al, just before the reversible potential of Al in these melts (–20mV vs. Al. The OPD of Al was detected at potentials more negative than –30 mV vs. Al, occurring through the progressive 3D nucleation and growth mechanism. Slow surface alloying of Al with Cu was found to occur at a potential close to the reversible potential of Al.

  10. Fabrication of a novel Mg-RE (Nd,Ce) intermetallic compound coating by molten salt diffusion and its effect on corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宝军; 古东懂; 何琼; 张小联; 彭光怀; 杨初斌

    2016-01-01

    A novel Mg-rare earth (Nd,Ce) coating containing intermetallic compound was fabricated on the surface of the AZ91D magnesium alloy by bathing the sample in a NaCl-KCl-LiCl-NdCl3-CeCl3 molten salt. The cross-sectional morphology, microstruc-ture and phase composition of the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron micros-copy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The corrosion resistance was characterized by the potentiodynamic polariza-tion curves. The SEM observation indicated that a continuous and compact diffusion coating was obtained on the surface of SMATed AZ91D magnesium alloy and the XRD and TEM investigations revealed that the new phases were Al2Ce and Al2Nd intermetallic. The potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that the Mg-RE coating improved the corrosion resistance of the AZ91D magne-sium alloy, and the corrosion current density of the coated sample was about 1510 mA/cm2 lower than the uncoated sample.

  11. Prototype Tests for the Recovery and Conversion of UF6 Chemisorbed in NaF Traps for the Molten Salt Reactor Remediation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Icenhour, A.S.; Simmons, D.W.

    2000-04-01

    The remediation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site includes the removal of about 37 kg of uranium. Of that inventory, about 23 kg have already been removed from the piping system and chemisorbed in 25 NaF traps. This material is being stored in Building 3019. The planned recovery of -11 kg of uranium from the fuel salt will generate another 15 to 19 NaF traps. The remaining 2 to 3 kg of uranium are present in activated charcoal beds, which are also scheduled to be removed from the reactor site. Since all of these materials (NaF traps and the uranium-laden charcoal) are not suitable for long-term storage, they will be converted to a chemical form [uranium oxide], which is suitable for long-term storage. This document describes the process that will be used to recover and convert the uranium in the NaF traps into a stable oxide for long-term storage. Included are a description of the process, equipment, test results, and lessons learned. The process was developed for remote operation in a hot cell. Lessons learned from the prototype testing were incorporated into the process design.

  12. Prototype Tests for the Recovery and Conversion of UF6Chemisorbed in NaF Traps for the Molten Salt Reactor Remediation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.

    2000-06-07

    The remediation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site includes the removal of about 37 kg of uranium. Of that inventory, about 23 kg have already been removed from the piping system and chemisorbed in 25 NaF traps. This material is being stored in Building 3019. The planned recovery of {approx}11 kg of uranium from the fuel salt will generate another 15 to 19 NaF traps. The remaining 2 to 3 kg of uranium are present in activated charcoal beds, which are also scheduled to be removed from the reactor site. Since all of these materials (NaF traps and the uranium-laden charcoal) are not suitable for long-term storage, they will be converted to a chemical form [uranium oxide (U{sub 3}O{sub 8})], which is suitable for long-term storage. This document describes the process that will be used to recover and convert the uranium in the NaF traps into a stable oxide for long-term storage. Included are a description of the process, equipment, test results, and lessons learned. The process was developed for remote operation in a hot cell. Lessons learned from the prototype testing were incorporated into the process design.

  13. Environmental health and safety plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Tiner, P.F.; Gosslee, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to environmental protection and safety and health (S and H) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all MSRE operations. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated at the MSRE that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and the best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air.

  14. Microwave dielectric properties of composites consisting of MgAl2O4 filler synthesized by molten-salt method and isotactic polypropylene polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Susumu; Imai, Yusuke; Kan, Akinori; Hotta, Yuji; Ogawa, Hirotaka

    2015-10-01

    MgAl2O4 particles were synthesized through the solid-state reaction method (MAO-S) or molten-salt method (MAO-M). The crystallinity, particle size, and crystal structure of spinel-structured MAO-S and MAO-M particles were characterized and these particles used as dielectric fillers were filled into an isotactic polypropylene matrix, up to 30 vol % filler concentration. Significant differences in the degree of inversion (λ), which represents the cation distribution in tetrahedral and octahedral sites, were obtained for MAO-S and MAO-M by solid-state NMR measurements and the λ value of MAO-S fired for 10 h was 0.39, while that of MAO-M fired for 10 h was 0.64. The dielectric constant of MAO-S- or MAO-M-filled composites increased from 2.4 to 3.7 with increasing filler concentration and was consistent with the Bruggeman model. The dielectric loss and thermal conductivity of the composites were remarkably improved by the addition of the MAO-M filler, depending on the increase in the duration of firing, and were 1.74 × 10-4 and 0.62 W/(m·K), respectively. The coefficient of thermal expansion and the temperature coefficient of the dielectric constant of composites also depended on the filler concentration.

  15. Thermal modeling of a secondary concentrator integrated with an open direct-absorption molten-salt volumetric receiver in a beam-down tower system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlou, Radia; Armstrong, Peter; Grange, Benjamin; Almheiri, Saif; Calvet, Nicolas; Slocum, Alexander; Shamim, Tariq

    2016-05-01

    An upward-facing three-dimensional secondary concentrator, herein termed Final Optical Element (FOE), is designed to be used in a beam-down tower in combination with an open volumetric direct-absorption molten-salt receiver tank acting simultaneously as a thermal energy storage system. It allows reducing thermal losses from the open receiver by decreasing its aperture area while keeping minimal spillage losses. The FOE is exposed to high solar fluxes, a part of which is absorbed by its reflector material, leading to material degradation by overheating. Consequently, the FOE may require active cooling. A thermal model of the FOE under passive cooling mechanism is proposed as a first step to evaluate its sensitivity to some design parameters. Then, it will be used to evaluate the requirements for the active cooling system. The model provides insights on the FOE thermal behavior and highlights the effectiveness of a design modification on passive cooling enhancement. First prototype tests under reduced flux and with no active cooling will be used for model adjustment.

  16. Corrosion characteristics of reduced activation ferritic steel, JLF-1 (8.92Cr-2W) in molten salts Flibe and Flinak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Masatoshi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Gifu (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan)], E-mail: kondo.masatoshi@nifs.ac.jp; Nagasaka, Takuya [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Gifu (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Xu Qi [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Muroga, Takeo; Sagara, Akio [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Gifu (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Noda, Nobuaki [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Gifu (Japan); Ninomiya, Daisuke; Nagura, Masaru; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Fujii, Naoki [Biko Chemical Company, Koube (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Static corrosion tests were performed in molten salts, LiF-BeF{sub 2} (Flibe) and LiF-NaF-KF (Flinak), at 500 deg. C and 600 deg. C for 1000 h. The purpose is to investigate the corrosion characteristics of reduced activation ferritic steels, JLF-1 (8.92Cr-2W) in the fluids. The concentration of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in the fluids was measured by slurry pH titration method before and after the exposure. The HF concentration determined the fluoridation potential. The corrosion was mainly caused by dissolution of Fe and Cr into the fluids due to fluoridation and/or electrochemical corrosion. Carbon on the surface might be dissolved into the fluids due to the corrosion, and this resulted to the decrease of carbide on the surface. The corrosion depth of the JLF-1 specimen, which was obtained from the weight losses, was 0.637 {mu}m in Flibe at 600 deg. C and 6.73 {mu}m in Flinak at 600 deg. C.

  17. Study on Thermal Storage Process of Solar Energy in Molten Salt Thermal Storage Tank%太阳能熔盐蓄热罐蓄热过程的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴; 靳智平; 刘宏丽

    2015-01-01

    By using numerical simulation method, the melting and thermal storage process of molten salt in the thermal storage tank was studied. The results showed that tubes pitches have important influence on the melting process of molten salt in the same thermal storage tank. The tank with 200 mm tubes pitches is of better storage ability than that with 120 mm, and the temperature distribution in molten salt tank is more uniform. The results will provide a reference to the structural design and optimization of the thermal storage tank.%对太阳能熔盐蓄热罐的熔化和蓄热过程进行了数值模拟研究,结果表明相同蓄热罐不同的加热内管间距对熔化和蓄热过程有着显著影响.其中,200 mm管间距的蓄热罐熔化和蓄热过程较管间距为120 mm的蓄热快,并且温度分布比较均匀.研究结论对蓄热罐的结构设计和优化运行具有一定的参考价值.

  18. Thermal conductivity and thermal linear expansion measurements on molten salts for assessing their behaviour as heat transport fluid in thermodynamics solar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppa, P.; Bovesecchi, G.; Fabrizi, F.

    2010-08-01

    Molten salts (sodium and potassium nitrides) are going to be used in many different plants as heat transferring fluids, e.g. concentration solar plants, nuclear power plants, etc. In fact they present may important advantages: their absolute safety and non toxicity, availability and low cost. But their use, e.g. in the energy receiving pipe in the focus of the parabolic mirror concentrator of the solar thermodynamic plant, requires the accurate knowledge of the thermophysical properties, above all thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat and thermal linear expansion, in the temperature range 200°C÷600°C. In the new laboratory by ENEA Casaccia, SolTerm Department all these properties are going to be measured. Thermal conductivity is measured with the standard probe method (linear heat source inserted into the material) manufacturing a special probe suited to the foreseen temperature range (190-550°C). The probe is made of a ceramic quadrifilar pipe containing in different holes the heater (Ni wire) and the thermometer (type J thermocouple). The thermal linear expansion will be measured by a special system designed and built to this end, measuring the sample dilatation by the reflection of a laser beam by the bottom of the meniscus in the liquid solid interface. The viscosity will be evaluated detecting the start of the natural convection in the same experiment as to measure thermal conductivity. In the paper the construction of the devices, the results of preliminary tests and an evaluation of the obtainable accuracy are reported.

  19. Sign Crossover in All Maxwell-Stefan Diffusivities for Molten Salt LiF-BeF2: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Brahmananda

    2015-08-20

    Applying Green-Kubo formalism and equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have studied for the first time the dynamic correlation, Onsager coefficients, and Maxwell-Stefan (MS) diffusivities of molten salt LiF-BeF2, which is a potential candidate for a coolant in a high temperature reactor. We observe an unusual composition dependence and strikingly a crossover in sign for all the MS diffusivities at a composition of around 7% of LiF where the MS diffusivity between cation-anion pair (Đ(BeF) and Đ(LiF)) jumps from positive to negative value while the MS diffusivity between cation-cation pair (Đ(LiBe)) becomes positive from a negative value. Even though the negative MS diffusivities have been observed for electrolyte solutions between cation-cation pair, here we report negative MS diffusivity between cation-anion pair where Đ(BeF) shows a sharp rise around 66% of BeF2, reaches maximum value at 70% of BeF2, and then decreases almost exponentially with a sign change for BeF2 around 93%. For low mole fraction of LiF, Đ(BeF) follows the Debye-Huckel theory and rises with the square root of LiF mole fraction similar to the MS diffusivity between cation-anion pair in aqueous solution of electrolyte salt. Negative MS diffusivities while unusual are, however, shown to satisfy the non-negative entropy constraints at all thermodynamic states as required by the second law of thermodynamics. We have established a strong correlation between the structure and dynamics and predict that the formation of flouride polyanion network between Be and F ions and coulomb interaction is responsible for sharp variation of the MS diffusivities which controls the multicomponent diffusion phenomenon in LiF-BeF2 which has a strong impact on the performance of the reactor.

  20. 熔盐电解法制备钨铜合金粉%Preparation of W-Cu Alloy Powder with Molten Salt Electrolysis Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖志华; 廖春发; 王旭

    2013-01-01

    在NaCl-KCl-Na2WO4-CuO体系中采用熔盐电解法直接制取钨铜合金粉,并对产物进行了XRD、SEM及EDS分析.结果表明,在780~800℃电解、阴极电流密度106~133mA/cm2、电解时间3~4 h、电压2.2~3.2 V的条件下,可以得到纯度99%以上、平均粒度0.91 μm的钨铜合金粉末,各项指标基本达到了工业上烧结钨铜合金的要求.%Tungsten copper alloy powder was directly prepared in NaCl-KCl-Na2 WO4-CuO system with molten salt electrolysis.The cathode electrolysis products were analyzed by XRD, SEM and EDS.The results show that copper tungsten alloy powder with purity of above 99% and average particle size of 0.91 μm is obtained under the reaction conditions including electrolytic temperature of 740~820℃, cathode current density of 106~133 mA/cm2, electrolysis time of 1.5~3.5 h, cell voltage of 2.2~3.2 V.The product reaches the manufacture requirement of sintering tungsten copper alloy in industry.

  1. 熔盐电解精炼提纯金属硅%Purification of metallurgical grade silicon by electrorefining in molten salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡靖; 罗学涛; 卢成浩; Geir Martin HAARBERG; Annabelle LAURENT; Ole Edvard KONGSTEIN; 王淑兰

    2012-01-01

    对熔盐电解质中硅的沉积过程进行电化学研究.在973~223 K,在硅-氯化物熔盐中采用电解精炼提纯金属硅.结果表明,液态硅铜合金阳极有利于CaCl2-NaCl-CaO-Si熔盐体系的电解精炼.ICP-AES分析结果显示,通过电解精炼可有效去除原料中大量的钛、铝、铁等金属杂质,硅中的硼和磷含量分别由36×10-6和25×10-6降低至4.6×10-6和2.8×10-6,电解能耗约为9.3 kW·h/kg.%Electrochemical studies on silicon deposition were performed in molten salt electrolytes.Purification of metallurgical grade silicon by electrorefining was carried out in molten Si-chloride salts at temperatures from 973 K to 1223 K.It was found that the use of a liquid alloy anode of silicon and copper was beneficial in molten CaCl2 with NaCl,CaO and dissolved Si.ICP-AES analysis results showed efficient removal of metal impurities,such as titanium,aluminum and iron,which are present in significant quantities in the feedstock.The contents of boron and phosphorus in the silicon after electrorefining were reduced from 36× 10-6 and 25 × 10-6 to 4.6× 10-6 and 2.8 × 10-6,respectively.The energy consumption of electrorefining was estimated to be about 9.3 kW·h/kg.

  2. Effects of cathodic current density and temperature on morphology and microstructure of iridium coating prepared by electrodeposition in molten salt under the air atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Li' an, E-mail: mr_zla@163.com [Department of Materials Engineering and Applied Chemistry, College of Aerospace and Materials Engineering, National University of Defence Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Bai Shuxin; Zhang Hong; Ye Yicong [Department of Materials Engineering and Applied Chemistry, College of Aerospace and Materials Engineering, National University of Defence Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 'salt passivation' occurs on the anode surface at low temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The index of preferred growth crystal plane increases as increasing current density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The <1 1 1> oriented coating is smoother and denser than <2 2 0>/<3 1 1> oriented coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating compactness improves as increasing current density/decreasing temperature. - Abstract: Iridium coating was prepared on a Re/C substrate (graphite substrate coated with rhenium coating by CVD) using electrodeposition in molten salt of chlorides in the air atmosphere. The effects of cathodic current density and temperature on both the morphology and microstructure of the coating were studied, respectively. The morphology and orientation of the coating were determined by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The results showed that the cathodic current density and temperature both affected the surface morphology, roughness, grain size and compactness of the iridium coating. With increasing of current density from 5 to 50 mA/cm{sup 2}, the surface roughness of the coating increased from Ra 0.98 to Ra 6.29 {mu}m, while the grain size decreased. With temperature increasing from 520 to 640 Degree-Sign C, the surface roughness of the coating decreased from Ra 4.41 to Ra 1.16 {mu}m, while the grain size increased. The preferred orientations of the coatings changed in the row <111>-<220>-<311> with current density increasing. With the increase of temperature, the preferred orientation of the coating changed from <1 1 1> to <2 2 0>, and again to <1 1 1>. The coating with <1 1 1> orientation was smoother and denser than that with <2 2 0> orientation regardless of the grain size.

  3. 熔盐电解法制备稀土合金研究进展%Research progress in the preparation of rare earth alloys by molten salt electrolysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭探; 王世栋; 叶秀深; 李权; 刘海宁; 郭敏; 吴志坚

    2012-01-01

    Rare earth alloys can be prepared through the methods of melting, metallothermic reduction, and molten salt electrolysis. Compared to the former two methods, the molten salt electrolysis method has several advantages: the production cost is lower, the composition of the rare earth alloys is uniform and easy control, and the quality of the rare earth alloys is good. The rare earth alloys can be prepared easily and continuously on industrial scale. In this paper, the research progress in the molten salt electrolysis preparation of the rare earth alloys of magnesium, aluminum, iron, cobalt, nickel, and copper is reviewed by considering the rare earth alloy applications in structural, magnetic, and hydrogen storage materials. The prospects of the related research works are discussed.%熔盐电解法制备稀土合金具有成本低、成份均匀且容易控制、质量较好、易实现连续化生产等优势.本文结合稀土合金在金属结构材料、磁性材料和贮氢材料中的应用,在介绍熔盐电解的知识进展的基础上,综述了稀土分别与镁、铝、铁、钴、镍、铜等组成的合金的熔盐电解制备研究进展,并对以后的研究工作进行展望.

  4. SiC Schottky Diode Detectors for Measurement of Actinide Concentrations from Alpha Activities in Molten Salt Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windl, Wolfgang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Blue, Thomas [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-01-28

    In this project, we have designed a 4H-SiC Schottky diode detector device in order to monitor actinide concentrations in extreme environments, such as present in pyroprocessing of spent fuel. For the first time, we have demonstrated high temperature operation of such a device up to 500 °C in successfully detecting alpha particles. We have used Am-241 as an alpha source for our laboratory experiments. Along with the experiments, we have developed a multiscale model to study the phenomena controlling the device behavior and to be able to predict the device performance. Our multiscale model consists of ab initio modeling to understand defect energetics and their effect on electronic structure and carrier mobility in the material. Further, we have developed the basis for a damage evolution model incorporating the outputs from ab initio model in order to predict respective defect concentrations in the device material. Finally, a fully equipped TCAD-based device model has been developed to study the phenomena controlling the device behavior. Using this model, we have proven our concept that the detector is capable of performing alpha detection in a salt bath with the mixtures of actinides present in a pyroprocessing environment.

  5. Aluminum Manganese Molten Salt Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Dry fixture thoroughly with the air gun. Be especially careful to dry water out of crevices. Note: water is a contaminant to the plating process...easily destroyed if blown with the air. Be especially careful to dry water out of crevices. Note: water is a contaminant to the plating process and...especially careful to dry water out of crevices. 13. Carefully remove part from fixture. If residual plating solution is present at attachments points

  6. 高温熔盐吸热器的传热研究和系统设计%The Study on the Heat Transfer of the Molten Salt Receiver and System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小平; 杨晓西; 丁静; 秦贯丰; 蒋润花

    2012-01-01

    The present study simulates the heat transfer performance of the molten salt receiver with non -uniform radiant heat flux, getting the inner tube wall temperature, heat transfer performance and other characteristic parameters. The results show that the temperature distribution of molten salt and tube wall are very uneven whether in axial or radial direction. The heat transfer coefficient is higher than that of the Sieder - Tate formula. The paper also designs and analyzes a solar thermal power tower with 10MW thermal capacity.%本文对非均匀辐射热流密度太阳能熔盐吸热器传热过程进行了模拟研究,得到了熔盐吸热器内部的温度、传热性能等特征参数.结果表明在轴向和径向上熔盐流体温度和管壁的温度都非常不均匀,同时其综合传热性能要高于按照Sieder-Tate公式的计算值.并对10MW塔式太阳能热发电的熔盐吸热器进行了设计和分析.

  7. Synthesis of a metal chloride-graphite intercalation compound by a molten salt method%熔盐法合成金属氯化物-石墨插层化合物的判据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任慧; 康飞宇; 焦清介; 沈万慈

    2009-01-01

    A criterion for the intercalation of a metal chloride in a molten state into graphite was proposed based on the thermodynamics of the intercalation reaction and chemical band theory, The valence electronegativity of element and ionic potential are taken as the chemical band parameters and a band parameter function λ is defined as a criterion to select a guest metal chloride to prepare a graphite intercalation compound (GIC). The ability of a metal chloride to be intercalated into graphite and the stability of the resulting GIC are estimated. The results show that GICs synthesized at a temperature lower than 700℃ are more stable when a metal chloride is chosen from the region of λ≤1.2. A metal chloride with λ between 1.2 and 1.8 cannot be easily intercalated into graphite alone. The metal chlorides with λ≥1.8, most of which are alkaline earth chlorides or alkali metal chlorides, are not appropriate as guests to prepare G1Cs by a molten salt method. The criterion is consistent with the experimental data and some new expected results are also obtained.%研究了熔融盐状态下金属氯化物-石墨层间化合物的合成判据.根据插层反应热动力学及化学键理论,选取元素的电负性和离子势作为键参数,并设计键参数函数λ为客体材料的遴选判据.基于键参数函数图对金属氯化物发生插层反应的难易程度和产物稳定性进行理论预估.研究结果表明:键参数函数图中λ≤1.2区域内的金属氯化物在700℃以下即可发生插层反应,且所得产物较为稳定;在1.2≤λ≤1.8区域内相应的客体材料在低温下很难单独插入石墨层间,常与低熔点氯化物形成共熔体后一起插入石墨层间;在λ≥1.8区域内大多为碱金属氯化物和碱土金属氯化物,理论分析认为这类物质的插层反应不适宜采用熔盐法.

  8. 高温熔融盐壳管式相变换热器的传热特性%Heat Transfer Performances of High-Temperature Shell-Tube Heat Exchanger with Molten-Salt Phase Change Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左远志; 杨晓西; 丁静

    2011-01-01

    建立了高温熔融盐壳管式相变换热器的同心套管模型.采用Fluent软件,分析了在考虑相变区域自然对流条件下,熔融盐流体与相变材料的物性参数、内管进口温度与进口流向等因素对液相率与熔化时间的影响,并在熔融盐传热-蓄热实验平台上进行了试验研究.发现:考虑相变区域自然对流时,总的熔化时间减少16.2%;模拟得到的壳侧相变材料温度随时间的变化趋势与实验结果趋于一致.结果表明,可采用熔融盐相变区域特殊测点温度超过相变材料的熔点,并升至与内管流体进口温度相近时所耗费的时间作为壳管式相变换热器内相变材料完全熔化的判据.%In this paper, first, a concentric circular tube model for the shell-tube heat exchanger with molten-salt phase change materials (PCMs) is established. Then, the liquid fraction and the total melting time, which are affected by the thermal-physical parameters of the molten salt fluid and the PCMs as well as by the inlet velocity and the flow direction of the inner tube, are analyzed with Fluent, by taking into consideration the natural convection in the PCMs region. Finally, some experiments are carried out on a test platform of molten-salt heat transfer. The resuits show that the total melting time nearly decreases by 16. 2% considering the natural convection in the PCMs region, and that the simulated temperature of PCMs at the shell side varies with time,which has a tendency similar to that of the experimental results. Thus, it comes to the conclusion that, when the temperature of the specific measuring point in the PCMs region exceeds the melting point of PCMs and rises to the tube inlet temperature, the correspending time cost can be used as the criterion of melting ending of PCMs.

  9. MSR Founding Narratives and Content Analysis of Best/Dexter Award Nominee Papers (2001-2015)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.; Chappell, Stacie; Sato, Toyoko

    International Award nominated papers. Taken together, our study is an important benchmark of founding and institutionalization for MSR members and potential members, while serving as an indicator of emerging trends in the research domain. By tracing the particular research paths that MSR has taken in light...... of its founding aspirations, we illuminate the distinctive values, tensions, management practices, and skills that give MSR its organizational vitality....

  10. High-resolution wave number spectrum using multi-point measurements in space – the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new analysis method is presented that provides a high-resolution power spectrum in a broad wave number domain based on multi-point measurements. The analysis technique is referred to as the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR and it benefits from Capon's minimum variance method for obtaining the proper power spectral density of the signal as well as the MUSIC algorithm (Multiple Signal Classification for considerably reducing the noise part in the spectrum. The mathematical foundation of the analysis method is presented and it is applied to synthetic data as well as Cluster observations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Using the MSR technique for Cluster data we find a wave in the solar wind propagating parallel to the mean magnetic field with relatively small amplitude, which is not identified by the Capon spectrum. The Cluster data analysis shows the potential of the MSR technique for studying waves and turbulence using multi-point measurements.

  11. Performance of Non-Supplementary Fired Compressed Air Energy Storage with Molten Salt Heat Storage%采用熔融盐蓄热的非补燃压缩空气储能发电系统性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛小代; 陈晓弢; 梅生伟; 陈来军; 林其友

    2016-01-01

    提出一种采用熔融盐蓄热的非补燃压缩空气储能发电系统,通过将熔融盐储热与压缩空气储能相结合,实现电能的大规模存储和高效转换。利用熔融盐作为蓄热介质,将低谷电、弃风电、弃光电等电能转换为高品位热能存储,同时利用压缩机将空气压缩至高压,存储在储气装置中,发电时利用熔融盐储存的热能加热高压空气驱动涡轮机发电。完成了系统的流程设计,采用热力学基本原理分析了系统的运行特性,探索影响系统储能效率的关键因素,分析了涡轮机进口温度、涡轮机进口压力等参数对压缩机功耗、储气室容积、储能密度、储能效率等系统性能的影响。研究结果表明通过提高储热温度和涡轮机进口压力,可以显著提高系统的储能效率。该系统可以广泛消纳大规模的波动性电能,为大规模储能提供了一种新的技术途径。该研究结果可以为压缩空气储能以及新能源消纳提供参考。%A non-supplementary fired compressed air energy storage (CAES) with molten salt thermal storage is proposed in this paper. Combined molten salt with compressed air energy storage, this system can achieve mass storage and efficient conversion of electrical energy. The off-peak power or abandoned wind and photoelectric power is converted into high-grade thermal energy, which is stored in the molten salt heat storage system. Meanwhile the air is compressed to high pressure and then stored in the gas storage device. The high pressure air heated by the molten salt can drive turbine to generate electricity when it is needed. The process design is completed with basic principle of thermodynamic analysis, and the key factors that affect the system efficiency are explored. The results show that the storage efficiency can be significantly improved by increasing the thermal storage temperature and turbine inlet pressure, which could provide a

  12. 熔盐法制备单一相Bi12SiO20粉体%Preparation of Pure Bi12SiO20 Powder by Molten Salt Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁俊雀; 王秀峰; 江红涛; 许雅琴

    2011-01-01

    A novel process for synthesizing Bi12 SiO20 powders at lower temperature was presented in this paper. Pure Bi12 SiO20, powders was successfully prepared by a molten salt method using Bi2O3 and SiO2 as raw materials and KC1-K2CO3 as flux at 635℃. XRD patterns revealed that single phase Bi12 SiO20, powders could be successfully synthesized. SEM photographs showed that the cooling rate has significant effects on the size and morphology of the particles. In addition, with the increase of the molten salt content, the grain size increased and the agglomeration of the Bi12 SiO20 powders decreased apparently.%本文报道了一种较低温度下合成单一相Bi12SiO20粉体的新方法.以Bi2O3和SiO2为原料,KCl-K2CO3为熔剂,采用熔盐法于635℃合成了Bi12SiO20粉体.XRD分析表明该粉体为单一相Bi12SiO20,SEM分析显示冷却速率对合成Bi12SiO20粉体的尺寸及形貌有重要影响;此外,合成粉体的尺寸随着盐含量的增加而增大,且粉体团聚现象明显减弱.

  13. Preparation of TiC Coating on the Surfaces of Carbon Fibers by Molten Salts Reaction%碳纤维表面熔盐反应制备TiC涂层

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志军; 李轩科; 从野; 袁观明; 崔正威; 王元骅; 李楠; 姜召阳

    2011-01-01

    采用熔盐反应法在碳纤维表面反应形成了TiC涂层,利用XPS,XRD和SEM对涂层的化学组成、相组成和微观结构进行了分析和表征,研究了反应温度和保温时间对涂层厚度和形貌的影响.结果表明:碳纤维表面形成的是含有少量自由碳的TiC涂层,涂层形貌与原碳纤维表面形貌相似;TiC涂层的厚度随反应温度、保温时间的增加而增加,在700~850℃保温1~4 h,涂层厚度在110nm以下.且均匀、完整,表面没有裂纹,与碳纤维基体结合较好.%A TiC coating was fabricated on the surface of carbon fibers by molten salts reaction method. Chemical composition, phase composition and micro-structure of the TiC coating were analyzed and characterized by XPS, XRD and SEM. The influence of reaction temperature and holding time on the TiC coating thickness, morphology and structure was studied. The results show that the TiC coatings with a little free carbon are formed on the carbon fibers, and the coatings strongly resemble the pristine carbon fibers in surface morphology. With the reaction temperature and holding time increasing, the TiC coating thickness increases. A homogenous, continuous and crack-free TiC coating can be synthesized at 700~850 ℃ for 1~4 h in molten salts medium, and presents a thickness less than 110 nm. The coatings combine well with the carbon fibers matrix.

  14. Phase analysis and dielectric properties of ceramics in PbO–MgO–ZnO–Nb2O5 system: A comparative study of materials obtained by ceramic and molten salt synthesis routes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Thirumal; A K Ganguli

    2000-08-01

    Compositions of the type 3PbO–MgO/ZnO–Nb2O5 were synthesized by the ceramic route at 1000°C and sintered at 1200°C. Powder X-ray diffraction studies of the 1000°C heated products show the presence of the cubic pyrochlore and the columbite (Mg/ZnNb2O6) type phase in the ratio of 3 : 1 for all possible combinations of MgO and ZnO. Further heating at 1200°C led to a decrease in the cubic pyrochlore phase and an increase in the columbite phase by around 10%. Compacted pellets sintered further showed the appearance of the perovskite phase. Similar compositions synthesized using the KCl–NaCl molten salt method at 900°C for 6 h gave a significant amount of the cubic perovskite related phase of the type Pb(Mg/Zn)1/3Nb2/3O3 for all compositions containing MgO. The amount of the perovskite phase was nearly 55% for the Mg rich compositions and decreased with increase in Zn content, the pure Zn composition yielding mainly the cubic pyrochlore phase. On sintering these phases at 1000°C the perovskite phase content decreased. The dielectric constant of the composite materials formed by the ceramic route was in the region of 14 to 20 and varied little with frequency. The composites obtained by the molten salt method, however, showed much larger dielectric constants in the region 40–150 at 500 kHz for various compositions. The dielectric loss tangent of these composites were lower by an order (0.005–0.03 at 500 kHz) compared to the ceramic route.

  15. MSR Studies in the Progress Towards Diamond Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, S. H., E-mail: connell@src.wits.ac.za [University of the Witwatersrand, Schonland Research Institute for Nuclear Sciences (South Africa); Machi, I. Z. [University of South Africa, Physics Department (South Africa); Bharuth-Ram, K. [University of KwaZulu Natal, School of Pure and Applied Physics (South Africa)

    2004-12-15

    The recent development of device quality synthetic diamond dramatically increases the potential of diamond as a wide band gap semiconductor. A remaining obstacle is the lack of shallow n-type dopants. Molecular dopant systems have been shown theoretically to lead to the shallowing of levels in the band gap. Some of these systems involve defect-hydrogen complexes. This, and other phenomena, motivate the study of the chemistry and dynamics of hydrogen in diamond. Much information on this topic has been obtained from Muon Spin Rotation (MSR) experiments. These experiments view the muonium (Mu {identical_to} {mu}{sup +}e{sup -}) atom as a light chemical analogue of hydrogen. Data on isolated muonium in diamond is reviewed, and evidence on formation of N-Mu-N (a shallow dopant candidate), the trapping of Mu at B-dopants, and fast quantum diffusion of muonium are discussed.

  16. MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oien, Derek B; Osterhaus, Greg L; Latif, Shaheen A; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-07-15

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA(-/-)) mouse. Here we show that MsrA(-/-) mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA(-/-) mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA(-/-) mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA(-/-) brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower levels of dopamine were observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA(-/-) mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathways are impaired in MsrA(-/-) mice, which may contribute to their abnormal behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  17. The MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oien, Derek B.; Osterhaus, Greg L.; Latif, Shaheen A.; Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA−/−) mouse. Here we show that MsrA−/− mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA−/− mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA−/− mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA−/− brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower level of dopamine was observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA−/− mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathway are impaired in MsrA−/− mice, which may contribute to their abnormal bio-behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18466776

  18. 高温熔融盐纳米固液相变复合材料研究进展%Progress in Research of High Temperature Molten Salt Nanocomposite-Phase Change Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史建春; 崔海亭

    2016-01-01

    Mixed molten salts are considered as promising media for both heat transfer and thermal energy storage and they have obvious advantages in solar thermal power generation, waste heat utilization and industrial process heat use. However, molten salts phase change materials still have disadvantages of low thermal conductivity. Recent studies of solid-liquid phase change energy storage processes and the state-of-the-art development of the nanocomposite phase change material were reviewed. According to the review of the future development and important research direction of solid-liquid phase change energy storage processes of nanocomposite phase change materials, it is necessary to conduct the research in various aspects including the establishment of two temperature model of phase change heat transfer in the nanocomposite melting, NC-PCM mixing process, aggregation of metal particles and thermal cycling test of NC-PCM storage unit problem.%熔融盐是一种非常有前景的高温液体传热蓄热工质,在太阳能热发电、余热回收及工业热利用方面有显著的优势,但是熔融盐本身存在导热性能不高等问题。本文对纳米复合相变材料固液相变储能过程的若干最新研究进行了回顾,综述了熔融盐纳米固液相变复合材料国内外研究现状及发展趋势,最后对纳米复合相变材料固液相变储能过程的未来发展和重点研究方向进行了展望,认为主要解决纳米复合材料内熔化相变传热双温度模型的建立及求解、NC-PCM的制备工艺、金属纳米粒子的团聚性及NC-PCM蓄热器的热循环实验等方面的问题是未来研究的重点。

  19. W、Mo、Re基体熔盐电沉积Ir涂层初探%Preliminary Study on Iridium Coatings Electrodeposited on Mo,W and Re Substrates in Molten Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝永刚; 白书欣; 张虹; 陈柯; 朱利安; 李顺

    2011-01-01

    采用熔盐电沉积法在W、Mo、Re基体表面分别制备了Ir涂层,通过扫描电镜和能谱分析了涂层的形貌和成分,对比研究了W、Mo、Re在熔盐电沉积Ir涂层过程中的性质。结果表明:W和Mo在氯化物熔盐体系中腐蚀严重,电沉积后在基体和涂层之间形成了含有腐蚀产物的夹盐层,大大降低了涂层和基体之间的结合力,在热应力和外力的作用下涂层易产生裂纹和剥落。Re在氯化物熔盐体系中稳定性好,在氯化物熔盐体系中不发生腐蚀,电沉积后在基体和涂层之间无夹盐层形成,基体和涂层结合良好,电沉积所得Ir涂层致密、完整,没有裂纹和孔洞等缺陷。%The iridium coatings were prepared on the surfaces of molybdenum,tungsten and rhenium substrates by electrodeposition in molten salts of chlorides.The microstructures,compositions and phase constituents of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry(EDX).Characteristics of molybdenum,tungsten and rhenium substrates during electrodeposition were studied.The results indicated that molybdenum and tungsten were severely corroded in molten salts of chlorides,interlayers composed of chlorides and corrosion products were formed after electrodeposition,which greatly reduced the binding force between the coating and substrate,and the iridium coatings fractured easily.However,rhenium has a good stabilization in chlorides.No corrosion was found during electrodeposition,there is no interlayer formed,and the iridium coating and rhenium substrate immediately combined,a dense and smooth iridium coating was obtained on the rhenium substrate.

  20. The chemistry of molten salt mixtures: application to the reductive extraction of lanthanides and actinides by a liquid metal; Chimie des melanges de sels fondus. Application a l'extraction reductrice d'actinides et de lanthanides par un metal liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finne, J

    2005-10-15

    The design of a process of An/Ln separation by liquid - liquid extraction can be used for on-line purification of the molten salt in a molten salt nuclear reactor (Generation IV) as well as reprocessing various spent fuels. In order to establish the chemical properties of An and Ln in molten salt mediums, E - pO{sub 2} - diagrams were established for the relevant chemical elements. With the purpose of checking the possibilities of separating the An from Ln, the real activity coefficients in liquid metals were measured. An experimental protocol was developed and validated on the Gd/Ga system. It was then transferred to radioactive environment to measure the activity coefficient of Pu in Ga. The results made it possible to estimate the effectiveness of the Pu extraction and its separation from Gd and Ce. The selectivity was shown to decrease with the temperature and Al and Ga showed a good selectivity between Pu and the Ce in fluoride medium. (author)

  1. A unified form of exact-MSR codes via product-matrix frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Sian Jheng

    2015-02-01

    Regenerating codes represent a class of block codes applicable for distributed storage systems. The [n, k, d] regenerating code has data recovery capability while possessing arbitrary k out of n code fragments, and supports the capability for code fragment regeneration through the use of other arbitrary d fragments, for k ≤ d ≤ n - 1. Minimum storage regenerating (MSR) codes are a subset of regenerating codes containing the minimal size of each code fragment. The first explicit construction of MSR codes that can perform exact regeneration (named exact-MSR codes) for d ≥ 2k - 2 has been presented via a product-matrix framework. This paper addresses some of the practical issues on the construction of exact-MSR codes. The major contributions of this paper include as follows. A new product-matrix framework is proposed to directly include all feasible exact-MSR codes for d ≥ 2k - 2. The mechanism for a systematic version of exact-MSR code is proposed to minimize the computational complexities for the process of message-symbol remapping. Two practical forms of encoding matrices are presented to reduce the size of the finite field.

  2. Metasurface Reflector (MSR) Loading for High Performance Small Microstrip Antenna Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Md Rezwanul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Ullah, Mohammad Habib; Singh, Mandeep Jit; Ali, Mohd Tarmizi

    2015-01-01

    A meander stripline feed multiband microstrip antenna loaded with metasurface reflector (MSR) structure has been designed, analyzed and constructed that offers the wireless communication services for UHF/microwave RFID and WLAN/WiMAX applications. The proposed MSR assimilated antenna comprises planar straight forward design of circular shaped radiator with horizontal slots on it and 2D metasurface formed by the periodic square metallic element that resembles the behavior of metamaterials. A custom made high dielectric bio-plastic substrate (εr = 15) is used for fabricating the prototype of the MSR embedded planar monopole antenna. The details of the design progress through numerical simulations and experimental results are presented and discussed accordingly. The measured impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns and gain of the proposed MSR integrated antenna are compared with the obtained results from numerical simulation, and a good compliance can be observed between them. The investigation shows that utilization of MSR structure has significantly broadened the -10dB impedance bandwidth than the conventional patch antenna: from 540 to 632 MHz (17%), 467 to 606 MHz (29%) and 758 MHz to 1062 MHz (40%) for three distinct operating bands centered at 0.9, 3.5 and 5.5 GHz. Additionally, due to the assimilation of MSR, the overall realized gains have been upgraded to a higher value of 3.62 dBi, 6.09 dBi and 8.6 dBi for lower, middle and upper frequency band respectively. The measured radiation patterns, impedance bandwidths (S11<-10 dB) and gains from the MSR loaded antenna prototype exhibit reasonable characteristics that can satisfy the requirements of UHF/microwave (5.8 GHz) RFID, WiMAX (3.5/5.5 GHz) and WLAN (5.2/5.8 GHz) applications. PMID:26018795

  3. Metasurface Reflector (MSR Loading for High Performance Small Microstrip Antenna Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanul Ahsan

    Full Text Available A meander stripline feed multiband microstrip antenna loaded with metasurface reflector (MSR structure has been designed, analyzed and constructed that offers the wireless communication services for UHF/microwave RFID and WLAN/WiMAX applications. The proposed MSR assimilated antenna comprises planar straight forward design of circular shaped radiator with horizontal slots on it and 2D metasurface formed by the periodic square metallic element that resembles the behavior of metamaterials. A custom made high dielectric bio-plastic substrate (εr = 15 is used for fabricating the prototype of the MSR embedded planar monopole antenna. The details of the design progress through numerical simulations and experimental results are presented and discussed accordingly. The measured impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns and gain of the proposed MSR integrated antenna are compared with the obtained results from numerical simulation, and a good compliance can be observed between them. The investigation shows that utilization of MSR structure has significantly broadened the -10 dB impedance bandwidth than the conventional patch antenna: from 540 to 632 MHz (17%, 467 to 606 MHz (29% and 758 MHz to 1062 MHz (40% for three distinct operating bands centered at 0.9, 3.5 and 5.5 GHz. Additionally, due to the assimilation of MSR, the overall realized gains have been upgraded to a higher value of 3.62 dBi, 6.09 dBi and 8.6 dBi for lower, middle and upper frequency band respectively. The measured radiation patterns, impedance bandwidths (S11<-10 dB and gains from the MSR loaded antenna prototype exhibit reasonable characteristics that can satisfy the requirements of UHF/microwave (5.8 GHz RFID, WiMAX (3.5/5.5 GHz and WLAN (5.2/5.8 GHz applications.

  4. NaCl-KCl-IrCl3熔盐体系中电沉积Ir层的机理%Electrodeposition of Ir on platinum in NaCl-KCl molten salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱建刚; 赵天

    2012-01-01

    在NaCl-KCl-IrCl3熔盐体系中利用循环伏安法和计时电位法研究Ir的沉积机理并通过恒电位法在Pt基体上制备出Ir层.利用扫描电子、显微镜(SEM)能谱仪(EDS)和X射线衍射仪(XRD)对Ir层的表面形貌和成分进行分析.结果表明:在NaCl-KCl-IrCl3熔盐体系中Ir的电沉积过程为Ir3+获得3个电子一步沉积为Ir,并且Ir(Ⅲ)→Ir(0)的电极反应过程为可逆扩散控制过程;在1063、1113、1143和1183 K下Ir(Ⅲ)离子的扩散系数分别为0.60×10-4、1.23×10-4、2.77×10-4和4.40×10-4 cm2/s,Ir(Ⅲ)在NaCl-KCl-IrCl3熔盐体系中电极反应的活化能Ea=162.61kJ/mol;沉积电位对所获得的Ir层的形貌有较大影响,其中在峰值电位下所获得的Ir层较厚;熔盐温度对电沉积Ir层的形貌也有较大影响,在较低熔盐温度下获得的Ir层较薄,较高熔盐温度获得的Ir层的孔隙较多.%The reduction mechanism of Ir in the NaCl-KCl-IrCl3 molten salt was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry,and Ir film was deposited effectively on platinum in potentiostatic mode.The morphology and constitution of Ir film were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy dispersivc spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).It is found that the reduction mechanism of Ir(Ⅲ) is a three-electron step and electro reaction is a reversible diffusion controlled process; the diffusion coefficients of Ir(Ⅲ) at 1083,1113,1143 and 1183 K are 1.56×10-4,2.23×10 4,2.77×10-4 and 4.40×10-4cm2/s,respectively,while the activation energy of the electrode reaction is 102.95 k J/mol.The compacted Ir film reveals that the applied potential greatly affects the deposition of Ir,the thickness of Ir film deposited at the potential of reduction peak is the highest,the temperature of the molten salt also exerts an influence on deposition,the film formed at a lower temperature is thinner,but more micropores would occur on film when the temperature went too high.

  5. 固态钍基熔盐堆概率安全评价始发事件分析研究%Research on initial event analysis for solid thorium molten salt reactor probabilistic safety assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅牡丹; 邵世威; 何兆忠; 陈堃

    2014-01-01

    始发事件分析是反应堆概率安全评价的起点.本文以10 MW固态钍基熔盐堆(Thorium Molten Salt Reactor,TMSR-SFl)为研究对象,采用主逻辑图分析方法,基于TMSR-SF1的最新概念设计,在参考已有氟盐冷却高温堆、高温气冷堆和钠冷快堆的始发事件清单和始发事件分析理论的基础上,针对TMSR-SF1始发事件分析进行初步探索研究,初步确定了TMSR-SF1的始发事件清单,共得到了TMSR-SF1的37个始发事件(功率运行情况下),并按照故障类型分类的方法对这些始发事件进行分组,共分为6组.为TMSR-SF1下一步的深入分析研究始发事件及其概率安全评价(Probabilistic safety assessment,PSA)中事故序列分析奠定了重要基础,也为安全分析的完整性提供了支持.

  6. Effect of Temperature on the Ti-Fe Alloy Prepared by Molten Salt Electrolysis%温度对钛精矿熔盐电解制备钛铁合金的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施瑞盟; 白晨光; 杜继红

    2011-01-01

    In the CaCl2 molten salt, TiFe alloy was prepared by electroanalysis using titanium concentrate as the cathode. XRD and SEM analyses of products were performed. The electrolytic products at different temperatures were compared. Results show that the temperature has significant effects on diffused alloying process, and the phases and structures of electrolytic products are different. At 850 °C, the final electrolytic product is the TiFe2 and Ti discrete ball-type structure with the particle size of 1 μm, while at 900 °C the final product is the TiFe space net structure with the particle size of 3 urn.%在CaCl2熔盐中,以钛精矿为阴极,电解制备了钛铁合金,并对产物进行了XRD和SEM检测.对比不同温度下电解产物的结果表明,温度对扩散合金化过程影响显著,不同温度下电解产物的物相和结构有明显不同.850℃下电解的最终产物是颗粒大小为1 μm的TiFe2和Ti离散球型结构,而900℃下电解的最终产物是颗粒大小为3 μm的TiFe空间网状结构.

  7. 直接还原含钛炉渣亚熔盐法制备钛白粉工艺研究%Study on Preparation of TiO2 Pigment with Sub-molten Salt Process from Titanium-bearing Slag Obtained in Direct-reduction Ironmaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑奕; 金英杰; 初景龙; 齐涛

    2013-01-01

    Using titaniferous slag from the process of ‘ coal-based direct reduction in rotary hearth furnace -further reduction and smelting and separation in electric furnace’ as raw material,TiO2 Pigment with a content of titanium dioxide over 98% was produced by sub-molten salt process.The optimum testing conditions for the production were studied,aiming to find out the optimum reaction time,alkaline ratio,reaction temperature,and granularity of the raw material.After multistage solid-state ion exchange and removal of impurities,titaniferous solution (CTio2 =80 g/L,effective acid coefficient F =2.0) was prepared from the intermediate product sodium metatitantate.Through hydrolysis,metatitanic acid with a particle size of D (0.5) =.2 μn was obtained,and then it could be calcined to anatase TiO2 products.%以“转底炉煤基直接还原一电炉深还原、熔分工艺”得到的含钛炉渣为原料,经过亚熔盐法钛白工艺得到纯度在98%以上的二氧化钛产品.研究了亚熔盐法钛白工艺中反应最佳试验条件,得到最优的反应时间、碱矿比、反应温度、原料粒度;中间产物偏钛酸钠经多级固态离子交换、除杂制得钛液(CTio2=180 g/L、有效酸系数F=2.0);水解后制得偏钛酸粒度D(0.5)=1.2μm;经煅烧得到锐钛型二氧化钛产品.

  8. Predominant role of msr(D) over mef(A) in macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Okada, Ryo; Hata, Nanako; Matsumoto, Masakado; Isaka, Masanori; Isobe, Ken-ichi; Hasegawa, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the number of patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is reported to be increasing. mef(A) gene-positive macrolide-resistant emm1 strains are thought to possibly contribute to the rise in the frequency of STSS. Although analyses of macrolide-resistant mechanisms, including mef(A) resistance, have been performed mainly in Streptococcus pneumoniae, the role of this gene in Streptococcus pyogenes has not been completely investigated. Therefore, to the best of our knowledge, we established the first mef(A)-knockout strain using an emm1-type S. pyogenes strain, and tested its susceptibility to erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin. We found that the antimicrobial susceptibilities were almost identical to those of the parental strain. Hence, we established a knockout strain for another gene, msr(D), that is located immediately downstream of mef(A). The macrolide resistances of the resulting strain significantly decreased, and were further altered when both mef(A) and msr(D) were knocked out. The introduction of the msr(D) gene into a macrolide-sensitive strain conferred more resistance than the introduction of the mef(A) gene. The erythromycin susceptibilities of knockout strains were further dissected using two additional emm4- and emm75-type S. pyogenes strains. We found almost identical results for both strains except for the mef(A) knockout emm4 type, whose susceptibility was altered, although the change was less than that for the msr(D) knockout. These results suggest that both mef(A) and msr(D) are involved in macrolide resistance in S. pyogenes, and that the msr(D) gene plays a more predominant role in macrolide resistance than mef(A).

  9. Metasurface Reflector (MSR) Loading for High Performance Small Microstrip Antenna Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Md Rezwanul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Ullah, Mohammad Habib; Singh, Mandeep Jit; Ali, Mohd Tarmizi

    2015-01-01

    A meander stripline feed multiband microstrip antenna loaded with metasurface reflector (MSR) structure has been designed, analyzed and constructed that offers the wireless communication services for UHF/microwave RFID and WLAN/WiMAX applications. The proposed MSR assimilated antenna comprises planar straight forward design of circular shaped radiator with horizontal slots on it and 2D metasurface formed by the periodic square metallic element that resembles the behavior of metamaterials. A custom made high dielectric bio-plastic substrate (εr = 15) is used for fabricating the prototype of the MSR embedded planar monopole antenna. The details of the design progress through numerical simulations and experimental results are presented and discussed accordingly. The measured impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns and gain of the proposed MSR integrated antenna are compared with the obtained results from numerical simulation, and a good compliance can be observed between them. The investigation shows that utilization of MSR structure has significantly broadened the -10 dB impedance bandwidth than the conventional patch antenna: from 540 to 632 MHz (17%), 467 to 606 MHz (29%) and 758 MHz to 1062 MHz (40%) for three distinct operating bands centered at 0.9, 3.5 and 5.5 GHz. Additionally, due to the assimilation of MSR, the overall realized gains have been upgraded to a higher value of 3.62 dBi, 6.09 dBi and 8.6 dBi for lower, middle and upper frequency band respectively. The measured radiation patterns, impedance bandwidths (S11antenna prototype exhibit reasonable characteristics that can satisfy the requirements of UHF/microwave (5.8 GHz) RFID, WiMAX (3.5/5.5 GHz) and WLAN (5.2/5.8 GHz) applications.

  10. The use of electro-deoxidation in molten salts to reduce the energy consumption of solar grade silicon and increase the output of PV solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Coxon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar photovoltaics, based upon silicon, are the most popular form of solar cell with efficiencies around 20%. These efficiencies can be further increased by employing light trapping schemes to minimise optical losses through scattering and reflection which enhances the amount of light absorbed and number of photo-carriers generated. Typical approaches employ antireflection coatings (ARCs or texturise the surface of the silicon disks, so that the structure consists of an array of needles which can absorb most of the light. Usually, these structures are created by leaching the silicon with hydrofluoric-based acids or by reactive ion etching (RIE methods. This paper reviews some of the methods for improving the energy efficiency of silicon production, and describes the use of electro-deoxidation of SiO2 layers, on silicon, in molten calcium chloride to form nano-porous black silicon (b-Si structures. By coating b-Si surface with TiO2, a common ARC, extremely black surfaces with negligible reflectance of about 0.1%, are produced, which can have applications for low-cost high efficiency solar cells.

  11. Increased Lifetime for Biomass and Waste to Energy Power Plant Boilers with HVOF Coatings: High Temperature Corrosion Testing Under Chlorine-Containing Molten Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksa, Maria; Tuurna, Satu; Varis, Tommi

    2013-06-01

    Heat exchanger surfaces of waste to energy and biomass power plant boilers experience often severe corrosion due to very aggressive components in the used fuels. High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings offer excellent protection for boiler tubes against high temperature corrosion due to their high density and good adherence to the substrate material. Several thermal spray coatings with high chromium content were sprayed with HVOF technique. Their mechanical properties and high temperature corrosion resistance were tested and analyzed. The coating materials included NiCr, IN625, Ni-21Cr-10W-9Mo-4Cu, and iron-based partly amorphous alloy SHS9172 (Fe-25Cr-15W-12Nb-6Mo). High temperature corrosion testing was performed in NaCl-KCl-Na2SO4 salt with controlled H2O atmosphere at 575 and 625 °C. The corrosion test results of the coatings were compared to corrosion resistance of tube materials (X20, Alloy 263 and Sanicro 25).

  12. Solubility of uranium oxide in molten salt electrolysis bath of LiF-BaF2 with LaF3 additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alangi, Nagaraj; Mukherjee, Jaya; Gantayet, L. M.

    2016-03-01

    The solubility of UO2 in the molten mixtures of equimolar LiF-BaF2(1:1) with LaF3 as additive was studied in the range of 1423 K-1523 K. The molten fluoride salt mixture LiF-BaF2 LaF3 was equilibrated with a sintered uranium oxide pellet at 1423 K, 1473 K, 1523 K and the salt samples were collected after equilibration. Studies were conducted in the range of 10%-50% by weight additions of LaF3 in the equimolar LiF-BaF2(1:1) base fluoride salt bath. Solubility of UO2 increased with rise in LaF3 concentration in the molten fluoride in the temperature range of 1423 K-1523 K. At a given concentration of LaF3, the UO2 solubility increased monotonously with temperature. With mixed solvent, when UF4 was added as a replacement of part of LaF3 in LiF-BaF2(1:1)-10 wt% LaF3 and LiF-BaF2(1:1)-30 wt% LaF3, there was an enhancement of solubility of UO2.

  13. Ti Metallization of Cf/SiC Composites Surface by Molten Salt Reaction%熔盐法Cf/SiC复合材料表面钛金属化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文渊; 郑晓慧; 堵永国; 张为军; 芦玉峰

    2009-01-01

    Ti metallized coating was prepared on the surface of carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix (Cf/SiC) composite by molten salt reaction to make joining the composite with high melt point metals such as Ti. The morphologies and compositions of Ti metallized coating were analyzed by SEM and EDS. The phase components were assessed by XRD. The wettability of the solder was measured by quantitative metallography. The results show that Ti metallized coating is uniform and dense, and bound with the matrix closely. Ti can infiltrate into the gaps of the fibers, and cover the surfaces of the Cf/SiC composite. The main phases of the metalized coating consist of TiC and Ti5Si3. There are three transition layers between SiC and the metallized, I. E. Ti5Si3 layer, TiC layer and Ti5Si3 layer. The wettability of Cf/SiC composites surface to Ti is greatly improved by metallization, and the contact angle is deceased from 153.9° to 13.2° at 950 ℃.%为了实现C/SiC复合材料与难熔金属的连接,通过熔盐法在C/SiC复合材料表面沉积钛金属层.用SEM和EDS研究金属化层的形貌及成分;用X射线衍射分析金属化层的相组织:用定量金相法测量钎焊料的铺展特性.研究表明:钛金属化层均匀致密,与基体结合紧密,钛金属可渗入纤维间孔隙,比较完整地包覆在C/SiC复合材料外表面.金属化层主要成分为TiC、Ti5Si3.金属化层与SiC界面分为3层,由内到外主要成分为Ti5Si3、TiC和Ti5Si3.表面金属化后的C/SiC复合材料与钛合金钎焊料润湿性明显改善,润湿角从153.9°降低为13.2°.

  14. Molten Salt Electrodeposition of High Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    codeposition, underpotential deposition and/or compound formation is likely to alter this picture considerably. 60- 10 am C6Z+ E 40-l0I!C z 0... underpotential deposition or compound formation occurs. To control the deposition sequence and amounts of Cu-Y oxides, which codeposit in this potential region...0.1 and -1.2 V. However, it should be kept in mind that for deposition of one material upon another or for codeposition, underpotential deposition

  15. Ionic Liquids: Just Molten Salts After All?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Croft

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available While there has been much effort in recent years to characterise ionic liquids in terms of parameters that are well described for molecular solvents, using these to explain reaction outcomes remains problematic. Herein we propose that many reaction outcomes in ionic liquids may be explained by considering the electrostatic interactions present in the solution; that is, by recognising that ionic liquids are salts. This is supported by evidence in the literature, along with studies presented here.

  16. Exchange reactions between a molten salt and a solution of tri-butyl phosphate in a liquid silicone; Reactions d'echange entre un sel fondu et une solution de phosphate de tributyle dans un silicone liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzog, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Present interest centred around molten salts can be explained by their possible use in the field of nuclear energy, in particular as a support for fuels and also as reprocessing agents. It seemed of interest to consider the molten salt as a solvent and to study partition phenomena with a second phase stable at high temperatures. The salt chosen is a ternary eutectic of alkali nitrates and the second phase is a solution of tri-butyl phosphate in a liquid silicone. The working temperature is fixed at 150 deg. C. We have studied first of all the stability of the two phases and their mutual solubilities at this temperature. It has been shown that the two solvents are immiscible and stable. We have also described the extraction by the silicone solution of various products in solution in the salt phase, and have determined the partition coefficients and the formulae of the extracted molecules. It has been possible to calculate the partition coefficients of the following ions extracted as nitrates: Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} whose partition coefficients are very low: Mg{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} whose extraction yields are greater than 50 per cent; finally Ce{sup 3+}, La{sup 3+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, highly extracted. Also the following anions have been extracted in the form of alkali salts: F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -}, I{sup -}, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, CN{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup -}, C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}. Amongst these, only the halogens have non-negligible partition coefficients. In certain particular cases we have been able to study the influence of complex formation on the extraction phenomena. Two applications are described: - The separation of two products by complex formation and extraction (separation of magnesium from cobalt, nickel and zinc); - The calculation of the equilibrium constant of a complex by measurement of the variation in the partition coefficient of the ion complexed

  17. Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts; Determination par spectrometrie gamma de la teneur en plutonium et en americium de produits issus de separation Pu/Am. Application aux bains de sels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godot, A. [CEA Valduc, Dept. de Traitement des Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Perot, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Technologie Nucleaire, Service de Modelisation des Transferts et Mesures Nucleaires, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

  18. Correlation between genetic features of the mef(A)-msr(D) locus and erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Luca Agostino; Di Luca, Maria Chiara; Prenna, Manuela; Petrelli, Dezemona

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between the genetic variation within mef(A)-msr(D) determinants of efflux-mediated erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes and the level of erythromycin resistance. Twenty-eight mef(A)-positive strains were selected according to erythromycin MIC (4-32 μg/mL), and their mef(A)-msr(D) regions were sequenced. Strains were classified according to the bacteriophage carrying mef(A)-msr(D). A new Φm46.1 genetic variant was found in 8 strains out of 28 and named VP_00501.1. Degree of allelic variation was higher in mef(A) than in msr(D). Hotspots for recombination were mapped within the locus that could have shaped the apparent mosaic structure of the region. There was a general correlation between mef(A)-msr(D) sequence and erythromycin resistance level. However, lysogenic conversion of susceptible strains by mef(A)-msr(D)-carrying Φm46.1 indicated that key determinants may not all reside within the mef(A)-msr(D) locus and that horizontal gene transfer could contribute to changes in the level of antibiotic resistance in S. pyogenes.

  19. MsrA Overexpression Targeted to the Mitochondria, but Not Cytosol, Preserves Insulin Sensitivity in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JennaLynn Hunnicut

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that oxidative stress plays an integral role in the processes by which obesity causes type 2 diabetes. We previously identified that mice lacking the protein oxidation repair enzyme methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA are particularly prone to obesity-induced insulin resistance suggesting an unrecognized role for this protein in metabolic regulation. The goals of this study were to test whether increasing the expression of MsrA in mice can protect against obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction and to elucidate the potential underlying mechanisms. Mice with increased levels of MsrA in the mitochondria (TgMito MsrA or in the cytosol (TgCyto MsrA were fed a high fat/high sugar diet and parameters of glucose homeostasis were monitored. Mitochondrial content, markers of mitochondrial proteostasis and mitochondrial energy utilization were assessed. TgMito MsrA, but not TgCyto MsrA, mice remain insulin sensitive after high fat feeding, though these mice are not protected from obesity. This metabolically healthy obese phenotype of TgMito MsrA mice is not associated with changes in mitochondrial number or biogenesis or with a reduction of proteostatic stress in the mitochondria. However, our data suggest that increased mitochondrial MsrA can alter metabolic homeostasis under diet-induced obesity by activating AMPK signaling, thereby defining a potential mechanism by which this genetic alteration can prevent insulin resistance without affecting obesity. Our data suggest that identification of targets that maintain and regulate the integrity of the mitochondrial proteome, particular against oxidative damage, may play essential roles in the protection against metabolic disease.

  20. Enhancing stress tolerance by overexpression of a methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) gene in Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chaomin; Zheng, Liesheng; Zhu, Jihong; Chen, Liguo; Ma, Aimin

    2015-04-01

    Proteins are subjected to modification by reactive oxygen species (ROS), and oxidation of specific amino acid residues can impair their biological functions. Methionine as a sulfur-containing amino acid is easily oxidized to methionine sulfoxide (MetSO). The modified methionine can be repaired by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr), an enzyme that reverses oxidation of methionine in proteins. In this study, a methionine sulfoxide reductase A (PoMsrA) gene from Pleurotus ostreatus was cloned and characterized. Furthermore, the function of PoMsrA gene was analyzed by overexpression in P. ostreatus via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Stable integration of the target gene into the genome of P. ostreatus was confirmed by PCR, fluorescence observation, and Southern blot hybridization. qRT-PCR analysis showed that PoMsrA was highly expressed in the stage of mature and young fruiting bodies as well as the osmotic stress condition of 0.3 M NaCl. Additionally, the transgenic strains with PoMsrA overexpression exhibited an enhanced tolerance to high temperature, high osmotic stress, and oxidative stress. This suggests that PoMsrA is an active player in the protection of the cellular proteins from oxidative stress damage.

  1. A Two-component NADPH Oxidase (NOX)-like System in Bacteria Is Involved in the Electron Transfer Chain to the Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase MsrP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillan-Binard, Céline; Picciocchi, Antoine; Andrieu, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Jerome; Petit-Hartlein, Isabelle; Caux-Thang, Christelle; Vivès, Corinne; Nivière, Vincent; Fieschi, Franck

    2017-02-10

    MsrPQ is a newly identified methionine sulfoxide reductase system found in bacteria, which appears to be specifically involved in the repair of periplasmic proteins oxidized by hypochlorous acid. It involves two proteins: a periplasmic one, MsrP, previously named YedY, carrying out the Msr activity, and MsrQ, an integral b-type heme membrane-spanning protein, which acts as the specific electron donor to MsrP. MsrQ, previously named YedZ, was mainly characterized by bioinformatics as a member of the FRD superfamily of heme-containing membrane proteins, which include the NADPH oxidase proteins (NOX/DUOX). Here we report a detailed biochemical characterization of the MsrQ protein from Escherichia coli We optimized conditions for the overexpression and membrane solubilization of an MsrQ-GFP fusion and set up a purification scheme allowing the production of pure MsrQ. Combining UV-visible spectroscopy, heme quantification, and site-directed mutagenesis of histidine residues, we demonstrated that MsrQ is able to bind two b-type hemes through the histidine residues conserved between the MsrQ and NOX protein families. In addition, we identify the E. coli flavin reductase Fre, which is related to the dehydrogenase domain of eukaryotic NOX enzymes, as an efficient cytosolic electron donor to the MsrQ heme moieties. Cross-linking experiments as well as surface Plasmon resonance showed that Fre interacts with MsrQ to form a specific complex. Taken together, these data support the identification of the first prokaryotic two-component protein system related to the eukaryotic NOX family and involved in the reduction of periplasmic oxidized proteins.

  2. Magnetic and Transport Properties of Bi0.5Ca0.5-xLaxFe0.3Mn0.7O3 (x=0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25) Prepared by Molten Salt Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zhong-ping; HU Bin; CHEN Yan; YUAN Hong-ming; FENG Shou-hua

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystallines Bi0. 5Ca0.5-xLaxFe0.3Mn0.7O3(x=0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25) were prepared by molten salt method and showed perovskite orthorhombic structure with space group Pnma. The magnetic measurements indicate that the compounds exhibit antiferromagnetic behavior in a temperature range of 4-300 K. The measurements of transport properties suggest that the substitution of La for Ca enhanced the conductivity, and a kink appeared on the curve of temperature dependence of resistivity at 275 K, which is related to the spin-reorientation in the samples.

  3. Characterization of the metabolically modified heavy metal-resistant Cupriavidus metallidurans strain MSR33 generated for mercury bioremediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Rojas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mercury-polluted environments are often contaminated with other heavy metals. Therefore, bacteria with resistance to several heavy metals may be useful for bioremediation. Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 is a model heavy metal-resistant bacterium, but possesses a low resistance to mercury compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To improve inorganic and organic mercury resistance of strain CH34, the IncP-1β plasmid pTP6 that provides novel merB, merG genes and additional other mer genes was introduced into the bacterium by biparental mating. The transconjugant Cupriavidus metallidurans strain MSR33 was genetically and biochemically characterized. Strain MSR33 maintained stably the plasmid pTP6 over 70 generations under non-selective conditions. The organomercurial lyase protein MerB and the mercuric reductase MerA of strain MSR33 were synthesized in presence of Hg(2+. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (mM for strain MSR33 were: Hg(2+, 0.12 and CH(3Hg(+, 0.08. The addition of Hg(2+ (0.04 mM at exponential phase had not an effect on the growth rate of strain MSR33. In contrast, after Hg(2+ addition at exponential phase the parental strain CH34 showed an immediate cessation of cell growth. During exposure to Hg(2+ no effects in the morphology of MSR33 cells were observed, whereas CH34 cells exposed to Hg(2+ showed a fuzzy outer membrane. Bioremediation with strain MSR33 of two mercury-contaminated aqueous solutions was evaluated. Hg(2+ (0.10 and 0.15 mM was completely volatilized by strain MSR33 from the polluted waters in presence of thioglycolate (5 mM after 2 h. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A broad-spectrum mercury-resistant strain MSR33 was generated by incorporation of plasmid pTP6 that was directly isolated from the environment into C. metallidurans CH34. Strain MSR33 is capable to remove mercury from polluted waters. This is the first study to use an IncP-1β plasmid directly isolated from the environment, to generate a novel

  4. Experimental determination of field factors (\\Omega _{{{Q}_{\\text{clin}}},{{Q}_{\\text{msr}}}}^{{{f}_{\\text{clin}}},{{f}_{\\text{msr}}}} ) for small radiotherapy beams using the daisy chain correction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Recently, Alfonso et al proposed a new formalism for the dosimetry of small and non-standard fields. The proposed new formalism is strongly based on the calculation of detector-specific beam correction factors by Monte Carlo simulation methods, which accounts for the difference in the response of the detector between the small and the machine specific reference field. The correct calculation of the detector-specific beam correction factors demands an accurate knowledge of the linear accelerator, detector geometry and composition materials. The present work shows that the field factors in water may be determined experimentally using the daisy chain correction method down to a field size of 1 cm  ×  1 cm for a specific set of detectors. The detectors studied were: three mini-ionization chambers (PTW-31014, PTW-31006, IBA-CC01), three silicon-based diodes (PTW-60018, IBA-SFD and IBA-PFD) and one synthetic diamond detector (PTW-60019). Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements were performed for a 6 MV photon beam at 10 cm depth in water with a source-to-axis distance of 100 cm. The results show that the differences between the experimental and Monte Carlo calculated field factors are less than 0.5%—with the exception of the IBA-PFD—for field sizes between 1.5 cm  ×  1.5 cm and 5 cm  ×  5 cm. For the 1 cm  ×  1 cm field size, the differences are within 2%. By using the daisy chain correction method, it is possible to determine measured field factors in water. The results suggest that the daisy chain correction method is not suitable for measurements performed with the IBA-PFD detector. The latter is due to the presence of tungsten powder in the detector encapsulation material. The use of Monte Carlo calculated k{{Q\\text{clin}},{{Q}\\text{msr}}}{{f\\text{clin}},{{f}\\text{msr}}} is encouraged for field sizes less than or equal to 1 cm  ×  1 cm for the dosimeters used in this work.

  5. D-MSR: a distributed network management scheme for real-time monitoring and process control applications in wireless industrial automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Pouria; Dilo, Arta; Havinga, Paul

    2013-06-27

    Current wireless technologies for industrial applications, such as WirelessHART and ISA100.11a, use a centralized management approach where a central network manager handles the requirements of the static network. However, such a centralized approach has several drawbacks. For example, it cannot cope with dynamicity/disturbance in large-scale networks in a real-time manner and it incurs a high communication overhead and latency for exchanging management traffic. In this paper, we therefore propose a distributed network management scheme, D-MSR. It enables the network devices to join the network, schedule their communications, establish end-to-end connections by reserving the communication resources for addressing real-time requirements, and cope with network dynamicity (e.g., node/edge failures) in a distributed manner. According to our knowledge, this is the first distributed management scheme based on IEEE 802.15.4e standard, which guides the nodes in different phases from joining until publishing their sensor data in the network. We demonstrate via simulation that D-MSR can address real-time and reliable communication as well as the high throughput requirements of industrial automation wireless networks, while also achieving higher efficiency in network management than WirelessHART, in terms of delay and overhead.

  6. Characterization of the plant growth promoting bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae MSR1, isolated from roots of non-nodulating Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Ashraf Y Z; Alsyeeh, Abdel-Moneium; Almalki, Mohammed A; Saleh, Farag A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the endophytic bacterial strain designated MSR1 that was isolated from inside the non-nodulating roots of Medicago sativa after surface-sterilization. MSR1 was identified as Enterobacter cloacae using both 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis and API20E biochemical identification system (Biomerieux, France). Furthermore, this bacterium was characterized using API50CH kit (Biomerieux, France) and tested for antibacterial activities against some food borne pathogens. The results showed that E. cloacae consumed certain carbohydrates such as glycerol, d-xylose, d-maltose and esculin melibiose as a sole carbon source and certain amino acids such as arginine, tryptophan ornithine as nitrogen source. Furthermore, MSR1 possessed multiple plant-growth promoting characteristics; phosphate solubility, production of phytohormones acetoin and bioactive compounds. Inoculation of Pisum sativum with MSR1 significantly improved the growth parameters (the length and dry weight) of this economically important grain legume compared to the non-treated plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report addressing E. cloacae which exist in roots of alfalfa growing in Al-Ahsaa region. The results confirmed that E. cloacae exhibited traits for plant growth promoting and could be developed as an eco-friendly biofertilizer for P. sativum and probably for other important plant species in future.

  7. Actinide-Lanthanide separation by an electrolytic method in molten salt media: feasibility assessment of a renewed liquid cathode; Un nouveau concept de separation actinides-lanthanides en milieu sel fondu: mise en oeuvre d'une cathode liquide a surface renouvelee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet, A.

    2009-12-15

    This study is part of a research program concerning the assessment of pyrochemical methods for the nuclear waste processing. The An-Ln partitioning could be achieved by an electrolytic selective extraction in molten salt media. It has been decided to focus on liquid reactive cathode which better suits to a group actinides co-recycling. The aim of the study is to propose, define and initiate the development of an electrolytic pyro-process dedicated to the quantitative and selective recovery of the actinides. Quantitativeness is related to technology, whereas selectivity is governed by chemistry. The first step consisted in selecting the adequate operating conditions, which enables a sufficient An-Ln separation. The first step consisted, by means of thermodynamic calculi and electrochemical investigations, in selecting a promising combination between molten electrolyte and cathodic material, regarding the process constraints. To improve the recovery yield, it is necessary to develop a disruptive technology: here comes the concept of a dynamic electrodeposition carried out onto liquid metallic drops. The next step consisted in designing and manufacturing a lab-scale device which enables dropping flow studies. Since interfacial phenomena are of primary meaning in such a concept, it has been decided to focus on high temperature liquid-liquid interfacial measurements. (author)

  8. Determination of sulfate radical in molten salt corrosion product of Ni-base superalloy by turbidimetry%硫酸钡比浊法测定镍基高温合金热腐蚀产物中硫酸根

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长风; 刘学贵; 宁志高; 李云

    2006-01-01

    研究了硫酸钡比浊法测定镍基高温合金浸盐热腐蚀产物中硫酸根.讨论了波长、酸度、稳定剂、稳定时间对测量结果的影响,确定了最佳实验条件.在测量波长470 nm处,50mL溶液中,硫酸根在2.1~10.4 mg范围内符合比尔定律.该方法简便迅速,回收率为97.1%~101.9%,相对标准偏差为1.33%~1.73%.

  9. Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing MsrA1, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, exhibit resistance to fungal phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Misra, Santosh; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2014-06-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) have shown potential against broad spectrum of phytopathogens. Synthetic versions with desirable properties have been modeled on these natural peptides. MsrA1 is a synthetic chimera of cecropin A and melittin CAPs with antimicrobial properties. We generated transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing the msrA1 gene aimed at conferring fungal resistance. Five independent transgenic lines were evaluated for resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, two of the most devastating pathogens of B. juncea crops. In vitro assays showed inhibition by MsrA1 of Alternaria hyphae growth by 44-62 %. As assessed by the number and size of lesions and time taken for complete leaf necrosis, the Alternaria infection was delayed and restricted in the transgenic plants with the protection varying from 69 to 85 % in different transgenic lines. In case of S. sclerotiorum infection, the lesions were more severe and spread profusely in untransformed control compared with transgenic plants. The sclerotia formed in the stem of untransformed control plants were significantly more in number and larger in size than those present in the transgenic plants where disease protection of 56-71.5 % was obtained. We discuss the potential of engineering broad spectrum biotic stress tolerance by transgenic expression of CAPs in crop plants.

  10. Spectroelectrochemistry of EuCl 3 in Four Molten Salt Eutectics; 3 LiCl−NaCl, 3 LiCl−2 KCl, LiCl−RbCl, and 3 LiCl−2 CsCl; at 873 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroll, Cynthia A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati OH 45221-0172; Chatterjee, Sayandev [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352; Levitskaia, Tatiana [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352; Heineman, William R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati OH 45221-0172; Bryan, Samuel A. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352

    2016-05-17

    Key electrochemical properties affecting pyroprocessing of nuclear fuel were examined in four eutectic melts using using Eu3+/2+ as a representative probe. We report the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior of EuCl3 in four molten salt eutectics (3 LiCl – NaCl, 3 LiCl – 2 KCl, LiCl – RbCl and 3 LiCl – 2 CsCl) at 873 K. Cyclic voltammetry was used to determine the redox potential for Eu3+/2+ and the applied potentials for spectroelectrochemistry. Single step chronoabsorptometry and thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry were used to obtain the number of electrons transferred, redox potentials and diffusion coefficients for Eu3+ in each eutectic melt. The redox potentials determined by thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry were extremely close to those obtained using cyclic voltammetry. The redox potential for Eu3+/2+ was most positive in the 3 LiCl - NaCl melt, showed a negative shift in the 3 LiCl - 2 KCl melt, and was the most negative in the LiCl - RbCl and 3 LiCl - 2 CsCl eutectics. The diffusion coefficient for Eu3+ followed this same trend; it was the largest in the 3 LiCl - NaCl melt and the smallest in the LiCl - RbCl and 3 LiCl - 2 CsCl melts. The basic one-electron reversible electron transfer for Eu3+/2+ was not changed by melt composition.

  11. Long-wavelength limit of the static structure factors for mixtures of two simple molten salts with a common ion and generalized Bhatia-Thornton formalism: Molecular dynamics study of molten mixture Ag(Br{sub 0.7}I{sub 0.3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitrian, Vicente [Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Nord UPC, Edifici B4-B5, Despatx B4-204, Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Trullas, Joaquim [Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Nord UPC, Edifici B4-B5, Despatx B4-204, Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: quim.trullas@upc.edu; Silbert, Moises [School of Mathematics, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7QF (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    The relation between thermodynamic properties and the long-wavelength limit of the structure factors for mixtures of two simple molten salts with a common ion is derived. While the long-wavelength limit of the partial structure factors for binary ionic systems is directly related to the isothermal compressibility, for ternary ionic systems it is shown that it is also related to the mean square thermal fluctuation in the relative concentration of the non-common ions. This result leads to a generalization of the Bhatia-Thornton formalism. From the local fluctuations in the total number-density, charge-density, and relative concentration, six static structure factors, and the corresponding spatial correlation functions, are defined. By introducing three complementary structure factors, it is possible to describe either these mixtures as a system of cations and anions irrespective of the species of the non-common ions, or solely the binary subsystem of the non-common ions. The generalized structure factors and their long-wavelength limits are illustrated by molecular dynamics simulation results of the molten mixture Ag(Br{sub 0.7}I{sub 0.3}). The mixture retains the charge order characteristic of pure molten monovalent salts and the topological order observed in monovalent ionic melts in which the cations are smaller than the anions, while the main trends of the anionic chemical order are those of simple binary alloys. The long-wavelength fluctuations in the local relative concentration are found to be very sensitive to the choice of the short-range interactions between the non-common ions.

  12. MBiO{sub 2}Cl (M=Sr, Ba) as novel photocatalysts: Synthesis, optical property and photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hongwei, E-mail: hhw@cugb.edu.cn; Wang, Shuobo; Zhang, Yihe, E-mail: zyh@cugb.edu.cn; Han, Xu

    2015-02-15

    Novel quaternary photocatalysts MBiO{sub 2}Cl (M=Sr, Ba) have been successfully developed for efficient photodecomposition of RhB. Their photocatalytic mechanism was also investigated. - Highlights: • Two Bi-based compounds SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl were explored as photocatalysts. • They were successfully synthesized by a solid-state reaction. • RhB can be effectively photodecomposed by SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl under UV light. • ·OH radicals serving as active species play important roles in degradation process. - Abstract: Two Bi-based compounds SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl were successfully synthesized by a solid-state reaction and investigated as new photocatalysts for the first time. Their microstructures and optical properties were characterized by XRD, SEM and DRS. The band gaps of SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl were separately determined to be 3.52 and 3.71 eV, and their E{sub CB} and E{sub VB} were also estimated. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared samples were evaluated by photodecomposition of rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solution. The results revealed that both SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl can be used as effective photocatalysts under UV irradiation, and SrBiO{sub 2}Cl exhibits a higher photocatalytic activity than BaBiO{sub 2}Cl, which was also verified by the PL spectra. Terephthalic acid photoluminescence probing technique (TA-PL) demonstrated that ·OH radicals serving as active species play an important role in photooxidative degradation of RhB over SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl. Moreover, a larger amount of ·OH radicals generation was observed over SrBiO{sub 2}Cl, which is in agreement with its higher photocatalytic activity.

  13. Fabrication of a compact 1{sup st}-order SQUID gradiometer system to measure fMCG signals in a moderate MSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Kwon Kyu; Kim, Ki Woong; Lee, Yong Ho [Korea Reseach Institute of Standards and Science, Daegeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    We fabricated a low-noise 64-channel axial-type 1{sup st}-order gradiometer system for measuring fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) signals. A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) was based on a double relaxation oscillation SQUID (DROS) with a high flux-to-voltage transfer coefficient to simplify the flux-locked-loop (FLL) circuit. The pickup coil of the SQUID sensor was wound with 125 {mu}m of NbTi wire on a bobbin (20 mm diameter) and had a 1{sup st}-order differential coil to reject the environment noise. The pickup coil was directly connected to a DROS by using a 25 {mu}m superconductive wire and a ultra-wedge bonder. The direct connection between the DROS and the pickup coil improved the balance factor by more than 100 times. The superconductive wire was annealed at 2400 .deg. C in a vacuum chamber to improve the wire's ductility. The 1{sup st}-order gradiometers had a long baseline of 70 mm to detect magnetic signals for the deep source. The structure of between gradiometers is a tri-angle arrangement to minimize the signal loss. Also, the hexagonal structure of the MCG insert was used to cover the maximum area of the subject. The average white noise for all channels of the MCG system was about 3.5 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} at 100 Hz. The fetal MCG was measured for a fetus at 20 {approx} 36 weeks every two weeks in a moderate magnetically shielded room (MSR). The shielding factors of the fabricated MSR with a thin wall thickness of 10 cm were about 35 dB at 0.1Hz and 80 dB at 100Hz. We could measure the complex MCG signals, which were consisted of the maternal MCG, the fetal MCG and environment noise. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the fMCG was about 10. After averaging 20 times only, we could clearly observe the P, T-peak, as well as QRS complex wave. Thus, we expect the compact SQUID systems to be useful for detecting fetal cardiac diseases.

  14. Electrochemical behavior of U and Pu in the molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirai, Osamu; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Uozumi, Kohichi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    Thermodynamic evaluation are performed for the diffusion coefficient and oxidation redaction potential of U and Pu in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt through the measurements of their electrodeposition and solution by electric cyclic-voltammetry and potentiometry. On the electrode reaction of U and Pu at the liquid electrode (Cd, Bi) the positive-shift reaction mechanism of oxidation reduction potential is made clear, which is important in the development of dry reprocessing technology. The formation free energy of the metallic compound with Cd or Bi is also evaluated. (H. Katsuta)

  15. High-temperature molten salt thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, R. J.; Claar, T. D.; Tison, R. R.; Marianowski, L. G.

    1980-02-01

    The results of comparative screening studies of candidate molten carbonate salts as phase change materials (PCM) for advanced solar thermal energy storage applications at 540 to 870 C (1004 to 1600 F) and steam Rankine electric generation at 400 to 540 C (752 to 1004 F) are presented. Alkali carbonates are attractive as latent heat storage materials because of their relatively high storage capacity and thermal conductivity, low corrosivity, moderate cost, and safe and simple handling requirements. Salts were tested in 0.1 kWhr lab scale modules and evaluated on the basis of discharge heat flux, solidification temperature range, thermal cycling stability, and compatibility with containment materials. The feasibility of using a distributed network of high conductivity material to increase the heat flux through the layer of solidified salt was evaluated. The thermal performance of an 8 kWhr thermal energy storage (TES) module containing LiKCO3 remained very stable throughout 5650 hours and 130 charge/discharge cycles at 480 to 535 C (896 to 995 F). A TES utilization concept of an electrical generation peaking subsystem composed of a multistage condensing steam turbine and a TES subsystem with a separate power conversion loop was defined. Conceptual designs for a 100 MW sub e TES peaking system providing steam at 316 C, 427 C, and 454 C (600 F, 800 F, and 850 F) at 3.79 million Pa (550 psia) were developed and evaluated. Areas requiring further investigation have also been identified.

  16. FES2 / FE ELECTRODE KINETICS IN MOLTEN SALTS

    OpenAIRE

    MARIA JOSE PANICHI VIEIRA

    2005-01-01

    Neste trabalho é realizada a determinação dos parâmetros cinéticos críticos da redução eletroquímica do dissulfeto de ferro numa mistura de haletos clorados fundidos. Este catodo é empregado como material alternativo em sistemas de elevado grau tecnológico, por exemplo, componente em coletores de energia solar, anodo despolarizador para a produção de hidrogênio e material catódico em baterias e pilhas de alta densidade de energia. Cabe ressaltar que o ...

  17. A New Room-Temperature Molten Salt Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-05

    U H3 Therefore, only melts with an apparent mole fraction AIC13 of less than 0.5 were studied. The GC/MS analysis was car- * Electrochemical Society Active... Electrochemical Society , Inc. 149C melt systems, Fig. 1, shows a wider electrochemical win- dow by 0.7V for the N211 02Cl/AICl3 system than for the MEIC/A1Cl 3

  18. Polymer Coated Electrodes in Ambient Temperature Molten Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    trotm Report) %.. A 1S. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Prepared for Publication in The Journal of the Electrochemical Society It. K(EY WORDS (Continue Ott rereree...Accepted for Publication in The Journal of the Electrochemical Society Department of Chemistry State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo, New York...melt. This type of break-in behavior has been observed by other,* Electrochemical Society Actrve mer workers, using different polymers and more vol t e

  19. 水稻多逆境诱导基因OsMsr4的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and Analysis of OsMsr4 Gene Concerning Multiple-stress in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曼玲; Rocha Pedro; 李落叶; 徐孟亮; 夏新界

    2009-01-01

    为深入了解水稻逆境反应的分子机理和发现新的耐逆相关功能基因,采用Affymetrix水稻表达芯片分析超级稻两优培九母本培矮64S(Oryza sativa L.)不同生长发育时期、不同组织器官全基因组在低温、干旱、高温逆境胁迫下的表达水平,筛选出多个多因子诱导高表达特异基因(待另文发表).OsMsr4是其中一个在多种逆境条件,各生长发育时期与组织器官,其表达量均显著上调的基因,用实时定量PCR方法对其表达水平进行了进一步的分析,所得结果与基因芯片结果基本吻合.用 PCR方法扩增获得长为550 bp全长基因序列,其编码的144个氨基酸残基形成Cys2His2型双锌指结构蛋白,并且锌指结构的α-螺旋区含有植物锌指蛋白特定的保守序列QALGGH.因此,OsMsr4有可能是TFⅢA型锌指蛋白,作为转录因子参与各种环境胁迫应答反应,调控多个逆境相关基因表达.%In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of stress responses, and the functions of genes involved in stress tolerance in rice(Oryza sativa L.),gene microarray technology was used to investigate the global genome expression profiles of a male-sterile cultivar, Pei′ai 64S, subjected to cold, drought or heat stresses.Gene expression profiles were obtained from leaf and panicle organs at seedling, booting and heading stages.OsMsr4 was one of the gene highly induced by all stresses in all the development stages and plant organs analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis confirmed the microarray-derived expression pattern. The gene was cloned and encoded a peptide of 144 amino acids residues. The predicted secondary structure of the peptide includes two Cys2His2 domains, which contain the plant-specific zinc finger motif with a highly conserved sequence: QALGGH. The spacer between the two zinc-finger domains was 32 amino acids. This type of structure was characteristic of DNA-binding zinc finger proteins. Thus, OsMsr4 could

  20. Cost-based optimizations of power density and target-blanket modularity for {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U-based ADEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    A cost-based parametric systems model is developed for an Accelerator-Driven Energy Production (ADEP) system based on a {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U fuel cycle and a molten-salt (LiF/BeF{sub 2}/ThF{sub 3}) fluid-fuel primary system. Simplified neutron-balance, accelerator, reactor-core, chemical-processing, and balance-of-plant models are combined parametrically with a simplified costing model. The main focus of this model is to examine trade offs related to fission power density, reactor-core modularity, {sup 233}U breeding rate, and fission product transmutation capacity.

  1. Prospect on Desalination and Other Non-Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Sunaryo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Molten-Salt Reactor (MSR is a design of an advanced reactor system from the GEN IV family working in thermal or epithermal neutron spectrum and using thorium or transuranium fuel in the form of molten fluorides. It is based on the experience with the development of the molten-salt reactor technology in the Oak-Ridge National Laboratory in the United States. The MSR fuel cycle with integrated reprocessing represents one of the potential ways both for significant decrease of total amount of radioactive wastes for final deposition and for utilization of nuclear energy for electricity and heat production as effectively as possible. There are two pyrochemical reprocessing techniques studied in NRI Rez plc which are considered to be applied both for reprocessing of already existing spent fuel and for preparation and „on-line“ reprocessing of MSR fuel: (i the Fluoride Volatility Method (FVM, which performs chemical conversion of spent thermal oxide fuel components into fluorides and their consequent separation by means of their different volatility, thermal stability and chemical affinity to various sorbents; and (ii electrochemical separation of the actinides (Ans and fission products (FP, represented mainly by lanthanides (Lns, from each other by electrolytic deposition method on solid cathode in molten fluoride media.

  2. The Anti-Oxidant Defense System of the Marine Polar Ciliate Euplotes nobilii: Characterization of the MsrB Gene Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ricci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisms living in polar waters must cope with an extremely stressful environment dominated by freezing temperatures, high oxygen concentrations and UV radiation. To shed light on the genetic mechanisms on which the polar marine ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, relies to effectively cope with the oxidative stress, attention was focused on methionine sulfoxide reductases which repair proteins with oxidized methionines. A family of four structurally distinct MsrB genes, encoding enzymes specific for the reduction of the methionine-sulfoxide R-forms, were identified from a draft of the E. nobilii transcriptionally active (macronuclear genome. The En-MsrB genes are constitutively expressed to synthesize proteins markedly different in amino acid sequence, number of CXXC motifs for zinc-ion binding, and presence/absence of a cysteine residue specific for the mechanism of enzyme regeneration. The En-MsrB proteins take different localizations in the nucleus, mitochondria, cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum, ensuring a pervasive protection of all the major subcellular compartments from the oxidative damage. These observations have suggested to regard the En-MsrB gene activity as playing a central role in the genetic mechanism that enables E. nobilii and ciliates in general to live in the polar environment.

  3. Using an international workshop to develop functional requirements and a Biohazard Assessment Protocol (BAP) with which to develop a preferred concept for a Mars Sample Return (MSR) Sample Receiving Facility (SRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevskis, John; Guest, Michael; Bennett, Allan; Walker, James; Smith, Caroline; Baker, Robert; Grant, Colin

    COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy places very stringent requirements on Sample Return missions and `breaking the chain of contact' between Earth and the celestial body from which the sample is returned. This must be continued after return to Earth and -at the same time-any contamination or damage to the sample must be avoided until such time as it can be confirmed as not presenting a biohazard and available for subsequent curation and scientific investigation. Such a facility has never before been built and an investigation has been made to determine the requirements for a Mars Sample Return (MSR) Sample Receiving Facility (SRF) from first principles based on a Biohazard Assessment Protocol (BAP) rather than the modification of an existing BSL-4 facility. This approach fully takes in to account cleanliness requirements to avoid sample contamination. This paper will present the results from the first part of an ESA funded study, which derived the top level functional requirements by reviewing published scientific literature from all expert domains i.e.; biocontainment, science curation, space technology, infrastructure and equipment. These functional requirements were then examined by invited attendees from all expert domains in a 2 day international workshop. From the results of the international workshop an existing Biohazard Assessment Protocol (BAP) was modified and a trade off was conducted to derive a preferred concept which allowed early indications of future technological direction of study. The results of the MSR SRF study by SEA (as well as the results of another parallel study) will be taken into account by ESA to define the requirements for a follow-on procurement action in the future. There will be a review of the results from both studies and an agreement on the requirements based on these parallel studies. Therefore, the views expressed herein should not be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Space Agency.

  4. Cloning and functional analysis of the sequences flanking mini-Tn5 in the magnetosomes deleted mutant NM4 of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Feng; LI; Ying; JIANG; Wei; WANG; Zhenfang; LI; Jilun

    2005-01-01

    A magnetosome deleted mutant NM4 of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 was generated by mini-Tn5 transposon mutagenesis, and a 5045-bp fragment flanking mini-Tn5 in NM4 was cloned by Anchored PCR. Sequencing analysis showed that this fragment involved six putative open reading frames (ORFs); the mini-Tn5 was inserted into ORF4. Functional complementary test indicated that the 5045-bp fragment was required for biosynthesis of magnetosomes in M. gryphiswaldense MSR-1. The protein encoded by ORF4 had 25% of identity with the chemotaxis protein CheYIII of Caulobacter crescentus CB15, and the protein encoded by ORF4 contained a conserved signal receiver domain that can receive the signal from the sensor partner of the bacterial two-component systems. It was suggested that the protein encoded by ORF4 may take part in the signal transduction relating to biosynthesis of magnetosomes.

  5. Na2SO4- and NaCl- Induced Hot Corrosion Behaviors of a Nickel-Base Superalloy with Aluminide Diffusion Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hot-corrosion behaviors of nickel-base superalloy and aluminide diffusion coating have been investigated in conditions of contents of Na2SO4 and NaCl molten salts at 900℃ by means of XRD and SEM.Hot-corrosion scale of the superalloy and aluminide diffusion coating were analyzed and their surface morphologies were observed.The results demonstrate that both coated and uncoated specimens are not susceptible to various contents of NaCl.That may be resulted from the Al2O3 scale formation.Growth stress was characterized by the formation of convoluted scales.

  6. Th and U fuel photofission study by NTD for AD-MSR subcritical assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Greaves, Eduardo D.; Barros, Haydn; Pino, Felix; Barrera, Maria T.; Farina, Fulvio [Universidad Simón Bolívar, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Apdo 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Davila, Jesus [Física Médica C. A. and Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-07-23

    During the last decade a considerable effort has been devoted for developing energy generating systems based on advanced nuclear technology within the design concepts of GEN-IV. Thorium base fuel systems such as accelerator driven nuclear reactors are one of the often mentioned attractive and affordable options. Several radiotherapy linear accelerators are on the market and due to their reliability, they could be employed as drivers for subcritical liquid fuel assemblies. Bremsstrahlung photons with energies above 5.5MeV, induce (γ,n) and (e,e’n) reactions in the W-target. Resulting gamma radiation and photo or fission neutrons may be absorbed in target materials such as thorium and uranium isotopes to induce sustained fission or nuclear transmutation in waste radioactive materials. Relevant photo driven and photo-fission reaction cross sections are important for actinides {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 237}Np in the radiotherapy machines energy range of 10-20 MV. In this study we employ passive nuclear track detectors (NTD) to determine fission rates and neutron production rates with the aim to establish the feasibility for gamma and photo-neutron driven subcritical assemblies. To cope with these objectives a 20 MV radiotherapy machine has been employed with a mixed fuel target. Results will support further development for a subcritical assembly employing a thorium containing liquid fuel. It is expected that acquired technological knowledge will contribute to the Venezuelan nuclear energy program.

  7. Th and U fuel photofission study by NTD for AD-MSR subcritical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Greaves, Eduardo D.; Davila, Jesus; Barros, Haydn; Pino, Felix; Barrera, Maria T.; Farina, Fulvio

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade a considerable effort has been devoted for developing energy generating systems based on advanced nuclear technology within the design concepts of GEN-IV. Thorium base fuel systems such as accelerator driven nuclear reactors are one of the often mentioned attractive and affordable options. Several radiotherapy linear accelerators are on the market and due to their reliability, they could be employed as drivers for subcritical liquid fuel assemblies. Bremsstrahlung photons with energies above 5.5MeV, induce (γ,n) and (e,e'n) reactions in the W-target. Resulting gamma radiation and photo or fission neutrons may be absorbed in target materials such as thorium and uranium isotopes to induce sustained fission or nuclear transmutation in waste radioactive materials. Relevant photo driven and photo-fission reaction cross sections are important for actinides 232Th, 238U and 237Np in the radiotherapy machines energy range of 10-20 MV. In this study we employ passive nuclear track detectors (NTD) to determine fission rates and neutron production rates with the aim to establish the feasibility for gamma and photo-neutron driven subcritical assemblies. To cope with these objectives a 20 MV radiotherapy machine has been employed with a mixed fuel target. Results will support further development for a subcritical assembly employing a thorium containing liquid fuel. It is expected that acquired technological knowledge will contribute to the Venezuelan nuclear energy program.

  8. Cloning and functional analysis of the sequences flanking mini-Tn5 in the magnetosome-deleted mutant NM21 of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Feng; LI Ying; JIANG Wei; WANG ZhenFang; LI JiLun

    2009-01-01

    A magnetosome-deleted mutant NM21 of MagnetospMIlum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 was generated by mini-Tn5 lacZ2 transposon mutagenesis, and a 3073-bp fragment flanking mini-Tn5 lacZ2 in NM21 was cloned by Anchored PCR. Sequencing analysis showed that this fragment involved three putative ORFs; the mini-Tn5 lacZ2 was inserted into ORF1. Functional complementary test indicated that the 3073-bp fragment was required for biosynthesis of magnetosomes in M. gryphiswaldense MSR-1. The majority of proteins, which bad homology with the protein encoded by ORF1, were the cation transporter. Transmembrane domain analysis showed that the protein encoded by ORF1 contained four trans-membrane domains. It may be a transmembrane protein. The protein encoded by ORF1 contained two putative conserved domains: COG0053 and PRK09509. The MMT1 and FieF, containing conserved domains COG0053 and PRK09509 too, were Fe2+ transporter (cation diffusion facilitator superfamily). It was suggested that the protein encoded by ORF1 might take part in the magnetosomes biosynthesis as Fe2+ transporter.

  9. Corrosion of Nickel-Based Alloys in Ultra-High Temperature Heat Transfer Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2017-03-01

    MgCl2-KCl binary system has been proposed to be used as high temperature reactor coolant. Due to its relatively low melting point, good heat capacity and excellent thermal stability, this system can also be used in high operation temperature concentrating solar power generation system as heat transfer fluid (HTF). The corrosion behaviors of nickel based alloys in MgCl2-KCl molten salt system at 1,000 °C were determined based on long-term isothermal dipping test. After 500 h exposure tests under strictly maintained high purity argon gas atmosphere, the weight loss and corrosion rate analysis were conducted. Among all the tested samples, Ni-201 demonstrated the lowest corrosion rate due to the excellent resistance of Ni to high temperature element dissolution. Detailed surface topography and corrosion mechanisms were also determined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS).

  10. Specific contributions of the Dutch progamme ``RAS`` towards accelerator-based transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahams, K.; Franken, W.M.P.; Bultman, J.H.; Heil, J.A.; Koning, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    Accelerator-based transmutation is being studied by ECN within its general nuclear waste transmutation programme RAS. In this paper the following contributions are presented: (1) Evaluation of cross sections at intermediate energies, within an international frame given by NEA, (2) Cell calculations on the equilibration of transuranium actinides in thermal molten-salt transmuters, (3) Irradiation facilities at the European research reactor HFR in Petten, which have been constructed with the purpose to demonstrate and investigate the transmutation of waste in a high neutron flux, (4) Studies of accelerator-based neutron generating systems to transmute neptunium and technetium, (5) Comparison of several systems on the basis of criteria for successful nuclear waste-management. (orig.).

  11. Study on the hot corrosion behavior of a cast Ni-base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Guo, J.T.; Zhang, J.; Yuan, C.; Zhou, L.Z.; Hu, Z.Q. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China). Inst. of Metal Research

    2010-07-01

    Hot corrosion behavior of Nickel-base cast superalloy K447 in 90% Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 10% NaCl melting salt at 850 C and 900 C was studied. The hot corrosion kinetic of the alloy follows parabolic rate law under the experimental conditions. The external layer is mainly Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale which is protective to the alloy, the intermediate layer is the Ti-rich phase, and the internal layer is mainly the international oxides and sulfides. With increased corrosion time and temperature, the oxide scales are gradually dissolved in the molten salt and then precipitate as a thick and non-protective scale. Chlorides cause the formation of volatile species, which makes the oxide scale disintegrate and break off. The corrosion kinetics and morphology examinations tend to support the basic dissolution model for hot corrosion mechanisms. (orig.)

  12. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bultman, J.H.

    1995-01-17

    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP).

  13. High Efficiency Nuclear Power Plants Using Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Rarick, Richard A.; Rangarajan, Rajmohan

    2009-01-01

    An overall system analysis approach is used to propose potential conceptual designs of advanced terrestrial nuclear power plants based on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) experience and utilizing Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) thermal-to-electric energy conversion technology. In particular conceptual designs for an advanced 1 GWe power plant with turbine reheat and compressor intercooling at a 950 K turbine inlet temperature (TIT), as well as near term 100 MWe demonstration plants with TITs of 950 and 1200 K are presented. Power plant performance data were obtained for TITs ranging from 650 to 1300 K by use of a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems code which considered the interaction between major sub-systems, including the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR), heat source and heat sink heat exchangers, turbo-generator machinery, and an electric power generation and transmission system. Optional off-shore submarine installation of the power plant is a major consideration.

  14. A thiol-activated lipase from Trichosporon asahii MSR 54: detergent compatibility and presoak formulation for oil removal from soiled cloth at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Suresh; Kumar, Lalit; Sahai, Vikram; Gupta, Rani

    2009-03-01

    An alkaline lipase from Trichosporon asahii MSR 54 was used to develop presoak formulation for removing oil stains at ambient temperature. The lipase was produced in a reactor followed by concentration by ultrafiltration and then it was dried with starch. The biochemical characteristics of enzyme showed that it was an alkaline lipase having pH activity in the range of pH 8.0-10.0 and temperature in the range of 25-50 degrees C. The present lipase was active >80% at 25 degrees C. The lipase was cystein activated with fourfold enhancement in presence of 5 mM cystein and likewise the activity was also stimulated in presence of papain hydrolysate which served as source of cystein. The presoak formulation consisted of two components A and B, component A was enzyme additive and B was a mixture of carbonate/bicarbonate source of alkali and papain hydrolysate as source of cystein. The results indicated that the presoaking in enzyme formulation followed by detergent washing was a better strategy for stain removal than direct washing with detergent in presence of lipase. Further, it was observed that 0.25% presoak component B in presence of 100 U enzyme component A (0.1 g) was the best formulation in removing maximum stain from mustard oil/triolein soiled clothes as indicated by increase in reflectance which was found equal to that of control cloth. The lipase action in presoaked formulation was clearly indicated by quantitated fatty acid release and also the TLC results of wash water, where oil hydrolytic products were visible only in presence of enzyme in the treatment. The wash performance carried at 25 degrees C indicated that washing at 25 degrees C was at par with that at 40 degrees C as indicated by similar reflectance of the washed cloth piece though qualitative fatty acid release was higher at 40 degrees C.

  15. Monte-Carlo Modeling of Parameters of a Subcritical Cascade Reactor Based on MSBR and LMFBR Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bznuni, S A; Zhamkochyan, V M; Polanski, A; Sosnin, A N; Khudaverdyan, A H

    2001-01-01

    Parameters of a subcritical cascade reactor driven by a proton accelerator and based on a primary lead-bismuth target, main reactor constructed analogously to the molten salt breeder (MSBR) reactor core and a booster-reactor analogous to the core of the BN-350 liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). It is shown by means of Monte-Carlo modeling that the reactor under study provides safe operation modes (k_{eff}=0.94-0.98), is apable to transmute effectively radioactive nuclear waste and reduces by an order of magnitude the requirements on the accelerator beam current. Calculations show that the maximal neutron flux in the thermal zone is 10^{14} cm^{12}\\cdot s^_{-1}, in the fast booster zone is 5.12\\cdot10^{15} cm^{12}\\cdot s{-1} at k_{eff}=0.98 and proton beam current I=2.1 mA.

  16. Rechargeable lithium and sodium anodes in chloroaluminate molten salts containing thionyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, J.; Osteryoung, R.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Carlin, R.T.

    1995-11-01

    Lithium and sodium deposition-stripping studies were performed in room temperature buffered neutral chloroaluminate melts containing low concentrations of thionyl chloride (SOCl{sub 2}). The SOCl{sub 2} solute promotes high cycling efficiencies of the alkali metals in these electrolytes. Staircase cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry show cycling efficiencies of approximately 90% for both lithium and sodium. High cycling efficiencies are maintained following extended exposure of the melt to the dry box atmosphere and after time delays at open circuit. The performance of the SOCl{sub 2}-promoted systems is substantially improved over previous studies in room temperature melts containing hydrogen chloride as the promoting solute.

  17. Preparation, Structure and Magnetic Properties of Lithium Substituted NiO by Molten Salt Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Fei; BIE Xiao-fei; BIAN Xiao-fei; HU Fang; CHEN Gang; WANG Chun-zhong; WEI Ying-jin

    2013-01-01

    A typical Li+ substituted NiO compound,Li0.29Ni0.71O,was synthesized by molten nitrate method.The effects of Li+ substitution on the structure and magnetic properties of NiO were investigated.X-Ray diffraction(XRD),scanning electron microscope(SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope(HRTEM) analyses confirm the cubic structure of Li0.29Ni0.71O,with a primary particle size of 150 nm.Analysis of the Ni X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) shows the transformation from Ni2+ to Ni3+ induced by Li+ substitution.Two magnetic transitions were observed at 225 and 55 K which were assigned to the ferrimagnetic ordering and spin glass transition,respectively.The different magnetic behavior with respect to that of NiO was attributed to the break of superexchange interaction Ni2+-O-Ni2+ and the formation of different spin clusters after non-magnetic Li+ doping.

  18. Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-11-16

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in an opening in the subsurface formation. An insulated conductor is located in the conduit. A material is in the conduit between a portion of the insulated conductor and a portion of the conduit. The material may be a salt. The material is a fluid at operating temperature of the heating system. Heat transfers from the insulated conductor to the fluid, from the fluid to the conduit, and from the conduit to the subsurface formation.

  19. Design considerations for concentrating solar power tower systems employing molten salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Kolb, Gregory J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-09-01

    The Solar Two Project was a United States Department of Energy sponsored project operated from 1996 to 1999 to demonstrate the coupling of a solar power tower with a molten nitrate salt as a heat transfer media and for thermal storage. Over all, the Solar Two Project was very successful; however many operational challenges were encountered. In this work, the major problems encountered in operation of the Solar Two facility were evaluated and alternative technologies identified for use in a future solar power tower operating with a steam Rankine power cycle. Many of the major problems encountered can be addressed with new technologies that were not available a decade ago. These new technologies include better thermal insulation, analytical equipment, pumps and values specifically designed for molten nitrate salts, and gaskets resistant to thermal cycling and advanced equipment designs.

  20. High Temperature Corrosion of Inconel 600 in NaCl-KCl Molten Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Salinas-Solano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the corrosion resistance of a high content nickel alloy, Inconel 600, was investigated in mixed NaCl-KCl salts at 700, 800, and 900°C for 100 hours in static air. Investigation was carried out using electrochemical techniques such as polarization curves, rest potential measurements, linear polarization resistance, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Corroded specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Electrochemical measurements showed an increased degradation rate of Inconel 600 with increasing test temperature. SEM and EDS analysis show that the damage experienced by Inconel 600 is greater than that determined by electrochemical measurements. This damage was identified as internal corrosion due to the reaction of Cl2 with the alloying elements (Cr and Fe; however, at 900°C the internal damage was minor and it was associated with the nickel content in the alloy.

  1. Thermodynamic study of the molten salt binary system KHSO4-NaHSO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Hatem, G

    2002-01-01

    The partial molar enthalpies of mixing of NaHSO4 and KHSO4 have been measured at 528 K by dropping samples of pure compounds into molten mixtures of NaHSO4 and KHSO4 in Calvet calorimeter. From these values the molar enthalpy of mixing has been deduced.The same method has been used for the determ......The partial molar enthalpies of mixing of NaHSO4 and KHSO4 have been measured at 528 K by dropping samples of pure compounds into molten mixtures of NaHSO4 and KHSO4 in Calvet calorimeter. From these values the molar enthalpy of mixing has been deduced.The same method has been used...... for the determination of the heat capacity of the two pure compounds in the solid and liquid states.The phase diagram of this system has been confirmed by conductometric and thermal analysis methods.By an optimization method the excess entropy of the liquid mixtures was also calculated....

  2. Bulk Vitrification Performance Enhancement: Refractory Lining Protection Against Molten Salt Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Evans, Michael B.; Smith, Benjamin T.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Matyas, Josef; Buchmiller, William C.; Gallegos, Autumn B.; Fluegel, Alexander

    2007-08-06

    Bulk vitrification (BV) is a process that heats a feed material that consists of glass-forming solids and dried low-activity waste (LAW) in a disposable refractory-lined metal box using electrical power supplied through carbon electrodes. The feed is heated to the point that the LAW decomposes and combines with the solids to generate a vitreous waste form. This study supports the BV design and operations by exploring various methods aimed at reducing the quantities of soluble Tc in the castable refractory block portion of the refractory lining, which limits the effectiveness of the final waste form.

  3. Growth of lithium triborate single crystals from molten salt solution under various temperature gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guretskii, S. A.; Ges, A. P.; Zhigunov, D. I.; Ignatenko, A. A.; Kalanda, N. A.; Kurnevich, L. A.; Luginets, A. M.; Milovanov, A. S.; Molchan, P. V.

    1995-12-01

    Single crystals of lithium triborate LiB 3O 5 (LBO) have been grown by the top-seeded solution growth method with B 2O 3 as a solvent using different temperature gradients in the zone of crystallization. Optical and nonlinear optical properties of LBO single crystals have been investigated. The influence of post-growth thermal treatment in oxygen atmosphere on the optical properties has been studied.

  4. The Electrochemical Behaviour of Uranium in LiF-NaF Molten Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Chang-shui; LIU; Yi

    2012-01-01

    <正>The reduction mechanism in molten LiF-NaF eutectic containing UF4 was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry in 1 073 K. Two redox peaks have been observed in the cyclic voltammograms and two platforms have also occurred in the chronopotentiogram which indicates that the reduction process of U4+ consists of two steps. The number of electrons exchanged at each step has been

  5. Preparation of ternary Mg-Li-Sn alloys from molten salt by electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng CAO; Milin ZHANG; Wei HAN; Yongde YAN; Lijun CHEN

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of Mg,Li and Sn on tungsten electrodes in LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-SnCl2 melts at 873 K was investigated.Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) showed that the underpotential deposition (UPD) of magnesium on pre-deposited tin leads to the formation of a Mg-Sn alloy,and the succeeding underpotential deposition of lithium on pre-deposited Mg-Sn alloy leads to the formation of a Mg-Li-Sn alloy.Chronopotentiometric measurements indicated that the codepositon of Mg,Li and Sn occurs at current densities more negative than -1.16 A.cm-2.X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that Mg2Sn phase is formed via galvanostatic electrolysis.The element Mg distributes homogeneously and Sn locates mainly on the grain boundaries in the MgLi-Sn alloy.

  6. Update on Small Modular Reactors Dynamics System Modeling Tool -- Molten Salt Cooled Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Borum, Robert C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chaleff, Ethan S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rogerson, Doug W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Batteh, John J. [Modelon Corporation (Sweden); Tiller, Michael M. [Xogeny Corporation, Canton, MI (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Dynamic System Modeling Tool project is in the third year of development. The project is designed to support collaborative modeling and study of various advanced SMR (non-light water cooled) concepts, including the use of multiple coupled reactors at a single site. The objective of the project is to provide a common simulation environment and baseline modeling resources to facilitate rapid development of dynamic advanced reactor SMR models, ensure consistency among research products within the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technical area, and leverage cross-cutting capabilities while minimizing duplication of effort. The combined simulation environment and suite of models are identified as the Modular Dynamic SIMulation (MoDSIM) tool. The critical elements of this effort include (1) defining a standardized, common simulation environment that can be applied throughout the program, (2) developing a library of baseline component modules that can be assembled into full plant models using existing geometry and thermal-hydraulic data, (3) defining modeling conventions for interconnecting component models, and (4) establishing user interfaces and support tools to facilitate simulation development (i.e., configuration and parameterization), execution, and results display and capture.

  7. PERFORMANCE SIMULATION OF PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR COLLECTOR USING TWO FLUIDS (THERMIC OIL AND MOLTEN SALT)

    OpenAIRE

    T. E. Boukelia; M. S. Mecibah; A. Laouafi

    2016-01-01

    The Parabolic trough solar collector is considered as one of the most proven, mature and commercial concentrating solar systems implemented in arid and semi-arid regions for energy production. It focuses sunlight onto a solar receiver by using mirrors and is finally converted to a useful thermal energy by means of a heat transfer fluid. The aims of this study are (i) to develop a new methodology for simulation and performance evaluation of parabolic trough solar collector, in addition (i) to ...

  8. Preparation and characterization of nanotube Li-Ti-O by molten salt method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Xianru; WANG Xiaodong; ZHANG Shunli; ZHANG Jingwei; YANG Jianjun; JIN Zhensheng

    2007-01-01

    Nanotube Li-Ti-O compound with high surface (198.6m2.g-1) was prepared by a method involving the treatment of nanotube Na2Ti2Os" H2O in molten LiNO3 and characterization by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM),energy-dispersive spectra (EDS),X-ray diffraction (XRD),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG/DTG).Results show that the nanotube Li-Ti-O compound prepared by this method involves two crystal phases:spinel Li2Ti2O4and anatase LixTiO2 (x<0.1).Li+ exhibits different Lils binding energy in the two crystal phases.In ambient air,the Li-Ti-O compound adsorbs water easily,and the chemically adsorbed water is difficult to remove below 400℃.

  9. Development of a solar thermal central heat receiver using molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, T. R.

    1981-06-01

    The development and test of a 5 MWth solar heat receiver using a molten nitrate salt (60 percent NaNO3, 40 percent KNaNO3) as the heat transfer fluid is described. The application of the receiver concept in a central receiver solar power system is explained. The advantages of using molten nitrate salts as the receiver heat transfer fluid and the storage fluid are discussed. The problems associated with the receiver development including the need for high temperatures and combinations of creep and fatigue in the receiver tubes are discussed. Our approach to scaling from the 5 MWth test receiver to commercial receivers in the range of 200 MWth to 500 MWth is defined. The 5 MWth test system is described including the instrumentation used. The test facility which has a 60 m tower and 222 heliostats is described. The test results are presented. The receiver was in test for 500 hr at temperature and heat flux levels expected in commercial receiver systems.

  10. Expedited demonstration of molten salt mixed waste treatment technology. Addendum 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtz, E.H. von; Hopper, R.W.; Adamson, M.G.

    1995-04-27

    The Final Forms portion (Section 4) of the TTP SF-2410-03 final report was incomplete. This was noted under the subsection ``Task Variances.`` The present report documents the work that was unfinished at that time, arranged in accord with the subsections of the Final Report. An assessment of the overall immobilization efficacy of polymer microencapsulation, as supported by this study, has been added. The study and demonstration of the polyethylene microencapsulation of salt residues is continuing under other auspices. A stand-alone report combining the results of the continuation with the contents of this memorandum and of Section 4 of the Final Report will be issued in later this year.

  11. Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-09-08

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center (a partnership of Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories), is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Department of Energy has thousands of pounds of energetic materials which result from dismantlement operations at the Pantex Plant. The Department of Defense has several hundred million pounds of energetic materials in its demilitarization inventory, with millions more added each year.

  12. Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.; Watkins, B.E.

    1995-09-26

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center ( a partnership of Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories), is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. Major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Department of Energy has thousands of pounds of energetic materials which result from dismantlement operations at the Pantex Plant. The Department of Defense has several hundred million pounds of energetic materials in its demilitarization inventory, with millions more added each year. In addition, there are vast energetic materials demilitarization inventories world-wide, including those in the former Soviet Union and eastern Bloc countries. Although recycling and reusing is the preferred method of dealing with these surplus materials, there will always be the necessity of destroying intractable or unusable energetic materials. Traditionally, open bum/open detonation (OB/OD) has been the method of choice for the destruction of energetic materials. Public concerns and increasingly stringent environmental regulations have made open burning and open detonation of energetic materials increasingly costly and nearly unacceptable. Thus, the impetus to develop environmentally sound alternatives to dispose of energetic materials is great.

  13. Thorium Molten Salt Reactor: A Safe Way Out for Nuclear Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Staff Reporter

    2012-01-01

    Doubts on the safety of nuclear energy have far from being cleared up since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear crisis broke out in March 2011, and the elephantine nuclear energy industry remains constrained at the epicenter of a refueled dispute. Some pro-nuclear activists, however, argue that nuclear energy will remain the preferred solution to future energy demand, citing setbacks of other options like fossil fuels, wind and solar energy sources.

  14. Electrodeposition Behavior of Nickel from a Low Temperature Urea-molten Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启波; 华一新

    2013-01-01

    The electrodeposition behavior of nickel at glassy carbon (GC) and stainless steel (SS) electrodes in low temperature urea-acetamide-NaBr-KBr melt was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, chrono-amperometric current-time transients and scanning electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammograms and dimensionless chronoamperometric current-time transients analysis show that the elec-trodeposition of nickel is an irreversible process and proceeds via three-dimensional progressive nucleation with diffusion-controlled growth on both GC and SS substrates. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicates the nickel deposits obtained on SS electrode are generally uniform, dense, and adherent to the substrate with rounded crystallites in the nanometer size regime. It is also found that the crystal structure of the electrodeposited nickel is independent on the deposition potential. The nickel deposits produced from the melt at higher cathodic potential exhibit larger grain size.

  15. Simultaneous hydrolysis and hydrogenation of cellobiose to sorbitol in molten salt hydrate media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Soares, H.S.M.P.; Moulijn, J.A.; Makkee, M.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrolysis and hydrogenation of cellobiose (4-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose) in ZnCl2_4H2O solvent was studied to optimize the conditions for conversion of lignocellulose (the most abundant renewable resource) into sorbitol (D-glucitol). Water at neutral pH does not allow hydrolysis of cellobio

  16. The electrical conductivity, density and surface tension of molten salts containing zirconium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katyshev, S F; Teslyuk, L M; Eltsova, N V [Urals State Technical University-UPI, 19 Mira Str., Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: tnv@htf.ustu.ru, E-mail: ksf@mail.ustu.ru

    2008-02-15

    The temperature dependencies of specific electric conductivity, density and surface tension of molten LiF-KF-ZrF{sub 4} mixtures in a wide concentration range were investigated using relative capillary method and method of maximum pressure in a gas bubble. The obtained values of molar electric conductivity, molar volumes and excess thermodynamic functions of melt surface layer have noticeable deviations from those calculated for ideal mixtures. This phenomenon can be explained by some specific interaction between the components of studied ternary mixtures. Mixing the components in such melts is accompanied by a noticeable interaction with predominant formation of stable zirconium fluoride complex ions. The values of deviations depend on the ionic composition of the salt mixtures.

  17. Synthesis of chromium and ferrochromium alloy in molten salts by the electro-reduction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge X.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we successfully applied the Fray-Farthing-Chen Cambridge electro-reduction process on the preparation of chromium from chromium oxide, and for the first time, the synthesis of ferrochromium alloy from chromium oxide and iron oxide mixture and the chromite ore in molten calcium chloride. The present work systematically investigated the influences of sintered temperature of the solid precursor, electrochemical potential, electrolysis temperature and time on the products by using a set of advanced characterization techniques, including XRD and SEM/EDS analyses. In particular, our results show that this process is energy-friendly and technically-feasible for the direct extraction of ferrochromium alloy from chromite ore. Our findings thus provide useful insights for designing a novel green process to produce ferrochromium alloy from low-grade chromite ore or stainless steel slag.

  18. Electrodeposition of Palladium and Adsorption of Palladium Chloride onto Solid Electrodes from Room Temperature Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    electrolytes.’" Here, we ex- For all electrochemical experiments, the counterelec- * Electrochemical Society Active Member. trode was a platinum foil, and...4, April 1994 © The Electrochemical Society , Inc. 1001 sisted of Al wire immersed in either an N= 0.67 or N = 0.60 IE-05 ...... . . AICI2-MEJC melt...indicate the movement of the reduction wave to more 10(d2 - J. Electrochem. Soc., Vol. 141, No. 4, April 1994 © The Electrochemical Society , Inc. 3.OOE-05 1

  19. Electroreduction of Tungsten Oxide(Ⅵ) in Molten Salts with Added Metaphosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MALYSHEV Victor; GAB Angelina; POPESCU Ana-Maria; CONSTANTIN Virgil

    2013-01-01

    Tungstate ions WO42-are not electrochemically active in chloride melts.Upon introduction of PO3-ions into the melt,two waves appear in the voltammograms at potentials-0.1--0.2 V and-0.3--0.5 V vs.Pb/Pb2+ reference electrode.With a PO3-concentration ratio of 0.01<[PO3-]/[WO42-]<0.18,the potentiostatic electrolysis product of WO42-at the above mentioned potentials is metallic tungsten; a NaPO3 concentration increase for ratios [PO3-]/[WO42-]>>0.18 results in tungsten phosphide in electrolysis product.Cyclic voltammograms and dependence of half-peak potentials on electrode polarization rate indicate the irreversible character of the electrode process.Electrode process modeling allows us to state that the first wave in the voltammogram of KC1-NaC1-Na2WO4-NaPO3 system corresponds to tungsten oxychlorides discharge while the second wave appears due to the discharge of ditungstate ions.In the voltammograms of Na2WO4-NaPO3 melts,reduction wave was observed at-1.1--1.2 V potentials.Proportionality of limiting current to NaPO3 concentration,constancy ofId/v1/2 ratio,and Id/nFc constant kinetic value equal to (8.3-9.5)× 10-5 cm/s for steady-state wave indicate that electrode process rate is limited by electrochemically active particle diffusion to the electrode.Nascent ditungstate ions become electrochemically active in the overall electrode process.Charge transfer stage is reversible.

  20. Electrodeposition of alkali and alkali-earth metals on liquid lead cathodes in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaca, C.; De Cordoba, G. [CIEMAT/DE/DFN/URAA. Avda. Complutense, 22. 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel leads to the dissolution as chlorides of fission products (FPs) that have to be removed in order to recycle the salt. Precipitation technique have been tested for the removal of these FPs in the LiCl-KCl, salt selected as reference, with different results. Salt decontamination from lanthanides can be easily achieved as solid precipitates of oxychlorides or single phosphates; however, for the alkaline and alkaline-earth metals this technique is not suitable. Within the EUROPART project (VI FP of the EC), a new route that consist of the electrodeposition of these FP on a liquid lead cathode (LLC) has been considered, including the Li and K constituting the electrolyte. First results obtained with Sr and Cs are presented herein. Although according to the thermodynamic potential values, the electrodeposition order on LLC is Ba, Sr, Li, K and Cs, during our experiments it was not possible to distinguish the electrochemical signals corresponding to the individual elements. (authors)

  1. Formation of Gd-Al alloy films by a molten salt electrochemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaca, C.; Cordoba, G. de [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energia, Madrid (Spain). Div. de Fision Nuclear/URAA

    2008-01-15

    The electrochemistry of molten LiCl-KCl-GdCl{sub 3} at a reactive Al electrode has been studied at 723 to 823 K. Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry have been used in order to identify the intermetallic compounds formed. Cyclic voltammetry showed that, while at an inert W electrode GdCl{sub 3} is reduced to Gd metal in a single step at a potential close to the reduction of the solvent, at an Al electrode a shift towards more positive values occurs. This shift of the cathodic potential indicated a reduction of the activity of Gd in Al with respect to that of W, due to the formation of alloys. The surface characterization of samples formed by both galvanostatic and potentiostatic electrolysis has shown the presence of two intermetallic compounds: GdAl{sub 3} and GdAl{sub 2}. Using open-circuit chronopotentiometry it has been possible to measure the potentials at which these compounds are transformed into each other. The values of these potential plateaus, once transformed into e. f. m. values, allowed to determine the thermodynamic properties of the GdAl{sub 3} intermetallic compound. (orig.)

  2. Effect of milling on morphology of molten salt synthesized Sr3Ti2O7 crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijamnajsuk, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Effect of milling liquid (acetone and ethanol, and milling times on morphology of Sr3Ti2O7 (ST7 crystals grow in molten potassium chloride salt at 1250oC for 4 h was investigated. Two kinds of crystals with different morphologies were found: ST7 crystals having a tabular shape of less than 20 μm diameter and small secondary-phase crystals having high symmetry. Milling starting materials in ethanol yielded ST7 crystals that were up to 3 times thinner than those milled with acetone, increasing the (00l Lotgering factor almost twice that when prepared with acetone. Large crystals become a bit smaller and the number of small crystals increased when the milling time increased.

  3. Neutron spectra calculation and doses in a subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium; Calculo de espectros de neutrones y dosis en un reactor nuclear subcritico a base de Torio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina C, D.; Hernandez A, P. L.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: dmedina_c@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This paper describes a heterogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor with molten salts based on thorium, with graphite moderator and a source of {sup 252}Cf, whose dose levels in the periphery allows its use in teaching and research activities. The design was done by the Monte Carlo method with the code MCNP5 where the geometry, dimensions and fuel was varied in order to obtain the best design. The result is a cubic reactor of 110 cm side with graphite moderator and reflector. In the central part they have 9 ducts that were placed in the direction of axis Y. The central duct contains the source of {sup 252}Cf, of 8 other ducts, are two irradiation ducts and the other six contain a molten salt ({sup 7}LiF - BeF{sub 2} - ThF{sub 4} - UF{sub 4}) as fuel. For design the k{sub eff}, neutron spectra and ambient dose equivalent was calculated. In the first instance the above calculation for a virgin fuel was called case 1, then a percentage of {sup 233}U was used and the percentage of Th was decreased and was called case 2. This with the purpose to compare two different fuels working inside the reactor. In the case 1 a value was obtained for the k{sub eff} of 0.13 and case 2 of 0.28, maintaining the subcriticality in both cases. In the dose levels the higher value is in case 2 in the axis Y with a value of 3.31 e-3 ±1.6% p Sv/Q this value is reported in for one. With this we can calculate the exposure time of personnel working in the reactor. (Author)

  4. Microwave absorption performance of the absorber based on epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N/epoxy and carbonyl iron/epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan, E-mail: ZSY07058079@163.com; Cao, Quan-Xi; Xue, Yi-Rong; Zhou, Yue-Xin

    2015-01-15

    The hexagonal structure epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N powders were fabricated by the molten salt method. It is found that epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N exhibited much better electromagnetic attenuation performance, but its impedance match characteristic was worse than that of carbonyl iron based on the database of electromagnetic parameters. Reflection loss of the monolayer absorber for epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N/epoxy composite obtained by theoretical calculation was in good consistent with that by experiment measurement. The maximum reflection loss of epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N/epoxy composite was −7.6 dB at 7.28 GHz with a thickness of 2 mm, and the −6 dB absorbing bandwidth was 3.7 GHz. Furthermore, microwave absorbing properties of the double-layer absorber with epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N/epoxy as the absorbing layer and carbonyl iron/epoxy as the matching layer were investigated. The double-layer absorber had much better microwave absorbing performance. The maximum reflection loss was −49.8 dB at 12.62 GHz, and the bandwidth bellow −6 dB was as much as 14 GHz with a total thickness of 1.4 mm. - Highlights: • The hexagonal epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N powders were fabricated by the molten salt method. • Epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N had good dissipation property in comparison with that of CI. • CI had better impedance matching characteristic than that of epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N. • The calculated reflectivity of epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N was consistent with the measured value. • The reflectivity of double layer absorber based on epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N and CI was studied.

  5. Probing charge transfer in a novel class of luminescent perovskite-based heterostructures composed of quantum dots bound to RE-activated CaTiO3 phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Crystal S.; Liu, Haiqing; Han, Jinkyu; Wang, Lei; Yue, Shiyu; Brennan, Nicholas A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the synthesis and structural characterization of novel semiconducting heterostructures composed of cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) attached onto the surfaces of novel high-surface area, porous rare-earth-ion doped alkaline earth titanate micron-scale spherical motifs, i.e. both Eu-doped and Pr-doped CaTiO3, composed of constituent, component nanoparticles. These unique metal oxide perovskite building blocks were created by a multi-pronged synthetic strategy involving molten salt and hydrothermal protocols. Subsequently, optical characterization of these heterostructures indicated a clear behavioral dependence of charge transfer in these systems upon a number of parameters such as the nature of the dopant, the reaction temperature, and particle size. Specifically, 2.7 nm diameter ligand-functionalized CdSe QDs were anchored onto sub-micron sized CaTiO3-based spherical assemblies, prepared by molten salt protocols. We found that both the Pr- and Eu-doped CaTiO3 displayed pronounced PL emissions, with maximum intensities observed using optimized lanthanide concentrations of 0.2 mol% and 6 mol%, respectively. Analogous experiments were performed on Eu-doped BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 motifs, but CaTiO3 still performed as the most effective host material amongst the three perovskite systems tested. Moreover, the ligand-capped CdSe QD-doped CaTiO3 heterostructures exhibited effective charge transfer between the two individual constituent nanoscale components, an assertion corroborated by the corresponding quenching of their measured PL signals.We report on the synthesis and structural characterization of novel semiconducting heterostructures composed of cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) attached onto the surfaces of novel high-surface area, porous rare-earth-ion doped alkaline earth titanate micron-scale spherical motifs, i.e. both Eu-doped and Pr-doped CaTiO3, composed of constituent, component nanoparticles. These unique metal oxide perovskite

  6. Probing charge transfer in a novel class of luminescent perovskite-based heterostructures composed of quantum dots bound to RE-activated CaTiO3 phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Crystal S; Liu, Haiqing; Han, Jinkyu; Wang, Lei; Yue, Shiyu; Brennan, Nicholas A; Wong, Stanislaus S

    2016-01-28

    We report on the synthesis and structural characterization of novel semiconducting heterostructures composed of cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) attached onto the surfaces of novel high-surface area, porous rare-earth-ion doped alkaline earth titanate micron-scale spherical motifs, i.e. both Eu-doped and Pr-doped CaTiO3, composed of constituent, component nanoparticles. These unique metal oxide perovskite building blocks were created by a multi-pronged synthetic strategy involving molten salt and hydrothermal protocols. Subsequently, optical characterization of these heterostructures indicated a clear behavioral dependence of charge transfer in these systems upon a number of parameters such as the nature of the dopant, the reaction temperature, and particle size. Specifically, 2.7 nm diameter ligand-functionalized CdSe QDs were anchored onto sub-micron sized CaTiO3-based spherical assemblies, prepared by molten salt protocols. We found that both the Pr- and Eu-doped CaTiO3 displayed pronounced PL emissions, with maximum intensities observed using optimized lanthanide concentrations of 0.2 mol% and 6 mol%, respectively. Analogous experiments were performed on Eu-doped BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 motifs, but CaTiO3 still performed as the most effective host material amongst the three perovskite systems tested. Moreover, the ligand-capped CdSe QD-doped CaTiO3 heterostructures exhibited effective charge transfer between the two individual constituent nanoscale components, an assertion corroborated by the corresponding quenching of their measured PL signals.

  7. 基于 EPICS 的冗余方法在反应堆控制系统中的应用研究%Application Study of EPICS-based Redundant Method for Reactor Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 尹聪聪; 韩立峰; 陈永忠; 郭冰

    2013-01-01

    In the reactor control system prototype development of TMSR ( Thorium Molten Salt Reactor system , CAS) project, EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System ) is adopted as Instrument and Con-trol software platform .For the aim of IOC ( Input/Output Controller ) redundancy and data synchronization of the system , the EPICS-based RMT ( Redundancy Monitor Task ) software package and its data -synchroniza-tion component CCE ( Continuous Control Executive ) were introduced .By the development of related IOC driv-er, redundant switch -over control of server IOC was implemented .The method of redundancy implementation using RMT in server and redundancy performance test for power control system are discussed in this paper .%在中科院钍基熔盐核能项目[1](Thorium Molten Salt Reactor system, TMSR)的反应堆控制系统样机开发中,使用了EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System )[2]作为仪器与控制平台软件。为了实现控制系统的IOC ( Input/Output Controller )级冗余及服务器间的数据同步,使用了基于EPICS环境的RMT(Redundancy Monitor Task)冗余软件包[3]及其数据同步组件CCE(Continuous Control Executive )。通过开发相关的IOC驱动程序,实现了对服务器的IOC冗余切换控制。论文讨论了RMT冗余功能在服务器中的实现方法及在功率控制系统中的冗余性能实验情况。

  8. Effects of Displacing Radiation on Graphite Observed Using in situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hinks, J. A.; Jones, A.N.; Donnelly, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    Graphite is used as a moderator and structural component in the United Kingdom’s fleet\\ud of Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors (AGRs) and features in two Generation IV reactor concepts:\\ud the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR). Under the\\ud temperature and neutron irradiation conditions of an AGR, nuclear-grade graphite demonstrates\\ud significant changes to it mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. These changes include\\ud considerable dimensional chan...

  9. Key Durability Issues with Mullite-Based Environmental Barrier Coatings for Si-Based Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.

    2000-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2) and mullite/yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) dual layer coatings have been developed to protect silicon -based ceramics from environmental attack. Mullite-based coating systems show excellent durability in air. However, in combustion environments, corrosive species such as molten salt or water vapor penetrate through cracks in the coating and attack the Si-based ceramics along the interface. Thus the modification of the coating system for enhanced crack-resistance is necessary for long-term durability in combustion environments. Other key durability issues include interfacial contamination and coating/substrate bonding. Interfacial contamination leads to enhanced oxidation and interfacial pore formation, while a weak coating/substrate bonding leads to rapid attack of the interface by corrosive species, both of which can cause a premature failure of the coating. Interfacial contamination can be minimized by limiting impurities in coating and substrate materials. The interface may be modified to improve the coating/substrate bond.

  10. SO2 oxidation catalyst model systems characterized by thermal methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatem, G; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Gaune-Escard, M;

    2002-01-01

    The molten salts M2S2O7 and MHSO4, the binary molten salt Systems M2S2O7-MHSO4 and the molten salt-gas systems M2S2O7 V2O5 and M2S2O7-M2SO4 V2O5 (M = Na, K, Rb, Cs) in O-2, SO2 and At atmospheres have been investigated by thermal methods like calorimetry, Differential Enthalpic Analysis (DEA) and...... to the mechanism Of SO2 oxidation by V2O5 based industrial catalysts....

  11. Solution of heat removal from nuclear reactors by natural convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitek Pavel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the basis for the solution of heat removal by natural convection from both conventional nuclear reactors and reactors with fuel flowing coolant (such as reactors with molten fluoride salts MSR.The possibility of intensification of heat removal through gas lift is focused on. It might be used in an MSR (Molten Salt Reactor for cleaning the salt mixture of degassed fission products and therefore eliminating problems with iodine pitting. Heat removal by natural convection and its intensification increases significantly the safety of nuclear reactors. Simultaneously the heat removal also solves problems with lifetime of pumps in the primary circuit of high-temperature reactors.

  12. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

  13. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., 2000 Aluminum Dr., Columbia Falls, MT 59912 (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., P.O. Box 1071, Anaconda, MT 59711 (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{sup TM} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast. (orig.) 18 refs.

  14. High temperature materials; Materiaux a hautes temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this workshop is to share the needs of high temperature and nuclear fuel materials for future nuclear systems, to take stock of the status of researches in this domain and to propose some cooperation works between the different research organisations. The future nuclear systems are the very high temperature (850 to 1200 deg. C) gas cooled reactors (GCR) and the molten salt reactors (MSR). These systems include not only the reactor but also the fabrication and reprocessing of the spent fuel. This document brings together the transparencies of 13 communications among the 25 given at the workshop: 1) characteristics and needs of future systems: specifications, materials and fuel needs for fast spectrum GCR and very high temperature GCR; 2) high temperature materials out of neutron flux: thermal barriers: materials, resistance, lifetimes; nickel-base metal alloys: status of knowledge, mechanical behaviour, possible applications; corrosion linked with the gas coolant: knowledge and problems to be solved; super-alloys for turbines: alloys for blades and discs; corrosion linked with MSR: knowledge and problems to be solved; 3) materials for reactor core structure: nuclear graphite and carbon; fuel assembly structure materials of the GCR with fast neutron spectrum: status of knowledge and ceramics and cermets needs; silicon carbide as fuel confinement material, study of irradiation induced defects; migration of fission products, I and Cs in SiC; 4) materials for hydrogen production: status of the knowledge and needs for the thermochemical cycle; 5) technologies: GCR components and the associated material needs: compact exchangers, pumps, turbines; MSR components: valves, exchangers, pumps. (J.S.)

  15. Corrosion of alloys in a chloride molten salt (NaCl-LiCl) for solar thermal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Vidal, Judith C.; Tirawat, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Next-generation solar power conversion systems in concentrating solar power (CSP) applications require high-temperature advanced fluids in the range of 600-800 degrees C. Current commercial CSP plants use molten nitrate salt mixtures as the heat transfer fluid and the thermal energy storage (TES) media while operating with multiple hours of energy capacity and at temperatures lower than 565 degrees C. At higher temperatures, the nitrates cannot be used because they decompose. Molten chloride salts are candidates for CSP applications because of their high decomposition temperatures and good thermal properties; but they can be corrosive to common alloys used in vessels, heat exchangers, and piping at these elevated temperatures. In this article, we present the results of the corrosion evaluations of several alloys in eutectic 34.42 wt% NaCl - 65.58 wt% LiCl at 650-700 degrees C in nitrogen atmosphere. Electrochemical evaluations were performed using open-circuit potential followed by a potentiodynamic polarization sweep. Corrosion rates were determined using Tafel slopes and Faraday's law. A temperature increase of as little as 50 degrees C more than doubled the corrosion rate of AISI stainless steel 310 and Incoloy 800H compared to the initial 650 degrees C test. These alloys exhibited localized corrosion. Inconel 625 was the most corrosion-resistant alloy with a corrosion rate of 2.80+/-0.38 mm/year. For TES applications, corrosion rates with magnitudes of a few millimeters per year are not acceptable because of economic considerations. Additionally, localized corrosion (intergranular or pitting) can be catastrophic. Thus, corrosion-mitigation approaches are required for advanced CSP plants to be commercially viable.

  16. Simulation of Flow Field of Molten Salt in Neodymium Metal Electrolytic Cell Using Vortex-Flow Function Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Yonghong; Kong Xiangmin; Xie Liying

    2004-01-01

    With the applications of Nd-Fe-B material extending in recent years, the materials of neodymium metal and other rare earth metal alloy confront the increased demand and the high quality request at the same time.These factors stimulated greatly to perfect the producing craft of RE metals and improve the equipments.The rare earth electrolysis cell is developing towards large-scale way.Notwithstanding the present electrolysis cell of Nd metal, include 6 kA and 10 kA cell, exists some insurmountable problems during operation and these problems lead to lower electric efficiency and higher operating costs.So it is significant to study the physical fields of rare earth electrolysis cell.In this paper,a numerical flow mode is established using vortex- flowing function method and the fluid flow field of 3000A Nd electrolysis cell is computed using MATLAB.The results of the study will be important reference in theory for improving and enlarging rare earth fluoride system cell.

  17. Estimation of the composition of intermetallic compounds in LiCl-KCl molten salt by cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya L; Liu, Kui; Yuan, Li Y; Chai, Zhi F; Shi, Wei Q

    2016-08-15

    In this work, the compositions of Ce-Al, Er-Al and La-Bi intermetallic compounds were estimated by the cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. At first, CV measurements were carried out at different reverse potentials to study the co-reduction processes of Ce-Al, Er-Al and La-Bi systems. The CV curves obtained were then re-plotted with the current as a function of time, and the coulomb number of each peak was calculated. By comparing the coulomb number of the related peaks, the compositions of the Ce-Al, Er-Al and La-Bi intermetallic compounds formed in the co-reduction process could be estimated. The results showed that Al11Ce3, Al3Ce, Al2Ce and AlCe could be formed by the co-reduction of Ce(iii) and Al(iii). For the co-reduction of Er(iii) and Al(iii), Al3Er2, Al2Er and AlEr were formed. In a La(iii) and Bi(iii) co-existing system in LiCl-KCl melts, LaBi2, LaBi and Li3Bi were the major products as a result of co-reduction.

  18. Electrochemical extraction of neodymium by co-reduction with aluminum in LiCl-KCl molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong-De; Xu, Yan-Lu; Zhang, Mi-Lin; Xue, Yun; Han, Wei; Huang, Ying; Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Zhi-Jian

    2013-02-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Nd(III) ions in LiCl-KCl and LiCl-KCl-AlCl3 melts on a Mo electrode at 723 K was studied by various electrochemical techniques. The results showed that Nd(III) ions are reduced to Nd(0) through two consecutive steps, and the underpotential deposition of neodymium on pre-deposited Al electrode formed two kinds of Al-Nd intermetallic compounds in LiCl-KCl-AlCl3 solutions. The electrochemical extraction of neodymium was carried out in LiCl-KCl-AlCl3 melts on a Mo electrode at 873 K by potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis. The extraction efficiency was 99.25% after potentiostatic electrolysis for 30 h. Al-Li-Nd bulk alloy was obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) suggested that Al2Nd and Al3Nd phases were formed in Al-Li-Nd alloy. The microstructure and micro-zone chemical analysis of Al-Li-Nd alloy were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), respectively.

  19. Electrochemical extraction of neodymium by co-reduction with aluminum in LiCl–KCl molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yong-De, E-mail: y5d2006@hrbeu.edu.cn [Key Discipline Laboratory of Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Xu, Yan-Lu [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Mi-Lin, E-mail: zhangmilin@hrbeu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Xue, Yun [Key Discipline Laboratory of Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Han, Wei; Huang, Ying; Chen, Qiong [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Jian [Key Discipline Laboratory of Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-02-15

    The electrochemical behavior of Nd(III) ions in LiCl–KCl and LiCl–KCl–AlCl{sub 3} melts on a Mo electrode at 723 K was studied by various electrochemical techniques. The results showed that Nd(III) ions are reduced to Nd(0) through two consecutive steps, and the underpotential deposition of neodymium on pre-deposited Al electrode formed two kinds of Al–Nd intermetallic compounds in LiCl–KCl–AlCl{sub 3} solutions. The electrochemical extraction of neodymium was carried out in LiCl–KCl–AlCl{sub 3} melts on a Mo electrode at 873 K by potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis. The extraction efficiency was 99.25% after potentiostatic electrolysis for 30 h. Al–Li–Nd bulk alloy was obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) suggested that Al{sub 2}Nd and Al{sub 3}Nd phases were formed in Al–Li–Nd alloy. The microstructure and micro-zone chemical analysis of Al–Li–Nd alloy were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), respectively.

  20. Hot Corrosion Behavior of High-Chromium, High-Carbon Cast Irons in NaCl-KCl Molten Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vuelvas-Rayo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the corrosion behavior of a series of experimental high-chromium (18.53–30.48 wt.%, high-carbon (3.82–5.17% cast irons in NaCl-KCl (1 : 1 M at 670°C has been evaluated by using weight loss technique and compared with a 304-type stainless steel. It was found that all castings had a higher corrosion rate than conventional 304SS and that the addition of Cr increased the degradation rate of the cast irons. Additionally, corrosion rate increased by increasing the C contents up to 4.29%, but it decreased with a further increase in its contents. Results are discussed in terms of consumption of the Cr2O3 layer by the melt.

  1. Synthesis of Monoclinic Form of Gd2-xNaxCuO4 by Direct Precipitation from Molten Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new phase of Gd2-xNaxCuO4 was synthesized by direct precipitation from the mixture of Gd2O3 and CuO in the molten KOH/NaOH/KNO3 solution at temperature as low as 280° C. The resulting precipitate was characterized by using SEM, XRD, EDX, XPS and magnetic method. The XRD data indicate that the precipitated Gd2-xNaxCuO4 is monoclinic with lattice parameters a=8.6816(A), b=3.7233(A). C=6.0796(A), α =γ =90°, β =108.75° and V=186.1(A)3.

  2. Experimental investigation on the formation mechanism of the TiFe alloy by the molten-salt electrolytic titanium concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ferrotitanium alloy was prepared in the molten CaCl2 system, in which resolidified ilmenite and the graphite crucible were used as cathode and anode. In this study, the electrolytic voltage was fixed at 3.1V, and three different temperatures were applied: 850oC, 875oC and 900ºC. Finally, the product was examined by SEM and XRD to determine the phase transformation after the electrolysis. The results show that the ilmenite was firstly reduced to Fe, and finally the TiFe alloy was formed. The intermediate products include CaTiO3, TiO2, Ti2O3, TiO, Fe, TiFe2, and Ti. Different product and structure can be obtained by changing temperature. According to thermodynamic calculation, the principal electroreduction products are Ti and TiFe2 and then Ti and TiFe2 are formed by interdiffusion which is governed by temperature.

  3. Effect of cathodic current density on performance of tungsten coatings on molybdenum prepared by electrodeposition in molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Fan, E-mail: jiangfan1109@163.com [Department of Materials and Physics, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, 219 Ningliu Road, Nanjing 210044, Jiangsu Province (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 10083 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Tungsten coatings were successfully electroplated on molybdenum substrate. • The electrodeposition was studied in the air atmosphere at 1173 K. • The coating had columnar structure with preferential growth orientation of (2 0 0). • The coating obtained at 50 mA cm{sup −2} had a maximum microhardness of 495 HV. - Abstract: Smooth tungsten coatings were prepared at current density below 70 mA cm{sup −2} by electrodeposition on molybdenum substrate from Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}-WO{sub 3} -melt at 1173 K in air atmosphere. As the current density reached up to 90 mA cm{sup −2}, many significant nodules were observed on the surface of the coating. Surface characterization, microstructure and mechanical properties were performed on the tungsten coatings. As the increasing of current density, the preferred orientation of the coatings changed to (2 0 0). All coatings exhibited columnar-grained-crystalline. There was about a 2 μm thick diffusion layer between tungsten coating and molybdenum substrate. The bending test revealed the tungsten coating had –good bonding strength with the molybdenum substrate. There is a down trend of the grain size of the coating on molybdenum as the current density increased from 30 mA cm{sup −2} to 50 mA cm{sup −2}. The coating obtained at 50 mA cm{sup −2} had a minimum grain size of 4.57 μm, while the microhardness of this coating reached to a maximum value of 495 HV.

  4. CFD analysis of a Sphere-Packed Pipe for potential application in the molten salt blanket system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazififard, Mohammad [Kashan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Energy Systems; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and PHILOSOPHIA

    2016-08-15

    This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis aims to evaluate the flow structures and heat transfer characteristics in Sphere Packed Pipe (SPP) for potential application in fusion reactors. The SPP consists of metal spheres which are packed in a pipe and disturb the flow inside of the pipe to boost the heat transfer. One of the potential applications of SPP is using it at the first wall of Force Free Helical Reactors (FFHR). The numerical model has improved on the numerical model, gaps between pebbles and channel wall, and turbulent model compared to previous numerical studies. The standard κε- model, Omega Reynolds stress model, the Shear Stress Transport (SST) model and κε EARSM/BSL have been applied as turbulence model to examine the effect of turbulence model on validation of numerical results. The present numerical model can be used in the design of the blanket of fusion reactor.

  5. Metallurgical study on corrosion of austenitic steels in molten salt LiF-BeF{sub 2} (Flibe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Masatoshi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)], E-mail: kondo.masatoshi@nifs.ac.jp; Nagasaka, Takuya [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)], E-mail: nagasaka@nifs.ac.jp; Sagara, Akio [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)], E-mail: sagara.akio@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Noda, Nobuaki [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)], E-mail: noda.nobuaki@nifs.ac.jp; Muroga, Takeo [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)], E-mail: muroga@nifs.ac.jp; Xu Qi [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)], E-mail: xu.qi@nifs.ac.jp; Nagura, Masaru [University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)], E-mail: nagura@nuclear.jp; Suzuki, Akihiro [The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)], E-mail: Suzuki@nuclear.jp; Terai, Takayuki [The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)], E-mail: tera@n.t.utokyo.ac.jp

    2009-04-30

    Static corrosion tests for SS304 and SS316L austenitic steels in high purity LiF-BeF{sub 2} (Flibe) were carried out at 500 and 600 deg. C for 1000 h. After the exposure, the steel surfaces were corroded due to the fluoridation by HF dissolved in Flibe. The grain boundary of the steel surfaces was preferentially attacked. The mechanism of corrosion including selective intergranular attack was discussed. The corrosion rate of SS304 and SS316L in Flibe at 600 deg. C was estimated as 10.6 and 5.4 {mu}m/year, respectively.

  6. Electrolytic reduction of mixed solid oxides in molten salts for energy efficient production of the TiNi alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yong; MA Meng; WANG Dihua; JIANG Kai; HU Xiaohong; JIN Xianbo; George Z. CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Direct electrochemical reduction of mixed TiO2 and NiO powders to TiNi alloy has been successfully demonstrated in molten CaCl2 at 900℃ by constant voltage electrolysis. The electrolysis energy consumption was as low as 23.4 kWh/kg-TiNi,although the current efficiency was 20.5% in the preliminary experiments. During the process, NiO was first reduced to Ni at high speed, accompanied by TiO2 being perovskitized to CaTiO3-x which was gradually reduced to Ni3Ti and TiNi, assisted by the depolarization of the preformed Ni. The cell voltage for preparation of the TiNi alloy was lower than that for Ti. Adjusting the cell voltage not only affected the reduction speed, but also offered a convenient access to the preparation of the nickel/perovskite composite.

  7. Structural and Redox Properties of Vanadium Complexes in Molten Salts of Interest for the Catalytic Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boghosian, S.; Chrissanthopoulos, A.; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    Electronic absorption (UV/VIS) spectra have been obtained at 450 degrees C from V2O5-K2S2O7 molten mixtures in SO2 ( P-SO2 = 0 - 1.2 atm) gas atmospheres. The data are in agreement with the V-V reversible arrow V-IV equilibrium: (VO)(2)O(SO4)(4)(4-)(l) + SO2(g) - 2VO(SO4)(2)(2-)(l) + SO3(g). Sulfur...... dioxide does not coordinate to the V-V complex but starts significantly to coordinate to V-IV for P-SO2 > 0 4 atm in accordance with the equilibrium: VO(SO4)(2)(2-)(l) + SO2(g) reversible arrow VO(SO4)(2)SO22-(l). Furthermore, high temperature Raman spectroscopy has been used to establish the structural...

  8. Variation of diffusivity with the cation radii in molten salts of superionic conductors containing iodine anion: A molecular dynamics study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srinivasa R Varanasi; S Yashonath

    2012-01-01

    A molecular dynamics study of the dependence of diffusivity of the cation on ionic radii in molten AgI is reported.We have employed modified Parinello-Rahman-Vashistha interionic pair potential proposed by Shimojo and Kobayashi. Our results suggest that the diffusivity of the cation exhibits an increase followed by a decrease as the ionic radius is increased. Several structural and dynamical properties are reported.

  9. Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1磁小体缺失突变株NM4 Tn5侧翼序列的克隆及功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 李颖; 姜伟; 王珍芳; 李季伦

    2005-01-01

    利用mini-Tn5 lacZ2对格瑞菲斯瓦尔德磁螺菌(Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense)MSR-1进行转座插入突变, 获得磁小体缺失突变株NM4.通过锚定PCR(anchored PCR)从NM4中克隆出Tn5插入位点的侧翼序列, 获得长5045 bp的DNA 片段, 其中含有6个ORFs, Tn5插入在ORF4中.功能互补实验证明该片段与磁小体的合成有关.对ORF4编码的蛋白进行同源比较和功能分析, 发现ORF4编码的蛋白与Caulobacter crescentus CB15的长为200 AA的趋化蛋白CheYIII的同源性为25% (30/116), 且ORF4编码的蛋白也具有与CheYIII相同的接收磷酸基团的REC结构域, 可进行信号传递, 因此推测ORF4编码的蛋白可能参与磁小体合成过程中的某种(低氧分压或铁离子浓度)信号的转导.

  10. Wykorzystanie informacji prospektywnychw sprawozdawczości finansowej zorientowanejna wartość na przykładzie MSR 36„Utrata wartości aktywów”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Sobańska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Autorzy artykułu wskazują na istotę i rosnące znaczenie informacji prospektywnych we współczesnych systemach sprawozdawczości finansowej opartej na MSSF. Ewolucja dokonująca się w sprawozdawczości finansowej, pod wpływem harmonizacji zasad rachunkowości wskutek ciągle zmieniających się MSSF, została przedstawiona na tle zmian dokonujących się w otoczeniu, w celach i w systemach zarządzania (orientacja strategiczna, wartość przedsiębiorstwa, jak również w systemach strategicznej rachunkowości zarządczej. Na podstawie szerokiego kontekstu analizy autorzy stawiają wniosek, że koncepcja wartości (przedsiębiorstwa stanowi istotny element systemu pomiaru i wyceny w systemie sprawozdawczości finansowej. Tworzy ona także spójną podstawę dla integracji rachunkowości zarządczej i rachunkowości finansowej w jeden system zapewniający użyteczne informacje zarówno dla użytkowników zewnętrznych, jak i wewnętrznych, których łączy wspólny cel – maksymalizacja wartości. Uwarunkowania tworzenia systemu sprawozdawczości opartego na informacjach prospektywnych, zorientowanego na wartość, jak również stopień dostosowania przedsiębiorstw do jego wdrożenia pokazano na przykładzie praktycznej realizacji postanowień MSR 36.

  11. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium: Plant layout study and related design issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, B.S.; Fontana, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Krakowski, R.A.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Sailor, W.C.; Williamson, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    In preparation for and in support of a detailed R and D Plan for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium, an ABC Plant Layout Study was conducted at the level of a pre-conceptual engineering design. The plant layout is based on an adaptation of the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) detailed conceptual design that was completed in the early 1070s. Although the ABC Plant Layout Study included the Accelerator Equipment as an essential element, the engineering assessment focused primarily on the Target; Primary System (blanket and all systems containing plutonium-bearing fuel salt); the Heat-Removal System (secondary-coolant-salt and supercritical-steam systems); Chemical Processing; Operation and Maintenance; Containment and Safety; and Instrumentation and Control systems. Although constrained primarily to a reflection of an accelerator-driven (subcritical) variant of MSBR system, unique features and added flexibilities of the ABC suggest improved or alternative approaches to each of the above-listed subsystems; these, along with the key technical issues in need of resolution through a detailed R&D plan for ABC are described on the bases of the ``strawman`` or ``point-of-departure`` plant layout that resulted from this study.

  12. Gas Sensors Based on One Dimensional Nanostructured Metal-Oxides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. M. A. Haseeb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently one dimensional (1-D nanostructured metal-oxides have attracted much attention because of their potential applications in gas sensors. 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides provide high surface to volume ratio, while maintaining good chemical and thermal stabilities with minimal power consumption and low weight. In recent years, various processing routes have been developed for the synthesis of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides such as hydrothermal, ultrasonic irradiation, electrospinning, anodization, sol-gel, molten-salt, carbothermal reduction, solid-state chemical reaction, thermal evaporation, vapor-phase transport, aerosol, RF sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition, gas-phase assisted nanocarving, UV lithography and dry plasma etching. A variety of sensor fabrication processing routes have also been developed. Depending on the materials, morphology and fabrication process the performance of the sensor towards a specific gas shows a varying degree of success. This article reviews and evaluates the performance of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxide gas sensors based on ZnO, SnO2, TiO2, In2O3, WOx, AgVO3, CdO, MoO3, CuO, TeO2 and Fe2O3. Advantages and disadvantages of each sensor are summarized, along with the associated sensing mechanism. Finally, the article concludes with some future directions of research.

  13. Gas sensors based on one dimensional nanostructured metal-oxides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, M M; Dinan, B; Akbar, Sheikh A; Haseeb, A S M A

    2012-01-01

    Recently one dimensional (1-D) nanostructured metal-oxides have attracted much attention because of their potential applications in gas sensors. 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides provide high surface to volume ratio, while maintaining good chemical and thermal stabilities with minimal power consumption and low weight. In recent years, various processing routes have been developed for the synthesis of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides such as hydrothermal, ultrasonic irradiation, electrospinning, anodization, sol-gel, molten-salt, carbothermal reduction, solid-state chemical reaction, thermal evaporation, vapor-phase transport, aerosol, RF sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition, gas-phase assisted nanocarving, UV lithography and dry plasma etching. A variety of sensor fabrication processing routes have also been developed. Depending on the materials, morphology and fabrication process the performance of the sensor towards a specific gas shows a varying degree of success. This article reviews and evaluates the performance of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxide gas sensors based on ZnO, SnO(2), TiO(2), In(2)O(3), WO(x), AgVO(3), CdO, MoO(3), CuO, TeO(2) and Fe(2)O(3). Advantages and disadvantages of each sensor are summarized, along with the associated sensing mechanism. Finally, the article concludes with some future directions of research.

  14. Oxide acid-base reaction relating to the inhibition of vandium attack on REY zeolite catalysts. [Rare earth-exchanged yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, D.C. (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Certain materials, especially Sn, passivate the rare earth-exchanged Y zeolite (REY) used in petrochemical fluid-cracking catalysts against vanadium degradation caused by V impurities in the feed oil. The mechanism of passivation was investigated here from the standpoint of high-temperature oxide acid-base reaction; i.e., where the controlling factors were considered to be Lewis acid-base reactions between V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the RE oxides, SnO{sub 2}, etc. Molten salt tests at 680{degree}C showed SnO{sub 2}, presumably because of its acidic nature, to be essentially nonreactive with V{sub 2}O{sub 5} or Na{sub 2}O-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} compounds. A hypothesis was developed to explain how the passivation effect by Sn might result from the unique resistivity of SnO{sub 2} to reaction with V{sub 2}O{sub 5}.

  15. 1-Butyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium-based Ionic Liquids Explored as Potential Solvents for Lipid Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to global environmental concerns, there is increasing interest in replacing the volatile solvents currently used to process commodity plant lipids. Room-temperature molten salts are one type of media receiving great attention as a possible replacement of the typical organic solvent. Molten sal...

  16. Electrochemical Studies of Lewis Acid-Base Systems for Use in Thermally Regenerable Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-12

    Eds., The Electrochemical Society , Proceed- ings Volume 90-17, pgs. 306-324, Pennington, NJ (1990). *"Protons in Ambient Temperature Chloroaluminate...Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Molten Salts, C. L. Hussey, S. N. Flengas, J. S. Wilkes and Y. Ito, Eds., The Electrochemical Society , Proceedings

  17. Neutron elastic scattering cross-sections measurement on carbon and fluorine in epithermal energy range using PEREN platform; Mesure des sections efficaces de diffusion elastique des neutrons sur le carbone et le fluor dans le domaine epithermique sur la plate-forme PEREN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiolliere, N

    2005-10-15

    Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) based on Th/U cycle is one of the new generation concepts for nuclear energy production. A typical MSR is a graphite-moderated core with liquid fuel ({sup 7}LiF +ThF{sub 4} + UF{sub 4}). Many numerical studies based on Monte-Carlo codes are currently carried out but the validity of these numerical result relies on the precise knowledge of neutron cross sections used such as elastic scattering on carbon ({sigma}{sub C}), fluorine ({sigma}{sub F}) and lithium 7 ({sigma}{sub Li}). The goal of this work is to obtain {sigma}{sub C} and {sigma}{sub F} between 1 eV and 100 keV. Such measurements have been performed at the Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC) de Grenoble on the experimental platform PEREN using slowing-down time spectrometers (C and CF{sub 2}) associated to a pulsed neutron generator (GENEPI). Capture rates are obtained for reference materials (Au, Ag, Mo and In) using YAP scintillator coupled to a photo-multiplier. Very precise simulations (MCNP code) of the experimental setup have been performed and comparison with experiments has led to the determination of {sigma}{sub C} and {sigma}{sub F} with accuracies of 1% and 2% respectively. These results show a small discrepancy to evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF). Measures of total cross-sections {sigma}{sub C} and {sigma}{sub F} at higher energy (200 - 600 keV) were also carried out at Centre des Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux using a transmission method. Mono-energetic neutrons were produced by protons accelerated by a Van de Graaff accelerator on a LiF target and transmitted neutrons are counted in a proportional hydrogen gaseous detector. Discrepancies of 5% and 9% for {sigma}{sub C} and {sigma}{sub F} respectively with ENDF have been shown. (author)

  18. Adsorption and diffusion of fluorine on Cr-doped Ni(111) surface: Fluorine-induced initial corrosion of non-passivated Ni-based alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Cui-Lan; Han, Han; Gong, Wen-Bin; Wang, Cheng-Bin; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Cheng; Huai, Ping; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Adsorption and diffusion behaviors of fluorine on Cr-doped Ni(111) surface are investigated by using first-principles simulation. It shows that the Cr in the Cr-doped Ni(111) surface serve a trap site for fluorine with adsorption energy 3.52 eV, which is 1.04 eV higher than that on Ni(111) surface. Moreover, the Cr atom is pulled out the surface for 0.41 Å after the fluorine adsorption, much higher than that on Ni(111) surface. Further diffusion behaviors analysis confirms the conclusion because the fluorine diffusion from neighbored sites onto the Cr top site is an energy barrierless process. Detailed electronic structure analysis shows that a deeper hybrid state of F 2 p-Cr 3 d indicates a strong Fsbnd Cr interaction. The Nisbnd Cr bond is elongated and weakened due to the new formed Fsbnd Cr bonding. Our results help to understanding the basic fluorine-induced initial corrosion mechanism for Ni-based alloy in molten salt environment.

  19. Contribution to a proposition for a long term development of nuclear energy: the TASSE concept (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production); Contribution a une proposition d'un developpement a long terme de l'energie nucleaire: le concept TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthou, V

    2000-10-30

    Nuclear industry creates waste which are in the middle of the discussion concerning the Nuclear Energy future. At this time, important decisions for the Energy production must be taken, so numerous researches are conducted within the framework of the Bataille law. The goal of these studies is to find a range of solutions concerning the waste management. An innovative system, called TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production), is studied in this thesis. This reactor is included in a long term strategy, and is destined for the renewal of the reactor park. In the first part of this work, the main characteristics of TASSE have been defined. They are commensurate with some specific requirements such as: to insure a large time to the Nuclear Energy, to reduce the waste production in an important way, to eliminate waste already stocked in the present park, to insure the non proliferation, and to be economically competitive. Neutronics studies of TASSE have been done. A calculation procedure has been developed to reach the system equilibrium state. Several types of molten salts as well as a pebble-bed fuel have been studied. Thus, an optimal fuel has been brought out in regard to some parameters such as the burn up level, the spectrum, the waste toxicity, the cycle type. Eventually, various TASSE core layout have been envisaged. (author)

  20. Automatic prediction of time to failure of open pit mine slopes based on radar monitoring and inverse velocity method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osasan K.S.; Stacey T.R

    2014-01-01

    Radar slope monitoring is now widely used across the world, for example, the slope stability radar (SSR) and the movement and surveying radar (MSR) are currently in use in many mines around the world. However, to fully realize the effectiveness of this radar in notifying mine personnel of an impending slope failure, a method that can confidently predict the time of failure is necessary. The model developed in this study is based on the inverse velocity method pioneered by Fukuzono in 1985. The model named the slope failure prediction model (SFPM) was validated with the displacement data from two slope failures monitored with the MSR. The model was found to be very effective in predicting the time to failure while providing adequate evacuation time once the progressive displacement stage is reached.

  1. ANALISIS PENGENDALIAN DAYA REAKTOR PCMSR DENGAN LAJU ALIR PENDINGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Syafin Noha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR merupakan pengembangan dari Molten Salt Reactor (MSR yang memiliki karakter berbeda dengan lima reaktor generasi IV lainnya, yaitu menggunakan bahan bakar leburan garam. Pada reaktor MSR, garam lebur tidak digunakan sebagai pendingin tetapi digunakan sebagai medium pembawa bahan bakar. Dengan fase bahan bakar yang berupa garam lebur LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4, maka dapat dilakukan pengendalian daya dengan mengatur laju aliran bahan bakar dan pendingin. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh perubahan laju alir pendingin terhadap daya reaktor PCMSR. Analisis dilakukan dengan empat jenis masukan untuk perubahan laju alir pendingin, yaitu masukan step, ramp, eksponensial, dan sinusoidal. Untuk masukan step, laju alir pendingin dibuat berubah secara mendadak. Selanjutnya untuk masukan ramp dan eksponensal, perubahan laju alir masing-masing dibuat perlahan secara linear dan mengikuti fungsi eksponensial. Kemudian untuk masukan sinusoidal, laju alir berubah naik turun secara periodik dengan memvariasikan frekuensi dari perubahan laju alir tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penurunan laju alir pendingin sebesar 50% dari laju pendingin sebelumnya, menyebabkan daya pada reaktor PCMSR turun sebesar 63% dari daya sebelumnya. Jika terjadi fluktuasi laju aliran pendingin, maka semakin cepat perubahan tersebut, maka respon daya yang diberikan semakin kecil. Pada frekuensi yang sangat cepat, daya reaktor menjadi konstan dan cenderung tidak memiliki respon terhadap laju aliran. Hal ini merupakan salah satu aspek keselamatan reaktor, karena reaktor tidak merespon perubahan yang terlalu cepat. Kemampuan reaktor mengatur daya menyesuaikan laju aliran pendingin merupakan aspek keselamatan lainnya. Kata kunci : PCMSR, pengendalian daya, laju alir pendingin, uji respon   Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR is the development of Molten Salt Reactor (MSR which has different character from other five

  2. Corrosion behavior of plasma-sprayed coatings on a Ni-base superalloy in Na2SO4-60 Pct V2O5 environment at 900 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Puri, D.; Prakash, S.

    2005-04-01

    The shrouded plasma spray process was used to deposit NiCrAlY, Ni-20Cr, Ni3Al, and Stellite-6 metallic coatings on a Ni-based superalloy (62Ni-23Cr-1.48Al-0.80Mn-0.37Si-0.10Cu-0.025C-bal Fe). NiCrAlY was used as a bond coat in all cases. Hot corrosion studies were conducted on uncoated as well as plasma-spray-coated superalloy specimens after exposure to molten salt at 900 °C under cyclic conditions. The thermogravimetric technique was used to establish the kinetics of corrosion. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDAX) and electron-probe microanalysis techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. The uncoated superalloy suffered accelerated corrosion in the form of intense spalling of the scale. The NiCrAlY coated specimen showed a minimum weight gain, whereas the Stellite-6 indicated a maximum weight gain among the coatings studied. All the coatings were found to be successful in developing resistance against hot corrosion, which may be attributed to the formation of oxides, and spinels of nickel, aluminum, chromium, or cobalt.

  3. Actinide burner fuel: Potential compositions based on the thermodynamic evaluation of MF-PuF 3 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) and LaF 3-PuF 3 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneš, O.; Konings, R. J. M.

    2008-07-01

    In previous studies a thermodynamic description of the LiF-NaF-KF-RbF-CsF-LaF 3 system was presented. In order to add PuF 3 to this system the assessments of LiF-PuF 3, NaF-PuF 3, KF-PuF 3, RbF-PuF 3, CsF-PuF 3 and LaF 3-PuF 3 binary phase diagrams have been made. In case of the LiF-PuF 3 and NaF-PuF 3 the assessments have been based on known experimental data. The other binary systems have not been measured yet and the thermodynamic description has been made using the excess parameters from the previously assessed binaries containing LaF 3, which is considered as a proxy compound for PuF 3. The main aim of this study is to analyze potential compositions for a molten salt fast burner fuel.

  4. Nuclear data covariances and sensitivity analysis, validation of a methodology based on the perturbation theory; application to an innovative concept: the molten thorium salt fueled reactor; Analyses de sensibilite et d'incertitude de donnees nucleaires. Contribution a la validation d'une methodologie utilisant la theorie des perturbations; application a un concept innovant: reacteur a sels fondus thorium a spectre epithermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidaud, A

    2005-10-15

    Neutron transport simulation of nuclear reactors is based on the knowledge of the neutron-nucleus interaction (cross-sections, fission neutron yields and spectra...) for the dozens of nuclei present in the core over a very large energy range (fractions of eV to several MeV). To obtain the goal of the sustainable development of nuclear power, future reactors must have new and more strict constraints to their design: optimization of ore materials will necessitate breeding (generation of fissile material from fertile material), and waste management will require transmutation. Innovative reactors that could achieve such objectives - generation IV or ADS (accelerator driven system) - are loaded with new fuels (thorium, heavy actinides) and function with neutron spectra for which nuclear data do not benefit from 50 years of industrial experience, and thus present particular challenges. After validation on an experimental reactor using an international benchmark, we take classical reactor physics tools along with available nuclear data uncertainties to calculate the sensitivities and uncertainties of the criticality and temperature coefficient of a thorium molten salt reactor. In addition, a study based on the important reaction rates for the calculation of cycle's equilibrium allows us to estimate the efficiency of different reprocessing strategies and the contribution of these reaction rates on the uncertainty of the breeding and then on the uncertainty of the size of the reprocessing plant. Finally, we use this work to propose an improvement of the high priority experimental request list. (author)

  5. A Fusion Chamber Design with a Liquid First Wall and Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygren, R; Sze, D; Nelson, B; Fogarty, P; Eberle, C; Rognlien, T; Rensink, M; Smolentsev, S; Youssef, M; Sawan, M; Merrill, B; Majeski, R

    2003-11-11

    The APEX study is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces to form the in