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Sample records for based mating system

  1. Homosexual Pairing within a Swarm-Based Mating System: The Case of the Chironomid Midge

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    Athol J. McLachlan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Homosexuality has been dubbed the Darwinian paradox, because it raises the question of how behaviour that would seem to reduce the chance of successful mating can be maintained by natural selection. This question rests on the assumption that same sex mating is the result of active choice of partner, hardwired into the mating behaviour, but there is an alternative explanation for such behaviour. I refer to the possibility that same-sex mating is the result, not of adaptive behaviour at all, but rather of errors due to imprecise sensory machinery. Such an explanation finds support within the mating system of insects with swarm-based mating systems. To explore this case, I turn to the common chironomid midge. I show that homosexual pairing here, exclusively involving male/male pairs, is common. I attempt to show that this observation, together with data on insect predators of swarming midges, can be used to penetrate the mysteries of this fascinating but elusive mating system.

  2. Improvement of Seed Orchard Management Based on Mating System of Cajuputi Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Khomsah Kartikawati; Mohammad Naiem; Eko Bhakti Hardiyanto; Anto Rimbawanto

    2015-01-01

    Breeding plan of cajuputi in Indonesia is aimed to increase plantation productivity of oil yield and 1.8 cineole content. Seed orchard of cajuputi at Paliyan, Gunungkidul, established using selected and genetically improved materials, has been producing seeds for operational plantation. This seed orchard would perform optimally if the mating systems of all individuals contribute to the inheritance of all genetic potential of the offsprings. Therefore, investigation of the mating systems of ca...

  3. Integrating resource defence theory with a neural nonapeptide pathway to explain territory-based mating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Oldfield, Ronald G; Harris, Rayna M.; Hofmann, Hans A.

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate-level factors that drive the evolution of mating systems have been well studied, but an evolutionarily conserved neural mechanism involved in shaping behaviour and social organization across species has remained elusive. Here, we review studies that have investigated the role of neural arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasotocin (AVT), and their receptor V1a in mediating variation in territorial behaviour. First, we discuss how aggression and territoriality are a function of population...

  4. Using probability modelling and genetic parentage assignment to test the role of local mate availability in mating system variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Michaela D J; Banks, Sam C; Peakall, Rod; Lindenmayer, David B

    2012-02-01

    The formal testing of mating system theories with empirical data is important for evaluating the relative importance of different processes in shaping mating systems in wild populations. Here, we present a generally applicable probability modelling framework to test the role of local mate availability in determining a population's level of genetic monogamy. We provide a significance test for detecting departures in observed mating patterns from model expectations based on mate availability alone, allowing the presence and direction of behavioural effects to be inferred. The assessment of mate availability can be flexible and in this study it was based on population density, sex ratio and spatial arrangement. This approach provides a useful tool for (1) isolating the effect of mate availability in variable mating systems and (2) in combination with genetic parentage analyses, gaining insights into the nature of mating behaviours in elusive species. To illustrate this modelling approach, we have applied it to investigate the variable mating system of the mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus cunninghami) and compared the model expectations with the outcomes of genetic parentage analysis over an 18-year study. The observed level of monogamy was higher than predicted under the model. Thus, behavioural traits, such as mate guarding or selective mate choice, may increase the population level of monogamy. We show that combining genetic parentage data with probability modelling can facilitate an improved understanding of the complex interactions between behavioural adaptations and demographic dynamics in driving mating system variation. PMID:21899620

  5. Coordinate control of initiative mating device for autonomous underwater vehicle based on TDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhe-ping; HOU Shu-ping

    2005-01-01

    A novel initiative mating device, which has four 2-degree manipulators around the mating skirt, is proposed to mate between a skirt of AUV (autonomons underwater vehicle) and a disabled submarine. The primary function of the device is to keep exact mating between skirt and disabled submarine in a badly sub sea environment. According to the characteristic of rescue, an automaton model is brought forward to describe the mating proceed between AUV and manipulators. The coordinated control is implemented by the TDES(time discrete event system).After taking into account the time problem, it is a useful method to control mating by simulation testing. The result shows that it reduces about 70 seconds after using intelligent co-ordinate control based on TDES through the whole mating procedure.

  6. Romantic love: a mammalian brain system for mate choice

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Helen E.; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L.

    2006-01-01

    Mammals and birds regularly express mate preferences and make mate choices. Data on mate choice among mammals suggest that this behavioural ‘attraction system’ is associated with dopaminergic reward pathways in the brain. It has been proposed that intense romantic love, a human cross-cultural universal, is a developed form of this attraction system. To begin to determine the neural mechanisms associated with romantic attraction in humans, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) t...

  7. Mating system of the Amazonian cichlid angel fish, Pterophyllum scalare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, M S R F; Yamamoto, M E; Chellappa, S

    2007-02-01

    The species, Pterophyllum scalare distinguishes itself by its breeding behavior, involving competition for territory, sexual partners, courtship and parental care. The purpose of this study was to identify the mating system adopted by this species of fish. Twenty males and twenty females were observed under semi-natural and experimental conditions to test the hypothesis of serial monogamy. Under semi-natural conditions, after the third breeding cycle, the couples changed mates. Under experimental conditions, the couples changed partners after the first breeding cycle. Under experimental conditions, mate recognition was investigated through the preference of the females, indicated by the time they spent with the males. The females were available or not for courtship from new males, depending on their aggressiveness or submission. The larger and more aggressive males obtained new mating opportunities while the submissive males were rejected by the females. The mated fish were aggressive towards intruders in the presence of the mate, protecting their pair bond. In the interval between breeding cycles, the couples did not display aggression towards intruders, confirming the hypothesis of serial monogamy. Best mate selection by the females and the opportunity of new matings for both sexes influenced the reproductive success of this species. PMID:17505764

  8. The mating behaviour and reproduction performance in a multi-sire mating system for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2008-01-01

    An important aim of organic animal production is to allow natural animal behaviour. Regarding reproduction techniques, artificial insemination is permitted but natural mating is preferred. The outdoor multi-sire system, where the sows are placed in large paddocks with a group of boars, is one...

  9. Radical loss of an extreme extra-pair mating system

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    Segelbacher Gernot

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mating outside the pair-bond is surprisingly common in socially monogamous birds, but rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP vary widely between species. Although differences in life-history and contemporary ecological factors may explain some interspecific variation, evolutionary forces driving extra-pair (EP mating remain largely obscure. Also, since there is a large phylogenetic component to the frequency of EPP, evolutionary inertia may contribute substantially to observed EP mating patterns. However, the relative importance of plasticity and phylogenetic constraints on the incidence of EP mating remains largely unknown. Results We here demonstrate very low levels of EPP (4.4% of offspring in the purple-crowned fairy-wren Malurus coronatus, a member of the genus with the highest known levels of EPP in birds. In addition, we show absence of the suite of distinctive behavioral and morphological adaptations associated with EP mating that characterize other fairy-wrens. Phylogenetic parsimony implies that these characteristics were lost in one speciation event. Nonetheless, many life-history and breeding parameters that are hypothesized to drive interspecific variation in EPP are not different in the purple-crowned fairy-wren compared to its promiscuous congeners. Conclusion Such radical loss of an extreme EP mating system with all associated adaptations from a lineage of biologically very similar species indicates that evolutionary inertia does not necessarily constrain interspecific variation in EPP. Moreover, if apparently minor interspecific differences regularly cause large differences in EPP, this may be one reason why the evolution of EP mating is still poorly understood.

  10. Blackmailing: the keystone in the human mating system

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    Watve Milind G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human mating system is characterized by bi-parental care and faithful monogamy is highly valued in most cultures. Marriage has evolved as a social institution and punishment for extra pair mating (EPM or adultery is common. However, similar to other species with bi-parental care, both males and females frequently indulge in EPM in secrecy since it confers certain gender specific genetic benefits. Stability of faithful monogamy is therefore a conundrum. We model human mating system using game theory framework to study the effects of factors that can stabilize or destabilize faithful committed monogamy. Results Although mate guarding can partly protect the genetic interests, we show that it does not ensure monogamy. Social policing enabled by gossiping is another line of defense against adultery unique to humans. However, social policing has a small but positive cost to an individual and therefore is prone to free riding. We suggest that since exposure of adultery can invite severe punishment, the policing individuals can blackmail opportunistically whenever the circumstances permit. If the maximum probabilistic benefit of blackmailing is greater than the cost of policing, policing becomes a non-altruistic act and stabilizes in the society. We show that this dynamics leads to the coexistence of different strategies in oscillations, with obligate monogamy maintained at a high level. Deletion of blackmailing benefit from the model leads to the complete disappearance of obligate monogamy. Conclusions Obligate monogamy can be maintained in the population in spite of the advantages of EPM. Blackmailing, which makes policing a non-altruistic act, is crucial for the maintenance of faithful monogamy. Although biparental care, EPM, mate guarding and punishment are shared by many species, gossiping and blackmailing make the human mating system unique.

  11. Mating System Transitions Drive Life Span Evolution in Pristionchus Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weadick, Cameron J; Sommer, Ralf J

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between the sexes influence evolution at many scales, but not all animal species conform to the familiar male-female (dioecious) mating system; such taxa are powerful tools for studying the evolutionary importance of sexual selection and conflict on all manner of life-history traits, including longevity. We tested for an effect of mating system on adult life span in Pristionchus nematodes, where self-fertile hermaphrodites have replaced females multiple times independently throughout the genus (androdioecy). By measuring adult life span for 11 species (6 dioecious, 5 androdioecious), we found that life span is considerably shorter in hermaphrodites relative to closely related females. This effect is not a cost of reproduction; brood size did not reliably trade off with life span in self-fertilizing hermaphrodites or in mated females. Furthermore, we found that sexual dimorphism in life span varied among dioecious species, with females generally outliving males. Finally, we documented intraspecific variation for life span and cuticular disease (blistering) prevalence in Pristionchus pacificus, a model system for evolutionary-developmental biology. This work demonstrates that mating system transitions and life span evolution are linked in Pristionchus nematodes and provides a foundation for future comparative and mechanistic studies of aging in this genus. PMID:27028079

  12. The unexpected mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers-Saucedo, Christine; Hope, Neva B; Wares, John P

    2016-05-01

    Androdioecy was first described by Darwin in his seminal work on barnacle diversity; he identified males and hermaphrodites in the same reproductive population. Today, we realize that many androdioecious plants and animals share astonishing similarities, particularly with regard to their evolutionary history and mating system. Notably, these species were ancestrally dioecious, and their mating system has the following characteristics: hermaphrodites self-fertilize frequently, males are more successful in large mating groups, and males have a mating advantage. A male mating advantage makes androdioecy more likely to persist over evolutionary times. Androdioecious barnacles, however, appear to persist as an outlier with a different evolutionary trajectory: they originate from hermaphroditic species. Although sexual systems of androdioecious barnacles are known, no information on the mating system of androdioecious barnacles is available. This study assessed the mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria. In contrast to other androdioecious species, C. testudinaria does not self-fertilize, males do not have a mating advantage over hermaphrodites, and the average mating group is quite small, averaging only three individuals. Mating success is increased by proximity to the mate and penis length. Taken together, the mating system of C. testudinaria is unusual in comparison with other androdioecious plants and animals, and the lack of a male mating advantage suggests that the mating system alone does not provide an explanation for the maintenance of androdioecy in this species. Instead, we propose that sex-specific life history equalizes male and hermaphroditic overall fitness. PMID:26923636

  13. Mating System of Free-Ranging Dogs (Canis familiaris

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    S. K. Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen females belonging to five groups were selected for the study of mating system in free-ranging domestic dogs (Canis familiaris All the matings occurred between August and December with a peak in late monsoon months (September to November. Both males and females differed in their degree of attractiveness to the opposite sex. The duration of courting association increased with the number of courting males in an association. The females exhibited selectivity by readily permitting some males to mate and avoiding, or even attacking others, if they attempted to mount. Frequency of mounting in courting association increased with the number of males present. There was a positive correlation between the duration of courting association and the frequency of mounting. The young adult males were more likely to copulate successfully than the old adult males. There was a negative correlation between the number of males present in an association and the number of successful copulations. In this study, six types of mating (monogamy, polygyny, promiscuity, polyandry, opportunity and rape were recorded. Mean (±S.E. duration of copulatory ties was 25.65 (±1.43 min. Several natural factors influencing the duration of copulatory ties were identified.

  14. Drip and Mate Operations Acting in Test Tube Systems and Tissue-like P systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Rudolf; 10.4204/EPTCS.11.8

    2009-01-01

    The operations drip and mate considered in (mem)brane computing resemble the operations cut and recombination well known from DNA computing. We here consider sets of vesicles with multisets of objects on their outside membrane interacting by drip and mate in two different setups: in test tube systems, the vesicles may pass from one tube to another one provided they fulfill specific constraints; in tissue-like P systems, the vesicles are immediately passed to specified cells after having undergone a drip or mate operation. In both variants, computational completeness can be obtained, yet with different constraints for the drip and mate operations.

  15. Life at the margin: the mating system of Mediterranean conifers

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    G. Restoux

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Mixed mating, where a single tree progeny results from a mixture of selfing and outcrossing, is widespread in conifers and could be an evolutionary advantage at ecological margins when mating partners become scarce. This study analyzes how the mating system responds to bioclimate and density variations. We surveyed published data on the mating system of Abies, Picea and Pinus species when information on bioclimate and stand density was available. Our survey revealed that Mediterranean species demonstrate a lower selfing rate than other species and that the proportion of selfed versus outcrossed progeny is not fixed within species. The highest variability in mating types within populations was found when stand density was the most variable.

    To show how density affects the proportion of selfed versus outcrossed progeny, we used isozymes to genotype single tree seeds from a marginal Abies alba forest in Mediterranean France (Mont Ventoux where low-to high-density stands are found. We then tested the adaptive potential of the different high and low density progenies by sowing them under controlled nursery conditions and measuring germination rate and seedling survival after 4 yr under 3 different water regimes. Although the mean value of outcrossing rate was typical for mixed mating conifers (tm = 0.85, individual outcrossing rates varied from 0.05 to 0.99 and were strongly correlated with stand type and density (tm from 0.87 in high-density to 0.43 in low-density marginal stands. Significantly fewer seeds from the low density marginal stand germinated (32% vs. 53% in the high density mature stand, although seedlings from the marginal stand had a better 4-yr survival (81% than seedlings from the high-density mature stand (63% when the three water regimes (from least to most stressful were averaged.

    Trees from low density stands may be at a selective disadvantage because they produce

  16. Mating system and size advantage of male mating in the protogynous swamp eel Monopterus albus with paternal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Seiji; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Ohnishi, Nobuhiro; Kohda, Masanori

    2011-05-01

    In fish with paternal care, protogynous sex change (female to male) is rare and has only been reported from species with haremic polygyny. The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is a protogynous fish with paternal care, but little is known about its mating system. To understand protogyny in this species, we examined the mating system and male size advantage in mating in M. albus under semi-natural condition. Females swam over wide ranges and visited multiple male nests. Males defended a narrow territory around nests against other males that approached nests; at these nests, males courted and accepted visiting females. After spawning inside nests, caring males continued to perform courtship activities, and multiple breeding was observed. These observations suggest that the M. albus mating system is male-territory-visiting (MTV)-polygamy. Larger males had nests, and mated more frequently compared with small males. Because small initial males of this species are not found in nature, and because M. albus does not engage in sneaking tactics, larger nesting males do not suffer from reproductive parasitism. Thus, protogyny in this fish is likely consistent with the predictions of the size-advantage model. Biting attacks by territorial males of this predatory fish seriously wounded intruding males, occasionally resulting in the death of the intruder. We discuss the possibility that sexual differences in mortality rates in small fish may facilitate the evolution of protogyny in this species. Protogyny of the swamp eel is, to our knowledge, the first example of an MTV-polygamous mating system in a fish with paternal care. PMID:21557660

  17. Functionality of the Paracoccidioides mating α-pheromone-receptor system.

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    Jéssica A Gomes-Rezende

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that Paracoccidioides species have the potential to undergo sexual reproduction, although no sexual cycle has been identified either in nature or under laboratory conditions. In the present work we detected low expression levels of the heterothallic MAT loci genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2, the α-pheromone (PBα gene, and the α- and a-pheromone receptor (PREB and PREA genes in yeast and mycelia forms of several Paracoccidioides isolates. None of the genes were expressed in a mating type dependent manner. Stimulation of P. brasiliensis MAT1-2 strains with the synthetic α-pheromone peptide failed to elicit transcriptional activation of MAT1-2, PREB or STE12, suggesting that the strains tested are insensitive to α-pheromone. In order to further evaluate the biological functionality of the pair α-pheromone and its receptor, we took advantage of the heterologous expression of these Paracoccidioides genes in the corresponding S. cerevisiae null mutants. We show that S. cerevisiae strains heterologously expressing PREB respond to Pbα pheromone either isolated from Paracoccidioides culture supernatants or in its synthetic form, both by shmoo formation and by growth and cell cycle arrests. This allowed us to conclude that Paracoccidioides species secrete an active α-pheromone into the culture medium that is able to activate its cognate receptor. Moreover, expression of PREB or PBα in the corresponding null mutants of S. cerevisiae restored mating in these non-fertile strains. Taken together, our data demonstrate pheromone signaling activation by the Paracoccidioides α-pheromone through its receptor in this yeast model, which provides novel evidence for the existence of a functional mating signaling system in Paracoccidioides.

  18. Mating system of Calluna vulgaris: self-sterility and outcrossing estimations

    OpenAIRE

    Mahy, G.; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    1998-01-01

    The evolutionary significance of a mixed mating system is currently under debate. Calluna vulgaris (L). Hull, a widespread European shrub, is likely to undergo mixed mating because of geitonogamy. Mating system was investigated in three populations of C. vulgaris is by means of greenhouse controlled crosses, pollen tube observations, and outcrossing rate estimations from allozyme markers. The species is highly self-sterile, most probably as a result of early inbreeding depression. Mean fruit ...

  19. A hybrid bird mating optimizer algorithm with teaching-learning-based optimization for global numerical optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Qingyang Zhang; Guolin Yu; Hui Song

    2015-01-01

    Bird Mating Optimizer (BMO) is a novel meta-heuristic optimization algorithm inspired by intelligent mating behavior of birds. However, it is still insufficient in convergence of speed and quality of solution. To overcome these drawbacks, this paper proposes a hybrid algorithm (TLBMO), which is established by combining the advantages of Teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) and Bird Mating Optimizer (BMO). The performance of TLBMO is evaluated on 23 benchmark functions, and compared wit...

  20. Sexual deception in a cannibalistic mating system? Testing the Femme Fatale hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Animal communication theory holds that in order to be evolutionarily stable, signals must be honest on average, but significant dishonesty (i.e. deception) by a subset of the population may also evolve. A typical praying mantid mating system involves active mate searching by males, which is guided by airborne sex pheromones in most species for which mate-searching cues have been studied. The Femme Fatale hypothesis suggests that female mantids may be selected to exploit conspecific males as p...

  1. Molecular Evolution of Freshwater Snails with Contrasting Mating Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgarella, Concetta; Gayral, Philippe; Ballenghien, Marion; Bernard, Aurélien; David, Patrice; Jarne, Philippe; Correa, Ana; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie; Escobar, Juan; Galtier, Nicolas; Glémin, Sylvain

    2015-09-01

    Because mating systems affect population genetics and ecology, they are expected to impact the molecular evolution of species. Self-fertilizing species experience reduced effective population size, recombination rates, and heterozygosity, which in turn should decrease the efficacy of natural selection, both adaptive and purifying, and the strength of meiotic drive processes such as GC-biased gene conversion. The empirical evidence is only partly congruent with these predictions, depending on the analyzed species, some, but not all, of the expected effects have been observed. One possible reason is that self-fertilization is an evolutionary dead-end, so that most current selfers recently evolved self-fertilization, and their genome has not yet been strongly impacted by selfing. Here, we investigate the molecular evolution of two groups of freshwater snails in which mating systems have likely been stable for several millions of years. Analyzing coding sequence polymorphism, divergence, and expression levels, we report a strongly reduced genetic diversity, decreased efficacy of purifying selection, slower rate of adaptive evolution, and weakened codon usage bias/GC-biased gene conversion in the selfer Galba compared with the outcrosser Physa, in full agreement with theoretical expectations. Our results demonstrate that self-fertilization, when effective in the long run, is a major driver of population genomic and molecular evolutionary processes. Despite the genomic effects of selfing, Galba truncatula seems to escape the demographic consequences of the genetic load. We suggest that the particular ecology of the species may buffer the negative consequences of selfing, shedding new light on the dead-end hypothesis. PMID:25980005

  2. Sex-biased predation by polecats influences the mating system of frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodé, Thierry; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Lesbarrères, David; Pagano, Alain

    2004-12-01

    In agile frogs, Rana dalmatina, an increase in male-biased operational sex ratio and in male abundance results in the emergence of alternative male mating behaviour in the form of searching. As a consequence, females are coerced into mating with multiple males, which in turn increases the level of conflict between the sexes. Selective predation on males by the European polecat, Mustela putorius, decreases the occurrence of polyandry. In ponds visited by polecats, the sex ratio is less male biased than in ponds where polecats are absent. As a result most males call to attract females and fewer males actively search for females. Females are able to choose between calling males and mate with a single male. Thus, predation by polecats is found to influence sex ratio, male abundance and sexual conflict in a frog mating system, restricting the opportunity for multiple mating. PMID:15801586

  3. Consequences of life history for inbreeding depression and mating system evolution in plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    Many plants are perennial, but most studies of inbreeding depression and mating system evolution focus on annuals. This paper extends a population genetic model of inbreeding depression due to recessive deleterious mutations to perennials. The model incorporates life history and mating system variation, and multiplicative selection across many genetic loci. In the absence of substantial mitotic mutation, perennials have higher mean fitness and lower, or even negative, inbreeding depression th...

  4. Mating system parameters in a high density population of andirobas in the Amazon forest

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana de Campos; Marcia Oliveira da Cunha; Adna Cristina Barbosa de Sousa; Renata Beltrão Teixeira; Andrea Raposo; Alexandre Magno Sebbenn; Lucia Helena de Oliveira Wadt

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to estimate the mating system parameters of a andiroba (Carapa guianensis) population using microsatellite markers and the mixed and correlated mating models. Twelve open‑pollinated progeny arrays of 15 individuals were sampled in an area with C. guianensis estimated density of 25.7 trees per hectare. Overall, the species has a mixed reproductive system, with a predominance of outcrossing. The multilocus outcrossing rate (t m = 0.862) was significantly lower tha...

  5. Transitions in Sexuality: Recapitulation of an Ancestral Tri- and Tetrapolar Mating System in Cryptococcus neoformans▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Hsueh, Yen-Ping; Fraser, James A; Heitman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Sex is orchestrated by the mating-type locus (MAT) in fungi and by sex chromosomes in plants and animals. In fungi, two patterns of sexuality occur: bipolar with a single, typically biallelic sex determinant that promotes inbreeding, and tetrapolar with two unlinked, often multiallelic sex determinants that restrict inbreeding. Multiallelism in either bipolar or tetrapolar mating systems promotes outcrossing. Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic bipolar yeast with two unusually large MAT a...

  6. The population dynamical implications of male-biased parasitism in different mating systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R Miller

    Full Text Available Although there is growing evidence that males tend to suffer higher levels of parasitism than females, the implications of this for the population dynamics of the host population are not yet understood. Here we build on an established 'two-sex' model and investigate how increased susceptibility to infection in males affects the dynamics, under different mating systems. We investigate the effect of pathogenic disease at different case mortalities, under both monogamous and polygynous mating systems. If the case mortality is low, then male-biased parasitism appears similar to unbiased parasitism in terms of its effect on the population dynamics. At higher case mortalities, we identified significant differences between male-biased and unbiased parasitism. A host population may therefore be differentially affected by male-biased and unbiased parasitism. The dynamical outcome is likely to depend on a complex interaction between the host's mating system and demography, and the parasite virulence.

  7. A hybrid bird mating optimizer algorithm with teaching-learning-based optimization for global numerical optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyang Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bird Mating Optimizer (BMO is a novel meta-heuristic optimization algorithm inspired by intelligent mating behavior of birds. However, it is still insufficient in convergence of speed and quality of solution. To overcome these drawbacks, this paper proposes a hybrid algorithm (TLBMO, which is established by combining the advantages of Teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO and Bird Mating Optimizer (BMO. The performance of TLBMO is evaluated on 23 benchmark functions, and compared with seven state-of-the-art approaches, namely BMO, TLBO, Artificial Bee Bolony (ABC, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, Fast Evolution Programming (FEP, Differential Evolution (DE, Group Search Optimization (GSO. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method performs better than other existing algorithms for global numerical optimization.

  8. Where to find a mate? Resource-based sexual communication of webbing clothes moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Stephen; Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine

    2002-02-01

    Mate location in moths typically entails long-range attraction of males to female-produced pheromone. Here, we show that male and female webbing clothes moths, Tineola bisselliella, seek larval habitats (dry carrion, animal lairs, etc) to encounter mates. With males seeking, and arriving at, larval habitat earlier at night than females, male-produced pheromonal and sonic signals enhance the habitat's attractiveness to females. This resource-based mating strategy of T. bisselliella differs from that known for most other moths. It may have evolved in response to larval habitats that are patchy and temporary, but that disseminate attractive semiochemicals so abundantly that T. bisselliella encounter them more readily than their own pheromones.

  9. Reconstructing genetic mating systems in the absence of parental information in colonially breeding waterbirds

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    Mussi Gonçalves Priscila F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA-based studies have demonstrated that avian genetic mating systems vary widely, with many species deviating from long-assumed monogamy by practicing extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism. Colonially breeding waterbirds provide interesting models in which to investigate this question because they show nesting habits proposed to promote alternative reproductive strategies. However, little is known about the genetic mating systems of this group of birds, mainly due to difficulties in obtaining genetic data from incubating adults at nests that are necessary for conducting conventional parentage studies. Here, we inferred kinship patterns among offspring in broods of three co-distributed waterbird species, Wood Stork (Mycteria americana, Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja and Great Egret (Ardea alba egretta, to investigate genetic mating system in the absence of parental data. Results Multi-step analyses combining estimates of relatedness coefficients, formulation of relationship-hypotheses, significance testing of alternative hypotheses, and maximum-likelihood sibship reconstruction techniques revealed evidence that alternative reproductive strategies may be present in natural populations of Wood Storks and Roseate Spoonbills, whereas relatedness of co-nestlings diagnosed in the Great Egrets did not deviate from a hypothesis of genetic monogamy. Specifically, under this analytical framework, inferred kinship relationships revealed that Great Egret nests contained full-sibling nestlings (100%, with the Roseate Spoonbill (RS and Wood Stork (WS exhibiting proportions of half-siblings (RS: 5% and/or unrelated nestlings (RS: 24%; WS: 70%, patterns consistent with extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism, respectively. Conclusions We provide evidence that genetic monogamy occurs in Brazilian natural breeding colonies of the Great Egret, but is not the sole reproductive strategy employed by the Wood Stork

  10. Determination of the mating system of Tucumã palm using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Linorio Ferreyra Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian Tucumã palm (Astrocaryum aculeatum produces edible fruit, traditionally consumed in indigenouscommunities and increasingly in urban centers. The species is incipiently domesticated and little studied, despite its growingeconomic importance for smallholder farmers and gatherers. Studies on the mating system are required for the conservation anduse of the species’ genetic resources. Our objective was to estimate mating system parameters of the Tucumã palm using microsatellitemarkers. Plants of 11 progenies of a spontaneous population were genotyped with eight microsatellite loci and the mating systemparameters estimated. The population outcrossing rate was estimated at 0.978, and ranged from 0.774 to 1at the family level. Theestimates of the correlation of paternity (0.176 and 0.205 suggest a low probability of full-sibs within progenies. Tucumã palm is apredominantly allogamous species and the open-pollinated progenies consist predominantly of half-sibs.

  11. Design and Research on the Two-Joint Mating System of Underwater Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-lin; WANG Li-quan

    2013-01-01

    In the 21st century,people have come to the era of ocean science and ocean economy.With the development of ocean science and technology and the thorough research on the ocean,underwater mating technique has been widely used in such fields as sunk ship salvage,deep ocean workstation,submarine lifesaving aid and military affairs.In this paper,researches are made home and abroad on mating technology.Two-joint mating system of underwater vehicle is designed including plane system,three-dimensional assembly system and control system in order to increase the capacity of adapting platform obliquity and adopting rotational skirt scheme.It is clear that the system fits the working space of underwater vehicle passageway and there is no interference phenomenon in assembly design.The finite element model of the system shell and the pressurization of the joint are established.The results of the finite element computing and the pressing test are accordant,and thus it can testify that the shell material meet the need of intension and joint pressurization is reliable.Modeling of the control system is accomplished,and simulation and analysis are made,which can provide directions for the controller design of mating system of underwater vehicles.

  12. Population structure and mating system of the Red-crested Korhaan (Lophotis ruficrista) in South Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johann H van Niekerk

    2015-01-01

    Background:The mating system of the korhaans and bustards in southern Africa is either based on polygyny or monogamy. The Red-crested Korhaan (Lophotis ruficrista) has been described as polygynous but otherwise very little is known about its breeding biology. The aims were to describe the population structure and male behavior during breeding. Methods:The data collected for this paper was mainly based on field transect surveys carried out in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The population structure of the Red-crested Korhaan in the temperate Borakalalo Game Reserve (BGR) was compared with that in the arid Molopo Nature Reserve (MNR) (both situated in the North West province of South Africa). The study was mainly conducted in the BGR but additional work was conducted in the MNR for comparison. Results:The difference in mean group sizes between MNR (1.03) and BGR (1.07) was statistically not significant. Group sizes were not affected by climate despite the fact that the BGR received about 650 mm precipitation per annum and the MNR about 200 mm. In both reserves the apparent sex ratios were skewed in favor of males (1:0.29 in the BGR and 1:0.1 in the MNR). The population was dispersed in a clumped manner which is ascribed to the formation of leks. Leks were positioned in open habitat while females invariably concealed themselves under cover. Conclusions:The leks formed the pivot of the mating system of the Red-crested Korhaan and are identifiable social structures that field ecologists can use to monitor population stability.

  13. No evidence for size-assortative mating in the wild despite mutual mate choice in sex-role-reversed pipefishes

    OpenAIRE

    Mobley, K.; Abou Chakra, M.; Jones, A.

    2014-01-01

    Size-assortative mating is a nonrandom association of body size between members of mating pairs and is expected to be common in species with mutual preferences for body size. In this study, we investigated whether there is direct evidence for size-assortative mating in two species of pipefishes, Syngnathus floridae and S. typhle, that share the characteristics of male pregnancy, sex-role reversal, and a polygynandrous mating system. We take advantage of microsatellite- based “genetic-capture”...

  14. Parental care and social mating system in the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos minor

    OpenAIRE

    Wiktander, Ulf; Olsson, Ola; Nilsson, Sven

    2000-01-01

    The sexes' share in parental care and the social mating system in a marked population of the single-brooded Lesser Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos minor were studied in 17 woodpecker territories in southern Sweden during 10 years. The birds showed a very strong mate fidelity between years; the divorce rate was 3.4%. In monogamous pairs, the male provided more parental care than the female. The male did most of the nest building and all incubation and brooding at night. Daytime incubation a...

  15. Variation in floral longevity in the genus Leptosiphon: mating system consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J J; Goodwillie, C

    2013-01-01

    Pollination or fertilisation trigger floral senescence in a wide range of flowering plants, and yet little attention has been given to the implications of this phenomenon to mating system evolution. We examined the effects of pollination on floral senescence in the genus Leptosiphon. Species in the genus exhibit a wide range of breeding systems. In all cases, compatible pollination induced senescence; emasculated flowers lived longer than hand-outcrossed flowers. In the self-compatible species, Leptosiphon acicularis and L. bicolor, and in one highly selfing population of L. jepsonii, unmanipulated flowers had reduced longevity compared to emasculated flowers, suggesting that autonomous self-pollination limits floral longevity in these species. Limited floral longevity in these highly selfing taxa may reduce opportunities for male outcross success, representing a possible source of selection on the mating system. In turn, the mating system might influence how selection acts on floral longevity; obligately outcrossing taxa are expected to benefit from longer floral longevities to maximise opportunities for pollination, while selfing taxa might benefit from earlier floral senescence to reduce resource expenditure. Overall, the longevity of unpollinated flowers increased with the level of outcrossing in the genus Leptosiphon. Our results taken together with those of a previous study and similar results in other species suggest that floral longevity may represent a largely unexamined role in mating system evolution. PMID:22607097

  16. Kinship structure and mating system in a solitary subterranean rodent, the silvery mole-rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patzenhauerová, Hana; Bryja, Josef; Šumbera, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2010), s. 757-767. ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601410802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : subterranean rodent * kinship structure * mating system * dispersal Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.565, year: 2010

  17. The behavioural and genetic mating system of the sand tiger shark, Carcharias taurus, an intrauterine cannibal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Demian D; Wintner, Sabine P; Abercrombie, Debra L; Ashe, Jimiane; Bernard, Andrea M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Feldheim, Kevin A

    2013-06-23

    Sand tiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) have an unusual mode of reproduction, whereby the first embryos in each of the paired uteri to reach a certain size ('hatchlings') consume all of their smaller siblings during gestation ('embryonic cannibalism' or EC). If females commonly mate with multiple males ('behavioural polyandry') then litters could initially have multiple sires. It is possible, however, that EC could exclude of all but one of these sires from producing offspring thus influencing the species genetic mating system ('genetic monogamy'). Here, we use microsatellite DNA profiling of mothers and their litters (n = 15, from two to nine embryos per litter) to quantify the frequency of behavioural and genetic polyandry in this system. We conservatively estimate that nine of the females we examined (60%) were behaviourally polyandrous. The genetic mating system was characterized by assessing sibling relationships between hatchlings and revealed only 40 per cent genetic polyandry (i.e. hatchlings were full siblings in 60% of litters). The discrepancy stemmed from three females that were initially fertilized by multiple males but only produced hatchlings with one of them. This reveals that males can be excluded even after fertilizing ova and that some instances of genetic monogamy in this population arise from the reduction in litter size by EC. More research is needed on how cryptic post-copulatory and post-zygotic processes contribute to determining paternity and bridging the behavioural and genetic mating systems of viviparous species. PMID:23637391

  18. Genetic diversity and the mating system in a fragmented population of Tsoongiodendron odorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation is one of the most serious threats to plant diversity. In general, fragmentation negatively impacts the genetic variability of plant populations due to increased random geneticdrift, inbreeding, and reductions in gene flow. To investigate the effect of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity and the mating system of Tsoongiodendron odorum, in this study, we analyzed genetic diversity and the mating system in hierarchical levels at the population, stands, and the individual scales in a fragmented T.odorum population. We sampled and mapped 61 adult individuals from the population. Using eight microsatellite loci, we genotyped a total of 780 seeds from 15 maternal trees for the mating system analysis. The results revealed moderate levels of genetic diversity in both adults (HE = 0.522 and seeds (HE = 0.499 with no significant differences between the two ontogenic stages. In addition, we did not observe asignificant increase in the seeds inbreeding coefficient. Results from the multilocus mating system analysis indicated that T. odorum was an outbreeding species with a multilocus outcrossing rate (tm of 1.000. A small number of biparental inbreeding and correlated mating events were detected in this fragmented population. We found a small number of effective pollen donors (Nep is between 3.7 and 5.4, which seems to be a common character of insect-pollinated canopy trees. Minor differences in outcrossing rates were detected among stands, and more pollen donors were found in smaller stands. However, outcrossing rate was significantly different among individuals, and a few selfing events were detected in some seed trees. These results may provide fundamental information required to establish long term conservation strategies for this endangered tree which is endemic to China.

  19. No evidence for size-assortative mating in the wild despite mutual mate choice in sex-role-reversed pipefishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Kenyon B; Abou Chakra, Maria; Jones, Adam G

    2014-01-01

    Size-assortative mating is a nonrandom association of body size between members of mating pairs and is expected to be common in species with mutual preferences for body size. In this study, we investigated whether there is direct evidence for size-assortative mating in two species of pipefishes, Syngnathus floridae and S. typhle, that share the characteristics of male pregnancy, sex-role reversal, and a polygynandrous mating system. We take advantage of microsatellite-based "genetic-capture" techniques to match wild-caught females with female genotypes reconstructed from broods of pregnant males and use these data to explore patterns of size-assortative mating in these species. We also develop a simulation model to explore how positive, negative, and antagonistic preferences of each sex for body size affect size-assortative mating. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to find any evidence of size-assortative mating in either species at different geographic locations or at different sampling times. Furthermore, two traits that potentially confer a fitness advantage in terms of reproductive success, female mating order and number of eggs transferred per female, do not affect pairing patterns in the wild. Results from model simulations demonstrate that strong mating preferences are unlikely to explain the observed patterns of mating in the studied populations. Our study shows that individual mating preferences, as ascertained by laboratory-based mating trials, can be decoupled from realized patterns of mating in the wild, and therefore, field studies are also necessary to determine actual patterns of mate choice in nature. We conclude that this disconnect between preferences and assortative mating is likely due to ecological constraints and multiple mating that may limit mate choice in natural populations. PMID:24455162

  20. Application of honey-bee mating optimization on state estimation of a power distribution system including distributed generators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taher NIKNAM

    2008-01-01

    We present a new approach based on honey-bee mating optimization to estimate the state variables in distribution networks including distributed generators. The proposed method considers practical models of electrical equipments such as smilc var compensators,voltage regulators,and under-load tap changer transformers,which have usually nonlinear and discrete characteristics. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated by comparison with the methods based on neural networks,ant colony optimization,and genetic algorithms for two test systems,a network with 34-bus radial test feeders and a realistic 80-bus 20 kV network.

  1. Mating model on production capacity for the system of cutting coal and drawing top-coal in FMMSC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Xin-xian

    2007-01-01

    Being a safe and highly-efficient mining method, fully mechanized mining with sublevel caving (FMMSC) was extensively employed in Chinese coal mines with thick seam. In order to make drawing top-coal furthest to parallel work with shearer cutting coal,decrease failure ratio of rear scraper conveyor and increase safe production capacity of equipments, based on production technology, set up the mating model of safe production capacity of equipments for the system of drawing top-coal and shearer cutting coal in coal face with sublevel caving. It is mean capability of drawing top-coal adapted to the capability of shearer cutting coal in a working circle in the coal face that was deduced. The type selection of equipment of rear scraper conveyor can be tackled with this mating model.The model was applied in FMMSC in Yangcun Coal Mine, Yima Coal Group of China. With the mating light-equipments, the coal output in coal face attained 1.05 Mt in 2004. It gained better technical-economic benefit.

  2. Origin and occurrence of sexual and mating systems in Crustacea: A progression towards communal living and eusociality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Subramoniam

    2013-12-01

    Crustaceans are known for their unrivalled diversity of sexual systems, as well as peculiar mating associations to achieve maximum mating success and fertilization accomplishment. Although sexes are separate in most species, various types of hermaphroditism characterize these predominantly aquatic arthropods. A low operational sex ratio between female and male, together with temporally limited receptivity of females towards males, imposes restrictions on the structuring of mating systems in crustaceans. The basic mating systems consist of monogamy, polygamy, mate guarding and pure searching. Understandably, ecological influences may also play a determinative role in the evolution of such sexual and mating systems in crustaceans. An important outcome of the crustacean sexual biology is the development of complex social structures in many aquatic species, in much the same way insects have established them in terrestrial conditions. In addition, groups like isopods and certain families of brachyuran crabs have shown terrestrial adaptation, exhibiting peculiar reproductive modes, sometimes reminiscent of their terrestrial counterparts, insects. Many caridean shrimps, living in symbiotic relationship with other marine invertebrates in the coral reef habitats, have reached pinnacle of complexity in sexuality and peculiar mating behaviours, resulting in communal living and establishing advanced social systems, such as eusociality.

  3. Genetic parameters estimation in King palm through a mixed mating system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovi Marilene L. A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Overestimation of the genetic parameters is common in palms due to the occurrence of geitonogamy and the absence of self-incompatibility mechanisms. Data from nursery grown Archontophoenix palms were utilized, assuming a mixed mating system including random cross-pollination and selfing at different rates. The objective was to show the importance of knowing the mating system predominant and define breeding strategies for that genus. Twenty-four King palm half sib families were evaluated at nursery conditions using a randomised complete block design, with nine replications and eleven plants per plot. Ten months after sowing, traits such as diameter, height, number of green leaves and length of the leaf sheath of the second leaf, were individually measured. Traits related to biomass were also estimated through regression procedure. It was concluded that King palm cannot be considered allogamous and the mixed mating system model should be used when estimating genetic parameters. At least 50% of selfing occurred at the time of pollination in the mother plants. The multi-effects index, using all random effects of the linear model, provided the highest selection accuracy for all traits, whatever the individual heritability level, and should be used in King palm heart-of-palm breeding programs. Under the allogamous model, the effective size of the studied population was equivalent to 93 unrelated individuals. This size was reduced to 32 palms under the mixed model; even so this population has enough variability to allow genetic progress by selection.

  4. Mating system and genetic diversity of a rare desert legume Ammopiptanthus nanus (Leguminosae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Qing CHEN; Hong-Wen HUANG; Daniel J CRAWFORD; Bo-Rong PAN; Xue-Jun GE

    2009-01-01

    Ammopiptanthus nanus is an endangered evergreen shrub endemic to the deserts of central Asia and plays an important role in delaying further desertification. We examined allozyme variation and AFLP diversity in A. Nanus populations and investigated the mating system of this species using progeny arrays assayed for poly-morphic allozyme loci. Mating system analysis in the Keyi'eryongke'er population showed low levels of out-crossing, and strong inbreeding depression. Low levels of genetic variation were detected at both population (allozyme, Pp=14.0%,A=1.14, He=0.031; AFLP, Pp=14.5%, Shannon's information index I=0.063) and species (allozyme, Pp=21.1%,A=1.21, He=0.040; AFLP, Pp=20.9%, I=0.083) levels; while moderate genetic differentia-tion existed among populations, as indicated by allozymes (GST=0.081) and AFLP (GST=0.151-0.193). Founder effect, bottlenecks in evolutionary history, the mixed mating system and co-ancestry may have influenced the level of genetic diversity in A. Nanus. Markers of both types provide new insights for conservation management, indicating that the Biao'ertuokuoyi and Keyi'eryongke'er populations should be given priority for in situ conser-vation and regarded as seed sources for ex situ conservation.

  5. No evidence for MHC class I-based disassortative mating in a wild population of great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepil, I; Radersma, R; Santure, A W; De Cauwer, I; Slate, J; Sheldon, B C

    2015-03-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are regarded as a potentially important target of mate choice due to the fitness benefits that may be conferred to the offspring. According to the complementary genes hypothesis, females mate with MHC dissimilar males to enhance the immunocompetence of their offspring or to avoid inbreeding depression. Here, we investigate whether selection favours a preference for maximally dissimilar or optimally dissimilar MHC class I types, based on MHC genotypes, average amino acid distances and the functional properties of the antigen-binding sites (MHC supertypes); and whether MHC type dissimilarity predicts relatedness between mates in a wild great tit population. In particular, we explore the role that MHC class I plays in female mate choice decisions while controlling for relatedness and spatial population structure, and examine the reproductive fitness consequences of MHC compatibility between mates. We find no evidence for the hypotheses that females select mates on the basis of either maximal or optimal MHC class I dissimilarity. A weak correlation between MHC supertype sharing and relatedness suggests that MHC dissimilarity at functional variants may not provide an effective index of relatedness. Moreover, the reproductive success of pairs did not vary with MHC dissimilarity. Our results provide no support for the suggestion that selection favours, or that mate choice realizes, a preference for complimentary MHC types. PMID:25661713

  6. Male mating biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howell Paul I

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of male mating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area.

  7. The effects of habitat fragmentation on the social kin structure and mating system of the agile antechinus, Antechinus agilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, S C; Ward, S J; Lindenmayer, D B; Finlayson, G R; Lawson, S J; Taylor, A C

    2005-05-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the major contributors to the loss of biodiversity worldwide. However, relatively little is known about its more immediate impacts on within-patch population processes such as social structure and mating systems, whose alteration may play an important role in extinction risk. We investigated the impacts of habitat fragmentation due to the establishment of an exotic softwood plantation on the social kin structure and breeding system of the Australian marsupial carnivore, Antechinus agilis. Restricted dispersal by males in fragmented habitat resulted in elevated relatedness among potential mates in populations in fragments, potentially increasing the risk of inbreeding. Antechinus agilis nests communally in tree hollows; these nests are important points for social contact between males and females in the mating season. In response to elevated relatedness among potential mates in fragmented habitat, A. agilis significantly avoided sharing nests with opposite-sex relatives in large fragment sites (but not in small ones, possibly due to limited nest locations and small population sizes). Because opposite-sex individuals shared nests randomly with respect to relatedness in unfragmented habitat, we interpreted the phenomenon in fragmented habitat as a precursor to inbreeding avoidance via mate choice. Despite evidence that female A. agilis at high inbreeding risk selected relatively unrelated mates, there was no overall increased avoidance of related mates by females in fragmented habitats compared to unfragmented habitats. Simulations indicated that only dispersal, and not nonrandom mating, contributed to inbreeding avoidance in either habitat context. However, habitat fragmentation did influence the mating system in that the degree of multiple paternity was reduced due to the reduction in population sizes and population connectivity. This, in turn, reduced the number of males available to females in the breeding season. This suggests that

  8. Variation in the Mating Systems of Wrasses (Labridae) at a Spawning Aggregation Site on Guam, Mariana Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Terry J. Donaldson

    2015-01-01

    The wrasses (family Labridae) exhibit a diverse number of mating strategies and behaviors. This diversity is expressed not only interspecifically but also intraspecifically. At Guam, Mariana Islands, over twenty species of wrasses spawn on a small, shallow coral reef known as Finger Reef that projects outward from the main reef into Apra Harbor. Preliminary observations indicated that the mating system utilized by some wrasses varied within species. To examine why this occurs, I utilized d...

  9. Sexual deception in a cannibalistic mating system? Testing the Femme Fatale hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Katherine L

    2015-02-01

    Animal communication theory holds that in order to be evolutionarily stable, signals must be honest on average, but significant dishonesty (i.e. deception) by a subset of the population may also evolve. A typical praying mantid mating system involves active mate searching by males, which is guided by airborne sex pheromones in most species for which mate-searching cues have been studied. The Femme Fatale hypothesis suggests that female mantids may be selected to exploit conspecific males as prey if they benefit nutritionally from cannibalism. Such a benefit exists in the false garden mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata-females use the resources gained from male consumption to significantly increase their body condition and reproductive output. This study aimed to examine the potential for chemical deception among the subset of females most likely to benefit from cannibalism (poorly fed females). Females were placed into one of four feeding treatments ('Very Poor', 'Poor', 'Medium' and 'Good'), and males were given the opportunity to choose between visually obscured females in each of the treatments. Female body condition and fecundity varied linearly with food quantity; however, female attractiveness did not. That is, Very Poor females attracted significantly more males than any of the other female treatments, even though these females were in significantly poorer condition, less fecund (in this study) and more likely to cannibalise (in a previous study). In addition, there was a positive correlation between fecundity and attractiveness if Very Poor females were removed from the analysis, suggesting an inherently honest signalling system with a subset of dishonest individuals. This is the first empirical study to provide evidence of sexual deception via chemical cues, and the first to provide support for the Femme Fatale hypothesis. PMID:25520352

  10. Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri V. Politov

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In natural pine populations, a mixed mating system is typical,characterized by the proportions of selfed and outcrossed seeds. Swiss stone pine(Pinus cembra L. is one of the least studied European conifers in this respect. The mating system of six polymorphic allozyme loci were studied in haploid megagametophytes and diploid open-pollinated embryos in two stands located in theEast Carpathians. In the 'Gorgany' population (24 trees, 198 seeds the mean singlelocus estimated outcrossing rate (ts was 0.731, and the multilocus estimate (tm was 0.773. In the 'Yayko' population the outcrossing rate was lower (27 trees, 213 seeds, ts=0.645, tm=0.700, suggesting 23-30% of seeds are self-pollinated. Correlation ofoutcrossing rate estimates among loci was less than 1, (0.300 in 'Gorgany' and 0.469 in 'Yayko' indicating biparental inbreeding occurred. Differences between tm and ts (0.042 in 'Gorgany' and 0.056 in 'Yayko' can also be influenced by consanguineous mating, indicated by the presence of spatial and genetic family structure. In small isolated populations of Pinus cembra, which are typical for the Carpathian part of the species' range, inbreeding depression may negatively affect seed quality. The high proportion of selfed seeds observed here can be expected in any seedlot of this species and should be taken into account while planning gene conservation orreforestation measures. Maternal trees in these populations showed no heterozygote deficiency at these allozyme loci, and instead showed increased proportions of heterozygotes (inbreeding coefficient FIS = -0.200 in 'Gorgany' and -0.142 in 'Yayko'. Balancing selection may explain heterozygosity levels up to and above equilibrium proportions.

  11. Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri V. Politov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Volume 51 (1, 2008, pages 11-18Back Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians     D.V. PolitovLaboratory of Population Genetics, Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences Y.V. PirkoInstitute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering, Ukraine N.N. PirkoInstitute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering, Ukraine E.A. MudrikDonetsk Botanical Gardens, Ukraine I.I. KorshikovDonetsk Botanical Gardens, Ukraine  contact authors by Editorial Office  SUMMARY  In natural pine populations, a mixed mating system is typical, characterized by the proportions of selfed and outcrossed seeds. Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. is one of the least studied European conifers in this respect. The mating system of six polymorphic allozyme loci were studied in haploid megagametophytes and diploid open-pollinated embryos in two stands located in the East Carpathians. In the 'Gorgany' population (24 trees, 198 seeds the mean singlelocus estimated outcrossing rate (ts was 0.731, and the multilocus estimate (tm was 0.773. In the 'Yayko' population the outcrossing rate was lower (27 trees, 213 seeds, ts=0.645, tm=0.700, suggesting 23-30% of seeds are self-pollinated. Correlation of outcrossing rate estimates among loci was less than 1, (0.300 in 'Gorgany' and 0.469 in 'Yayko' indicating biparental inbreeding occurred. Differences between tm and ts (0.042 in 'Gorgany' and 0.056 in 'Yayko' can also be influenced by consanguineous mating, indicated by the presence of spatial and genetic family structure. In small isolated populations of Pinus cembra, which are typical for the Carpathian part of the species' range, inbreeding depression may negatively affect seed quality. The high proportion of selfed seeds observed here can be expected in any seedlot of this species and should be taken into account while planning gene conservation or reforestation measures. Maternal trees in these populations

  12. Mating system and population structure of Acacia aroma and A. macracantha (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiva, Paola Vanesa; Vilardi, Juan César; Cialdella, Ana María; Saidman, Beatriz O

    2004-01-01

    Acacia aroma and A. macracantha are closely related species that inhabit northern and central Argentina. The reproductive barriers between them seem to be weak. They exhibit low genetic differentiation, high levels of interspecific gene flow, and extensive areas of sympatry. Isoenzymatic approaches were used to evaluate the population structure and mating system parameters in natural Argentine populations of A. aroma and A. macracantha and to provide new tools for the analysis of relationships between these two species. All studied populations had high levels of genetic variability and no significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, but the two species did not differ from each other. Most variability occured within populations. Mating system analysis showed high levels of outcrossing, no biparental inbreeding, and a high probability that individuals within progeny arrays are full rather than half sibs. In all A. aroma and A. macracantha populations, polymorphic loci had the same allelic variants, and no geographic or genetic isolation between species was found. The results favor the hypothesis that these two entities represent a single polymorphic species rather than two distinct species. PMID:21653363

  13. Mating system parameters in a high density population of andirobas in the Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Campos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the mating system parameters of a andiroba (Carapa guianensis population using microsatellite markers and the mixed and correlated mating models. Twelve open‑pollinated progeny arrays of 15 individuals were sampled in an area with C. guianensis estimated density of 25.7 trees per hectare. Overall, the species has a mixed reproductive system, with a predominance of outcrossing. The multilocus outcrossing rate (t m = 0.862 was significantly lower than the unity, indicating that self‑pollination occurred. The rate of biparental inbreeding was substantial (t m ‑ t s = 0.134 and significantly different from zero. The correlation of selfing within progenies was high (r s = 0.635, indicating variation in the individual outcrossing rate. Consistent with this result, the estimate of the individual outcrossing rate ranged from 0.598 to 0.978. The multilocus correlation of paternity was low (r p(m = 0.081, but significantly different from zero, suggesting that the progenies contain full‑sibs. The coancestry within progenies (Θ = 0.185 was higher and the variance effective size (Ne(v = 2.7 was lower than expected for true half‑sib progenies (Θ = 0.125; Ne(v = 4. These results suggest that, in order to maintain a minimum effective size of 150 individuals for breeding, genetic conservation, and environmental reforestation programs, seeds from at least 56 trees must be collected.

  14. Mating system in a natural population of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum., by microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Rafael M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the mating system of a natural population of Theobroma grandiflorum (cupuassu from Nova Ipixuna, Pará state, using microsatellite markers. Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were analyzed in eight families, each represented by 10 six-month old seedlings derived from open-pollinated pods. The estimation for the multilocus outcrossing rate (m = 1.0 and individual outcrossing rate ( = 1.0 for this population suggests that T. grandiflorum may be a perfect outbreeding (allogamous species. Likewise, for the studied population the estimate for single locus outcrossing rate (S was elevated (0.946, but lower than m, confirming the likely outcrossing character of the species and suggesting the occurrence of 5.4% biparental inbreeding rate (m - S. The estimation of genetic divergence (st between allelic frequencies in ovules and pollen revealed a deviation from random mating in 75% of the evaluated loci. Likewise, the estimate of correlation of paternity (P = 0.930 and the mean coefficient of co-ancestrality within families (XY = 0.501 indicated that the outcrossings were predominantly correlated, and the offspring were full-sibs. These results suggested that for this particular population of T. grandiflorum, the sampling strategy for genetic conservation and breeding should adopt specific models for families derived from correlated outcrossing (full-sibs and not the ones usually adopted in classic outcrossing species breeding programs (half-sibs.

  15. Variation in the Mating Systems of Wrasses (Labridae at a Spawning Aggregation Site on Guam, Mariana Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry J. Donaldson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The wrasses (family Labridae exhibit a diverse number of mating strategies and behaviors. This diversity is expressed not only interspecifically but also intraspecifically. At Guam, Mariana Islands, over twenty species of wrasses spawn on a small, shallow coral reef known as Finger Reef that projects outward from the main reef into Apra Harbor. Preliminary observations indicated that the mating system utilized by some wrasses varied within species. To examine why this occurs, I utilized direct visual observations supplemented by underwater video and photography. I recorded the identity of the species courting, the number of individuals participating, the distribution of male mating territories, courtship and spawning behaviors, and courtship success. Field work utilized snorkeling for several hours a day variously within the lunar month during 2013-2015. I found that courtship and spawning occurs either in temporary resident spawning aggregations or within a protogynous haremic mating system. Within spawning aggregations, mating systems include a lek-like system with paired spawning, and group or promiscuous spawning. Haremic species followed the traditional single male-multiple female model. Both group-spawning and haremic species, however, also spawned in simple male-female pairs. Sneaking or streaking behavior during pelagic spawning events were observed in all mating systems. The results of these observations found that lek-like behavior and group spawning were dependent upon higher densities of males and females at the site. At lower densities, however, some species reverted to simple paired spawning while others used a haremic system rather than a lek-like system. This suggests that some species of wrasses practice a mixed strategy that is dependent upon fish density during the courtship period.

  16. EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Richard G

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heliconius butterflies possess a remarkable diversity of phenotypes, physiologies, and behaviors that has long distinguished this genus as a focal taxon in ecological and evolutionary research. Recently Heliconius has also emerged as a model system for using genomic methods to investigate the causes and consequences of biological diversity. One notable aspect of Heliconius diversity is a dichotomy in mating systems which provides an unusual opportunity to investigate the relationship between sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive proteins. As a first step in pursuing this research, we report the generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from the male accessory gland of H. erato and H. melpomene, species representative of the two mating systems present in the genus Heliconius. Results We successfully sequenced 933 ESTs clustering into 371 unigenes from H. erato and 1033 ESTs clustering into 340 unigenes from H. melpomene. Results from the two species were very similar. Approximately a third of the unigenes showed no significant BLAST similarity (E-value -5 to sequences in GenBank's non-redundant databases, indicating that a large proportion of novel genes are expressed in Heliconius male accessory glands. In both species only a third of accessory gland unigenes were also found among genes expressed in wing tissue. About 25% of unigenes from both species encoded secreted proteins. This includes three groups of highly abundant unigenes encoding repetitive proteins considered to be candidate seminal fluid proteins; proteins encoded by one of these groups were detected in H. erato spermatophores. Conclusion This collection of ESTs will serve as the foundation for the future identification and evolutionary analysis of male reproductive proteins in Heliconius butterflies. These data also represent a significant advance in the rapidly growing collection of genomic resources available in Heliconius

  17. Population structure and mating system of the Red-crested Korhaan(Lophotis ruficrista) in South Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johann; H; van; Niekerk

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mating system of the korhaans and bustards in southern Africa is either based on polygyny or monogamy. The Red-crested Korhaan(Lophotis ruficrista) has been described as polygynous but otherwise very little is known about its breeding biology. The aims were to describe the population structure and male behavior during breeding.Methods: The data collected for this paper was mainly based on field transect surveys carried out in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The population structure of the Red-crested Korhaan in the temperate Borakalalo Game Reserve(BGR)was compared with that in the arid Molopo Nature Reserve(MNR)(both situated in the North West province of South Africa). The study was mainly conducted in the BGR but additional work was conducted in the MNR for comparison.Results: The difference in mean group sizes between MNR(1.03) and BGR(1.07) was statistically not significant.Group sizes were not affected by climate despite the fact that the BGR received about 650 mm precipitation per annum and the MNR about 200 mm. In both reserves the apparent sex ratios were skewed in favor of males(1:0.29 in the BGR and 1:0.1 in the MNR). The population was dispersed in a clumped manner which is ascribed to the formation of leks. Leks were positioned in open habitat while females invariably concealed themselves under cover.Conclusions: The leks formed the pivot of the mating system of the Red-crested Korhaan and are identifiable social structures that field ecologists can use to monitor population stability.

  18. Genetic associations under mixed mating systems: the Bennett-Binet effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, J A; del Castillo, R F

    2001-12-01

    Using elementary algebraic geometry and computational commutative algebra, supported by the program Macaulay2, we studied and developed operators that define the zygotic and gametic evolution under a mixed-mating system with parameters s selfing rate, r recombination rate, and g relative fitness of inbreeders, for any possible combination of initial zygotic or gametic frequencies with two alleles at each of two loci. We found that (i) the allelic frequencies are preserved in every generation; (ii) the gametic frequencies converge to values that depend exclusively on the allelic frequencies; (iii) every zygotic population converges to a population in equilibrium with double heterozygotes equally frequent; (iv) the rate of convergence decreases to arbitrary small values with sufficiently small values of r or with sufficiently large values of s and (v) as g decreases, the maximal 'association between the two loci' occurs with higher values of selfing. We also found generalizations for the case of several alleles at each locus. PMID:12041933

  19. Mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin-Hong; Lee, Soon-Leong; Ng, Kevin Kit-Siong; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2009-04-01

    The mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis) were studied using allozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, respectively. Multi-locus outcrossing rate estimations indicated that the hybrid was predominantly outcrossed (mean+/- s.e. t(m) = 0.86+/-0.01). Seed variation was investigated using 35 polymorphic RAPD fragments. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the highest genetic variation among seeds within a pod (66%-70%), followed by among pods within inflorescence (29%-37%), and the least variation among inflorescences within tree (1%). In addition, two to four RAPD profiles could be detected among seeds within pod. Therefore, the results suggest that a maximum of four seeds per pod could be sampled for the establishment of a mapping population for further studies. PMID:19417541

  20. Termitomyces sp. associated with the termite Macrotermes natalensis has a heterothallic mating system and multinucleate cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Andersen, Anders; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2005-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Termitomyces live in an obligate symbiosis with termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae. Many species of Termitomyces frequently form fruit bodies, which develop from the fungus comb within the nest. In this study, we determined the mating system of a species of Termitomyces...... associated with the South African termite Macrotermes natalensis. Termite nests were excavated and a Termitomyces sp. was isolated into pure culture from the asexual fruit bodies (nodules) growing in the fungus gardens. For one strain, single basidiospore cultures were obtained from basidiomes growing from...... the fungus comb after incubation without termites. Using nuclear staining, we show that both comb cultures and single spore cultures have multinucleate cells and that the majority of spores has a single nucleus. However, DNA sequencing of the ITS region in the nuclear RNA gene revealed that the comb...

  1. Mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium × A. auriculiformis)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chin-Hong Ng; Soon-Leong Lee; Kevin Kit-Siong Ng; Norwati Muhammad; Wickneswari Ratnam

    2009-04-01

    The mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium × A. auriculiformis) were studied using allozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, respectively. Multi-locus outcrossing rate estimations indicated that the hybrid was predominantly outcrossed (mean±s.e. $t_{m} = 0.86\\pm 0.01$). Seed variation was investigated using 35 polymorphic RAPD fragments. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the highest genetic variation among seeds within a pod (66%–70%), followed by among pods within inflorescence (29%–37%), and the least variation among inflorescences within tree (< 1%). In addition, two to four RAPD profiles could be detected among seeds within pod. Therefore, the results suggest that a maximum of four seeds per pod could be sampled for the establishment of a mapping population for further studies.

  2. Sample size for collecting germplasms – a polyploid model with mixed mating system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R L Sapra; Prem Narain; S V S Chauhan; S K Lal; B B Singh

    2003-03-01

    The present paper discusses a general expression for determining the minimum sample size (plants) for a given number of seeds or vice versa for capturing multiple allelic diversity. The model considers sampling from a large 2 k-ploid population under a broad range of mating systems. Numerous expressions/results developed for germplasm collection/regeneration for diploid populations by earlier workers can be directly deduced from our general expression by assigning appropriate values of the corresponding parameters. A seed factor which influences the plant sample size has also been isolated to aid the collectors in selecting the appropriate combination of number of plants and seeds per plant. When genotypic multiplicity of seeds is taken into consideration, a sample size of even less than 172 plants can conserve diversity of 20 alleles from 50,000 polymorphic loci with a very large probability of conservation (0.9999) in most of the cases.

  3. Yerba Mate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can stimulate the body. Some medications used for depression can also stimulate the body. Drinking yerba mate and taking some medications for depression might cause too much stimulation to the body and serious side effects including fast heartbeat, high ...

  4. Mating system, population growth, and management scenario for Kalanchoe pinnata in an invaded seasonally dry tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de León, Salvador; Herrera, Ileana; Guevara, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Ecological invasions are a major issue worldwide, where successful invasion depends on traits that facilitate dispersion, establishment, and population growth. The nonnative succulent plant Kalanchoe pinnata, reported as invasive in some countries, is widespread in remnants of seasonally dry tropical forest on a volcanic outcrop with high conservation value in east-central Mexico where we assessed its mating system and demographic growth and identified management strategies. To understand its local mating system, we conducted hand-pollination treatments, germination, and survival experiments. Based on the experimental data, we constructed a life-stage population matrix, identified the key traits for population growth, weighted the contributions of vegetative and sexual reproduction, and evaluated management scenarios. Hand-pollination treatments had slight effects on fruit and seed setting, as well as on germination. With natural pollination treatment, the successful germination of seeds from only 2/39 fruit suggests occasional effective natural cross-pollination. The ratios of the metrics for self- and cross-pollinated flowers suggest that K. pinnata is partially self-compatible. Most of the pollinated flowers developed into fruit, but the seed germination and seedling survival rates were low. Thus, vegetative propagation and juvenile survival are the main drivers of population growth. Simulations of a virtual K. pinnata population suggest that an intense and sustained weeding campaign will reduce the population within at least 10 years. Synthesis and applications. The study population is partially self-compatible, but sexual reproduction by K. pinnata is limited at the study site, and population growth is supported by vegetative propagation and juvenile survival. Demographic modeling provides key insights and realistic forecasts on invasion process and therefore is useful to design management strategies. PMID:27386095

  5. Female mate choice based on pheromone content may inhibit reproductive isolation between distinct populations of Iberian wall lizards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marianne GABIROT; Pilar L(O)PEZ; José MART(I)N

    2013-01-01

    The Iberian wall lizard Podarcis hispanica forms part of a species complex with several morphologically and genetically distinct types and populations,which may or may not be reproductively isolated.We analyzed whether female mate choice based on males' chemical signals may contribute to a current pre-mating reproductive isolation between two distinct populations of P.hispanica from central Spain.We experimentally examined whether females choose to establish territories on areas scent-marked by males of their own population,versus areas marked by males of the other population.Results showed that females did not prefer scent-marks of males from their own population.In contrast,females seemed to attend mostly to among-individual variation in males' pheromones that did not differ between populations.Finally,to test for strong premating reproductive isolation,we staged intersexual encounters between males and females.The population of origin of males and females did not affect the probability nor the duration of copulations.We suggest that the different environmental conditions in each population might be selecting for different morphologies and different chemical signals of males that maximize efficiency of communication in each environment.However,females in both populations based mate choice on a similar condition-dependent signal of males.Thus,male signals and female mate choice criteria could be precluding premating reproductive isolation between these phenotypically “distinct” populations.

  6. Roles of semiochemicals in mating systems: A comparison between Oriental fruit fly and Medfly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    behaviour in natural populations. In this paper, we compare the roles of specific male attractants in the mating system of the Oriental fruit fly and the Medfly

  7. Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomey Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration.

  8. Comparative analysis of male androgen responsiveness to social environment in birds: the effects of mating system and paternal incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Winkler, Hans; Oliveira, Rui F

    2003-04-01

    Male androgen responses to social challenges have been predicted to vary with mating system, male-male aggressiveness, and the degree of paternal investment in birds ("challenge hypothesis," Am. Nat. 136 (1990), 829). This study focused on the interspecific predictions of the challenge hypothesis. Comparative methods were used to control for effects of the phylogenetic relatedness among the sampled species. Male androgen data of 84 bird species were collected from literature records on seasonal androgen patterns. From these, the androgen responsiveness (AR) was calculated as described in the original challenge hypothesis (i.e., maximum physiological level/breeding baseline). Scatterplots of AR versus mating strategy, male-male aggressiveness, and the degree of paternal care confirmed the expected interspecific patterns. When phylogenetic analyses were performed among all of the sampled species, the effects of paternal investment disappeared while the AR remained covarying to a high degree with mating system and male-male aggressiveness. Although these mechanisms may be different at the intraspecific level, this suggests that interspecific differences of AR in male birds may have evolved in response to changes of mating strategies, rather than in response to altered paternal duties. However, control for phylogeny among the subsample of 32 passerine species revealed that if any paternal investment contributed to the observed variance in AR, then the change from "no male incubation" to "male shares incubation duties" represented the most effective, whereas the male's contribution to feeding offspring did not explain the observed variation of AR. PMID:12788297

  9. Non-density dependent pollen dispersal of Shorea maxwelliana (Dipterocarpaceae revealed by a Bayesian mating model based on paternity analysis in two synchronized flowering seasons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Masuda

    Full Text Available Pollinator syndrome is one of the most important determinants regulating pollen dispersal in tropical tree species. It has been widely accepted that the reproduction of tropical forest species, especially dipterocarps that rely on insects with weak flight for their pollination, is positively density-dependent. However differences in pollinator syndrome should affect pollen dispersal patterns and, consequently, influence genetic diversity via the mating process. We examined the pollen dispersal pattern and mating system of Shorea maxwelliana, the flowers of which are larger than those of Shorea species belonging to section Mutica which are thought to be pollinated by thrips (weak flyers. A Bayesian mating model based on the paternity of seeds collected from mother trees during sporadic and mass flowering events revealed that the estimated pollen dispersal kernel and average pollen dispersal distance were similar for both flowering events. This evidence suggests that the putative pollinators - small beetles and weevils - effectively contribute to pollen dispersal and help to maintain a high outcrossing rate even during sporadic flowering events. However, the reduction in pollen donors during a sporadic event results in a reduction in effective pollen donors, which should lead to lower genetic diversity in the next generation derived from seeds produced during such an event. Although sporadic flowering has been considered less effective for outcrossing in Shorea species that depend on thrips for their pollination, effective pollen dispersal by the small beetles and weevils ensures outcrossing during periods of low flowering tree density, as occurs in a sporadic flowering event.

  10. Sex-biased predation by polecats influences the mating system of frogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Lodé, Thierry; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Lesbarrères, David; Pagano, Alain

    2004-01-01

    In agile frogs, Rana dalmatina, an increase in male-biased operational sex ratio and in male abundance results in the emergence of alternative male mating behaviour in the form of searching. As a consequence, females are coerced into mating with multiple males, which in turn increases the level of conflict between the sexes. Selective predation on males by the European polecat, Mustela putorius, decreases the occurrence of polyandry. In ponds visited by polecats, the sex ratio is less male bi...

  11. Mating system and pollen dispersal in Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) germplasm collection: tools for conservation and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Collevatti, Rosane G; Chaves, Lázaro J; Moreira, Lucas R; Telles, Mariana P C

    2016-04-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) is a perennial tree producing edible fruits and ornamental flowers of potential value widely distributed in Brazilian "Cerrados" (savannas), but available genetic resources and potential for future breeding programs must be evaluated. Here we evaluated the reproductive system and pollen-mediated gene flow in one generation of Eugenia dysenterica germplasm collection of Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás (in Goiânia city, Central Brazil). We collected leaves from all adults from the germplasm collection (682 plants) and seeds (542) from 23 mother-trees. Genotypes were obtained for seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was high and did not significantly differ between adults (H e  = 0.777) and progeny arrays (H e  = 0.617). Our results showed that E. dysenterica has an allogamous mating system in the germplasm collection (t m  = 0.957), but with high and significant biparental inbreeding (t m  - t s  = 0.109). Because sibs are very close to each other, mating between closely related individuals is likely. Paternity correlation was also relatively high, indicating a 11.9 % probability that a randomly chosen pair of outcrossed progeny from the same array are full sibs. The maximum pollen dispersal distance (224 m), estimated using assignment test, corresponded to the boundaries of the orchard. We were able to assign the paternity to only 64 % of the 349 seeds analyzed, indicating potential pollen immigration to the germplasm collection. The variance effective population size estimated for one maternal family in the germplasm collection (N ev  = 3.42) is very close to the theoretical maximum value for half-sibs (Nev = 4.0). Because E. dysenterica has a long life cycle and generation time, the maintenance of an effective population size of at least 100 in the germplasm collection is suggested, which can be achieved by maintaining a seed-trees number around 30 individuals. PMID:26862083

  12. Contribution of pheromones processed by the main olfactory system to mate recognition in female mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheal J. Baum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until recently it was widely believed that the ability of female mammals (with the likely exception of women to identify and seek out a male breeding partner relied on the detection of non-volatile male pheromones by the female’s vomeronasal organ and their subsequent processing by a neural circuit that includes the accessory olfactory bulb, vomeronasal amygdala, and hypothalamus. Emperical data are reviewed in this paper that demonstrate the detection of volatile pheromones by the main olfactory epithelium of female mice which, in turn, leads to the activation of a population of glomeruli and abutting mitral cells in the main olfactory bulb (MOB. Anatomical results along with functional neuroanatomical data demonstrate that some of these MOB mitral cells project to the vomeronasal amygdala. These particular MOB mitral cells were selectively activated (i.e., expressed Fos protein by exposure to male as opposed to female urinary volatiles. A similar selectivity to opposite sex urinary volatiles was also seen in mitral cells of the accessory olfactory bulb of female mice. Behavioral data from female mouse, ferret, and human are reviewed that implicate the main olfactory system, in some cases interacting with the accessory olfactory system, in mate recognition.

  13. Severe outbreeding and inbreeding depression maintain mating system differentiation in Epipactis (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brys, R; Jacquemyn, H

    2016-02-01

    In hermaphroditic plants, theory for mating system evolution predicts that populations will evolve to either complete autonomous selfing (AS) or complete outcrossing, depending on the balance between automatic selection favouring self-fertilization and costs resulting from inbreeding depression (ID). Theory also predicts that selection for selfing can occur rapidly and is driven by purging of genetic load and the loss of ID. Therefore, selfing species are predicted to have low levels of ID or even to suffer from outbreeding depression (OD), whereas predominantly outcrossing species are expected to have high levels of ID. To test these predictions, we related the capacity of AS to the magnitude of early-acting inbreeding or OD in both allogamous and autogamous species of the orchid genus Epipactis. For each species, the level of AS was assessed under controlled greenhouse conditions, whereas hand-pollinations were performed to quantify early costs of inbreeding or OD acting at the level of fruit and seed production. In the autogamous species, the capacity of AS was high (> 0.72), whereas in the allogamous species AS was virtually absent (< 0.10). Consistent with our hypothesis, allogamous Epipactis species had significantly higher total ID (average: 0.46) than autogamous species, which showed severe costs of OD (average: -0.45). Overall, our findings indicate that strong early-acting ID represents an important mechanism that contributes to allogamy in Epipactis, whereas OD may maintain selfing in species that have evolved to complete selfing. PMID:26548440

  14. Effects of forest fragmentation on the mating system of a cool-temperate heterodichogamous tree Acer mono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kikuchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollination is a key process for reproduction and gene flow in flowering plants. Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation, however, can disrupt plant–pollinator interactions, and may have a negative impact on the reproductive success and population viability of entomophilous plants. Heterodichogamous plants containing protandrous and protogynous individuals within a population may be susceptible to habitat fragmentation due to a lack of available mating partners. In this study, we investigated the effects of forest fragmentation on the mating system in the heterodichogamous plant Acer mono, a major constituent of cool-temperate deciduous forests in Japan. Microsatellite analysis was applied to 212 adult trees and 17 seed families from continuous and fragmented forests. Dispersal kernel modeling using the neighborhood model indicated that pollen dispersal of A. mono was highly fat-tailed. The estimated parameters of the model suggested that the siring success of a pollen donor increased approximately fivefold, with a 100 cm increase in its diameter at breast height (DBH, and that disassortative mating was five times more frequent than assortative mating. The mating system parameters of each mother tree, outcrossing rate (tm, biparental inbreeding (tm−ts, and paternity correlation (rpm varied among sites and conditions, depending on the local density of potential pollen donors. Whereas A. mono was effectively outcrossed (tm=0.901, tm−ts=0.052, and the number of effective sires was 1/rpm=14.93 in the continuous forest, clumped trees within the fragmented forest showed increased biparental inbreeding and reduced pollen pool genetic diversity (tm=0.959, tm−ts=0.245,1/rpm=1.742 as a result of localized mating combined with spatial genetic structures. In contrast, the isolated trees had a higher selfing rate, but the pollen pool diversity was maintained (tm=0.801, tm−ts=0.022, and 1/rpm=15.63 due to frequent long-distance pollination. These

  15. Mating system in Mexican populations of the annual herb Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Marín, M; Solís-Montero, L; Souto Vilaros, D; Lee, M Y Q

    2013-11-01

    Traditionally, annual colonising species are expected to have high rates of self-fertilisation, although recent theoretical and empirical studies have shown that cross-fertilisation can be selected for under heterogeneous pollination environments. Solanum rostratum is a self-compatible annual herb that colonises disturbed habitats. Despite the lack of physiological mechanisms to prevent self-fertilisation, pollen transfer between individuals is expected to be favoured because of its complex floral morphology. In previous studies of S. rostratum it has been shown that anther dimorphism within flowers results in precise pollen placement on the pollinator's body, and the presence of mirror-image floral morphs within plants promotes outcrossing in experimental arrays. However, the mating system of natural populations of S. rostratum has never been assessed, and thus whether it is predominantly selfing or outcrossing remains unknown. We hypothesise that floral and inflorescence morphology of S. rostratum should facilitate cross-fertilisation, making it a predominantly outcrossing despite its lack of a self-incompatibility system. To test this hypothesis, we estimated outcrossing rates by genotyping 700 individuals at 13 microsatellite loci, sampled from four populations across a 690-km transect in the species' native range. We found that populations had mean outcrossing rates of 0.70 ± 0.03, with multiple sires contributing to paternity of each progeny array (average effective number of sires = 8.97 ± 0.57). This indicates that natural populations S. rostratum have relatively high levels of outcrossing, probably facilitated by its floral and inflorescence morphology. We speculate that partial selfing in this species may be an unavoidable consequence of displaying multiple flowers at the same time (geitonogamy), as well as the result of self-pollen transfer by illegitimate visitors. PMID:23294438

  16. S-MATE: Secure Coding-based Multipath Adaptive Traffic Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Aly, Salah A.; Ansari, Nirwan; Walid, Anwar I.; Poor, H. Vincent

    2010-01-01

    There have been several approaches to provisioning traffic between core network nodes in Internet Service Provider (ISP) networks. Such approaches aim to minimize network delay, increase network capacity, and enhance network security services. MATE (Multipath Adaptive Traffic Engineering) protocol has been proposed for multipath adaptive traffic engineering between an ingress node (source) and an egress node (destination). Its novel idea is to avoid network congestion and attacks that might e...

  17. Estimation of in situ mating systems in wild sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in Ethiopia using SSR-based progeny array data: implications for the spread of crop genes into the wild

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asfaw Adugna; Patty M. Sweeney; Endashaw Bekele

    2013-04-01

    Because transgenic sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is being developed for Africa, we investigated the potential for transgenes to spread to conspecific wild/weedy sorghum populations in Ethiopia, which is considered the centre of origin of cultivated sorghum. In the current study, the extent of outcrossing, and uniparental and biparental inbreeding were investigated in seven wild/weedy sorghum populations collected at elevations ranging from 631 to 1709 m. Based on allele frequency data of 1120 progenies and 140 maternal plants from five polymorphic microsatellite markers, outcrossing rates were estimated using standard procedures. The average multilocus outcrossing rate was 0.51, with a range of 0.31–0.65 among populations, and the family outcrossing rate was in the extreme range of 0 to 100%. The highest outcrossing ($t_{m} = 0.65$) was recorded in a weedy population that was intermixed with an improved crop variety in Abuare (Wello region). It was also observed that the inbreeding coefficient of the progenies ($F_{\\text{p}}$) tend to be more than the inbreeding coefficient of both their maternal parents ($F_{\\text{m}}$) and the level of inbreeding expected at equilibrium ($F_{\\text{eq}}$), which is a characteristic of predominantly outbreeding species. Biparental inbreeding was evident in all populations and averaged 0.24 (range = 0.10–0.33). The high outcrossing rates of wild/weedy sorghum populations in Ethiopia indicate a high potential for crop genes (including transgenes) to spread within the wild pool. Therefore, effective risk management strategies may be needed if the introgression of transgenes or other crop genes from improved cultivars into wild or weedy populations is deemed to be undesirable.

  18. An essential role of the arginine vasotocin system in mate-guarding behaviors in triadic relationships of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Yokoi

    Full Text Available To increase individual male fitness, males of various species remain near a (potential mating partner and repel their rivals (mate-guarding. Mate-guarding is assumed to be mediated by two different types of motivation: sexual motivation toward the opposite sex and competitive motivation toward the same sex. The genetic/molecular mechanisms underlying how mate presence affects male competitive motivation in a triadic relationship has remained largely unknown. Here we showed that male medaka fish prominently exhibit mate-guarding behavior. The presence of a female robustly triggers male-male competition for the female in a triadic relationship (2 males and 1 female. The male-male competition resulted in one male occupying a dominant position near the female while interfering with the other male's approach of the female. Paternity testing revealed that the dominant male had a significantly higher mating success rate than the other male in a triadic relationship. We next generated medaka mutants of arginine-vasotocin (avt and its receptors (V1a1, V1a2 and revealed that two genes, avt and V1a2, are required for normal mate-guarding behavior. In addition, behavioral analysis of courtship behaviors in a dyadic relationship and aggressive behaviors within a male group revealed that avt mutant males displayed decreased sexual motivation but showed normal aggression. In contrast, heterozygote V1a2 mutant males displayed decreased aggression, but normal mate-guarding and courtship behavior. Thus, impaired mate-guarding in avt and V1a2 homozygote mutants may be due to the loss of sexual motivation toward the opposite sex, and not to the loss of competitive motivation toward rival males. The different behavioral phenotypes between avt, V1a2 heterozygote, and V1a2 homozygote mutants suggest that there are redundant systems to activate V1a2 and that endogenous ligands activating the receptor may differ according to the social context.

  19. An Essential Role of the Arginine Vasotocin System in Mate-Guarding Behaviors in Triadic Relationships of Medaka Fish (Oryzias latipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Saori; Okuyama, Teruhiro; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Ansai, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Masato; Young, Larry J.; Takemori, Nobuaki; Kubo, Takeo; Takeuchi, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    To increase individual male fitness, males of various species remain near a (potential) mating partner and repel their rivals (mate-guarding). Mate-guarding is assumed to be mediated by two different types of motivation: sexual motivation toward the opposite sex and competitive motivation toward the same sex. The genetic/molecular mechanisms underlying how mate presence affects male competitive motivation in a triadic relationship has remained largely unknown. Here we showed that male medaka fish prominently exhibit mate-guarding behavior. The presence of a female robustly triggers male-male competition for the female in a triadic relationship (2 males and 1 female). The male-male competition resulted in one male occupying a dominant position near the female while interfering with the other male's approach of the female. Paternity testing revealed that the dominant male had a significantly higher mating success rate than the other male in a triadic relationship. We next generated medaka mutants of arginine-vasotocin (avt) and its receptors (V1a1, V1a2) and revealed that two genes, avt and V1a2, are required for normal mate-guarding behavior. In addition, behavioral analysis of courtship behaviors in a dyadic relationship and aggressive behaviors within a male group revealed that avt mutant males displayed decreased sexual motivation but showed normal aggression. In contrast, heterozygote V1a2 mutant males displayed decreased aggression, but normal mate-guarding and courtship behavior. Thus, impaired mate-guarding in avt and V1a2 homozygote mutants may be due to the loss of sexual motivation toward the opposite sex, and not to the loss of competitive motivation toward rival males. The different behavioral phenotypes between avt, V1a2 heterozygote, and V1a2 homozygote mutants suggest that there are redundant systems to activate V1a2 and that endogenous ligands activating the receptor may differ according to the social context. PMID:25719383

  20. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection. PMID:27276030

  1. CVD diamond coated silicon nitride self-mated systems : tribological behaviour under high loads

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, C. S.; Oliveira, F. J.; Belmonte, M.; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Gomes, J. R.; Silva, R. F.

    2006-01-01

    Friction and wear behaviour of self-mated chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond films coating silicon nitride ceramics (Si3N4) were investigated in ambient atmosphere. The tribological tests were conducted in a reciprocal motion ball-on-flat type tribometer under applied normal loads up to 80 N (~10 GPa). Several characterisation techniques - including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-Raman studies - were used in order to assess the quality, stress s...

  2. The role of a mixed mating system in the reproduction of a Mediterranean subshrub (Fumana hispidula, Cistaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrió, Elena; Güemes, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about mixed mating systems can improve our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of reproductive systems. Here we report a study of the pollination system (floral and reproductive biology, pollen limitation and stigmatic pollen load, floral visitors and inbreeding depression) of Fumana hispidula, a Mediterranean subshrub belonging to a species group with a strong selfing tendency. Autonomous self-pollination, hand self- and hand cross-pollination, open pollination and controls yielded fruits (0.28, 0.65, 0.68, 0.38, and 0.67, respectively); however, autonomous self-pollination resulted in the lowest fruit set. All individuals were fully self-compatible but we found great inter-individual variation in autonomous self-pollination ability, which was probably related to a variable expression of herkogamy degree. Inbreeding depression was low (0.040 for fruit set, 0.015 for seed set and -0.026 for seed mass). The pollen supplementation experiment did not reveal pollen limitation and pollinators were seen visiting the flowers during the observation periods. These results support the idea that F. hispidula has a mixed mating strategy, which represents a successful reproduction mode in their patchy habitats. PMID:22790401

  3. Strong inbreeding depression and individually variable mating system in the narrow endemic Erodium cazorlanum (Geraniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, Conchita

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiosperms evolved different systems to attract effective pollinators while reducing selfing in hermaphroditic flowers. Selfing ability can be advantageous when pollinators and/or mates are scarce, although inbreeding depression may largely reduce those advantages. Recent comparative analyses suggested endemic species tend to evolve self-compatibility but a better understanding of the associated reproductive and genetic tradeoffs is required. Experimental hand-pollinations under greenhouse conditions were conducted to investigate the selfing ability and estimate inbreeding depression up to the offspring’ first reproductive event in Ero dium cazorlanum, a narrow endemic species restricted to dolomite outcrops in SE Spanish mountains. We found autonomous selfing ineffective. Further, when experimentally applied, pollen of the same flower produced significantly fewer fruits and seeds compared to geitonogamous and cross pollinations. The number of seeds per fruit was significantly higher after cross pollinations and strong inbreeding depression accumulated through the life-cycle. Interestingly, individual plants exhibited broad variation in selfing ability with six out of 14 individuals producing no seed after geitonogamy. Understanding the consequences of individual variation in self compatibility deserves further investigation in the field now that we know that strong inbreeding depression may limit recruitment of selfed progeny.Las Angiospermas han desarrollado diversos sistemas para atraer polinizadores eficientes y al mismo tiempo reducir la posibilidad de autopolinización asociada al hermafroditismo. La capacidad de autopolinización puede ser ventajosa en situaciones de escasez de polinizadores y/o individuos reproductores, beneficios que pueden reducirse ampliamente a causa de la depresión por endogamia. Análisis filogenéticos recientes indicaron que las especies endémicas tienden a presentar sistemas de autocompatibilidad, por tanto

  4. Pollen Performance in Clarkia Taxa with Contrasting Mating Systems: Implications for Male Gametophytic Evolution in Selfers and Outcrossers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa A. Hove

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We tested three predictions regarding the joint evolution of pollen performance and mating system. First, due to the potential for intense intrasexual competition in outcrossing populations, we predicted that outcrossers would produce faster-growing pollen than their selfing relatives. Second, if elevated competition promotes stronger selection on traits that improve pollen performance, then, among-plant variation in pollen performance would be lower in outcrossers than in selfers. Third, given successive generations of adaptation to the same maternal genotype in selfers, we predicted that, in selfing populations (but not in outcrossing ones, pollen would perform better following self- than cross-pollinations. We tested these predictions in field populations of two pairs of Clarkia (Onagraceae sister taxa. Consistent with our predictions, one outcrosser (C. unguiculata exhibited faster pollen germination and less variation in pollen tube growth rate (PTGR among pollen donors than its selfing sister species, C. exilis. Contrary to our predictions, the selfing C. xantiana ssp. parviflora exhibited faster PTGR than the outcrossing ssp. xantiana, and these taxa showed similar levels of variation in this trait. Pollen performance following self- vs. cross-pollinations did not differ within either selfing or outcrossing taxa. While these findings suggest that mating system and pollen performance may jointly evolve in Clarkia, other factors clearly contribute to pollen performance in natural populations.

  5. Do mate preferences influence actual mating decisions? Evidence from computer simulations and three studies of mated couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2016-07-01

    Evolutionary research continues to discover new features of human mate preferences, but the downstream consequences of these preferences for mate selection have been insufficiently explored. Some have inferred that stated preferences have few behavioral consequences given seemingly weak effects of preferences in predicting mating outcomes. Here we test this inference with data from simulated mating markets as well as from real-world couples. We generate a series of agent-based models in which preferences either do or do not drive mate selection. We compare these simulations with 3 empirical studies of real-world couples (Study 1, n = 214; Study 2, n = 259; Study 3, n = 294). Preference-driven agent based models produce several effects that emerge in real couples, but not within random simulations. These include low-magnitude correlations between stated preferences and the individual traits of chosen partners; the novel finding that people with high mate value leverage that value into securing partners with more desirable traits; and the finding that couples assort based on overall mate value. Moreover, real-world mate choices correspond strongly with preference-driven simulations, but not to simulations in which mate selection is random with respect to preferences. Finally, we provide evidence that these effects are due to the causal role of stated preferences, and are not better explained by people updating their mate preferences to match chosen mates. These results provide new evidence that stated mate preferences guide actual mate selections under real mating-market constraints. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337140

  6. Tools for Tomorrow's Science and Technology Workforce: MATE's 2006 ROV Competition Sets Students' Sights on Ocean Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zande, Jill; Meeson, Blanche; Cook, Susan; Matsumoto, George

    2006-01-01

    Teams participating in the 2006 ROV competition organized by the Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center and the Marine Technology Society's (MTS) ROV Committee experienced first-hand the scientific and technical challenges that many ocean scientists, technicians, and engineers face every day. The competition tasked more than 1,000 middle and high school, college, and university students from Newfoundland to Hong Kong with designing and building ROVs to support the next generation of ocean observing systems. Teaming up with the National Office for Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observations, Ocean. US, and the Ocean Research Interactive Observatory Networks (ORION) Program, the competition highlighted ocean observing systems and the careers, organizations, and technologies associated with ocean observatories. The student teams were challenged to develop vehicles that can deploy, install, and maintain networks of instruments as well as to explore the practical applications and the research questions made possible by observing systems.

  7. Assessing paternity in japanese quails (Coturnix japonica using microsatellite markers - inferences for its mating system and reproductive success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Gomes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers were analyzed in Japanese quails, Coturnix japonica, using different methodologies (PAGE and automated genotyping, in order to evaluate their use in paternity testing. Ten animal triplets composed by a female and two males were used to mate and generate an offspring. Paternity was determined in five-day-old embryos, and the data generated by fluorescent labeled and tailored primers in PCR and further automated genotyping were robust. Three microsatellite markers were polymorphic (Na = 5-8, H E = 0.75 and no loci were found to deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or showed any evidence of linkage disequilibrium (p > 0.05. A slight heterozygote deficiency and some incompatibilities between the female known parent and its offspring that involved homozygous genotypes were observed at GUJ0001 locus and may indicate the presence of null alleles. Although a reduced set of microsatellite primers were applied, it was possible to determine the paternity of 96.87% of the embryos, using combined data of three loci. The approach was useful for parentage inferring in a captive population of C. japonica and the results evidenced a potential polyandric mating system in the species, in which no advantage mechanism of last-male sperm precedence seems to occur.

  8. Human species and mating systems: Neandertal-Homo sapiens reproductive isolation and the archaeological and fossil records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmann, Karenleigh; Coolidge, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    The present paper examined the assumption of strong reproductive isolation (RI) between Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens, as well as the question of what form it might have taken, using insights from the parallel case of chimpanzee–bonobo hybridization. RI from hybrid sterility or inviability was thought unlikely based on the short separation-to-introgression timeline. The forms of RI that typically develop in primates have relatively short timelines (especially for partial implementation); they generally preclude mating or influence hybrid survival and reproduction in certain contexts, and they have the potential to skew introgression directionality. These RI barriers are also consistent with some interpretations of the archaeological and fossil records, especially when behavioral, cognitive, morphological, and genetic differences between the two human species are taken into consideration. Differences potentially influencing patterns of survival and reproduction include interspecies violence, Neandertal xenophobia, provisioning behavior, and ontogenetic, morphological, and behavioral differences affecting matters such as kin and mate recognition, infanticide, and sexual selection. These factors may have skewed the occurrence of interbreeding or the survival and reproduction of hybrids in a way that might at least partially explain the pattern of introgression. PMID:24344097

  9. Dopaminergic Circuitry Underlying Mating Drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Stephen X; Rogulja, Dragana; Crickmore, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    We develop a new system for studying how innate drives are tuned to reflect current physiological needs and capacities, and how they affect sensory-motor processing. We demonstrate the existence of male mating drive in Drosophila, which is transiently and cumulatively reduced as reproductive capacity is depleted by copulations. Dopaminergic activity in the anterior of the superior medial protocerebrum (SMPa) is also transiently and cumulatively reduced in response to matings and serves as a functional neuronal correlate of mating drive. The dopamine signal is transmitted through the D1-like DopR2 receptor to P1 neurons, which also integrate sensory information relevant to the perception of females, and which project to courtship motor centers that initiate and maintain courtship behavior. Mating drive therefore converges with sensory information from the female at the point of transition to motor output, controlling the propensity of a sensory percept to trigger goal-directed behavior. PMID:27292538

  10. Mate preferences do predict attraction and choices in the early stages of mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Norman P; Yong, Jose C; Tov, William; Sng, Oliver; Fletcher, Garth J O; Valentine, Katherine A; Jiang, Yun F; Balliet, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Although mate preference research has firmly established that men value physical attractiveness more than women do and women value social status more than men do, recent speed-dating studies have indicated mixed evidence (at best) for whether people's sex-differentiated mate preferences predict actual mate choices. According to an evolutionary, mate preference priority model (Li, Bailey, Kenrick, & Linsenmeier, 2002; Li & Kenrick, 2006; Li, Valentine, & Patel, 2011), the sexes are largely similar in what they ideally like, but for long-term mates, they should differ on what they most want to avoid in early selection contexts. Following this model, we conducted experiments using online messaging and modified speed-dating platforms. Results indicate that when a mating pool includes people at the low end of social status and physical attractiveness, mate choice criteria are sex-differentiated: Men, more than women, chose mates based on physical attractiveness, whereas women, more than men, chose mates based on social status. In addition, individuals who more greatly valued social status or physical attractiveness on paper valued these traits more in their actual choices. In particular, mate choices were sex-differentiated when considering long-term relationships but not short-term ones, where both sexes shunned partners with low physical attractiveness. The findings validate a large body of mate preferences research and an evolutionary perspective on mating, and they have implications for research using speed-dating and other interactive contexts. PMID:23915041

  11. Genetic evaluation of the mating system in the blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna, Aves, Psittacidae by DNA fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Caparroz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 90% of birds are socially monogamous, although genetic studies indicate that many are often not sexually monogamous. In the present study, DNA fingerprinting was used to estimate the genetic relationships between nestlings belonging to the same broods to evaluate the mating system in the socially monogamous macaw, Ara ararauna. We found that in 10 of 11 broods investigated, the nestlings showed genetic similarity levels congruent with values expected among full-sibs, suggesting that they shared the same parents. However, in one brood, the low genetic similarity observed between nestlings could be a result of intraspecific brood parasitism, intraspecific nest competition or extra-pair paternity. These results, along with available behavioral and life-history data, imply that the blue-and-yellow macaw is not only socially, but also genetically monogamous. However, the occurrence of eventual cases of extra-pair paternity cannot be excluded.

  12. Genetic evaluation of the mating system in the blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna, Aves, Psittacidae) by DNA fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparroz, Renato; Miyaki, Cristina Y.; Baker, Allan J.

    2011-01-01

    More than 90% of birds are socially monogamous, although genetic studies indicate that many are often not sexually monogamous. In the present study, DNA fingerprinting was used to estimate the genetic relationships between nestlings belonging to the same broods to evaluate the mating system in the socially monogamous macaw, Ara ararauna. We found that in 10 of 11 broods investigated, the nestlings showed genetic similarity levels congruent with values expected among full-sibs, suggesting that they shared the same parents. However, in one brood, the low genetic similarity observed between nestlings could be a result of intraspecific brood parasitism, intraspecific nest competition or extra-pair paternity. These results, along with available behavioral and life-history data, imply that the blue-and-yellow macaw is not only socially, but also genetically monogamous. However, the occurrence of eventual cases of extra-pair paternity cannot be excluded. PMID:21637560

  13. Location of rut stands vs.mating opportunities in Przewalski's gazelle: A field test of the "Resource-based Hypothesis" and "Female Traffic Version of the Hotspot Hypothesis"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangqiang YOU; Zhigang JIANG; Chunwang LI

    2011-01-01

    We studied the mating tactics of Przewalski's gazelle on the Qinghal-Tibetan Plateau from 2002 to 2005.Przewalski's gazelle is a cluster mating animal whereby female groups,including juveniles,travel to and from their resting grounds along luted routes and dominant males stand on or near these travel routes during rut.To explain rut patterns in male gazelles,we tested predictions arising from the "Resource-based Hypothesis" and "Female Traffic Version of the Hotspot Hypothesis".We marked the location of each rut stand and female travel route,measured food availability in each rut stand and recorded the mating opportunities of rut stand owners.We also conducted a field experiment to force female groups to change their daily travel route,and observed whether males abandon their original rut stands and shift their rut stands to new travel routes of females during the 3rd rut.We found that:(1) male gazelle defending rut stands closer to a female travel route had a higher chance of mating; (2) food resources within rut stands had no effect on mating opportunities of the rut stand owner; (3) when the female travel route was obstructed,female groups changed grazing sites,and all males abandoned their original rut stands and defended new rut stands along the new female travel route.In conclusion,the location of rut stands in relation to female travel routes is the ultimate factor for consolidating mating opportunities in male gazelle,supporting the "Female Route Version of Hotspot Hypothesis"[Current Zoology 57 (6):701-708,2011].

  14. A reassessment of the mating system characteristics of the army ant Eciton burchellii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel Jan Christoph; Berghoff, Stefanie M.; Powell, Scott;

    2006-01-01

    In a recent study, Denny et al. (2004a) showed that queens of the army ant, Eciton burchellii, mate with multiple males and presented estimates suggesting that they mate with more males than queens of any other ant species so far investigated. They also inferred that data were consistent with...

  15. Strict monandry in the ponerine army ant genus Simopelta suggests that colony size and complexity drive mating system evolution in social insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C; O'Donnell, Sean; Boomsma, Jacobus J;

    2011-01-01

    queen mating frequencies, and therefore among the lowest degrees of colony relatedness, occur in Apis honeybees and army ants of the subfamilies Aenictinae, Ecitoninae, and Dorylinae, suggesting that common life history features such as reproduction by colony fission and male biased numerical sex......-ratios have convergently shaped these mating systems. Here we show that ponerine army ants of the genus Simopelta, which are distantly related but similar in general biology to other army ants, have strictly monandrous queens. Preliminary data suggest that workers reproduce in queenright colonies, which is in...

  16. Protocol for the MoleMate™ UK Trial: a randomised controlled trial of the MoleMate system in the management of pigmented skin lesions in primary care [ISRCTN 79932379

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Edward CF

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suspicious pigmented lesions are a common presenting problem in general practice consultations; while the majority are benign a small minority are melanomas. Differentiating melanomas from other pigmented lesions in primary care is challenging: currently, 95% of all lesions referred to a UK specialist are benign. The MoleMate system is a new diagnostic aid, incorporating a hand-held SIAscopy scanner with a primary care diagnostic algorithm. This trial tests the hypothesis that adding the MoleMate system to current best primary care practice will increase the proportion of appropriate referrals of suspicious pigmented lesions to secondary care compared with current best practice alone. Methods/design The MoleMate UK Trial is a primary care based multi-centre randomised controlled trial, with randomisation at patient level using a validated block randomisation method for two age groups (45 years and under; 46 years and over. We aim to recruit adult patients seen in general practice with a pigmented skin lesion that cannot immediately be diagnosed as benign and the patient reassured. The trial has a 'two parallel groups' design, comparing 'best practice' with 'best practice' plus the MoleMate system in the intervention group. The primary outcome is the positive predictive value (PPV of referral defined as the proportion of referred lesions seen by secondary care experts that are considered 'clinically significant' (i.e. biopsied or monitored. Secondary outcomes include: the sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value (NPV of the decision not to refer; clinical outcomes (melanoma thickness, 5 year melanoma incidence and mortality; clinician outcomes (Index of Suspicion, confidence, learning effects; patient outcomes (satisfaction, general and cancer-specific worry, and cost-utility. Discussion The MoleMate UK Trial tests a new technology designed to improve the management of suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care

  17. Mother-offspring data in a study of the mating system in a natural population of Bulinus globosus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukaratira, S.; Chandiwana, S.K.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef;

    1996-01-01

    The mating system of a natural population of Bulinus globosus from the Chiweshe area, Zimbabwe, was studied with mother-offspring data using isozyme genetic markers. The study was done in response to work on the genetic structure of this population which suggested a limited extent of cross...

  18. Human mate guarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, David M

    2002-12-01

    Long-term committed mating is a fundamental strategy in the human repertoire. Successful enactment of this strategy requires solving two related adaptive problems--fending off potential mate poachers and preventing a mates from defecting. Mate guarding adaptations evolved to solve these persistent problems. Those who failed in mate guarding risked suffering substantial reproductive costs ranging from genetic cuckoldry to reputational damage to the entire loss of a mate. Because the precise nature of the adaptive problems confronted differed historically for the sexes, men and women evolved corresponding differences in the underlying psychology of mate guarding. Men's mate guarding, relative to that of women's, is strongly triggered as a consequence of being mated to young and physically attractive women, being confronted by interested rivals who have superior economic resources or prospects, and having a mate who displays signs of sexual involvement with a rival. Women's mate guarding, relative to that of men's, is triggered as a consequence of being mated to men high in income and status striving, rivals who are more physically attractive, and having a partner who shows signs of emotional involvement with another woman. Behavioral output of mate guarding adaptations range from vigilance to violence. PMID:12496732

  19. Application of statistical emulation to an agent-based model: assortative mating and the reversal of gender inequality in education in Belgium.

    OpenAIRE

    De Mulder, Wim; Grow, André; Molenberghs, Geert; Verbeke, Geert

    2015-01-01

    We describe the application of statistical emulation to the outcomes of an agent-based model. The agent-based model simulates the mechanisms that might have linked the reversal of gender inequality in higher education with observed changes in educational assortative mating in Belgium. Using the statistical emulator as a computationally fast approximation to the expensive agent-based model, it is feasible to use a genetic algorithm in nding the parameter values for which the correspondin...

  20. Male mating biology

    OpenAIRE

    Howell Paul I; Knols Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes...

  1. A rule based computer aided design system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premack, T.

    1986-01-01

    A Computer Aided Design (CAD) system is presented which supports the iterative process of design, the dimensional continuity between mating parts, and the hierarchical structure of the parts in their assembled configuration. Prolog, an interactive logic programming language, is used to represent and interpret the data base. The solid geometry representing the parts is defined in parameterized form using the swept volume method. The system is demonstrated with a design of a spring piston.

  2. Sterile insect release and the natural mating system of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to assess the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in a natural population on Maui, HI. Systematic censuses of the study site were conducted before and after the release of marked sterile flies (both sexes), and the abundance and distribution of fruit flies and leks, incidence of male calling and number, and location of matings were recorded during the two periods. In both replicates, the abundance, distribution, and calling activity of wild males were largely unaffected by the released flies. Most of the released males joined preexisting mating aggregations of wild males and within these leks displayed similar calling activity as the wild males. Approximately 200 matings were observed following the release in each replicate. Three separate analyses indicated that in both replicates release males accounted for fewer matings with wild females than expected by chance. Given that sterile males settled and called in natural lek sites, it appears that their relatively low mating success resulted from an inability to attract wild females to their territory or perform courtship acceptable to females, or both. The results are discussed in light of current sterile insect techniques

  3. Electrician's Mate 3 & 2: Rate Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual provides information related to the tasks assigned to the Electrician's Mate Third and Second Class who operate and maintain power and lighting systems and associated equipment. Individual chapters deal with: career challenges for the Electrician's Mate, safety precautions, test equipment, electrical installations, A-C power…

  4. An ontology-based semantics for the Motivation Extension to ArchiMate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azevedo, Carlos L.B.; Almeida, João Paulo A.; Sinderen, van Marten; Quartel, Dick; Guizzardi, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    The “motivation domain” of an Enterprise Architecture addresses objectives in a broad scope ranging from high-level statements expressing the goals of an enterprise to declarations of requirements on business processes, services and systems. An important development regarding the incorporation of th

  5. How universal are human mate choices? Size does not matter when Hadza foragers are choosing a mate

    OpenAIRE

    Sear, Rebecca; Marlowe, Frank W.

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that size matters on the human mate market: both stated preferences and mate choices have been found to be non-random with respect to height and weight. But how universal are these patterns? Most of the literature on human mating patterns is based on post-industrial societies. Much less is known about mating behaviour in more traditional societies. Here we investigate mate choice by analysing whether there is any evidence for non-random mating with respect to size and stren...

  6. Conservation implications of the mating system of the Pampa Hermosa landrace of peach palm analyzed with microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogerio; Sebbenn, Alexandre M; Clement, Charles R

    2015-03-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) is cultivated by many indigenous and traditional communities from Amazonia to Central America for its edible fruits, and is currently important for its heart-of-palm. The objective of this study was to investigate the mating system of peach palm, as this is important for conservation and breeding. Eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype 24 open-pollinated progenies from three populations of the Pampa Hermosa landrace maintained in a progeny trial for genetic improvement. Both the multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.95 to 0.99) and the progeny level multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.9 to 1.0) were high, indicating that peach palm is predominantly allogamous. The outcrossing rates among relatives were significantly different from zero (0.101 to 0.202), providing evidence for considerable biparental inbreeding within populations, probably due to farmers planting seeds of a small number of open-pollinated progenies in the same plot. The correlations of paternity estimates were low (0.051 to 0.112), suggesting a large number of pollen sources (9 to 20) participating in pollination of individual fruit bunches. Effective population size estimates suggest that current germplasm collections are insufficient for long-term ex situ conservation. As with most underutilized crops, on farm conservation is the most important component of an integrated conservation strategy. PMID:25983626

  7. Conservation implications of the mating system of the Pampa Hermosa landrace of peach palm analyzed with microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes is cultivated by many indigenous and traditional communities from Amazonia to Central America for its edible fruits, and is currently important for its heart-of-palm. The objective of this study was to investigate the mating system of peach palm, as this is important for conservation and breeding. Eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype 24 open-pollinated progenies from three populations of the Pampa Hermosa landrace maintained in a progeny trial for genetic improvement. Both the multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.95 to 0.99 and the progeny level multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.9 to 1.0 were high, indicating that peach palm is predominantly allogamous. The outcrossing rates among relatives were significantly different from zero (0.101 to 0.202, providing evidence for considerable biparental inbreeding within populations, probably due to farmers planting seeds of a small number of open-pollinated progenies in the same plot. The correlations of paternity estimates were low (0.051 to 0.112, suggesting a large number of pollen sources (9 to 20 participating in pollination of individual fruit bunches. Effective population size estimates suggest that current germplasm collections are insufficient for long-term ex situ conservation. As with most underutilized crops, on farm conservation is the most important component of an integrated conservation strategy.

  8. Protecting artificial team-mates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; McGee, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on conversational, competitive, and cooperative systems suggests that people respond differently to humans and AI agents in terms of perception and evaluation of observed team-mate behavior. However, there has not been research examining the relationship between participants' pr...

  9. Mating systems in caridean shrimp (Decapoda: Caridea and their evolutionary consequences for sexual dimorphism and reproductive biology Sistemas de apareamiento en camarones carideos (Decapoda: Caridea y sus consecuencias evolutivas en el dimorfismo sexual y biología reproductiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIÁN CORREA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review functional and evolutionary relationships among mating systems of caridean shrimp and specific traits such as general biology/ecology, sexual systems, behavior and morphology. Four mating systems are described based on reports from available literature, and a fifth system is recognized but published information is insufficient to describe it in detail. `Monogamy' occurs in many species inhabiting monopolizable refuges or hosts, especially when environmental conditions restrict the probability of intraspecific interactions. In contrast, free-living species experience higher encounter rates and males can dominate or search. In `neighborhoods of dominance' mating systems, large males have higher reproductive success since they perform better in fights for receptive females. In `pure searching' mating systems, small and agile males do better because they search more efficiently for mates within the population. The fourth mating system is `search & attend' occurring in solitary symbionts, which experience variable ecological and demographic environments: depending on environmental conditions and ontogenetic stages it may either be profitable for males to search or to attend hosts with sexually attractive females. Sexual systems of caridean shrimp are characterized by their high diversity and intraspecific plasticity, including gonochorism and different forms of protandric or simultaneous hermaphroditism. The identified mating systems partially explained this diversity: In monogamous species, low encounter rates and lack of sexual dimorphism favors simultaneous hermaphroditism but gonochory usually occurs among these species probably because mates are not strictly faithful. Species with neighborhoods of dominance mating are gonochoristic because both sexes benefit from being large. Pure searching species have a wide opportunity for the evolution of protandry since small males benefit while the opposite is true for females. In

  10. The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation

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    Anna QVARNSTRÖM, Niclas VALLIN, Andreas RUDH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice. In particular, much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating. However, male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection. We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contest competition can affect speciation in ways other than mate choice. For example, biases in aggression towards similar competitors can lead to disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on the traits used in contest competition in a similar way as competition for other types of limited resources. Moreover, male contest abilities often trade-off against other abilities such as parasite resistance, protection against predators and general stress tolerance. Populations experiencing different ecological conditions should therefore quickly diverge non-randomly in a number of traits including male contest abilities. In resource based breeding systems, a feedback loop between competitive ability and habitat use may lead to further population divergence. We discuss how population divergence in traits used in male contest competition can lead to the build up of reproductive isolation through a number of different pathways. Our main conclusion is that the role of male contest competition in speciation remains largely scientifically unexplored [Current Zoology 58 (3: 490–506, 2012].

  11. Dietary energy in late pregnancy and during lactation and performance of Santa Inês sheep in an accelerated mating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Alexandre Boscaro Castro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate feed energy concentration in the last third of pregnancy and during lactation of ewe in an accelerated mating system. Three rations with different energy content were evaluated: 2.0; 2.2 and 2.4 Mcal of ME/kg DM, which were randomly distributed to the animals. Experimental rations were fed to animals in the last third of pregnancy and lactation for three consecutive productive cycles. Before start each period of provision of the rations, only females gestating one lamb were selected from a flock of 50 animals, being utilized 18; 19 and 18 ewes in the first, second and third cycle, respectively. At the beginning of each experimental period, ewes were at 105 days of gestation with an average body weight of 52.00 kg and average body condition score of 3.00. Newborn lambs remained with their mothers until weaning, at 60 days of age. After weaning, all ewes were managed on pasture, being supplemented daily with sorghum silage and concentrate based on corn and soybean meal. It was aimed the reduction of lambing interval through the reproductive management. From the beginning of the provision of the rations until weaning there was a linear increase in body weight and body condition of the ewes, as energy concentration increased. It was also verified a positive linear effect of energy content on weight of lambs from birth to weaning, and on average daily weight gain (0.125; 0.176 and 0.220 kg, for 2.0; 2.2 and 2.4, respectively. Females fed with 2.0 Mcal of ME/kg of DM presented the worst indices for lambing rate (66.7; 100.0 and 83.3%, birth rate (72.2; 105.3 and 88.9% and service period (131.1; 128.4 and 122.2 days, for 2.0, 2.2 and 2.4, respectively. The season of provision of rations did not affect any of the productive or reproductive parameters evaluated. Santa Inês ewes can be used for lamb production in an accelerated mating system, since the nutritional management of the herd is controlled in order

  12. Intraspecific variation in space use, group size, and mating systems of caviomorph rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Christine R.; Burger, Joseph Robert

    2011-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in social systems is widely recognized across many taxa, and specific models, including polygamy potential, resource defense, and resource dispersion, have been developed to explain the relationship between ecological variation and social organization. Although mammals from temperate North America and Eurasia have provided many insights into this relationship, rodents from the Neotropics and temperate South America have largely been ignored. In this review we focus on ...

  13. Mating triggers dynamic immune regulations in wood ant queens.

    OpenAIRE

    Castella G.; Christe P.; Chapuisat M.

    2009-01-01

    Mating can affect female immunity in multiple ways. On the one hand, the immune system may be activated by pathogens transmitted during mating, sperm and seminal proteins, or wounds inflicted by males. On the other hand, immune defences may also be down-regulated to reallocate resources to reproduction. Ants are interesting models to study post-mating immune regulation because queens mate early in life, store sperm for many years, and use it until their death many years later, while males typ...

  14. Annual Variation in Flowering Phenology, Pollination, Mating System, and Pollen Yield in Two Natural Populations of Schima wallichii (DC. Korth

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    Vinod Prasad Khanduri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Schima wallichii is a highly valuable tree of tropical forest in north-east Himalaya region that grows naturally in a wide range of altitudes between 750 and 2400 m asl with varying environments. Flowering phenology of tropical tree species at population level is generally ignored and therefore a detailed knowledge of flowering and fruiting patterns of important multipurpose tree species is critical to the successful management of forest genetic resources. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted at two different altitudes (i.e., 750 m and 900 m asl in the tropical semideciduous forest of north-east Himalaya. The floral phenology including flowering synchrony in the populations, anthesis, anther dehiscence, stigma receptivity, pollinators visitation frequency, and mating system including index of self-incompatibility were worked out in Schima wallichii according to the ear-marked standard methods given by various scientists for each parameter. Results. The flowering period in Schima wallichii varied from 33 to 42 days with mean synchrony of 0.54 to 0.68 between the populations. The stigma was receptive up to 2.5 days only and showed slightly protandrous type of dichogamy. Average pollen production ranged between 6.90 × 107 pollen per tree in 2007 and 15.49 × 108 pollen per tree in 2011. A three-year masting cycle was noticed in this species. The frequency of visitation of honey bees was fairly high (5.2 ± 1.12 visits/flower/hour as compared to other pollinators. The hand pollination revealed maximum fruit (74.2 ± 5.72% and seed (70.8 ± 7.46% settings. Conclusions. The variation in flowering phenology and pollen yield individually and annually along with temporal separation in anther dehiscence and pollinator’s visitation cause pollen limited reproduction, which ultimately influences the reproductive success in Schima wallichii.

  15. Molecular Characterization of a Heterothallic Mating System in Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Fungus Causing White-Nose Syndrome of Bats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palmer, J.M.; Kubátová, Alena; Nováková, Alena; Minnis, A.M.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Lindner, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 9 (2014), s. 1755-1763. ISSN 2160-1836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : geomyces * sexual reproduction * mating type Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.198, year: 2014

  16. Asymmetrical gene flow in a hybrid zone of Hawaiian Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae species with contrasting mating systems.

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    Lisa E Wallace

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical gene flow, which has frequently been documented in naturally occurring hybrid zones, can result from various genetic and demographic factors. Understanding these factors is important for determining the ecological conditions that permitted hybridization and the evolutionary potential inherent in hybrids. Here, we characterized morphological, nuclear, and chloroplast variation in a putative hybrid zone between Schiedea menziesii and S. salicaria, endemic Hawaiian species with contrasting breeding systems. Schiedea menziesii is hermaphroditic with moderate selfing; S. salicaria is gynodioecious and wind-pollinated, with partially selfing hermaphrodites and largely outcrossed females. We tested three hypotheses: 1 putative hybrids were derived from natural crosses between S. menziesii and S. salicaria, 2 gene flow via pollen is unidirectional from S. salicaria to S. menziesii and 3 in the hybrid zone, traits associated with wind pollination would be favored as a result of pollen-swamping by S. salicaria. Schiedea menziesii and S. salicaria have distinct morphologies and chloroplast genomes but are less differentiated at the nuclear loci. Hybrids are most similar to S. menziesii at chloroplast loci, exhibit nuclear allele frequencies in common with both parental species, and resemble S. salicaria in pollen production and pollen size, traits important to wind pollination. Additionally, unlike S. menziesii, the hybrid zone contains many females, suggesting that the nuclear gene responsible for male sterility in S. salicaria has been transferred to hybrid plants. Continued selection of nuclear genes in the hybrid zone may result in a population that resembles S. salicaria, but retains chloroplast lineage(s of S. menziesii.

  17. Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, P E; Gomez-Simuta, Y; Proveaux, A T

    2000-03-28

    Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a ratio of 2.5:1. Extracts from mated males contained 3-fold more juvenile hormone than did extracts from virgins. Enhancement of sexual signaling, pheromone release, and mating was induced by topical application of juvenile hormone, methoprene, or fenoxycarb. Newly eclosed adult males treated with juvenoids engaged in sexual signaling, released pheromone, and mated at significantly earlier ages than control males. We conclude that juvenile hormone mediated a positive feedback system that imparted a competitive advantage, guaranteeing that males who mated at an early age would out-compete virgins of the same age for mating opportunities. Additionally, the results support the hypothesis that juvenile hormone is a pivotal hormone coordinating the development of sexual signaling and reproductive maturity in these flies. PMID:10706642

  18. Male choice of mates and mating resources in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Casalini, M.; Reichard, Martin; Phillips, A.; Smith, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2013), s. 1199-1204. ISSN 1045-2249 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : body size * fecundity * male mate choice * mating system * oviposition * sperm competition * territoriality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.157, year: 2013

  19. The mating behavior of Iguana iguana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    mating territories. In this system, both sexes may be subjected to sexual selection. I hypothesize that the ecological factors responsible for the unusual mating system are related to the lack of defendable resources, the iguana's folivory, and the high density of iguanas present in preferred mating areas.

  20. Mating triggers dynamic immune regulations in wood ant queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castella, G; Christe, P; Chapuisat, M

    2009-03-01

    Mating can affect female immunity in multiple ways. On the one hand, the immune system may be activated by pathogens transmitted during mating, sperm and seminal proteins, or wounds inflicted by males. On the other hand, immune defences may also be down-regulated to reallocate resources to reproduction. Ants are interesting models to study post-mating immune regulation because queens mate early in life, store sperm for many years, and use it until their death many years later, while males typically die after mating. This long-term commitment between queens and their mates limits the opportunity for sexual conflict but raises the new constraint of long-term sperm survival. In this study, we examine experimentally the effect of mating on immunity in wood ant queens. Specifically, we compared the phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of mated and virgin Formica paralugubris queens. Queens had reduced levels of active phenoloxidase after mating, but elevated antibacterial activity 7 days after mating. These results indicate that the process of mating, dealation and ovary activation triggers dynamic patterns of immune regulation in ant queens that probably reflect functional responses to mating and pathogen exposure that are independent of sexual conflict. PMID:19170815

  1. Genetic determinants of mate recognition in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubanek Julia

    2009-09-01

    , even at synonymous positions, suggests that the repeats are kept nearly identical through a process of concerted evolution. Information-rich molecules like surface glycoproteins are well adapted for chemical communication and aquatic animals may have evolved signaling systems based on these compounds, whereas insects use cuticular hydrocarbons. Conclusion Owing to its critical role in mating, the mate recognition pheromone gene will be a useful molecular marker for exploring the mechanisms and rates of selection and the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation using rotifers as a model system. The phylogenetic variation in the mate recognition pheromone gene can now be studied in conjunction with the large amount of ecological and population genetic data being gathered for the Brachionus plicatilis species complex to understand better the evolutionary drivers of cryptic speciation.

  2. Effect of season and mating system in Awassi ewes superovulated with FSH on fertilization rate and embryo recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. M. A. Al-Mola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of laparoscopic intrauterine insemination to the improvement of fertilization and embryo recovery in Awassi ewes superovulated with FSH in breeding and non-breeding season. Twelve nonpregnant and cycling Awassi ewes of 3-4 years of age were randomly allocated in equal numbers (n = 6 to two groups. Each ewe was treated with a progesterone impregnated intravaginal sponge for 12 days. All ewes were superovulated with FSH in eight reducing doses for four days in the morning and evening from two days prior to sponge withdrawal. Ewes of group 1 were mated naturally at least two times with Awassi rams of proven fertility. Ewes of group 2 had intrauterine insemination and were conducted 44-46 h after sponge removal, under laparoscopic visualization of uterine horns, depositing 1 ml of semen in the distal portion of each uterine horn. Ovarian response was assessed by determining number of corpora lutea by laparoscopy on day 6 after mating. Embryo recovery was performed by hand assisted laparoscopy and by flushing both uterine horns. Ovarian response of the ewes superovulated with FSH was decreased to half in the non-breeding season. High number of unfertilized ova (P<0.05 was observed in ewes superovulated with FSH in the non-breeding season when naturally inseminated compared to ewes inseminated intrauterine using laparoscopic technique. Higher rates of embryo recovery (P<0.05 were achieved in superovulated ewes in the breeding season when ewes were inseminated by laparoscopic intrauterine insemination. The fertilization rates in ewes inseminated intrauterine using laparoscopic techniques in breeding season and non-breeding season were 88.1% and 37.98%, respectively. It could be concluded from the results of the present study that the use of FSH to induce superovulation in Awassi ewes combined with laparoscopic intrauterine insemination can increase the fertilization rate in the breeding

  3. Design Rationale and Preclinical Evaluation of the HeartMate 3 Left Ventricular Assist System for Hemocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Kevin; Cotter, Christopher; Dague, Charles; Harjes, Daniel; Dur, Onur; Duhamel, Julien; Spink, Kaitlyn; Walsh, Kelly; Burke, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The HeartMate 3 (HM3) left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is designed to support advanced heart failure patients. This centrifugal flow pump has a magnetically levitated rotor, artificial pulse, textured blood-contacting surfaces, optimized fluid dynamics, large blood-flow gaps, and low shear stress. Preclinical tests were conducted to assess hemocompatibility. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model guided design for low shear stress and sufficient washing. Hemolysis testing was conducted on six pumps. Plasma-free hemoglobin (PfHb) and modified index of hemolysis (MIH) were compared with HeartMate II (HMII). CFD showed secondary flow path residence times between 27 and 798 min, comparable with main flow residence times between 118 and 587 min; HM3 vs. HMII shear stress exposure above 150 Pa was 3.3 vs. 11 mm within the pump volume and 134 vs. 604 mm on surfaces. In in vitro hemolysis tests at 2, 5, and 10 L/min, average pfHb 6 hours after test initiation was 58, 74, and 157 mg/dl, compared with 112, 123, and 353 mg/dl for HMII. The HM3/HMII ratio of average MIH at 2, 5, and 10 L/min was 0.29, 0.36, and 0.22. Eight 60 day bovine implants were tested with average flow rates from 5.6 to 6.4 L/min with no device failures, thrombosis, or hemolysis. Results support advancing HM3 to clinical trials. PMID:27195742

  4. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eZHANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals’ social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies towards potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  5. MATE-asizing existing test equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, R.

    MATE embodies the planned business approach of the Air Force for procuring test equipment, taking into account also a test system architecture and a set of standards to define interfaces between test system components. The procurement philosophy employed requires all interested system component suppliers to create components consistent with MATE requirements. The selected components must meet the testing requirements of a particular test system with the lowest projected Life Cycle Costs (LCC). The present investigation is concerned with the Test Modules and Test Module Adapters (TMAs). The test modules perform traditional stimulus and sensor test functions. Attention is given to major MATE test module requirements, the Control Interface Intermediate Language (CIIL), considerations regarding external vs internal TMA functions, LCC, and synchronization methods.

  6. Efeitos da seleção individual e da seleção baseada no BLUP em populações diferentes, quanto ao tipo de acasalamento Individual selection and selection based on BLUP effects in different populations, according to mating design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Cunha

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Dados simulados foram utilizados para avaliar o desempenho da seleção individual e da seleção baseada no melhor preditor linear não-viesado (BLUP, em populações que diferiam entre si, quanto ao tipo de acasalamento, no decorrer de 50 gerações. Estudou-se uma característica quantitativa com herdabilidade igual a 0,10, em populações de 600 indivíduos, que apresentaram a seguinte estrutura: valores de razão sexual (d, de 10 e 50, tamanhos efetivos de população (Ne, de 36,36 e 7,84 e intensidade de seleção dos machos (i m, de 2,23 e 2,82. Em cada valor de d, formaram-se populações correspondentes ao tipo de acasalamento, em todas as gerações: acasalamentos preferenciais de meios-irmãos e irmãos completos, acasalamentos preferenciais entre meios-irmãos, acasalamentos ao acaso, exclusão de acasalamentos entre irmãos completos e exclusão de acasalamentos de meios-irmãos e irmãos completos. As características avaliadas ao longo das gerações foram: valores fenotípicos médios, consangüinidade média, perda percentual por fixação de alelos desfavoráveis e limite da seleção. Observou-se que o BLUP, o tipo de acasalamento, excluindo acasalamentos entre irmãos e a menor razão sexual, juntos, proporcionaram os melhores resultados de valores fenotípicos, durante 45 gerações de seleção. Nessa estratégia de seleção, verificou-se também atraso no número de gerações necessárias para se atingir determinado nível de consangüinidade.The performance of individual selection and of selection based on best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP for simulated data of a low heritability trait (h²=.10 selected for fifty generation in a population of 600 animals with different mating structures were evaluated. The mating structures evaluated were: mating ratio (d of 10 and 50, population size (Ne 36.36 and 7.84 and male selection intensity (i m of 2.23 and 2.82. For each d level half and full sib matings, half sib matings

  7. Sistema de reprodução em populações de Eschweilera ovata (Cambess. Miers Mating system in Eschweilera ovata (Cambess. Miers populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gusson

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de reprodução de duas populações de Eschweilera ovata foi quantificado por análise de isoenzimas em estrutura de progênies usando os modelos misto de reprodução e cruzamentos correlacionados. Desvios do modelo misto de reprodução foram evidenciados entre as freqüências alélicas dos óvulos e do pólen e pela heterogeneidade nas freqüências alélicas do pólen que fecundou as diferentes árvores. A taxa de cruzamento multilocos foi alta em ambas populações Camarugipe (t m =0,999±0,004 e Itaparica (t m=0,985±0,023. A alta variação na taxa de cruzamento individual (t variando de 0,320 a 1,000 indicou que a espécie não é auto-incompatível. Diferenças positivas e significativamente diferentes de zero foram detectadas entre a taxa de cruzamento multiloco e uniloco, indicando cruzamentos endogâmicos em ambas populações Camarugipe (t m-t s =0,066±0,014 e Itaparica (t m-t s =0,073±0,016 e possível estruturação genética espacial. Valores altos de cruzamentos biparentais foram detectados nas populações (Camarugipe, r p=0,577±0,088; Itaparica r p =0,423±0,070, demonstrando que as progênies são constituídas principalmente por misturas de meios-irmãos e irmãos-completos. O coeficiente de coancestria nas progênies de ambas as populações (Camarugipe, tetaxy=0,211; Itaparica tetaxy =0,191 foi superior ao esperado em progênies de meios irmãos (0,125. Os resultados foram discutidos sob a ótica de amostragens para melhoramento, conservação genética e coleta de sementes para recuperação ambiental.The mating system of two populations of Eschweilera ovata was studied by allozymes analysis of progeny arrays using the mixed-mating model and correlated mating model. Deviations from mixed-mating model were evident from differences in pollen and ovule allele frequencies and allele frequency heterogeneity of pollen pools that fertilized the different trees. The multilocus outcrossing rate was high in both

  8. Female fitness optimum at intermediate mating rates under traumatic mating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolanda Lange

    Full Text Available Traumatic mating behaviors often bear signatures of sexual conflict and are then typically considered a male strategy to circumvent female choice mechanisms. In an extravagant mating ritual, the hermaphroditic sea slug Siphopteron quadrispinosum pierces the integument of their mating partners with a syringe-like penile stylet that injects prostate fluids. Traumatic injection is followed by the insertion of a spiny penis into the partner's gonopore to transfer sperm. Despite traumatic mating, field mating rates exceed those required for female fertilization insurance, possibly because costs imposed on females are balanced by direct or indirect benefits of multiple sperm receipt. To test this idea, we exposed animals to a relevant range of mating opportunity regimes and assessed the effects on mating behavior and proxies of female fitness. We find penis intromission duration to decrease with mating rates, and a female fecundity maximum at intermediate mating rates. The latter finding indicates that benefits beyond fertilization insurance can make higher mating rates also beneficial from a female perspective in this traumatically mating species.

  9. Mating and Parental Care in Lake Tanganyika's Cichlids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Sefc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika display a variety of mating and parental care behaviors, including polygamous and monogamous mouthbrooding and substrate breeding, cooperative breeding, as well as various alternative reproductive tactics such as sneaking and piracy. Moreover, reproductive behaviors sometimes vary within species both in space and in time. Here, I survey reports on mating and parenting behaviors of Lake Tanganyika cichlid species and address the evolution of mating and parental care patterns and sexual dimorphism. Notes on measures of sexual selection intensity and the difficulties of defining mating systems and estimating selection intensities at species level conclude the essay.

  10. Inbreeding in stochastic subdivided mating systems: the genetic consequences of host spatial structure, aggregated transmission dynamics and life history characteristics in parasite populations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guha Dharmarajan

    2015-03-01

    Inbreeding in parasite populations can have important epidemiological and evolutionary implications. However, theoretical models have predominantly focussed on the evolution of parasite populations under strong selection or in epidemic situations, and our understanding of neutral gene dynamics in parasite populations at equilibrium has been limited to verbal arguments or conceptual models. This study focusses on how host–parasite population dynamics affects observed levels of inbreeding in a random sample of parasites from an infinite population of hosts by bridging traditional genetic and parasitological processes utilizing a backward–forward branching Markov process embedded within a flexible statistical framework, the logarithmic-poisson mixture model. My results indicate that levels of inbreeding in parasites are impacted by demographic and/or transmission dynamics (subdivided mating, aggregated transmission dynamics and host spatial structure), and that this inbreeding is poorly estimated by ‘equilibrium’ levels of inbreeding calculated assuming regular systems of mating. Specifically, the model reveals that at low levels of inbreeding ( ≤ 0.1), equilibrium levels of inbreeding are lower than those observed, while at high levels of inbreeding the opposite pattern occurs. The model also indicates that inbreeding could have important epidemiological implications (e.g., the spread of recessive drug resistance genes) by directly impacting the observed frequency of rare homozygotes in parasite populations. My results indicate that frequencies of rare homozygotes are affected by aggregated transmission dynamics and host spatial structure, and also that an increase in the frequency of rare homozygotes can be caused by a decrease in effective population size solely due to the presence of a subdivided breeding system.

  11. Location of rut stands vs. mating opportunities in Przewalski’s gazelle: A field test of the “Resource-based Hypothesis” and “Female Traffic Version of the Hotspot Hypothesis”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangqiang YOU, Zhigang JIANG, Chunwang LI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the mating tactics of Przewalski’s gazelle on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 2002 to 2005. Przewalski’s gazelle is a cluster mating animal whereby female groups, including juveniles, travel to and from their resting grounds along fixed routes and dominant males stand on or near these travel routes during rut. To explain rut patterns in male gazelles, we tested predictions arising from the “Resource-based Hypothesis” and “Female Traffic Version of the Hotspot Hypothesis”. We marked the location of each rut stand and female travel route, measured food availability in each rut stand and recorded the mating opportunities of rut stand owners. We also conducted a field experiment to force female groups to change their daily travel route, and observed whether males abandon their original rut stands and shift their rut stands to new travel routes of females during the 3rd rut. We found that: (1 male gazelle defending rut stands closer to a female travel route had a higher chance of mating; (2 food resources within rut stands had no effect on mating opportunities of the rut stand owner; (3 when the female travel route was obstructed, female groups changed grazing sites, and all males abandoned their original rut stands and defended new rut stands along the new female travel route. In conclusion, the location of rut stands in relation to female travel routes is the ultimate factor for consolidating mating opportunities in male gazelle, supporting the “Female Route Version of Hotspot Hypothesis” [Current Zoology 57 (6: 701–708, 2011].

  12. HOW MATE AVAILABILITY INFLUENCES FILIAL CANNIBALISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Nicholas D S; Wong, Bob B M

    2016-03-01

    Parents sometimes eat their young to reduce the consequences of brood overcrowding, for nutritional gain, and/or to redirect investment toward future reproduction. It has been predicted that filial cannibalism should be more prevalent when mate availability is high as parents can more easily replace consumed young. Reviewing the available evidence--which comes almost exclusively from studies of paternal caring fish--we find support in some species, but not others. To explain this, we hypothesize that sexual selection against filial cannibalism and/or the tendency to acquire larger broods under conditions of high mate availability discourages filial cannibalism. Additionally, filial cannibalism might occur when mate availability is low to facilitate survival until access to mates improves. Since attractiveness can also influence remating opportunities, we review its effect on filial cannibalism, finding that attractive parents engage in less filial cannibalism. More research is needed to determine if this relationship is a result of individuals showing adaptive plasticity in filial cannibalism based on self-perceived attractiveness, or if the attractiveness of individuals is reduced by their propensity to commit filial cannibalism. More generally, to advance our understanding of how mate availability influences filial cannibalism, future studies should also focus on a wider range of taxa. PMID:27192779

  13. Female sexual polymorphism and fecundity consequences of male mating harassment in the wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Gosden

    Full Text Available Genetic and phenotypic variation in female response towards male mating attempts has been found in several laboratory studies, demonstrating sexually antagonistic co-evolution driven by mating costs on female fitness. Theoretical models suggest that the type and degree of genetic variation in female resistance could affect the evolutionary outcome of sexually antagonistic mating interactions, resulting in either rapid development of reproductive isolation and speciation or genetic clustering and female sexual polymorphisms. However, evidence for genetic variation of this kind in natural populations of non-model organisms is very limited. Likewise, we lack knowledge on female fecundity-consequences of matings and the degree of male mating harassment in natural settings. Here we present such data from natural populations of a colour polymorphic damselfly. Using a novel experimental technique of colour dusting males in the field, we show that heritable female colour morphs differ in their propensity to accept male mating attempts. These morphs also differ in their degree of resistance towards male mating attempts, the number of realized matings and in their fecundity-tolerance to matings and mating attempts. These results show that there may be genetic variation in both resistance and tolerance to male mating attempts (fitness consequences of matings in natural populations, similar to the situation in plant-pathogen resistance systems. Male mating harassment could promote the maintenance of a sexual mating polymorphism in females, one of few empirical examples of sympatric genetic clusters maintained by sexual conflict.

  14. Selecting One of Several Mating Types through Gene Segment Joining and Deletion in Tetrahymena thermophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Marcella D.; Hamilton, Eileen P.; Xiong, Jie; Lawson, Michael J.; Yuan, Dongxia; Hadjithomas, Michalis; Miao, Wei; Orias, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The unicellular eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila has seven mating types. Cells can mate only when they recognize cells of a different mating type as non-self. As a ciliate, Tetrahymena separates its germline and soma into two nuclei. During growth the somatic nucleus is responsible for all gene transcription while the germline nucleus remains silent. During mating, a new somatic nucleus is differentiated from a germline nucleus and mating type is decided by a stochastic process. We report here that the somatic mating type locus contains a pair of genes arranged head-to-head. Each gene encodes a mating type-specific segment and a transmembrane domain that is shared by all mating types. Somatic gene knockouts showed both genes are required for efficient non-self recognition and successful mating, as assessed by pair formation and progeny production. The germline mating type locus consists of a tandem array of incomplete gene pairs representing each potential mating type. During mating, a complete new gene pair is assembled at the somatic mating type locus; the incomplete genes of one gene pair are completed by joining to gene segments at each end of germline array. All other germline gene pairs are deleted in the process. These programmed DNA rearrangements make this a fascinating system of mating type determination. PMID:23555191

  15. Determinants of natural mating success in the cannibalistic orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M Zimmer

    Full Text Available Monogynous mating systems (low male mating rates occur in various taxa and have evolved several times independently in spiders. Monogyny is associated with remarkable male mating strategies and predicted to evolve under a male-biased sex ratio. While male reproductive strategies are well documented and male mating rates are easy to quantify, especially in sexually cannibalistic species, female reproductive strategies, the optimal female mating rate, and the factors that affect the evolution of female mating rates are still unclear. In this study, we examined natural female mating rates and tested the assumption of a male-biased sex ratio and female polyandry in a natural population of Argiope bruennichi in which we controlled female mating status prior to observations. We predicted variation in female mating frequencies as a result of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of mature females and males. Females had a low average mating rate of 1.3 and the majority copulated only once. Polyandry did not entirely result from a male-biased sex-ratio but closely matched the rate of male bigamy. Male activity and the probability of polyandry correlated with factors affecting pheromone presence such as virgin females' density. We conclude that a strong sex ratio bias and high female mating rates are not necessary components of monogynous mating systems as long as males protect their paternity effectively and certain frequencies of bigyny stabilise the mating system.

  16. Determinants of natural mating success in the cannibalistic orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Stefanie M; Welke, Klaas W; Schneider, Jutta M

    2012-01-01

    Monogynous mating systems (low male mating rates) occur in various taxa and have evolved several times independently in spiders. Monogyny is associated with remarkable male mating strategies and predicted to evolve under a male-biased sex ratio. While male reproductive strategies are well documented and male mating rates are easy to quantify, especially in sexually cannibalistic species, female reproductive strategies, the optimal female mating rate, and the factors that affect the evolution of female mating rates are still unclear. In this study, we examined natural female mating rates and tested the assumption of a male-biased sex ratio and female polyandry in a natural population of Argiope bruennichi in which we controlled female mating status prior to observations. We predicted variation in female mating frequencies as a result of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of mature females and males. Females had a low average mating rate of 1.3 and the majority copulated only once. Polyandry did not entirely result from a male-biased sex-ratio but closely matched the rate of male bigamy. Male activity and the probability of polyandry correlated with factors affecting pheromone presence such as virgin females' density. We conclude that a strong sex ratio bias and high female mating rates are not necessary components of monogynous mating systems as long as males protect their paternity effectively and certain frequencies of bigyny stabilise the mating system. PMID:22319628

  17. Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill.)-based beverages: How successive extraction influences the extract composition and its capacity to chelate iron and scavenge free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpo, Ana C; Rosa, Hemerson; Lima, Maria Eduarda; Pazzini, Camila Eliza F; de Camargo, Vanessa B; Bassante, Felipa E M; Puntel, Robson; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Mendez, Andreas; Folmer, Vanderlei

    2016-10-15

    Chimarrão or mate is a popular beverage from South America that is drank with successive infusions. Although yerba mate extracts have been widely studied, few studies have described the extract contents in beverages. Using yerba mate samples from Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, we examined the extract chromatographic profiles, total polyphenol content and their capacities to chelate iron. In addition, we analyzed antioxidant activity by examining the ability of the extracts to scavenge DPPH and NO. Our results showed that the amount of extracted compound was highest in yerba mate extract from Uruguay, followed by Argentina, then Brazil. Herbs from all three areas had a significant capacity to inhibit DPPH and NO free radicals. The Brazilian and Uruguayan herbs had an 80% iron chelation capacity (pextractions, while the antioxidant capacity is maintained at significant levels. PMID:27173551

  18. Unconscious Factors in Choice of a Mate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenheimer, Lilly

    1971-01-01

    If the selection of a spouse is based on the unconscious wish to correct disturbances which previously existed in the parent child relationship, the marriage is threatened from the start. This article examines motivations derived from early developmental phases which form convictions which later become the nucleus for mate choice. (Author/CJ)

  19. Alternative mating tactics in the yellow dung fly: resolving mechanisms of small-male advantage off pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Gress, Brian E.; Waltzer, Ryan J.; Lüpold, Stefan; Droge-Young, Elizabeth M.; Manier, Mollie K.; Pitnick, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Recent work suggests that the yellow dung fly mating system may include alternative patroller–competitor mating tactics in which large males compete for gravid females on dung, whereas small, non-competitive males search for females at foraging sites. Small males obtain most matings off pasture, yet the behavioural mechanism(s) giving rise to this pattern are unknown. We investigated the male and female behaviours that determine mating success in this environment by conducting field mating ex...

  20. Mating Competitors Increase Religious Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yexin Jessica; Cohen, Adam B; Weeden, Jason; KENRICK, DOUGLAS T.

    2010-01-01

    It has been presumed that religiosity has an influence on mating behavior, but here we experimentally investigate the possibility that mating behavior might also influence religiosity. In Experiment 1, people reported higher religiosity after looking at mating pools consisting of attractive people of their own sex compared to attractive opposite sex targets. Experiment 2 replicated the effect with an added control group, and suggested that both men and women become more religious when seeing ...

  1. The contribution of mating system variation to reproductive isolation in two closely related Centaurium species (Gentianaceae) with a generalized flower morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brys, Rein; Vanden Broeck, An; Mergeay, Joachim; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2014-05-01

    In closely related plant species that display strong similarities in phenology and pollinator communities, differences in breeding system and associated shifts in floral traits may have important effects on the magnitude and direction of heterospecific pollen flow and hybridization. Here, we quantified the strength of several pre- and postzygotic barriers acting between the facultatively outcrossing Centaurium erythraea and the predominantly selfing C. littorale via a suite of experiments, and estimated the frequency of hybridization in the field using molecular markers. The reproductive barriers primarily responsible for preventing hybridization were essentially prezygotic and these acted asymmetrically. Due to differences in floral display, pollen production, and pollen transfer rates, heterospecific pollen flow occurred predominantly from C. erythraea to C. littorale. In C. littorale, on the other hand, close anther-stigma positioning and resulting higher capacity for autonomous selfing functioned as an efficient barrier to counterbalance the higher risk for hybrid mating. In both species the action of all reproductive barriers resulted in a small opportunity for hybrid establishment, which was confirmed by the occurrence of only ∼1% putative hybrids in the field. Our findings confirm that differences in breeding system affect heterospecific pollen transfer patterns and that autonomous selfing may efficiently prevent hybridization. PMID:24372301

  2. Error Analysis of Robotic Assembly System Based on Screw Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩卫军; 费燕琼; 赵锡芳

    2003-01-01

    Assembly errors have great influence on assembly quality in robotic assembly systems. Error analysis is directed to the propagations and accumula-tions of various errors and their effect on assembly success.Using the screw coordinates, assembly errors are represented as "error twist", the extremely compact expression. According to the law of screw composition, relative position and orientation errors of mating parts are computed and the necessary condition of assembly success is concluded. A new simple method for measuring assembly errors is also proposed based on the transformation law of a screw.Because of the compact representation of error, the model presented for error analysis can be applied to various part- mating types and especially useful for error analysis of complexity assembly.

  3. Mating system, pollen and propagule dispersal, and spatial genetic structure in a high-density population of the mangrove tree Kandelia candel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qifang; Lian, Chunlan; Goto, Susumu; Tao, Jianmin; Kimura, Megumi; Islam, Md Sajedul; Hogetsu, Taizo

    2008-11-01

    Mangrove tree species form ecologically and economically important forests along the tropical and subtropical coastlines of the world. Although low intrapopulation genetic diversity and high interpopulation genetic differentiation have been detected in most mangrove tree species, no direct investigation of pollen and propagule dispersal through paternity and/or parentage analysis and spatial genetic structure within populations has been conducted. We surveyed the mating system, pollen and propagule dispersal, and spatial genetic structure in a natural population of Kandelia candel, one of the typical viviparous mangrove tree species, using nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers. High diversity and outcrossing rates were observed. Paternity and parentage analysis and modelling estimations revealed the presence of an extremely short-distance component of pollen and propagule dispersal (pollen: 15.2+/-14.9 m (SD) by paternity analysis and 34.4 m by modelling; propagule: 9.4+/-13.8 m (SD) by parentage analysis, and 18.6 m by modelling). Genetic structure was significant at short distances, and a clumped distribution of chloroplast microsatellite genotypes was seen in K. candel adults. We conclude that the K. candel population was initiated by limited propagule founders from outside by long-distance dispersal followed by limited propagule dispersal from the founders, resulting in a half-sib family structure. PMID:19140988

  4. Multiple-geographic-scale genetic structure of two mangrove tree species: the roles of mating system, hybridization, limited dispersal and extrinsic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Gustavo M; Zucchi, Maria I; Souza, Anete P

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove plants comprise a unique group of organisms that grow within the intertidal zones of tropical and subtropical regions and whose distributions are influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. To understand how these extrinsic and intrinsic processes influence a more fundamental level of the biological hierarchy of mangroves, we studied the genetic diversity of two Neotropical mangrove trees, Avicenniagerminans and A. schaueriana, using microsatellites markers. As reported for other sea-dispersed species, there was a strong differentiation between A. germinans and A. schaueriana populations sampled north and south of the northeastern extremity of South America, likely due to the influence of marine superficial currents. Moreover, we observed fine-scale genetic structures even when no obvious physical barriers were present, indicating pollen and propagule dispersal limitation, which could be explained by isolation-by-distance coupled with mating system differences. We report the first evidence of ongoing hybridization between Avicennia species and that these hybrids are fertile, although this interspecific crossing has not contributed to an increase in the genetic diversity the populations where A. germinans and A. schaueriana hybridize. These findings highlight the complex interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic factors that shape the distribution of the genetic diversity in these sea-dispersed colonizer species. PMID:25723532

  5. Multiple-geographic-scale genetic structure of two mangrove tree species: the roles of mating system, hybridization, limited dispersal and extrinsic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M Mori

    Full Text Available Mangrove plants comprise a unique group of organisms that grow within the intertidal zones of tropical and subtropical regions and whose distributions are influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. To understand how these extrinsic and intrinsic processes influence a more fundamental level of the biological hierarchy of mangroves, we studied the genetic diversity of two Neotropical mangrove trees, Avicenniagerminans and A. schaueriana, using microsatellites markers. As reported for other sea-dispersed species, there was a strong differentiation between A. germinans and A. schaueriana populations sampled north and south of the northeastern extremity of South America, likely due to the influence of marine superficial currents. Moreover, we observed fine-scale genetic structures even when no obvious physical barriers were present, indicating pollen and propagule dispersal limitation, which could be explained by isolation-by-distance coupled with mating system differences. We report the first evidence of ongoing hybridization between Avicennia species and that these hybrids are fertile, although this interspecific crossing has not contributed to an increase in the genetic diversity the populations where A. germinans and A. schaueriana hybridize. These findings highlight the complex interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic factors that shape the distribution of the genetic diversity in these sea-dispersed colonizer species.

  6. Rates of inbreeding and genetic adaptation for populations managed as herds in zoos with a rotational mating system or with optimized contribution of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, S; Komen, H

    2016-08-01

    This study compares two genetic management scenarios for species kept in herds, such as deer. The simulations were designed so that their results can be extended to a wide range of zoo populations. In the first scenario, the simulated populations of size 3 × 20, 6 × 40 or 20 × 60 (herds × animals in herd) were managed with a rotational mating (RM) scheme in which 10%, 20% or 50% of males were selected for breeding and moved between herds in a circular fashion. The second scenario was based on optimal contribution theory (OC). OC requires an accurate pedigree to calculate kinship; males were selected and assigned numbers of offspring to minimize kinship in the next generation. RM was efficient in restriction of inbreeding and produced results comparable with OC. However, RM can result in genetic adaptation of the population to the zoo environment, in particular when 20% or less males are selected for rotation and selection of animals is not random. Lowest rates of inbreeding were obtained by combining OC with rotation of males as in the RM scheme. RM is easy to implement in practice and does not require pedigree data. When full pedigree is available, OC management is preferable. PMID:26423022

  7. Mating programs including genomic relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer mating programs have helped breeders minimize pedigree inbreeding and avoid recessive defects by mating animals with parents that have fewer common ancestors. With genomic selection, breed associations, AI organizations, and on-farm software providers could use new programs to minimize geno...

  8. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje;

    2002-01-01

    A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures. The...... cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft/models to be...... in the MATE prototype was compared with the effects of traditional training that included the use of realaircraft. The experimental group (EXP) trained the pre-start checklist and the engine start checklist for the Saab 340 commuter aircraft in a MATE prototype. The control group (CTR) trained the...

  9. Are high-quality mates always attractive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Verhulst, Simon; Fawcett, Tim W

    2010-01-01

    Sexual selection theory posits that females should choose mates in a way that maximizes their reproductive success. But what exactly is the optimal choice? Most empirical research is based on the assumption that females seek a male of the highest possible quality (in terms of the genes or resources he can provide), and hence show directional preferences for indicators of male quality. This implies that attractiveness and quality should be highly correlated. However, females frequently differ in what they find attractive. New theoretical and empirical insights provide mounting evidence that a female’s own quality biases her judgement of male attractiveness, such that male quality and attractiveness do not always coincide. A recent experiment in songbirds demonstrated for the first time that manipulation of female condition can lead to divergent female preferences, with low-quality females actively preferring low-quality males over high-quality males. This result is in line with theory on state-dependent mate choice and is reminiscent of assortative mating preferences in humans. Here we discuss the implications of this work for the study of mate preferences. PMID:20714411

  10. Uncovering Arabidopsis membrane protein interactome enriched in transporters using mating-based split ubiquitin assays and classification models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin eChen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput data are a double-edged sword; for the benefit of large amount of data, there is an associated cost of noise. To increase reliability and scalability of high-throughput protein interaction data generation, we tested the efficacy of classification to enrich potential protein-protein interactions (pPPIs. We applied this method to identify interactions among Arabidopsis membrane proteins enriched in transporters. We validated our method with multiple retests. Classification improved the quality of the ensuing interaction network and was effective in reducing the search space and increasing true positive rate. The final network of 541 interactions among 239 proteins (of which 179 are transporters is the first protein interaction network enriched in membrane transporters reported for any organism. This network has similar topological attributes to other published protein interaction networks. It also extends and fills gaps in currently available biological networks in plants and allows building a number of hypotheses about processes and mechanisms involving signal-transduction and transport systems.

  11. MATES in Construction: Impact of a Multimodal, Community-Based Program for Suicide Prevention in the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale workplace-based suicide prevention and early intervention program was delivered to over 9,000 construction workers on building sites across Queensland. Intervention components included universal General Awareness Training (GAT; general mental health with a focus on suicide prevention; gatekeeper training provided to construction worker volunteer ‘Connectors’; Suicide First Aid (ASIST training offered to key workers; outreach support provided by trained and supervised MIC staff; state-wide suicide prevention hotline; case management service; and postvention support provided in the event of a suicide. Findings from over 7,000 workers (April 2008 to November 2010 are reported, indicating strong construction industry support, with 67% building sites and employers approached agreeing to participate in MIC. GAT participants demonstrated significantly increased suicide prevention awareness compared with a comparison group. Connector training participants rated MIC as helpful and effective, felt prepared to intervene with a suicidal person, and knew where to seek help for a suicidal individual following the training. Workers engaged positively with the after-hours crisis support phone line and case management. MIC provided postvention support to 10 non-MIC sites and sites engaged with MIC, but not yet MIC-compliant. Current findings support the potential effectiveness and social validity of MIC for preventing suicide in construction workers.

  12. Acoustic behaviour of two large terrestrial mammals in relation to resources maintenance and mating systems: wolf(Canis lupus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) as model species

    OpenAIRE

    Passilongo, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The high variability of vocalization is due to their function, the habitat where they evolved and the physical constraints of the emitters. The aim of this study were to analyse the acoustic behaviour of two large terrestrial mammals, wolf (Canis lupus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus), in relation to resources maintenance and mating systems. Firstly, I analysed the Italian wolf howl. I found two forms of howl; both types are uttered within the lowest frequencies of the wolf’s vocal range,...

  13. Computational Ranking of Yerba Mate Small Molecules Based on Their Predicted Contribution to Antibacterial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S Rempe

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of yerba mate, a South American tea beverage made from Ilex paraguariensis leaves, has demonstrated bactericidal and inhibitory activity against bacterial pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of two unique fractions of yerba mate aqueous extract revealed 8 identifiable small molecules in those fractions with antimicrobial activity. For a more comprehensive analysis, a data analysis pipeline was assembled to prioritize compounds for antimicrobial testing against both MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus using forty-two unique fractions of the tea extract that were generated in duplicate, assayed for activity, and analyzed with GC-MS. As validation of our automated analysis, we checked our predicted active compounds for activity in literature references and used authentic standards to test for antimicrobial activity. 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde showed the most antibacterial activity against MRSA at low concentrations in our bioassays. In addition, quinic acid and quercetin were identified using random forests analysis and 5-hydroxy pipecolic acid was identified using linear discriminant analysis. We also generated a ranked list of unidentified compounds that may contribute to the antimicrobial activity of yerba mate against MRSA. Here we utilized GC-MS data to implement an automated analysis that resulted in a ranked list of compounds that likely contribute to the antimicrobial activity of aqueous yerba mate extract against MRSA.

  14. Head-to-Head Evaluation of the Pro-Cite and Sci-Mate Bibliographic Database Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, David S.; Foster, George A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Compares two full featured database management systems for bibliographic information in terms of programs and documentation; record creation and editing; online database citations; search procedures; access to references in external text files; sorting and printing functions; style sheets; indexes; and file operations. (four references) (CLB)

  15. Mating animals by minimising the covariance between ancestral contributions generates less inbreeding without compromising genetic gain in breeding schemes with truncation selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, M; Berg, P; Sørensen, A C

    2009-01-01

    they can be achieved without extra costs or practical constraints. MCAC mating merely uses pedigree information to pair the animals more appropriately and is clearly a worthy alternative to minimum-coancestry mating and probably any other mating criterion. We believe, therefore, that MCAC mating should......We reasoned that mating animals by minimising the covariance between ancestral contributions (MCAC mating) will generate less inbreeding and at least as much genetic gain as minimum-coancestry mating in breeding schemes where the animals are truncation-selected. We tested this hypothesis...... by stochastic simulation and compared the mating criteria in hierarchical and factorial breeding schemes, where the animals were selected based on breeding values predicted by animal-model BLUP. Random mating was included as a reference-mating criterion. We found that MCAC mating generated 4% to 8% less...

  16. Incest versus abstinence: reproductive trade-offs between mate limitation and progeny fitness in a self-incompatible invasive plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Swain, Stephen M; Young, Andrew G

    2013-12-01

    Plant mating systems represent an evolutionary and ecological trade-off between reproductive assurance through selfing and maximizing progeny fitness through outbreeding. However, many plants with sporophytic self-incompatibility systems exhibit dominance interactions at the S-locus that allow biparental inbreeding, thereby facilitating mating between individuals that share alleles at the S-locus. We investigated this trade-off by estimating mate availability and biparental inbreeding depression in wild radish from five different populations across Australia. We found dominance interactions among S-alleles increased mate availability relative to estimates based on individuals that did not share S-alleles. Twelve of the sixteen fitness variables were significantly reduced by inbreeding. For all the three life-history phases evaluated, self-fertilized offspring suffered a greater than 50% reduction in fitness, while full-sib and half-sib offspring suffered a less than 50% reduction in fitness. Theory indicates that fitness costs greater than 50% can result in an evolutionary trajectory toward a stable state of self-incompatibility (SI). This study suggests that dominance interactions at the S-locus provide a possible third stable state between SI and SC where biparental inbreeding increases mate availability with relatively minor fitness costs. This strategy allows weeds to establish in new environments while maintaining a functional SI system. PMID:24455137

  17. Mate preference of female blue tits varies with experimental photoperiod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B Reparaz

    Full Text Available Organisms use environmental cues to time their life-cycles and among these cues, photoperiod is the main trigger of reproductive behaviours such as territory defence or song activity. Whether photoperiod is also important for another behaviour closely associated with reproduction, mate choice, is unknown. In many bird species, mate choice occurs at two different times during the annual cycle that strongly differ in daylength: in late winter when photoperiod is short and social mates are chosen, and again around egg-laying when photoperiod is longer and extra-pair mates are chosen. This duality makes the role that photoperiod plays on mate choice behaviours intriguing. We investigated the effect of photoperiod on mate choice using three experimental photoperiodic treatments (9 L:15 D, 14 L:10 D, 18 L:6 D, using blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus as a biological model. We show that female choice was stronger under long photoperiods. In addition, female blue tits spent significantly more time near males with long tarsi and long wings. This latter preference was only expressed under long photoperiods, suggesting that some indices of male quality only become significant to females when they are strongly photostimulated, and therefore that females could select their social and extra-pair mates based on different phenotypic traits. These results shed light on the roles that photoperiod may play in stimulating pair-bonding and in refining female selectivity for male traits.

  18. Are high-quality mates always attractive? State-dependent mate preferences in birds and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riebel, Katharina; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Verhulst, Simon; Fawcett, Tim W.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual selection theory posits that females should choose mates in a way that maximizes their reproductive success. But what exactly is the optimal choice? Most empirical research is based on the assumption that females seek a male of the highest possible quality (in terms of the genes or resources

  19. Relationships between population density, fine-scale genetic structure, mating system and pollen dispersal in a timber tree from African rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duminil, J; Daïnou, K; Kaviriri, D K; Gillet, P; Loo, J; Doucet, J-L; Hardy, O J

    2016-03-01

    Owing to the reduction of population density and/or the environmental changes it induces, selective logging could affect the demography, reproductive biology and evolutionary potential of forest trees. This is particularly relevant in tropical forests where natural population densities can be low and isolated trees may be subject to outcross pollen limitation and/or produce low-quality selfed seeds that exhibit inbreeding depression. Comparing reproductive biology processes and genetic diversity of populations at different densities can provide indirect evidence of the potential impacts of logging. Here, we analysed patterns of genetic diversity, mating system and gene flow in three Central African populations of the self-compatible legume timber species Erythrophleum suaveolens with contrasting densities (0.11, 0.68 and 1.72 adults per ha). The comparison of inbreeding levels among cohorts suggests that selfing is detrimental as inbred individuals are eliminated between seedling and adult stages. Levels of genetic diversity, selfing rates (∼16%) and patterns of spatial genetic structure (Sp ∼0.006) were similar in all three populations. However, the extent of gene dispersal differed markedly among populations: the average distance of pollen dispersal increased with decreasing density (from 200 m in the high-density population to 1000 m in the low-density one). Overall, our results suggest that the reproductive biology and genetic diversity of the species are not affected by current logging practices. However, further investigations need to be conducted in low-density populations to evaluate (1) whether pollen limitation may reduce seed production and (2) the regeneration potential of the species. PMID:26696137

  20. Molecular characterization of a heterothallic mating system in .i.Pseudogymnoascus destructans./i., the fungus causing white-nose syndrome of bats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palmer, J.M.; Kubátová, A.; Nováková, Alena; Minnis, A.M.; Kolařík, M.; Lindner, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 9 (2014), s. 1755-1763. ISSN 2160-1836 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Genetics of Sex * geomyces * mating type * sexual reproduction * white-nose syndrome Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.198, year: 2014

  1. The Perfect Mate for Safe Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Referred to as the "lifeline for any space launch vehicle" by NASA Space Launch Initiative Program Manager Warren Wiley, an umbilical is a large device that transports power, communications, instrument readings, and fluids such as propellants, pressurization gases, and coolants from one source to another. Numerous launch vehicles, planetary systems, and rovers require umbilical "mating". This process is a driving factor for dependable and affordable space access. With future-generation space vehicles in mind, NASA recently designed a smart, automated method for quickly and reliably mating and demating electrical and fluid umbilical connectors. The new umbilical concept is expected to replace NASA s traditional umbilical systems that release at vehicle lift-off (T-0). The idea is to increase safety by automatically performing hazardous tasks, thus reducing potential failure modes and the time and labor hours necessary to prepare for launch. The new system will also be used as a test bed for quick disconnect development and for advance control and leak detection. It incorporates concepts such as a secondary mate plate, robotic machine vision, and compliant motor motion control, and is destined to advance usage of automated umbilicals in a variety of aerospace and commercial applications.

  2. Mate retention tactics in Spain: personality, sex differences, and relationship status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Adelia; Buss, David M

    2011-06-01

    Mate retention is an important problem in romantic relationships because of mate poachers, infidelity, and the risk of outright defection. The current study (N=892) represents the first study of mate retention tactics conducted in Spain. We tested hypotheses about the effects of gender, relationship commitment status, and personality on mate retention tactics. Women and men differed in the use of resource display, appearance enhancement, intrasexual violence, and submission/self-abasement as mate retention tactics. Those in more committed relationships reported higher levels of resource display, appearance enhancement, love, and verbal signals of possession. Those in less committed relationships more often reported intentionally evoking jealousy in their partner as a mate retention tactic. Personality characteristics, particularly Neuroticism and Agreeableness, correlated in coherent ways with mate retention tactics, supporting two evolution-based hypotheses. Discussion focuses on the implications, future research directions, and interdisciplinary syntheses emerging between personality and social psychology and evolutionary psychology. PMID:21534964

  3. Hydrogel based occlusion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.A.; Jackson, N.; Dubruel, P.; Adesanya, K.; Embrechts, A.; Mendes, E.; Neves, H.P.; Herijgers, P.; Verbrugghe, Y.; Shacham, Y.; Engel, L.; Krylov, V.

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogel based occlusion system, a method for occluding vessels, appendages or aneurysms, and a method for hydrogel synthesis are disclosed. The hydrogel based occlusion system includes a hydrogel having a shrunken and a swollen state and a delivery tool configured to deliver the hydrogel to a tar

  4. Linkage of mating-type loci distinguishes bipolar from tetrapolar mating in basidiomycetous smut fungi.

    OpenAIRE

    Bakkeren, G; Kronstad, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    Sexual compatibility requires self vs. non-self recognition. Genetically, two compatibility or mating-type systems govern recognition in heterothallic basidiomycete fungi such as the edible and woodrotting mushrooms and the economically important rust and smut phytopathogens. A bipolar system is defined by a single genetic locus (MAT) that can have two or multiple alleles. A tetrapolar system has two loci, each with two or more specificities. We have employed two species from the genus Ustila...

  5. Are high-quality mates always attractive?: State-dependent mate preferences in birds and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebel, Katharina; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Verhulst, Simon; Fawcett, Tim W

    2010-05-01

    Sexual selection theory posits that females should choose mates in a way that maximizes their reproductive success. But what exactly is the optimal choice? Most empirical research is based on the assumption that females seek a male of the highest possible quality (in terms of the genes or resources he can provide), and hence show directional preferences for indicators of male quality. This implies that attractiveness and quality should be highly correlated. However, females frequently differ in what they find attractive. New theoretical and empirical insights provide mounting evidence that a female's own quality biases her judgement of male attractiveness, such that male quality and attractiveness do not always coincide. A recent experiment in songbirds demonstrated for the first time that manipulation of female condition can lead to divergent female preferences, with low-quality females actively preferring low-quality males over high-quality males. This result is in line with theory on state-dependent mate choice and is reminiscent of assortative mating preferences in humans. Here we discuss the implications of this work for the study of mate preferences. PMID:20714411

  6. Male mate preference and size-assortative mating in convict cichlids: A role for female aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, A N; Estela, V J; Leese, J M; Itzkowitz, M

    2016-09-01

    Many monogamous species demonstrate size-assortative mating patterns within natural populations. To better understand the role of intersexual selection in this process, we examined the effect of male preference for female body size in the convict cichlid (Amatitlania siquia). We provided males with a choice between females that differed in size, relative to each other and in relation to the focal male. Based on previous work, we expected males to prefer the largest available female mates across all treatments. Surprisingly, males spent more time near the smaller of two available females, but only when the other female was larger than the male. Additionally, males spent little time with either of two potential female mates when both females were larger than the male. We hypothesized that while males might prefer the largest of available females, female behavior might limit males from acting on this preference. To test this, males were force paired with a smaller or larger female. Pair formation only occurred when the female was smaller than the male, and females that were larger than their male counterparts showed significantly more aggression when compared to smaller females. Together, these data suggest that in the absence of intrasexual competition, male mate preference for large females in convict cichlids might be limited by female aggression. PMID:27444247

  7. Reduction of inbreeding in commercial females by rotational mating with several sire lines

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Takeshi; Nomura, Tetsuro; Mukai, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    International audience A mating system to reduce the inbreeding of commercial females in the lower level was examined theoretically, assuming a hierarchical breed structure, in which favorable genes are accumulated in the upper level by artificial selection and the achieved genetic progress is transferred to the lower level through migration of males. The mating system examined was rotational mating with several closed sire lines in the upper level. Using the group coancestry theory, we de...

  8. Reduction of inbreeding in commercial females by rotational mating with several sire lines

    OpenAIRE

    Mukai Fumio; Nomura Tetsuro; Honda Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A mating system to reduce the inbreeding of commercial females in the lower level was examined theoretically, assuming a hierarchical breed structure, in which favorable genes are accumulated in the upper level by artificial selection and the achieved genetic progress is transferred to the lower level through migration of males. The mating system examined was rotational mating with several closed sire lines in the upper level. Using the group coancestry theory, we derived recurrence ...

  9. Beauty in the Eyes of the Beholders: Colour Vision and Mate Choice in the Family Poeciliidae

    OpenAIRE

    Sandkam, Benjamin Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection plays a major role in numerous aspects of evolution. Many models have attempted to explain how mate preferences evolve both across populations within a species and across species. ‘Sensory bias’ predicts that the traits involved in mate choice will co-evolve with the tuning of the sensory systems responsible for detecting such traits. The family Poeciliidae is a classic system for studies of mate choice and provides an excellent opportunity to examine the co-evolution of pref...

  10. Reconsidering the Heritability of Intelligence in Adulthood: Taking Assortative Mating and Cultural Transmission into Account

    OpenAIRE

    Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; van der Sluis, Sophie; Maes, Hermine H. M.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Heritability estimates of general intelligence in adulthood generally range from 75 to 85%, with all heritability due to additive genetic influences, while genetic dominance and shared environmental factors are absent, or too small to be detected. These estimates are derived from studies based on the classical twin design and are based on the assumption of random mating. Yet, considerable positive assortative mating has been reported for general intelligence. Unmodeled assortative mating may ...

  11. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate's initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens' Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The present

  12. Hydrogel based occlusion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, F.A.; Jackson, N.; Dubruel, P.; Adesanya, K.; Embrechts, A.; Mendes, E.; Neves, H.P.; Herijgers, P.; Verbrugghe, Y.; Shacham, Y; Engel, L.; Krylov, V.

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogel based occlusion system, a method for occluding vessels, appendages or aneurysms, and a method for hydrogel synthesis are disclosed. The hydrogel based occlusion system includes a hydrogel having a shrunken and a swollen state and a delivery tool configured to deliver the hydrogel to a target occlusion location. The hydrogel is configured to permanently occlude the target occlusion location in the swollen state. The hydrogel may be an electro-activated hydrogel (EAH) which could be ...

  13. Mate preference and disease risk in Zootermopsis angusticollis (Isoptera: Termopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B; James, Lady-Thelma; Hartke, Tamara R; Brent, Colin S

    2011-12-01

    Termites face significant and chronic intranidal selection pressures from parasites and pathogens that colonize their nests. They also encounter microbes outside their nest while foraging and during dispersal of winged primary reproductives to establish new colonies. The latter run the additional risk of becoming infected by a mating partner. Indeed, death of reproductives because of disease is a major cause of incipient colony failure and may favor prescreening prospective mates for signs of illness. To determine the role of disease on mate preference in termites, female primary reproductives of the Pacific dampwood termite Zootermopsis angusticollis (Hagen) simultaneously were presented with reproductive males that were either healthy or exhibiting a progression of symptoms associated with infection by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin). We compared duration and frequency of female visits to healthy and infected males. In addition, we determined the physiological consequences for females exposed to fungal conidia, either directly or indirectly through their mate. Females showed no preference for healthy rather than infected males. Moreover, only directly-exposed females experienced negative physiological effects, having a reduced chance of survival, gaining less weight, developing fewer functional ovarioles, and producing significantly fewer vitellogenic oocytes than controls. Although there are important fitness-related costs of direct exposure, the lack of mate selection based on disease risk suggests that more imminent ecological pressures (e.g., predators, desiccation) override the need for a careful and time-consuming assessment of a potential mate's health. PMID:22217773

  14. Physiological resonance between mates through calls as possible evidence of empathic processes in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Emilie C; Elie, Julie E; Boucaud, Ingrid C A; Crouchet, Thomas; Soulage, Christophe O; Soula, Hédi A; Theunissen, Frédéric E; Vignal, Clémentine

    2015-09-01

    Physiological resonance - where the physiological state of a subject generates the same state in a perceiver - has been proposed as a proximate mechanism facilitating pro-social behaviours. While mainly described in mammals, state matching in physiology and behaviour could be a phylogenetically shared trait among social vertebrates. Birds show complex social lives and cognitive abilities, and their monogamous pair-bond is a highly coordinated partnership, therefore we hypothesised that birds express state matching between mates. We show that calls of male zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata produced during corticosterone treatment (after oral administration of exogenous corticosterone and during visual separation from the partner) provoke both an increase in corticosterone concentrations and behavioural changes in their female partner compared to control calls (regular calls emitted by the same male during visual separation from the partner only), whereas calls produced during corticosterone treatment by unfamiliar males have no such effect. Irrespective of the caller status (mate/non-mate), calls' acoustic properties were predictive of female corticosterone concentration after playback, but the identity of mate calls was necessary to fully explain female responses. Female responses were unlikely due to a failure of the call-based mate recognition system: in a discrimination task, females perceive calls produced during corticosterone treatment as being more similar to the control calls of the same male than to control calls of other males, even after taking acoustical differences into account. These results constitute the first evidence of physiological resonance solely on acoustic cues in birds, and support the presence of empathic processes. PMID:26407661

  15. Mating behavior of Cnephasia jactatana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important pest of kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Pérez, Alfredo; Wang, Qiao; Arzuffi, R

    2013-06-01

    Understanding mating behavioral sequence helps us identify the mechanisms of mate assessment and choice, and better evaluate behavior-based pest control strategies. Here we describe the mating behavior of Cnephasia jactatana Walker whose females release a sex pheromone, and determine the effect of male mating status on reproductive success. The mating sequence starts when males approach females and display courtship behavior with antennation and fanning wings. Both males and females may end a mating attempt at any stage of the sequence. Both sexes assess their mates from the initial contact to copulation. Females appear to be choosier at the early and mid-stages than at the late stage of the sequence. Virgin males approach and court females significantly earlier than nonvirgin males. As compared with nonvirgin males, virgin males are approximately 1.6 times more likely to approach and 1.8 times more likely to court females, and four times more likely to achieve mating. This may be attributed to depletion of sperm and accessory gland materials and reduced ability to respond to female sex pheromones in nonvirgin males. The number of attempts by males to acquire mates may be one of the traits that females assess before choosing their mates. PMID:23865204

  16. Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke eTsukamoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative studies prevent the formulation of generalities regarding post-mating behaviors in other insects in particular amongst orthopteran species. Here, we investigated whether females of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, alter their feeding behavior after mating. Although significant differences in the amount of food intake after mating were not observed, all experimental data indicated a clear trend among crickets towards the ingestion of larger quantities of food. Geometric framework analyses revealed that the mated female crickets preferred food with higher protein content compared to virgin female crickets. This implies that this species required different nutritional demands after mating. These findings further expand our understanding of the behavioral and biological changes that are triggered in female insects post-mating, and highlight the potential for this species in investigating the molecular-based nutritional dependent activities that are linked to post-mating behaviors.

  17. Mating strategies and multiple paternity, assessed by microsatellites, of the dispersal-limited, ectoparasitic tree-hole tick, Ixodes arboricola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosten, A R; Matthysen, E; Heylen, D J A

    2016-08-01

    Multiple mating is common among ticks, a large group of haematophagous ectoparasites, but multiple paternity has rarely been investigated. Multiple paternity may be common because the resultant increased genetic diversity allows ticks to rapidly evolve in relation to host responses and increases colonisation potential in novel habitats. Knowledge concerning mating systems is important because ticks may have profound effects on their hosts and are the principal transmitters of many pathogenic agents. In the current study, we investigated the mating system of the nidicolous tick Ixodes arboricola. These ticks attach to their bird hosts in the nest, which restricts gene flow but facilitates finding a partner off-host. Having genetically variable offspring may be beneficial for ticks which may encounter very different conditions when dispersed to the nest of another host type. We conducted an experiment in which female ticks fed on great tit nestlings and mated with two males in three treatments of the females: mating with both males before feeding, mating with one male before and the other male after feeding, or mating with both males after feeding. We investigated paternity with microsatellites. In a complementary experiment we investigated male preference for unfed or engorged females, and measured mating duration. We predicted (i) there would be multiple mating by I. arboricola males and females, leading to multiple paternity, and (ii) males would prefer to mate with engorged females and those matings would last longer because engorged females present a higher probability of successful reproduction. We found multiple paternity within clutches but no indications of sperm precedence. Males preferred to mate with engorged females and those matings lasted significantly longer, even including attachment beyond egg deposition. We suggest such mate guarding and male preference for mating after feeding is adaptive because there is no first male precedence. Male preference

  18. Interaction between natural and sexual selection during the evolution of mate recognition.

    OpenAIRE

    Blows, Mark W.

    2002-01-01

    The interaction between natural and sexual selection is central to many theories of how mate choice and reproductive isolation evolve, but their joint effect on the evolution of mate recognition has not, to my knowledge, been investigated in an evolutionary experiment. Natural and sexual selection were manipulated in interspecific hybrid populations of Drosophila to determine their effects on the evolution of a mate recognition system comprised of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). The effect of ...

  19. Environmental diel variation, parasite loads, and local population structuring of a mixed-mating mangrove fish

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Amy; Wright, Patricia; Taylor, D. Scott; Cooper, Chris; Regan, Kelly; Currie, Suzie; Consuegra, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation within populations depends on population size, spatial structuring, and environmental variation, but is also influenced by mating system. Mangroves are some of the most productive and threatened ecosystems on earth and harbor a large proportion of species with mixed-mating (self-fertilization and outcrossing). Understanding population structuring in mixed-mating species is critical for conserving and managing these complex ecosystems. Kryptolebias marmoratus is a unique mixe...

  20. Sex differences in behavioural and neural responsiveness to mate calls in a parrot

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroko Eda-Fujiwara; Ryohei Satoh; Yuka Hata; Marika Yamasaki; Aiko Watanabe; Zandbergen, Matthijs A.; Yasuharu Okamoto; Takenori Miyamoto; Bolhuis, Johan J.

    2016-01-01

    Vocalisation in songbirds and parrots has become a prominent model system for speech and language in humans. We investigated possible sex differences in behavioural and neural responsiveness to mate calls in the budgerigar, a vocally-learning parrot. Males and females were paired for 5 weeks and then separated, after which we measured vocal responsiveness to playback calls (a call of their mate versus a call of an unfamiliar conspecific). Both sexes learned to recognise mate calls during the ...

  1. 婚配后雄性克氏原螯虾的择偶行为%The mating behaviors of mated male crayfish Procambarus clarkii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 谢春; 唐建清; 黄成

    2014-01-01

    动物在繁殖期间随自身繁殖价值的变化而调整择偶行为,从而导致它们择偶行为的多样性.本文研究具交配经验的雄性克氏原螯虾(Procambarus clarkii )在 Y型水迷宫中对不同婚配状态的潜在配偶的择偶行为.结果表明:雄虾在原配一侧的总访问时间和平均访问时间极显著大于在处女虾一侧(P<0.005);访问原配的次数与处女虾相比没有达到显著水平(双侧检验P=0.086),但倾向性还是偏向原配(单侧检验P=0.043).当原配不在时,雄虾随机选择潜在配偶;面对都具备交配经验的原配和非处女虾,雄虾也随机选择配偶.这说明雄虾一定程度上可以识别潜在配偶的婚配状态,推测雄虾可能通过配偶保卫策略确保父权;但雄虾的忠诚度可能会因原配的存在与否而及时改变.因此,雄虾能根据自身的婚配状态以及获取配偶的成本来调整择偶行为.%During the reproduction period,animals can make adj ustments of selectivity with the changes of their own reproductive values,which will lead to the variation of their mating behaviors.Previous papers have discussed the effects of body size and hierarchical status on mutual mate choice in Procambarus clarkii,while few of them pay attention to mating status as a criterion of sexual selection.Due to the long time retention between mating and ovipo-sition,P.clarkii’s mating status will change accordingly.Based on the knowledge of the unmated males’preferences for virgin females,we conducted an experiment to study the mating behaviors of male P.clarkii with mating experience in a Y maze when confronting potential female mates,which have different mating status.Our study indicates:both the total and mean visiting time that the males spent in their primary partners were significantly longer than the virgin targets(P<0.05);although the visiting frequency of primary partners did not reach the significant level compared with the virgin

  2. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2) (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 14 is being distributed for use in development and testing of automated fingerprint classification and matching systems on a set of images which approximate a natural horizontal distribution of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) fingerprint classes. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  3. Weighing costs and benefits of mating in bushcrickets (Insecta: Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae, with an emphasis on nuptial gifts, protandry and mate density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann Gerlind U C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual selection is a major force driving evolution and is intertwined with ecological factors. Differential allocation of limited resources has a central role in the cost of reproduction. In this paper, I review the costs and benefits of mating in tettigoniids, focussing on nuptial gifts, their trade-off with male calling songs, protandry and how mate density influences mate choice. Tettigoniids have been widely used as model systems for studies of mating costs and benefits; they can provide useful general insights. The production and exchange of large nuptial gifts by males for mating is an important reproductive strategy in tettigoniids. As predicted by sexual selection theory spermatophylax size is condition dependent and is constrained by the need to invest in calling to attract mates also. Under some circumstances, females benefit directly from the nuptial gifts by an increase in reproductive output. However, compounds in the nuptial gift can also benefit the male by prolonging the period before the female remates. There is also a trade-off between adult male maturation and mating success. Where males mature before females (protandry the level of protandry varies in the direction predicted by sperm competition theory; namely, early male maturation is correlated with a high level of first inseminations being reproductively successful. Lastly, mate density in bushcrickets is an important environmental factor influencing the behavioural decisions of individuals. Where mates are abundant, individuals are more choosey of mates; when they are scarce, individuals are less choosey. This review reinforces the view that tettigoniids provide excellent models to test and understand the economics of matings in both sexes.

  4. Assortative mating among Lake Malawi cichlid fish populations is not simply predictable from male nuptial colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Martin I

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the evolution of reproductive isolation in African cichlid fishes has largely focussed on the role of male colours and female mate choice. Here, we tested predictions from the hypothesis that allopatric divergence in male colour is associated with corresponding divergence in preference. Methods We studied four populations of the Lake Malawi Pseudotropheus zebra complex. We predicted that more distantly-related populations that independently evolved similar colours would interbreed freely while more closely-related populations with different colours mate assortatively. We used microsatellite genotypes or mesh false-floors to assign paternity. Fisher's exact tests as well as Binomial and Wilcoxon tests were used to detect if mating departed from random expectations. Results Surprisingly, laboratory mate choice experiments revealed significant assortative mating not only between population pairs with differently coloured males, but between population pairs with similarly-coloured males too. This suggested that assortative mating could be based on non-visual cues, so we further examined the sensory basis of assortative mating between two populations with different male colour. Conducting trials under monochromatic (orange light, intended to mask the distinctive male dorsal fin hues (blue v orange of these populations, did not significantly affect the assortative mating by female P. emmiltos observed under control conditions. By contrast, assortative mating broke down when direct contact between female and male was prevented. Conclusion We suggest that non-visual cues, such as olfactory signals, may play an important role in mate choice and behavioural isolation in these and perhaps other African cichlid fish. Future speciation models aimed at explaining African cichlid radiations may therefore consider incorporating such mating cues in mate choice scenarios.

  5. Dynamic, mating-induced gene expression changes in female head and brain tissues of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirling Emma J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila melanogaster females show changes in behavior and physiology after mating that are thought to maximize the number of progeny resulting from the most recent copulation. Sperm and seminal fluid proteins induce post-mating changes in females, however, very little is known about the resulting gene expression changes in female head and central nervous system tissues that contribute to the post-mating response. Results We determined the temporal gene expression changes in female head tissues 0-2, 24, 48 and 72 hours after mating. Females from each time point had a unique post-mating gene expression response, with 72 hours post-mating having the largest number of genes with significant changes in expression. At most time points, genes expressed in the head fat body that encode products involved in metabolism showed a marked change in expression. Additional analysis of gene expression changes in dissected brain tissues 24 hours post-mating revealed changes in transcript abundance of many genes, notably, the reduced transcript abundance of genes that encode ion channels. Conclusions Substantial changes occur in the regulation of many genes in female head tissues after mating, which might underlie aspects of the female post-mating response. These results provide new insights into the physiological and metabolic changes that accompany changes in female behaviors.

  6. Potentials-attract or likes-attract in human mate choice in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Qiao He

    Full Text Available To explain how individuals' self-perceived long-term mate value influences their mate preference and mate choice, two hypotheses have been presented, which are "potentials-attract" and "likes-attract", respectively. The potentials-attract means that people choose mates matched with their sex-specific traits indicating reproductive potentials; and the likes-attract means that people choose mates matched with their own conditions. However, the debate about these two hypotheses still remains unsolved. In this paper, we tested these two hypotheses using a human's actual mate choice data from a Chinese online dating system (called the Baihe website, where 27,183 users of Baihe website are included, in which there are 590 paired couples (1180 individuals who met each other via the website. Our main results show that not only the relationship between individuals' own attributes and their self-stated mate preference but also that between individuals' own attributes and their actual mate choice are more consistent with the likes-attract hypothesis, i.e., people tend to choose mates who are similar to themselves in a variety of attributes.

  7. Learning to speciate: The biased learning of mate preferences promotes adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, R Tucker; Kozak, Genevieve M

    2015-11-01

    Bursts of rapid repeated speciation called adaptive radiations have generated much of Earth's biodiversity and fascinated biologists since Darwin, but we still do not know why some lineages radiate and others do not. Understanding what causes assortative mating to evolve rapidly and repeatedly in the same lineage is key to understanding adaptive radiation. Many species that have undergone adaptive radiations exhibit mate preference learning, where individuals acquire mate preferences by observing the phenotypes of other members of their populations. Mate preference learning can be biased if individuals also learn phenotypes to avoid in mates, and shift their preferences away from these avoided phenotypes. We used individual-based computational simulations to study whether biased and unbiased mate preference learning promotes ecological speciation and adaptive radiation. We found that ecological speciation can be rapid and repeated when mate preferences are biased, but is inhibited when mate preferences are learned without bias. Our results suggest that biased mate preference learning may play an important role in generating animal biodiversity through adaptive radiation. PMID:26459795

  8. Impact of nonrandom mating on genetic variance and gene flow in populations with mass selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Leopoldo; Woolliams, John A

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms by which nonrandom mating affects selected populations are not completely understood and remain a subject of scientific debate in the development of tractable predictors of population characteristics. The main objective of this study was to provide a predictive model for the genetic variance and covariance among mates for traits subjected to directional selection in populations with nonrandom mating based on the pedigree. Stochastic simulations were used to check the validity of this model. Our predictions indicate that the positive covariance among mates that is expected to result with preferential mating of relatives can be severely overpredicted from neutral expectations. The covariance expected from neutral theory is offset by an opposing covariance between the genetic mean of an individual's family and the Mendelian sampling term of its mate. This mechanism was able to predict the reduction in covariance among mates that we observed in the simulated populations and, in consequence, the equilibrium genetic variance and expected long-term genetic contributions. Additionally, this study provided confirmatory evidence on the postulated relationships of long-term genetic contributions with both the rate of genetic gain and the rate of inbreeding (deltaF) with nonrandom mating. The coefficient of variation of the expected gene flow among individuals and deltaF was sensitive to nonrandom mating when heritability was low, but less so as heritability increased, and the theory developed in the study was sufficient to explain this phenomenon. PMID:15020441

  9. Individual differences in mate poaching: an examination of hormonal, dispositional, and behavioral mate-value traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderani, Shafik; Arnocky, Steven; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-05-01

    The personality and hormonal correlates of mate poaching (attempting to steal another person's partner away) and of the target of the seducer (the mate poached) were examined in a sample 154 undergraduate university students (91 females; 63 males). Thirteen variables were modeled into two regression equations to predict and profile mate poachers and the mate poached. Findings revealed that (1) male mate poachers were better looking and had higher cortisol levels, lower levels of testosterone, and reported being higher on self-esteem, cold affect, and criminal tendencies and (2) female mate poachers and targets of mate poachers reported being more physically attractive, as did male targets of mate poachers. Sex differences in the context of mate poaching attraction as well as the characteristics of those who are successful in their attempts to lure away another person's romantic partner were discussed. PMID:22695642

  10. Cognitive ability is heritable and predicts the success of an alternative mating tactic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, Carl; Philips, A.; Reichard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 1809 (2015), s. 1809. ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative mating tactics * cognition * learning * mating system * sexual selection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.051, year: 2014

  11. Arrhenotoky and oedipal mating in the northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Gamasida: Macronyssidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch John B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The northern fowl mite (NFM; Ornithonyssus sylviarum is a blood-feeding ectoparasite of birds and a major pest of poultry in the United States. Mite populations spread rapidly in commercial flocks, reach peak burdens of >70,000 mites per bird and have developed resistance to many pesticides. Despite decades as a pest in the United States, the reproductive biology of NFM remains unclear. Based on karyotypes, the NFM has haplodiploid sex determination, which suggests unmated females could produce male offspring (arrhenotoky. Thus, unmated females could disseminate to a new host and initiate an infestation by producing and mating with sons (oedipal mating. Methods We used small capsules to isolate and recover NFM on host chickens. Mites in capsules could blood feed, develop and reproduce, but could not contact other mites. Individual larvae were matured in isolation to produce known, unmated females. We evaluated reproduction of (I previously mated females (i in isolation, or (ii paired with a male, and (II unmated (virgin females in isolation. In each treatment we recorded the number and sexes of offspring produced over time. Results Mated NFM produced female and male offspring in isolation, or when paired with a male. When paired with a male, females produced a female-biased sex ratio of the offspring (F:M ratio ~5:1. Unmated, female NFM produced exclusively male offspring when in isolation. When paired with their sons that had developed to maturity, the "virgin" females were able to mate and subsequently produce female offspring. Conclusions This study found that females with immediate access to sperm produced mostly female offspring. Virgin female NFM initially produced only male offspring and subsequently used oedipal mating to produce female offspring. Using this reproductive system NFM could successfully colonize new hosts as immature, or unmated females. The strong female-biased sex ratio of NFM populations suggests a

  12. Relational mate value: consensus and uniqueness in romantic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Hunt, Lucy L

    2014-05-01

    Classic evolutionary and social exchange perspectives suggest that some people have more mate value than others because they possess desirable traits (e.g., attractiveness, status) that are intrinsic to the individual. This article broadens mate value in 2 ways to incorporate relational perspectives. First, close relationships research suggests an alternative measure of mate value: whether someone can provide a high quality relationship. Second, person perception research suggests that both trait-based and relationship quality measures of mate value should contain a mixture of target variance (i.e., consensus about targets, the classic conceptualization) and relationship variance (i.e., unique ratings of targets). In Study 1, participants described their personal conceptions of mate value and revealed themes consistent with classic and relational approaches. Study 2 used a social relations model blocked design to assess target and relationship variances in participants' romantic evaluations of opposite-sex classmates at the beginning and end of the semester. In Study 3, a one-with-many design documented target and relationship variances among long-term opposite-sex acquaintances. Results generally revealed more relationship variance than target variance; participants' romantic evaluations were more likely to be unique to a particular person rather than consensual. Furthermore, the relative dominance of relationship to target variance was stronger for relational measures of mate value (i.e., relationship quality projections) than classic trait-based measures (i.e., attractiveness, resources). Finally, consensus decreased as participants got to know one another better, and long-term acquaintances in Study 3 revealed enormous amounts of relationship variance. Implications for the evolutionary, close relationships, and person-perception literatures are discussed. PMID:24611897

  13. Mate replacement entails a fitness cost for a socially monogamous seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Daniel, Claire; Stephenson, Brent M.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the selective advantages of divorce in socially monogamous bird species have unravelled extensive variation among different lineages with diverse ecologies. We quantified the reproductive correlates of mate retention, mate loss and divorce in a highly philopatric, colonially breeding biparental seabird, the Australasian gannet Morus serrator. Estimates of annual divorce rates varied between 40-43% for M. serrator and were high in comparison with both the closely related Morus bassanus and the range of divorce rates reported across monogamous avian breeding systems. Mate retention across seasons was related to consistently higher reproductive success compared with mate replacement, while divorce per se contributed significantly to lower reproductive output only in one of two breeding seasons. Prior reproductive success was not predictive of mate replacement overall or divorce in particular. These patterns are in accordance with the musical chairs hypothesis of adaptive divorce theory, which operates in systems characterised by asynchronous territorial establishment.

  14. Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Pedersen, Jes Søe;

    2004-01-01

    A parasitic ant has abandoned the multiple mating habit of the queens of its related host. Multiple mating (polyandry) is widespread among animal groups, particularly insects 1 . But the factors that maintain it and underlie its evolution are hard to verify because benefits and costs are not easily...... quantified and they tend to be similar in related species. Here we compare the mating strategies of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior and its recently derived social parasite Acromyrmex insinuator, which is also its closest relative 2 (see Fig. 1 ). We find that although the host queens mate with up...... to a dozen different males, the social parasite mates only singly. This rapid and surprising reversion to single mating in a socially parasitic ant indicates that the costs of polyandry are probably specific to a free-living lifestyle....

  15. How Sexually Dimorphic Are Human Mate Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies on sex-differentiated mate preferences have focused on univariate analyses. However, because mate selection is inherently multidimensional, a multivariate analysis more appropriately measures sex differences in mate preferences. We used the Mahalanobis distance (D) and logistic regression to investigate sex differences in mate preferences with data secured from participants residing in 37 cultures (n = 10,153). Sex differences are large in multivariate terms, yielding an overall D = 2.41, corresponding to overlap between the sexes of just 22.8%. Moreover, knowledge of mate preferences alone affords correct classification of sex with 92.2% accuracy. Finally, pattern-wise sex differences are negatively correlated with gender equality across cultures but are nonetheless cross-culturally robust. Discussion focuses on implications in evaluating the importance and magnitude of sex differences in mate preferences. PMID:26068718

  16. Premating isolation is determined by larval rearing substrates in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. IX. Host plant and population specific epicuticular hydrocarbon expression influences mate choice and sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, J A; Etges, W J

    2013-03-01

    Sexual signals in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis include cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), contact pheromones that mediate female discrimination of males during courtship. CHCs, along with male courtship songs, cause premating isolation between diverged populations, and are influenced by genotype × environment interactions caused by different host cacti. CHC profiles of mated and unmated adult flies from a Baja California and a mainland Mexico population of D. mojavensis reared on two host cacti were assayed to test the hypothesis that male CHCs mediate within-population female discrimination of males. In multiple choice courtship trials, mated and unmated males differed in CHC profiles, indicating that females prefer males with particular blends of CHCs. Mated and unmated females significantly differed in CHC profiles as well. Adults in the choice trials had CHC profiles that were significantly different from those in pair-mated adults from no-choice trials revealing an influence of sexual selection. Females preferred different male CHC blends in each population, but the influence of host cactus on CHC variation was significant only in the mainland population indicating population-specific plasticity in CHCs. Different groups of CHCs mediated female choice-based sexual selection in each population suggesting that geographical and ecological divergence has the potential to promote divergence in mate communication systems. PMID:23286346

  17. Determination of photovoltaic modules parameters at different operating conditions using a novel bird mating optimizer approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A simplified bird mating optimizer (SBMO) approach is developed. • SBMO is used to estimate the electrical parameters of a PV module. • The performance of SBMO is promising. • The results are comparable with the other methods. - Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to provide a framework to accurately estimate the electrical equivalent circuit parameters of photovoltaic arrays by use of an efficient heuristic technique. Owing to the non-linearity of the current vs. voltage (I–V) characteristics of PV modules, using a superior optimization technique helps to effectively find the real electrical parameters. Inspired by the mating process of different bird species, bird mating optimizer (BMO) is a new invented search technique which has shown superior performance for solving complex optimization problems. In this paper, the original BMO algorithm is simplified and used to estimate the electrical parameters of the module model for an amorphous silicon PV system at different operating conditions. The simplified BMO (SBMO) eliminates tedious efforts of parameter setting in original BMO and also modifies some rules. The usefulness of the proposed algorithm is investigated by comparing the obtained results with those found by two particle swarm optimization (PSO) variants, two harmony search (HS) variants as well as seeker optimization algorithm (SOA). Based on the investigated situations of this paper, SBMO yields more accurate results than the other studied methods

  18. Red and white Chinook salmon: genetic divergence and mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Sarah J; Pitcher, Trevor E; Devlin, Robert H; Heath, Daniel D

    2016-03-01

    Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exhibit extreme differences in coloration of skin, eggs and flesh due to genetic polymorphisms affecting carotenoid deposition, where colour can range from white to bright red. A sympatric population of red and white Chinook salmon occurs in the Quesnel River, British Columbia, where frequencies of each phenotype are relatively equal. In our study, we examined evolutionary mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of the morphs, where we first tested whether morphs were reproductively isolated using microsatellite genotyping, and second, using breeding trials in seminatural spawning channels, we tested whether colour assortative mate choice could be operating to maintain the polymorphism in nature. Next, given extreme difference in carotenoid assimilation and the importance of carotenoids to immune function, we examined mate choice and selection between colour morphs at immune genes (major histocompatibility complex genes: MHC I-A1 and MHC II-B1). In our study, red and white individuals were found to interbreed, and under seminatural conditions, some degree of colour assortative mate choice (71% of matings) was observed. We found significant genetic differences at both MHC genes between morphs, but no evidence of MHC II-B1-based mate choice. White individuals were more heterozygous at MHC II-B1 compared with red individuals, and morphs showed significant allele frequency differences at MHC I-A1. Although colour assortative mate choice is likely not a primary mechanism maintaining the polymorphisms in the population, our results suggest that selection is operating differentially at immune genes in red and white Chinook salmon, possibly due to differences in carotenoid utilization. PMID:26836978

  19. Mating behaviour of Pseudodiaptomus annandalei (Copepoda Calanoida) with emphasis on rejection rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dur, G.; Souissi, S.; Schmitt, F. G.; Hwang, J. S.; Cheng, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    Mating behaviour has important consequences at both individual and population levels. Reproductive fitness is of paramount importance to sustain the success of planktonic copepod populations in aquatic environments. The calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei has one of the largest geographical ranges for Indo-Pacific Pseudodiaptomidae. It is also of great importance in fish culture pounds south of Taiwan. However, the mating behavior of this species has never been studied. Mating and predatory behaviour are conceptually the same. In both cases, the encounter and the interactions occur between two individuals with opposite characteristics: predator-prey for predation; male-female for mating. The mating behaviour may be defined as a sequence of encounter, pursuit, capture and copulation. Several observed behaviour suggest that both sexes asses and choose among available mates before the copulation. Pre-copulatory mate choice in copepods may manifest as mate guarding where males attached to CV females until their final moult, complicated pre-copulatory dance and escaping. During our preliminary observations, we notice that P. annandalei females escape by shaking, often violently, the males that have caught them. Consequently for such a species the act of mating may be visualized as a chain of six events (i.e. search, encounter, pursuit, capture, selective dance, copulation).Within this chain, encounter, capture and copulation are conditional events depending on the successful conclusion of their preceding events in the chain. In this study, we examined the different step in the mating behaviour of the scarcely studied sub-tropical copepod, Pseudodiaptomus annandalei, collected from the Danshuei estuary (North Taiwan). The individuals were observed using a 3D optical system to obtain simultaneous front and side views. Males, when placed in the water where females had previously swum in, showed significant increase of their swimming velocities. Additionally, their

  20. New technology for mating disruption and prospects for integration with SIT: ExosexTM and ExolureTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Exosex autoconfusion system has been successfully trialed against a variety of insect pests and is now registered for use in certain countries. It differs fundamentally from all other mating disruption systems by contaminating the target pest with electrostatically charged powder formulated with pheromone or other biologically active materials. The method requires only 25 dispensers and less than 100 mg of pheromone per hectare. The mode of action in disrupting mate location, courtship, and mating, may include a variety of effects, all of which contribute to the efficacy of management of the pest in question. The most important are believed to be the following: - False trail following: - Habituation; - Trail masking; - Sensory imbalance; - Inhibition of courtship; - Enhancement of predation and; - Delay of mating. Factors making Exosex autoconfusion such a uniquely powerful technology are demonstrated by the following calculations based on the threshold responsiveness of Cydia pomonella to pheromone. One particle of EntostatTM (wax) powder contains on average 67 femtograms (6.7 x 10 14 g) of formulated pheromone, and there are approximately 1.5 x 1010 particles per gram of powder. One particle resting on the antennae would theoretically release sufficient pheromone to induce habituation of responsiveness to pheromone. Approximately 1,800 particles would constitute an attractive source for a male moth in the field. Hence the contents of one Exosex dispenser are theoretically capable of contaminating around 1 billion male codling moths with enough pheromone to make them attractive sources to other males. The Exosect technology has also given rise to a highly efficient lure and kill method, in which slow-acting chemical insecticides or entomopathogens can be spread throughout a pest population by autodissemination. Both the mating disruption and lure and kill technologies are clearly compatible with SIT, and several new ideas will be presented

  1. The Evolution of Human Mating%人类"性交往"的进化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David M. Buss

    2007-01-01

    Mating is close to the engine of the evolutionary process-differential reproductive success. As descendants of reproductively successful ancestors, modem humans have inherited the mating strategies that led to our ancestor's success. These strategies include long-term committed mating (e.g., marriage), short-term mating (e.g., a brief sexual encounter), extra-pair mating (e.g., infidelity), mate poaching (luring another person's mate), and mate guarding (effort devoted to keeping a mate). Since men and women historically confronted different adaptive problems in the mating domain, the sexes differ profoundly in evolved psychology of mating solutions. These psychological sex differences include possessing distinct mate preferences, dissimilar desires for short-term mating, and distinct triggers that evoke sexual jealousy. This article reviews empirical evidence supporting evolution-based hypotheses about these mating strategies. The study of human mating is one of the true "success stories" of evolutionary psychology.%性交往是人类繁衍出现差异的进化"引擎".现代人继承了祖先成功繁衍后代的性交往策略.这些策略涵盖长期守诺的性交往(如婚姻)、短期性交往(如短暂的外遇)、婚姻外的性交往(如不忠)、私通他人配偶(引诱别人的配偶)以及配偶维持(与单一配偶性交往)等.两性在性交往过程中面临不同的适应问题,性交往问题的进化机制存在极大的性别差异.配偶偏好不同、短期性交往的愿望不同以及性嫉妒的诱因不同等都是性交往具有性别差异的表现.很多实证研究都证实了性交往策略的存在,人类性交往研究是进化心理学研究中较为成熟的一个研究领域.

  2. Incest versus abstinence: reproductive trade-offs between mate limitation and progeny fitness in a self-incompatible invasive plant

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Swain, Stephen M; Young, Andrew G

    2013-01-01

    Plant mating systems represent an evolutionary and ecological trade-off between reproductive assurance through selfing and maximizing progeny fitness through outbreeding. However, many plants with sporophytic self-incompatibility systems exhibit dominance interactions at the S-locus that allow biparental inbreeding, thereby facilitating mating between individuals that share alleles at the S-locus. We investigated this trade-off by estimating mate availability and biparental inbreeding depress...

  3. Multiple mating reveals complex patterns of assortative mating by personality and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Wey, Tina W; Chang, Ann T; Fogarty, Sean; Sih, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Understanding patterns of non-random mating is central to predicting the consequences of sexual selection. Most studies quantifying assortative mating focus on testing for correlations among partners' phenotypes in mated pairs. Few studies have distinguished between assortative mating arising from preferences for similar partners (expressed by all or a subset of the population) vs. from phenotypic segregation in the environment. Also, few studies have assessed the robustness of assortative mating against temporal changes in social conditions. We tracked multiple matings by stream water striders (Aquarius remigis) across variable social conditions to investigate mating patterns by both body size and behavioural type (personality). We documented temporal changes in partner availability and used a mixed model approach to analyse individual behaviours and changes in mating status recorded on an hourly basis. We assessed whether all or only a subset of individuals in the population expressed a tendency to mate with similar phenotypes. Our analyses took into account variation in the level of competition and in the phenotypes of available partners. Males and females exhibited significant assortative mating by body size: the largest males and females, and the smallest males and females mated together more often than random. However, individuals of intermediate size were equally likely to mate with small, intermediate or large partners. Individuals also displayed two contrasting patterns of assortative mating by personality (activity level). Individuals generally mated preferentially with partners of similar activity level. However, beyond that general trend, individuals with more extreme personalities tended to exhibit disassortative mating: the most active males mated disproportionately with less active females and the least active males tended to mate with more active females. Our analyses thus revealed multiple, distinct patterns of nonrandom mating. These mating

  4. Studying Sensing-Based Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2013-01-01

    Recent sensing-based systems involve a multitude of users, devices, and places. These types of systems challenge existing approaches for conducting valid system evaluations. Here, the author discusses such evaluation challenges and revisits existing system evaluation methodologies.......Recent sensing-based systems involve a multitude of users, devices, and places. These types of systems challenge existing approaches for conducting valid system evaluations. Here, the author discusses such evaluation challenges and revisits existing system evaluation methodologies....

  5. Alternative mating tactics in the yellow dung fly: resolving mechanisms of small-male advantage off pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, Brian E; Waltzer, Ryan J; Lüpold, Stefan; Droge-Young, Elizabeth M; Manier, Mollie K; Pitnick, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Recent work suggests that the yellow dung fly mating system may include alternative patroller-competitor mating tactics in which large males compete for gravid females on dung, whereas small, non-competitive males search for females at foraging sites. Small males obtain most matings off pasture, yet the behavioural mechanism(s) giving rise to this pattern are unknown. We investigated the male and female behaviours that determine mating success in this environment by conducting field mating experiments and found small males to benefit from several attributes specific to the off-pasture mating environment. First, small males from foraging sites exhibited higher mating propensity, indicating that large males away from dung may be depleted of energy and/or sperm. Second, small males were more discriminating, being significantly less likely to attempt with non-gravid females, which are absent on dung but common off pasture. Third, non-gravid females were generally more likely to actively struggle and reject mating attempts; however, such behaviours occurred disproportionately more often with large males. Female Scathophaga stercoraria thus appear to preferentially mate with small males when off pasture. These findings challenge assumptions about male-female interactions in systems with alternative mating tactics and reveal hidden processes that may influence selection patterns in the field. PMID:24225455

  6. Moon base reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  7. Evolutionary transition from single to multiple mating in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Frydenberg, Jane;

    1999-01-01

    have lower queen mating frequencies, similar to those found in most other ants. We tested this prediction by analysing queen mating frequency and colony kin structure in three basal attine species: Myrmicocrypta ednaella, Apterostigma collare and Cyphomyrmex longiscapus. Microsatellite marker analyses......Queens of leafcutter ants exhibit the highest known levels of multiple mating (up to 10 mates per queen) among ants. Multiple mating may have been selected to increase genetic diversity among nestmate workers, which is hypothesized to be critical in social systems with large, long-lived colonies...... under severe pressure of pathogens. Advanced fungus-growing (leafcutter) ants have large numbers (104-106 workers) and long-lived colonies, whereas basal genera in the attine tribe have small (< 200 workers) colonies with probably substantially shorter lifespans. Basal attines are therefore expected to...

  8. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Mating Behavior and Male Sex Pheromones in Nasonia Wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Diao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A major focus in speciation genetics is to identify the chromosomal regions and genes that reduce hybridization and gene flow. We investigated the genetic architecture of mating behavior in the parasitoid wasp species pair Nasonia giraulti and Nasonia oneida that exhibit strong prezygotic isolation. Behavioral analysis showed that N. oneida females had consistently higher latency times, and broke off the mating sequence more often in the mounting stage when confronted with N. giraulti males compared with males of their own species. N. oneida males produce a lower quantity of the long-range male sex pheromone (4R,5S-5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (RS-HDL. Crosses between the two species yielded hybrid males with various pheromone quantities, and these males were used in mating trials with females of either species to measure female mate discrimination rates. A quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis involving 475 recombinant hybrid males (F2, 2148 reciprocally backcrossed females (F3, and a linkage map of 52 equally spaced neutral single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers plus SNPs in 40 candidate mating behavior genes revealed four QTL for male pheromone amount, depending on partner species. Our results demonstrate that the RS-HDL pheromone plays a role in the mating system of N. giraulti and N. oneida, but also that additional communication cues are involved in mate choice. No QTL were found for female mate discrimination, which points at a polygenic architecture of female choice with strong environmental influences.

  9. A deviation from the bipolar-tetrapolar mating paradigm in an early diverged basidiomycete.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Coelho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In fungi, sexual identity is determined by specialized genomic regions called MAT loci which are the equivalent to sex chromosomes in some animals and plants. Usually, only two sexes or mating types exist, which are determined by two alternate sets of genes (or alleles at the MAT locus (bipolar system. However, in the phylum Basidiomycota, a unique tetrapolar system emerged in which four different mating types are generated per meiosis. This occurs because two functionally distinct molecular recognition systems, each encoded by one MAT region, constrain the selection of sexual partners. Heterozygosity at both MAT regions is a pre-requisite for mating in both bipolar and tetrapolar basidiomycetes. Tetrapolar mating behaviour results from the absence of genetic linkage between the two regions bringing forth up to thousands of mating types. The subphylum Pucciniomycotina, an early diverged lineage of basidiomycetes encompassing important plant pathogens such as the rusts and saprobes like Rhodosporidium and Sporidiobolus, has been so far poorly explored concerning the content and organization of MAT loci. Here we show that the red yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor has a mating system unlike any previously described because occasional disruptions of the genetic cohesion of the bipolar MAT locus originate new mating types. We confirmed that mating is normally bipolar and that heterozygosity at both MAT regions is required for mating. However, a laboratory cross showed that meiotic recombination may occur within the bipolar MAT locus, explaining tetrapolar features like increased allele number and evolution rates of some MAT genes. This pseudo-bipolar system deviates from the classical bipolar-tetrapolar paradigm and, to our knowledge, has never been observed before. We propose a model for MAT evolution in the Basidiomycota in which the pseudo-bipolar system may represent a hitherto unforeseen gradual form of transition from an ancestral tetrapolar

  10. A Schistosomiasis Model with Mating Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxing Qi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A schistosomiasis model is proposed including single schistosomes, paired schistosomes, snails, and the latent period of infected snails. A reasonable sex ratio of schistosomes and the minimum mating function are considered. A threshold condition determining the stability of the system is given, and the stability of equilibrium for the model is shown. The impact of the latent period of infected snails on schistosomiasis transmission can be found through numerical simulations. Finally, preferable control strategies are obtained by sensitivity analyses. Killing snails may be the preferred control measure. If we choose chemotherapy, we should use some drugs which are sufficient for reducing egg-associated pathology, since paired schistosomes are mostly harmful to definitive hosts.

  11. Mating behaviour in the sea slug Elysia timida (Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa: hypodermic injection, sperm transfer and balanced reciprocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthes Nils

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In simultaneous hermaphrodites with copulation and internal fertilization it is often unclear whether reciprocal sperm exchange results from the unconditional willingness of both partners to donate and receive sperm, or whether it follows from a more controlled process such as conditional reciprocal sperm exchange, i.e. sperm trading. While in some sea slugs mating is assumed to be based on sperm trading, it seems to be unconditional in others. Here, we describe the unusual mating behaviour of Elysia timida, a small sacoglossan, focussing on indications for conditional reciprocity. Results E. timida shows an as yet unique combination of a long series of hypodermic transfers followed by a short phase with standard insemination into a female genital aperture. Hypodermic transfer takes place in the form of repeated small injections into the dorsal surface of the partner, interrupted by synchronised circling movements. In the final mating phase sperm is transferred into the female genital aperture in a short period. In both phases the two mating individuals show a high degree of transfer symmetry and synchrony. While total duration and number of transfers were balanced within pairs, they varied significantly between pairs. Furthermore, looking at individual hypodermic transfers within pairs, reciprocal transfers lasted longer than unilateral transfers. Final sperm transfers were always reciprocal except for two cases which also diverted from the usual pattern in ways that were suggestive of a conflict over reciprocity. Conclusion Our results suggest that individual mating decisions in E. timida depend on what the partner does, indicating conditional reciprocity. If hypodermic transfers also involve the transfer of sperm (which remains to be confirmed, this system represents an up to now unique transition stage between hypodermic and standard insemination, both of which are widespread in this group of sea slugs, but never have

  12. Genomic analysis of post-mating changes in the honey bee queen (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Freddie-Jeanne

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms underlying the post-mating behavioral and physiological transitions undergone by females have not been explored in great detail. Honey bees represent an excellent model system in which to address these questions because they exhibit a range of "mating states," with two extremes (virgins and egg-laying, mated queens that differ dramatically in their behavior, pheromone profiles, and physiology. We used an incompletely-mated mating-state to understand the molecular processes that underlie the transition from a virgin to a mated, egg-laying queen. We used same-aged virgins, queens that mated once but did not initiate egg-laying, and queens that mated once and initiated egg-laying. Results Differences in the behavior and physiology among groups correlated with the underlying variance observed in the top 50 predictive genes in the brains and the ovaries. These changes were correlated with either a behaviorally-associated pattern or a physiologically-associated pattern. Overall, these results suggest that the brains and the ovaries of queens are uncoupled or follow different timescales; the initiation of mating triggers immediate changes in the ovaries, while changes in the brain may require additional stimuli or take a longer time to complete. Comparison of our results to previous studies of post-mating changes in Drosophila melanogaster identified common biological processes affected by mating, including stress response and alternative-splicing pathways. Comparison with microarray data sets related to worker behavior revealed no obvious correlation between genes regulated by mating and genes regulated by behavior/physiology in workers. Conclusion Studying the underlying molecular mechanisms of post-mating changes in honey bee queens will not only give us insight into how molecular mechanisms regulate physiological and behavioral changes, but they may also lead to important insights into the evolution of

  13. Identification and Functional Analysis of Pheromone and Receptor Genes in the B3 Mating Locus of Pleurotus eryngii

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung-Hee Kim; Young Min Kang; Chak Han Im; Asjad Ali; Sun Young Kim; Hee-Jeong Je; Min-Keun Kim; Hyun Su Rho; Hyun Sook Lee; Won-Sik Kong; Jae-San Ryu

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii has recently become a major cultivated mushroom; it uses tetrapolar heterothallism as a part of its reproductive process. Sexual development progresses only when the A and B mating types are compatible. Such mating incompatibility occasionally limits the efficiency of breeding programs in which crossing within loci-shared strains or backcrossing strategies are employed. Therefore, understanding the mating system in edible mushroom fungi will help provide a short cut in the d...

  14. Resources, attractiveness, family commitment; reproductive decisions in human mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereczkei, T; Voros, S; Gal, A; Bernath, L

    1997-08-01

    This study of reproductive decisions in human mate selection used data from "lonely hearts" advertisements to examine a series of predictions based on the mate preferences of male and females relating to age; physical appearance; financial condition and socioeconomic status; family commitment and personal traits; short- and long-term mating; and marital status and preexisting children. The sample consisted of 1000 personal advertisements (500 male) placed in two daily, national papers between February and October 1994 in Hungary. The research procedure included a pilot study of 150 advertisers (75 male) to refine the categories examined. Analysis was performed using 1) a matrix with one axis referring to offers and the other to demands of males and females separately; 2) a matrix of offers only to derive correlated traits of claims by males and females; and 3) a matrix with columns describing sex, offers, demands, advertiser's age, and required age and a row for each of the 1000 samples. It was found that men preferred younger mates, while women preferred older ones. Men were more likely to seek physical attractiveness, while women were more likely to seek financial resources (ranked 7th) and high status (ranked 6th). Women strongly preferred male domestic virtue and family commitment, and twice as many women as men demanded long-term relationships. Women more frequently declared preexisting children, and men exhibited a reluctance to accept these children. Both males and females employed "trade-off" strategies, making greater demands if they felt they had attractive offers. PMID:12293453

  15. Phytochemical profile of morphologically selected yerba-mate progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Teresa Valduga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yerba-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil is a native South American species. Plant progenies are populations that differ in terms of their productivity, morphology and phytochemical profile. This study aimed to determine the concentration of primary and secondary metabolites, such as antioxidants, in leaves, of yerba-mate progenies selected based on morphological characteristics. We evaluated the centesimal composition of secondary metabolites in the leaves of five yerba-mate plants. Methylxanthines and phenolic compounds were determined by UPLC-PDA, and antioxidant activity by measuring DPPH scavenging. Significant differences were found in centesimal composition and the contents of caffeine, theobromine, rutin and chlorogenic acid, as well as antioxidant activities, in selected progenies. The IC50 values were correlated with the chlorogenic acid levels (r2 = 0.5242 and soluble content (r2 = 0.7686. The morphological characteristics observed in yerba-mate leaves can be used as a tool for plant selection, to obtain matrices with different phytochemical profiles as a genetic material source.

  16. Capability-based computer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Henry M

    2014-01-01

    Capability-Based Computer Systems focuses on computer programs and their capabilities. The text first elaborates capability- and object-based system concepts, including capability-based systems, object-based approach, and summary. The book then describes early descriptor architectures and explains the Burroughs B5000, Rice University Computer, and Basic Language Machine. The text also focuses on early capability architectures. Dennis and Van Horn's Supervisor; CAL-TSS System; MIT PDP-1 Timesharing System; and Chicago Magic Number Machine are discussed. The book then describes Plessey System 25

  17. Intelligence-based systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Tolk, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) defines Systems Engineering as an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. Researchers are using intelligence-based techniques to support the practices of systems engineering in an innovative way. This research volume includes a selection of contributions by subject experts to design better systems.

  18. Ground Based Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School and the Navy’s Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) in collaboration with ProSensing Inc. has modified an X-Band tactical radar system to add a weather observation mode. The new system was named MWR-05XP (Mobile Weather Radar, 2005 X-Band, Phased Array) and is the first mobile, electronically scanned phased array radar developed for weather sensing applications. Key system parameters of the MWR-05XP rapid scanning radar...

  19. Characterization of VuMATE1 expression in response to iron nutrition and aluminum stress reveals adaptation of rice bean (Vigna umbellata to acid soils through cis regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiya eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice bean (Vigna umbellata VuMATE1 appears to be constitutively expressed at vascular system but root apex, and Al stress extends its expression to root apex. Whether VuMATE1 participates in both Al tolerance and Fe nutrition, and how VuMATE1 expression is regulated is of great interest. In this study, the role of VuMATE1 in Fe nutrition was characterized through in planta complementation assays. The transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 was investigated through promoter analysis and promoter-GUS reporter assays. The results showed that the expression of VuMATE1 was regulated by Al stress but not Fe status. Complementation of frd3-1 with VuMATE1 under VuMATE1 promoter could not restore phenotype, but restored with 35SCaMV promoter. Immunostaining of VuMATE1 revealed abnormal localization of VuMATE1 in vasculature. In planta GUS reporter assay identified Al-responsive cis-acting elements resided between -1228 and -574 bp. Promoter analysis revealed several cis-acting elements, but transcription is not simply regulated by one of these elements. We demonstrated that cis regulation of VuMATE1 expression is involved in Al tolerance mechanism, while not involved in Fe nutrition. These results reveal the evolution of VuMATE1 expression for better adaptation of rice bean to acidic soils where Al stress imposed but Fe deficiency pressure released.

  20. Characterization of VuMATE1 Expression in Response to Iron Nutrition and Aluminum Stress Reveals Adaptation of Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata) to Acid Soils through Cis Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meiya; Xu, Jiameng; Lou, Heqiang; Fan, Wei; Yang, Jianli; Zheng, Shaojian

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) VuMATE1 appears to be constitutively expressed at vascular system but root apex, and Al stress extends its expression to root apex. Whether VuMATE1 participates in both Al tolerance and Fe nutrition, and how VuMATE1 expression is regulated is of great interest. In this study, the role of VuMATE1 in Fe nutrition was characterized through in planta complementation assays. The transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 was investigated through promoter analysis and promoter-GUS reporter assays. The results showed that the expression of VuMATE1 was regulated by Al stress but not Fe status. Complementation of frd3-1 with VuMATE1 under VuMATE1 promoter could not restore phenotype, but restored with 35SCaMV promoter. Immunostaining of VuMATE1 revealed abnormal localization of VuMATE1 in vasculature. In planta GUS reporter assay identified Al-responsive cis-acting elements resided between -1228 and -574 bp. Promoter analysis revealed several cis-acting elements, but transcription is not simply regulated by one of these elements. We demonstrated that cis regulation of VuMATE1 expression is involved in Al tolerance mechanism, while not involved in Fe nutrition. These results reveal the evolution of VuMATE1 expression for better adaptation of rice bean to acid soils where Al stress imposed but Fe deficiency pressure released.

  1. A note on mate allocation for dominance handling in genomic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Miguel A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Estimation of non-additive genetic effects in animal breeding is important because it increases the accuracy of breeding value prediction and the value of mate allocation procedures. With the advent of genomic selection these ideas should be revisited. The objective of this study was to quantify the efficiency of including dominance effects and practising mating allocation under a whole-genome evaluation scenario. Four strategies of selection, carried out during five generations, were compared by simulation techniques. In the first scenario (MS, individuals were selected based on their own phenotypic information. In the second (GSA, they were selected based on the prediction generated by the Bayes A method of whole-genome evaluation under an additive model. In the third (GSD, the model was expanded to include dominance effects. These three scenarios used random mating to construct future generations, whereas in the fourth one (GSD + MA, matings were optimized by simulated annealing. The advantage of GSD over GSA ranges from 9 to 14% of the expected response and, in addition, using mate allocation (GSD + MA provides an additional response ranging from 6% to 22%. However, mate selection can improve the expected genetic response over random mating only in the first generation of selection. Furthermore, the efficiency of genomic selection is eroded after a few generations of selection, thus, a continued collection of phenotypic data and re-evaluation will be required.

  2. Consequences of thermal acclimation for the mating behaviour and swimming performance of female mosquito fish

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Robbie S; Condon, Catriona H.L; Johnston, Ian A.

    2007-01-01

    The mating system of eastern mosquito fish (Gambusia holbrooki) is dominated by male sexual coercion, where all matings are forced and females never appear to cooperate and actively avoid all attempts. Previous research has shown that male G. holbrooki offer a model system for examining the benefits of reversible thermal acclimation for reproductive success, but examining the benefits to female avoidance behaviour has been difficult. In this study, we examined the ability of non-male-deprived...

  3. 小慈姑的开花状态、传粉机制与交配系统%FLORAL EXPRESSION, POLLINATION MECHANISM AND MATING SYSTEM OF SAGITTARIA POTAMOGETIFOLIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪小凡; 陈家宽

    2001-01-01

    The floral expression and pollination m echa nisms of Sagittariapotamogetifolia Merr., a helophyte species, were observe d in natural populations. The species is insect and, concurrently, wind pollinat ed, but pollen flows are mediated mainly by insect pollination. The movements of pollinators are correlated with densities of inflorescence in populations, beca use the insect visitors have a certain capability to adapt to variations in popu lation density. Outcrossing rates of 5 samples from 3 populations were quantitat ively estimated by sampling from natural habitats and using an isozyme locus as a genetic marker. The outcrossing rates in the 5 samples (50.0%-92.8% ) indica te a mixed mating system dominated by outcrossing mechanisms. For the monoecious species S. potamogetifolia Merr., outcrossing rates are not correlated with densities of blooming plants in populations, but the level of outcrossing is de pendent on the frequencies of individuals bearing more than two inflorescences.%在自然种群中对沼生植物小慈姑(Sagittaria potamogetifoliaMerr.)的开花状态和传粉过程作了观测,并用同工酶遗传标记法定量估测了其3个种群中5个样本的异交率。该种为虫媒传粉为主的虫媒/风媒兼性传粉机制,访花昆虫的飞行距离多在0~2m范围内,并与花序密度呈不显著的正相关。异交率(t)为50.0%~92.8%,表明该种为异交为主的混合交配系统(Mixed mating system)。对雌雄同株的小慈姑而言,异交率与各种群花期植株密度无关,异交水平取决于种群中开花花序在两个或两个以上的植株所占比例。

  4. The effects of cow's milk on reproductive system and viability of ICR mice and a cross-mating study%牛奶对ICR雌鼠生殖系统以及生育能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈月晓; 魏艳静; 韩长城; 高强; 马玉霞

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究牛奶对雌性ICR小鼠生殖器官的影响.方法 选用刚断奶(出生后22 d)的ICR小鼠48只,雌雄各半,随机分为两组,牛奶组和对照组,每组24只.适应1周后其中牛奶组每日给于10 ml鲜牛奶,对照组不给任何处理.喂养12周后雌雄1∶1同笼交配,进行交叉繁殖(牛奶组和对照组交叉配对)实验,观察交配率、生育率,仔鼠活产率、性别比等指标.所有雌鼠待产仔完毕,仔鼠断奶后,乙醚麻醉处死小鼠,心脏取血,测定血清中的雌二醇,孕激素,同时取小鼠的子宫、卵巢、肾上腺等器官称重,并进行病理检查.结果 雌鼠生殖器官未发现明显的增重或减重,其病理检查也未见明显异常,对雌鼠生育能力和仔鼠的观察未发现明显异常.结论 本试验结果提示,牛奶对雌性ICR小鼠生殖系统无明显影响.%OBJECTIVE To study the effects of milk on the ICR female mice reproductive system. METHODS One-generation cross-mating reproduction study was conducted in male and female ablactated: ICR mice using Cow's milk. 48 mice (24 males and 24 females) were divided randomly into two groups, milk (M) group and control (C) group. One week later, 10 ml milk per mouse per day was given in M group of the F0 generation. At 12 week age, each female was paired with one male as C/C, C/M, M/C, and M/M with 6 day cohabitation period. The reproductive parameters such as mating rate, were measured. RESULTS Neither significantly changes of reproductive organ weight and abnormal results were observed in pathology examinations in M group females was observed, nor viability of female of the F0 generation and of the F1 generation were impacted. CONCLUSION The intake of cow's milk in this cross-mating study produced few adverse effects in reproductive system in female mice.

  5. Worthless and Nutritive Nuptial Gifts: Mating Duration, Sperm Stored and Potential Female Decisions in Spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J Albo

    Full Text Available In nuptial gift-giving species females sometimes select their potential mates based on the presence and size of the gift. But in some species, such as the Neotropical polyandrous spider Paratrechalea ornate male gifts vary in quality, from nutritive to worthless, and this male strategy can be in conflict with female nutritional benefits. In this species, males without gifts experience a reduction in mating success and duration, while males that offer worthless or genuine nutritive gifts mate with similar frequencies and durations. The female apparently controls the duration of copulation. Thus, there is scope for females to favour males offering gifts and further if these are nutritious, via post-copulatory processes. We first tested whether females differentially store sperm from males that offer the highest nutritional benefits by experimentally presenting females with males that offer either nutritive or worthless gifts (uninterrupted matings. Second, we carried out another set of experiments to examine whether females can select sperm based only on gift presence. This time we interrupted matings after the first pedipalp insertion, thus matching number of insertions and mating duration for males that: offered and did not offer gift. Our results showed that the amount of sperm stored is positive related to mating duration in all groups, except in matings with worthless gifts. Gift presence itself did not affect the sperm stored by females, while they store similar number of sperm in matings with males offering either nutritive or worthless gifts. We discuss whether females prefer males with gifts regardless, if content, because it represents an attractive and/or reliable signal. Or alternatively, they prefer nutritive nuptial gifts, as they are an important source of food supply and/or signal of male donor ability.

  6. Risk-based systems configuration monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the work done in the frame of the Research Contract No. 6993/RB - ''Risk based systems configuration monitoring system'' part of the coordinated programme ''Development of safety related expert systems''. The aim of this contract was to develop the prototype of an expert system based on PSA technology to be use for controlling the plant systems configuration taking into account the risk. The software prototype implementation was done using Visual Basic language, under Windows environment. The implemented prototype has the following features: store data/knowledge about components and human factor; store data/knowledge about the plant system and systems components, providing facilities to modify/search data/knowledge, based on the general knowledge; generate the logic model of the system; provide minimal cut sets and path sets determination; provide information to be used by the user for configuration risk management; provide user friendly interface (graphical interface under windows). The prototype can be independently used as an operator support system or for other on-line or off-line applications. After the testing of the prototype, some of the conclusions are: the developed software can be one of the most useful tools to be used by designers, PSA analysts, operators and regulatory for evaluation of the safety and reliability of the plant systems; the structure of the General Knowledge Base included into the prototype offers the possibility to combine knowledge introduced by different users. This feature can be the basis for the development of a knowledge acquisition system; the developed software and methodology can offer the basis for the risk-based data collection system development. (author). 12 refs, 30 figs

  7. Do female Nicrophorus vespilloides reduce direct costs by choosing males that mate less frequently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, P E; Mazué, G P F; Carter, M J; Head, M L; Moore, A J; Royle, N J

    2016-03-01

    Sexual conflict occurs when selection to maximize fitness in one sex does so at the expense of the other sex. In the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, repeated mating provides assurance of paternity at a direct cost to female reproductive productivity. To reduce this cost, females could choose males with low repeated mating rates or smaller, servile males. We tested this by offering females a dichotomous choice between males from lines selected for high or low mating rate. Each female was then allocated her preferred or non-preferred male to breed. Females showed no preference for males based on whether they came from lines selected for high or low mating rates. Pairs containing males from high mating rate lines copulated more often than those with low line males but there was a negative relationship between female size and number of times she mated with a non-preferred male. When females bred with their preferred male the number of offspring reared increased with female size but there was no such increase when breeding with non-preferred males. Females thus benefited from being choosy, but this was not directly attributable to avoidance of costly male repeated mating. PMID:26979560

  8. Is humn mating adventitious or the result of lawful choice? A twin study of mate selection.

    OpenAIRE

    Lykken, D.T.; Tellegen, A.

    1993-01-01

    Inventory data on a large sample of middle-aged twins and their spouses confirmed that spousal pairs are consistently but weakly similar on traits of personality, interests, talents, and attitudes. We argue, however, that neither the Similarity model of mate selection, nor one of its facets, the Equity model, can account for specific mate choice. We therefore tested the hypothesis that people select their mates using idiosyncratic criteria and that the spouses of monozygotic (MZ) twins should...

  9. A mating plug and male mate choice in Drosophila hibisci Bock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak; Starmer; Barker

    1998-10-01

    The functional significance of mating plugs and their relation to male mating behaviour in insects are obscure. In Drosophila hibisci, we describe a firm, gelatinous, mating plug that fills the entire uterus at copulation, and evaluate two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses for the plug's function: (1) retention of sperm near the openings of the sperm storage organs and (2) inhibition of further matings. Unlike full-sized plugs, smaller plugs produced by previously mated males failed to retain sperm at the anterior end of the uterus, indicating that full-sized plugs prevent sperm backflow away from female storage organs. Sexually mature males failed to copulate with previously mated, young females, suggesting that the plug may also deter rival matings. In newly emerged females, the plug remains within the uterus for up to 4 days after copulation, but in mature females, the plug and ejaculate are expelled whenever the next mature oocyte descends into the uterus from the common oviduct, which may be soon after copulation. Males remained in copula significantly longer with mature females, perhaps to compensate for this greater likelihood of ejaculate expulsion. Males showed a mating preference for young virgins over older virgin and nonvirgin females. This unusual mating preference may confer fertility benefits made available through the effectiveness of the plug in reducing sperm competition. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9790703

  10. Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies

    OpenAIRE

    Teal, P. E. A.; Gomez-Simuta, Y.; Proveaux, A. T.

    2000-01-01

    Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a...

  11. An algorithm for efficient constrained mate selection

    OpenAIRE

    Kinghorn Brian P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Mate selection can be used as a framework to balance key technical, cost and logistical issues while implementing a breeding program at a tactical level. The resulting mating lists accommodate optimal contributions of parents to future generations, in conjunction with other factors such as progeny inbreeding, connection between herds, use of reproductive technologies, management of the genetic distribution of nominated traits, and management of allele/genotype frequencies ...

  12. Distributed event-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fiege, Ludger; Pietzuch, Peter R

    2006-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth description of event-based systems, covering topics ranging from local event matching and distributed event forwarding algorithms, through a practical discussion of software engineering issues raised by the event-based style, to state-of-the-art research in event-based systems like composite event detection and security. The authors offer a comprehensive overview, and show the power of event-based architectures in modern system design, encouraging professionals to exploit this technique in next generation large-scale distributed applications like information diss

  13. Web-based support systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, JingTao

    2010-01-01

    The emerging interdisciplinary study of Web-based support systems focuses on the theories, technologies and tools for the design and implementation of Web-based systems that support various human activities. This book presents the state-of-the-art in Web-based support systems (WSS). The research on WSS is multidisciplinary and focuses on supporting various human activities in different domains/fields based on computer science, information technology, and Web technology. The main goal is to take the opportunities of the Web, to meet the challenges of the Web, to extend the human physical limita

  14. An algorithm for efficient constrained mate selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinghorn Brian P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mate selection can be used as a framework to balance key technical, cost and logistical issues while implementing a breeding program at a tactical level. The resulting mating lists accommodate optimal contributions of parents to future generations, in conjunction with other factors such as progeny inbreeding, connection between herds, use of reproductive technologies, management of the genetic distribution of nominated traits, and management of allele/genotype frequencies for nominated QTL/markers. Methods This paper describes a mate selection algorithm that is widely used and presents an extension that makes it possible to apply constraints on certain matings, as dictated through a group mating permission matrix. Results This full algorithm leads to simpler applications, and to computing speed for the scenario tested, which is several hundred times faster than the previous strategy of penalising solutions that break constraints. Conclusions The much higher speed of the method presented here extends the use of mate selection and enables implementation in relatively large programs across breeding units.

  15. From vigilance to violence: mate retention tactics in married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

    1997-02-01

    Although much research has explored the adaptive problems of mate selection and mate attraction, little research has investigated the adaptive problem of mate retention. We tested several evolutionary psychological hypotheses about the determinants of mate retention in 214 married people. We assessed the usage of 19 mate retention tactics ranging from vigilance to violence. Key hypothesized findings include the following: Men's, but not women's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's youth and physical attractiveness. Women's, but not men's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's income and status striving. Men's mate retention positively covaried with perceived probability of partner's infidelity. Men, more than women, reported using resource display, submission and debasement, and intrasexual threats to retain their mates. Women, more than men, reported using appearance enhancement and verbal signals of possession. Discussion includes an evolutionary psychological analysis of mate retention in married couples. PMID:9107005

  16. A mate to die for? A model of conditional monogyny in cannibalistic spiders

    OpenAIRE

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M

    2012-01-01

    Monogynous males in various species actively limit themselves to mating with a single female in their lifetime. Whereas previous models have considered monogyny as an obligate mating strategy, here we explore the potential of monogyny to evolve as a context-specific (conditional) behavior. Using a state-dependent dynamic game model based on the biology of the cannibalistic spider Argiope bruennichi, we confirm that conditional monogyny can evolve under broad conditions, including an even sex ...

  17. MTA Computer Based Evaluation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Lisa P.; And Others

    The MTA PLATO-based evaluation system, which has been implemented by a consortium of schools of medical technology, is designed to be general-purpose, modular, data-driven, and interactive, and to accommodate other national and local item banks. The system provides a comprehensive interactive item-banking system in conjunction with online student…

  18. Honey Bee Mating Optimization Vector Quantization Scheme in Image Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Ming-Huwi

    The vector quantization is a powerful technique in the applications of digital image compression. The traditionally widely used method such as the Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithm always generated local optimal codebook. Recently, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adapted to obtain the near-global optimal codebook of vector quantization. In this paper, we applied a new swarm algorithm, honey bee mating optimization, to construct the codebook of vector quantization. The proposed method is called the honey bee mating optimization based LBG (HBMO-LBG) algorithm. The results were compared with the other two methods that are LBG and PSO-LBG algorithms. Experimental results showed that the proposed HBMO-LBG algorithm is more reliable and the reconstructed images get higher quality than those generated form the other three methods.

  19. Produção e sobrevivência de miniestacas e minicepas de erva-mate cultivadas em sistema semi-hidropônico Production and survival of Ilex paraguariensis minicuttings and ministumps cultivated in semi-hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar Wendling

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade técnica do sistema semi-hidropônico para condução de minicepas de erva-mate e a resposta destas a soluções nutritivas de diferentes diluições nas sucessivas coletas, bem como, a sobrevivência das miniestacas produzidas neste sistema, após enraizamento. Depois de onze coletas, obteve-se 95,6% de sobrevivência das minicepas e média de 291 miniestacas m-2 de minijardim. As mudas obtidas por miniestaquia apresentaram média de 85,6% de sobrevivência, sem variação significativa entre as soluções testadas e número da coleta. O sistema adotado é tecnicamente viável, e recomenda-se a utilização de solução nutritiva menos concentrada.The objective of this study was to assess the technical viability of semi-hydroponic system for conduction of Ilex paraguariensis ministumps, and the answer of these to different nutritional solutions in the successive gatherings, as well as, the survival of the minicuttings produced in this system after rooting. After eleven gatherings, there was 95.6% of ministumps survival, and production of 291minicuttings m-2 of miniclonal garden. The minicuttings survival was 85.6%, with no significant difference between the solutions. The adopted system is technically viable, and lower concentrated solution to conduct the ministumps is recommended.

  20. PROBLEM MATING BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Vasileviсh Malimonov; Liudmila Gennad’evna Korol; Irina Georgievna Sinkovskaya; Dmitriy Vladimiroviсh Rakhinskiy

    2015-01-01

    In article problems of preparation of student’s youth for creation of a family are consi-dered.Work purpose: studying of features of marriage behavior of student’s youth. Interest in a problem is actual and caused by an instability situation in society, lack of uniform system of values that can lead to disintegration of a family as social institute. Bases of fundamental value of a family and marriage for development and maintenance of stability in society and the state are analysed.Method of ...

  1. Evolution of assortative mating in a population expressing dominance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristan A Schneider

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the influence of dominance on the evolution of assortative mating. We perform a population-genetic analysis of a two-locus two-allele model. We consider a quantitative trait that is under a mixture of frequency-independent stabilizing selection and density- and frequency-dependent selection caused by intraspecific competition for a continuum of resources. The trait is determined by a single (ecological locus and expresses intermediate dominance. The second (modifier locus determines the degree of assortative mating, which is expressed in females only. Assortative mating is based on similarities in the quantitative trait ('magic trait' model. Analytical conditions for the invasion of assortment modifiers are derived in the limit of weak selection and weak assortment. For the full model, extensive numerical iterations are performed to study the global dynamics. This allows us to gain a better understanding of the interaction of the different selective forces. Remarkably, depending on the size of modifier effects, dominance can have different effects on the evolution of assortment. We show that dominance hinders the evolution of assortment if modifier effects are small, but promotes it if modifier effects are large. These findings differ from those in previous work based on adaptive dynamics.

  2. From conventional software based systems to knowledge based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even if todays nuclear power plants have a very good safety record, there is a continuous search for still improving safety. One direction of this effort address operational safety, trying to improve the handling of disturbances and accidents partly by further automation, partly by creating a better control room environment, providing the operator with intelligent support systems to help in the decision making process. Introduction of intelligent computerised operator support systems has proved to be an efficient way of improving the operators performance. A number of systems have been developed worldwide, assisting in tasks like process fault detection and diagnosis, selection and implementation of proper remedial actions. Unfortunately, the use of Knowledge Based Systems (KBSs), introduces a new dimension to the problem of the licensing process. KBSs, despite the different technology employed, are still nothing more than a computer program. Unfortunately, quite a few people building knowledge based systems seem to ignore the many good programming practices that have evolved over the years for producing traditional computer programs. In this paper the author will try to point out similarities and differences between conventional software based systems, and knowledge based systems, introducing also the concept of model based reasoning. (orig.) (25 refs., 2 figs.)

  3. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a powerful new tool for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are used almost exclusively as crop reconnaissance devices (“eyes in the sky”), not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Lu...

  4. Content Based Video Retrieval Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B V Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of multimedia data types and available bandwidth there is huge demand of video retrieval systems, as users shift from text based retrieval systems to content based retrieval systems. Selection of extracted features play an important role in content based video retrieval regardless of video attributes being under consideration. These features are intended for selecting, indexing and ranking according to their potential interest to the user. Good features selection also allows the time and space costs of the retrieval process to be reduced. This survey reviews the interesting features that can beextracted from video data for indexing and retrieval along with similarity measurement methods. We also identify present research issues in area of content based video retrieval systems.

  5. Environmental diel variation, parasite loads, and local population structuring of a mixed-mating mangrove fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Amy; Wright, Patricia; Taylor, D Scott; Cooper, Chris; Regan, Kelly; Currie, Suzie; Consuegra, Sofia

    2012-07-01

    Genetic variation within populations depends on population size, spatial structuring, and environmental variation, but is also influenced by mating system. Mangroves are some of the most productive and threatened ecosystems on earth and harbor a large proportion of species with mixed-mating (self-fertilization and outcrossing). Understanding population structuring in mixed-mating species is critical for conserving and managing these complex ecosystems. Kryptolebias marmoratus is a unique mixed-mating vertebrate inhabiting mangrove swamps under highly variable tidal regimes and environmental conditions. We hypothesized that geographical isolation and ecological pressures influence outcrossing rates and genetic diversity, and ultimately determine the local population structuring of K. marmoratus. By comparing genetic variation at 32 microsatellites, diel fluctuations of environmental parameters, and parasite loads among four locations with different degrees of isolation, we found significant differences in genetic diversity and genotypic composition but little evidence of isolation by distance. Locations also differed in environmental diel fluctuation and parasite composition. Our results suggest that mating system, influenced by environmental instability and parasites, underpins local population structuring of K. marmoratus. More generally, we discuss how the conservation of selfing species inhabiting mangroves and other biodiversity hotspots may benefit from knowledge of mating strategies and population structuring at small spatial scales. PMID:22957172

  6. An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Riebel, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choice, the interaction between male and female condition should thus be a better predictor of choice than either factor in isolation. To address this prediction experimentally, we manipulated male and female condition and subsequently tested male and female mating preferences in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species with mutual mate choice and obligatory bi-parental care. We experimentally altered phenotypic quality by manipulating the brood size in which the birds were reared. Patterns of association for high- or low-condition individuals of the opposite sex differed for male and female focal birds when tested in an 8-way choice arena. Females showed repeatable condition-assortative preferences for males matching their own rearing background. Male preferences were also repeatable, but not predicted by their own or females' rearing background. In combination with a brief review of the literature on condition-dependent mate choice in the zebra finch we discuss whether the observed sex differences and between-studies differences arise because males and females differ in context sensitivity (e.g. male-male competition suppressing male mating preferences), sampling strategies or susceptibility to rearing conditions (e.g. sex-specific effect on physiology). While a picture emerges that juvenile and current state indeed affect preferences, the development and context-dependency of mutual state-dependent mate choice warrants further study. PMID:21901147

  7. An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual's phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choice, the interaction between male and female condition should thus be a better predictor of choice than either factor in isolation. To address this prediction experimentally, we manipulated male and female condition and subsequently tested male and female mating preferences in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species with mutual mate choice and obligatory bi-parental care. We experimentally altered phenotypic quality by manipulating the brood size in which the birds were reared. Patterns of association for high- or low-condition individuals of the opposite sex differed for male and female focal birds when tested in an 8-way choice arena. Females showed repeatable condition-assortative preferences for males matching their own rearing background. Male preferences were also repeatable, but not predicted by their own or females' rearing background. In combination with a brief review of the literature on condition-dependent mate choice in the zebra finch we discuss whether the observed sex differences and between-studies differences arise because males and females differ in context sensitivity (e.g. male-male competition suppressing male mating preferences, sampling strategies or susceptibility to rearing conditions (e.g. sex-specific effect on physiology. While a picture emerges that juvenile and current state indeed affect preferences, the development and context-dependency of mutual state-dependent mate choice warrants further study.

  8. Mating-related behaviour of grizzly bears inhabiting marginal habitat at the periphery of their North American range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E

    2015-02-01

    In comparison to core populations, peripheral populations have low density and recruitment, and are subject to different selective pressures, such as environmental conditions, food type and availability, predation, disease, etc., which may result in behavioural modifications to mating. We test the roam-to-mate hypothesis for a peripheral population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) at the northern extent of their North American range, in Canada's Arctic. If bears are roaming-to-mate, we predicted greater range size and daily displacement, and more linear movements for receptive animals during the mating period compared to post-mating. In contrast to our predictions, we found that in general range size and displacement increased from mating to post-mating regardless of reproductive status. When considered across both periods, females with cubs-of-the-year had smaller range use metrics than other reproductive groups, which we attribute to a counter-strategy against sexually selected infanticide and the reduced mobility of cubs. Linearity of movements remained near zero during both periods across all groups, suggesting tortuous movements more characteristic of foraging than of mate-searching. We suggest that for this population, finding quality habitat takes precedence over mate-searching in this marginal Arctic landscape. Alternatively, a more monogamous mating system and sequestering behaviour may have obscured movement differences between the two periods. The behavioural differences in mating that we observed from what is typical of core populations may reflect local adaptation to marginal conditions and could benefit the species in the face of ongoing environmental change. PMID:25498148

  9. Evaluation of mating behaviour and mating compatibility methods for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H. Wardhana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique program (SIT to eradicate pest insects relies on the success of mating competitiveness between irradiated male flies and wild type males for the wild type females. It has been successfully applied for the New World screwworm fly (NWSF, Cochliomyia hominivorax but remains unproven for the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF, Chrysomya bezziana. The aim of the study was to develop methods for investigating mating behaviour and mating compatibility of C. bezziana under laboratory conditions. Two methods were used for studying mating: individual mating (method 1 and group mating (method 2. The flies used in this study were 5-7 days old. Twenty four hours after emergence, adult flies were sexed and placed into different cages until studied. The female : male ratio in the group mating was 1 : 5 and the males were marked by painting a dot on the thorax using different oil colours. Observation of mating behaviour was investigated every 30 minutes through 10-20 replications for all methods depending on the availability of flies. Data were analysed using ANOVA and the Student’s t-test, with significance demonstrated at the 95% confidence level. The results demonstrated that the frequency of contacts between males and females at different ages was a significantly different (p 0.05 and method 2 (p > 0.05. Copulation was only initiated following longer periods of contact, mainly in the range of 270-449 seconds. The highest frequency of copulation occurred between 7-8 days, but the duration of mating was similar between 5-8 days old. The study demonstrated that the methods developed were suitable for a mating compatibility study of C. bezziana.

  10. Solar based hydrogen production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of various solar based hydrogen production systems. The book covers first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provides a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book gives a clear understanding of the sustainability and environmental impact analysis of the above systems. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding

  11. PROBLEM MATING BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Vasileviсh Malimonov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In article problems of preparation of student’s youth for creation of a family are consi-dered.Work purpose: studying of features of marriage behavior of student’s youth. Interest in a problem is actual and caused by an instability situation in society, lack of uniform system of values that can lead to disintegration of a family as social institute. Bases of fundamental value of a family and marriage for development and maintenance of stability in society and the state are analysed.Method of obtaining information: questioning (N=2260. It is shown that on marriage behavior of young people, first of all, such factors as have impact: the relations in a parental family, welfare features of society and their near environment (classmates, friends, values and which norms, lay the foundation of family and marriage installations. Comprehensively social parameters of city life of youth reveal: anonymity, short duration and superficiality of contacts in interpersonal communication; sharp expansion of degree of freedom of the person at simultaneous weakening of social control; disintegration of traditional ideology and system of values; reduction of the importance of a role of a family, etc.Results of research: priority of studying of marriage behavior of youth is proved; domination of independent strategy of premarital elections of youth is confirmed, various components of readiness for the family and marriage relations and the factors influencing motivation of a marriage choice are defined.

  12. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner's mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319

  13. Population genetic structure and mating system in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel at the Eastern Baikal Lake shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Petrova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic structure of sympatric Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel populations and putative interspecific hybrids between them was analyzed in the Baikal Lake region (Barguzin Biosphere Natural Reserve, Davsha River basin by means of 31 allozyme loci controlling 18 enzyme systems. Several alleles at loci Adh-1, Fest-2, Lap-3, Pgi-1, Sod-3 and Skdh-1 were diagnostic for P. sibirica, while alleles typical for P. pumila were detected at loci Gdh, Got-3, Lap-3, Mdh-2, Mdh-4, Pepca, Pgi-1, Pgd-2, Pgd-3, Pgm-1 and Pgm-2. All hybrids were heterozygous for the diagnostic Skdh-2 locus. Classification into hybrids and parental species using PCA analysis of multilocus allozyme genotypes had good correspondence with diagnoses made by morphological and anatomical analyses. Approximately 27% of embryos in P. pumila seeds had P. sibirica paternal contribution, and 8% of haplotypes in effective pollen pool combined alleles typical for P. pumila and P. sibirica, and therefore were classified as pollinated by the hybrids. About 83% of embryos in seeds from the hybrids most likely originated from fertilization by P. sibirica pollen, 14% from P. pumila and 3% from hybrid trees. This result favours the view that hybrids make both male and female contributions to the reproductive output of the population and confirm the presence of backcrosses and F2 hybrids.

  14. Sex differences in behavioural and neural responsiveness to mate calls in a parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda-Fujiwara, Hiroko; Satoh, Ryohei; Hata, Yuka; Yamasaki, Marika; Watanabe, Aiko; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Okamoto, Yasuharu; Miyamoto, Takenori; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2016-01-01

    Vocalisation in songbirds and parrots has become a prominent model system for speech and language in humans. We investigated possible sex differences in behavioural and neural responsiveness to mate calls in the budgerigar, a vocally-learning parrot. Males and females were paired for 5 weeks and then separated, after which we measured vocal responsiveness to playback calls (a call of their mate versus a call of an unfamiliar conspecific). Both sexes learned to recognise mate calls during the pairing period. In males, but not females, mate calls evoked significantly fewer vocal responses than unfamiliar calls at one month after separation. Furthermore, in females, there was significantly greater molecular neuronal activation in response to mate calls compared to silence in the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), a higher-order auditory region, in both brain hemispheres. In males, we found right-sided dominance of molecular neuronal activation in response to mate calls in the CMM. This is the first evidence suggesting sex differences in functional asymmetry of brain regions related to recognition of learned vocalisation in birds. Thus, sex differences related to recognition of learned vocalisations may be found at the behavioural and neural levels in avian vocal learners as it is in humans. PMID:26725947

  15. Social wasps are a Saccharomyces mating nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Berná, Luisa; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-02-23

    The reproductive ecology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is still largely unknown. Recent evidence of interspecific hybridization, high levels of strain heterozygosity, and prion transmission suggest that outbreeding occurs frequently in yeasts. Nevertheless, the place where yeasts mate and recombine in the wild has not been identified. We found that the intestine of social wasps hosts highly outbred S. cerevisiae strains as well as a rare S. cerevisiae×S. paradoxus hybrid. We show that the intestine of Polistes dominula social wasps favors the mating of S. cerevisiae strains among themselves and with S. paradoxus cells by providing a succession of environmental conditions prompting cell sporulation and spores germination. In addition, we prove that heterospecific mating is the only option for European S. paradoxus strains to survive in the gut. Taken together, these findings unveil the best hidden secret of yeast ecology, introducing the insect gut as an environmental alcove in which crosses occur, maintaining and generating the diversity of the ascomycetes. PMID:26787874

  16. Realization of the chess mate solver application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Vladan V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents details of the chess mate solver application, which is a part of the author’s Geniss general chess application. The problem chess is an important domain connected with solving of the chess problems. The Geniss Mate Solver (G.M.S. application solves Mate-in-N-move problems. Main techniques used for the implementation of the application are full-width searching with Alpha-Beta pruning technique and zero evaluation function. The application is written in Delphi for Windows programming environment and the searching engine is completely coded in assembly language (about 10000 lines. This hybrid software structure enables efficient program development by using high-level programming environment and the realization of a very fast searching engine at the same time. The machine code is manually coded and could achieve above 7 million generated positions per second on the 1Ghz Celeron PC.

  17. Incipient sexual isolation in the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila: mating preference in male-, female– and multiple-choice mating experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M T Tanuja; N B Ramachandra; H A Ranganath

    2001-09-01

    Interracial divergence is an important facet of speciation. The nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila with sixteen morphologically identical, karyotypically different but cross-fertile races is an excellent system to study a few dimensions of raciation. Drosophila nasuta nasuta, Drosophila nasuta albomicans, Cytorace 1, Cytorace 2, Cytorace 3 and Cytorace 4 of this subgroup have been subjected to male-, female- and multiple-choice mating experiments. Out of 8456 crosses conducted, 7185 had successful matings. The overall impression is that mating is far from random amongst these six closely related races of the nasuta-albomicans complex. The males of D. n. albomicans, Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 4 in male-choice, the females of Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 2 in female-choice, and the males and females of D. n. nasuta, D. n. albomicans, Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 4 against the males and females of Cytorace 2 in multiple-choice experiments, had significantly more homogamic matings than expected. Thus in this study of evolutionary experimentation on raciation under laboratory conditions, we have documented the initiation of preference for con-specific matings among closely related and independently evolving members of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila.

  18. Tuber melanosporum: mating type distribution in a natural plantation and dynamics of strains of different mating types on the roots of nursery-inoculated host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Andrea; Belfiori, Beatrice; Riccioni, Claudia; Arcioni, Sergio; Martin, Francis; Paolocci, Francesco

    2011-02-01

    • In light of the recent finding that Tuber melanosporum, the ectomycorrhizal ascomycete that produces the most highly prized black truffles, is a heterothallic species, we monitored the spatial distribution of strains with opposite mating types (MAT) in a natural truffle ground and followed strain dynamics in artificially inoculated host plants grown under controlled conditions. • In a natural truffle ground, ectomycorrhizas (ECMs), soil samples and fruit bodies were sampled and genotyped to determine mating types. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were also used to fingerprint ECMs and fruit bodies. The ECMs from nursery-inoculated host plants were analysed for mating type at 6 months and 19 months post-inoculation. • In open-field conditions, all ECMs from the same sampling site showed an identical mating type and an identical haploid genotype, based on SSR analysis. Interestingly, the gleba of fruit bodies always demonstrated the same genotype as the surrounding ECMs. Although root tips from nursery-grown plants initially developed ECMs of both mating types, a dominance of ECMs of the same MAT were found after several months. • The present study deepens our understanding of the vegetative and sexual propagation modes of T. melanosporum. These results are highly relevant for truffle cultivation. PMID:20964691

  19. On the evolutionary stability of male harassment in a coercive mating game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyita Udiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In many animals, males employ coercive mating strategies to help them maximize their expected number of offspring. In such systems, selection will favor behavioral adaptations in females that help them mitigate harassment costs and maximize their reproductive fitness. Previously, Bokides et al. [1] presented a model showing how male harassment strategies can co-evolve with female habitat preferences in a mating game. Their results indicated that if females dispersed freely between habitats where males were present and where males were excluded, selection could favor males who strategically harassed at high (or low levels, depending on the proximity of their phenotype to a threshold level $h^*$. This article is a continuation of that work addressing the questions of stability at equilibria where males harass at the threshold level (i.e., $h^*$. We show these states are both locally and globally asymptotically stable. Further, we argue based on these results that $h^*$ is an evolutionary stable male harassment level at which females will be ideally distributed to match the resource quality and social environments of their alternative habitats.

  20. SMS BASED REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reecha Ranjan Singh , Sangeeta Agrawal , Saurabh Kapoor ,S. Sharma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A modern world contains varieties of electronic equipment and systems like: TV, security system, Hi-fi equipment, central heating systems, fire alarm systems, security alarm systems, lighting systems, SET Top Box, AC (Air Conditioner etc., we need to handle, ON/OFF or monitor these electrical devices remotely or to communicate with these but, if you are not at the home or that place and you want to communicate with these device. So the new technology for handled these devices remotely and for communication to required the GSM, mobile technology, SMS (short message service and some hardware resources. SMS based remote control for home appliances is beneficial for the human generation, because mobile is most recently used technology nowadays.

  1. Fingerprint Indoor Position System Based

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Gómez Martin; Ana Verónica Medina Rodríguez; Enrique Dorronzoro Zubiete; Octavio Rivera Romero; Sergio Martín Guillén

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a research and a development of a fingerprint-indoor-positioning system using the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The WSN implementation is based on two different protocol stacks: BitCloud and OpenMAC, a certified ZigBee Compliant Platform (ZCP) and an IEEE 802.15.4 embedded software implementation respectively, both from Atmel, and the system uses two different fingerprint algorithms, Simple and Centroid. A comparative analys...

  2. A hybrid base isolation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, G.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lobo, R.F.; Srinivasan, M. [Hart Consultant Group, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Asher, J.W. [kpff Engineers, Santa Monica, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis procedure for hybrid base isolation buildings when considering the displacement response of a base isolated building to wind loads. The system is considered hybrid because of the presence of viscous dampers in the building above the isolator level. The proposed analysis approach incorporates a detailed site specific wind study combined with a dynamic nonlinear analysis of the building response.

  3. The ecology of reproduction in long-lived male Alpine ibex (Capra ibex): the role of age, dominance and alternative mating tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Willisch, Christian S.; Neuhaus, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Since basic information on reproductive behaviour in male Alpine ibex was lacking, I provided in chapter 1, first a detailed description of the mating system and the two alternative mating tactics in this species. I investigated to which extent the adoption of these observed mating tactics in male Alpine ibex can contribute to the exceptional survival described in this species. Some males adopted a tactic termed ‘tending’ to monopolize individual, receptive females by following and defending ...

  4. Reduction of inbreeding in commercial females by rotational mating with several sire lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukai Fumio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A mating system to reduce the inbreeding of commercial females in the lower level was examined theoretically, assuming a hierarchical breed structure, in which favorable genes are accumulated in the upper level by artificial selection and the achieved genetic progress is transferred to the lower level through migration of males. The mating system examined was rotational mating with several closed sire lines in the upper level. Using the group coancestry theory, we derived recurrence equations for the inbreeding coefficient of the commercial females. The asymptotic inbreeding coefficient was also derived. Numerical computations showed that the critical factor for determining the inbreeding is the number of sire lines, and that the size of each sire line has a marginal effect. If four or five sire lines were available, rotational mating was found to be quite an effective system to reduce the short- and long-term inbreeding of the commercial females, irrespective of the effective size of each sire line. Oscillation of the inbreeding coefficient under rotational mating with initially related sire lines could be minimized by avoiding the consecutive use of highly related lines. Extensions and perspectives of the system are discussed in relation to practical application.

  5. AA, mating of BST magnet halves

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame,long and narrow) and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the mating of two BST halves.

  6. Mate desertion in the snail kite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissinger, S.R.; Snyder, N.F.R.

    1988-01-01

    Mate desertion during the breeding cycle was documented at 28 of 36 (78%) snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis nests in Florida between 1979 and 1983. Offspring mortality occurred at only one deserted nest, however. Parents that were deserted by their mates continued to care for their young until independence (3?5 additional weeks) and provided snails at a rate similar to that of both parents combined before desertion. Males and females deserted with nearly equal frequency, except in 1982 when more females deserted. No desertion occurred during drought years, whereas desertion occurred at nearly every nest during favourable conditions. The occurrence of mate desertion was generally related to indirect measures of snail abundance: foraging range, snail delivery rates to the young and growth rates. Small broods were deserted more frequently by females than by males and tended to be deserted earlier than large ones. After desertion, deserters had the opportunity to re-mate and nest again since breeding seasons were commonly lengthy, but whether they did so was impossible to determine conclusively in most cases. The deserted bird sometimes incurred increased energetic costs and lost breeding opportunities during periods of monoparental care.

  7. Mate-guarding courtship behaviour: Tactics in a changing world

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, DO; Sivalinghem, S; Mason, AC; Andrade, MCB; Kasumovic, MM

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Mate guarding is one of the most common tactics in sperm competition. Males are expected to guard their mates when costs of guarding (accrued from physical confrontations with rivals and/or reduced foraging) are low relative to the benefits of ensuring mating opportunities and paternity. We investigated mate guarding in the jumping spider Phidippus clarus, a species where males defend immature subadult females against rival males and a...

  8. Localization of the Mating Type Gene in Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jianping; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Horgen, Paul A.; Anderson, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus is secondarily homothallic. Most basidia produce two basidiospores, each of which receives two of the four postmeiotic nuclei. Usually, the two packaged nuclei carry compatible mating types. Previous studies suggested that there may be only a single mating type locus in A. bisporus. In this study, we determined whether the mating type segregated as a single Mendelian determinant in a cross marked with 64 segregating molecular markers. To score mating ...

  9. Reconstructing the flight kinematics of swarming and mating behavior in wild mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe a tracking system for reconstructing three-dimensional tracks of individual mosquitoes in wild swarms and present the results of validating the system by filming swarms and mating events of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae in Mali. The tracking system is designed to address noisy, ...

  10. Expert system based radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)

  11. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocha, S.; Arent, D.; Peterson, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a stable, cost effective, photoelectrochemical based system that will split water upon illumination, producing hydrogen and oxygen directly, using sunlight as the only energy input. This type of direct conversion system combines a photovoltaic material and an electrolyzer into a single monolithic device. We report on our studies of two multifunction multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices, one based on the ternary semiconductor gallium indium phosphide, (GaInP{sub 2}), and the other one based on amorphous silicon carbide. We also report on our studies of the solid state surface treatment of GaInP{sub 2} as well as our continuing effort to develop synthetic techniques for the attachment of transition metal complexes to the surface of semiconductor electrodes. All our surface studies are directed at controlling the interface energetics and forming stable catalytic surfaces.

  12. Dissolution system reliability data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized, interactive data bases are becoming increasingly important in plant operations. Reliability-centered Maintenance techniques utilize the operational history of components to identify areas where maintenance resources should be focused. The recent US Nuclear Regulatory Commission maintenance ruling requires the identification of problematic components, systems and functions, fault trending, and other related activities. There is a constant demand for the determination of root causes of failures and the documentation and tracking of the resulting corrective actions. Plant operators seek advanced methods to assist in diagnosing process upsets, planning maintenance activities, and documenting equipment warranty information. This paper describes a personal computer (PC)-based reliability data base for a nuclear fuel dissolution system as a tool for addressing these needs

  13. Discrete two-sex models of population dynamics: On modelling the mating function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa-Gomes, Carmen; Legendre, Stéphane; Clobert, Jean

    2010-09-01

    Although sexual reproduction has long been a central subject of theoretical ecology, until recently its consequences for population dynamics were largely overlooked. This is now changing, and many studies have addressed this issue, showing that when the mating system is taken into account, the population dynamics depends on the relative abundance of males and females, and is non-linear. Moreover, sexual reproduction increases the extinction risk, namely due to the Allee effect. Nevertheless, different studies have identified diverse potential consequences, depending on the choice of mating function. In this study, we investigate the consequences of three alternative mating functions that are frequently used in discrete population models: the minimum; the harmonic mean; and the modified harmonic mean. We consider their consequences at three levels: on the probability that females will breed; on the presence and intensity of the Allee effect; and on the extinction risk. When we consider the harmonic mean, the number of times the individuals of the least abundant sex mate exceeds their mating potential, which implies that with variable sex-ratios the potential reproductive rate is no longer under the modeller's control. Consequently, the female breeding probability exceeds 1 whenever the sex-ratio is male-biased, which constitutes an obvious problem. The use of the harmonic mean is thus only justified if we think that this parameter should be re-defined in order to represent the females' breeding rate and the fact that females may reproduce more than once per breeding season. This phenomenon buffers the Allee effect, and reduces the extinction risk. However, when we consider birth-pulse populations, such a phenomenon is implausible because the number of times females can reproduce per birth season is limited. In general, the minimum or modified harmonic mean mating functions seem to be more suitable for assessing the impact of mating systems on population dynamics.

  14. The Role of Scent Marking in Mate Selection by Female Pumas (Puma concolor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian L Allen

    Full Text Available Mate selection influences individual fitness, is often based on complex cues and behaviours, and can be difficult to study in solitary species including carnivores. We used motion-triggered cameras at 29 community scrapes (i.e. scent marking locations used by multiple individuals and home range data from 39 GPS-collared pumas (Puma concolor to assess the relevance of communication behaviours for mate selection by female pumas in California. Female pumas visited community scrapes irregularly and visitation bouts appeared to be correlated with oestrus. Female pumas on average selected from 1.7 collared males, and selection was based on multiple cues that varied among the different time periods measured (i.e. the female's visitation bout and in 90 days previous to the consorting event. Female mate selection over the course of a visitation bout was based on frequency of the male visitation, mass, and age. In the 90 days previous to consorting, the number of scrapes a male created was the most important contributor to selection, which was likely related to his residency status. We also found that at least 14% of females mated with multiple males, thus possibly confusing paternity. Our findings provide a mechanistic understanding of how female pumas use scent and auditory communication at community scrapes to select dominant resident males to mate with.

  15. Signal transduction during mating and meiosis in S. pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Nielsen, Olaf

    1993-01-01

    When starved, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe responds by producing mating factors or pheromones that signal to cells of the opposite sex to initiate mating. Like its distant relative Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells of the two mating types of S. pombe each produce a distinct pheromone...

  16. Preliminary analysis of reproductive success in a large mammal with alternative mating tactics, the Northern chamois, Rupicapra rupicapra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corlatti, L.; Bassano, B.; Poláková, Radka; Fattorini, L.; Pagliarella, M. C.; Lovari, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 1 (2015), s. 117-123. ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : breeding lifespan * mating system * paternity * sexual selection * ungulates Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.264, year: 2014

  17. ELabMate: A Tool for Delivering Programming Courses Effectively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihab Eltayeb Ahmed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Sudan, at the university level, mastering one of the current programming languages is typically required in order for a student to graduate from computer science majors. In Sudan University of Science and Technology (SUST, Traditional teaching methods of introductory programming courses involve lectures and practical sessions where students and teachers meet and discuss. Other resources are devoted to the courses including free lab sessions and tutorials with supporting staff and teaching assistants. Learning management systems and page-turning courses are available, complemented by a mass of online information, little of which is structured or written to help students learn successfully. To help students in the learning process, more training and practice on lab problems with a guided help is needed in addition to the normal sessions. As a result finding the middle ground between student’s needs and the limited staff and time schedules is challenging. In this context we propose the development of an e-learning tool (ELabMate to provide assistance to students and teachers. The two main potential users of the tool would be students and teachers with a dedicated interface for each, other administrative users can be found with respect to the academic rules drawing attention to the active role of every part involved in the learning process. The goal is to help students learn programming concepts based on assisting and engaging them in their learning process in a way that improves their performance. The tool real innovation is not being a text editor, but the ability to monitor students while writing their code and to provide hints the way the instructors do.

  18. The cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri (Marasmiaceae) possesses biallelic A and B mating loci but reproduces clonally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Valderrama, J R; Aime, M C

    2016-06-01

    The cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri belongs to the mushroom-forming family Marasmiaceae, but it has never been observed to produce a fruiting body, which calls to question its capacity for sexual reproduction. In this study, we identified potential A (HD1 and HD2) and B (pheromone precursors and pheromone receptors) mating genes in M. roreri. A PCR-based method was subsequently devised to determine the mating type for a set of 47 isolates from across the geographic range of the fungus. We developed and generated an 11-marker microsatellite set and conducted association and linkage disequilibrium (standardized index of association, IA(s)) analyses. We also performed an ancestral reconstruction analysis to show that the ancestor of M. roreri is predicted to be heterothallic and tetrapolar, which together with sliding window analyses support that the A and B mating loci are likely unlinked and follow a tetrapolar organization within the genome. The A locus is composed of a pair of HD1 and HD2 genes, whereas the B locus consists of a paired pheromone precursor, Mr_Ph4, and receptor, STE3_Mr4. Two A and B alleles but only two mating types were identified. Association analyses divided isolates into two well-defined genetically distinct groups that correlate with their mating type; IA(s) values show high linkage disequilibrium as is expected in clonal reproduction. Interestingly, both mating types were found in South American isolates but only one mating type was found in Central American isolates, supporting a prior hypothesis of clonal dissemination throughout Central America after a single or very few introductions of the fungus from South America. PMID:26932308

  19. Context based configuration management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawdiak, Yuri O. (Inventor); Gurram, Mohana M. (Inventor); Maluf, David A. (Inventor); Mederos, Luis A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A computer-based system for configuring and displaying information on changes in, and present status of, a collection of events associated with a project. Classes of icons for decision events, configurations and feedback mechanisms, and time lines (sequential and/or simultaneous) for related events are displayed. Metadata for each icon in each class is displayed by choosing and activating the corresponding icon. Access control (viewing, reading, writing, editing, deleting, etc.) is optionally imposed for metadata and other displayed information.

  20. Cellular-based preemption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cellular-based preemption system that uses existing cellular infrastructure to transmit preemption related data to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles through one or more intersections. A cellular unit in an emergency vehicle is used to generate position reports that are transmitted to the one or more intersections during an emergency response. Based on this position data, the one or more intersections calculate an estimated time of arrival (ETA) of the emergency vehicle, and transmit preemption commands to traffic signals at the intersections based on the calculated ETA. Additional techniques may be used for refining the position reports, ETA calculations, and the like. Such techniques include, without limitation, statistical preemption, map-matching, dead-reckoning, augmented navigation, and/or preemption optimization techniques, all of which are described in further detail in the above-referenced patent applications.

  1. Variation in male mate choice in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic A Edward

    Full Text Available Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanations are that there are evolved differences in each stock population or that the methods used to measure choice could have biased the results. We investigated these hypotheses here by repeating the methods used in one study in which variable male mate choice was found, using the stock population from the other study in which choice was not variable. The results showed a significant resource-independent male preference for less fecund, smaller females, which contrasts with previous observations of male mate choice. This indicates that different selection pressures between populations have resulted in evolved differences in the expression of male mate choice. It also reveals phenotypic plasticity in male mate choice in response to cues encountered in each choice environment. The results highlight the importance of variation in male mate choice, and of identifying mechanisms in order to understand the evolution of mate choice under varying ecological conditions.

  2. Adolescents and Young Adults Mates Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to identify the relation between gender and age on mate pre- ferences using an intentional sample drawn in Buenos Aires city and its suburban area. A questionnaire adapted from a previous study developed by D.Buss (1990 requested subjects to rank each of 19 characteristics on its desirability in a mate. Subjects for this study were 900 adolescents and young adults aging 13 to 30 years old. Means and standard deviations were calculated as well as Spearman ́s Rho coefficients. High correlations between gender, age, and ordering were found. Mutual attraction and love, kindness and understanding and trust are cho- sen as the most important criteria. Phisically attractive is important for younger males. Similar political and religious background as well as chastity are conside- red among the less important criteria. 

  3. PC based vibration monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health of large rotating machinery gets reflected in the vibration signature of the rotor and supporting structures and proper recording of these signals and their analysis can give a clear picture of the health of the machine. Using these data and their trending, it is possible to predict an impending trouble in the machine so that preventive action can be taken in time and catastrophic failure can be avoided. Continuous monitoring and analysis can give quick warning and enable operator to take preventive measures. Reactor Control Division, BARC is developing a PC based Vibration monitoring system for turbo generator machinery. The System can acquire 20 vibration signals at a rate of 5000 samples per second and also 15 process signals at a rate of 100 samples/ sec. The software for vibration monitoring system includes acquisition modules, analysis modules and Graphical User Interface module. The acquisition module involves initialization, setting of required parameters and acquiring the data from PC-based data acquisition cards. The acquired raw vibration data is then stored for analysis using various software packages. The display and analysis of acquired data is done in LabVIEW 7.0 where the data is displayed in time as well as frequency domain along with the RMS value of the signal. (author)

  4. Genetics and genomics of Drosophila mating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Trudy F. C.; Heinsohn, Stefanie L.; Lyman, Richard F.; Amanda J Moehring; Morgan, Theodore J; Rollmann, Stephanie M

    2005-01-01

    The first steps of animal speciation are thought to be the development of sexual isolating mechanisms. In contrast to recent progress in understanding the genetic basis of postzygotic isolating mechanisms, little is known about the genetic architecture of sexual isolation. Here, we have subjected Drosophila melanogaster to 29 generations of replicated divergent artificial selection for mating speed. The phenotypic response to selection was highly asymmetrical in the direction of reduced matin...

  5. Mate competition and evolutionary outcomes in genetically modified zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard D; Rohrer, Karl; Liu, Yiyang; Muir, William M

    2015-05-01

    Demonstrating relationships between sexual selection mechanisms and trait evolution is central to testing evolutionary theory. Using zebrafish, we found that wild-type males possessed a significant advantage in mate competition over transgenic RFP Glofish® males. In mating trials, wild-type males were aggressively superior to transgenic males in male-male chases and male-female chases; as a result, wild-type males sired 2.5× as many young as did transgenic males. In contrast, an earlier study demonstrated that female zebrafish preferred transgenic males as mates when mate competition was excluded experimentally. We tested the evolutionary consequence of this conflict between sexual selection mechanisms in a long-term study. The predicted loss of the transgenic phenotype was confirmed. More than 18,500 adults collected from 18 populations across 15 generations revealed that the frequency of the transgenic phenotype declined rapidly and was eliminated entirely in all but one population. Fitness component data for both sexes indicated that only male mating success differed between wild-type and transgenic individuals. Our predictive demographic model based on fitness components closely matched the rate of transgenic phenotype loss observed in the long-term study, thereby supporting its utility for studies assessing evolutionary outcomes of escaped or released genetically modified animals. PMID:25873489

  6. Swarming and mating activity of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes in semi-field enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achinko, D; Thailayil, J; Paton, D; Mireji, P O; Talesa, V; Masiga, D; Catteruccia, F

    2016-03-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major Afro-tropical vector of malaria. Novel strategies proposed for the elimination and eradication of this mosquito vector are based on the use of genetic approaches, such as the sterile insect technique (SIT). These approaches rely on the ability of released males to mate with wild females, and depend on the application of effective protocols to assess the swarming and mating behaviours of laboratory-reared insects prior to their release. The present study evaluated whether large semi-field enclosures can be utilized to study the ability of males from a laboratory colony to respond to natural environmental stimuli and initiate normal mating behaviour. Laboratory-reared males exhibited spatiotemporally consistent swarming behaviour within the study enclosures. Swarm initiation, peak and termination time closely tracked sunset. Comparable insemination rates were observed in females captured in copula in the semi-field cages relative to females in small laboratory cages. Oviposition rates after blood feeding were also similar to those observed in laboratory settings. The data suggest that outdoor enclosures are suitable for studying swarming and mating in laboratory-bred males in field-like settings, providing an important reference for future studies aimed at assessing the comparative mating ability of strains for SIT and other vector control strategies. PMID:26508420

  7. Experimental tests of mate choice in nonhuman mammals: the need for an integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D

    2013-04-01

    Experimental studies of mate choice have normally focused on non-mammal animal species, in which female mating preferences are based on clearly defined male traits. Because mammals are invariably larger and behaviourally more complex, they are less suited to this type of experimentation. Nevertheless, numerous studies on nonhuman mammals have shown that females appear to actively choose their mates. In this Commentary, I review the current literature to reveal that most experimental tests of mate choice in mammals are unable to reveal the actual male phenotypic trait(s) of female preference, which is crucial for identifying male characteristics under sexual selection. In addition, very few studies take into account female oestrous stage, or quantify the fitness benefits to discriminating females. Future work should concentrate on demonstrating female preferences for specific male traits that are shown by genetic paternity analysis to be correlated with male reproductive success, using setups that control for the effects of male and female mating strategies and in which the actual experiments are performed during the female's peak oestrous period. PMID:23487265

  8. Is sexually transmitted fungal infection evidence for size-related mating success in Neotropical guava fruit flies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Hedström

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of wing length on mate preference was examined in natural populations of the Neotropical guava fruit fly, Anastrepha striata Schiner, at two locations in Costa Rica. Based on evidence that the fungi are transmitted during mating, site-specific infection by Laboulbeniales fungi on the body surface was used to assess mating history. Males and females that carried fungi on the legs and/or on the ventral part of the thorax (males, and on both sides of the notum and/or the dorsal base of the abdomen (females, had significantly longer wings than males and females without fungi. This suggests that individuals of both sexes with longer wings (i.e. larger individuals enjoy higher mating success. Fungus infection is more frequent in the wet than in the seasonally dry forest, possibly because hosts are available year-round in the wet forest.

  9. Can sexual selection and disassortative mating contribute to the maintenance of a shell color polymorphism in an intertidal marine snail?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emilio ROL(A)N-ALVAREZ; María SAURA; Angel P.DIZ; María JOS(E) RIVAS; Marga ALVAREZ; Beatriz CORT(E)S; Alicia de COO; Daniel (E)STEVEZ; Laura IGLESIAS

    2012-01-01

    Littorina fabalis is an intertidal snail commonly living on the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus and showing frequent shell-color polymorphisms in the wild.The evolutionary mechanism underlying this polymorphism is currently unknown.Shell color variation was studied in mated and non-mated specimens of this species from different microareas in one locality from NW Spain,in order to estimate sexual selection and assortative mating that may (still) be operating in this population.The analyses across microareas allowed us to investigate frequency-dependent selection and assortative mating components,mechanisms that could maintain the polymorphism.The presence of shell scars caused by crab attacks,an environmental variable not related with sexual selection or assortative mating,was used as experimental control.This study provides new evidence of significant disassortative mating and some degree of sexual selection against some shell colors,supporting the results found 21 years ago in a similar study,i.e.in the same species and locality.The similarity of these estimates during the studied period suggests that this experimental approach is consistent and valid to be extended to other populations and organisms.In addition,sexual selection and assortative mating estimates did not change across microarens differing in shell color frequencies,suggesting than the polymorphism can not be maintained by a frequency-dependent (sexual selection-based) mechanism.Our main hypothesis is that negative assortative mating could contribute to the maintenance of the polymorphism,perhaps by males showing distinct female color preferences when searching for mates.

  10. Asymmetrical mate preference in recently adapted White Sands and black lava populations of Sceloporus undulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla M. HARDWICK1, Jeanne M. ROBERTSON, Erica Bree ROSENBLUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Speciation can proceed rapidly when natural and sexual selection act in concert. For example speciation can be accelerated when traits that confer a selective advantage in a particular habitat also influence mate preference. Studying parallel but evolutionarily independent instances of ecological divergence can illuminate the interaction between natural and sexual selection during speciation. Locally adapted populations of the eastern fence lizard Sceloporus undulatus have recently evolved in three different habitats in the Chihuahuan desert: blanched color morphs occur on the gypsum dunes of White Sands, melanic color morphs occur on the Carrizozo lava flow, and brown color morphs occur in the surrounding desert scrubland. In addition to differences in cryptic dorsal coloration, populations also differ in the size and color of ventral patches used for social signaling. This system therefore provides an opportunity to investigate the interplay of natural and sexual selection during rapid ecological speciation. We used mate preference experiments to determine whether locally adapted populations may exhibit the early stages of behavioral reproductive isolation. We observed an asymmetrical mate preference in this system; White Sands males preferentially courted local females, while males from dark soils and black lava populations did not exhibit a preference for local mates. We also found that female behavior and ventral patch phenotype were associated with male courtship. Our results suggest that the observed preference for local mates evolved at White Sands, and we discuss the possible link between local adaptation and traits involved in mate preference in this system [Current Zoology 59 (1: 20–30, 2013].

  11. Produção e sobrevivência de miniestacas e minicepas de erva-mate cultivadas em sistema semi-hidropônico Production and survival of Ilex paraguariensis minicuttings and ministumps cultivated in semi-hydroponic system

    OpenAIRE

    Ivar Wendling; Leonardo Ferreira Dutra; Fernando Grossi

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade técnica do sistema semi-hidropônico para condução de minicepas de erva-mate e a resposta destas a soluções nutritivas de diferentes diluições nas sucessivas coletas, bem como, a sobrevivência das miniestacas produzidas neste sistema, após enraizamento. Depois de onze coletas, obteve-se 95,6% de sobrevivência das minicepas e média de 291 miniestacas m-2 de minijardim. As mudas obtidas por miniestaquia apresentaram média de 85,6% de sobrevivên...

  12. Investigations on male traits, female mate choice, and the role of parasites in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Krobbach, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mate choice, based on secondary sexual traits is a common phenomenon in many animal species. These traits are exhibited by one of the partners, usually the male. If the traits reflect the ability of a mating partner to contribute direct or indirect benefits to the offspring, individuals (usually females) are able to increase their fitness by choosing these traits. Parasite load and parasite resistance are only two aspects of an animal that can be signalled by such traits. To investigate the e...

  13. A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 μm in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

  14. A mate to die for? A model of conditional monogyny in cannibalistic spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M

    2012-10-01

    Monogynous males in various species actively limit themselves to mating with a single female in their lifetime. Whereas previous models have considered monogyny as an obligate mating strategy, here we explore the potential of monogyny to evolve as a context-specific (conditional) behavior. Using a state-dependent dynamic game model based on the biology of the cannibalistic spider Argiope bruennichi, we confirm that conditional monogyny can evolve under broad conditions, including an even sex ratio. We predict that males should make a terminal investment when mating with large, virgin females, especially if population density is low and the encounter occurs late in the season. We encourage empirical tests for the existence of conditional monogyny in all species where monogyny occurs in the absence of strict morphological constraints that would make it obligatory. PMID:23145342

  15. Assessing the benefits of using mate-pairs to resolve repeats in de novo short-read prokaryotic assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Mihai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing technologies allow genomes to be sequenced more quickly and less expensively than ever before. However, as sequencing technology has improved, the difficulty of de novo genome assembly has increased, due in large part to the shorter reads generated by the new technologies. The use of mated sequences (referred to as mate-pairs is a standard means of disambiguating assemblies to obtain a more complete picture of the genome without resorting to manual finishing. Here, we examine the effectiveness of mate-pair information in resolving repeated sequences in the DNA (a paramount issue to overcome. While it has been empirically accepted that mate-pairs improve assemblies, and a variety of assemblers use mate-pairs in the context of repeat resolution, the effectiveness of mate-pairs in this context has not been systematically evaluated in previous literature. Results We show that, in high-coverage prokaryotic assemblies, libraries of short mate-pairs (about 4-6 times the read-length more effectively disambiguate repeat regions than the libraries that are commonly constructed in current genome projects. We also demonstrate that the best assemblies can be obtained by 'tuning' mate-pair libraries to accommodate the specific repeat structure of the genome being assembled - information that can be obtained through an initial assembly using unpaired reads. These results are shown across 360 simulations on 'ideal' prokaryotic data as well as assembly of 8 bacterial genomes using SOAPdenovo. The simulation results provide an upper-bound on the potential value of mate-pairs for resolving repeated sequences in real prokaryotic data sets. The assembly results show that our method of tuning mate-pairs exploits fundamental properties of these genomes, leading to better assemblies even when using an off -the-shelf assembler in the presence of base-call errors. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that dramatic

  16. MMS Based Car Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Sot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In This paper “MMS Based Car Security System” is being proposed to solve the issue. It introduces the integration between monitoring and tracking system. Both elements are very crucial in order to have a powerful security system. The system can send SMS and MMS to the owner to have fast response especially if the car is nearby. This paper focuses on using MMS and SMS technology. As soon as there is intrusion detected, first the SMS is sent to master user and the picture of the intruder will be sent via local GSM/GPRS service provider to user (and / or police mail ID. The implementation and testing results show the success of prototype in sending MMS to owner within 30 seconds. The timing and results are suitable to owner and police to take suitable action against intruder. User can also control the module using command. User has to send different SMS to module while configuration of module for master. Master user can be change as per need, only master user can make changes in to the module.

  17. Reduced mate availability leads to evolution of self-fertilization and purging of inbreeding depression in a hermaphrodite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Elsa; Chemtob, Yohann; Janicke, Tim; Sarda, Violette; Pélissié, Benjamin; Jarne, Philippe; David, Patrice

    2016-03-01

    Basic models of mating-system evolution predict that hermaphroditic organisms should mostly either cross-fertilize, or self-fertilize, due to self-reinforcing coevolution of inbreeding depression and outcrossing rates. However transitions between mating systems occur. A plausible scenario for such transitions assumes that a decrease in pollinator or mate availability temporarily constrains outcrossing populations to self-fertilize as a reproductive assurance strategy. This should trigger a purge of inbreeding depression, which in turn encourages individuals to self-fertilize more often and finally to reduce male allocation. We tested the predictions of this scenario using the freshwater snail Physa acuta, a self-compatible hermaphrodite that preferentially outcrosses and exhibits high inbreeding depression in natural populations. From an outbred population, we built two types of experimental evolution lines, controls (outcrossing every generation) and constrained lines (in which mates were often unavailable, forcing individuals to self-fertilize). After ca. 20 generations, individuals from constrained lines initiated self-fertilization earlier in life and had purged most of their inbreeding depression compared to controls. However, their male allocation remained unchanged. Our study suggests that the mating system can rapidly evolve as a response to reduced mating opportunities, supporting the reproductive assurance scenario of transitions from outcrossing to selfing. PMID:26899922

  18. SQUID-based measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program has been developed and initiated at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) for the utilization of SQUID sensors in various application areas. DC SQUID sensors based on Nb-AlOx-Nb Josephson junctions have been designed and developed in house along with associated flux-locked loop (FLL) electronics. A compact low field SQUID magnetometer insertible in a liquid helium storage dewar has also been developed in house and is in use. Efforts to build a high field SQUID magnetometer, SQUID-DAC system, are in progress. A planar gradiometric DC SQUID sensor for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) application to be used in relatively unshielded environment has been designed and developed. An easily portable NDE cryostat with a small lift-off distance, to be used in external locations has been designed and tested. The magnetic field produced by a given two-dimensional current density distribution is inverted using the Fourier transform technique. (author)

  19. Electrician's Mate 3 & 2. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Thomas E.; Hawley, John F.

    This Rate Training Manual (Textbook) and Nonresident Career Course form a correspondence, self-study package to provide information related to tasks assigned to the Electrician's Mate Third and Second Class. Focus is on operating and maintaining power and lighting systems and associated equipment. The 16 chapters in the text are (1) The…

  20. The effect of crowding and density on male mating behaviour in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Casalini, M.; Reichard, Martin; Smith, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 147, č. 8 (2010), s. 1035-1050. ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : density-dependence * mating system * sexual selection * sperm competition * territoriality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.480, year: 2010

  1. Personality traits, reproductive behaviour and alternative mating tactics in male European bitterling, Rhodeus amarus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řežucha, Radomil; Smith, C.; Reichard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 5 (2012), s. 531-553. ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative reproductive behaviour * animal personality * boldness * behavioural syndrome * mating system * sperm competition * territorial males Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.661, year: 2012

  2. Aviation Electrician's Mate 1 & C. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    One of a series of training manuals prepared for enlisted personnel in the Navy and Naval Reserve who are studying for advancement in the Aviation Electrician's Mate (AE) rating, this text is based upon the Navy's professional occupational standards for AEI and AEC. Contents include a 10-chapter text followed by a subject index and the associated…

  3. All you need is love : Is the sociometer especially sensitive to one's mating capacity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pass, Jessica A.; Lindenberg, Siegwart M.; Park, Justin H.; McClintock, Charles G; Liebrand, Wim B.G.

    2010-01-01

    Self-esteem has been proposed to serve as a sociometer a gauge of one's value as a relationship partner Based on evolutionary reasoning, we hypothesized that the sociometer is particularly sensitive to "capacity rejection" in the mating domain. Capacity rejection implies that one has low potential t

  4. The genetics of complex human behaviour: Cannabis use, personality, sexuality and mating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, C.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    I investigated the genetic and environmental etiology of individual differences in a variety of complex human behaviours, broadly captured within three domains - 1) cannabis use, 2) personality, and 3) sexuality and mating. Research questions and hypotheses are addressed with large community-based,

  5. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  6. Remote Monitoring System for Communication Base Based on Short Message

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yu Fu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents design and development of an automatic monitoring system of communication base which is an important means to realize modernization of mobile communication base station management. Firstly, this paper proposes the architecture of the monitoring system. The proposed system consists of mocrocontrollers, sensors, GSM module and MFRC500 etc. The value of parameters is measured in the system including terminal is studied and designed, including hardware design based on embedded system and software design. Finally, communication module is discussed. The monitoring system which is designed  based on GSM SMS(short message service can improve the integrity, reliability, flexibility and intellectuality of monitoring system.

  7. Honeypot based Secure Network System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Kumar Jain

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A honeypot is a non-production system, design to interact with cyber-attackers to collect intelligence on attack techniques and behaviors. There has been great amount of work done in the field of networkintrusion detection over the past three decades. With networks getting faster and with the increasing dependence on the Internet both at the personal and commercial level, intrusion detection becomes a challenging process. The challenge here is not only to be able to actively monitor large numbers of systems, but also to be able to react quickly to different events. Before deploying a honeypot it is advisable to have a clear idea of what the honeypot should and should not do. There should be clear understandingof the operating systems to be used and services (like a web server, ftp server etc a honeypot will run. The risks involved should be taken into consideration and methods to tackle or reduce these risks should be understood. It is also advisable to have a plan on what to do should the honeypot be compromised. In case of production honeypots, a honeypot policy addressing security issues should be documented. Any legal issues with respect to the honeypots or their functioning should also be taken into consideration. In this paper we explain the relatively new concept of “honeypot.” Honeypots are a computer specifically designed to help learn the motives, skills and techniques of the hacker community and also describes in depth the concepts of honeypots and their contribution to the field of network security. The paper then proposes and designs an intrusion detection tool based on some of the existing intrusion detection techniques and the concept of honeypots.

  8. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating compet...

  9. Mating and Parental Care in Lake Tanganyika's Cichlids

    OpenAIRE

    Sefc, Kristina M

    2011-01-01

    Cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika display a variety of mating and parental care behaviors, including polygamous and monogamous mouthbrooding and substrate breeding, cooperative breeding, as well as various alternative reproductive tactics such as sneaking and piracy. Moreover, reproductive behaviors sometimes vary within species both in space and in time. Here, I survey reports on mating and parenting behaviors of Lake Tanganyika cichlid species and address the evolution of mating and parenta...

  10. Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice

    OpenAIRE

    Senar, J. C.; Mateos-Gonzalez, F.; F. Uribe; Arroyo, L.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating ...

  11. Assortative mating and gene flow generate clinal phenological variation in trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soularue Jean-Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On-going climate change is shifting the timing of bud burst (TBB of broad leaf and conifer trees in temperate areas, raising concerns about the abilities of natural populations to respond to these shifts. The level of expected evolutionary change depends on the level and distribution of genetic variation of TBB. While numerous experimental studies have highlighted the role of divergent selection in promoting clinal TBB differentiation, we explored whether the observed patterns of variation could be generated by the joint effects of assortative mating for TBB and gene flow among natural populations. We tested this hypothesis using an in silico approach based on quantitative genetic models. Results Our simulations showed that genetic clines can develop even without divergent selection. Assortative mating in association with environmental gradients substantially shifted the mean genetic values of populations. Owing to assortative mating, immigrant alleles were screened for proximal or distant populations depending on the strength of the environmental cline. Furthermore, we confirmed that assortative mating increases the additive genetic variance within populations. However, we observed also a rapid decline of the additive genetic variance caused by restricted gene flow between neighboring populations resulting from preferential matings between phenologically-matching phenotypes. Conclusions We provided evidence that the patterns of genetic variation of phenological traits observed in forest trees can be generated solely by the effects of assortative mating and gene flow. We anticipate that predicted temperature increases due to climate change will further enhance genetic differentiation across the landscape. These trends are likely to be reinforced or counteracted by natural selection if phenological traits are correlated to fitness.

  12. Inline Electrical Connector Mate/Demate Pliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutko, Brian; Dininny, Michael; Moscoso, Gerand; Dokos, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Military and aerospace industries use Mil-Spec type electrical connections on bulkhead panels that require inline access for mate and demate operations. These connectors are usually in tight proximity to other connectors, or recessed within panels. The pliers described here have been designed to work in such tight spaces, and consist of a mirrored set of parallel handles, two cross links, two return springs, and replaceable polyurethane-coated end effectors. The polyurethane eliminates metal-to-metal contact and provides a high-friction surface between the jaw and the connector. Operationally, the user would slide the pliers over the connector shell until the molded polyurethane lip makes contact with the connector shell edge. Then, by squeezing the handles, the end effector jaws grip the connector shell, allowing the connector to be easily disconnected by rotating the pliers. Mating the connector occurs by reversing the prescribed procedure, except the connector shell is placed into the jaws by hand. The molded lip within the jaw allows the user to apply additional force for difficult-to-mate connectors. Handle design has been carefully examined to maximize comfort, limit weight, incorporate tether locations, and improve ergonomics. They have been designed with an off-axis offset for wiring harness clearance, while placing the connector axis of rotation close to the user s axis of wrist rotation. This was done to eliminate fatigue during multiple connector panel servicing. To limit handle opening width, with user ergonomics in mind, the pliers were designed using a parallel jaw mechanism. A cross-link mechanism was used to complete this task, while ensuring smooth operation.

  13. Divorce in the barn owl: securing a compatible or better mate entails the cost of re-pairing with a less ornamented female mate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiss, A N; Roulin, A

    2014-06-01

    Two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses can explain why divorce is an adaptive strategy to improve reproductive success. Under the 'better option hypothesis', only one of the two partners initiates divorce to secure a higher-quality partner and increases reproductive success after divorce. Under the 'incompatibility hypothesis', partners are incompatible and hence they may both increase reproductive success after divorce. In a long-term study of the barn owl (Tyto alba), we address the question of whether one or the two partners derive fitness benefits by divorcing. Our results support the hypothesis that divorce is adaptive: after a poor reproductive season, at least one of the two divorcees increase breeding success up to the level of faithful pairs. By breeding more often together, faithful pairs improve coordination and thereby gain in their efficiency to produce successful fledglings. Males would divorce to obtain a compatible mate rather than a mate of higher quality: a heritable melanin-based signal of female quality did not predict divorce (indicating that female absolute quality may not be the cause of divorce), but the new mate of divorced males was less melanic than their previous mate. This suggests that, at least for males, a cost of divorce may be to secure a lower-quality but compatible mate. The better option hypothesis could not be formally rejected, as only one of the two divorcing partners commonly succeeded in obtaining a higher reproductive success after divorce. In conclusion, incompatible partners divorce to restore reproductive success, and by breeding more often together, faithful partners improve coordination. PMID:24773174

  14. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult emergence, they were randomly divided into 3 groups and the emerging adults were reared under the following conditions: (1) Metapa System (MS, control), consisting of 70 x 45 x 15 cm aluminum frame, mesh covered cages, with a density of 2,200 flies per cage and a 1:1 initial sex ratio; (2) Insert System (IS), with the same type of cage, and the same fly density and sex ratio as in the MS treatment, but containing twelve Plexiglas pieces (23 x 8.5 cm) to provide additional horizontal surface areas inside the cage; and (3) Sex-ratio System (SS), same as IS, but in this case the initial male: female ratio was 4:1. Three d later, newly emerged females were introduced, so the ratio became 3:1 and on the 6th d another group of newly emerged females was added to provide a 2:1 final sex ratio, at which the final density reached 1,675 flies per cage. The eggs collected from each of the 3 treatments were reared independently following standard procedures and the adults were held under the same experimental conditions. This process was repeated for over 10 to 13 generations (1 year). The experiment was repeated 3 times in 3 consecutive years, starting each replicate with a new collection of wild flies. Life tables were constructed for each treatment at the parental, 3rd, 6th, and 9th generations. Standard quality control parameters (pupation at 24 h, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability), were estimated for each treatment every third generation in the third year. For the last generation each year, mating competitiveness was evaluated in field cage tests

  15. Expert systems and computer based industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Framentec is the artificial intelligence subsidiary of FRAMATOME. It is involved in expert-system activities of Shells, developments, methodology and software for maintenance (Maintex) and consulting and methodology. Specific applications in the nuclear field are presented. The first is an expert system to assist in the piping support design prototype, the second is an expert system that assists an ultrasonic testing operator in determining the nature of a welding defect and the third is a welding machine diagnosis advisor. Maintex is a software tool to provide assistance in the repair of complex industrial equipment. (author)

  16. System architecture for microprocessor based protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the architectural design features to be employed by Westinghouse in the application of distributed digital processing techniques to the protection system. While the title of the paper makes specific reference to microprocessors, this is only one (and the newest) of the building blocks which constitutes a distributed digital processing system. The actual system structure (as realized through utilization of the various building blocks) is established through considerations of reliability, licensability, and cost. It is the intent of the paper to address these considerations licenstions as they relate to the architectural design features. (orig.)

  17. Stylish lengths: Mate choice in flowers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B T Ramesha; M D Yetish; G Ravikanth; K N Ganeshaiah; Jaboury Ghazoul; R Uma Shaanker

    2011-06-01

    The styles of flowers may represent an arena for pollen competition in the race to fertilize ovules. Accordingly, selection should favour a longer ‘race’ to better discriminate among variable pollen by increasing style length. Sampling across a taxonomically diverse range of wild and outcrossed species, we found that the distribution of style lengths within plants were skewed towards longer styles, as predicted. In self-pollinated domesticated species, where discrimination among pollen is less important, we found no such pattern. We conclude that style length is under directional selection towards longer styles as a mechanism for mate choice among pollen of variable quality.

  18. Male Mating Signaling in Social Dilemma Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm

    2013-01-01

    According to sexual selection theory and costly signaling theory, men benefit from signaling costly mate qualities to attractive women. To date, several studies have investigated whether men use conspicuous altruism to attract women, but the findings are mixed. This study investigated whether men...... being observed by an attractive woman engage in competitive economic altruism in three social dilemma games — the Dictator Game, Trust Game (2nd mover), and Public Goods Game — in comparison to men being observed by a non-attractive woman. Results showed that altruistic contributions in the games were...

  19. Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senar, J C; Mateos-Gonzalez, F; Uribe, F; Arroyo, L

    2013-12-22

    There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating preferences, this could very significantly affect the strength of sexual selection on male ornamentation. Here, we have used mate-choice experiments in siskins Carduelis spinus to analyse how familiarity and patterns of ornamentation (i.e. the size of wing patches) interact to influence mating success. Our results show that females clearly prefer familiar individuals when choosing between familiar and unfamiliar males with similar-sized wing patches. Furthermore, when females were given the choice between a highly ornamented unfamiliar male and a less ornamented familiar male, half of the females still preferred the socially familiar birds as mates. Our finding suggests that male familiarity may be as important as sexual ornaments in affecting female behaviour in mate choice. Given that the potential for local adaptation may be favoured by preferring familiar individuals as mates, social familiarity as a mate-choice criterion may become a potential area of fruitful research on sympatric speciation processes. PMID:24174112

  20. Mate Choice Drives Evolutionary Stability in a Hybrid Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado-Santos, Miguel; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that assortative mating acts as a driver of speciation by countering hybridization between two populations of the same species (pre-zygotic isolation) or through mate choice among the hybrids (hybrid speciation). In both speciation types, assortative mating promotes speciation over a transient hybridization stage. We studied mate choice in a hybrid vertebrate complex, the allopolyploid fish Squalius alburnoides. This complex is composed by several genomotypes connected by an intricate reproductive dynamics. We developed a model that predicts the hybrid complex can persist when females exhibit particular mate choice patterns. Our model is able to reproduce the diversity of population dynamic outcomes found in nature, namely the dominance of the triploids and the dominance of the tetraploids, depending on female mate choice patterns and frequency of the parental species. Experimental mate choice trials showed that females exhibit the preferences predicted by the model. Thus, despite the known role of assortative mating in driving speciation, our findings suggest that certain mate choice patterns can instead hinder speciation and support the persistence of hybrids over time without speciation or extinction. PMID:26181664

  1. Mates of Competitive Females: The Relationships between Female Aggression, Mate Quality, and Parental Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E. Cain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though rarely mate-limited, females in a wide variety of species express traits commonly associated with mate competition in males. Recent research has shown that these competitive traits (ornaments, armaments, and intense aggression often function in the context of female-female competition for nonsexual reproductive resources and are often positively related to reproductive success. Increased success could occur because competitive females acquire limited ecological resources (nest sites, territories, etc. or because they pair with high quality males, that is, older, more ornamented, or more parental males. Further, males paired with aggressive/low care females may compensate by increasing their paternal efforts. Here, I examined patterns of social pairing and parental care in free-living dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, a biparental songbird. I found no detectable relationship between female competitive behavior (aggression and male quality (age, size, or ornamentation or male provisioning. Thus, neither of the mate choice hypotheses (females compete for males or males prefer aggressive females was supported. Instead, these results suggest that females compete for nonsexual resources and mate quality is a secondary consideration. I also found a negative relationship between male and female provisioning rates, suggesting that partners adjust their level of parental effort in response to their partner’s efforts.

  2. Mating portfolios: bet-hedging, sexual selection and female multiple mating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Yasui, Yukio; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Polyandry (female multiple mating) has profound evolutionary and ecological implications. Despite considerable work devoted to understanding why females mate multiply, we currently lack convincing empirical evidence to explain the adaptive value of polyandry. Here, we provide a direct test of the controversial idea that bet-hedging functions as a risk-spreading strategy that yields multi-generational fitness benefits to polyandrous females. Unfortunately, testing this hypothesis is far from trivial, and the empirical comparison of the across-generations fitness payoffs of a polyandrous (bet hedger) versus a monandrous (non-bet hedger) strategy has never been accomplished because of numerous experimental constraints presented by most ‘model’ species. In this study, we take advantage of the extraordinary tractability and versatility of a marine broadcast spawning invertebrate to overcome these challenges. We are able to simulate multi-generational (geometric mean) fitness among individual females assigned simultaneously to a polyandrous and monandrous mating strategy. Our approaches, which separate and account for the effects of sexual selection and pure bet-hedging scenarios, reveal that bet-hedging, in addition to sexual selection, can enhance evolutionary fitness in multiply mated females. In addition to offering a tractable experimental approach for addressing bet-hedging theory, our study provides key insights into the evolutionary ecology of sexual interactions. PMID:25411448

  3. Mating and re-mating of medflies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Guatemala: Individual fly marking in field cages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) depends critically upon the ability of sterilized, released males to locate and mate with wild females. The overall efficiency of the method also depends upon the relative frequencies of re-mating by wild females following first matings to laboratory or wild males. Using a newly devised technique that individually marks the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), a field cage study was undertaken in a Guatemala coffee orchard to record individual fly mating behaviors between each of several laboratory strain and coffee-reared wild flies. Five laboratory strains were tested- a genetic sexing strain examined in sex ratios between 50%-100% sterile males, two standard bisexual strains, and two Fl hybrid strains. The marking technique revealed a substantial amount of information on individual fly mating and re-mating. Wild male flies significantly out-competed each of the lab strains in the first matings with both wild and lab females. Approx. 22% and 3% of wild males and females, respectively, re-mated in the field cages during two consecutive morning observation periods, while 4-8% of lab males, and 2-8% of lab females re-mated, respectively. Male flies from each lab strain averaged significantly shorter copulation times than wild males. Female flies, either lab or wild, tended to re-mate more often if they first mated to a lab male, but the differences were not statistically significant. An index was devised to provide a measure of relative male mating quality. Wild males tended to have higher individual index values than lab strain males. Average values of the latter ranged from ca. half to roughly equal that of wild males. (author)

  4. Identification and functional analysis of pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 mating locus of Pleurotus eryngii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii has recently become a major cultivated mushroom; it uses tetrapolar heterothallism as a part of its reproductive process. Sexual development progresses only when the A and B mating types are compatible. Such mating incompatibility occasionally limits the efficiency of breeding programs in which crossing within loci-shared strains or backcrossing strategies are employed. Therefore, understanding the mating system in edible mushroom fungi will help provide a short cut in the development of new strains. We isolated and identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and performed a functional analysis of the genes in the mating process by transformation. A genomic DNA library was constructed to map the entire mating-type locus. The B3 locus was found to contain four pheromone precursor genes and four receptor genes. Remarkably, receptor PESTE3.3.1 has just 34 amino acid residues in its C-terminal cytoplasmic region; therefore, it seems likely to be a receptor-like gene. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (real-time qRT-PCR revealed that most pheromone and receptor genes showed significantly higher expression in monokaryotic cells than dikaryotic cells. The pheromone genes PEphb3.1 and PEphb3.3 and the receptor gene PESTE3.3.1 were transformed into P5 (A3B4. The transformants were mated with a tester strain (A4B4, and the progeny showed clamp connections and a normal fruiting body, which indicates the proposed role of these genes in mating and fruiting processes. This result also confirms that PESTE3.3.1 is a receptor gene. In this study, we identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and found that some of those genes appear to play a role in the mating and fruiting processes. These results might help elucidate the mechanism of fruiting differentiation and improve breeding efficiency.

  5. SQUID-based measuring systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P Janawadkar; R Baskaran; R Nagendran; K Gireesan; N Harishkumar; Rita Saha; L S Vaidhyanathan; J Jayapandian; Y Hariharan; T S Radhakrishnan

    2002-05-01

    A program has been developed and initiated at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) for the utilization of SQUID sensors in various application areas. DC SQUID sensors based on Nb–AlO–Nb Josephson junctions have been designed and developed inhouse along with associated flux-locked loop (FLL) electronics. A compact low field SQUID magnetometer insertible in a liquid helium storage dewar has also been developed inhouse and is in use. Efforts to build a high field SQUID magnetometer, SQUID-DAC system, are in progress. A planar gradiometric DC SQUID sensor for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) application to be used in relatively unshielded environment has been designed and developed. An easily portable NDE cryostat with a small lift-off distance, to be used in external locations has been designed and tested. The magnetic field produced by a given two-dimensional current density distribution is inverted using the Fourier transform technique.

  6. Target-site resistance mutations (kdr and RDL), but not metabolic resistance, negatively impact male mating competiveness in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, N; Kwiatkowska, R M; Irving, H; Diabaté, A; Dabire, R; Wondji, C S

    2015-09-01

    The implementation of successful insecticide resistance management strategies for malaria control is currently hampered by poor understanding of the fitness cost of resistance on mosquito populations, including their mating competiveness. To fill this knowledge gap, coupled and uncoupled Anopheles gambiae s.l. males (all M form (Anopheles coluzzii)) were collected from mating swarms in Burkina Faso. This multiple insecticide resistant population exhibited high 1014F kdr(R) allele frequencies (>60%) and RDL(R) (>80%) in contrast to the Ace-1(R) allele (RDL(R)/RDL(S) were also more likely to mate than homozygote-resistant males (OR=2.58; P=0.007). Furthermore, an additive mating disadvantage was detected in male homozygotes for both kdr/RDL-resistant alleles. In contrast, no fitness difference was observed for the Ace-1 mutation. Comparative microarray-based genome-wide transcription analysis revealed that metabolic resistance did not significantly alter the mating competitiveness of male An. coluzzii mosquitoes. Indeed, no significant difference of expression levels was observed for the main metabolic resistance genes, suggesting that metabolic resistance has a limited impact on male mating competiveness. In addition, specific gene classes/GO terms associated with mating process were detected including sensory perception and peroxidase activity. The detrimental impact of insecticide resistance on mating competiveness observed here suggests that resistance management strategies such as insecticide rotation could help reverse the resistance, if implemented early. PMID:25899013

  7. Relative impact of mate versus pollinator availability on pollen limitation and outcrossing rates in a mass-flowering species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, C E L; Escaravage, N; Cheptou, P-O; Charrier, O; Ruzafa, S; Winterton, P; Pornon, A

    2015-01-01

    Plant mating systems are driven by several pre-pollination factors, including pollinator availability, mate availability and reproductive traits. We investigated the relative contributions of these factors to pollination and to realized outcrossing rates in the patchily distributed mass-flowering shrub Rhododendron ferrugineum. We jointly monitored pollen limitation (comparing seed set from intact and pollen-supplemented flowers), reproductive traits (herkogamy, flower size and autofertility) and mating patterns (progeny array analysis) in 28 natural patches varying in the level of pollinator availability (flower visitation rates) and of mate availability (patch floral display estimated as the total number of inflorescences per patch). Our results showed that patch floral display was the strongest determinant of pollination and of the realized outcrossing rates in this mass-flowering species. We found an increase in pollen limitation and in outcrossing rates with increasing patch floral display. Reproductive traits were not significantly related to patch floral display, while autofertility was negatively correlated to outcrossing rates. These findings suggest that mate limitation, arising from high flower visitation rates in small plant patches, resulted in low pollen limitation and high selfing rates, while pollinator limitation, arising from low flower visitation rates in large plant patches, resulted in higher pollen limitation and outcrossing rates. Pollinator-mediated selfing and geitonogamy likely alleviates pollen limitation in the case of reduced mate availability, while reduced pollinator availability (intraspecific competition for pollinator services) may result in the maintenance of high outcrossing rates despite reduced seed production. PMID:24942604

  8. Effect Of Gamma Irradiation On The Mating Activity And Mating Competitiveness Of The Black Cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUFN.) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterility effects were examined on the P1 generation of the black cutworm; Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.), after gamma sterilization. The objective was to identify the dose of gamma radiation that would allow for maximum production of partially sterile P1 adults while inducing full sterility in the F1 generation. Full grown pupae of the black cutworm from laboratory culture were irradiated at 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy. Results indicated that non-significant differences between untreated and treated groups in moth were observed in copula occurred and time of copulation while significant difference was recorded between the treated males and untreated once in spermatophore formation and percentage of females with sperm in their spermatheca at the last two doses. Low percentages of untreated female moths were mated when they were paired with previously mated males than when paired with virgin males. The sequence in which females were mated to an irradiated male did not affect the transfer of spermatophores. The percentage of eggs hatched was higher from the first mated females as compared to the second and third mated females. There were non-significant effects of 0 or 125 Gy exposures on female mating or time in copula. However, significant low percentages of mating of treated and untreated females were occurred with sequentially provided male moths on days 2, 3, to 5 following the first observed female mating. According to the mating competitiveness measured from direct

  9. Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus courtship and mating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Piñeyrúa Jéssica T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758, is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de Fauna Autóctona Cerro Pan de Azúcar, Uruguay, 4 times a day from 5 to 20 minutes each time on a daily basis from February to May. During that period we recorded all courtship and mating behaviors, as well as quantified the frequency of the specific behaviors shown. As mating were rarely observed, we recorded that behavior when it was observed in the context of other studies performed in the same population during the following 2 years. Results During the observation period we recorded 928 courtships and 5 mating periods. In addition, we recorded 10 more matings performed during other studies, totaling 15. The duration of each mating calculated from the 15 recordings was 3.9 ± 0.4 s, and the total period of female receptivity (from first to last mating acceptance was 8.2 ± 1.1 min. Main observed courtship behaviors in males were “chase” and “ostentation”, while the most observed close to mating were “chinning”, “raised head” and “anogenital sniffing”. The most observed behaviors in females during the mating period were “vulva exhibition” and “move away”. Conclusion This is the first detailed report in pampas deer mating behavior. Estrus lasted only 8 min accepting only 3 short copulations per estrus. However, female behavior during courtship can be characterized as highly proceptive.

  10. Leveling the Playing Field: Longer Acquaintance Predicts Reduced Assortative Mating on Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Lucy L; Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

    2015-07-01

    Clear empirical demonstrations of the theoretical principles underlying assortative mating remain elusive. This article examines a moderator of assortative mating--how well couple members knew each other before dating--suggested by recent findings related to market-based (i.e., competition) theories. Specifically, competition is pervasive to the extent that people achieve consensus about who possesses desirable qualities (e.g., attractiveness) and who does not. Because consensus is stronger earlier in the acquaintance process, assortative mating based on attractiveness should be stronger among couples who formed a relationship after a short period rather than a long period of acquaintance. A study of 167 couples included measures of how long partners had known each other before dating and whether they had been friends before dating, as well as coders' ratings of physical attractiveness. As predicted, couples revealed stronger evidence of assortative mating to the extent that they knew each other for a short time and were not friends before initiating a romantic relationship. PMID:26068893

  11. Human mate selection and addiction: a conceptual critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Andrew C; Waldron, Mary C; Martin, Nicholas G; Nelson, Elliot C; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F

    2014-09-01

    The authors review past work on modeling human mate selection, and suggest, using illustrations from existing literature on the impact of alcoholism on relationship formation and dissolution and reproduction, that the challenges of adequately characterizing human mate selection have not yet been overcome. Some paths forwards are suggested. PMID:25138372

  12. Formal Mate Selection Networks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Davor

    1980-01-01

    Mate selection barriers beyond individuals' control are presented as reasons for development of formal mate selection networks. Network processes are described and classified according to the degree of third-party involvement and the degree to which anonymity of participants is protected. (Author)

  13. Mating programs including genomic relationships and dominance effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer mating programs have helped breeders minimize pedigree inbreeding and avoid recessive defects by mating animals with parents that have fewer common ancestors. With genomic selection, breed associations, AI organizations, and on-farm software providers could use new programs to minimize geno...

  14. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  15. MATING DESIGNS: HELPFUL TOOL FOR QUANTITATIVE PLANT BREEDING ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanase Nduwumuremyi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of parental materials and good mating designs in conventional plant breeding are the keys to the successful plant breeding programme. However, there are several factors affecting the choices of mating designs. Mating design refers to the procedure of producing the progenies, in plant breeding, plant breeders and geneticists, theoretically and practically, they use different form of mating designs and arrangements for targeted purpose. The choice of a mating design for estimating genetic variances should be dictated by the objectives of the study, time, space, cost and other biological limitations. In all mating designs, the individuals are taken randomly and crossed to produce progenies which are related to each other as half-sibs or full-sibs. A form of multivariate analysis or the analysis of variance can be adopted to estimate the components of variances. Therefore, this review aimed at highlighting the most used mating design in plant breeding and genetics studies. It provides easy and quick insight of the different form of mating designs and some statistical components for successful plant breeding.

  16. A novel case of canine disseminated aspergillosis following mating

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Jackson T.; Frazho, Jean K.; Randell, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    An intact bitch with a history of mating was presented with severe lameness and a vulvar discharge. A mixed lytic, proliferative tibial lesion and open pyometra were diagnosed. Bone biopsy and uterine culture revealed disseminated aspergillosis. This is the first report of Aspergillus pyometra with dissemination following mating in the dog.

  17. Testosterone biases automatic memory processes in women towards potential mates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingen, G.A. van; Mattern, C.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Female mate choice involves the comparative evaluation of potential mates. Females use a pooled comparison of sampled males to maximize the perceived reproductive fitness of their partner, implying the memorization of sampled males. However, hormonal and reproductive states influence female choosine

  18. Testosterone biases automatic memory processes in women towards potential mates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingen, G van; Mattern, C.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Female mate choice involves the comparative evaluation of potential mates. Females use a pooled comparison of sampled males to maximize the perceived reproductive fitness of their partner, implying the memorization of sampled males. However, hormonal and reproductive states influence female choosine

  19. Response Based Emergency Control System for Power System Transient Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Huaiyuan Wang; Baohui Zhang; Zhiguo Hao

    2015-01-01

    A transient stability control system for the electric power system composed of a prediction method and a control method is proposed based on trajectory information. This system, which is independent of system parameters and models, can detect the transient stability of the electric power system quickly and provide the control law when the system is unstable. Firstly, system instability is detected by the characteristic concave or convex shape of the trajectory. Secondly, the control method is...

  20. Microprocessor based systems for the higher technician

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, RE

    2013-01-01

    Microprocessor Based Systems for the Higher Technician provides coverage of the BTEC level 4 unit in Microprocessor Based Systems (syllabus U80/674). This book is composed of 10 chapters and concentrates on the development of 8-bit microcontrollers specifically constructed around the Z80 microprocessor. The design cycle for the development of such a microprocessor based system and the use of a disk-based development system (MDS) as an aid to design are both described in detail. The book deals with the Control Program Monitor (CP/M) operating system and gives background information on file hand

  1. Understanding promiscuity: when is seeking additional mates better than guarding an already found one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harts, Anna M F; Kokko, Hanna

    2013-10-01

    Paternity protection and the acquisition of multiple mates select for different traits. The consensus from theoretical work is that mate-guarding intensifies with an increasing male bias in the adult sex ratio (ASR). A male bias can thus lead to male monogamy if guarding takes up the entire male time budget. Given that either female- or male-biased ASRs are possible, why is promiscuity clearly much more common than male monogamy? We address this question with two models, differing in whether males can assess temporal cues of female fertility. Our results confirm the importance of the ASR: guarding durations increase with decreasing female availability and increasing number of male competitors. However, several factors prevent the mating system from switching to male monogamy as soon as the ASR becomes male biased. Inefficient guarding, incomplete last male sperm precedence, any mechanism that allows sperm to fertilize eggs after the male's departure, and (in some cases) the unfeasibility of precopulatory guarding all help explain cases where promiscuity exists on its own or alongside temporally limited mate-guarding. Shortening the window of fertilization shifts guarding time budgets from the postcopulatory to the precopulatory stage. PMID:24094337

  2. Semiochemical and Vibrational Cues and Signals Mediating Mate Finding and Courtship in Psylloidea (Hemiptera: A Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar K. Lubanga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mate finding and courtship involve complex interactions that require close coordination between individuals of the opposite gender. Well-organized signalling systems, sometimes involving a combination of signal modalities, are required to convey species-specific and individual information to members of the opposite gender. Previous studies of psyllids have focused on single-signal modalities and have largely ignored the potentially interdependent nature of different types of signals. Several studies have shown that semiochemicals play a role in psyllid mate finding. However, long-range semiochemical sex attractants, such as the highly volatile sex pheromones used by many Lepidoptera (molecular weights <300, are yet to be identified. The compounds identified thus far, namely 13-methylheptacosane (from Cacopsylla pyricola and dodecanoic acid (from Diaphorina citri, seem to have short range activity or no activity under field conditions. The possible role played by cuticular hydrocarbons in psyllid courtship remains largely ignored. Conversely, many psyllid species rely on vibrational signals for mate finding and mate assessment during courtship. This apparent disproportional reliance on vibrational rather than semiochemical signals suggests that vibrational signals have been more influential in sexual selection in psyllids. However, male fitness, female choice and benefits accrued from selecting fitter males remain poorly understood.

  3. Natal Dispersal, Mating Patterns, and Inbreeding in the Ant Formica exsecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitikainen, Emma I K; Haag-Liautard, Cathy; Sundström, Liselotte

    2015-12-01

    Sex-biased dispersal and multiple mating may prevent or alleviate inbreeding and its outcome, inbreeding depression, but studies demonstrating this in the wild are scarce. Perennial ant colonies offer a unique system to investigate the relationships between natal dispersal behavior and inbreeding. Due to the sedentary life of ant colonies and lifetime sperm storage by queens, measures of dispersal distance and mating strategy are easier to obtain than in most taxa. We used a suite of molecular markers to infer the natal colonies of queens and males in a wild population of the ant Formica exsecta. Dispersal was male biased, with median male dispersal distances (∼140 m) twice those of queens (∼60 m). The results also showed that the population was inbred and that inbreeding avoidance behaviors--sex-biased dispersal, queen dispersal distance, and multiple mating--were all ineffective in reducing homozygosity among colony workers. Queen homozygosity did not affect dispersal behavior, but more homozygous queens had lower colony-founding success and were more incestuously mated themselves, with potentially accumulating effects on colony fitness. We also provide independent evidence that dispersal is sex biased and show that our estimate corresponds well with dispersal estimates derived from population-genetic estimates. PMID:26655979

  4. MHC diversity and mate choice in the magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafler, Gabrielle J; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee; Bouzat, Juan L

    2012-01-01

    We estimated levels of diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRß1 gene in 50 breeding pairs of the Magellanic penguin and compared those to estimates from Humboldt and Galapagos penguins. We tested for positive selection and 2 conditions required for the evolution of MHC-based disassortative mating: 1) greater MHC diversity between breeding pairs compared to random mating, and 2) associations between MHC genotype and fitness. Cloning and sequencing of the DRß1 gene showed that Magellanic penguins had higher levels of genetic variation than Galapagos and Humboldt penguins. Sequence analysis revealed 45 alleles with 3.6% average proportion of nucleotide differences, nucleotide diversity of 0.030, and observed heterozygosity of 0.770. A gene phylogeny showed 9 allelic lineages with interspersed DRß1 sequences from Humboldt and Galapagos penguins, indicating ancestral polymorphisms. d (N)/d (S) ratios revealed evidence for positive selection. Analysis of breeding pairs showed no disassortative mating preferences. Significant MHC genotype/fitness associations in females suggest, however, that selection for pathogen resistance plays a more important role than mate choice in maintaining diversity at the MHC in the Magellanic penguin. The differential effect of MHC heterozygosity on fitness between the sexes is likely associated with the relative role of hatching and fledging rates as reliable indicators of overall fitness in males and females. PMID:22952272

  5. From the bedroom to the budget deficit: mate competition changes men's attitudes toward economic redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew Edward; Kenrick, Douglas T; Neel, Rebecca; Neuberg, Steven L

    2013-12-01

    How do economic recessions influence attitudes toward redistribution of wealth? From a traditional economic self-interest perspective, attitudes toward redistribution should be affected by one's financial standing. A functional evolutionary approach suggests another possible form of self-interest: That during periods of economic threat, attitudes toward redistribution should be influenced by one's mate-value-especially for men. Using both lab-based experiments and real-world data on voting behavior, we consistently find that economic threats lead low mate-value men to become more prosocial and supportive of redistribution policies, but that the same threats lead high mate-value men to do the opposite. Economic threats do not affect women's attitudes toward redistribution in the same way, and, across studies, financial standing is only weakly associated with attitudes toward redistribution. These findings suggest that during tough economic times, men's attitudes toward redistribution are influenced by something that has seemingly little to do with economic self-interest-their mating psychology. PMID:23895267

  6. Potential of synthetic sex pheromone blend for mating disruption of the swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samietz, Jörg; Baur, Robert; Hillbur, Ylva

    2012-09-01

    The potential for pheromone-based mating disruption of the Brassica pest Contarinia nasturtii was tested, both in small-scale plots with Brussels sprouts and in commercial-scale fields with either broccoli or cauliflower. Experiments in the small-scale plots used laboratory-reared insects released into a previously uninfested area, whereas large-scale experiments used a high natural population of C. nasturtii. Effectiveness of mating disruption was evaluated by the reduction of male captures in pheromone traps, and by reduction of crop damage caused by C. nasturtii. Dental cotton rolls (small-scale experiment) and polyethylene caps (large-scale experiment), containing 50 μg (2S, 9S)-diacetoxyundecane, 100 μg (2S,10S)-diacetoxyundecane, and 1 μg (2S)-acetoxyundecane, spaced 2 m apart, served as dispensers in the test plots. In both experiments, mean catches of C. nasturtii males in pheromone traps were reduced to near zero in treated plots, with control plots averaging 71 males/trap. In the large-scale experiments, no males were caught in pheromone traps over a period of 41 days after mating disruption was applied; one male was caught from days 42-60. In the small-scale trials, crop damage was reduced by 59 %, compared to the untreated control plot. In the large-scale experiments, damage was reduced on average by 91 %. This study shows successful field application of the mating disruption technique for control of a member of the dipteran family Cecidomyiidae, and demonstrates that pheromone-based mating disruption has potential for management of C. nasturtii populations. PMID:22914960

  7. Plc Based Scrap Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Mishra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have implemented an automated scrap management system for Maintenance Department of Bharat Forge Ltd. Hadapsar, Pune. Bharat Forge is a well known industry for manufacturing of Crank Shaft and various kinds of axels. To manage the scrap & wastage during mass production is a tedious and time consuming job. Scrap Management System is used for storing the scrap & garbage. This Scrap Management System had several problem like huge manpower requirement, time due to which there may be chances of misoperation due to unawareness of handling the system. When any fault is generated due to locking or mechanical operating problem of limit switches, the whole operation can be halt. These flaws lead to increasing concern regarding safety operations and constant maintenance. The conventional system which is in use was developed with a relay logic to control all its operations. But due to bulkiness of the relay logic and number of wiring there are lot of problems during maintenance of the system. This leads to develop some efficient system which find a solution to the painstaking maintenance problems of relay logic, ease of handling, reduction of manpower, & nullify the storing problem of scrap. This can be satisfactorily achieved by replacing the old relay logic by a newly designed PLC system by us.

  8. Stochasticity in the yeast mating pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report stochastic simulations of the yeast mating signal transduction pathway. The effects of intrinsic and external noise, the influence of cell-to-cell difference in the pathway capacity, and noise propagation in the pathway have been examined. The stochastic temporal behaviour of the pathway is found to be robust to the influence of inherent fluctuations, and intrinsic noise propagates in the pathway in a uniform pattern when the yeasts are treated with pheromones of different stimulus strengths and of varied fluctuations. In agreement with recent experimental findings, extrinsic noise is found to play a more prominent role than intrinsic noise in the variability of proteins. The occurrence frequency for the reactions in the pathway are also examined and a more compact network is obtained by dropping most of the reactions of least occurrence

  9. Area Logistics System Based on System Dynamics Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Shouping; ZHU Qiang; LU Lifang

    2005-01-01

    At present, there are few effective ways to analyze area logistics systems. This paper uses system dynamics to analyze the area logistics system and establishes a system dynamics model for the area logistics system based on the characteristics of the area logistics system and system dynamics. Numerical simulations with the system dynamic model were used to analyze a logistic system. Analysis of the Guangzhou economy shows that the model can reflect the actual state of the system objectively and can be used to make policy and harmonize environment.

  10. Consent Based Verification System (CBSV)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — CBSV is a fee-based service offered by SSA's Business Services Online (BSO). It is used by private companies to verify the SSNs of their customers and clients that...

  11. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  12. Fuel cell based hybrid systems

    OpenAIRE

    Davat, B.; Astier, S.; Bethoux, O.; CANDUSSO,D; Coquery, G.; DE-BERNARDINIS, A; DRUART, F; Francois, M; GARCIA ARREGUI, F; Harel, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different works which are currently developed in the field of fuel cell hybrid systems indifferent public laboratories in France. These works are presented in three sections corresponding to: 1. Hybrid fuel cell/battery or supercapacitor power sources; 2. Fuel cell multistack power sources; 3. Fuel cell in hybrid power systems for distributed generation. The presented works combine simulation and experimental results.

  13. Smartphones Based Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamad, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2014-06-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed an explosive growth in the demand for geo-spatial data. This demand has numerous sources and takes many forms; however, the net effect is an ever-increasing thirst for data that is more accurate, has higher density, is produced more rapidly, and is acquired less expensively. For mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) projects, this has been achieved through the major development of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS). MMS integrate various navigation and remote sensing technologies which allow mapping from moving platforms (e.g. cars, airplanes, boats, etc.) to obtain the 3D coordinates of the points of interest. Such systems obtain accuracies that are suitable for all but the most demanding mapping and engineering applications. However, this accuracy doesn't come cheaply. As a consequence of the platform and navigation and mapping technologies used, even an "inexpensive" system costs well over 200 000 USD. Today's mobile phones are getting ever more sophisticated. Phone makers are determined to reduce the gap between computers and mobile phones. Smartphones, in addition to becoming status symbols, are increasingly being equipped with extended Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities, Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) inertial sensors, extremely powerful computing power and very high resolution cameras. Using all of these components, smartphones have the potential to replace the traditional land MMS and portable GPS/GIS equipment. This paper introduces an innovative application of smartphones as a very low cost portable MMS for mapping and GIS applications.

  14. Fiber-Based Ultraviolet Laser System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this program is to develop a compact and efficient ultraviolet laser system for use in space-based uv-Raman instruments. The basis for this system...

  15. Complex Protection System of Metadata-based Distributed Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kourilov, Denis; Lyadova, Lyudmila

    2008-01-01

    A description of architecture and approaches to the implementation of a protection system of metadatabased adaptable information systems is suggested. Various protection means are examined. The system described is a multilevel complex based on a multiagent system combining IDS functional abilities with structure and logics protection means.

  16. Reliability-Based Optimization of Series Systems of Parallel Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Reliability-based design of structural systems is considered. Especially systems where the reliability model is a series system of parallel systems are analysed. A sensitivity analysis for this class of problems is presented. Direct and sequential optimization procedures to solve the optimization...... problems are described. Numerical tests indicate that a sequential technique called the bounds iteration method (BIM) is particularly fast and stable....

  17. LINUX BASED CLOUD OPERATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Gupta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a type of computing in which dynamically scalable and virtualized resources are provided as a service. Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure in the cloud that supports them. Furthermore, cloud computing employs a model for enabling available, convenient and on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, services that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. The services mainly operating systems running on a single virtualized computing environment, middleware layers that attempt to combine physical and virtualized resources from multiple operating systems, and specialized application engines. In this paper, we discuss about the virtual distributed operating system, Cloud Operating System, to provide maximum features of cloud computing. The Cloud Operating System will work on the principle laid out by LINUX. The Cloud OS aims to provide simple programming abstractions to available cloud resources, strong isolation techniques between Cloud processes, and strong integration with network resources.

  18. Pervasive Computing Based Intelligent Energy Conservation System

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. A.Kanagaraj; Ms S.Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Most of the HVAC system in home is running based on static control algorithm; based on fixed work schedules. In that old system energy became waste when home contains low or no people occupancy. In this paper we presented new dynamic approach of HVAC system control, by combined with pervasive computing. Pervasive computing can be defined as availability of centralized system and information anywhere and anytime. We achieved our target by using occupancy sensors for collecting home status. ...

  19. SPIRE Data-Base Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuechsel, C. F.

    1984-01-01

    Spacelab Payload Integration and Rocket Experiment (SPIRE) data-base management system (DBMS) based on relational model of data bases. Data bases typically used for engineering and mission analysis tasks and, unlike most commercially available systems, allow data items and data structures stored in forms suitable for direct analytical computation. SPIRE DBMS designed to support data requests from interactive users as well as applications programs.

  20. Knowledge base system visualization reasoning model based on ICON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Deyun; Pei, Shujun; Quan, Zhiying

    2005-03-01

    Knowledge base system is one of the most future branches for artificial intelligence facing with practical application. But the reasoning process of system is invisible, not visual and users cannot intervene the reasoning process, therefore for users the system is only a black box. This condition causes many users to take a suspicious attitude to the conclusions analyzing and drawing from the system, that means even though the system has the explanation function, but it is still not far enough. If we adopt graph or image technique to display this reasoning procedure interactively and dynamically which can make this procedure be visual, users can intervene the reasoning procedure which can greatly reduce users" gain giving, and at the same time it can provide a given method for integrity check to knowledge of the knowledge base. Therefore, we can say that reasoning visualization of knowledge base system has a further meaning than general visualization. In this paper the visual problem of reasoning process for knowledge base system on the basis of the formalized analysis for ICON system, Icon operation, syntax and semanteme of the statement is presented, a reasoning model of knowledge base system that has a visual characteristics is established, the model is used to do an integrity check in practical expert system and knowledge base, better effect is got.

  1. Programming languages and operating systems used in data base systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some apsects of the use of the programming languages and operating systems in the data base systems are presented. There are four chapters in this paper. In the first chapter we present some generalities about the programming languages. In the second one we describe the use of the programming languages in the data base systems. A classification of the programming languages used in data base systems is presented in the third one. An overview of the operating systems is made in the last chapter. (author)

  2. Web based facial recognition system

    OpenAIRE

    Pujol Aparicio, Adrià

    2016-01-01

    As the online academic offer increases, the rise of new challenges comes along. One of the problems that come with the territory of online exams is the new ways of cheating the tests. That is the reason why the need of a system that handles the verification of the individuals that are taking part in the examination process is needed, that way the absence of a fraudulent use of the system is being ensured. The goal of this project is to help with the legitimacy of the verification process of t...

  3. Troubleshooting on microprocessor based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, G B

    1984-01-01

    The structure of a computing system presents unique problems when it fails to operate correctly and requires testing. This concise, yet comprehensive book describes the major test methods in current use, and their development from basic principles. Examines the sequence of tests which, built on each other, provide a suitable vehicle for testing digital systems, and the various types of testing equipment that should be applied for specific tests. An excellent introduction for those entering this increasingly complex world, the text will provide the reader with a firm basis on which to judge

  4. Pervasive Computing Based Intelligent Energy Conservation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. A.Kanagaraj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the HVAC system in home is running based on static control algorithm; based on fixed work schedules. In that old system energy became waste when home contains low or no people occupancy. In this paper we presented new dynamic approach of HVAC system control, by combined with pervasive computing. Pervasive computing can be defined as availability of centralized system and information anywhere and anytime. We achieved our target by using occupancy sensors for collecting home status. Initially our occupancy sensors collect human presence and current HVAC status details and stored in centralized system. Then based on our user defined threshold value the centralized system maintains the building's heating, cooling and air quality conditions by controlling HVAC devices. I.e. this system turned off HVAC systems when a home is unoccupied, or put the system into an energy saving sleep mode when persons are asleep.

  5. Evolution of mating isolation between populations of Drosophila ananassae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Malcolm D; Baines, John F; Killon-Atwood, Amanda; Mohanty, Sujata; Das, Aparup; Grath, Sonja; Smith, Shelly G; Zargham, Shiva; McEvey, Shane F; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2008-06-01

    Prezygotic mating isolation has been a major interest of evolutionary biologists during the past several decades because it is likely to represent one of the first stages in the transition from populations to species. Mate discrimination is one of the most commonly measured forms of prezygotic isolation and appears to be relatively common among closely related species. In some cases, it has been used as a measure to distinguish populations from subspecies, races, and sister species, yet the influences of various evolutionary mechanisms that may generate mate discrimination are largely unknown. In this study, we measured the level and pattern of mate discrimination among 18 populations of a cosmopolitan drosophilid species, Drosophila ananassae, from throughout its geographical range and its sister species, Drosophila pallidosa, which has a restricted geographical distribution in the South Pacific Islands. In addition, we measured genetic differentiation between all 18 populations using mitochondrial DNA polymorphism data. Mate discrimination varies considerably throughout the species range, being higher among populations outside the ancestral Indonesian range, and highest in the South Pacific. Our results suggest that colonization and genetic differentiation may have an influence on the evolutionary origin of mate discrimination. Our phylogeographical approach clarifies the ancestral relationships of several populations from the South Pacific that show particularly strong mate discrimination and suggests that they may be in the early stages of speciation. Furthermore, both the genetic and behavioral results cast doubt on the status of D. pallidosa as a good species. PMID:18466237

  6. Mating with stressed males increases the fitness of ant queens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schrempf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to sexual conflict theory, males can increase their own fitness by transferring substances during copulation that increase the short-term fecundity of their mating partners at the cost of the future life expectancy and re-mating capability of the latter. In contrast, sexual cooperation is expected in social insects. Mating indeed positively affects life span and fecundity of young queens of the male-polymorphic ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, even though males neither provide nuptial gifts nor any other care but leave their mates immediately after copulation and die shortly thereafter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that mating with winged disperser males has a significantly stronger impact on life span and reproductive success of young queens of C. obscurior than mating with wingless fighter males. CONCLUSIONS: Winged males are reared mostly under stressful environmental conditions, which force young queens to disperse and found their own societies independently. In contrast, queens that mate with wingless males under favourable conditions usually start reproducing in the safety of the established maternal nest. Our study suggests that males of C. obscurior have evolved mechanisms to posthumously assist young queens during colony founding under adverse ecological conditions.

  7. Age-related mate choice in the wandering albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouventin; Lequette; Dobson

    1999-05-01

    We studied mate choice in the wandering albatross, Diomedea exulans, using data from 32 years of banding returns in the population of the Crozet Islands. We studied mating choices in a single year, when the Crozet Islands population was male biased (8:5, males:females). Thus, we expected that females might show great flexibility of choice of partners. Because age and experience might influence mate choice, we tested the expectation that females would choose the oldest and most experienced males for pair bonding. Pair bonds usually last until one member of the pair dies (0.3% of the birds 'divorce'), so mate choice should be especially important. We found that the ages of males and females in both displaying and bonded (breeding) pairs were significantly correlated. These age-associated pairings were not a passive phenomenon, but appeared to be due to an active process of selection of mates of similar age. First-time breeders sought mates of similar age, but preferred those with the most experience. Remating, experienced birds whose mates had died did not pair with individuals of significantly similar age, but predominantly paired with other widowed birds that, on average, were also relatively old. Mate fidelity in wandering albatrosses may be due to the cost of finding and bonding with a new mate. Pair bonds, and thus breeding, took an average of 3.2 and 2.3 years to establish, for males and females, respectively. Thus, remating exerts a potential average reproductive cost of about 15% of lifetime reproductive success. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10328796

  8. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Evans

    Full Text Available In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated, most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness. Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  9. Response Based Emergency Control System for Power System Transient Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiyuan Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A transient stability control system for the electric power system composed of a prediction method and a control method is proposed based on trajectory information. This system, which is independent of system parameters and models, can detect the transient stability of the electric power system quickly and provide the control law when the system is unstable. Firstly, system instability is detected by the characteristic concave or convex shape of the trajectory. Secondly, the control method is proposed based on the analysis of the slope of the state plane trajectory when the power system is unstable. Two control objectives are provided according to the methods of acquiring the far end point: one is the minimal cost to restore the system to a stable state; the other one is the minimal cost to limit the maximum swing angle. The simulation indicates that the mentioned transient stability control system is efficient.

  10. Green and roasted mate: phenolic profile and antioxidant activity

    OpenAIRE

    EROL, Nihal Türkmen; Sari, Ferda; ÇALIKOĞLU, Eda; VELİOĞLU, Yakup Sedat

    2009-01-01

    Mate infusions have been recently and frequently used as dietary supplements because of their health effects to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease and to be antioxidant. The aim of this study was to determine phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of green mate (GM) and roasted mate (RM) extracts and compare them with green tea (GT). Total polyphenol content of GM and RM extracts was found to be similar and to range from 237.20 to 438.50 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) ...

  11. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5) (PC database for purchase)   The NIST database of mated fingerprint card pairs (Special Database 9) consists of multiple volumes. Currently five volumes have been released. Each volume will be a 3-disk set with each CD-ROM containing 90 mated card pairs of segmented 8-bit gray scale fingerprint images (900 fingerprint image pairs per CD-ROM). A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  12. KNOWLEDGE AND XML BASED CAPP SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shijie; SONG Laigang

    2006-01-01

    In order to enhance the intelligent level of system and improve the interactivity with other systems, a knowledge and XML based computer aided process planning (CAPP) system is implemented. It includes user management, bill of materials(BOM) management, knowledge based process planning, knowledge management and database maintaining sub-systems. This kind of nesting knowledge representation method the system provided can represent complicated arithmetic and logical relationship to deal with process planning tasks. With the representation and manipulation of XML based technological file, the system solves some important problems in web environment such as information interactive efficiency and refreshing of web page. The CAPP system is written in ASP VBScript, JavaScript, Visual C++ languages and Oracle database. At present, the CAPP system is running in Shenyang Machine Tools. The functions of it meet the requirements of enterprise production.

  13. Computer-Based Wireless Advertising Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Al-Mofleh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we developed a computer based wireless advertising communication system (CBWACS that enables the user to advertise whatever he wants from his own office to the screen in front of the customer via wireless communication system. This system consists of two PIC microcontrollers, transmitter, receiver, LCD, serial cable and antenna. The main advantages of the system are: the wireless structure and the system is less susceptible to noise and other interferences because it uses digital communication techniques.

  14. Computer-Based Wireless Advertising Communication System

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar Al-Mofleh; Yahya Salameh Khraisat

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we developed a computer based wireless advertising communication system (CBWACS) that enables the user to advertise whatever he wants from his own office to the screen in front of the customer via wireless communication system. This system consists of two PIC microcontrollers, transmitter, receiver, LCD, serial cable and antenna. The main advantages of the system are: the wireless structure and the system is less susceptible to noise and other interferences because it uses digit...

  15. SECA Coal-Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, Joseph

    2010-09-10

    This report documents the results of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42613 between Siemens Energy and the U.S. Department of Energy for the period October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2010. The Phase I POCD8R0 stack test was successfully completed as it operated for approximately 5,300 hrs and achieved all test objectives. The stack test article contained twenty-four 75 cm active length Delta8 scandiastabilized zirconia cells. Maximum power was approximately 10 kWe and the SOFC generator demonstrated an availability factor of 85% at 50% power or greater. The Phase II POCD8R1 stack test operated for approximately 410 hrs before being aborted due to a sudden decrease in voltage accompanied by a rapid increase in temperature. The POCD8R1 test article contained forty-eight 100 cm active length Delta8 scandiastabilized zirconia cells arranged in an array of six bundles, with each bundle containing eight cells. Cell development activities resulted in an approximate 100% improvement in cell power at 900°C. Cell manufacturing process improvements led to manufacturing yields of greater than 40% for the Delta8 cells. Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm were successfully manufactured as were cells with a seamless closed end. A pressurized cell test article was assembled, installed into the pressurized test facility and limited pressurized testing conducted. Open circuit voltage tests were performed at one and three atmospheres at 950°C were in agreement with the theoretical increase in the Nernst potential. Failed guard heaters precluded further testing. The SOFC analytical basis for the baseline system was validated with experimental data. Two system configurations that utilize a pressurized SOFC design with separated anode and cathode streams were analyzed. System efficiencies greater than 60% were predicted when integrating the separated anode and cathode stream module configuration with a high efficiency catalytic gasifier.

  16. SECA Coal-Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Pierre

    2010-09-01

    This report documents the results of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42613 between Siemens Energy and the U.S. Department of Energy for the period October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2010. The Phase I POCD8R0 stack test was successfully completed as it operated for approximately 5,300 hrs and achieved all test objectives. The stack test article contained twenty-four 75 cm active length Delta8 scandia-stabilized zirconia cells. Maximum power was approximately 10 kWe and the SOFC generator demonstrated an availability factor of 85% at 50% power or greater. The Phase II POCD8R1 stack test operated for approximately 410 hrs before being aborted due to a sudden decrease in voltage accompanied by a rapid increase in temperature. The POCD8R1 test article contained forty-eight 100 cm active length Delta8 scandia-stabilized zirconia cells arranged in an array of six bundles, with each bundle containing eight cells. Cell development activities resulted in an approximate 100% improvement in cell power at 900°C. Cell manufacturing process improvements led to manufacturing yields of greater than 40% for the Delta8 cells. Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm were successfully manufactured as were cells with a seamless closed end. A pressurized cell test article was assembled, installed into the pressurized test facility and limited pressurized testing conducted. Open circuit voltage tests were performed at one and three atmospheres at 950°C were in agreement wi th the theoretical increase in the Nernst potential. Failed guard heaters precluded further testing. The SOFC analytical basis for the baseline system was validated with experimental data. Two system configurations that utilize a pressurized SOFC design with separated anode and cathode streams were analyzed. System efficiencies greater than 60% were predicted when integrating the separated anode and cathode stream module configuration with a high efficiency catalytic gasifier.

  17. EVIDENCE FOR TUBULAR MATING STRUCTURES INDUCED IN EACH MATING TYPE OF HETEROTHALLIC GONIUM PECTORALE (VOLVOCALES, CHLOROPHYTA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Yuko; Hamaji, Takashi; Suzuki, Masahiro; Ferris, Patrick; Mori, Toshiyuki; Kabeya, Yukihiro; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2012-06-01

    Gametes were induced separately in cultures of each mating type of the heterothallic, isogamous colonial volvocalean Gonium pectorale O. F. Müll. to examine the tubular mating structure (TMS) of both mating types plus and minus (plus and minus), referred to as "bilateral mating papillae." Addition of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (DcAMP or db-cAMP) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) to approximately 3-week-old cultures of each mating type induced immediate release of naked gametes from the cell walls. Both plus and minus gametes formed a TMS in the anterior region of the protoplasts. Accumulation of actin was visualized by antibody staining in the TMS of both mating types as occurs in the TMS (fertilization tubule) of the plus gametes of the unicellular volvocalean Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P. A. Dang. Induction of naked gametes with a TMS in each mating type will be useful for future cell biological and evolutionary studies of the isogametes of colonial volvocalean algae. PMID:27011083

  18. Exploring the genes of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. by NGS and de novo transcriptome assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto J Debat

    Full Text Available Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. is an important subtropical tree crop cultivated on 326,000 ha in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, with a total yield production of more than 1,000,000 t. Yerba mate presents a strong limitation regarding sequence information. The NCBI GenBank lacks an EST database of yerba mate and depicts only 80 DNA sequences, mostly uncharacterized. In this scenario, in order to elucidate the yerba mate gene landscape by means of NGS, we explored and discovered a vast collection of I. paraguariensis transcripts. Total RNA from I. paraguariensis was sequenced by Illumina HiSeq-2000 obtaining 72,031,388 pair-end 100 bp sequences. High quality reads were de novo assembled into 44,907 transcripts encompassing 40 million bases with an estimated coverage of 180X. Multiple sequence analysis allowed us to predict that yerba mate contains ∼ 32,355 genes and 12,551 gene variants or isoforms. We identified and categorized members of more than 100 metabolic pathways. Overall, we have identified ∼ 1,000 putative transcription factors, genes involved in heat and oxidative stress, pathogen response, as well as disease resistance and hormone response. We have also identified, based in sequence homology searches, novel transcripts related to osmotic, drought, salinity and cold stress, senescence and early flowering. We have also pinpointed several members of the gene silencing pathway, and characterized the silencing effector Argonaute1. We predicted a diverse supply of putative microRNA precursors involved in developmental processes. We present here the first draft of the transcribed genomes of the yerba mate chloroplast and mitochondrion. The putative sequence and predicted structure of the caffeine synthase of yerba mate is presented. Moreover, we provide a collection of over 10,800 SSR accessible to the scientific community interested in yerba mate genetic improvement. This contribution broadly expands the limited knowledge

  19. Setting up Linux based network system

    OpenAIRE

    Karki, Sanjeeb

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the project was to build a Linux based network system where clients get full benefit of various services. The project was implemented at Isokyrö 61500, Finland. The project contains various network system implementations such as File server, Webcam server and Asterisk server. The thesis implements the understanding of the network systems into real use. Configuration of File server consist the security of each user based on the users need and handling their permissions. The netw...

  20. Knowledge Based Systems and Metacognition in Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Gerard T.; Wicks, Michael C.

    An airborne ground looking radar sensor's performance may be enhanced by selecting algorithms adaptively as the environment changes. A short description of an airborne intelligent radar system (AIRS) is presented with a description of the knowledge based filter and detection portions. A second level of artificial intelligence (AI) processing is presented that monitors, tests, and learns how to improve and control the first level. This approach is based upon metacognition, a way forward for developing knowledge based systems.

  1. Android Based Mobile Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sheifali Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This project reports an undergraduate engineering team’s effort to develop a system to empower the people facing the problem of paralysis of various degrees like in Hemiplegia. To make their lives easier, a wheelchair working with an android application has been designed with the help of which paralysed person can move from one place to other and can control all the home appliances. He is also empowered with the facilities of calling and sending a message to the helper. This paper will outline and discuss the specifications and functions of the innovation done by us. It also tells how new technologies are used to provide improved support to the people bounded in their homes and make them independent of others..

  2. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK BASED CONVEYOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Trohák; Máté Kolozsi-Tóth; Péter Rádi

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we will introduce an intelligent conveyor surveillance system. We started a research project to design and develop a conveyor surveillance system based on wireless sensor network and GPRS communication. Our system is able to measure temperature on fixed and moving, rotating surfaces and able to detect smoke. We would like to introduce the developed devices and give an application example.

  3. Port-based modeling of mechatronic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breedveld, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    Many engineering activities, including mechatronic design, require that a multidomain or ‘multi-physics’ system and its control system be designed as an integrated system. This contribution discusses the background and tools for a port-based approach to integrated modeling and simulation of physical

  4. Web-Based Evaluation System for Learning Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momani, Alaa

    2010-01-01

    E-learning systems have become an issue in recent years. A learning management system (LMS) is an electronic environment helps the educational society to communicate, exchange information, manage, and schedule the learning process. This study has provided a web-based evaluation system that may help the users to choose the convenient system…

  5. Lunar Module 5 mated with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 mated to its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  6. Constructing rational maps with cluster points using the mating operation

    CERN Document Server

    Sharland, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we show that all admissible rational maps with fixed or period two cluster cycles can be constructed by the mating of polynomials. We also investigate the polynomials which make up the matings that construct these rational maps. In the one cluster case, one of the polynomials must be an $n$-rabbit and in the two cluster case, one of the maps must be either $f$, a "double rabbit", or $g$, a secondary map which lies in the wake of the double rabbit $f$. There is also a very simple combinatorial way of classifiying the maps which must partner the aforementioned polynomials to create rational maps with cluster cycles. Finally, we also investigate the multiplicities of the shared matings arising from the matings in the paper.

  7. Simulated spaceflight effects on mating and pregnancy of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelman, E. E.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Howard, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The mating of rats was studied to determine the effects of: simulated reentry stresses at known stages of pregnancy, and full flight simulation, consisting of sequential launch stresses, group housing, mating opportunity, diet, simulated reentry, and postreentry isolation of male and female rats. Uterine contents, adrenal mass and abdominal fat as a proportion of body mass, duration of pregnancy, and number and sex of offspring were studied. It is found that: (1) parturition following full flight simulation was delayed relative to that of controls; (2) litter size was reduced and resorptions increased compared with previous matings in the same group of animals; and (3) abdominal fat was highly elevated in animals that were fed the Soviet paste diet. It is suggested that the combined effects of diet, stress, spacecraft environment, and weightlessness decreased the probability of mating or of viable pregnancies in the Cosmos 1129 flight and control animals.

  8. Semiochemical and Vibrational Cues and Signals Mediating Mate Finding and Courtship in Psylloidea (Hemiptera): A Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Umar K. Lubanga; Christelle Guédot; Percy, Diana M.; Steinbauer, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Mate finding and courtship involve complex interactions that require close coordination between individuals of the opposite gender. Well-organized signalling systems, sometimes involving a combination of signal modalities, are required to convey species-specific and individual information to members of the opposite gender. Previous studies of psyllids have focused on single-signal modalities and have largely ignored the potentially interdependent nature of different types of signals. Several ...

  9. Short term hydrothermal scheduling via improved honey-bee mating optimization algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    hamed baradaran tavakoli; babak mozafari

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach for solving short term hydrothermal scheduling problem is suggested, to minimize the total production cost and to produce electrical energy in an optimized way, by using honey-bee mating optimization algorithm. In the proposed method, lots of the hydrothermal system constraints such as power balance, water balance, time delay between reservoirs, volume limits and the operation limits of hydro and thermal plants, are considered. Therefore, the problem of short ter...

  10. Social variables affecting mate preferences, copulation and reproductive outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cafazzo

    Full Text Available Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves.

  11. Exposure to an agricultural contaminant, 17β-trenbolone, impairs female mate choice in a freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Patrick; Saaristo, Minna; Allinson, Mayumi; Wong, Bob B M

    2016-01-01

    Despite the pivotal role sexual selection plays in population dynamics and broader evolutionary processes, the impact of chemical pollution on female mate choice is poorly understood. One group of chemical contaminants with the potential to disrupt the mechanisms of female mate choice is endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs); a broad class of environmental pollutants that can interfere with the endocrinology of organisms at extremely low concentrations. Recent research has revealed that estrogenic EDCs can affect female mate choice in fish, but the impact of androgenic EDC exposure is yet to be studied. To address this, we investigated the effects of an environmentally relevant concentration of trenbolone - an androgenic steroid used as a growth promoter in the cattle industry - on female mate choice in wild-caught guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We exposed male and female guppies to 17β-trenbolone for 21 days (measured concentration 4ng/L) via a flow-through system, and found that trenbolone-exposed female guppies spent less time associating with males, and were less choosy, compared to unexposed females. In contrast, trenbolone had no impact on male reproductive behavior or morphology. This is the first study to show that androgenic EDC exposure can disrupt female mate choice, highlighting the need for studies to investigate the behavioral impacts of environmental contaminants on both sexes. PMID:26466515

  12. Mate choice and body pattern variations in the Crown Butterfly fish Chaetodon paucifasciatus (Chaetodontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Keren; Lerner, Amit; Shashar, Nadav

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mate choice is an important ecological behavior in fish, and is often based on visual cues of body patterns. The Crown Butterfly fish Chaetodon paucifasciatus (Chaetodontidae) is a monogamist, territorial species; it swims in close proximity to its partner throughout most of its life. This species is characterized by a pattern of 6–8 vertical black stripes on a white background, on both sides of its body. Our aim was to define spatial features (variations) in body patterns by evaluat...

  13. Marketingová strategie značky Club-Mate

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinerová, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    The content of the bachelor thesis "Marketing strategy of the Club-Mate brand" is to evaluate the current marketing strategy using the marketing mix, SWOT analysis and field research. The aim of this work is to evaluate the current marketing strategy make recommendations for improving the marketing strategy for the future. Furthermore, based on its own field research to determine which target group should be the best for the brand focus in the future, because it encloses the greatest potentia...

  14. Female Fertility and Mating Type Effects on Effective Population Size and Evolution in Filamentous Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie, J. F.; Klein, K. K.

    1996-01-01

    The idealized individual in many fungal species is a haploid self-sterile hermaphrodite that may be propagated by asexually produced spores or that may reproduce sexually. In field populations, polymorphism occurs for female-sterile/hermaphrodite status, and female-sterile mutants, which function only as males during sexual reproduction, may comprise >50% of the population. The effective population number may be based on the number of strains of different mating type or the relative frequency...

  15. Desenvolvimento de gelatina funcional de erva-mate Development of functional yerba-mate jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Alves Santos Berté

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver formulações para gelatina funcional com extrato de erva-mate verde e fibras solúveis como inulina (INU, frutooligossacarídeos (FOS e a polidextrose (PD, avaliando o efeito desses ingredientes na gelatina funcional por meio da análise física da textura (firmeza, consistência e coesividade, análise sensorial (sabor e preferência de compra e composição química. As formulações INU, PD e composição INU/PD/FOS apresentaram textura desejável para uma sobremesa de gelatina, não diferindo (P>0,05 do padrão com sacarose. Pela análise sensorial, a gelatina funcional com INU obteve o maior índice hedônico para sabor e preferência de compra acima de 70%, superior ao padrão. Considerando os resultados obtidos neste estudo, a aplicação tecnológica do extrato de erva-mate verde e das fibras solúveis apresenta evidente potencial para o desenvolvimento de alimentos saudáveis e funcionais.The objective of this study was to develop formulations for functional jelly with extract of green yerba-mate and soluble fibers as inulin (INU, fructooligosaccharides (FOS and polidextrose (PD, evaluating the effect of those ingredients in the functional jelly through texture physical analysis (firmness, consistence, cohesiveness, sensorial analysis (flavor and purchase preference and chemical composition. The formulations INU, PD and composition INU/PD/FOS presented desirable texture for jelly dessert and not differing (P>0.05 of the reference standard with sucrose. For the sensorial analysis the functional jelly with INU obtained the largest index hedonic for flavor and purchase preference above 70%, higher than the reference standard. Considering the results obtained in this study, the technological application of green yerba-mate extract and of soluble fibers, presents evident potential for the development of healthy and functional foods.

  16. A non-inheritable maternal Cas9-based multiple-gene editing system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takayuki; Kamiyoshi, Akiko; Kawate, Hisaka; Mori, Chie; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanaka, Megumu; Uetake, Ryuichi; Sato, Masahiro; Shindo, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of editing multiple genes through one-step zygote injection. The preexisting method is largely based on the co-injection of Cas9 DNA (or mRNA) and guide RNAs (gRNAs); however, it is unclear how many genes can be simultaneously edited by this method, and a reliable means to generate transgenic (Tg) animals with multiple gene editing has yet to be developed. Here, we employed non-inheritable maternal Cas9 (maCas9) protein derived from Tg mice with systemic Cas9 overexpression (Cas9 mice). The maCas9 protein in zygotes derived from mating or in vitro fertilization of Tg/+ oocytes and +/+ sperm could successfully edit the target genome. The efficiency of such maCas9-based genome editing was comparable to that of zygote microinjection-based genome editing widely used at present. Furthermore, we demonstrated a novel approach to create "Cas9 transgene-free" gene-modified mice using non-Tg (+/+) zygotes carrying maCas9. The maCas9 protein in mouse zygotes edited nine target loci simultaneously after injection with nine different gRNAs alone. Cas9 mouse-derived zygotes have the potential to facilitate the creation of genetically modified animals carrying the Cas9 transgene, enabling repeatable genome engineering and the production of Cas9 transgene-free mice. PMID:26817415

  17. Mating competitiveness of sterile male Anopheles coluzzii in large cages

    OpenAIRE

    Maïga, H.; Damiens, D.; Niang, A.; Sawadogo, SP; Fatherhaman, O.; Lees, RS; Roux, O.; Dabiré, RK; Ouédraogo, GA; Tripet, F; Diabaté, A.; Gilles, JR

    2014-01-01

    Background: Understanding the factors that account for male mating competitiveness is critical to the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Here, the effects of partial sterilization with 90 Gy of radiation on sexual competitiveness of Anopheles coluzzii allowed to mate in different ratios of sterile to untreated males have been assessed. Moreover, competitiveness was compared between males allowed one versus two days of contact with females. Methods: Sterile and untreated males ...

  18. Changes in educational assortative mating in contemporary Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Cortina; Albert Esteve

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses patterns and trends in educational assortative mating of the Spanish women born between 1920 and 1969 using data from the 2001 Spanish Census. By means of loglinear models we examine the following issues: i) intensity and changes in educational assortative mating patterns; ii) crossing barriers across educational thresholds and iii) degree of symmetry between male and female patterns. Results show that education matters in the composition of unions: people tend to mar...

  19. Stress responsiveness predicts individual variation in mate selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Maren N; Romero, L Michael

    2013-06-15

    Steroid hormones, including glucocorticoids, mediate a variety of behavioral and physiological processes. Circulating hormone concentrations vary substantially within populations, and although hormone titers predict reproductive success in several species, little is known about how individual variation in circulating hormone concentrations is linked with most reproductive behaviors in free-living organisms. Mate choice is an important and often costly component of reproduction that also varies substantially within populations. We examined whether energetically costly mate selection behavior in female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) was associated with individual variation in the concentrations of hormones previously shown to differ between reproductive and non-reproductive females during the breeding season (corticosterone and testosterone). Stress-induced corticosterone levels - which are suppressed in female marine iguanas during reproduction - were individually repeatable throughout the seven-week breeding period. Mate selectivity was strongly predicted by individual variation in stress-induced corticosterone: reproductive females that secreted less corticosterone in response to a standardized stressor assessed more displaying males. Neither baseline corticosterone nor testosterone predicted variation in mate selectivity. Scaled body mass was not significantly associated with mate selectivity, but females that began the breeding period in lower body condition showed a trend towards being less selective about potential mates. These results provide the first evidence that individual variation in the corticosterone stress response is associated with how selective females are in their choice of a mate, an important contributor to fitness in many species. Future research is needed to determine the functional basis of this association, and whether transient acute increases in circulating corticosterone directly mediate mate choice behaviors. PMID

  20. Fuzzy Case-Based Reasoning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a fuzzy case-based reasoning system, using a case-based reasoning (CBR system that learns from experience to solve problems. Different from a traditional case-based reasoning system that uses crisp cases, our system works with fuzzy ones. Specifically, we change a crisp case into a fuzzy one by fuzzifying each crisp case element (feature, according to the maximum degree principle. Thus, we add the “vague” concept into a case-based reasoning system. It is these somewhat vague inputs that make the outcomes of the prediction more meaningful and accurate, which illustrates that it is not necessarily helpful when we always create accurate predictive relations through crisp cases. Finally, we prove this and apply this model to practical weather forecasting, and experiments show that using fuzzy cases can make some prediction results more accurate than using crisp cases.

  1. Bluetooth-based distributed measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel distributed wireless measurement system, which is consisted of a base station, wireless intelligent sensors and relay nodes etc, is established by combining of Bluetooth-based wireless transmission, virtual instrument, intelligent sensor, and network. The intelligent sensors mounted on the equipments to be measured acquire various parameters and the Bluetooth relay nodes get the acquired data modulated and sent to the base station, where data analysis and processing are done so that the operational condition of the equipment can be evaluated. The establishment of the distributed measurement system is discussed with a measurement flow chart for the distributed measurement system based on Bluetooth technology, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system are analyzed at the end of the paper and the measurement system has successfully been used in Daqing oilfield, China for measurement of parameters, such as temperature, flow rate and oil pressure at an electromotor-pump unit

  2. Simulation based design of automotive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schiehlen, Werner

    1993-01-01

    The design of automotive systems using simulation tools features cost reduction and quality enhancement. This paper presents two basic approaches. The rust approach deals with the application of CAD data bases to the evaluation of input data for multibody system formalisms, most adequate for automotive system modeling. An object oriented data model for multibody systems is presented. The second approach covers the development of an integrated simulation tool for automotive vehicles and the co...

  3. Fluidized bed control system based on inverse system method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Fu-hua; LI Ping

    2005-01-01

    The invertible of the Large Air Dense Medium Fluidized Bed (ADMFB) were studied by introducing the concept of the inverse system theory of nonlinear systems.Then the ADMFB, which was a multivariable, nonlinear and coupled strongly system,was decoupled into independent SISO pseudo-linear subsystems. Linear controllers were designed for each of subsystems based on linear systems theory. The practice output proves that this method improves the stability of the ADMFB obviously.

  4. Mating Competitiveness of Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) Irradiated as Parental Pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory studied were carried out to evaluate the mating competitiveness of P1 and F1 generations of Agrotis ipsilon when irradiated as full grown pupae with 75 and 150 Gy of gamma irradiation. The mating competitiveness values showed that either males or females of P1 or F1 generation were full competitive after treatment with 75 or 150 Gy at all released ratios. Mating competitiveness of both irradiated males and females was also studied to avoid problems concerning mass sexing. The results revealed that confining both sexes together gave an excellent results for population suppression in both P1 and F1 in both tested doses and ratios. The addition of irradiated females to the release ratio make these females encountered in mating with untreated females, and possessed 78% of all matings occurred in parent generation in the two tested doses at 5:5:1 ratio and increased to reach 88% by F1 females 75 Gy while it was reduced to only 31% at 150 Gy, but still act in mating

  5. Distributed Monitoring System Based on ICINGA

    CERN Multimedia

    Haen, C; Neufeld, N

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb online system relies on a large and heterogeneous I.T. infrastructure : it comprises more than 2000 servers and embedded systems and more than 200 network devices. While for the control and monitoring of detectors, PLCs, and readout boards an industry standard SCADA system PVSSII has been put in production, we use a low level monitoring system to monitor the control infrastructure itself. While our previous system was based on a single central NAGIOS server, our current system uses a distributed ICINGA infrastructure.

  6. Domain-Based Classification of CSCW Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available CSCW systems are widely used for group activities in different organizations and setups. This study briefly describes the existing classifications of CSCW systems and their shortcomings. These existing classifications are helpful to categorize systems based on a general set of CSCW characteristics but do not provide any guidance towards system design and evaluation. After literature review of ACM CSCW conference (1986-2010, a new classification is proposed to categorize CSCW systems on the basis of domains. This proposed classification may help researchers to come up with more effective design and evaluation methods for CSCW systems.

  7. Evidence of Late-Summer Mating Readiness and Early Sexual Maturation in Migratory Tree-Roosting Bats Found Dead at Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Cryan, Paul M.; Jameson, Joel W.; Baerwald, Erin F.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Barclay, Robert M. R.; Snider, E. Apple; Crichton, Elizabeth G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding animal mating systems is an important component of their conservation, yet the precise mating times for many species of bats are unknown. The aim of this study was to better understand the details and timing of reproductive events in species of bats that die most frequently at wind turbines in North America, because such information can help inform conservation strategies. We examined the reproductive anatomy of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), eastern red bats (L. borealis), and...

  8. A sex-inducing pheromone triggers cell cycle arrest and mate attraction in the diatom Seminavis robusta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeys, Sara; Frenkel, Johannes; Lembke, Christine; Gillard, Jeroen T F; Devos, Valerie; Van den Berge, Koen; Bouillon, Barbara; Huysman, Marie J J; De Decker, Sam; Scharf, Julia; Bones, Atle; Brembu, Tore; Winge, Per; Sabbe, Koen; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Clement, Lieven; De Veylder, Lieven; Pohnert, Georg; Vyverman, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Although sexual reproduction is believed to play a major role in the high diversification rates and species richness of diatoms, a mechanistic understanding of diatom life cycle control is virtually lacking. Diatom sexual signalling is controlled by a complex, yet largely unknown, pheromone system. Here, a sex-inducing pheromone (SIP(+)) of the benthic pennate diatom Seminavis robusta was identified by comparative metabolomics, subsequently purified, and physicochemically characterized. Transcriptome analysis revealed that SIP(+) triggers the switch from mitosis-to-meiosis in the opposing mating type, coupled with the transcriptional induction of proline biosynthesis genes, and the release of the proline-derived attraction pheromone. The induction of cell cycle arrest by a pheromone, chemically distinct from the one used to attract the opposite mating type, highlights the existence of a sophisticated mechanism to increase chances of mate finding, while keeping the metabolic losses associated with the release of an attraction pheromone to a minimum. PMID:26786712

  9. Graph Cuts based Image Segmentation using Fuzzy Rule Based System

    OpenAIRE

    Khokher, M. R.; A. Ghafoor; A.M. Siddiqui

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the segmentation of gray scale, color and texture images using graph cuts. From input image, a graph is constructed using intensity, color and texture profiles of the image simultaneously. Based on the nature of image, a fuzzy rule based system is designed to find the weight that should be given to a specific image feature during graph development. The graph obtained from the fuzzy rule based weighted average of different image features is further used in normalized graph...

  10. The Roles of Parasitoid Foraging for Hosts, Food and Mates in the Augmentative Control of Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Aluja

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultimately, the success of augmentative fruit fly biological control depends upon the survival, dispersal, attack rate and multi-generational persistence of mass-reared parasitoids in the field. Foraging for hosts, food and mates is fundamental to the above and, at an operational level, the choice of the parasitoid best suited to control a particular tephritid in a certain environment, release rate estimates and subsequent monitoring of effectiveness. In the following we review landscape-level and microhabitat foraging preferences, host/fruit ranges, orientation through environmental cues, host vulnerabilities/ovipositor structures, and inter and intraspecific competition. We also consider tephritid parasitoid mating systems and sexual signals, and suggest the directions of future research.

  11. Web-based Project Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Web-PRS is a web-based system that captures financial information and project status information that is sortable by geographical location, pillar, project type and...

  12. Aspects of Ultrasonographic Diagnostics of Pregnancy in Bitches depending on the first mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissi

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to follow up the potential of routine ultrasonographic diagnostics of pregnancy in bitches depending on the first mating. The experiments were performed on 32 bitches. Pregnancy was detected using transabdominal ultrasonography with Siemens sonoline adara equipment and a covex 5 MHz probe. Subsequent serial examinations were made to sonographically characterize normal canine prenatal development based about the first mating. An enlarged uterus, gestational sacs and fetal poles were recognized as the features of early bitchs pregnancy and were first seen at 16 and 21 days, respectively. Cardiac activity was detected earliest on gestational day 22 and recognizable canine fetal morphology appeared at day 28. Generalized fetal movements were first noted at day 28. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(10.000: 293-295

  13. Quality of Web-based information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Worwa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope and complexity of current World Wide Web applications vary widely: from smallscale, short-lived services to large-scale enterprise applications distributed across the Internet and corporate intranets and extranets. As Web applications have evolved, the demands placed on Web-based systems and the complexity of designing, developing, maintaining, and managing these systems have also increased significantly. They provided vast, dynamic information in multiple media formats (graphics, images, and video. Web site design for these and many other applications demand balance among information content, aesthetics, and performance. In accordance with the growth of the Internet and World Wide Web, there has been some research on quality issues of Web-based software systems. The differences between the Web-based information systems and conventional information systems are discussed in a paper from the perspective of software quality

  14. Parallelism In Rule-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Arvind; Iyengar, S. Sitharama; de Saussure, G.; Weisbin, C. R.

    1988-03-01

    Rule-based systems, which have proven to be extremely useful for several Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems applications, currently face severe limitations due to the slow speed of their execution. To achieve the desired speed-up, this paper addresses the problem of parallelization of production systems and explores the various architectural and algorithmic possibilities. The inherent sources of parallelism in the production system structure are analyzed and the trade-offs, limitations and feasibility of exploitation of these sources of parallelism are presented. Based on this analysis, we propose a dedicated, coarse-grained, n-ary tree multiprocessor architecture for the parallel implementation of rule-based systems and then present algorithms for partitioning of rules in this architecture.

  15. Android-based sports competition scheduling system

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Teng

    2015-01-01

    This report is about building a mobile-based single round-robin sports scheduling system with heuristic methods. Based on the current meta-heuristic methods in sports scheduling, this work did further researches on applying the current algorithms to a mobile platform while guarantee the quality and efficiency. Besides, a new system with the ability to deal with all the possible situations in practical use is proposed. Moreover, a simple user interface is built for the application.

  16. PLC Based Hydraulic Auto Ladle System

    OpenAIRE

    Amogh Tayade; Anuja Chitre

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we have implemented a PLC based Hydraulic Auto Ladle System for Casting Department of Victory Precisions Pvt. Ltd. Chakan, Pune. This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Hydraulic Auto Ladle System. Aluminium pouring is the key process in Casting and Forging industry. Different products are manufactured by the company for automobile sector using aluminium. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is used for the automation of pouring process. Au...

  17. TWIN: Personality-based Intelligent Recommender System

    OpenAIRE

    Roshchina, Alexandra; Cardiff, John; Rosso, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the Tell me What I Need (TWIN) Personality-based Intelligent Recommender System, the goal of which is to recommend items chosen by like-minded (or twin ) people with similar personality types which we estimate from their writings. In order to produce recommendations it applies the results achieved in the personality from the text recognition research field to Personality-based Recommender System user profile modelling. In this way it creates a bridge between the efforts...

  18. Risk Based Maintenance for Compressor Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marquesin De Oliveira, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    This thesis reviewed part of the maintenance activities in a compressor system using the risk based maintenance philosophy. The goal was to verify if a contribution could be made to the maintenance plan of the system. The risk based maintenance philosophy is applied according to the recommendations in NORSOK Z-008. A reliability model is proposed to verify the impact of the new maintenance approach and to make better informed decisions in the maintenance management process. The model used...

  19. Pattern Based Term Extraction Using ACABIT System

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Koichi; Koyama, Teruo; Daille, Béatrice; Romary, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pattern-based term extraction approach for Japanese, applying ACABIT system originally developed for French. The proposed approach evaluates termhood using morphological patterns of basic terms and term variants. After extracting term candidates, ACABIT system filters out non-terms from the candidates based on log-likelihood. This approach is suitable for Japanese term extraction because most of Japanese terms are compound nouns or simple phrasal patterns.

  20. Stardust is lifted in the launch tower for mating with a Boeing Delta II rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Workers inside the launch tower at Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, watch as the third stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket is lowered for mating with the second stage below it. The Stardust spacecraft, above it out of sight, is connected to the rocket's third stage. Stardust, targeted for liftoff on Feb. 6, is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  1. Internet based remote cooperative engineering system for NSSS system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of information technology system through the nuclear power plant life cycle which covers site selection, design, construction, operation and decommission has been suggested continually by the reports or guidelines from NIRMA, INPO, NUMARC, USNRC and EPRI since late 1980's, and some of it has been actually implemented and applied partially to the practical design process. However, for the NSSS system design, a high level activity of nuclear power plant design phase, none of the effects has been reported with regard to implementing the information system. In Korea, KAERI studied NuIDEAS(Nuclear Integrated Database and Design Advancement System) in 1995, and KAERI (Korea Electric Power Research Institute) worked with CENP (Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power) for KNGR IMS(Information Management System) in 1997 as trials to adopt information system for NSSS system design. In this paper, after reviewing the pre-studied two information system, we introduce implementation of the information system for NSSS system design which is compatible with the on-going design works and can be used as means of concurrent engineering through internet. With this electronic design system, we expect increase of the design efficiency and productivity by switching from hard copy based design flow to internet based system. In addition, reliability and traceability of the design data is highly elevated by containing the native document file together with all the review, comment and resolution history in one database

  2. Microprocessor-based radiation monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes digital radiation monitoring systems. The benefits of the microprocessor-based systems are given and compared with those of the conventional analog systems. Four configurations are described including safety channels. The design utilizes the microprocessors to produce a decentralized and communications-oriented system with strong stand-alone characteristics. The operational features are discussed with emphasis on basic human factors. The many computations are detailed, and sensitivity is defined. The digital system can provide considerable savings. The consoles use color and shape for quick awareness and calculated values for accurate assessments. The data are recorded on disk to enable automatic reports

  3. KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS BASED ON SW ATOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Burita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the knowledge systems developed by using the software AToM and the experience with their application for teaching and universities cooperation. The theoretical bases of the solution are Topic Maps; the software AToM is described and individual cases of the knowledge systems are introduced. The article reflects the years of experience in the cooperation of the knowledge systems development with the AION CS Company. Two examples are presented in detail: “Conferences” – knowledge system used for education and “MilUNI” –system for military universities cooperation.

  4. Systems definition space based power conversion systems: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Potential space-located systems for the generation of electrical power for use on earth were investigated. These systems were of three basic types: (1) systems producing electrical power from solar energy; (2) systems producing electrical power from nuclear reactors; (3) systems for augmenting ground-based solar power plants by orbital sunlight reflectors. Configurations implementing these concepts were developed through an optimization process intended to yield the lowest cost for each. A complete program was developed for each concept, identifying required production rates, quantities of launches, required facilities, etc. Each program was costed in order to provide the electric power cost appropriate to each concept.

  5. Computer based integral gamma activity measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PC based Integral Gamma Activity measurement system has been developed for measuring the gross gamma activity. The Integral system comprises of the Ion chamber, electrometer amplifier and data acquisition system. This system is used for measuring the activity and also for recording of the decay characteristics. A windows based computer program has been developed for data acquisition and storage during the experiment. The system records the detector current output in the range of 10 pA to 10 nA. The measured current was converted into pre-calibrated gross gamma activity which was used for estimating the power distribution within the reactor core. The paper describes development of the system including the experiment results. (author)

  6. NASA Administrative Data Base Management Systems, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosevich, J. D. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Strategies for converting to a data base management system (DBMS) and the implementation of the software packages necessary are discussed. Experiences with DBMS at various NASA centers are related including Langley's ADABAS/NATURAL and the NEMS subsystem of the NASA metrology informaton system. The value of the integrated workstation with a personal computer is explored.

  7. Web-based PACS and EHR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Ashesh; Mehta, Nihal

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate how a cloud-based PACS can exchange information with other medical systems, including other cloud-based PACS, to provide a comprehensive and integrated view of a patient's health record. Such a consolidated report will lead to improved patient care.

  8. Linear systems a measurement based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Mohsenizadeh, D N

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents recent results obtained on the analysis, synthesis and design of systems described by linear equations. It is well known that linear equations arise in most branches of science and engineering as well as social, biological and economic systems. The novelty of this approach is that no models of the system are assumed to be available, nor are they required. Instead, a few measurements made on the system can be processed strategically to directly extract design values that meet specifications without constructing a model of the system, implicitly or explicitly. These new concepts are illustrated by applying them to linear DC and AC circuits, mechanical, civil and hydraulic systems, signal flow block diagrams and control systems. These applications are preliminary and suggest many open problems. The results presented in this brief are the latest effort in this direction and the authors hope these will lead to attractive alternatives to model-based design of engineering and other systems.

  9. Enterprise ontology based development of information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Albani, Antonia; Dietz, Jan L.G.

    2011-01-01

    For the development of enterprise information systems, the utilisation of a suitable methodology is essential, providing necessary methods and techniques for modelling the business domain and for designing the supporting information systems. Several methodologies exist and are widely applied in practice nowadays, but most of them lack a theoretical foundation. In this paper, we demonstrate an information system development methodology based on the notions of enterprise ontology and business c...

  10. GSM BASED IRRIGATION CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GODFREY A. MILLS; STEPHEN K. ARMOO; AGYEMAN K. ROCKSON; ROBERT A. SOWAH; MOSES A. ACQUAH

    2013-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the primary water consumers in most parts of the world. With developments in technology, efforts are being channeled into automation of irrigation systems to facilitate remote control of the irrigation system and optimize crop production and cost effectiveness. This paper describes an on-going work on GSM based irrigation monitoring and control systems. The objective of the work is to provide an approach that helps farmers to easily access, manage and regulate ...

  11. Service-based Systems in Clinical Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Stantchev, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    In this report we present an architectural approach to add quality-of-service (QoS) assurance and location awareness to service-based systems within existing clinical infrastructures. To address typical design requirements of such systems (e.g., cooperating services, performance and availability) the work proposes a service-oriented architecture (SOA) as architectural concept and architectural translucency to provide stable QoS. We evaluate position sensing systems, QoS assurance approaches a...

  12. KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS BASED ON SW ATOM

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Burita; Pavel Gardavsky

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the knowledge systems developed by using the software AToM and the experience with their application for teaching and universities cooperation. The theoretical bases of the solution are Topic Maps; the software AToM is described and individual cases of the knowledge systems are introduced. The article reflects the years of experience in the cooperation of the knowledge systems development with the AION CS Company. Two examples are presented in detail: “Conferences” – know...

  13. Constraint-based specifications for system configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Hewson, John Aubrey

    2013-01-01

    Declarative, object-oriented configuration management systems are widely used, and there is a desire to extend such systems with automated analysis and decision-making. This thesis introduces a new formulation for configuration management problems based on the tools and techniques of constraint programming, which enables automated decision-making. We present ConfSolve, an object-oriented declarative configuration language, in which logical constraints on a system can be spec...

  14. Android based security and home automation system

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Sadeque Reza; Dristy, Farzana Sultana

    2015-01-01

    The smart mobile terminal operator platform Android is getting popular all over the world with its wide variety of applications and enormous use in numerous spheres of our daily life. Considering the fact of increasing demand of home security and automation, an Android based control system is presented in this paper where the proposed system can maintain the security of home main entrance and also the car door lock. Another important feature of the designed system is that it can control the o...

  15. CRISPR-Based Adaptive Immune Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Terns, Michael P.; Terns, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems are recently discovered, RNA-based immune systems that control invasions of viruses and plasmids in archaea and bacteria. Prokaryotes with CRISPR-Cas immune systems capture short invader sequences within the CRISPR loci in their genomes, and small RNAs produced from the CRISPR loci (CRISPR (cr)RNAs) guide Cas proteins to recognize and degrade (or otherwise silence) the invading nucleic acids. There are multiple variations of the pathway found among prokaryotes, each mediate...

  16. Surveillance software based on agents system

    OpenAIRE

    José M. Molina

    2008-01-01

    The Applied Artificial Intelligence group has developed a surveillance system based on the agents theory and multiagents system in the Distributed Artificial Intelligence. The system allows that each data acquisition source could operate independently, but coordinated by a central host. The technology improves the surveillance process, reducing the human attention and introducing automatic alarms. They are looking for technical cooperation of partners interested in the technology.

  17. Approach Based Patterns for System-of-Systems Reconfiguration

    OpenAIRE

    Petitdemange, Franck; Borne, Isabelle; Buisson, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    International audience Systems-of-systems (SoS) are a particular class of systems that recruit dynamically their constituents to achieve a global goal. To accomodate this approach, the architecture of SoS is usually described by architectural patterns to be instantiated at runtime. Based on the study of an example, we introduce reconfiguration patterns to help reasoning on reconfiguration and maintaining the architectural patterns of the SoS.

  18. Case Studies for Contract-based Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob, Michal; Pěchouček, Michal; Chábera, Jiří; Miles, Simon; Luck, Michael; Oren, Nir; Kollingbaum, Martin; Holt, Camden; Vazquez, Javier; Storms, Patrick; Dehn, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Of the ways in which agent behaviour can be regulated in a multi-agent system, electronic contracting - based on explicit representation of different parties' responsibilities, and the agreement of all parties to them - has significant potential for modern industrial applications. Based on this assumption, the CONTRACT project aims to develop and apply electronic contracting and contract-based monitoring and verification techniques in real world applications. This paper presents results from ...

  19. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ilona Roberts

    Full Text Available The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away, chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees.

  20. Developing stereo image based robot control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suprijadi,; Pambudi, I. R.; Woran, M.; Naa, C. F; Srigutomo, W. [Department of Physics, FMIPA, InstitutTeknologi Bandung Jl. Ganesha No. 10. Bandung 40132, Indonesia supri@fi.itb.ac.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Application of image processing is developed in various field and purposes. In the last decade, image based system increase rapidly with the increasing of hardware and microprocessor performance. Many fields of science and technology were used this methods especially in medicine and instrumentation. New technique on stereovision to give a 3-dimension image or movie is very interesting, but not many applications in control system. Stereo image has pixel disparity information that is not existed in single image. In this research, we proposed a new method in wheel robot control system using stereovision. The result shows robot automatically moves based on stereovision captures.

  1. Developing stereo image based robot control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of image processing is developed in various field and purposes. In the last decade, image based system increase rapidly with the increasing of hardware and microprocessor performance. Many fields of science and technology were used this methods especially in medicine and instrumentation. New technique on stereovision to give a 3-dimension image or movie is very interesting, but not many applications in control system. Stereo image has pixel disparity information that is not existed in single image. In this research, we proposed a new method in wheel robot control system using stereovision. The result shows robot automatically moves based on stereovision captures

  2. SPECT detector system design based on embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single-photon emission computed tomography detector system based on embedded Linux designed. This system is composed of detector module, data acquisition module, ARM MPU module, network interface communication module and human machine interface module. Its software uses multithreading technology based on embedded Linux. It can achieve high speed data acquisition, real-time data correction and network data communication. It can accelerate the data acquisition and decrease the dead time. The accuracy and the stability of the system can be improved. (authors)

  3. The Long and the Short of Mate Attraction in a Psylloid: do Semiochemicals Mediate Mating in Aacanthocnema dobsoni Froggatt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubanga, Umar K; Drijfhout, Falko P; Farnier, Kevin; Steinbauer, Martin J

    2016-02-01

    Mating is preceded by a series of interdependent events that can be broadly categorized into searching and courtship. Long-range signals convey species- and sex-specific information during searching, while short-range signals provide information specific to individuals during courtship. Studies have shown that cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) can be used for mate recognition in addition to protecting insects from desiccation. In Psylloidea, four species rely on semiochemicals for long-range mate attraction. Psyllid mating research has focused on long-range mate attraction and has largely ignored the potential use of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) as mate recognition cues. This study investigated whether CHCs of Aacanthocnema dobsoni have semiochemical activity for long- and short-range communication prior to mating. Using a solid sampler for solvent-less injection of whole psyllids into coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we found quantitative, sex- and age-related differences in CHC profiles. Males had higher proportions of 2-MeC28, 11,15-diMeC29, and n-C33 alkanes, while females had higher proportions of 5-MeC27, 3-MeC27, 5,15-diMeC27, n-C29 and n-C30 alkanes. In males and females, 84 and 68 % of CHCs varied with age, respectively. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays provided no evidence that males or females responded to odors emanating from groups of conspecifics of the opposite sex. Tests of male and female psyllids for attraction to branchlets previously occupied by conspecifics showed no evidence of attraction to possible semiochemical residues. Our short-range chemoreception bioassay showed that males were as indifferent to freshly killed individuals of either sex with intact CHC profiles as to those treated with hexane (to remove CHCs). Aacanthocnema dobsoni utilizes substrate-borne vibrations (SBVs) for communication. Therefore, our results indicate that SBVs are probably more important than semiochemicals for long-range mate attraction. Furthermore

  4. Two HAP2-GCS1 homologs responsible for gamete interactions in the cellular slime mold with multiple mating types: Implication for common mechanisms of sexual reproduction shared by plants and protozoa and for male-female differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Marina; Yamada, Lixy; Fujisaki, Yukie; Bloomfield, Gareth; Yoshida, Kentaro; Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Sawada, Hitoshi; Mori, Toshiyuki; Urushihara, Hideko

    2016-07-01

    Fertilization is a central event in sexual reproduction, and understanding its molecular mechanisms has both basic and applicative biological importance. Recent studies have uncovered the molecules that mediate this process in a variety of organisms, making it intriguing to consider conservation and evolution of the mechanisms of sexual reproduction across phyla. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum undergoes sexual maturation and forms gametes under dark and humid conditions. It exhibits three mating types, type-I, -II, and -III, for the heterothallic mating system. Based on proteome analyses of the gamete membranes, we detected expression of two homologs of the plant fertilization protein HAP2-GCS1. When their coding genes were disrupted in type-I and type-II strains, sexual potency was completely lost, whereas disruption in the type-III strain did not affect mating behavior, suggesting that the latter acts as female in complex organisms. Our results demonstrate the highly conserved function of HAP2-GCS1 in gamete interactions and suggest the presence of additional allo-recognition mechanisms in D. discoideum gametes. PMID:27189178

  5. Chip based electroanalytical systems for cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spegel, C.; Heiskanen, A.; Skjolding, L.H.D.;

    2008-01-01

    ' measurements of processes related to living cells, i.e., systems without lysing the cells. The focus is on chip based amperometric and impedimetric cell analysis systems where measurements utilizing solely carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFME) and other nonchip electrode formats, such as CFME for exocytosis......This review with 239 references has as its aim to give the reader an introduction to the kinds of methods used for developing microchip based electrode systems as well as to cover the existing literature on electroanalytical systems where microchips play a crucial role for 'nondestructive...... studies and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) studies of living cells have been omitted. Included is also a discussion about some future and emerging nano tools and considerations that might have an impact on the future of "nondestructive" chip based electroanalysis of living cells....

  6. Remote visualization system based on particle based volume rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Takuma; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Miyamura, Hiroko; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Naohisa; Koyamada, Koji

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel remote visualization system based on particle-based volume rendering (PBVR),1 which enables interactive analyses of extreme scale volume data located on remote computing systems. The re- mote PBVR system consists of Server, which generates particles for rendering, and Client, which processes volume rendering, and the particle data size becomes significantly smaller than the original volume data. Depending on network bandwidth, the level of detail of images is flexibly controlled to attain high frame rates. Server is highly parallelized on various parallel platforms with hybrid programing model. The mapping process is accelerated by two orders of magnitudes compared with a single CPU. The structured and unstructured volume data with ~108 cells is processed within a few seconds. Compared with commodity Client/Server visualization tools, the total processing cost is dramatically reduced by using proposed system.

  7. UNIX-based operating systems robustness evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ming

    1996-01-01

    Robust operating systems are required for reliable computing. Techniques for robustness evaluation of operating systems not only enhance the understanding of the reliability of computer systems, but also provide valuable feed- back to system designers. This thesis presents results from robustness evaluation experiments on five UNIX-based operating systems, which include Digital Equipment's OSF/l, Hewlett Packard's HP-UX, Sun Microsystems' Solaris and SunOS, and Silicon Graphics' IRIX. Three sets of experiments were performed. The methodology for evaluation tested (1) the exception handling mechanism, (2) system resource management, and (3) system capacity under high workload stress. An exception generator was used to evaluate the exception handling mechanism of the operating systems. Results included exit status of the exception generator and the system state. Resource management techniques used by individual operating systems were tested using programs designed to usurp system resources such as physical memory and process slots. Finally, the workload stress testing evaluated the effect of the workload on system performance by running a synthetic workload and recording the response time of local and remote user requests. Moderate to severe performance degradations were observed on the systems under stress.

  8. RFI-Based Ion Linac Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Donald A.

    A new company, Ion Linac Systems, Inc., has been formed to promote the development, manufacture, and marketing of intense, RFI-based, Ion Linac Systems. The Rf Focused Interdigital (RFI) linac structure was invented by the author while at Linac Systems, LLC. The first step, for the new company, will be to correct a flaw in an existing RFI-based linac system and to demonstrate "good transmission" through the system. The existing system, aimed at the BNCT medical application, is designed to produce a beam of 2.5 MeV protons with an average beam current of 20 mA. In conjunction with a lithium target, it will produce an intense beam of epithermal neutrons. This system is very efficient, requiring only 180 kW of rf power to produce a 50 kW proton beam. In addition to the BNCT medical application, the RFI-based systems should represent a powerful neutron generator for homeland security, defence applications, cargo container inspection, and contraband detection. The timescale to the demonstration of "good transmission" is early fall of this year. Our website is www.ionlinacs.com.

  9. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed

  10. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Abbott; V. Gyurjyan; G. Heyes; E. Jastrzembski; C. Timmer; E. Wolin

    2003-03-01

    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed.

  11. Model Based Control of Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth

    of the supermarket refrigeration systems therefore greatly relies on a human operator to detect and accommodate failures, and to optimize system performance under varying operational condition. Today these functions are maintained by monitoring centres located all over the world. Initiated by the growing need...... for automation of these procedures, that is to incorporate some "intelligence" in the control system, this project was started up. The main emphasis of this work has been on model based methods for system optimizing control in supermarket refrigeration systems. The idea of implementing a system optimizing...... optimizing the steady state operation "set-point optimizing control" and a part optimizing dynamic behaviour of the system "dynamical optimizing control". A novel approach for set-point optimization will be presented. The general idea is to use a prediction of the steady state, for computation of the cost...

  12. Deciphering evolutionary strata on plant sex chromosomes and fungal mating-type chromosomes through compositional segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ravi S; Azad, Rajeev K

    2016-03-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved from a pair of homologous autosomes which differentiated into sex determination systems, such as XY or ZW system, as a consequence of successive recombination suppression between the gametologous chromosomes. Identifying the regions of recombination suppression, namely, the "evolutionary strata", is central to understanding the history and dynamics of sex chromosome evolution. Evolution of sex chromosomes as a consequence of serial recombination suppressions is well-studied for mammals and birds, but not for plants, although 48 dioecious plants have already been reported. Only two plants Silene latifolia and papaya have been studied until now for the presence of evolutionary strata on their X chromosomes, made possible by the sequencing of sex-linked genes on both the X and Y chromosomes, which is a requirement of all current methods that determine stratum structure based on the comparison of gametologous sex chromosomes. To circumvent this limitation and detect strata even if only the sequence of sex chromosome in the homogametic sex (i.e. X or Z chromosome) is available, we have developed an integrated segmentation and clustering method. In application to gene sequences on the papaya X chromosome and protein-coding sequences on the S. latifolia X chromosome, our method could decipher all known evolutionary strata, as reported by previous studies. Our method, after validating on known strata on the papaya and S. latifolia X chromosome, was applied to the chromosome 19 of Populus trichocarpa, an incipient sex chromosome, deciphering two, yet unknown, evolutionary strata. In addition, we applied this approach to the recently sequenced sex chromosome V of the brown alga Ectocarpus sp. that has a haploid sex determination system (UV system) recovering the sex determining and pseudoautosomal regions, and then to the mating-type chromosomes of an anther-smut fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae predicting five strata in the non

  13. Functional convergence and divergence of mating-type genes fulfilling in Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuzhen; Xia, Yongliang; Luo, Feifei; Dong, Caihong; Wang, Chengshu

    2016-03-01

    Fungal sexual lives are considerably diversified in terms of the types of mating systems and mating-control gene functions. Sexual fruiting bodies of the ascomycete fungus Cordyceps militaris have been widely consumed as edible and medicinal mushrooms, whereas the regulation of fruiting-body development and sex in this fungus remain elusive. Herein, we performed the comprehensive functional analyses of mating-type (MAT) genes in C. militaris. Interspecies functional convergence was evident that MAT1-1 and MAT1-2-1 null mutants were sterile and lost the ability to produce stromata in outcrosses with the opposite mating-type partner. In contrast to other fungal species, functional divergence of MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2 was also observed that ΔMAT1-1-1 produced barren stromata in outcrosses, whereas ΔMAT1-1-2 generated fruiting bodies morphologically similar to that of the parental strain but with sterile perithecia. The homothallic-like transformants MAT1-2::MAT1-1-1 (haploidic MAT1-2 isolate transformed with the MAT1-1-1 gene) produced sterile stromata, whereas the MAT1-1::MAT1-2-1 (haploidic MAT1-1 isolate transformed with the MAT1-2-1 gene) mutant was determined to be completely fruitless. The findings relating to the fully fertile gene-complementation mutants suggest that the genomic location is not essential for the MAT genes to fulfill their functions in C. militaris. Comparison of the production of bioactive constituents cordycepin and adenosine provides experimental support that the fungal sexual cycle is an energy consuming process. The results of the present study enrich our knowledge of both convergent and divergent controls of fungal sex. PMID:26812121

  14. Mechanisms of kin discrimination inferred from pedigrees and the spatial distribution of mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waser, Peter M; Berning, Melissa L; Pfeifer, Allison

    2012-02-01

    Where animals avoid inbreeding, different mechanisms of kin discrimination can leave different 'signatures' in the patterns of observed mate relationship. For example, consider a species with no paternal care. If a female avoids mating with familiar individuals, one would expect a deficit of offspring whose parents are maternal half-siblings, but paternal half-siblings would be unfamiliar with each other and thus have offspring at the frequency expected by chance. If spatial cues are used to avoid inbreeding, a female would be expected to produce few offspring with males (even unrelated males) living near her birth site. We searched for these and other signatures with data from a long-term study of banner-tailed kangaroo rats, Dipodomys spectabilis, in Arizona, USA, using a combination of intensive censusing, mapping of available dens, microsatellite-based parentage determination, and a randomization routine that determines the numbers of offspring expected if females in the population mate indiscriminately among the males available to them. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that kangaroo rats discriminate kin by familiarity developed via association early in life, rather than by using spatial cues or self-referential phenotype matching. Our approach should be widely applicable as a means of assessing the degree to which kin discrimination exists (in contexts like nepotism as well as inbreeding avoidance) and in inferring what cues animals use to assess categories of relationship. PMID:21883584

  15. A Scaffold Analysis Tool Using Mate-Pair Information in Genome Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiejung Park

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a Windows-based program, ConPath, as a scaffold analyzer. ConPath constructs scaffolds by ordering and orienting separate sequence contigs by exploiting the mate-pair information between contig-pairs. Our algorithm builds directed graphs from link information and traverses them to find the longest acyclic graphs. Using end read pairs of fixed-sized mate-pair libraries, ConPath determines relative orientations of all contigs, estimates the gap size of each adjacent contig pair, and reports wrong assembly information by validating orientations and gap sizes. We have utilized ConPath in more than 10 microbial genome projects, including Mannheimia succiniciproducens and Vibro vulnificus, where we verified contig assembly and identified several erroneous contigs using the four types of error defined in ConPath. Also, ConPath supports some convenient features and viewers that permit investigation of each contig in detail; these include contig viewer, scaffold viewer, edge information list, mate-pair list, and the printing of complex scaffold structures.

  16. SCADA based systems for INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The user interface layer of Indus-2 control system will run a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) based application. It is purely a software package, which works at the top layer and makes communication with the subordinate hardware layer on client/server principle. PVSS-II (Process Visualization and Supervising System) a SCADA package, to be used for Indus-2 control system. This tool provides the functionality to develop the Graphical User Interface (GUI), interface to hardware, data logging, alarm/event handling, data exchange features etc. This paper describes the use of PVSS-Il for the control system. (author)

  17. Archaeal CRISPR-based immune systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrett, Roger A; Vestergaard, Gisle Alberg; Shah, Shiraz Ali

    2011-01-01

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-based immune systems are essentially modular with three primary functions: the excision and integration of new spacers, the processing of CRISPR transcripts to yield mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), and the targeting and cleavage of...... foreign nucleic acid. The primary target appears to be the DNA of foreign genetic elements, but the CRISPR/Cmr system that is widespread amongst archaea also specifically targets and cleaves RNA in vitro. The archaeal CRISPR systems tend to be both diverse and complex. Here we examine evidence for...... CRISPR loci and the evidence for intergenomic exchange of CRISPR systems....

  18. Inductive energy transfer system based on drone

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo Perez, Ignacio; Hontecillas Guinart, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this project is to model and validate an inductive system in order to be able to power wirelessly a sensor. The design of the inductive system must be small and light enough to fulfil the requirements of a nano-quadcopter, in which the system is going to be outfitted. Recent investigations about inductive systems added to the Energy Harvesting trend, predict a future based on wireless power. Thereby, the possibility to change the current "wire-dependence" of any device. At the begi...

  19. An Agent-Based Distributed Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Li; J.Y.H.Fuh; Y.F.Zhang; A.Y.C.Nee

    2006-01-01

    Agent theories have shown their promising capability in solving distributed complex system ever since its development. In this paper, one multi-agent based distributed product design and manufacturing planning system is presented. The objective of the research is to develop a distributed collaborative design environment for supporting cooperation among the existing engineering functions. In the system, the functional agents for design, manufacturability evaluation,process planning and scheduling are efficiently integrated with a facilitator agent. This paper firstly gives an introduction to the system structure, and the definitions for each executive agent are then described and a prototype of the proposed is also included at the end part.

  20. Data base systems in electronic design engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.

    1980-01-01

    The concepts of an integrated design data base system (DBMS) as it might apply to an electronic design company are discussed. Data elements of documentation, project specifications, project tracking, firmware, software, electronic and mechanical design can be integrated and managed through a single DBMS. Combining the attributes of a DBMS data handler with specialized systems and functional data can provide users with maximum flexibility, reduced redundancy, and increased overall systems performance. Although some system overhead is lost due to redundancy in transitory data, it is believed the combination of the two data types is advisable rather than trying to do all data handling through a single DBMS.

  1. Factors affecting female re-mating frequency in the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mating and re-mating of two laboratory strains (Petapa and Guate), one wild population (Antigua) of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and one of the hybrids between them were studied under laboratory conditions. No evidence of sexual isolation at first mating was found among them. Re-mating frequency was higher under crowded conditions for the two laboratory strains. The probability of Pe tap a females re-mating depended more on the origin of the male and was negatively associated with the duration of the first mating, but these variables had no effect on re-mating tendency of Guate females. Matings by Petapa males were significantly less prolonged than those of Guate or hybrid males. With respect to re-mating, Petapa non-virgin females preferred Petapa to Guate males. (author)

  2. Is sexually transmitted fungal infection evidence for size-related mating success in Neotropical guava fruit flies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Hedström

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of wing length on mate preference was examined in natural populations of the Neotropical guava fruit fly, Anastrepha striata Schiner, at two locations in Costa Rica. Based on evidence that the fungi are transmitted during mating, site-specific infection by Laboulbeniales fungi on the body surface was used to assess mating history. Males and females that carried fungi on the legs and/or on the ventral part of the thorax (males, and on both sides of the notum and/or the dorsal base of the abdomen (females, had significantly longer wings than males and females without fungi. This suggests that individuals of both sexes with longer wings (i.e. larger individuals enjoy higher mating success. Fungus infection is more frequent in the wet than in the seasonally dry forest, possibly because hosts are available year-round in the wet forest.Se estudió poblaciones naturales de la mosca frutera Anastrepha striata Schiner, en dos lugares de Costa Rica. Los hongos Laboulbeniales se transmiten en éstas durante la cópula. Hembras y machos con hongos en las patas y/o parte ventral del tórax (machos, y en ambos lados del noto y/o base dorsal del abdomen (hembras, tenían alas significativamente más largas que los individuos no parasitados. Esto sugiere que los individuos más grandes logran más apareamientos.

  3. Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons revisited: mating status alters cuticular profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Everaerts

    Full Text Available Most living organisms use pheromones for inter-individual communication. In Drosophila melanogaster flies, several pheromones perceived either by contact/at a short distance (cuticular hydrocarbons, CHs, or at a longer distance (cis-vaccenyl acetate, cVA, affect courtship and mating behaviours. However, it has not previously been possible to precisely identify all potential pheromonal compounds and simultaneously monitor their variation on a time scale. To overcome this limitation, we combined Solid Phase Micro-Extraction with gas-chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry. This allowed us (i to identify 59 cuticular compounds, including 17 new CHs; (ii to precisely quantify the amount of each compound that could be detected by another fly, and (iii to measure the variation of these substances as a function of aging and mating. Sex-specific variation appeared with age, while mating affected cuticular compounds in both sexes with three possible patterns: variation was (i reciprocal in the two sexes, suggesting a passive mechanical transfer during mating, (ii parallel in both sexes, such as for cVA which strikingly appeared during mating, or (iii unilateral, presumably as a result of sexual interaction. We provide a complete reassessment of all Drosophila CHs and suggest that the chemical conversation between male and female flies is far more complex than is generally accepted. We conclude that focusing on individual compounds will not provide a satisfactory understanding of the evolution and function of chemical communication in Drosophila.

  4. Sexual selection and the opportunity cost of free mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolou, Menelaos

    2016-06-01

    The model of sexual selection under parental choice has been proposed to account for the control that parents exercise over their children's mating decisions. The present paper attempts to formalize and advance this model with the purpose of providing a better understanding of how parental choice mandates the course of sexual selection. In particular, in the proposed formulation, free mate choice involves an opportunity cost which motivates parents to place their children's mate choices under their control. When they succeed in doing so, they become a significant sexual selection force, as traits that appeal to parents in an in-law are selected and increase in frequency in the population. The degree of parental control over mating, and thus the strength of sexual selection under parental choice, is positively predicted by the size of the opportunity cost of free mate choice. The primary factors that affect the level of opportunity cost vary between society types, affecting the strength of parental choice as a sexual selection force. PMID:26921247

  5. Relationship dealbreakers: traits people avoid in potential mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonason, Peter K; Garcia, Justin R; Webster, Gregory D; Li, Norman P; Fisher, Helen E

    2015-12-01

    Mate preference research has focused on traits people desire in partners (i.e., dealmakers) rather than what traits they avoid (i.e., dealbreakers), but mate preferences calibrate to both maximize benefits and minimize costs. Across six studies (N > 6,500), we identified and examined relationship dealbreakers, and how they function across relationship contexts. Dealbreakers were associated with undesirable personality traits; unhealthy lifestyles in sexual, romantic, and friendship contexts; and divergent mating strategies in sexual and romantic contexts. Dealbreakers were stronger in long-term (vs. short-term) relationship contexts, and stronger in women (vs. men) in short-term contexts. People with higher mate value reported more dealbreakers; people with less-restricted mating strategies reported fewer dealbreakers. Consistent with prospect and error management theories, people weighed dealbreakers more negatively than they weighed dealmakers positively; this effect was stronger for women (vs. men) and people in committed relationships. These findings support adaptive attentional biases in human social cognition. PMID:26445853

  6. Women selectively guard their (desirable) mates from ovulating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krems, Jaimie Arona; Neel, Rebecca; Neuberg, Steven L; Puts, David A; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2016-04-01

    For women, forming close, cooperative relationships with other women at once poses important opportunities and possible threats-including to mate retention. To maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of same-sex social relationships, we propose that women's mate guarding is functionally flexible and that women are sensitive to both interpersonal and contextual cues indicating whether other women might be likely and effective mate poachers. Here, we assess one such cue: other women's fertility. Because ovulating (i.e., high-fertility) women are both more attractive to men and also more attracted to (desirable) men, ovulating women may be perceived to pose heightened threats to other women's romantic relationships. Across 4 experiments, partnered women were exposed to photographs of other women taken during either their ovulatory or nonovulatory menstrual-cycle phases, and consistently reported intentions to socially avoid ovulating (but not nonovulating) women-but only when their own partners were highly desirable. Exposure to ovulating women also increased women's sexual desires for their (highly desirable) partners. These findings suggest that women can be sensitive to subtle cues of other women's fertility and respond (e.g., via social exclusion, enhanced sexual attention to own mate) in ways that may facilitate their mate retention goals while not thwarting their affiliative goals. PMID:26766112

  7. Mineral content of young leaves of yerba mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Camotti Bastos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate is largely used to produce drinks to human consume. In Spring the plants develop tender young leaves that could represent a new market niche in the yerba-mate industry; this period is called as ”pressafrinha” in this study. This study aimed to analyze the total and hydro soluble nutritional values of young leaves collected in the Spring season and its nutritional potential for human consumption. To represent the ”pressafrinha” young leaves, the collected vegetal material was limited to the third terminal bud. The total and hydro soluble chemical analysis of leaves in the provenances Cascavel (progeny 174, Ivaí (progeny 6, Barão de Cotegipe (progenies 68 and 69 included the following elements: P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. The content of elements in the beverage obtained from the infusion of young leaves of yerba mate in the recommended daily intake ranges from 0.5% to 11.5% and was in the following order: Cu > Mn > K > P > Mg > Fe > Zn > Ca > Na. Progenies and morphotypes of yerba mate showed little variation in the total nutrient content and did not differ in the content of soluble nutrients evaluated in young leaves. The extract obtained from young leaves of yerba mate presents potential to be used for human consumption.

  8. Assembly design system based on engineering connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-05-01

    An assembly design system is an important part of computer-aided design systems, which are important tools for realizing product concept design. The traditional assembly design system does not record the connection information of production on the engineering layer; consequently, the upstream design idea cannot be fully used in the downstream design. An assembly design model based on the relationship of engineering connection is presented. In this model, all nodes are divided into two categories: The component and the connection. Moreover, the product is constructed on the basis of the connection relationship of the components. The model is an And/Or graph and has the ability to record all assembly schemes. This model records only the connection information that has engineering application value in the product design. In addition, this model can significantly reduce the number of combinations, and is very favorable for the assembly sequence planning in the downstream. The system contains a connection knowledge system that can be mapped to the connection node, and the connection knowledge obtained in practice can be returned to the knowledge system. Finally, VC++ 6.0 is used to develop a prototype system called Connect-based Assembly Planning (CAP). The relationship between the CAP system and the commercial assembly design system is also established.

  9. Intelligent Adaptation Process for Case Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case Based Reasoning (CBR) Systems is one of the important decision making systems applied in many fields all over the world. The effectiveness of any CBR system based on the quality of the storage cases in the case library. Similar cases can be retrieved and adapted to produce the solution for the new problem. One of the main issues faced the CBR systems is the difficulties of achieving the useful cases. The proposed system introduces a new approach that uses the genetic algorithm (GA) technique to automate constructing the cases into the case library. Also, it can optimize the best one to be stored in the library for the future uses. However, the proposed system can avoid the problems of the uncertain and noisy cases. Besides, it can simply the retrieving and adaptation processes. So, it can improve the performance of the CBR system. The suggested system can be applied for many real-time problems. It has been applied for diagnosis the faults of the wireless network, diagnosis of the cancer diseases, diagnosis of the debugging of a software as cases of study. The proposed system has proved its performance in this field

  10. Dichogamy correlates with outcrossing rate and defines the selfing syndrome in the mixed-mating genus Collinsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisz, Susan; Randle, April; Chaiffetz, David; Faigeles, Melisa; Butera, Aileen; Beight, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims How and why plants evolve to become selfing is a long-standing evolutionary puzzle. The transition from outcrossing to highly selfing is less well understood in self-compatible (SC) mixed-mating (MM) species where potentially subtle interactions between floral phenotypes and the environment are at play. We examined floral morphological and developmental traits across an entire SC MM genus, Collinsia, to determine which, if any, predict potential autonomous selfing ability when pollinators are absent (AS) and actual selfing rates in the wild, sm, and to best define the selfing syndrome for this clade. Methods Using polymorphic microsatellite markers, we obtained 30 population-level estimates of sm across 19 Collinsia taxa. Species grand means for the timing of herkogamy (stigma–anther contact) and dichogamy (stigmatic receptivity, SR), AS, floral size, longevity and their genetic correlations were quantified for 22 taxa. Key Results Species fell into discrete selfing and outcrossing groups based on floral traits. Loss of dichogamy defines Collinsia's selfing syndrome. Floral size, longevity and herkogamy also differ significantly between these groups. Most taxa have high AS rates (>80 %), but AS is uncorrelated with any measured trait. In contrast, sm is significantly correlated only with SR. High variance in sm was observed in the two groups. Conclusions Collinsia species exhibit clear morphological and developmental traits diagnostic of ‘selfing’ or ‘outcrossing’ groups. However, many species in both the ‘selfing’ and the ‘outcrossing’ groups were MM, pointing to the critical influence of the pollination environment, the timing of AS and outcross pollen prepotency on sm. Flower size is a poor predictor of Collinsia species' field selfing rates and this result may apply to many SC species. Assessment of the variation in the pollination environment, which can increase selfing rates in more ‘outcrossing’ species but can also

  11. Infectious speciation revisited: impact of symbiont-depletion on female fitness and mating behavior of Drosophila paulistorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang J Miller

    Full Text Available The neotropical Drosophila paulistorum superspecies, consisting of at least six geographically overlapping but reproductively isolated semispecies, has been the object of extensive research since at least 1955, when it was initially trapped mid-evolution in flagrant statu nascendi. In this classic system females express strong premating isolation patterns against mates belonging to any other semispecies, and yet uncharacterized microbial reproductive tract symbionts were described triggering hybrid inviability and male sterility. Based on theoretical models and limited experimental data, prime candidates fostering symbiont-driven speciation in arthropods are intracellular bacteria belonging to the genus Wolbachia. They are maternally inherited symbionts of many arthropods capable of manipulating host reproductive biology for their own benefits. However, it is an ongoing debate as to whether or not reproductive symbionts are capable of driving host speciation in nature and if so, to what extent. Here we have reevaluated this classic case of infectious speciation by means of present day molecular approaches and artificial symbiont depletion experiments. We have isolated the α-proteobacteria Wolbachia as the maternally transmitted core endosymbionts of all D. paulistorum semispecies that have coevolved towards obligate mutualism with their respective native hosts. In hybrids, however, these mutualists transform into pathogens by overreplication causing embryonic inviability and male sterility. We show that experimental reduction in native Wolbachia titer causes alterations in sex ratio, fecundity, and mate discrimination. Our results indicate that formerly designated Mycoplasma-like organisms are most likely Wolbachia that have evolved by becoming essential mutualistic symbionts in their respective natural hosts; they have the potential to trigger pre- and postmating isolation. Furthermore, in light of our new findings, we revisit the concept of

  12. Spore behaviors reveal a category of mating-competent infertile heterokaryons in the offspring of the medicinal fungus Agaricus subrufescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Moinard, Magalie; Souza Dias, Eustáquio; Savoie, Jean-Michel; Callac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Strain breeding is much less advanced in the edible and medicinal species Agaricus subrufescens than in Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom. Both species have a unifactorial system of sexual incompatibility, a mating type locus tightly linked to a centromere, and basidia producing both homokaryotic (n) and heterokaryotic (n + n) spores. In A. bisporus, breeding is mainly based on direct selection among the heterokaryotic offspring and on hybridization between homokaryotic offspring. The parental heterozygosity is highly maintained in the heterokaryotic offspring due to suppression of recombination and preferential pairing in the spores of nuclei, each one per second meiotic divisions; such "non-sister nuclei" heterokaryons are fertile. In A. subrufescens, recent studies revealed that recombination is not suppressed and that nuclei from the same second meiotic division can also be paired in a spore that give rise to a "sister nuclei" heterokaryon in which the nuclei bear the same mating type allele. The objective of the present work was to investigate the potential function of the different categories of spores in A. subrufescens and their possible use in a genetic breeding program. Using eight co-dominant molecular markers, we found that half of the offspring of the A. subrufescens strain WC837 were heterokaryotic, one quarter of them being sister nuclei heterokaryons. These heterokaryons were infertile and behaved like homokaryons, being even able to cross between each other. In contrast, non-sister nuclei heterokaryons could fruit but inconsistently due to inbreeding depression. Potential roles of these two categories of heterokaryons in nature and consequences for strain breeding are discussed. PMID:26497018

  13. The role of dyadic interactions in the mixed-mating strate-gies of the mangrove rivulus Kryptolebias marmoratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly N. LUKE,David L. BECHLER

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove rivulus Kryptolebias marmoratus a small cyprinodont fish native to tropical and subtropical waters from Florida to Brazil, is one of two known self-fertilizing, hermaphroditic vertebrates of which K. marmoratus displays androdioecy, a complex system of reproduction in which hermaphrodites and males are present. This study describes the behavioral repertoires observed during dyadic interactions in the laboratory. Kryptolebias marmoratus exhibited 23 distinctive acts or behaviors. Acts were divided into four categories: aggressive, submissive, neutral, and reproductive. Leading and following behaviors played important roles in the behavioral repertoires of these fish. In hermaphrodite-male dyads, males exclusively initiated the reproductive process and actively pursued hermaphrodites. When hermaphrodites were paired, there was no evidence that they behaved like other simultaneous hermaphrodites that alternate sexual roles (e.g. serranids. Hermaphrodites were extremely aggressive towards one another, and the aggressor established dominance rapidly. Male-male dyads were divided into two subdivisions based on the presence or absence of the caudal ocellus on one fish. A caudal ocellus on one male appeared to signal the possibility of a potential mating partner to males lacking it. Pairings of males without an ocellus were similar to hermaphrodite-hermaphrodite dyads in that both members of the pair were aggressive towards one another. These observations may be indicative of interactions taking place in natural communities or assemblages of fish in which both males and hermaphrodites occur and provide evidence on the role of dyadic interactions in the mixed-mating strategies [Current Zoology 56 (1: 6–17 2010].

  14. Sensing systems using chip-based spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkowski, Arthur; Preston, Kyle J.; Sherwood-Droz, Nicolás.; Behr, Bradford B.; Bismilla, Yusuf; Cenko, Andrew T.; DesRoches, Brandon; Meade, Jeffrey T.; Munro, Elizabeth A.; Slaa, Jared; Schmidt, Bradley S.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2014-06-01

    Tornado Spectral Systems has developed a new chip-based spectrometer called OCTANE, the Optical Coherence Tomography Advanced Nanophotonic Engine, built using a planar lightwave circuit with integrated waveguides fabricated on a silicon wafer. While designed for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) systems, the same miniaturized technology can be applied to many other spectroscopic applications. The field of integrated optics enables the design of complex optical systems which are monolithically integrated on silicon chips. The form factors of these systems can be significantly smaller, more robust and less expensive than their equivalent free-space counterparts. Fabrication techniques and material systems developed for microelectronics have previously been adapted for integrated optics in the telecom industry, where millions of chip-based components are used to power the optical backbone of the internet. We have further adapted the photonic technology platform for spectroscopy applications, allowing unheard-of economies of scale for these types of optical devices. Instead of changing lenses and aligning systems, these devices are accurately designed programmatically and are easily customized for specific applications. Spectrometers using integrated optics have large advantages in systems where size, robustness and cost matter: field-deployable devices, UAVs, UUVs, satellites, handheld scanning and more. We will discuss the performance characteristics of our chip-based spectrometers and the type of spectral sensing applications enabled by this technology.

  15. A model-based control system concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of a new concept for DCSs developed within the KBRTCS (Knowledge-Based Real-Time Control Systems) project performed between 1988 and 1991 as a part of the Swedish IT4 programme. The partners of the project have been the Department of Automatic Control at Lund University, Asea Brown Boveri, and during parts of the project, SattControl, and TeleLogic. The aim of the project has been to develop a concept for future generations of DCSs based on a plant database containing a description of the plant together with the control system. The database is object-based and supports multiple views of an objects. A demonstrator is presented where a DCS system of this type is emulated. The demonstrator contains a number of control, monitoring, and diagnosis applications that execute in real time against a simulations of Steritherm sterilization process. (25 refs.)

  16. A microprocessor-based ACAR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, an ACAR system is described which has been used and improved over many years. The system consists of a 5-meter radius goniometer with driver and control system, a microprocessor (μ-P)-based multiscaler system (MSS), a detector system, and a positron source assembly. The goniometer and its driver and control are continuous scanning. The MSS consists of four sets of multiscalers (MS) which register signals from the stationary detector, the moving detector, the coincidence signal for the two detectors, and also the chance coincidence signal. Thus, the MSS consists of eight spectra which are registered as functions of the angle of coincidence #betta#. This ACAR apparatus provides a simple but reliable system for the experiments. (Auth.)

  17. Collaborative Filtering Based Recommendation System: A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Abdul Hameed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available the most common technique used for recommendations is collaborative filtering. Recommender systems based on collaborative filtering predict user preferences for products or services by learning pastuser-item relationships from a group of user who share the same preferences and taste. In this paper we have explored various aspects of collaborative filtering recommendation system. We have categorizedcollaborative filtering recommendation system and shown how the similarity is computed. The desired criteria for selection of data set are also listed. The measures used for evaluating the performance of collaborative filtering recommendation system are discussed along with the challenges faced by the recommendation system. Types of rating that can be collected from the user to rate items are alsodiscussed along with the uses of collaborative filtering recommendation system.

  18. A Microcontroller Based Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewunonu Toochi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A Microcontroller based Intrusion Detection System is designed and implemented. Rampant, Okintrusion to restricted zones have highlighted the need for embedded systems that can effectively monitor, instantly alert personnel of any breach in security and retrieve graphic evidence of any such activity in the secured area. At the heart of the intrusion detection system is the PIC 168F77A Microcontroller that transmits pulses at 38 KHz. It is suitably interfaced to a GSM modem that can send SMS on sight of infringement and a webcam that can take snapshots. The report also presents the system software which has been developed in two parts: one in C++ Language using MPLAB KIT and the other written in AT COMMAND resident in the GSM modem. The system is very cost-effective, uses easily available components and is adaptable to control systems.

  19. Agents-based distributed processes control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gligor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Large industrial distributed systems have revealed a remarkable development in recent years. We may note an increase of their structural and functional complexity, at the same time with those on requirements side. These are some reasons why there are involvednumerous researches, energy and resources to solve problems related to these types of systems. The paper addresses the issue of industrial distributed systems with special attention being given to the distributed industrial processes control systems. A solution for a distributed process control system based on mobile intelligent agents is presented.The main objective of the proposed system is to provide an optimal solution in terms of costs, maintenance, reliability and flexibility. The paper focuses on requirements, architecture, functionality and advantages brought by the proposed solution.

  20. An Ontology-Based Collaborative Design System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tieming; Qiu, Xinpeng; Yu, Yunlong

    A collaborative design system architecture based on ontology is proposed. In the architecture, OWL is used to construct global shared ontology and local ontology; both of them are machine-interpretable. The former provides a semantic basis for the communication among designers so as to make the designers share the common understanding of knowledge. The latter which describes knowledge of designer’s own is the basis of design by reasoning. SWRL rule base comprising rules defined based on local ontology is constructed to enhance the reasoning capability of local knowledge base. The designers can complete collaborative design at a higher level based on the local knowledge base and the global shared ontology, which enhances the intelligence of design. Finally, a collaborative design case is presented and analyzed.

  1. The internet based on presence system technology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styugin, M.; Kaygorodov, A.

    2016-04-01

    In our study we analyze how to create the systems based on “communication-resource-presence”- technology. We formulate functional and architectural requirements. It is shown some new features in this systems that pertain to communication and information search on the Internet. The Internet passed three infrastructure stages from the communication between two hosts to the resource intermediation and communication in real presence systems. The systems based on the presence technologies have just started to develop. Our study shows what criteria’s they must meet. One of this criteria is the division of site resources into the "rooms" logically separated from each other. The users can see and connect to each other. The contextual data of user presence in a particular "room" can be used when searching for them in the context of professional competence.

  2. Vision based systems for UAV applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuś, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is motivated by a significant number of vision based algorithms for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) that were developed during research and development projects. Vision information is utilized in various applications like visual surveillance, aim systems, recognition systems, collision-avoidance systems and navigation. This book presents practical applications, examples and recent challenges in these mentioned application fields. The aim of the book is to create a valuable source of information for researchers and constructors of solutions utilizing vision from UAV. Scientists, researchers and graduate students involved in computer vision, image processing, data fusion, control algorithms, mechanics, data mining, navigation and IC can find many valuable, useful and practical suggestions and solutions. The latest challenges for vision based systems are also presented.

  3. Mobile Learning System based on Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilian Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the mass popularity of 3G, WIFI wireless network and intelligent mobile terminal equipment (intelligent mobile phone, tablet computer, etc, mobile learning has become one of the important ways of learning. but the traditional mobile learning mode has many disadvantages, and the mobile learning based on cloud computing is a good way to overcome the disadvantages. This paper first introduces the concept and system architecture of cloud computing, then designs a structure of mobile learning system based on cloud computing and analyzes its process and function modules, realizes some function modules of the system by JAVA technology and the Android platform. It expects the system can realize the combination of new technology and advanced learning concept and promote personalized and diversified learning anytime and anyplace freely

  4. Image-based Vehicle Classification System

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Jun Yee

    2012-01-01

    Electronic toll collection (ETC) system has been a common trend used for toll collection on toll road nowadays. The implementation of electronic toll collection allows vehicles to travel at low or full speed during the toll payment, which help to avoid the traffic delay at toll road. One of the major components of an electronic toll collection is the automatic vehicle detection and classification (AVDC) system which is important to classify the vehicle so that the toll is charged according to the vehicle classes. Vision-based vehicle classification system is one type of vehicle classification system which adopt camera as the input sensing device for the system. This type of system has advantage over the rest for it is cost efficient as low cost camera is used. The implementation of vision-based vehicle classification system requires lower initial investment cost and very suitable for the toll collection trend migration in Malaysia from single ETC system to full-scale multi-lane free flow (MLFF). This project ...

  5. Experimental OAI-Based Digital Library Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L. (Editor); Maly, Kurt (Editor); Zubair, Mohammad (Editor); Rusch-Feja, Diann (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of Open Archives Initiative (OAI) is to develop a simple, lightweight framework to facilitate the discovery of content in distributed archives (http://www.openarchives.org). The focus of the workshop held at the 5th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL 2001) was to bring researchers in the area of digital libraries who are building OAI based systems so as to share their experiences, problems they are facing, and approaches they are taking to address them. The workshop consisted of invited talks from well-established researchers working in building OAI based digital library system along with short paper presentations.

  6. Software Engineering and Swarm-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Pena, Joaquin; Rouff, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss two software engineering aspects in the development of complex swarm-based systems. NASA researchers have been investigating various possible concept missions that would greatly advance future space exploration capabilities. The concept mission that we have focused on exploits the principles of autonomic computing as well as being based on the use of intelligent swarms, whereby a (potentially large) number of similar spacecraft collaborate to achieve mission goals. The intent is that such systems not only can be sent to explore remote and harsh environments but also are endowed with greater degrees of protection and longevity to achieve mission goals.

  7. Model-based testing for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zander, Justyna; Mosterman, Pieter J

    2011-01-01

    What the experts have to say about Model-Based Testing for Embedded Systems: "This book is exactly what is needed at the exact right time in this fast-growing area. From its beginnings over 10 years ago of deriving tests from UML statecharts, model-based testing has matured into a topic with both breadth and depth. Testing embedded systems is a natural application of MBT, and this book hits the nail exactly on the head. Numerous topics are presented clearly, thoroughly, and concisely in this cutting-edge book. The authors are world-class leading experts in this area and teach us well-used

  8. Irradiation detection of coffee mate by electron spin resonance (ESR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Un-irradiated coffee mate samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiation exhibit an ESR singlet and a large unresolved ESR signal, respectively. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiations were found to be described well by an exponential and linear functions, respectively. Variable temperature and fading studies at room temperature showed that the radiation-induced radicals in coffee mate sample are very sensitive to temperature. The discrimination between un-irradiated and irradiated coffee mate samples can be done just comparing their ESR spectra. However, determination of the radiation dose received by the sample cannot be possible because of the fast decay of signal intensity at room temperature.

  9. Sexual isolation and mating propensity among allopatric Drosophila mettleri populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrezana, Sergio J; Markow, Therese Ann

    2008-07-01

    Drosophila mettleri is found in deserts of North America breeding in soil soaked by the juices of necrotic cacti. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) and cardón (Pachycereus pringlei) are the usual host cacti in Mexico and Arizona, while prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) is used by an isolated population on Santa Catalina Island off the southern California Coast. Populations of D. mettleri show significant local genetic differentiation, especially when geographical isolation is coupled with host shifts. We tested for evidence of sexual isolation among allopatric populations of D. mettleri using a variety of choice and no-choice tests. Populations exhibited significant differences in mating propensity, which translated into significant deviations from random mating. While in some cases these deviations were consistent with sexual isolation, in others, negative assortative mating was observed. No relationship between degree of genetic differentiation and the appearance of sexual isolation was detected. PMID:18561017

  10. Irradiation detection of coffee mate by electron spin resonance (ESR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozsayin, Fulya [Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Polat, Mustafa, E-mail: polat@hacettepe.edu.t [Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-06-15

    Un-irradiated coffee mate samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiation exhibit an ESR singlet and a large unresolved ESR signal, respectively. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiations were found to be described well by an exponential and linear functions, respectively. Variable temperature and fading studies at room temperature showed that the radiation-induced radicals in coffee mate sample are very sensitive to temperature. The discrimination between un-irradiated and irradiated coffee mate samples can be done just comparing their ESR spectra. However, determination of the radiation dose received by the sample cannot be possible because of the fast decay of signal intensity at room temperature.

  11. Agent-Based Modeling in Systems Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, J; Butler, J; Alden, K; Read, M; Kumar, V; Cucurull-Sanchez, L; Timmis, J; Coles, M

    2015-11-01

    Modeling and simulation (M&S) techniques provide a platform for knowledge integration and hypothesis testing to gain insights into biological systems that would not be possible a priori. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is an M&S technique that focuses on describing individual components rather than homogenous populations. This tutorial introduces ABM to systems pharmacologists, using relevant case studies to highlight how ABM-specific strengths have yielded success in the area of preclinical mechanistic modeling. PMID:26783498

  12. Prestandardisation Activities for Computer Based Safety Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, J. R.; Bologna, S.; Ehrenberger, W.;

    1981-01-01

    Questions of technical safety become more and more important. Due to the higher complexity of their functions computer based safety systems have special problems. Researchers, producers, licensing personnel and customers have met on a European basis to exchange knowledge and formulate positions....... The Commission of the european Community supports the work. Major topics comprise hardware configuration and self supervision, software design, verification and testing, documentation, system specification and concurrent processing. Preliminary results have been used for the draft of an IEC standard...

  13. Date base management system for the MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data base management system (DBMS) for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is described as relational in nature and distributed across the nine computers of the supervisory control and diagnostics system. This paper deals with a reentrant runtime package of routines that are used to access data items, the data structures to support the runtime package, and some of the utilities in support of the DBMS

  14. Research of internet worm warning system based on system identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao ZHOU; Guanzhong DAI; Huimin YE

    2006-01-01

    The frequent explosion of Internet worms has been one of the most serious problems in cyberspace security.In this paper, by analyzing the worm's propagation model, we propose a new worm warning system based on the method of system identification, and use recursive least squares algorithm to estimate the worm's infection rate. The simulation result shows the method we adopted is an efficient way to conduct Internet worm warning.

  15. Monitor System for Neutron Room Based on Embedded System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strong radiation in neutron room limits the real-time monitoring and detection during the course of nuclear pipe aging. The paper introduced a new type of detection system with the characteristics of simple operation and large extensibility. The hardware of this system mainly consists of neutron pulse counting, the modules of video capturing, the parameter of temperature and humidity condition obtaining, and network communication, which is based on S3C2410 processor. (authors)

  16. Web-Based Adaptive Testing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Due to the maturing of Internet technology, the adaptive testing can be utilized in the web-based environment and the examinee can take the test anywhere and any time. The purpose of the research is to apply item response theory (IRT), adaptive testing theory and web-service technique to construct an XML format itembank and a system of web-based adaptive testing (WAT) by the framework of three-tiered client server distance testing.

  17. Assurance in Agent-Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our vision of the future of information systems is one that includes engineered collectives of software agents which are situated in an environment over years and which increasingly improve the performance of the overall system of which they are a part. At a minimum, the movement of agent and multi-agent technology into National Security applications, including their use in information assurance, is apparent today. The use of deliberative, autonomous agents in high-consequence/high-security applications will require a commensurate level of protection and confidence in the predictability of system-level behavior. At Sandia National Laboratories, we have defined and are addressing a research agenda that integrates the surety (safety, security, and reliability) into agent-based systems at a deep level. Surety is addressed at multiple levels: The integrity of individual agents must be protected by addressing potential failure modes and vulnerabilities to malevolent threats. Providing for the surety of the collective requires attention to communications surety issues and mechanisms for identifying and working with trusted collaborators. At the highest level, using agent-based collectives within a large-scale distributed system requires the development of principled design methods to deliver the desired emergent performance or surety characteristics. This position paper will outline the research directions underway at Sandia, will discuss relevant work being performed elsewhere, and will report progress to date toward assurance in agent-based systems

  18. Interspecific aggression, not interspecific mating, drives character displacement in the wing coloration of male rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, J P; Grether, G F

    2014-12-01

    Traits that mediate intraspecific social interactions may overlap in closely related sympatric species, resulting in costly between-species interactions. Such interactions have principally interested investigators studying the evolution of reproductive isolation via reproductive character displacement (RCD) or reinforcement, yet in addition to reproductive interference, interspecific trait overlap can lead to costly between-species aggression. Previous research on rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina spp.) demonstrated that sympatric shifts in male wing colour patterns and competitor recognition reduce interspecific aggression, supporting the hypothesis that agonistic character displacement (ACD) drove trait shifts. However, a recent theoretical model shows that RCD overshadows ACD if the same male trait is used for both female mate recognition and male competitor recognition. To determine whether female mate recognition is based on male wing coloration in Hetaerina, we conducted a phenotype manipulation experiment. Compared to control males, male H. americana with wings manipulated to resemble a sympatric congener (H. titia) suffered no reduction in mating success. Thus, female mate recognition is not based on species differences in male wing coloration. Experimental males did, however, experience higher interspecific fighting rates and reduced survival compared to controls. These results greatly strengthen the case for ACD and highlight the mechanistic distinction between ACD and RCD. PMID:25339724

  19. Caste determination through mating in primitively eusocial societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Eric R; Field, Jeremy

    2013-10-21

    Eusocial animal societies are typified by the presence of a helper (worker) caste which predominantly cares for young offspring in a social group while investing little in their own direct reproduction. A key question is what determines whether an individual becomes a worker or leaves to initiate her own reproduction. In some insects, caste is determined nutritionally during development. In others, and in vertebrate societies, adults are totipotent and the cues that determine caste are less well known. The mate limitation hypothesis (MLH) states that a female's mating status acts as a cue for caste determination: females that mate become reproductives, while those that fail to mate become workers. The MLH is consistent with empirical observations in sweat bees showing that over the course of the nesting season, there are increases in both the proportion of females that become reproductives and the frequency of males in the mating pool. We modelled a foundress's offspring sex-ratio strategy to investigate whether an increasingly male-biased operational sex-ratio over time is evolutionarily stable under the MLH. Our results indicate that such a pattern could occur if early workers were more valuable than late workers. This pattern was then more likely if male mortality was high, if worker mortality was low, if the value of a worker was high and if the period over which workers can help was short. Our results suggest that the MLH can be evolutionarily stable, but only under restrictive conditions. Manipulative experiments are now required to investigate whether mating determines caste in nature. PMID:23770404

  20. K-Based Help desk System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K-based Help desk system is a knowledge oriented web based system that provides support to technical service providers in order to improve delivery of their services. It is a multi-centric system which focuses not only on end-users but the various levels of technical support services as well as the management through the utilization of knowledge which resides and grows within the system. Though providing user friendly system and capturing technical knowledge to improve efficiencies are the main objectives of this system, educating users with technical information through the knowledge utilization system are the spin-off target from this implementation. This is achieved by preventing the service providers from handling repetitive complaints which may have similarity in nature. Once a complaint has been resolved, the system captures the solution as an item in the knowledge database. The captured knowledge will then enable service requesters or users to get some ideas regarding their complaints from information or knowledge of other similar complaints besides providing relevant knowledge to the service provider such as the techniques used in solving problems and the performance among the technical support staffs. As for the management, this system helps in the decision making process in which the statistics features provide some knowledge on the number of equipment that frequently and consistently failed. This then leads to some understanding of the equipment that may create lost to the organization in terms of time and money. This system has been tested and implemented in IT Center (IT) and Engineering Division (BKJ) and is at the initial process of implementation in the Instrumentation and Automation Center (IAC) at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). The system has helped in achieving a higher level of user satisfaction and a faster growth in technical knowledge repository that will serve as the institutional memory of Nuclear Malaysia and this will be