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Sample records for based materials hydrostatic

  1. Hydrostatic high pressures for material deformations. Application to Chevrel phase superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massat, H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of hydrostatic high pressures on the ductility of materials is reviewed and applications are made to powder metallurgy under isostatic pressure and hydrostatic extrusion of superconductors [fr

  2. Hydrostatic pressing effect on some properties of Al2O3 and Sc2O3 base ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemova, K.K.; Rudenko, L.A.; Maslova, G.Ya.; Levkovich, N.A.; Orlova, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Found is the effect of hydrostatic pressing pressure on some physico-mechanical properties of the ceramic on the Al 2 O 3 and Se 2 O 3 base. Mathematical models, describing dependences of the strength of materials made of Al 2 O 3 and Sc 2 O 3 on sintering conditions and on hydrostatic pressing pressure, are plotted. Production regimes on the Al 2 O 3 and Sc 2 O 3 base ceramics with improved properties are optimized [ru

  3. Electric Field Induced Strain in Electrostrictive Polymers Under High Hydrostatic Pressure - System Development and Material Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Q

    2000-01-01

    ... of (i) developing a high performance piezo-bimorph based dilatometer which can be used to characterize the electric field induced strain response in polymer films under high hydrostatic pressure, (ii...

  4. Enhanced performance of ferroelectric materials under hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Aditya; Patel, Satyanarayan; Wang, Shuai; Novak, Nikola; Xu, Bai-Xiang; Lv, Peng; Vaish, Rahul; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical confinement or restricted degrees of freedom have been explored for its potential to enhance the performance of ferroelectric devices. It presents an easy and reversible method to tune the response for specific applications. However, such studies have been mainly limited to uni- or bi-axial stress. This study investigates the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the ferroelectric behavior of bulk polycrystalline Pb0.99Nb0.02(Zr0.95Ti0.05)0.98O3. Polarization versus electric field hysteresis plots were generated as a function of hydrostatic pressure for a range of operating temperatures (298-398 K). The application of hydrostatic pressure was observed to induce anti-ferroelectric like double hysteresis loops. This in turn enhances the piezoelectric, energy storage, energy harvesting, and electrocaloric effects. The hydrostatic piezoelectric coefficient (dh) was increased from 50 pCN-1 (0 MPa) to ˜900 pC N-1 (265 MPa) and ˜3200 pCN-1 (330 MPa) at 298 K. Energy storage density was observed to improve by more than 4 times under pressure, in the whole temperature range. The relative change in entropy was also observed to shift from ˜0 to 4.8 J kg-1 K-1 under an applied pressure of 325 MPa. This behavior can be attributed to the evolution of pinched hysteresis loops that have been explained using a phenomenological model. All values represent an improvement of several hundred percent compared to unbiased performance, indicating the potential benefits of the proposed methodology.

  5. Effects of Cross-Linking on the Hydrostatic Pressure Testing for HDPE Pipe Material using Electron Beam Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Jamil Bin Hashim

    2011-01-01

    One of the most inventive, sustainable strategies used in engineering field is to improve the quality of material and minimize production cost of material for example in this paper is HDPE material. This is because HDPE is an oil base material. This paper proposes to improve its hydrostatic pressure performance for HDPE pipe. The burst test is the most direct measurement of a pipe materials resistance to hydrostatic pressure. Test will be conducted in accordance with ASTM standard for HDPE pipe that undergo electron beam irradiation cross-linking. Studies show the effect of electron beam irradiation will improve the mechanical properties of HDPE pipe. When cross-linking is induced, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength and young modulus is increase correspond to the radiation dose. This happen because the structure of HDPE, which is thermoplastic change to thermosetting. This will indicate the variability of irradiation dose which regard to the pipe pressure rating. Hence, the thickness ratio of pipe will be re-examining in order to make the production of HDPE pipe become more economical. This research review the effects of electron beam on HDPE pipe, as well as to reduce the cost of its production to improve key properties of selected plastic pipe products. (author)

  6. Hydrostatic Pressure Project: Linked-Class Problem-Based Learning in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Freddie J.; Lockwood-Cooke, Pamela; Hunt, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, WTAMU Mathematics, Engineering and Science faculty has used interdisciplinary projects as the basis for implementation of a linked-class approach to Problem-Based Learning (PBL). A project that has significant relevance to engineering statics, fluid mechanics, and calculus is the Hydrostatic Pressure Project. This project…

  7. Hydrostatic extrusion of magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Bohlen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with the capabilities and limitations of the hydrostatic extrusion process for the manufacturing of magnesium alloy sections. Firstly, the process basics for the hydrostatic extrusion of materials in general and of magnesium in particular are introduced. Next, some recent research

  8. A Hydrostatic Paradox Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…

  9. Influence of hydrostatic pressure on nuclear radiation detector's properties based on semiconductor alloy CdZnTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutnij, V.E.; Kutnij, D.V.; Rybka, A.V.; Nakonechnyj, D.V.; Babun, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure on properties of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors (Cd-50,Zn-2,Te-48 mas.%, 5 centre dot 5 centre dot 2 mm) was investigated. Were considered different types of hydrostatic treatment at 100 MPa, second hydrostatic treatment at 100 MPa and 200 MPa. Hydrostatic pressure influence on detectors electric resistance, J-V characteristics and spectrometric parameters was determined

  10. ANSYS Modeling of Hydrostatic Stress Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip A.

    1999-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic pressure has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Plasticity textbooks, from the earliest to the most modem, infer that there is no hydrostatic effect on the yielding of metals, and even modem finite element programs direct the user to assume the same. The object of this study is to use the von Mises and Drucker-Prager failure theory constitutive models in the finite element program ANSYS to see how well they model conditions of varying hydrostatic pressure. Data is presented for notched round bar (NRB) and "L" shaped tensile specimens. Similar results from finite element models in ABAQUS are shown for comparison. It is shown that when dealing with geometries having a high hydrostatic stress influence, constitutive models that have a functional dependence on hydrostatic stress are more accurate in predicting material behavior than those that are independent of hydrostatic stress.

  11. Stability analysis and finite element simulations of superplastic forming in the presence of hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    It is established that some superplastic materials undergo significant cavitation during deformation. In this work, stability analysis for the superplastic copper based alloy Coronze-638 at 550 °C based on Hart's definition of stable plastic deformation and finite element simulations for the balanced biaxial loading case are carried out to study the effects of hydrostatic pressure on cavitation evolution during superplastic forming. The finite element results show that imposing hydrostatic pressure yields to a reduction in cavitation growth.

  12. Development of BLDC Electric Motor Control System In Hydraulic Servo Drive Based on Variable Hydrostatic Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Tarasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern robotic systems require the use of servo drives. Owing to encoder and negative feedback these drives ensure highly accurate motion parameters. In case of autonomous systems drives must also have high power characteristics. Moreover, in most cases, it was impossible to select the motor so that the speed and torque on its shaft were in compliance with those of required by the actuator. To match these parameters different types of reducers are used. The article justifies and considers a selection criterion of the gear ratios for such transmission. For clarity, there is an example of selecting a motor and a gear for above transmission, taking into account the proposed criterion. In addition, the article discusses the advantages of using hydrostatic transmission in the drive, which monitors the angular position of the output level, in comparison with a mechanical gearbox. Due to the fact that, at the moment, BLDC motors have the best power characteristics, such a servo drive requires a special control system that will take into account the features of variable hydrostatic transmission and electric BLDC motor. Therefore, the paper proposes a structure of such a system and set out the principles of its construction. Various embodiments of sensor types that may be used in this system and their installation scheme explained.

  13. Friction phenomena in hydrostatic extrusion of magnesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moodij, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    When magnesium is hydrostatically extruded an inconsistent and sometimes bad surface quality is encountered. In hydrostatic extrusion the billet is surrounded by a lubricant, usually castor oil. The required pressure to deform the material is applied onto this lubricant and not directly to the

  14. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on background microflora and furan formation in fruit purée based baby foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultur, Gulcin; Misra, N N; Barba, Francisco J; Koubaa, Mohamed; Gökmen, Vural; Alpas, Hami

    2018-03-01

    The baby foods industry is currently seeking technologies to pasteurize products without formation of processing contaminants such as furan. This work demonstrates the applicability of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a non-thermal decontamination intervention for fruit purée based baby foods. HHP processing was evaluated at 200, 300, and 400 MPa pressures, for 5, 10 and 15 min of treatment times at 25, 35 and 45 °C. HHP application at 400 MPa, 45 °C for 15 min ensured complete inactivation (about 6 log 10 ) of total mesophilic aerophiles, as well as yeasts and molds. No furan was detected in HHP processed products. Thus, the key advantage of HHP over thermal processing is the ability to achieve commercially acceptable microbiological inactivation while avoiding the formation of processing contaminants such as furan.

  15. Elastoplastic cup model for cement-based materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on experimental data obtained from triaxial tests and a hydrostatic test, a cup model was formulated. Two plastic mechanisms, respectively a deviatoric shearing and a pore collapse, are taken into account. This model also considers the influence of confining pressure. In this paper, the calibration of the model is detailed and numerical simulations of the main mechanical behavior of cement paste over a large range of stress are described, showing good agreement with experimental results. The case study shows that this cup model has extensive applicability for cement-based materials and other quasi-brittle and high-porosity materials in a complex stress state.

  16. LDEF materials data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and the accompanying experiments were composed of and contained a wide variety of materials representing the largest collection of materials flown in low Earth orbit (LEO) and retrieved for ground based analysis to date. The results and implications of the mechanical, thermal, optical, and electrical data from these materials are the foundation on which future LEO space missions will be built. The LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) has been charged with establishing and developing data bases to document these materials and their performance to assure not only that the data are archived for future generations but also that the data are available to the spacecraft user community in an easily accessed, user-friendly form. This paper discusses the format and content of the three data bases developed or being developed to accomplish this task. The hardware and software requirements for each of these three data bases are discussed along with current availability of the data bases. This paper also serves as a user's guide to the MAPTIS LDEF Materials Data Base.

  17. Supramolecular fluorene based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Abbel, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of noncovalent interactions in order to manipulate and control the self-assembly and morphology of electroactive fluorene-based materials. The supramolecular arrangement of p-conjugated polymers and oligomers can strongly influence their electronic and photophysical properties. Therefore, a detailed understanding of such organisation processes is essential for the optimisation of the performance of these materials as applied in optoelectronic devices. In order to...

  18. Experimental research on dynamic mechanical properties of PZT ceramic under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Liu, K.X.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We developed an experimental device to examine dynamic mechanical properties of PZT. → Ductile behavior of PZT was seen when hydrostatic pressure was involved. → Compressive strength was shown sensitive to hydrostatic pressure and strain-rate. → A failure criterion was suggested to explain the failure behavior of PZT. - Abstract: An experimental technique for initially applied hydrostatic pressure in specimens subjected to axial impact has been developed to study the dynamic mechanical properties of materials. The technique was employed for the purpose of examining the dynamic mechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) at zero to 15 MPa hydrostatic pressures. Experimental results unambiguously exhibit the ductile behavior of PZT when hydrostatic pressure is involved. The compressive strength is demonstrated sensitive to the initial hydrostatic pressure and the strain-rate. The fracture modes are analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, a failure criterion based on Mohr-Coulomb failure theory is suggested to explain the brittle and ductile failure of PZT.

  19. Control of superplastic cavitation by hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bampton, C.C.; Ghosh, A.K.; Hamilton, C.H.; Mahoney, M.W.; Raj, R.

    1983-01-01

    It has been shown that the application of hydrostatic gas pressures during superplastic deformation of fine grained 7475 Al can prevent the intergranular cavitation normally encountered at atmospheric pressure. A critical ratio of hydrostatic pressure to flow stress may be defined for each superplastic forming condition above which virtually no cavitation occurs. In deformation conditions where intergranular cavitation plays a significant part in final tensile rupture, superplastic ductility may be improved by the application of hydrostatic pressures. Similarly, detrimental effects of large superplastic strains on service properties may be reduced or eliminated by the application of suitable hydrostatic pressures during superplastic forming. In this case, superplastically formed material may have the same design allowables as conventional 7475 Al sheet

  20. High hydrostatic pressure affects antigenic pool in tumor cells: Implication for dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanova, Linda; Hradilova, Nada; Moserova, Irena; Vosahlikova, Sarka; Sadilkova, Lenka; Hensler, Michal; Spisek, Radek; Adkins, Irena

    2017-07-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can be used to generate dendritic cell (DC)-based active immunotherapy for prostate, lung and ovarian cancer. We showed here that HHP treatment of selected human cancer cell lines leads to a degradation of tumor antigens which depends on the magnitude of HHP applied and on the cancer cell line origin. Whereas prostate or ovarian cell lines displayed little protein antigen degradation with HHP treatment up to 300MPa after 2h, tumor antigens are hardly detected in lung cancer cell line after treatment with HHP 250MPa at the same time. On the other hand, quick reduction of tumor antigen-coding mRNA was observed at HHP 200MPa immediately after treatment in all cell lines tested. To optimize the DC-based active cellular therapy protocol for HHP-sensitive cell lines the immunogenicity of HHP-treated lung cancer cells at 150, 200 and 250MPa was compared. Lung cancer cells treated with HHP 150MPa display characteristics of immunogenic cell death, however cells are not efficiently phagocytosed by DC. Despite induction of the highest number of antigen-specific CD8 + T cells, 150 MPa-treated lung cancer cells survive in high numbers. This excludes their use in DC vaccine manufacturing. HHP of 200MPa treatment of lung cancer cells ensures the optimal ratio of efficient immunogenic killing and delivery of protein antigens in DC. These results represent an important pre-clinical data for generation of immunogenic killed lung cancer cells in ongoing NSCLC Phase I/II clinical trial using DC-based active cellular immunotherapy (DCVAC/LuCa). Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Supramolecular fluorene based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbel, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of noncovalent interactions in order to manipulate and control the self-assembly and morphology of electroactive fluorene-based materials. The supramolecular arrangement of p-conjugated polymers and oligomers can strongly influence their electronic and photophysical

  2. Numerical Simulation of Damage during Forging with Superimposed Hydrostatic Pressure by Active Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Hagen, T.; Roehr, S.; Sidhu, K. B.

    2007-01-01

    The effective reduction of energy consumption and a reasonable treatment of resources can be achieved by minimizing a component's weight using lightweight metals. In this context, aluminum alloys play a major role. Due to their material-sided restricted formability, the mentioned aluminum materials are difficult to form. The plasticity of a material is ascertained by its maximum forming limit. It is attained, when the deformation causes mechanical damage within the material. Damage of that sort is reached more rapidly, the greater the tensile strength rate in relation to total tension rate. A promising approach of handling these low ductile, high-strength aluminum alloys within a forming process, is forming with a synchronized superposition of comprehensive stress by active media such as by controlling oil pressure. The influence of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the flow stress was analyzed as well as the formability for different procedures at different hydrostatic pressures and temperature levels. It was observed that flow stress is independent of superimposed hydrostatic pressure. Neither the superimposed pressure has an influence on the plastic deformation, nor does a pressure dependent material hardening due to increasing hydrostatic pressure take place. The formability increases with rising hydrostatic pressure. The relative gain at room temperature and increase of the superimposed pressure from 0 to 600 bar for tested materials was at least 140 % and max. 220 %. Therefore in this paper, based on these experimental observations, it is the intended to develop a numerical simulation in order to predict ductile damage that occurs in the bulk forging process with superimposed hydrostatic pressure based Lemaitre's damage model

  3. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on physical properties of strontium based fluoroperovskites for novel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erum, Nazia; Azhar Iqbal, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is employed to calculate the effect of pressure variation on electronic structure, elastic parameters, mechanical durability, and thermodynamic aspects of SrRbF3, in combination with Quasi-harmonic Debye model. The pressure effects are determined in the range of 0-25 GPa, in which cubic stability of SrRbF3 fluoroperovskite remains valid. Significant influence of compression on wide range of elastic parameters and related mechanical properties have been discussed, to utilize this material in low birefringence lens fabrication technology. Apart of linear dependence on elastic coefficients, transition from brittle to ductile behavior is also observed at elevated pressure ranges. Moreover, successful prediction of important thermodynamic aspects such as volume expansion coefficient (α), Debye temperature (θ D), heat capacities (Cp and Cv) are also done within wide pressure and temperature ranges.

  4. Microstructure Evolution and Texture Development in a Cu-8.5%AT. AL Material Subjected to Hydrostatic Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowska D.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate microstructure and texture evolution of two single crystals and polycrystal of Cu-8.5%at.Al material. All of mentioned samples were deformed by HE to achieve true strain ε = 1.17. For microstructure analyzes observations by transmission electron microscope (STEM were done. Crystalline size for samples after SPD were determine using XRD method. The global texture measurements were done using Bruker D8 Discover diffractometer equipped in Cr radiation. Microstructure investigations revealed nanocrystalline structure in single crystals with initial orientations and and polycrystalline Cu-8.5%at.Al material after SPD. The global texture measurements have shown the stability of initial orientation of Cu-8.5%at.Al single crystal after HE, whereas the same SPD process strongly brakes up the orientation Cu-8.5%at. Al single crystal.

  5. A non-hydrostatic flat-bottom ocean model entirely based on Fourier expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, A.

    2005-01-01

    We show how to implement free-slip and no-slip boundary conditions in a three dimensional Boussinesq flat-bottom ocean model based on Fourier expansion. Our method is inspired by the immersed or virtual boundary technique in which the effect of boundaries on the flow field is modeled by a virtual force field. Our method, however, explicitly depletes the velocity on the boundary induced by the pressure, while at the same time respecting the incompressibility of the flow field. Spurious spatial oscillations remain at a negligible level in the simulated flow field when using our technique and no filtering of the flow field is necessary. We furthermore show that by using the method presented here the residual velocities at the boundaries are easily reduced to a negligible value. This stands in contradistinction to previous calculations using the immersed or virtual boundary technique. The efficiency is demonstrated by simulating a Rayleigh impulsive flow, for which the time evolution of the simulated flow is compared to an analytic solution, and a three dimensional Boussinesq simulation of ocean convection. The second instance is taken form a well studied oceanographic context: A free slip boundary condition is applied on the upper surface, the modeled sea surface, and a no-slip boundary condition to the lower boundary, the modeled ocean floor. Convergence properties of the method are investigated by solving a two dimensional stationary problem at different spatial resolutions. The work presented here is restricted to a flat ocean floor. Extensions of our method to ocean models with a realistic topography are discussed.

  6. Hydrostatic Stress Effects in Metal Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher D.

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1940s, the theory of plasticity has assumed that hydrostatic stress does not affect the yield or postyield behavior of metals. This assumption is based on the early work of Bridgman. Bridgman found that hydrostatic pressure (compressive stress) does not affect yield behavior until a substantial amount of pressure (greater than 100 ksi) is present. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hydrostatic tension on yield behavior. Two different specimen geometries were examined: an equal-arm bend specimen and a double edge notch specimen. The presence of a notch is sufficient to develop high enough hydrostatic tensile stresses to affect yield. The von Mises yield function, which does not have a hydrostatic component, and the Drucker-Prager yield function, which includes a hydrostatic component, were used in finite element analyses of the two specimen geometries. The analyses were compared to test data from IN 100 specimens. For both geometries, the analyses using the Drucker-Prager yield function more closely simulated the test data. The von Mises yield function lead to 5-10% overprediction of the force-displacement or force-strain response of the test specimens.

  7. Accuracy of Spindle Units with Hydrostatic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorynenko Dmytro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the research of precision regularities in a spindle unit by the trajectory of the spindle installed on hydrostatic bearings. The mathematical model of trajectories spindle with lumped parameters that allows to define the position of the spindle with regard the simultaneous influence of design parameters, geometrical deviations ofform, temperature deformation bearing surfaces, the random nature of operational parameters and technical loads of hydrostatic bearings has been developed. Based on the results of numerical modeling the influence of shape errors of bearing surface of hydrostatic bearing on the statistical characteristics of the radius vector trajectories of the spindle by varying the values rotational speed of the spindle and oil pressure in front hydrostatic bearing has been developed. The obtained statistical regularities of precision spindle unit have been confirmed experimentally. It has been shown that an effective way to increase the precision of spindle units is to regulate the size of the gap in hydrostatic spindle bearings. The new design of an adjustable hydrostatic bearing, which can improve the accuracy of regulation size gap has been proposed.

  8. Leakage of Intracellular UV Materials of High Hydrostatic Pressure-Injured Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Strains in Tomato Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on inactivation, injury and recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 cocktail inoculated in tomato juice (pH 4.1) and phosphate buffer saline (PBS. pH 7.2) at 8.0 log CFU/ml and treated at 350, 400, 450 MPa for 20 min at ...

  9. Mechanical response of collagen molecule under hydrostatic compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Karanvir; Kumar, Navin

    2015-01-01

    Proteins like collagen are the basic building blocks of various body tissues (soft and hard). Collagen molecules find their presence in the skeletal system of the body where they bear mechanical loads from different directions, either individually or along with hydroxy-apatite crystals. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior of the collagen molecule which is subjected to multi-axial state of loading. The estimation of strains of collagen molecule along different directions resulting from the changes in hydrostatic pressure magnitude, can provide us new insights into its mechanical behavior. In the present work, full atomistic simulations have been used to study global (volumetric) as well as local (along different directions) mechanical properties of the hydrated collagen molecule which is subjected to different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. To estimate the local mechanical properties, the strains of collagen molecule along its longitudinal and transverse directions have been acquired at different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. In spite of non-homogeneous distribution of atoms within the collagen molecule, the calculated values of local mechanical properties have been found to carry the same order of magnitude along the longitudinal and transverse directions. It has been demonstrated that the values of global mechanical properties like compressibility, bulk modulus, etc. as well as local mechanical properties like linear compressibility, linear elastic modulus, etc. are functions of magnitudes of applied hydrostatic pressures. The mechanical characteristics of collagen molecule based on the atomistic model have also been compared with that of the continuum model in the present work. The comparison showed up orthotropic material behavior for the collagen molecule. The information on collagen molecule provided in the present study can be very helpful in designing the future bio-materials.

  10. Mechanical response of collagen molecule under hydrostatic compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Karanvir; Kumar, Navin

    2015-04-01

    Proteins like collagen are the basic building blocks of various body tissues (soft and hard). Collagen molecules find their presence in the skeletal system of the body where they bear mechanical loads from different directions, either individually or along with hydroxy-apatite crystals. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior of the collagen molecule which is subjected to multi-axial state of loading. The estimation of strains of collagen molecule along different directions resulting from the changes in hydrostatic pressure magnitude, can provide us new insights into its mechanical behavior. In the present work, full atomistic simulations have been used to study global (volumetric) as well as local (along different directions) mechanical properties of the hydrated collagen molecule which is subjected to different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. To estimate the local mechanical properties, the strains of collagen molecule along its longitudinal and transverse directions have been acquired at different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. In spite of non-homogeneous distribution of atoms within the collagen molecule, the calculated values of local mechanical properties have been found to carry the same order of magnitude along the longitudinal and transverse directions. It has been demonstrated that the values of global mechanical properties like compressibility, bulk modulus, etc. as well as local mechanical properties like linear compressibility, linear elastic modulus, etc. are functions of magnitudes of applied hydrostatic pressures. The mechanical characteristics of collagen molecule based on the atomistic model have also been compared with that of the continuum model in the present work. The comparison showed up orthotropic material behavior for the collagen molecule. The information on collagen molecule provided in the present study can be very helpful in designing the future bio-materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  11. Mechanical response of collagen molecule under hydrostatic compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Karanvir, E-mail: karans@iitrpr.ac.in; Kumar, Navin

    2015-04-01

    Proteins like collagen are the basic building blocks of various body tissues (soft and hard). Collagen molecules find their presence in the skeletal system of the body where they bear mechanical loads from different directions, either individually or along with hydroxy-apatite crystals. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior of the collagen molecule which is subjected to multi-axial state of loading. The estimation of strains of collagen molecule along different directions resulting from the changes in hydrostatic pressure magnitude, can provide us new insights into its mechanical behavior. In the present work, full atomistic simulations have been used to study global (volumetric) as well as local (along different directions) mechanical properties of the hydrated collagen molecule which is subjected to different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. To estimate the local mechanical properties, the strains of collagen molecule along its longitudinal and transverse directions have been acquired at different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. In spite of non-homogeneous distribution of atoms within the collagen molecule, the calculated values of local mechanical properties have been found to carry the same order of magnitude along the longitudinal and transverse directions. It has been demonstrated that the values of global mechanical properties like compressibility, bulk modulus, etc. as well as local mechanical properties like linear compressibility, linear elastic modulus, etc. are functions of magnitudes of applied hydrostatic pressures. The mechanical characteristics of collagen molecule based on the atomistic model have also been compared with that of the continuum model in the present work. The comparison showed up orthotropic material behavior for the collagen molecule. The information on collagen molecule provided in the present study can be very helpful in designing the future bio-materials.

  12. A Simple Explanation of the Classic Hydrostatic Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontomaris, Stylianos-Vasileios; Malamou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    An interesting problem in fluid mechanics, with significant educational importance, is the classic hydrostatic paradox. The hydrostatic paradox states the fact that in different shaped containers, with the same base area, which are filled with a liquid of the same height, the applied force by the liquid on the base of each container is exactly the…

  13. The Hydrostatic Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alpha E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an example demonstrating the quantitative resolution of the hydrostatic paradox which is the realization that the force due to fluid pressure on the bottom of a vessel can be considerably greater or considerably less than the weight of the fluid in the vessel. (JRH)

  14. Materials engineering data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The various types of materials related data that exist at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and compiled into databases which could be accessed by all the NASA centers and by other contractors, are presented.

  15. Research progress of the static and dynamic characteristics and motion errors of hydrostatic supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei WANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, the research on static and dynamic characteristics of hydrostatic supports depend on the form and structure of the restrictor, which are mainly focused on the influences of recess shape, bearing structure, bearing surface roughness, lubricant and elastic deformations of the bearing. There are few studies on the thermal effect of hydrostatic supports and static and dynamic characteristics of hydrostatic guideways. The research on motion errors of hydrostatic supports is primarily based on the static equilibrium of the moving part. The effects of the motion speed of the moving part and structural deformation on the motion errors are not considered. Finally, the research prospects from the standardization, modularization and industrialization of hydrostatic supports, thermal effect of hydrostatic bearing, the static and dynamic characteristics of hydrostatic guideways and motion errors of hydrostatic supports under operating conditions are concluded.

  16. Breakdown of Hydrostatic Assumption in Tidal Channel with Scour Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrostatic condition is a common assumption in tidal and subtidal motions in oceans and estuaries.. Theories with this assumption have been largely successful. However, there is no definite criteria separating the hydrostatic from the non-hydrostatic regimes in real applications because real problems often times have multiple scales. With increased refinement of high resolution numerical models encompassing smaller and smaller spatial scales, the need for non-hydrostatic models is increasing. To evaluate the vertical motion over bathymetric changes in tidal channels and assess the validity of the hydrostatic approximation, we conducted observations using a vessel-based acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP. Observations were made along a straight channel 18 times over two scour holes of 25 m deep, separated by 330 m, in and out of an otherwise flat 8 m deep tidal pass leading to the Lake Pontchartrain over a time period of 8 hours covering part of the diurnal tidal cycle. Out of the 18 passages over the scour holes, 11 of them showed strong upwelling and downwelling which resulted in the breakdown of hydrostatic condition. The maximum observed vertical velocity was ~ 0.35 m/s, a high value in a tidal channel, and the estimated vertical acceleration reached a high value of 1.76×10-2 m/s2. Analysis demonstrated that the barotropic non-hydrostatic acceleration was dominant. The cause of the non-hydrostatic flow was the that over steep slopes. This demonstrates that in such a system, the bathymetric variation can lead to the breakdown of hydrostatic conditions. Models with hydrostatic restrictions will not be able to correctly capture the dynamics in such a system with significant bathymetric variations particularly during strong tidal currents.

  17. Educational Process Material Base

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Ozerova; Irina Zabaturina; Vera Kuznetsova; Galina Kovaleva

    2012-01-01

    Based on the data obtained by the Institute for Statistical Studies and the Economics of Knowledge, National Research University - Higher School of Economics Olga Ozerova - Head of the Department for Statistics of Education, Institute for Statistical Studies and the Economics of Knowledge, National Research University - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: Address: 18 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation.Irina Zabaturina - senior resea...

  18. Polyphosphazine-based polymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Avci, Recep; Groenewold, Gary S.

    2010-05-25

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  19. Piezoelectric Performance and Hydrostatic Parameters of Novel 2-2-Type Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolov, Vitaly Yu; Bowen, Christopher R; Krivoruchko, Andrey V

    2017-10-01

    This paper provides a detailed study of the structure-piezoelectric property relationships and the hydrostatic response of 2-2-Type composites based on relaxor-ferroelectric 0.72 Pb (Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -0.28PbTiO 3 single crystal (SC) material. Type I layers in the composite system are represented by a single-domain [111]-poled SC. Changes in the orientation of the crystallographic axes in the Type I layer are undertaken to determine the maximum values of the hydrostatic piezoelectric coefficients d h ∗ , g h ∗ , and e h ∗ , and squared figure of merit d h ∗ g h ∗ of the composite. The Type II layers are a 0-3 composite whereby inclusions of modified PbTiO 3 ceramic are distributed in a polymer matrix. A new effect is described for the first time due to the impact of anisotropic elastic properties of the Type II layers on the hydrostatic piezoelectric response that is coupled with the polarization orientation effect in the Type I layers. Large hydrostatic parameters g h ∗ ≈ 300 -400 mV · m/N, e h ∗ ≈ 40 -45 C/ [Formula: see text], and d h ∗ g h ∗  ∼ 10 -11 Pa -1 are achieved in the composite based on the 0.72 Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -0.28PbTiO 3 SC. Examples of the large piezoelectric anisotropy ( |d 33 ∗ /d 3f ∗ | ≥ 5 or | g 33 ∗ /g 3f ∗ | ≥ 5 ) are discussed. The hydrostatic parameters of this novel compositesystem are compared to those of conventional 2-2 piezocomposites.

  20. Hydrostatic Compression of 2,4,6,8,10,12 hexanitrohexaaza isowurtzitane (CL20) Co Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    ARL-TR-7901 ● DEC 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Hydrostatic Compression of 2,4,6,8,10,12- hexanitrohexaaza-isowurtzitane (CL20... Hydrostatic Compression of 2,4,6,8,10,12- hexanitrohexaaza-isowurtzitane (CL20) Co-Crystals by DeCarlos Taylor Weapons and Materials...Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2015–September 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydrostatic Compression of 2,4,6,8,10,12

  1. Characterizing volumetric deformation behavior of naturally occuring bituminous sand materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available newly proposed hydrostatic compression test procedure. The test procedure applies field loading conditions of off-road construction and mining equipment to closely simulate the volumetric deformation and stiffness behaviour of oil sand materials. Based...

  2. 46 CFR 64.83 - Hydrostatic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic test. 64.83 Section 64.83 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Periodic Inspections and Tests of MPTs § 64.83 Hydrostatic test. (a) The hydrostatic test..., the heating coil passing a hydrostatic test at a pressure of 200 psig or more or 50 percent or more...

  3. Hydrostatic paradox: experimental verification of pressure equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodejška, Č.; Ganci, S.; Říha, J.; Sedláčková, H.

    2017-11-01

    This work is focused on the experimental verification of the balance between the atmospheric pressure acting on the sheet of paper, which encloses the cylinder completely or partially filled with water from below, where the hydrostatic pressure of the water column acts against the atmospheric pressure. First of all this paper solves a theoretical analysis of the problem, which is based, firstly, on the equation for isothermal process and, secondly, on the equality of pressures inside and outside the cylinder. From the measured values the confirmation of the theoretical quadratic dependence of the air pressure inside the cylinder on the level of the liquid in the cylinder is obtained, the maximum change in the volume of air within the cylinder occurs for the height of the water column L of one half of the total height of the vessel H. The measurements were made for different diameters of the cylinder and with plates made of different materials located at the bottom of the cylinder to prevent liquid from flowing out of the cylinder. The measured values were subjected to statistical analysis, which demonstrated the validity of the zero hypothesis, i.e. that the measured values are not statistically significantly different from the theoretically calculated ones at the statistical significance level α  =  0.05.

  4. On possibility of fabrication of monolith composite materials on niobium carbide base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploshkin, V.V.; Ul'yanina, I.Yu.; Filonenko, V.P.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt was made to fabricate the composite material on niobium carbide base possessing the elevated heat resistance, erosion and chemical resistance in special media, as well as capable of withstanding sufficient thermal shocks. Powder of niobium carbide of 10 μm fraction was used as base material, the powder of pure copper of 10...12 μm fraction - as binder. It was shown that samples of composite mateiral on niobium carbide base fabricated by the method of hydrostatic pressing possessed the minimal porosity as compared to samples fabricated by usual methods of powder metallurgy. The basic phases of composite material-copper and niobium carbide - distribute uniformly over sample cross-section and don't interact with each other under any conditions. The fabricated composite material possesses sufficient thermal shock resistance and isn't subjected to brittle fracture

  5. In situ observation of syntactic foams under hydrostatic pressure using X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachambre, J.; Maire, E.; Adrien, J.; Choqueuse, D.

    2013-01-01

    Syntactic foams (hollow glass microspheres embedded in a polymeric matrix) are being used increasingly for the purpose of thermal insulation in ultradeep water. A better understanding of the damage mechanisms of these materials at the microsphere scale under such a hydrostatic loading condition is of prior importance in determining actual material limits, improving phenomenological modelling and developing novel formulations in the future. To achieve this goal, a study based on X-ray microtomography was performed on two syntactic foam materials (polypropylene and polyurethane matrix) and a standard foamed PP. A special set up has been designed in order to allow the X-ray microtomographic observation of the material during hydrostatic pressure loading using ethanol as the pressure fluid. Spatial resolution of (3.5 μm) 3 and in situ non-destructive scanning allowed a unique qualitative and quantitative analysis of the composite microstructure during stepwise isotropic compression by hydrostatic pressure up to 50 MPa. The collapse of weaker microspheres were observed during pressure increase and the damage parameters could be estimated. It is shown that the microspheres which are broken or the porosities which are close to the surface in the foamed PP are filled by a fluid (either the ethanol or the polymeric matrix itself). The hydrostatic pressure decreases the volume of the foam only slightly. In the PU matrix, ethanol diffusion is seen to induce swelling of the matrix, which is an unexpected phenomenon but reveals the high potential of X-ray microtomographic observation to improve diffusion analysis in complex media

  6. Intraoperative hydrostatic reduction of intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Uday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To find out an easier way of reduction of intussusception during open surgery to avoid unnecessary bowel injury. Materials and Methods: Under general anesthesia, before laparotomy, warm normal saline was infused into the rectum with a Foley catheter and an intravenous drip set maintaining the level of the bottle at 80 cm above the operating table. After opening the abdomen, pressure was applied on the colon filled with normal saline distal to the intussusceptum. The pressure was transmitted to the intussusceptum and the walls of the intussuscipient and caused reduction of intussusception without any injury to the intussuscipient and intussusceptum. This procedure was performed on those patients on whom laparotomy was performed as a primary procedure due to nonavailability of fluoroscopy or ultrasonography. Results: Between August 1998 and July 2005, we had six patients of mean (range age 11 months (7-17 months. In two cases, at laparotomy, the intussusceptions were found to have already reduced. Conclusions: Gentle finger pressure is necessary for reduction of intussusception. This subjective "gentleness" is dependant on experience of the surgeon and varies from person to person. Focal pressure on the intussuscipient and apex of the intussusceptum by the finger during reduction may be more damaging than the diffusely transmitted hydrostatic pressure even by a less-experienced surgeon. This will avoid the needless resection and anastomosis of the intestine on many occasions.

  7. Density and superconducting properties of metal-sheathed YBa2Cu3Oy ceramic processed by hydrostatic extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, M.I.; Korzhov, V.P.; Artamoshin, A.V.; Prokopenko, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    Brittle materials can be deformed without cracking and rupturing using hydrostatic extrusion, which provides the greatest pore annihilation in powder-processed materials and allows large degrees of one-step deformation, which is favorable for texturing. Earlier, a casting slip prepared by mixing a starting powder of Y-based ceramic with an organic binder was conventionally extruded to produce a wire 150 μm in diameter. After special sintering, the critical-current density in the material attained a few hundred amperes per square centimeter at 77 K, and the wire could be rolled into a winding ≥0.3 m in diameter. Hydrostatic extrusion of an assembly composed of Y-based ceramic in a bimetallic Nb/Cu tube 30 mm in diameter was used to produce rods 6 mm in diameter; drawing of these rods yielded samples of wire 2 to 3 mm in diameter. It was shown that the extrusion pressure and strain substantially influence the yield of the rupture-free wire. No signs of rupturing, cracking, or necking were observed in wire extruded at pressures ≤700 MPa and degrees of deformation ≤50%. A pronounced instability of the hydrostatic extrusion, the appearance of defects, and even the rupture of the rods were caused by an increase in the pressure up to 2000 MPa and in the degree of one-step deformation up to 80%. In this work, the authors focus on the possibility of producing thin YBa 2 Cu 3 O y superconductors using only hydrostatic extrusion. They determined the parameters for the hydrostatic extrusion of the metal-sheathed YBa 2 Cu 3 O y ceramic to a diameter of 3 mm or to a rectangular cross section. Effects of the ceramic core, and of the reduction coefficient on superconducting-transition parameters and the critical-current density of the ceramic were examined

  8. Influence of the hydrostatic stress component on critical surface expansion in forging compound products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorm, T; Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras

    1974-01-01

    of a superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the critical surface expansion during a forging process. The critical surface expansion appears to decrease with increasing hydrostatic pressure. This may be due to the fact that the close contact between the materials necessary to obtain bonding is created by a micro...

  9. The importance of pre-planning for large hydrostatic test programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Andrew Keith [WorleyParsons Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wong, Everett Clementi [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    During the design phase of a pipeline project, large hydrostatic test programs are required to locate and secure water sources. Many companies complete hydrostatic test planning through high level desktop analysis, however this technique can result in important unplanned costs and schedule delays. The aim of this paper is to assess the cost benefits of pre-planning large hydrostatic test programs versus the costs of unplanned delays in the execution of hydrostatic testing. This comparison was based on the successful application of pre-planning of 57 mainline hydrostatic tests in the construction of the Line 4 Extension and Alberta Clipper Expansion oil pipelines by Enbridge Pipelines Inc. Results showed that costs of delays and uncertainty during construction far outweigh the costs of pre-planning. This study highlighted that pre-planning for large hydrostatic test programs should be carried out in the execution of large pipeline projects to ensure success.

  10. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on ionized donor bound exciton states in strained wurtzite GaN/AlxGa1-xN cylindrical quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Dongmei; Wang Zongchi; Xiao Boqi

    2012-01-01

    Based on the effective-mass approximation and variational procedure, ionized donor bound exciton (D + , X) states confined in strained wurtzite (WZ) GaN/Al x Ga 1-x N cylindrical (disk-like) quantum dots (QDs) with finite-height potential barriers are investigated, with considering the influences of the built-in electric field (BEF), the biaxial strain dependence of material parameters and the applied hydrostatic pressure. The Schrödinger equation via the proper choice of the donor bound exciton trial wave function is solved. The behaviors of the binding energy of (D + , X) and the optical transition associated with (D + , X) are examined at different pressures for different QD sizes and donor positions. In our calculations, the effective masses of electron and hole, dielectric constants, phonon frequencies, energy gaps, and piezoelectric polarizations are taken into account as functions of biaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure. Our results show that the hydrostatic pressure, the QD size and the donor position have a remarkable influence on (D + , X) states. The hydrostatic pressure generally increases the binding energy of (D + , X). However, the binding energy tends to decrease for the QDs with large height and lower Al composition (x 0 ≤0. The optical transition energy has a blue-shift (red-shift) if the hydrostatic pressure (QD height) increases. For the QDs with small height and low Al composition, the hydrostatic pressure dependence of the optical transition energy is more obvious. Furthermore, the relationship between the radiative decay time and hydrostatic pressure (QD height) is also investigated. It is found that the radiative decay time increases with pressure and the increment tendency is more prominent for the QDs with large height. The radiative decay time increases exponentially reaching microsecond order with increasing QD height. The physical reason has been analyzed in depth.

  11. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W B

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  12. Evaluation of the Impact of Hydrostatic Pressure and Lode Angle on the Strength of the Rock Mass Based on the Hoek–Brown Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marczak Halina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the global uniaxial compressive strength of rock mass on the basis of the Hoek-Brown failure criterion requires knowledge of the strength parameters: cohesion and the angle of internal friction. In the conventional method for the determination of these parameters given by Balmer, they are expressed by the minimum principal stress. Thus, this method does not allow for the assessment of an impact of hydrostatic pressure and stress path on the value of cohesion, friction angle and global uniaxial compression of rock mass. This problem can be eliminated by using the Hoek-Brown criterion expressed by the invariants of the stress state. The influence of hydrostatic pressure and the Lode angle on the strength parameters of the rock mass was analysed.

  13. Characteristics of hydrostatically extruded Zr-2.5Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jie, Z.; Jiaqi, D.; Tieqi, Y.; Wenxian, H.; Yan, L.; Yunxia, Z.; Zhenhe, L.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrostatic extrusion is a new production technology. Zr-2.5Nb alloy tubes cold hydrostatically extruded possess excellent mechanical properties similar to heat-treated tubes and better than cold-worked tubes. Examination by transmission electron microscope shows that the alloy is of a uniform cell substructure containing the (α + β) phases, which is one of important factors improving properties of the alloy. The study of texture, stress, and reorientation of the hydride shows that hydrostatically extruded tubes with basal plane normals in the radial direction have obviously higher hydride reorientation threshold stress than tubes with basal plane normals in the circumferential direction. Moreover, investigation of fracture toughness reveals that hydride distributed perpendicular to the crack propagation direction restrains further propagation of the crack. It is favorable for preserving the fracture resistance of the material

  14. Hydrostaticity of Pressure Media in Diamond Anvil Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu-Jie, You; Liang-Chen, Chen; Chang-Qing, Jin

    2009-01-01

    Hydrostaticity under high pressure of several materials from solid, fluid to gas, which are widely used as pressure media in modern high-pressure experiments, is investigated in diamond anvil cells. Judging from the R-line widths and R 1 – R 2 peak separation of Ruby fluorescence, the inert argon gas is hydrostatic up to about 30 GPa. The behavior of silicon oil is found to be similar to argon at pressures less than 10 GPa, while the widening of R-lines and increase of R 1 – R 2 peak separation at higher pressure loads indicate a significant degradation of hydrostaticity. Therefore silicon oil is considered as a good pressure medium at pressures less than 10 GPa but poor at higher pressures

  15. Packaging based on polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two years the consumption of common in the developed countries world wide (high tonnage polymers for packaging has approached a value of 50 wt.%. In the same period more than 50% of the packaging units on the world market were made of polymeric materials despite the fact that polymeric materials present 17 wt.% of all packaging materials. The basic properties of polymeric materials and their environmental and economical advantages, providing them such a position among packaging materials, are presented in this article. Recycling methods, as well as the development trends of polymeric packaging materials are also presented.

  16. Design and Analysis of Hydrostatic Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Kayzad A.; Patel, Bhaumikkumar A.; Patel, Dhruvin J.; Parsana, Parth M.; Patel, Jitendra P.

    2018-02-01

    This study develops a hydraulic circuit to drive a conveying system dealing with heavy and delicate loads. Various safety circuits have been added in order to ensure stable working at high pressure and precise controlling. Here we have shown the calculation procedure based on an arbitrarily selected load. Also the circuit design and calculations of various components used is depicted along with the system simulation. The results show that the system is stable and efficient enough to transmit heavy loads by functioning of the circuit. By this information, one can be able to design their own hydrostatic circuits for various heavy loading conditions.

  17. Well balanced finite volume methods for nearly hydrostatic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta, N.; Klein, R.; Langenberg, S.; Luetzenkirchen, S.

    2004-01-01

    In numerical approximations of nearly hydrostatic flows, a proper representation of the dominant hydrostatic balance is of crucial importance: unbalanced truncation errors can induce unacceptable spurious motions, e.g., in dynamical cores of models for numerical weather prediction (NWP) in particular near steep topography. In this paper we develop a new strategy for the construction of discretizations that are 'well-balanced' with respect to dominant hydrostatics. The classical idea of formulating the momentum balance in terms of deviations of pressure from a balanced background distribution is realized here through local, time dependent hydrostatic reconstructions. Balanced discretizations of the pressure gradient and of the gravitation source term are achieved through a 'discrete Archimedes' buoyancy principle'. This strategy is applied to extend an explicit standard finite volume Godunov-type scheme for compressible flows with minimal modifications. The resulting method has the following features: (i) It inherits its conservation properties from the underlying base scheme. (ii) It is exactly balanced, even on curvilinear grids, for a large class of near-hydrostatic flows. (iii) It solves the full compressible flow equations without reference to a background state that is defined for an entire vertical column of air. (iv) It is robust with respect to details of the implementation, such as the choice of slope limiting functions, or the particularities of boundary condition discretizations

  18. The tensile deformation behavior of nuclear-grade isotropic graphite posterior to hydrostatic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, S.; Eto, M.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of prehydrostatic loading on microstructural changes and tensile deformation behavior of nuclear-grade isotropic graphite have been examined. Scanning electron micrographs show that formation of microcracks associated with delamination between basal planes occurs under hydrostatic loading. Hydrostatic loading on specimens results in the decrease in tensile strength and increase in residual strain generated by the applied tensile stress at various levels, indicating that the graphite material is weakened by hydrostatic loading. A relationship between residual strain and applied tensile stress for graphite hydrostatically-loaded at several pressure levels can be approximately expressed as element of= (AP + B) sigmasup(n) over a wide range hydrostatic pressure, where element of, P and sigma denote residual strain, hydrostatic pressure and applied tensile stress, respectively; A, B and n are constant. The effects of prehydrostatic loading on the tensile stress-strain behavior of the graphite were examined in more detail. The ratio of stress after hydrostatic loading to that before hydrostatic loading on the stress-strain relationship remains almost unchanged irrespective of strain. (orig.)

  19. Vanadium based materials as electrode materials for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Li, Bing; Guo, Wei; Pang, Huan; Xue, Huaiguo

    2016-10-01

    As a kind of supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors have attracted wide attention in recent years. The capacitance of the electrochemical capacitors based on pseudocapacitance arises mainly from redox reactions between electrolytes and active materials. These materials usually have several oxidation states for oxidation and reduction. Many research teams have focused on the development of an alternative material for electrochemical capacitors. Many transition metal oxides have been shown to be suitable as electrode materials of electrochemical capacitors. Among them, vanadium based materials are being developed for this purpose. Vanadium based materials are known as one of the best active materials for high power/energy density electrochemical capacitors due to its outstanding specific capacitance and long cycle life, high conductivity and good electrochemical reversibility. There are different kinds of synthetic methods such as sol-gel hydrothermal/solvothermal method, template method, electrospinning method, atomic layer deposition, and electrodeposition method that have been successfully applied to prepare vanadium based electrode materials. In our review, we give an overall summary and evaluation of the recent progress in the research of vanadium based materials for electrochemical capacitors that include synthesis methods, the electrochemical performances of the electrode materials and the devices.

  20. Electron-hole transition in spherical QD-QW nanoparticles based on GaN∣(In,Ga)N∣GaN under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ghazi, Haddou; Jorio, Anouar

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of effective-mass approximation and finite parabolic potential confinement barrier in which two confinement parameters are taking account, the electron (hole) energy and the ground-state electron-hole (e−h) transition in Core∣well∣shell (GaN|In x Ga 1−x N|GaN) spherical QD-QW nanoparticles are investigated as a function of the inner and the outer radii under externally applied hydrostatic pressure. The pressure dependencies of the effective-mass and the QD radius are taking into account. The results we obtained are in quite good agreement with the theoretical and the experimental findings

  1. Electron-hole transition in spherical QD-QW nanoparticles based on GaN∣(In,Ga)N∣GaN under hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar EL Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); Special Mathematics, CPGE Kénitra, Chakib Arsalane Street (Morocco); Jorio, Anouar [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar EL Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco)

    2013-11-15

    Within the framework of effective-mass approximation and finite parabolic potential confinement barrier in which two confinement parameters are taking account, the electron (hole) energy and the ground-state electron-hole (e−h) transition in Core∣well∣shell (GaN|In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N|GaN) spherical QD-QW nanoparticles are investigated as a function of the inner and the outer radii under externally applied hydrostatic pressure. The pressure dependencies of the effective-mass and the QD radius are taking into account. The results we obtained are in quite good agreement with the theoretical and the experimental findings.

  2. Liquid crystalline fiber optic colorimeter for hydrostatic pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Tomasz R.; Bajdecki, Waldemar K.; Domanski, Andrzej W.; Karpierz, Miroslaw A.; Konopka, Witold; Nasilowski, T.; Sierakowski, Marek W.; Swillo, Marcin; Dabrowski, Roman S.; Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, Edward; Wasowski, Janusz

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents results of tests performed on a fiber optic system of liquid crystalline transducer for hydrostatic pressure monitoring based on properties of colorimetry. The system employs pressure-induced deformations occurring in liquid crystalline (LC) cells configured in a homogeneous Frederiks geometry. The sensor is compared of a round LC cell placed inside a specially designed pressure chamber. As a light source we used a typical diode operating at red wavelength and modulated using standard techniques. The pressure transducer was connected to a computer with a specially designed interface built on the bas of advanced ADAM modules. Results indicate that the system offers high response to pressure with reduced temperature sensitivity and, depending on the LC cell used, can be adjusted for monitoring of low hydrostatic pressures up to 6 MPa. These studies have demonstrated the feasibility of fiber optic liquid crystal colorimeter for hydrostatic pressure sensing specially dedicated to pipe- lines, mining instrumentation, and process-control technologies.

  3. Knowledge-based metals & materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sasson, Amir

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the Norwegian metal and material industry (defined as all metal and material related firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, R&D and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.

  4. Metal extrusion using hydrostatic pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauve, Ch.

    1965-01-01

    The main problems connected with the deformation of metals due to extrusion are described. A method is put forward for calculating the rational rate of percentage deformation in the case of bar extrusion using a cylindrical container; reference is made to previous work on extrusion using a hydrostatic pressure with or without back-pressure. An extrusion process is described using hydrostatic pressure, without back-pressure, and using the lubricant for transmitting the thrust. This process has been used for eight years by the C.E.A. for the extrusion of a very wide range of metals, from beryllium to uranium and including steels; it leads to excellent surface textures. A very fine crystallization can be obtained on extruded products when the rate of extrusion is very low. There appears to be nothing against the use of high extrusion rates using this method. (author) [fr

  5. Dynamic tuning by hydrostatic pressure of magnetocaloric properties to Ericsson like cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztañaga, P.; Sacanell, J.; Leyva, A. G.; Quintero, M.

    2018-03-01

    A method to increase the relative cooling power to be used in Ericsson like refrigeration cycles is presented. The technique is based in the modification of the magnetic properties by the application of hydrostatic pressure on magnetic samples. The main advantage is to reach larger values of the magnetic entropy change in a wider temperature region (the so-called "table like" behavior). The study was carried out in a manganite belonging to the family of La0.625-yNdyCa0.375MnO3, and some conclusions were compared with the expected behavior in other materials extracted from literature.

  6. Hydrostatic force sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.S.; Stoughton, R.S.; Kazerooni, H.

    1994-08-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation of a new kind of force sensor which detects forces by measuring an induced pressure change in a material of large Poisson's ratio. In this investigation we develop mathematical expressions for the sensor's sensitivity and bandwidth, and show that its sensitivity can be much larger and its bandwidth is usually smaller than those of existing strain-gage-type sensors. This force sensor is well-suited for measuring large but slowly varying forces. It can be installed in a space smaller than that required by existing sensors

  7. Real-time controller for hydrostatic transmission

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M. Ing. (Electrical and Electronic Engineering) This dissertation describes the development of a modular real-time controller implemented on a personal computer for a hydrostatically driven vehicle. In such a vehicle the conventional mechanical transmission is replaced with a hydrostatic pump and two hydrostatic motors, making use of the secondary control principle. The infinitely variable transmission and wheel pair controller gives the vehicle superior traction and mobility over conventi...

  8. A hybrid hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic numerical model for shallow flow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxin; Liang, Dongfang; Liu, Hua

    2018-05-01

    Hydrodynamics of geophysical flows in oceanic shelves, estuaries, and rivers, are often studied by solving shallow water model equations. Although hydrostatic models are accurate and cost efficient for many natural flows, there are situations where the hydrostatic assumption is invalid, whereby a fully hydrodynamic model is necessary to increase simulation accuracy. There is a growing concern about the decrease of the computational cost of non-hydrostatic pressure models to improve the range of their applications in large-scale flows with complex geometries. This study describes a hybrid hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic model to increase the efficiency of simulating shallow water flows. The basic numerical model is a three-dimensional hydrostatic model solved by the finite volume method (FVM) applied to unstructured grids. Herein, a second-order total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme is adopted. Using a predictor-corrector method to calculate the non-hydrostatic pressure, we extended the hydrostatic model to a fully hydrodynamic model. By localising the computational domain in the corrector step for non-hydrostatic pressure calculations, a hybrid model was developed. There was no prior special treatment on mode switching, and the developed numerical codes were highly efficient and robust. The hybrid model is applicable to the simulation of shallow flows when non-hydrostatic pressure is predominant only in the local domain. Beyond the non-hydrostatic domain, the hydrostatic model is still accurate. The applicability of the hybrid method was validated using several study cases.

  9. Non-hydrostatic semi-elastic hybrid-coordinate SISL extension of HIRLAM. Part II: numerical testing

    OpenAIRE

    Rõõm, Rein; Männik, Aarne; Luhamaa, Andres; Zirk, Marko

    2007-01-01

    The semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian (SISL), two-time-level, non-hydrostatic numerical scheme, based on the non-hydrostatic, semi-elastic pressure-coordinate equations, is tested in model experiments with flow over given orography (elliptical hill, mountain ridge, system of successive ridges) in a rectangular domain with emphasis on the numerical accuracy and non-hydrostatic effect presentation capability. Comparison demonstrates good (in strong primary wave generation) to satisfactory (in weak ...

  10. Controlled hydrostatic pressure stress downregulates the expression of ribosomal genes in preimplantation embryos: a possible protection mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, I; Raveh-Amit, H; Losonczi, E; Carstea, A C; Feher, A; Mashayekhi, K; Matyas, S; Dinnyes, A; Pribenszky, C

    2016-04-01

    The efficiency of various assisted reproductive techniques can be improved by preconditioning the gametes and embryos with sublethal hydrostatic pressure treatment. However, the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for this protective effect remains unknown and requires further investigation. Here, we studied the effect of optimised hydrostatic pressure treatment on the global gene expression of mouse oocytes after embryonic genome activation. Based on a gene expression microarray analysis, a significant effect of treatment was observed in 4-cell embryos derived from treated oocytes, revealing a transcriptional footprint of hydrostatic pressure-affected genes. Functional analysis identified numerous genes involved in protein synthesis that were downregulated in 4-cell embryos in response to hydrostatic pressure treatment, suggesting that regulation of translation has a major role in optimised hydrostatic pressure-induced stress tolerance. We present a comprehensive microarray analysis and further delineate a potential mechanism responsible for the protective effect of hydrostatic pressure treatment.

  11. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on ionized donor bound exciton states in strained wurtzite GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N cylindrical quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Dongmei, E-mail: smdmzheng@163.com [College of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering, Sanming University, Sanming 365004 (China); Wang Zongchi; Xiao Boqi [College of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering, Sanming University, Sanming 365004 (China)

    2012-11-01

    Based on the effective-mass approximation and variational procedure, ionized donor bound exciton (D{sup +}, X) states confined in strained wurtzite (WZ) GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N cylindrical (disk-like) quantum dots (QDs) with finite-height potential barriers are investigated, with considering the influences of the built-in electric field (BEF), the biaxial strain dependence of material parameters and the applied hydrostatic pressure. The Schroedinger equation via the proper choice of the donor bound exciton trial wave function is solved. The behaviors of the binding energy of (D{sup +}, X) and the optical transition associated with (D{sup +}, X) are examined at different pressures for different QD sizes and donor positions. In our calculations, the effective masses of electron and hole, dielectric constants, phonon frequencies, energy gaps, and piezoelectric polarizations are taken into account as functions of biaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure. Our results show that the hydrostatic pressure, the QD size and the donor position have a remarkable influence on (D{sup +}, X) states. The hydrostatic pressure generally increases the binding energy of (D{sup +}, X). However, the binding energy tends to decrease for the QDs with large height and lower Al composition (x<0.3) if the donor is located at z{sub 0}{<=}0. The optical transition energy has a blue-shift (red-shift) if the hydrostatic pressure (QD height) increases. For the QDs with small height and low Al composition, the hydrostatic pressure dependence of the optical transition energy is more obvious. Furthermore, the relationship between the radiative decay time and hydrostatic pressure (QD height) is also investigated. It is found that the radiative decay time increases with pressure and the increment tendency is more prominent for the QDs with large height. The radiative decay time increases exponentially reaching microsecond order with increasing QD height. The physical reason has been analyzed in depth.

  12. Development of starch-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habeych Narvaez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Starch-based materials show potential as fully degradable plastics. However, the current
    applicability of these materials is limited due to their poor moisture tolerance and
    mechanical properties. Starch is therefore frequently blended with other polymers to make
    the material more

  13. Melanin-Based Functional Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco d’Ischia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanin biopolymers are currently the focus of growing interest for a broad range of applications at the cutting edge of biomedical research and technology. This Special Issue presents a collection of papers dealing with melanin-type materials, e.g., polydopamine, for classic and innovative applications, offering a stimulating perspective of current trends in the field. Besides basic scientists, the Special Issue is directed to researchers from industries and companies that are willing to invest in melanin research for innovative and inspiring solutions.

  14. Materiality in a practice-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Common terms for materiality are 'artifact' and 'object'. The interaction between social and material realities is grasped as several processes: object......-oriented activity, symbolization, embodiment, performance, alignment and mediation. Material artifacts both stabilize and destabilize organizational action. They may ensure coordination, communication, and control, but they may also create disturbance and conflict....

  15. Rectangular Shell Plating Under Uniformly Distributed Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, M; Sommer, A

    1940-01-01

    A check of the calculation methods used by Foppl and Henky for investigating the reliability of shell plating under hydrostatic pressure has proved that the formulas yield practical results within the elastic range of the material. Foppl's approximate calculation leaves one on the safe side. It further was found on the basis of the marked ductility of the shell plating under tensile stress that the strength is from 50 to 100 percent higher in the elastic range than expected by either method.

  16. LDEF materials special investigation group's data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, John W.; Funk, Joan G.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was composed of and contained a wide array of materials, representing the largest collection of materials flown for space exposure and returned for ground-based analyses to date. The results and implications of the data from these materials are the foundation on which future space missions will be built. The LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) has been tasked with establishing and developing data bases to document these materials and their performance to assure not only that the data are archived for future generations but also that the data are available to the space user community in an easily accessed, user-friendly form. The format and content of the data bases developed or being developed to accomplish this task are discussed. The hardware and software requirements for each of the three data bases are discussed along with current availability of the data bases.

  17. EPR-based material modelling of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Asaad; Alani, Amir M.

    2013-04-01

    In the past few decades, as a result of the rapid developments in computational software and hardware, alternative computer aided pattern recognition approaches have been introduced to modelling many engineering problems, including constitutive modelling of materials. The main idea behind pattern recognition systems is that they learn adaptively from experience and extract various discriminants, each appropriate for its purpose. In this work an approach is presented for developing material models for soils based on evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR). EPR is a recently developed hybrid data mining technique that searches for structured mathematical equations (representing the behaviour of a system) using genetic algorithm and the least squares method. Stress-strain data from triaxial tests are used to train and develop EPR-based material models for soil. The developed models are compared with some of the well-known conventional material models and it is shown that EPR-based models can provide a better prediction for the behaviour of soils. The main benefits of using EPR-based material models are that it provides a unified approach to constitutive modelling of all materials (i.e., all aspects of material behaviour can be implemented within a unified environment of an EPR model); it does not require any arbitrary choice of constitutive (mathematical) models. In EPR-based material models there are no material parameters to be identified. As the model is trained directly from experimental data therefore, EPR-based material models are the shortest route from experimental research (data) to numerical modelling. Another advantage of EPR-based constitutive model is that as more experimental data become available, the quality of the EPR prediction can be improved by learning from the additional data, and therefore, the EPR model can become more effective and robust. The developed EPR-based material models can be incorporated in finite element (FE) analysis.

  18. Diamond-based materials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Carbon is light-weight, strong, conductive and able to mimic natural materials within the body, making it ideal for many uses within biomedicine. Consequently a great deal of research and funding is being put into this interesting material with a view to increasing the variety of medical applications for which it is suitable. Diamond-based materials for biomedical applications presents readers with the fundamental principles and novel applications of this versatile material. Part one provides a clear introduction to diamond based materials for medical applications. Functionalization of diamond particles and surfaces is discussed, followed by biotribology and biological behaviour of nanocrystalline diamond coatings, and blood compatibility of diamond-like carbon coatings. Part two then goes on to review biomedical applications of diamond based materials, beginning with nanostructured diamond coatings for orthopaedic applications. Topics explored include ultrananocrystalline diamond for neural and ophthalmologi...

  19. New Cork-Based Materials and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review work is an update of a previous work reporting the new cork based materials and new applications of cork based materials. Cork is a material which has been used for multiple applications. The most known uses of cork are in stoppers (natural and agglomerated cork for alcoholic beverages, classic floor covering with composite cork tiles (made by the binding of cork particles with different binders, and thermal/acoustic/vibration insulation with expanded corkboard in buildings and some other industrial fields. Many recent developments have been made leading to new cork based materials. Most of these newly developed cork materials are not yet on the market, but they represent new possibilities for engineers, architects, designers and other professionals which must be known and considered, potentially leading to their industrialization. This paper is a review covering the last five years of innovative cork materials and applications also mentioning previous work not reported before.

  20. New Cork-Based Materials and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Luís

    2015-01-01

    This review work is an update of a previous work reporting the new cork based materials and new applications of cork based materials. Cork is a material which has been used for multiple applications. The most known uses of cork are in stoppers (natural and agglomerated cork) for alcoholic beverages, classic floor covering with composite cork tiles (made by the binding of cork particles with different binders), and thermal/acoustic/vibration insulation with expanded corkboard in buildings and some other industrial fields. Many recent developments have been made leading to new cork based materials. Most of these newly developed cork materials are not yet on the market, but they represent new possibilities for engineers, architects, designers and other professionals which must be known and considered, potentially leading to their industrialization. This paper is a review covering the last five years of innovative cork materials and applications also mentioning previous work not reported before. PMID:28787962

  1. New Cork-Based Materials and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Luís

    2015-02-10

    This review work is an update of a previous work reporting the new cork based materials and new applications of cork based materials. Cork is a material which has been used for multiple applications. The most known uses of cork are in stoppers (natural and agglomerated cork) for alcoholic beverages, classic floor covering with composite cork tiles (made by the binding of cork particles with different binders), and thermal/acoustic/vibration insulation with expanded corkboard in buildings and some other industrial fields. Many recent developments have been made leading to new cork based materials. Most of these newly developed cork materials are not yet on the market, but they represent new possibilities for engineers, architects, designers and other professionals which must be known and considered, potentially leading to their industrialization. This paper is a review covering the last five years of innovative cork materials and applications also mentioning previous work not reported before.

  2. High-pressure resistivity technique for quasi-hydrostatic compression experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundu, C R; Ćuk, T; Greene, R L; Shen, Z-X; Hemley, Russell J; Struzhkin, V V

    2013-06-01

    Diamond anvil cell techniques are now well established and powerful methods for measuring materials properties to very high pressure. However, high pressure resistivity measurements are challenging because the electrical contacts attached to the sample have to survive to extreme stress conditions. Until recently, experiments in a diamond anvil cell were mostly limited to non-hydrostatic or quasi-hydrostatic pressure media other than inert gases. We present here a solution to the problem by using focused ion beam ultrathin lithography for a diamond anvil cell loaded with inert gas (Ne) and show typical resistivity data. These ultrathin leads are deposited on the culet of the diamond and are attaching the sample to the anvil mechanically, therefore allowing for measurements in hydrostatic or nearly hydrostatic conditions of pressure using noble gases like Ne or He as pressure transmitting media.

  3. Hydrostatic extrusion of Cu-Ag melt spun ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary Ann; Bingert, John F.; Bingert, Sherri A.; Thoma, Dan J.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of producing high-strength and high-conductance copper and silver materials comprising the steps of combining a predetermined ratio of the copper with the silver to produce a composite material, and melt spinning the composite material to produce a ribbon of copper and silver. The ribbon of copper and silver is heated in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thereafter die pressed into a slug. The slug then is placed into a high-purity copper vessel and the vessel is sealed with an electron beam. The vessel and slug then are extruded into wire form using a cold hydrostatic extrusion process.

  4. Membrane-based biomolecular smart materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarles, Stephen A; Leo, Donald J

    2011-01-01

    Membrane-based biomolecular materials are a new class of smart material that feature networks of artificial lipid bilayers contained within durable synthetic substrates. Bilayers contained within this modular material platform provide an environment that can be tailored to host an enormous diversity of functional biomolecules, where the functionality of the global material system depends on the type(s) and organization(s) of the biomolecules that are chosen. In this paper, we review a series of biomolecular material platforms developed recently within the Leo Group at Virginia Tech and we discuss several novel coupling mechanisms provided by these hybrid material systems. The platforms developed demonstrate that the functions of biomolecules and the properties of synthetic materials can be combined to operate in concert, and the examples provided demonstrate how the formation and properties of a lipid bilayer can respond to a variety of stimuli including mechanical forces and electric fields

  5. Leaching from denture base materials in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lygre, H.; Solheim, E.; Gjerdet, N.R. [School of Medicine, Univ. of Bergen (Norway)

    1995-04-01

    Specimens made from denture base materials were leached in Ringer Solution and in ethanol. The specimens comprised a heat-cured product processed in two different ways and two cold-cured materials. The organic compounds leaching from the specimens to the solutions were separated, identified, and quantified by a combined gas-chromatography and gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry technique. Additives and degradation products, possibly made by free radical reactions, were released from the denture base materials. In Ringer solution only phthalates could be quantified. In ethanol solvent, biphenyl, dibutyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, phenyl benzoate, and phenyl salicylate were quantified. In addition, copper was found in the ethanol solvent from one of the denture base materials. The amount of leachable organic compounds varies among different materials. Processing temperature influences the initial amount of leachable compounds. 36 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Characterization of asphalt treated base course material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Asphalt-treated bases are often used in new pavements; the materials are available and low-cost, but there is little data on how these materials perform in cold regions. : This study investigated four ATB types (hot asphalt, emulsion, foamed asphalt,...

  7. Hydrostatic Hyperbaric Chamber Ventilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber (HHC) represents the merger of several technologies in development for NASA aerospace applications, harnessed to directly benefit global health. NASA has significant experience developing composite hyperbaric chambers for a variety of applications. NASA also has researched the application of water-filled vessels to increase tolerance of acceleration forces. The combination of these two applications has resulted in the hydrostatic chamber, which has been conceived as a safe, affordable means of making hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) available in the developing world for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Specifically, HBOT is highly-desired as a possibly curative treatment for Buruli Ulcer, an infectious condition that afflicts children in sub-Saharan Africa. HBOT is simply too expensive and too dangerous to implement in the developing world using standard equipment. The HHC technology changes the paradigm. The HHC differs from standard hyperbaric chambers in that the majority of its volume is filled with water which is pressurized by oxygen being supplied in the portion of the chamber containing the patient s head. This greatly reduces the amount of oxygen required to sustain a hyperbaric atmosphere, thereby making the system more safe and economical to operate. An effort was taken to develop an HHC system to apply HBOT to children that is simple and robust enough to support transport, assembly, maintenance and operation in developing countries. This paper details the concept for an HHC ventilation and pressurization system to provide controlled pressurization and adequate washout of carbon dioxide while the subject is enclosed in the confined space during the administration of the medical treatment. The concept took into consideration operational complexity, safety to the patient and operating personnel, and physiological considerations. The simple schematic, comprised of easily acquired commercial hardware

  8. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Powdered Quasicrystalline Al94Fe3Cr3 Alloy Consolidated by Quasi-Hydrostatic Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra I. Yurkova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quasicrystalline Al-based alloys belong to the class of the state-of-the-art metal materials for the application in light engineering constructions, primarily in aviation and the motor transport industry. These materials are commonly made in the form of powders, which is due to the high productivity of powder metallurgy methods. Therefore, the powder consolidation methods are of great importance in the production of products, which is associated with certain difficulties, and consequently, they should be chosen considering not only the quasicrystals’ propensity to brittle fracture but also the metastable nature of the quasicrystalline phases. Certain possibilities in this direction are provided by the quasi-hydrostatic compression method, which can provide a non-trivial combination of strength and ductility properties of materials. Objective. The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of high pressure under quasi-hydrostatic compression on the formation of structure, phase composition and mechanical properties of the quasicrystalline Al94Fe3Cr3 alloy. Methods. 40 μm Al94Fe3Cr3 alloy quasicrystalline powder was fabricated by water-atomisation technique. Consolidation of quasicrystalline powder was performed by quasi-hydrostatic compression technique in high-pressure cells at room temperature at a pressure of 2.5, 4, and 6 hPa. Structure, phase composition and mechanical characteristics of Al94Fe3Cr3 alloy were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction andmicromechanical tests. Results. Using the phase X-ray analysis and SEM, the content of the quasicrystalline icosahedral phase (i-phase in the Al94Fe3Cr3 alloy structure was completely preserved after its consolidation at different pressures (2.5, 4, and 6 hPa under quasi-hydrostatic compression at room temperature. Despite the high pressure applied in the consolidation process, the morphology of quasicrystalline phase particles located in the a

  9. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The... to any hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic testing required by these rules shall be conducted at 25...

  10. 49 CFR 178.814 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.814 Section 178.814... Testing of IBCs § 178.814 Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must be... preparation for the hydrostatic pressure test. For metal IBCs, the test must be carried out before the fitting...

  11. Materiality in a Practice-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svabo, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Design/methodology/approach: The overview is theoretically generated and is based on the anthology Knowing in Organizations: A Practice-based Approach edited by Nicolini, Gherardi and Yanow. The…

  12. High hydrostatic pressure treatments enhance volatile components of pre-germinated brown rice revealed by aromatic fingerprinting based on HS-SPME/GC-MS and chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiang; Mei, Jun; Yu, Wenjuan; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    Germination favors to significantly enhance functional components and health attributes of whole-grain brown rice (BR), but the production of germinated BR (GBR) compromises the typical rice flavor perception due to soaking process. Simultaneously, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is considered as an effective processing technique to enhance micronutrients utilization efficiency of GBR and improve products flavor, but no information about the effects of HHP treatments on volatile fingerprinting of GBR has been reported. Therefore, the objective of this work was to apply HHP to improve the flavor and odor of GBR grains by exploring HHP-induced changes in aroma compounds. GBR grains were obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h, and subsequently subjected to HHP treatments at pressures 100, 300 and 500MPa for 15min, using 0.1MPa as control. Headspace solid-phase micro extraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to characterize process-induced shifts of volatile organic compounds fingerprinting, followed by multivariate analysis. Our results confirmed the significant reduction of total volatile fractions derived from germination process. Contrarily, the following HHP treatments greatly enhanced the flavor components of GBR, particularly characteristic odorants including aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols. Principal component analysis further indicated the different influence of germination and high pressure on the changes in volatile components. Partial least square-discrimination analysis suggested that 4-vinylguaiacol was closely linked to germination, whereas E,E-2,4-decadienal, E-2-hexenal, E,E-2,4-heptadienal and benzyl alcohol could be considered as volatile biomarkers of high pressure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A composite material based on recycled tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malers, L.; Plesuma, R.; Locmele, L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is devoted to the elaboration and investigation of a composite material based on mechanically grinded recycled tires and a polymer binder. The correlation between the content of the binder, some technological parameters, and material properties of the composite was clarified. The apparent density, the compressive stress at a 10% strain, the compressive elastic modulus in static and cyclic loadings, and the insulating properties (acoustic and thermal) were the parameters of special interest of the present investigation. It is found that a purposeful variation of material composition and some technological parameters leads to multifunctional composite materials with different and predictable mechanical and insulation properties.

  14. Preliminary study on the influence of the tides of planet earth on hydrostatic leveling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaoye; Xu Shaofeng; Wang Peng

    2012-01-01

    Hydrostatic leveling system, used mainly in survey and alignment technology in particle accelerator and monitoring the tides is introduced in this paper. Based on the theory about the ocean tide and earth tide, we analyze effects of the earth tides on a hydrostatic leveling system. From the data obtained from an HLS, and their F are, and finally we verify the influence of the tides of planet earth. (authors)

  15. Whole Language-Based English Reading Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Erlina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This Research and Development (R&D aims at developing English reading materials for undergraduate EFL students of Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN Raden Fatah Palembang, Indonesia. Research data were obtained through questionnaires, tests, and documents. The results of the research show that the existing materials are not relevant to the students’ need, so there is a need for developing new materials based on whole language principles. In general, the new developed materials are considered reliable by the experts, students, and lecturers. The materials are also effective in improving students’ reading achievement. The final product of the materials consists of a course book entitled Whole Language Reading (WLR and a teacher’s manual. WLR provides rich input of reading strategies, variety of topics, concepts, texts, activities, tasks, and evaluations. Using this book makes reading more holistic and meaningful as it provides integration across language skills and subject areas.

  16. Nanocellulose based polymer composite for acoustical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Mohammad; Purniawan, Agung; Susanti, Diah; Priyono, Slamet; Ardhyananta, Hosta; Rahmasita, Mutia E.

    2018-04-01

    Natural fibers are biodegradable materials that are innovatively and widely used for composite reinforcement in automotive components. Nanocellulose derived from natural fibers oil palm empty bunches have properties that are remarkable for use as a composite reinforcement. However, there have not been many investigations related to the use of nanocellulose-based composites for wideband sound absorption materials. The specimens of nanocellulose-based polyester composite were prepared using a spray method. An impedance tube method was used to measure the sound absorption coefficient of this composite material. To reveal the characteristics of the nanocellulose-based polyester composite material, SEM (scanning electron microscope), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red), TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis), and density tests were performed. Sound absorption test results showed the average value of sound absorption coefficient of 0.36 to 0,46 for frequency between 500 and 4000 Hz indicating that this nanocellulose-based polyester composite materials had a tendency to wideband sound absorption materials and potentially used as automotive interior materials.

  17. A free-surface hydrodynamic model for density-stratified flow in the weakly to strongly non-hydrostatic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Colin Y.; Evans, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    A non-hydrostatic density-stratified hydrodynamic model with a free surface has been developed from the vorticity equations rather than the usual momentum equations. This approach has enabled the model to be obtained in two different forms, weakly non-hydrostatic and fully non-hydrostatic, with the computationally efficient weakly non-hydrostatic form applicable to motions having horizontal scales greater than the local water depth. The hydrodynamic model in both its weakly and fully non-hydrostatic forms is validated numerically using exact nonlinear non-hydrostatic solutions given by the Dubriel-Jacotin-Long equation for periodic internal gravity waves, internal solitary waves, and flow over a ridge. The numerical code is developed based on a semi-Lagrangian scheme and higher order finite-difference spatial differentiation and interpolation. To demonstrate the applicability of the model to coastal ocean situations, the problem of tidal generation of internal solitary waves at a shelf-break is considered. Simulations carried out with the model obtain the evolution of solitary wave generation and propagation consistent with past results. Moreover, the weakly non-hydrostatic simulation is shown to compare favorably with the fully non-hydrostatic simulation. The capability of the present model to simulate efficiently relatively large scale non-hydrostatic motions suggests that the weakly non-hydrostatic form of the model may be suitable for application in a large-area domain while the computationally intensive fully non-hydrostatic form of the model may be used in an embedded sub-domain where higher resolution is needed

  18. Precious-metal-base advanced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, T.; Carbonnaux, C.

    1993-01-01

    Precious metals constitute also the base of several advanced materials used in the industry in hundreds of metric tons. Platinum alloys have been used as structural materials for equipments in the glass industry. The essential reason for this is the excellent resistance of platinum alloys to oxidation and electrolytical corrosion in molten glasses at temperatures as high as 1200-1500 C. The major drawback is a weak creep resistance. The unique way for significant improvement of platinum base materials creep resistance is a strengthening by an oxide dispersion (ODS). In the case of CLAL's patented ''Plativer'' materials, 0.05 wt% of Y 2 O 3 is incorporated within the alloy matrix by the flame spraying process. Further improvement of platinum base materials is related, in the authors opinion, to the development of precious metals base intermetallics. Another interesting applications of precious metals are silver base electrical contacts. They are in fact silver matrix composites containing varying amounts of well-dispersed particles of constituents such as CdO, SnO 2 , Ni, WC or C. In the case of such materials, particular properties are required and tested : resistance to arc erosion, resistance to welding and contact resistance. Many other technically fascinating precious metals base materials exist: brazing alloys for assembling metals, superconductors and ceramics; dental materials including magnetic biocompatible alloys; silver composites for superconductor wire jackets. The observation of current evolution indicates very clearly that precious metals cannot be replaced by common metals because of their unique characteristics due to their atomic level properties

  19. Development and validation of constitutive equation of HBS irradiation swelling considering hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Lijun; Jiang Shengyao; Yu Jiyang; Chen Bingde; Xiao Zhong

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of hydrostatic pressure affecting the irradiation swelling of UO_2 high burnup structure was analyzed. Three basic assumptions used to develop the constitutive equation of irradiation swelling were made accordingly. It is concluded that hydrostatic pressure imposes an important impact on irradiation swelling mainly through compressing the UO_2 high burnup structure pores. Based on the already developed correlation of the irradiation swelling of UO_2 high burnup structure, pore shrinkage due to the application of hydrostatic pressure and thus the reduction of irradiation swelling of UO_2 high burnup structure were determined quantitatively, and the constitutive equation of irradiation swelling of UO_2 high burnup structure considering the hydrostatic pressure was constructed successfully. The constitutive equation is validated using available irradiation swelling data of UO_2 high burnup structure, which demonstrates its reasonability. (authors)

  20. Hydrostatic radial bearing of centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrostatic radial pump is described characterized by the fact that part of the medium off-taken from delivery is used as a lubricating medium. Two additional bodies are placed alongside a hydrostatic bearing with coils in between them and the pump shaft; the coils have an opposite pitch. The feed channel for the hydrostatic bearing pocket is linked to delivery. The coil outlets are connected to the pump suction unit. Two rotating coils placed alongside the hydrostatic bearing will considerably simplify the communication channel design and reduce the dependence on the pump shaft deflections. The addition of another rotating coil in the close vicinity of the pump shaft or directly on the shaft further increases the efficiency. The bearing can be used in designing vertical circulating pumps for the cooling circuits of nuclear reactors. (J.B.)

  1. Effect of heat treatment upon the mechanical and poro-mechanical behaviour of cement-based materials: hydraulic properties and morphological changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiao-Ting

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates the effects of morphological changes of a cement-based material subjected to heat treatment (up to 400 C). For a model W/C=0.5 mortar, we have characterized experimentally hydraulic behaviour (gas permeability), mechanical behaviour (in uniaxial compression, hydrostatic compression with or without deviatoric stress) and poro-mechanical behaviour (incompressibility moduli Kb, Ks and Biot's coefficient b) after a heating/cooling cycle. We have also developed an original experiment aimed at quantifying the accessible pore space volume under hydrostatic compression. The creation of occluded porosity under high confinement is confirmed, which justifies the observed decrease of solid matrix rigidity Ks under high confinement. A gas retention phenomenon was identified under simultaneous thermal and hydrostatic loadings for mortar, and industrial concretes (provided by CERIB and ANDRA). A predictive thermo-elasto-plastic model with isotropic damage and a micro-mechanical approach, which represents micro-cracking, are coupled in order to analyze or predict the evolution of mechanical and poro-elastic properties after heat cycling. (author)

  2. The effect of chitosan-based edible film and high hydrostatic pressure process on the microbiological and chemical quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) fillets during cold storage (4±1°C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günlü, Ali; Sipahioğlu, Sinem; Alpas, Hami

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the changes in the chemical and microbiological quality of fresh rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) fillets during storage at 4±1°C as a result of chitosan-based edible film coating, vacuum packaging and high pressure application processes. Chemical (pH, total volatile basic nitrogen and thiobarbituric acid index) and microbiological (total mesophilic and total psychrophilic microorganism) shelf life analyses were carried out in 4-day intervals for samples that were vacuum packaged (C), subjected to high pressure after vacuum packaging (high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)), vacuum packaged after being wrapped by chitosan-based film (CFW) and subjected to high pressure after vacuum packaging and being wrapped by chitosan-based film (HHP+CFW ). According to the chemical and microbiological shelf life analysis results of rainbow trout fillets, shelf life increases of 4 days in HHP group samples, 8 days in CFW group samples and 24 days in HHP+CFW group samples were provided in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, it was determined that high pressure and wrapping with chitosan-based film had protective effect both chemically and microbiologically and that the most effective protection was obtained when both methods were used together.

  3. Helium behaviour in aluminium under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokurskij, Yu.N.; Tebus, V.N.; Zudilin, V.A.; Tumanova, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of hydrostatic compression on equilibrium helium bubbles in low aluminium-lithium alloy irradiated in reactor at 570 K is investigated. Measurements of hydrostatic density and electron-microscopic investigations have shown, that application of up to 2 GPa pressure reduces equilibrium size of helium bubbles and reduces helium swelling. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the process are considered with application of 'rigid sphere' equation which describes helium state in bubbles

  4. Hydrostatic Equilibria of Rotating Stars with Realistic Equation of State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Fujisawa, Kotaro; Okawa, Hirotada; Yamada, Shoichi

    Stars rotate generally, but it is a non-trivial issue to obtain hydrostatic equilibria for rapidly rotating stars theoretically, especially for baroclinic cases, in which the pressure depends not only on the density, but also on the temperature and compositions. It is clear that the stellar structures with realistic equation of state are the baroclinic cases, but there are not so many studies for such equilibria. In this study, we propose two methods to obtain hydrostatic equilibria considering rotation and baroclinicity, namely the weak-solution method and the strong-solution method. The former method is based on the variational principle, which is also applied to the calculation of the inhomogeneous phases, known as the pasta structures, in crust of neutron stars. We found this method might break the balance equation locally, then introduce the strong-solution method. Note that our method is formulated in the mass coordinate, and it is hence appropriated for the stellar evolution calculations.

  5. Hydrostatic compression of Fe(1-x)O wuestite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, R.; Sato-Sorensen, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Hydrostatic compression measurements on Fe(0.95)O wuestite up to 12 GPa yield a room temperature value for the isothermal bulk modulus of K(ot) = 157 (+ or - 10) GPa at zero pressure. This result is in accord with previous hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic measurements of K(ot) for wuestites of composition: 0.89 = Fe/O 0.95. Dynamic measurements of the bulk modulus by ultrasonic, shock-wave and neutron-scattering experiments tend to yield a larger value: K(ot) approximately 180 GPa. The discrepancy between static and dynamic values cannot be explained by the variation of K(ot) with composition, as has been proposed. This conclusion is based on high-precision compression data and on theoretical models of the effects of defects on elastic constants. Barring serious errors in the published measurements, the available data suggest that wuestite exhibits a volume relaxation under pressure.

  6. Triarylborane-Based Materials for OLED Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsen Turkoglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary research on organic fluorescent molecules has been attracting great interest owing to their potential applications in biomedical and material sciences. In recent years, electron deficient systems have been increasingly incorporated into fluorescent materials. Triarylboranes with the empty p orbital of their boron centres are electron deficient and can be used as strong electron acceptors in conjugated organic fluorescent materials. Moreover, their applications in optoelectronic devices, energy harvesting materials and anion sensing, due to their natural Lewis acidity and remarkable solid-state fluorescence properties, have also been investigated. Furthermore, fluorescent triarylborane-based materials have been commonly utilized as emitters and electron transporters in organic light emitting diode (OLED applications. In this review, triarylborane-based small molecules and polymers will be surveyed, covering their structure-property relationships, intramolecular charge transfer properties and solid-state fluorescence quantum yields as functional emissive materials in OLEDs. Also, the importance of the boron atom in triarylborane compounds is emphasized to address the key issues of both fluorescent emitters and their host materials for the construction of high-performance OLEDs.

  7. Tungsten - Yttrium Based Nuclear Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Chessa, Jack; Martinenz, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    The challenging problem currently facing the nuclear science community in this 21st century is design and development of novel structural materials, which will have an impact on the next-generation nuclear reactors. The materials available at present include reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, dispersion strengthened reduced activation ferritic steels, and vanadium- or tungsten-based alloys. These materials exhibit one or more specific problems, which are either intrinsic or caused by reactors. This work is focussed towards tungsten-yttrium (W-Y) based alloys and oxide ceramics, which can be utilized in nuclear applications. The goal is to derive a fundamental scientific understanding of W-Y-based materials. In collaboration with University of Califonia -- Davis, the project is designated to demonstrate the W-Y based alloys, ceramics and composites with enhanced physical, mechanical, thermo-chemical properties and higher radiation resistance. Efforts are focussed on understanding the microstructure, manipulating materials behavior under charged-particle and neutron irradiation, and create a knowledge database of defects, elemental diffusion/segregation, and defect trapping along grain boundaries and interfaces. Preliminary results will be discussed.

  8. Sensor-based material tagging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercellotti, L.C.; Cox, R.W.; Ravas, R.J.; Schlotterer, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic identification tags are being developed for tracking material and personnel. In applying electronic identification tags to radioactive materials safeguards, it is important to measure attributes of the material to ensure that the tag remains with the material. The addition of a microcontroller with an on-board analog-to-digital converter to an electronic identification tag application-specific integrated-circuit has been demonstrated as means to provide the tag with sensor data. Each tag is assembled into a housing, which serves as a scale for measuring the weight of a paint-can-sized container and its contents. Temperature rise of the can above ambient is also measured, and a piezoelectric detector detects disturbances and immediately puts the tag into its alarm and beacon mode. Radiation measurement was also considered, but the background from nearby containers was found to be excessive. The sensor-based tagging system allows tracking of the material in cans as it is stored in vaults or is moved through the manufacturing process. The paper presents details of the sensor-based material tagging system and describes a demonstration system

  9. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on mouse sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, N; Kamangar, P Bahrami; Azadbakht, M; Amini, A; Amiri, I

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the abnormalities in sperm after exposure to hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure acting on the cells is one of the fundamental environmental mechanical forces. Disorders of relationship between the cells and this mechanical force, such as when pressure varies beyond physiological limits, can lead to disease or pathological states. Sperm exposed to different range of hydrostatic pressure within male reproductive system and after entering the female reproductive system. Sexually mature male NMRI mice, 8-12 weeks-old were sperm donors. Sperms were separated from the caudal epididymis and maintained in Ham's F-10 culture medium supplemented with 10 % FBS and divided into control and treatments. Sperm suspensions in the treatments were placed within pressure chamber and were subjected to increased hydrostatic pressure of 25, 50 and 100 mmHg (treatment I, II and III) above atmospheric pressure for 2 and 4 h. Sperm viability, motility, morphology, DNA integrity and fertilizing ability were assessed and compared with control. Results showed that hydrostatic pressure dependent on ranges and time manner reduced sperm quality due to adverse effect on viability, motility , morphology, DNA integrity and fertilizing ability in all of treatments, especially after 4h (phydrostatic pressure reduces sperm quality as a consequence of adverse effects on sperm parameters and may cause male infertility or subfertility (Tab. 5, Ref. 5).

  10. Data base on structural materials aging properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oland, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a Structural Aging Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to identify potential structural safety issues related to continued service of nuclear power plants and to establish criteria for evaluating and resolving these issues. One of the tasks in this program focuses on the establishment of a Structural Materials Information Center where long-term and environment-dependent properties of concretes and other structural materials are being collected and assembled into a data base. These properties will be used to evaluate the current condition of critical structural components in nuclear power plants and to estimate the future performance of these materials during the continued service period

  11. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Jody L.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite contamination continues to be a design problem that engineers must take into account when developing new satellites. To help with this issue, NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program funded the development of the Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base. This engineering tool brings together in one location information about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based upon ground-testing data, the effects of outgassing that has been observed during flight and measurements of the contamination environment by on-orbit instruments. The knowledge base contains information using the ASTM Standard E- 1559 and also consolidates data from missions using quartz-crystal microbalances (QCM's). The data contained in the knowledge base was shared with NASA by government agencies and industry in the US and international space agencies as well. The term 'knowledgebase' was used because so much information and capability was brought together in one comprehensive engineering design tool. It is the SEE Program's intent to continually add additional material contamination data as it becomes available - creating a dynamic tool whose value to the user is ever increasing. The SEE Program firmly believes that NASA, and ultimately the entire contamination user community, will greatly benefit from this new engineering tool and highly encourages the community to not only use the tool but add data to it as well.

  12. Protein-Based Drug-Delivery Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Jao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a pressing need for long-term, controlled drug release for sustained treatment of chronic or persistent medical conditions and diseases. Guided drug delivery is difficult because therapeutic compounds need to survive numerous transport barriers and binding targets throughout the body. Nanoscale protein-based polymers are increasingly used for drug and vaccine delivery to cross these biological barriers and through blood circulation to their molecular site of action. Protein-based polymers compared to synthetic polymers have the advantages of good biocompatibility, biodegradability, environmental sustainability, cost effectiveness and availability. This review addresses the sources of protein-based polymers, compares the similarity and differences, and highlights characteristic properties and functionality of these protein materials for sustained and controlled drug release. Targeted drug delivery using highly functional multicomponent protein composites to guide active drugs to the site of interest will also be discussed. A systematical elucidation of drug-delivery efficiency in the case of molecular weight, particle size, shape, morphology, and porosity of materials will then be demonstrated to achieve increased drug absorption. Finally, several important biomedical applications of protein-based materials with drug-delivery function—including bone healing, antibiotic release, wound healing, and corneal regeneration, as well as diabetes, neuroinflammation and cancer treatments—are summarized at the end of this review.

  13. Effects of Hydrostatic Loading on a Self-Aggregating, Suspension Culture–Derived Cartilage Tissue Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Jeffrey J.; Jeong, Changhoon; Novotny, John E.; Seacrist, Thomas; Chan, Gilbert; Domzalski, Marcin; Turka, Christina M.; Richardson, Dean W.; Dodge, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Many approaches are being taken to generate cartilage replacement materials. The goal of this study was to use a self-aggregating suspension culture model of chondrocytes with mechanical preconditioning. Design: Our model differs from others in that it is based on a scaffold-less, self-aggregating culture model that produces a cartilage tissue analog that has been shown to share many similarities with the natural cartilage phenotype. Owing to the known loaded environment under which chondrocytes function in vivo, we hypothesized that applying force to the suspension culture–derived chondrocyte biomass would improve its cartilage-like characteristics and provide a new model for engineering cartilage tissue analogs. Results: In this study, we used a specialized hydrostatic pressure bioreactor system to apply mechanical forces during the growth phase to improve biochemical and biophysical properties of the biomaterial formed. We demonstrated that using this high-density suspension culture, a biomaterial more consistent with the hyaline cartilage phenotype was produced without any foreign material added. Unpassaged chondrocytes responded to a physiologically relevant hydrostatic load by significantly increasing gene expression of critical cartilage molecule collagen and aggrecan along with other cartilage relevant genes, CD44, perlecan, decorin, COMP, and iNOS. Conclusions: This study describes a self-aggregating bioreactor model without foreign material or scaffold in which chondrocytes form a cartilage tissue analog with many features similar to native cartilage. This study represents a promising scaffold-less, methodological advancement in cartilage tissue engineering with potential translational applications to cartilage repair. PMID:26069584

  14. Molybdenum silicide based materials and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Z.; Stiglich, J.; Sudarshan, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    Molybdenum disilicide (MoSi 2 ) is a promising candidate material for high temperature structural applications. It is a high melting point (2030 C) material with excellent oxidation resistance and a moderate density (6.24 g/cm 3 ). However, low toughness at low temperatures and high creep rates at elevated temperatures have hindered its commercialization in structural applications. Much effort has been invested in MoSi 2 composites as alternatives to pure molybdenum disilicide for oxidizing and aggressive environments. Molybdenum disilicide-based heating elements have been used extensively in high-temperature furnaces. The low electrical resistance of silicides in combination with high thermal stability, electron-migration resistance, and excellent diffusion-barrier characteristics is important for microelectronic applications. Projected applications of MoSi 2 -based materials include turbine airfoils, combustion chamber components in oxidizing environments, missile nozzles, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing. On this paper, synthesis, fabrication, and properties of the monolithic and composite molybdenum silicides are reviewed

  15. Micromechanics Based Failure Analysis of Heterogeneous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertse, Hamsasew M.

    In recent decades, heterogeneous materials are extensively used in various industries such as aerospace, defense, automotive and others due to their desirable specific properties and excellent capability of accumulating damage. Despite their wide use, there are numerous challenges associated with the application of these materials. One of the main challenges is lack of accurate tools to predict the initiation, progression and final failure of these materials under various thermomechanical loading conditions. Although failure is usually treated at the macro and meso-scale level, the initiation and growth of failure is a complex phenomena across multiple scales. The objective of this work is to enable the mechanics of structure genome (MSG) and its companion code SwiftComp to analyze the initial failure (also called static failure), progressive failure, and fatigue failure of heterogeneous materials using micromechanics approach. The initial failure is evaluated at each numerical integration point using pointwise and nonlocal approach for each constituent of the heterogeneous materials. The effects of imperfect interfaces among constituents of heterogeneous materials are also investigated using a linear traction-displacement model. Moreover, the progressive and fatigue damage analyses are conducted using continuum damage mechanics (CDM) approach. The various failure criteria are also applied at a material point to analyze progressive damage in each constituent. The constitutive equation of a damaged material is formulated based on a consistent irreversible thermodynamics approach. The overall tangent modulus of uncoupled elastoplastic damage for negligible back stress effect is derived. The initiation of plasticity and damage in each constituent is evaluated at each numerical integration point using a nonlocal approach. The accumulated plastic strain and anisotropic damage evolution variables are iteratively solved using an incremental algorithm. The damage analyses

  16. Transportation of ions through cement based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterji, S.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation of ions, both anions and cations, through cement based materials is one of the important processes in their durability and as such has been studied very extensively. It has been studied from the point of view of the reinforcement corrosion, alkali-silica reaction, sulfate attack on cement and concrete, as well as in the context of the use of the cement based materials in the disposal of nuclear waste. In this paper the fundamental equations of diffusion, i.e. Fick's two equations, Nernst and Nernst-Planck equations have been collected. Attention has been drawn to the fact that Fick's two equations are valid for non-ionic diffusants and that for ions the relevant equations are those of Nernst and Nernst-Planck. The basic measurement techniques have also been commented upon

  17. Phase stability limit of c-BN under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Jianwei; Du, Jinglian; Wen, Bin; Zhang, Xiangyi; Melnik, Roderick; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Phase stability limit of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) has been investigated by the crystal structure search technique. It indicated that this limit is ∼1000 GPa at hydrostatic pressure condition. Above this pressure, c-BN turns into a metastable phase with respect to rocksalt type boron nitride (rs-BN). However, rs-BN cannot be retained at 0 GPa owing to its instability at pressure below 250 GPa. For non-hydrostatic pressure conditions, the phase stability limit of c-BN is substantially lower than that under hydrostatic pressure conditions and it is also dramatically different for other pressure mode

  18. Radiation hardened equipment and material data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Kenji; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Kakuta, Tsunemi; Shono, Yoshihiko; Nakamura, Tetsuo; Nakase, Yoshiaki; Furuta, Junichiro.

    1988-01-01

    In order to collect and put in order the results regarding radiation-withstanding equipment and materials, the Osaka Nuclear Science Association organized the committee composed of the experts in various fields in fiscal year 1986 for the purpose of building up the data base, and began the activity. From the trend of the research and development and the usefulness for the future, the fields of collecting data were decided as organic materials, optical fibers, semiconductor elements and compound semiconductors. By fiscal year 1987, the building-up of the prototype data base was aimed at, and system configuration, the making of the formats on the items and attributes of collected data, the action test of the system and so on were carried out. Under the background of the upgrading of LWRs, the development of FBRs and nuclear fusion reactors, the construction of a reprocessing plant and a low level waste storage facility, and the progress of various advanced technologies, the research on the equipment and materials having excellent radiation resistance and the development for heightening the performance have been carried out in many places separately, accordingly the activity for building up the prototype data base was begun, and about 600 cases were collected. (Kako, I.)

  19. Development of сertified reference materials set for opened porosity of solid substances and materials (imitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Sobina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with data of research for development of certified reference materials set for opened porosity of solid substances and materials (imitators (OPTB SO UNIIM Set Certified Reference Materials GSO 10583-2015. The certified values of opened porosity of metal cylinders were established by the method of hydrostatic weighing before and after boring of holes in. The certified reference materials are intended for calibration and verification of measuring instruments of opened porosity, based on the Boyle - Mariotte's law.

  20. Use of a high temperature hydrostatic extrusion technique for powders strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decours, J.; Gavinet, J.; Weisz, M.

    1975-01-01

    A conventional 575 tonnes extrusion press has been modified by a device permitting the extrusion process by hydrostatic pression through a leakless mechanical set (13,000 bars maximum), from room temperature to 1,200 deg C. This new device allows: the high temperature hydrostatic extrusion for strengthening of powders, the isostatic compression of powders. Examples of realisations obtained by this process are described, including the influence of different parameters: pressure, temperature, extrusion ratio and for different materials: pure metals (iron, nickel, niobium, etc...) and alloys (stainless steel, molybdenum, niobium nickel alloys, etc...). Then, the advantages of the process are emphasized [fr

  1. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section 154.562 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test at...

  2. 46 CFR 61.30-10 - Hydrostatic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic test. 61.30-10 Section 61.30-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-10 Hydrostatic test. All new installations of thermal fluid heaters must be given a hydrostatic test of 11/2 times the maximum allowable...

  3. 49 CFR 178.605 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.605 Section 178.605... Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages § 178.605 Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must be conducted for the qualification of all metal, plastic, and composite...

  4. Complex coacervate-based materials for biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, Whitney C; Perry, Sarah L

    2017-07-01

    There has been increasing interest in complex coacervates for deriving and transporting biomaterials. Complex coacervates are a dense, polyelectrolyte-rich liquid that results from the electrostatic complexation of oppositely charged macroions. Coacervates have long been used as a strategy for encapsulation, particularly in food and personal care products. More recent efforts have focused on the utility of this class of materials for the encapsulation of small molecules, proteins, RNA, DNA, and other biomaterials for applications ranging from sensing to biomedicine. Furthermore, coacervate-related materials have found utility in other areas of biomedicine, including cartilage mimics, tissue culture scaffolds, and adhesives for wet, biological environments. Here, we discuss the self-assembly of complex coacervate-based materials, current challenges in the intelligent design of these materials, and their utility applications in the broad field of biomedicine. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017, 9:e1442. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1442 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A study of the transient performance of hydrostatic journal bearings. I - Test apparatus and facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharrer, J. K.; Tellier, J.; Hibbs, R.

    1992-10-01

    A test apparatus was developed for studies of the transient performance of hydrostatic journal bearings operating in liquid nitrogen. The data obtained give the number of revolutions of the shaft contact before the liftoff and after touchdown as a function of bearing/shaft material combinations and operating conditions.

  6. The behavior of high-strength unidirectional composites under tension with superposed hydrostatic pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinoviev, P.A.; Tsvetkov, S.V.; Kulish, G.G.; Berg, van den R.W.; Schepdael, van L.J.M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Three types of high-strength unidirectional composite materials were studied under longitudinal tension with superposed high hydrostatic pressure. Reinforcing fibers were T1000G carbon, S2 glass and Zylon PBO fibers; the Ciba 5052 epoxy resin was used as matrix. The composites were tested under

  7. A stochastic analysis of the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the pit corrosion of Fe-20Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Yang Yange; Shao Yawei; Meng, Guozhe; Wang, Fuhui

    2009-01-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the pit corrosion behavior of Fe-20Cr alloy was investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution by means of potentiodynamic polarization and potentiostatic technology, and the experiment data was analyzed based on stochastic theory. With the increase of hydrostatic pressure, the pit corrosion resistance of Fe-20Cr alloy was deteriorated, which was distinguished by the decrease of critical pit potential (E cirt ) and the increase of passive current density. The results also demonstrated that there exist two effects of hydrostatic pressure on the corrosion behavior of Fe-20Cr alloy: (1) the pit generation rate was evidently increased compared to that under lower hydrostatic pressure, and the metastable pits become faster and larger. However, it seemed that pit generation mechanism shows no hydrostatic pressure dependence; (2) the probability of pit growth increased with the increase of hydrostatic pressure, which implied that the metastable pit on Fe-20Cr alloy exhibited higher probability to become larger pit cavity during shorter time interval than that under lower hydrostatic pressure.

  8. Fracture behavior of W based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the results of a program to investigate the fracture properties of tungsten based materials. In particular, the role of crack velocity on crack instability was determined in a W-Fe-Ni-Co ''heavy alloy'' and pure polycrystalline tungsten. A considerable effort was expended on the development of an appropriate crack velocity gage for use on these materials. Having succeeded in that, the gage technology was employed to determine the crack velocity response to the applied level of stress intensity factor at the onset of crack instability in pre-cracked specimens. The results were also correlated to the failure mode observed in two material systems of interest. Major results include: (1) unstable crack velocity measurements on metallic specimens which require high spatial resolution require the use of brittle, insulating substrates, as opposed to the ductile, polymer based substrates employed in low spatial resolution measurements; and (2) brittle failure modes, such as cleavage, are characterized by relatively slow unstable crack velocities while evidence of high degrees of deformation are associated with failures which proceed at high unstable crack velocities. This latter behavior is consistent with the predictions of the modeling of Hack et al and may have a significant impact on the interpretation of fractographs in general

  9. Resilient Modulus Characterization of Alaskan Granular Base Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Resilient modulus (MR) of base course material is an important material input for : pavement design. In Alaska, due to distinctiveness of local climate, material source, : fines content and groundwater level, resilient properties of D-1 granular base...

  10. Use of pressurized eccentric tubes to study the effect of hydrostatic stress on swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfer, W.G.; Reiley, T.C.

    1977-05-01

    A technique for measuring the effect of hydrostatic stress on radiation-induced swelling is presented. This technique is based on the nonuniform hydrostatic stress that arises when an eccentric tube (a tube with inner and outer surfaces having dissimilar centers of revolution) is internally pressurized. The elastic analyses of the thin- and thick-walled eccentric tube are given. The elastic stress state is allowed to relax plastically, based on a constitutive law for deformation during neutron irradiation. In this case, the constitutive law contains a linearly stress-dependent deviatoric strain rate and a dilatation rate that is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress. Emphasis is placed on the specimen design and experimental procedure for in-reactor experiments in which the coefficient relating hydrostatic stress and swelling is sought. It is shown that, for the 316L stainless steel specimens placed in EBR-II, we may expect that any appreciable effect of hydrostatic stress on swelling will be observable through changes in specimen curvature

  11. Bibliographic data base for low activation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenina, M.V.; Kolotov, V.P.; Ivanov, L.I.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The analysis of the publications dealing with development of low-activation materials for fusion technology demonstrates that the period of information doubling is about 5-6 years. Such high rate usually is characteristic of the actively developing field of science. To develop an useful instrument for analysis and systematization of the available data a computer based bibliographic system has been developed some time ago. Recently the engine of the system has been significantly modernized. The bibliographic system is based on using of MS SQL server data base which includes main bibliographic information including abstracts. The most important feature of the system is that full-text abstracts searching capabilities are appended with indexing of information by experts to increase its definition. The experts indexes cover the following topics: - Main problems; - Software and methods for calculation; - Libraries of nuclear data; - Spectrum of neutrons for different construction parts of fusion reactor; - Low activation materials; - Technology of production; - Radiation effects; - Utilization of radiation waste; - Estimation of risks; - Designs of fusion reactor; - Nuclear transmutations; - Equipment used for investigations. The primary data base is filling/appending by periodical queries to different bibliographic data bases (INIS, COMPEMDEX and others) via suitable Internet providers including strict analysis of the income information to remove a possible 'information noise' and following data indexing by experts. The data base contains references since 1976 year (when first works in this area have been fulfilled) and until now. The bibliographic system is accessible by means of Internet using different forms developed for queries (http://www.geokhi.ru/~lam_db). (authors)

  12. Bibliographic data base for low activation materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alenina, M.V.; Kolotov, V.P. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivanov, L.I. [A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Science of Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The analysis of the publications dealing with development of low-activation materials for fusion technology demonstrates that the period of information doubling is about 5-6 years. Such high rate usually is characteristic of the actively developing field of science. To develop an useful instrument for analysis and systematization of the available data a computer based bibliographic system has been developed some time ago. Recently the engine of the system has been significantly modernized. The bibliographic system is based on using of MS SQL server data base which includes main bibliographic information including abstracts. The most important feature of the system is that full-text abstracts searching capabilities are appended with indexing of information by experts to increase its definition. The experts indexes cover the following topics: - Main problems; - Software and methods for calculation; - Libraries of nuclear data; - Spectrum of neutrons for different construction parts of fusion reactor; - Low activation materials; - Technology of production; - Radiation effects; - Utilization of radiation waste; - Estimation of risks; - Designs of fusion reactor; - Nuclear transmutations; - Equipment used for investigations. The primary data base is filling/appending by periodical queries to different bibliographic data bases (INIS, COMPEMDEX and others) via suitable Internet providers including strict analysis of the income information to remove a possible 'information noise' and following data indexing by experts. The data base contains references since 1976 year (when first works in this area have been fulfilled) and until now. The bibliographic system is accessible by means of Internet using different forms developed for queries (http://www.geokhi.ru/{approx}lam{sub d}b). (authors)

  13. Railcar waste transfer system hydrostatic test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Recent modifications have been performed on the T-Plant Railcar Waste Transfer System, This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that identified piping welds and mechanical connections incorporated during the modification are of high integrity and are acceptable for service. This will be achieved by implementation of a hydrostatic leak test

  14. Railcar waste transfer system hydrostatic test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents for record purposes the field results, acceptance, and approvals of the completed acceptance test per HNF-SD-W417-ATP-001, ''Rail car Waste Transfer System Hydrostatic Test''. The test was completed and approved without any problems or exceptions

  15. Hydrodynamic modelling of hydrostatic magnesium extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moodij, Ellen; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2006-01-01

    Wilson’s hydrodynamic model of the hydrostatic extrusion process is extended to meet the geometry found on residual billets. The transition from inlet to work zone of the process is not considered sharp as in the model of Wilson but as a rounded edge, modelled by a parabolic function. It is shown

  16. Hydrostatic Paradox: Experimental Verification of Pressure Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodejška, C.; Ganci, S.; Ríha, J.; Sedlácková, H.

    2017-01-01

    This work is focused on the experimental verification of the balance between the atmospheric pressure acting on the sheet of paper, which encloses the cylinder completely or partially filled with water from below, where the hydrostatic pressure of the water column acts against the atmospheric pressure. First of all this paper solves a theoretical…

  17. Properties of materials based on polybenzimidazopyrrolone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshak, L L; Lekaye, I A; Vinogradova, O V; Chatova, L L; Lekaye, T V; Rusanov, A L

    1980-01-01

    Polymers based on polyheteroarylene compounds are characterized by high radiation and ablation resistance and are prepared by a two-stage synthesis:preparation of the soluble polyamidoamino acids (PAAA's), and polycondensation by thermal intramolecular polycyclodehydration of the PAAA's. Three types of polymers were prepared by the reaction in dimethylformamide of 3,3',4,4'-tetraminodiphenyl-oxide with the dianhydrides of diphenyloxide-, benzophenone-, and diphenylsulfon-tetracarbonic acids and pyromellitic acid. An evaluation was made of the optimum regimes for extruding these polymers and of the properties of the extruded material. (JMT)

  18. Recycled material-based science instruments to support science education in rural area at Central Sulawesi District of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M.; Supriyatman; Saehana, S.

    2018-03-01

    It has been successfully designing low cost of science experiment from recycled materials. The science instruments were produced to explain expansion concept and hydrostatic pressure inside the liquid. Science instruments were calibrated and then validated. It was also implemented in science learning.

  19. High hydrostatic pressure in cancer immunotherapy and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Irena; Hradilova, Nada; Palata, Ondrej; Sadilkova, Lenka; Palova-Jelinkova, Lenka; Spisek, Radek

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been known to affect biological systems for >100 years. In this review, we describe the technology of HHP and its effect macromolecules and physiology of eukaryotic cells. We discuss the use of HHP in cancer immunotherapy to kill tumor cells for generation of whole cell and dendritic cell-based vaccines. We further summarize the current use and perspectives of HHP application in biomedicine, specifically in orthopedic surgery and for the viral, microbial and protozoan inactivation to develop vaccines against infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Evolution of transverse piezoelectric response of lead zirconate titanate ceramics under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fei; Xu Zhuo; Wei Xiaoyong; Gao Junjie; Zhang, Chonghui; Yao Xi; Jin Li

    2009-01-01

    The piezoelectric properties of 31-mode resonators of lead zirconate titanate ceramics under hydrostatic pressure from 0.1 to 325 MPa were evaluated by a fitting method, in which mechanical loss was taken into account. Our results based on the fitting method showed a hydrostatic pressure independent tendency of the piezoelectric coefficient and the electromechanical coupling factor because the adopted PZT ceramic can be considered as a linear system in our experiment, while two misleading tendencies of piezoelectric coefficient were obtained based on the resonance method when ignoring the contribution of the mechanical loss. (fast track communication)

  1. Radiation detectors based by polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherestes, Margareta; Cherestes, Codrut; Constantinescu, Livia

    2004-01-01

    Scintillation counters make use of the property of certain chemical compounds to emit short light pulses after excitation produced by the passage of charged particles or photons of high energy. These flashes of light are detected by a photomultiplier tube that converts the photons into a voltage pulse. The light emitted from the detector also can be collected, focussed and dispersed by a CCD detector. The study of the evolution of the light emission and of the radiation damage under irradiation is a primary topic in the development of radiation hard polymer based scintillator. Polymer scintillator thin films are used in monitoring radiation beam intensities and simultaneous counting of different radiations. Radiation detectors have characteristics which depend on: the type of radiation, the energy of radiation, and the material of the detector. Three types of polymer thin films were studied: a polyvinyltoluene based scintillator, fluorinated polyimide and PMMA. (authors)

  2. Nanocellulose-Based Materials for Water Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Hugo; Bergström, Lennart; Liu, Peng; Mathew, Aji P

    2017-03-05

    Nanocellulose is a renewable material that combines a high surface area with high strength, chemical inertness, and versatile surface chemistry. In this review, we will briefly describe how nanocellulose is produced, and present-in particular, how nanocellulose and its surface modified versions affects the adsorption behavior of important water pollutants, e.g., heavy metal species, dyes, microbes, and organic molecules. The processing of nanocellulose-based membranes and filters for water purification will be described in detail, and the uptake capacity, selectivity, and removal efficiency will also be discussed. The processing and performance of nanocellulose-based membranes, which combine a high removal efficiency with anti-fouling properties, will be highlighted.

  3. Nanocellulose-Based Materials for Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Voisin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulose is a renewable material that combines a high surface area with high strength, chemical inertness, and versatile surface chemistry. In this review, we will briefly describe how nanocellulose is produced, and present—in particular, how nanocellulose and its surface modified versions affects the adsorption behavior of important water pollutants, e.g., heavy metal species, dyes, microbes, and organic molecules. The processing of nanocellulose-based membranes and filters for water purification will be described in detail, and the uptake capacity, selectivity, and removal efficiency will also be discussed. The processing and performance of nanocellulose-based membranes, which combine a high removal efficiency with anti-fouling properties, will be highlighted.

  4. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on regional bond strengths of compomers to dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L; Pereira, P N; Somphone, P; Nikaido, T; Tagami, J

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the regional bond strengths of compomers to dentine. Thirty freshly extracted molars were ground flat to expose the dentine and randomly divided into two groups for bonding: no hydrostatic pressure and hydrostatic pressure of 15cm H(2)O. Xeno CF, Dyract AP and F 2000 were applied to dentine surfaces pretreated by the respective bonding systems following the manufactures' instructions, and then restored with Clearfil AP-X. After 24h storage in water, the teeth were sectioned into 0.7-mm thick slabs and visually divided into three regional subgroups: the region communicating with the pulp through dentinal tubules (pulp horn); the region between the pulp horns (center); and the region between the pulp horn and DEJ (periphery). The specimens were trimmed to a cross-sectional area of 1mm(2) and subjected to the micro-tensile bond test. The data were analyzed by one- and three-way ANOVA, and Fisher's PLSD (p0.05). However, hydrostatic pressure significantly decreased the bond strength of F 2000 to all regions (phydrostatic pressure (p>0.05). For Dyract AP and F 2000, the fracture modes were affected by hydrostatic pressure, while, for Xeno CF, there were no significant differences between the fracture modes with non- or positive hydrostatic pressure. Simulated pulpal pressure of 15cm H(2)O had a greater influence on the bond strengths of compomers to dentine than did dentine regions. Therefore, when measuring the bond strengths of compomers to dentine under the simulated in vivo conditions, the wetness of the dentine surface, as well as the intrinsic properties of each material should be seriously considered.

  5. Sulfur based electrode materials for secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yong

    Developing next generation secondary batteries has attracted much attention in recent years due to the increasing demand of high energy and high power density energy storage for portable electronics, electric vehicles and renewable sources of energy. This dissertation investigates sulfur based advanced electrode materials in Lithium/Sodium batteries. The electrochemical performances of the electrode materials have been enhanced due to their unique nano structures as well as the formation of novel composites. First, a nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets/sulfur (NGNSs/S) composite was synthesized via a facile chemical reaction deposition. In this composite, NGNSs were employed as a conductive host to entrap S/polysulfides in the cathode part. The NGNSs/S composite delivered an initial discharge capacity of 856.7 mAh g-1 and a reversible capacity of 319.3 mAh g-1 at 0.1C with good recoverable rate capability. Second, NGNS/S nanocomposites, synthesized using chemical reaction-deposition method and low temperature heat treatment, were further studied as active cathode materials for room temperature Na-S batteries. Both high loading composite with 86% gamma-S8 and low loading composite with 25% gamma-S8 have been electrochemically evaluated and compared with both NGNS and S control electrodes. It was found that low loading NGNS/S composite exhibited better electrochemical performance with specific capacity of 110 and 48 mAh g-1 at 0.1C at the 1st and 300th cycle, respectively. The Coulombic efficiency of 100% was obtained at the 300th cycle. Third, high purity rock-salt (RS), zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) MnS nanocrystals with different morphologies were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method. RS-, ZB- and WZ-MnS electrodes showed the capacities of 232.5 mAh g-1, 287.9 mAh g-1 and 79.8 mAh g-1 at the 600th cycle, respectively. ZB-MnS displayed the best performance in terms of specific capacity and cyclability. Interestingly, MnS electrodes

  6. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latanision, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    An annual report of the research activities of the Materials Processing Center of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is given. Research on dielectrophoresis in the microgravity environment, phase separation kinetics in immiscible liquids, transport properties of droplet clusters in gravity-free fields, probes and monitors for the study of solidification of molten semiconductors, fluid mechanics and mass transfer in melt crystal growth, and heat flow control and segregation in directional solidification are discussed.

  7. Diagnosis of hydrostatic versus increased permeability pulmonary edema with chest radiographic criteria in critically ILL patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, D.R.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Webb, W.R.; Matthay, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate chest radiographic criteria in distinguishing mechanisms of pulmonary edema, the authors studied 45 intubated patients with extensive edema. Edema type was clinically classified by the ratio of alveolar edema-to-plasma protein concentration in association with compatible clinical/hemodynamic parameters. Chest films were scored as hydrostatic, permeability, or mixed by three readers in blinded fashion based on cardiac size, vascular pedicle width, distribution of edema, effusions, peribronchial cuffs, septal lines, or air bronchograms. Overall radiographic score accurately identified 87% of patients with hydrostatic edema but only 60% of those with permeability edema. Edema distribution was most discriminating, with a patchy peripheral pattern relatively specific for clinical permeability edema. Hydrostatic features on chest radiograph were common with permeability edema, including effusions (36%), widened pedicle (56%), cuffs (72%), or septa (40%). The authors conclude that the chest radiograph is limited in distinguishing edema mechanism in the face of extensive pulmonary edema

  8. Reactor coolant system hydrostatic test and risk analysis for the first AP1000 unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hongjun; Yan Xiuping

    2013-01-01

    The cold hydrostatic test scheme of the primary coolant circuit, of the first AP1000 unit was described. Based on the up-stream design documents, standard specifications and design technical requirements, the select principle of test boundary was identified. The design requirements for water quality, pressure, temperature and temporary hydro-test pump were proposed. A reasonable argument for heating and pressurization rate, and cooling and depressurization rate was proposed. The possible problems and risks during the hydrostatic test were analyzed. This test scheme can provide guidance for the revisions and implementations of the follow-up test procedures. It is a good reference for hydrostatic tests of AP1000 units in the future in China. (authors)

  9. Hydrostatic pressure and temperature effects of an exciton-donor complex in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wenfang

    2012-01-01

    Using the matrix diagonalization method and the compact density-matrix approach, we studied the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the electronic and optical properties of an exciton-donor complex in a disc-shaped quantum dot. We have calculated the binding energy and the oscillator strength of the intersubband transition from the ground state into the first excited state as a function of the dot radius. Based on the computed energies and wave functions, the linear, third-order nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients as well as the refractive index have been examined. We find that the ground state binding energy and the oscillator strength are strongly affected by the quantum dot radius, hydrostatic pressure and temperature. The results also show that the linear, third-order nonlinear and total absorption coefficients and refractive index changes strongly depend on temperature and hydrostatic pressure.

  10. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of multilayered spherical quantum dots: Effects of geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, M.J.; Rezaei, G.; Nazari, M.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the effective mass and parabolic one band approximations, simultaneous effects of the geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, and temperature on the intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in multilayered spherical quantum dots are studied. Energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method and optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The results indicate that the hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, temperature and geometrical parameters such as the well and barrier widths have a great influence on the linear, the third-order nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. -- Highlights: • Hydrogenic impurity effects on the optical properties of a MSQD are investigated. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature effects are also studied. • Hydrogenic impurity has a great influence on the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature change the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs

  11. Simulation study of a hydrostat design for detecting underground leakage of water supply using neutron backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Suzuki, Takashi; Okano, Yasuhiro; Chisaka, Haruo

    1998-01-01

    We have embarked upon the development of a new detection method for underground water leakage using a neutron backscattering system. We have estimated the performance capabilities of such a system using Monte Carlo simulation. It is indicated that a leak which results in 40% water content in the surrounding soils could be detected at depths of up to 40 cm from the surface to the center of the source of leakage. This new detection system could be useful as a hydrostat of underground water supply in noisy areas such as Tokyo, in place of presently-used hydrostats which are based on detection of changes in sound

  12. Strengthening mechanisms in ultrafine grained Al-Mg-Si alloy processed by hydrostatic extrusion – Influence of ageing temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrominski, Witold, E-mail: wichr@inmat.pw.edu.pl [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Wenner, Sigurd [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Marioara, Calin D. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, 7465 Trondheim (Norway); Holmestad, Randi [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Lewandowska, Malgorzata [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-07-04

    Microstructure of hydrostatically extruded Al-Mg-Si alloy was studied by the combination of electron backscattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Three different grain types which feature various defects arrangements were detected. Post deformation ageing at two temperatures caused different precipitation phenomena which were strongly dependent on type of grain boundaries in the considered grain types. Thus, a combination of plastic deformation and ageing resulted in a material with complex microstructure. Based on transmission electron microscopy observations, contributions of different strengthening mechanisms were estimated and compared to experimental results. A good agreement between obtained data points confirmed that depending on grain type, different strengthening mechanisms are operative and the overall strength is a sum of hardening given by each of them. Ageing of ultrafine grain structure results in efficient precipitation strengthening. On the other hand ageing causes annihilation of low and high angle grains boundaries in which leads to softening of investigated material. This effect cannot be compensated by precipitation hardening.

  13. Study of glass hydrometer calibration by hydrostatic weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaoyun; Wang, Jintao; Li, Zhihao; Zhang, Peiman

    2016-01-01

    Glass hydrometers are simple but effective instruments for measuring the density of liquids. Glass hydrometers calibration based on the Archimedes law, using silicon ring as a reference standard solid density, n-tridecane with density stability and low surface tension as the standard working liquid, based on hydrostatic weighing method designs a glass hydrometer calibration system. Glass hydrometer calibration system uses CCD image measurement system to align the scale of hydrometer and liquid surface, with positioning accuracy of 0.01 mm. Surface tension of the working liquid is measured by Whihemy plate. According to twice glass hydrometer weighing in the air and liquid can calculate the correction value of the current scale. In order to verify the validity of the principle of the hydrostatic weighing method of glass hydrometer calibration system, for measuring the density range of (770-790) kg/m3, with a resolution of 0.2 kg/m3 of hydrometer. The results of measurement compare with the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt(PTB) ,verifying the validity of the calibration system.

  14. Base technology development of new materials for FBR performance innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Shigeki; Koyama, Masahiro; Nomura, Shigeo; Morikawa, Satoru; Ueno, Fumiyoshi

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the base technology development of new materials for FBR performance innovations at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The contents are as follows: (1) development of sodium and radiation resistant new materials, (2) development of high performance shielding material, (3) development of high performance control material, (4) development of new functional materials for reactor instrumentation. (author)

  15. High hydrostatic pressure processing of tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria Lúcia M; Valente Mesquita, Vera L; Chiaradia, Ana Cristina N; Fernandes, Antônio Alberto R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2010-02-01

    Interest in the nonthermal method of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) for food preservation has increased recently due to the possibility of inactivating microorganisms and enzymes while maintaining product sensorial and nutritional properties. This work deals with HHP use for the preservation of tropical fruit products. HHP is shown to be a practical approach to obtaining high-quality tropical fruit products that are both nutritive and safe.

  16. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the tensile properties of alpha uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, E.F.

    1984-09-01

    This report examines the effect of a superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the tensile properties of four grades of rolled unalloyed alpha uranium. The materials varied in carbon content and heat treatment. The principal effect of increasing pressure is an increase in the ductility of the materials. By not heat treating the uranium after the rolling process, the interaction of carbon content on mechanical properties is almost nullified. (author)

  17. Rare earth oxyhalogenide base thermoluminescent material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabatin, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described that consists to expose a thermoluminescent material to ionizing radiations, the material being a rare earth oxyhalogenide with terbium additions, to heat this material up to the emission of visible radiations and to measure the emitted radiations which are proportional to the ionizing radiation dose [fr

  18. Surface characterization of graphene based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarek, M.; Holdynski, M.; Krawczyk, M.; Nowakowski, R.; Roguska, A.; Malolepszy, A.; Stobinski, L.; Jablonski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two kind of samples: commercial graphene on Cu substrate and rGO flakes. • EPES applied to measure the IMFPs in graphene based materials. • Characterization by various techniques like: FE-SEM, AFM, XPS, AES and REELS. • EPES IMFPs for rGO deviated up to 14% from IMFPs calculated using the optical data. - Abstract: In the present study, two kind of samples were used: (i) a monolayer graphene film with a thickness of 0.345 nm deposited by the CVD method on Cu foil, (ii) graphene flakes obtained by modified Hummers method and followed by reduction of graphene oxide. The inelastic mean free path (IMFP), characterizing electron transport in graphene/Cu sample and reduced graphene oxide material, which determines the sampling depth of XPS and AES were evaluated from relative Elastic Peak Electron Spectroscopy (EPES) measurements with the Au standard in the energy range 0.5–2 keV. The measured IMFPs were compared with IMFPs resulting from experimental optical data published in the literature for the graphite sample. The EPES IMFP values at 0.5 and 1.5 keV was practically identical to that calculated from optical data for graphite (less than 4% deviation). For energies 1 and 2 keV, the EPES IMFPs for rGO were deviated up to 14% from IMFPs calculated using the optical data by Tanuma et al. [1]. Before EPES measurements all samples were characterized by various techniques like: FE-SEM, AFM, XPS, AES and REELS to visualize the surface morphology/topography and identify the chemical composition.

  19. Surface characterization of graphene based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarek, M., E-mail: mpisarek@ichf.edu.pl [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Holdynski, M.; Krawczyk, M.; Nowakowski, R.; Roguska, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Malolepszy, A. [Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warynskiego 1, 00-065 Warsaw (Poland); Stobinski, L. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warynskiego 1, 00-065 Warsaw (Poland); Jablonski, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Two kind of samples: commercial graphene on Cu substrate and rGO flakes. • EPES applied to measure the IMFPs in graphene based materials. • Characterization by various techniques like: FE-SEM, AFM, XPS, AES and REELS. • EPES IMFPs for rGO deviated up to 14% from IMFPs calculated using the optical data. - Abstract: In the present study, two kind of samples were used: (i) a monolayer graphene film with a thickness of 0.345 nm deposited by the CVD method on Cu foil, (ii) graphene flakes obtained by modified Hummers method and followed by reduction of graphene oxide. The inelastic mean free path (IMFP), characterizing electron transport in graphene/Cu sample and reduced graphene oxide material, which determines the sampling depth of XPS and AES were evaluated from relative Elastic Peak Electron Spectroscopy (EPES) measurements with the Au standard in the energy range 0.5–2 keV. The measured IMFPs were compared with IMFPs resulting from experimental optical data published in the literature for the graphite sample. The EPES IMFP values at 0.5 and 1.5 keV was practically identical to that calculated from optical data for graphite (less than 4% deviation). For energies 1 and 2 keV, the EPES IMFPs for rGO were deviated up to 14% from IMFPs calculated using the optical data by Tanuma et al. [1]. Before EPES measurements all samples were characterized by various techniques like: FE-SEM, AFM, XPS, AES and REELS to visualize the surface morphology/topography and identify the chemical composition.

  20. Efficient waveguide coupler based on metal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjun; Yang, Junbo; Chang, Shengli; Zhang, Jingjing; Lu, Huanyu

    2015-10-01

    Because of the diffraction limit of light, the scale of optical element stays in the order of wavelength, which makes the interface optics and nano-electronic components cannot be directly matched, thus the development of photonics technology encounters a bottleneck. In order to solve the problem that coupling of light into the subwavelength waveguide, this paper proposes a model of coupler based on metal materials. By using Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) wave, incident light can be efficiently coupled into waveguide of diameter less than 100 nm. This paper mainly aims at near infrared wave band, and tests a variety of the combination of metal materials, and by changing the structural parameters to get the maximum coupling efficiency. This structure splits the plane incident light with wavelength of 864 nm, the width of 600 nm into two uniform beams, and separately coupled into the waveguide layer whose width is only about 80 nm, and the highest coupling efficiency can reach above 95%. Using SPPs structure will be an effective method to break through the diffraction limit and implement photonics device high-performance miniaturization. We can further compress the light into small scale fiber or waveguide by using the metal coupler, and to save the space to hold more fiber or waveguide layer, so that we can greatly improve the capacity of optical communication. In addition, high-performance miniaturization of the optical transmission medium can improve the integration of optical devices, also provide a feasible solution for the photon computer research and development in the future.

  1. Exciton states in zinc-blende GaN/AlGaN quantum dot: Effects of electric field and hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Congxin; Zeng Zaiping; Liu, Z.S.; Wei, S.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the effective-mass approximation, the effects of the electric field and hydrostatic pressure on exciton states in a cylindrical zinc-blende (ZB) GaN/AlGaN quantum dot (QD) are investigated variationally. Numerical results show that the electric field leads to a remarkable reduction of the ground-state exciton binding energy and interband transition energy in the case of any hydrostatic pressures. However, the hydrostatic pressure increases the exciton binding energy and interband transition energy in the case of any electric fields. In particular, the electric field has a remarkable influence on the exciton binding energy in the QD with large dot size and small hydrostatic pressure; moreover, the hydrostatic pressure obviously affects the exciton binding energy in the QD with small dot size and weak electric field.

  2. Water vapor movement in freezing aggregate base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) measure the extent to which water vapor movement results in : water accumulation in freezing base materials; 2) evaluate the effect of soil stabilization on water vapor movement : in freezing base materials;...

  3. Arsenolite: a quasi-hydrostatic solid pressure-transmitting medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sans, J A; Manjón, F J; Popescu, C; Muñoz, A; Rodríguez-Hernández, P; Jordá, J L; Rey, F

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the experimental characterization of the hydrostatic properties of arsenolite (As 4 O 6 ), a molecular solid which is one of the softest minerals in the absence of hydrogen bonding. The high compressibility of arsenolite and its stability up to 15 GPa have been proved by x-ray diffraction measurements, and the progressive loss of hydrostaticity with increasing pressure up to 20 GPa has been monitored by ruby photoluminescence. Arsenolite has been found to exhibit hydrostatic behavior up to 2.5 GPa and a quasi-hydrostatic behavior up to 10 GPa at room temperature. This result opens the way to explore other molecular solids as possible quasi-hydrostatic pressure-transmitting media. The validity of arsenolite as an insulating, stable, non-penetrating and quasi-hydrostatic medium is explored by the study of the x-ray diffraction of zeolite ITQ-29 at high pressure. (paper)

  4. Hydrostatic-pressure and uniaxial-strain experiments for controlling the spin-Peierls transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, Masaki; Deguchi, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Wataru; Kondo, Ryusuke; Kagoshima, Seiichi

    2010-01-01

    The spin-Peierls (SP) system is considered to be a quantum spin system strongly coupled with the lattice. We have succeeded in controlling SP transition by applying hydrostatic pressure and/or uniaxial strain. The observed phenomenon could be a typical example for understanding the SP transition based on the Hamiltonian. (author)

  5. Glycine Insertion Makes Yellow Fluorescent Protein Sensitive to Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Imada, Katsumi; Yoshizawa, Keiko; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kato, Chiaki; Abe, Fumiyoshi; Morikawa, Takamitsu J.; Kinoshita, Miki; Fujita, Hideaki; Yanagida, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent protein-based indicators for intracellular environment conditions such as pH and ion concentrations are commonly used to study the status and dynamics of living cells. Despite being an important factor in many biological processes, the development of an indicator for the physicochemical state of water, such as pressure, viscosity and temperature, however, has been neglected. We here found a novel mutation that dramatically enhances the pressure dependency of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) by inserting several glycines into it. The crystal structure of the mutant showed that the tyrosine near the chromophore flipped toward the outside of the β-can structure, resulting in the entry of a few water molecules near the chromophore. In response to changes in hydrostatic pressure, a spectrum shift and an intensity change of the fluorescence were observed. By measuring the fluorescence of the YFP mutant, we succeeded in measuring the intracellular pressure change in living cell. This study shows a new strategy of design to engineer fluorescent protein indicators to sense hydrostatic pressure. PMID:24014139

  6. Sustainable bio-based materials: opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Research in the area of bio-based materials aims to achieve breakthroughs in bio-based materials development. A novel way is presented to organise bio-based materials research with a value chain approach in which sustainability research is integrated in the research program. This research approach

  7. Are Hydrostatic Models Still Capable of Simulating Oceanic Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-10

    Hydrostatic Models Still Capable of Simulating Oceanic Fronts Yalin Fan Zhitao Yu Ocean Dynamics and Prediction Branch Oceanography Division FengYan Shi...OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Are Hydrostatic Models Still Capable of Simulating Oceanic Fronts? Yalin Fan, Zhitao Yu, and, Fengyan Shi1 Naval...mixed layer and thermocline simulations as well as large scale circulations. Numerical experiments are conducted using hydrostatic (HY) and

  8. Transport properties in GaTe under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouskov, L.; Carvalho, M.

    1980-01-01

    First results of the resistivity rho(perpendicular) and rho(parallel)(perpendicular and parallel to the normal to the cleavage plane) under hydrostatic pressure (1 bar <= P <= 3 kbar) on GaTe grown by the Bridgman method, are given and discussed. The analysis of electrical transport properties of GaTe under pressure, indicates a complex nature of the acceptor level in this material. The activation energy Esub(a) has a negative pressure coefficient which is sample dependent. The comparison of the variations of rho(parallel) and rho(perpendicular) versus pressure shows that the activation energy E of the rho(parallel)/rho(perpendicular) ratio has also a negative pressure coefficient which can be justified in the frame of a one-dimensional disorder model proposed by Maschke and Schmid, in order to explain the transport properties in the direction of the normal to the cleavage plane. (author)

  9. Materials And Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) LDEF materials data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Materials Data Base was developed by the LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG). The LDEF Materials Data Base is envisioned to eventually contain the wide variety and vast quantity of materials data generated from LDEF. The data is searchable by optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, exposure parameters (such as atomic oxygen flux) and author(s) or principal investigator(s). Tne LDEF Materials Data Base was incorporated into the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS). MAPTIS is a collection of materials data which has been computerized and is available to engineers, designers, and researchers in the aerospace community involved in the design and development of spacecraft and related hardware. The LDEF Materials Data Base is described and step-by-step example searches using the data base are included. Information on how to become an authorized user of the system is included.

  10. Minicomputer based, controlled materials information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, N.; Jessen, T.; Meadors, O.; Seibel, D.

    1976-01-01

    The LLL, Materials Management Group and Data Processing Services have developed a transaction-oriented, minicomputer system for the management of the Laboratory's controlled materials. The system consists of a multi-vendor hardware system designed for ease of operation, maximum reliability, and quick response and the requirements imposed on the hardware and software systems are discussed

  11. Effect of hydrostatic pressure application at cryogenic temperatures on the properties of VT1-0 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajmovich, P.A; Shulgin, N.A.; Chernyaeva, E.V.

    2015-01-01

    Attempt was made to determine the influence of hydrostatic pressure on the properties of the alloy VT1-0 at cryogenic temperatures both under straining of the alloy and without it. Hardening of the material is observed only in that part of the specimen, which experienced a deformation, while the very exposure of the alloy under hydrostatic pressure does not lead to strengthening of the material. At the same time, measurements of acoustic emission (AE) show that in the near-surface layers the forces of hydrostatic compression alone, i.e. without a deformation, cause some changes in the structure, which stipulate an increase of the energy and (to a lesser extent) of the median frequency of AE signals. An explanation of this phenomenon is suggested

  12. Smart material-based radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleski, Scott

    2014-10-01

    From sensors to power harvesters, the unique properties of smart materials have been exploited in numerous ways to enable new applications and reduce the size of many useful devices. Smart materials are defined as materials whose properties can be changed in a controlled and often reversible fashion by use of external stimuli, such as electric and magnetic fields, temperature, or humidity. Smart materials have been used to make acceleration sensors that are ubiquitous in mobile phones, to make highly accurate frequency standards, to make unprecedentedly small actuators and motors, to seal and reduce friction of rotating shafts, and to generate power by conversion of either kinetic or thermal energy to electrical energy. The number of useful devices enabled by smart materials is large and continues to grow. Smart materials can also be used to generate plasmas and accelerate particles at small scales. The materials discussed in this talk are from non-centrosymmetric crystalline classes including piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and ferroelectric materials, which produce large electric fields in response to external stimuli such as applied electric fields or thermal energy. First, the use of ferroelectric, pyroelectric and piezoelectric materials for plasma generation and particle acceleration will be reviewed. The talk will then focus on the use of piezoelectric materials at the University of Missouri to construct plasma sources and electrostatic accelerators for applications including space propulsion, x-ray imaging, and neutron production. The basic concepts of piezoelectric transformers, which are analogous to conventional magnetic transformers, will be discussed, along with results from experiments over the last decade to produce micro-thrusters for space propulsion and particle accelerators for x-ray and neutron production. Support from ONR, AFOSR, and LANL.

  13. [Preface for special issue on bio-based materials (2016)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yunxuan

    2016-06-25

    Bio-based materials are new materials or chemicals with renewable biomass as raw materials such as grain, legume, straw, bamboo and wood powder. This class of materials includes bio-based polymer, biobased fiber, glycotechnology products, biobased rubber and plastics produced by biomass thermoplastic processing and basic biobased chemicals, for instance, bio-alcohols, organic acids, alkanes, and alkenes, obtained by bio-synthesis, bio-processing and bio-refinery. Owing to its environmental friendly and resource conservation, bio-based materials are becoming a new dominant industry taking the lead in the world scientific and technological innovation and economic development. An overview of bio-based materials development is reported in this special issue, and the industrial status and research progress of the following aspects, including biobased fiber, polyhydroxyalkanoates, biodegradable mulching film, bio-based polyamide, protein based biomedical materials, bio-based polyurethane, and modification and processing of poly(lactic acid), are introduced.

  14. TENDENCIES AND PROSPECTS OF APPLICATION OF HYDROSTATIC-MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION IN CAR- AND TRACTORBUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    V. Samorodov; A. Bondarenko

    2012-01-01

    Research of advantages and lacks of hydrostatic-mechanical transmission, application of hydrostatic-mechanical transmission, expedience of the use of hydrostatic-mechanical transmission on motor transport and agricultural machines have been done.

  15. Code of practice for the release of hydrostatic test water from hydrostatic testing of petroleum liquid and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This booklet describes a series of administrative procedures regarding the code of practice in Alberta for the release of hydrostatic test water from hydrostatic testing of petroleum liquid and gas pipelines. The topics covered include the registration process, the type and quality of water to use during the test, and the analytical methods to be used. Reporting schedule and record keeping information are also covered. Schedule 1 discusses the requirements for the release of hydrostatic test water to land, while Schedule 2 describes the requirements for the release of hydrostatic test water to receiving water. 3 tabs

  16. The preliminary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) materials data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, J.G.; Strickland, J.W.; Davis, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    A preliminary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Materials Data Base was developed by the LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG). The LDEF Materials Data Base is envisioned to eventually contain the wide variety and vast quantity of materials data generated for LDEF. The data is searchable by optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, exposure parameters (such as atomic oxygen flux), and author(s) or principal investigator(s). The LDEF Materials Data Base was incorporated into the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS). MAPTIS is a collection of materials data which was computerized and is available to engineers, designers, and researchers in the aerospace community involved in the design and development of spacecraft and related hardware. This paper describes the LDEF Materials Data Base and includes step-by-step example searches using the data base. Information on how to become an authorized user of the system is included

  17. The preliminary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) materials data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Materials Data Base was developed by the LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG). The LDEF Materials Data Base is envisioned to eventually contain the wide variety and vast quantity of materials data generated for LDEF. The data is searchable by optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, exposure parameters (such as atomic oxygen flux), and author(s) or principal investigator(s). The LDEF Materials Data Base was incorporated into the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS). MAPTIS is a collection of materials data which was computerized and is available to engineers, designers, and researchers in the aerospace community involved in the design and development of spacecraft and related hardware. This paper describes the LDEF Materials Data Base and includes step-by-step example searches using the data base. Information on how to become an authorized user of the system is included.

  18. Depth-Averaged Non-Hydrostatic Hydrodynamic Model Using a New Multithreading Parallel Computing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Kang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the hydrostatic hydrodynamic model, the non-hydrostatic hydrodynamic model can accurately simulate flows that feature vertical accelerations. The model’s low computational efficiency severely restricts its wider application. This paper proposes a non-hydrostatic hydrodynamic model based on a multithreading parallel computing method. The horizontal momentum equation is obtained by integrating the Navier–Stokes equations from the bottom to the free surface. The vertical momentum equation is approximated by the Keller-box scheme. A two-step method is used to solve the model equations. A parallel strategy based on block decomposition computation is utilized. The original computational domain is subdivided into two subdomains that are physically connected via a virtual boundary technique. Two sub-threads are created and tasked with the computation of the two subdomains. The producer–consumer model and the thread lock technique are used to achieve synchronous communication between sub-threads. The validity of the model was verified by solitary wave propagation experiments over a flat bottom and slope, followed by two sinusoidal wave propagation experiments over submerged breakwater. The parallel computing method proposed here was found to effectively enhance computational efficiency and save 20%–40% computation time compared to serial computing. The parallel acceleration rate and acceleration efficiency are approximately 1.45% and 72%, respectively. The parallel computing method makes a contribution to the popularization of non-hydrostatic models.

  19. Thermal fluid-solid interaction model and experimental validation for hydrostatic mechanical face seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weifeng; Liao, Chuanjun; Liu, Xiangfeng; Suo, Shuangfu; Liu, Ying; Wang, Yuming

    2014-09-01

    Hydrostatic mechanical face seals for reactor coolant pumps are very important for the safety and reliability of pressurized-water reactor power plants. More accurate models on the operating mechanism of the seals are needed to help improve their performance. The thermal fluid-solid interaction (TFSI) mechanism of the hydrostatic seal is investigated in this study. Numerical models of the flow field and seal assembly are developed. Based on the mechanism for the continuity condition of the physical quantities at the fluid-solid interface, an on-line numerical TFSI model for the hydrostatic mechanical seal is proposed using an iterative coupling method. Dynamic mesh technology is adopted to adapt to the changing boundary shape. Experiments were performed on a test rig using a full-size test seal to obtain the leakage rate as a function of the differential pressure. The effectiveness and accuracy of the TFSI model were verified by comparing the simulation results and experimental data. Using the TFSI model, the behavior of the seal is presented, including mechanical and thermal deformation, and the temperature field. The influences of the rotating speed and differential pressure of the sealing device on the temperature field, which occur widely in the actual use of the seal, are studied. This research proposes an on-line and assembly-based TFSI model for hydrostatic mechanical face seals, and the model is validated by full-sized experiments.

  20. Supercapacitors based on graphene/pseudocapacitive materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sačer Denis; Kralj Magdalena; Sopčić Suzana; Košević Milica; Dekanski Aleksandar; Roković-Kraljić Marijana

    2017-01-01

    Composites of graphene and SnO2 were successfully prepared by a single step simultaneous synthesis of SnO2 and reduction of graphene oxide (GO). Three different compositions of precursor solution resulted in different composite materials containing graphene and SnO2. The reaction was realized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) gave insight into the morphology and composition of the obtained materials....

  1. Microfiber devices based on carbon materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gengzhi Sun; Xuewan Wang; Peng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Microfiber devices are able to extend the micro/nano functionalities of materials or devices to the macroscopic scale with excellent flexibility and weavability, promising a variety of unique applications and, sometimes, also improved performance as compared with bulk counterparts. The fiber electrodes in these devices are often made of carbon materials (e.g. carbon nanotubes and graphene) because of their exceptional electrical, mechanical, and structural properties. Covering the latest deve...

  2. Biodegradable starch-based polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorova, Anna I.; Tyukova, Irina S.; Trufanova, Elena I.

    2000-05-01

    The effects of low-molecular-weight additives, temperature and mechanical action on the structure and properties of starch are discussed. Special attention is given to mixtures of starch with synthetic polymers, e.g., co-polymers of ethylene with vinyl acetate, vinyl alcohol, acrylic acid, cellulose derivatives and other natural polymers. These mixtures can be used in the development of novel environmentally safe materials (films, coatings, packaging materials) and various articles for short-term use. The bibliography includes 105 references.

  3. Effect of elastic boundaries in hydrostatic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volobuev, A. N.; Tolstonogov, A. P.

    2010-03-01

    The possibility and conditions of use of the Bernoulli equation for description of an elastic pipeline were considered. It is shown that this equation is identical in form to the Bernoulli equation used for description of a rigid pipeline. It has been established that the static pressure entering into the Bernoulli equation is not identical to the pressure entering into the impulse-momentum equation. The hydrostatic problem on the pressure distribution over the height of a beaker with a rigid bottom and elastic walls, filled with a liquid, was solved.

  4. 75 FR 48728 - The Hydrostatic Testing Provision of the Portable Fire Extinguishers Standard; Extension of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Hydrostatic Testing Provision of the Portable Fire Extinguishers Standard; Extension of the Office of... the information collection requirements contained in the Hydrostatic Testing provision of the Portable... 48729

  5. Supercapacitors based on graphene/pseudocapacitive materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sačer Denis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites of graphene and SnO2 were successfully prepared by a single step simultaneous synthesis of SnO2 and reduction of graphene oxide (GO. Three different compositions of precursor solution resulted in different composite materials containing graphene and SnO2. The reaction was realized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX gave insight into the morphology and composition of the obtained materials. Good capacitive/pseudocapacitive properties of the obtained material suitable for supercapacitor application were registered by cyclic voltammetry, from where specific capacitance values up to 93 F g-1 were determined. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172060

  6. Design and evaluation of foamed asphalt base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Foamed asphalt stabilized base (FASB) combines reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), recycled : concrete (RC), and/or graded aggregate base (GAB) with a foamed asphalt binder to produce a : partially stabilized base material. The objectives of this study...

  7. Material recognition based on thermal cues: Mechanisms and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsin-Ni

    2018-01-01

    Some materials feel colder to the touch than others, and we can use this difference in perceived coldness for material recognition. This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying material recognition based on thermal cues. It provides an overview of the physical, perceptual, and cognitive processes involved in material recognition. It also describes engineering domains in which material recognition based on thermal cues have been applied. This includes haptic interfaces that seek to reproduce the sensations associated with contact in virtual environments and tactile sensors aim for automatic material recognition. The review concludes by considering the contributions of this line of research in both science and engineering.

  8. External Coulomb-Friction Damping For Hydrostatic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmann, Paul S.

    1992-01-01

    External friction device damps vibrations of shaft and hydrostatic ring bearing in which it turns. Does not rely on wear-prone facing surfaces. Hydrostatic bearing ring clamped in radially flexing support by side plates clamped against radial surfaces by spring-loaded bolts. Plates provide friction against radial motions of shaft.

  9. Imperfection effects on the buckling of hydrostatically loaded cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinna, Rodney; Madsen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    imperfection sensitivity. Work on cylinders with other loading conditions, such as hydrostatic loading, is more limited. Similarly, there is limited work on cylinders with boundary conditions other than simply-supported ends. This paper looks at the case of cylinders under hydrostatic load, which is often...

  10. Wheat B-starch based polymeric materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotek, Jiří; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Šárka, E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 9 (2011), s. 731 ISSN 0009-2770. [International Conference on Polysaccharides-Glycoscience /7./. 02.11.2011-04.11.2011, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/09/0607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biodegradable plastic * polycaprolactone * B- starch Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  11. Acetylene-Based Materials in Organic Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Silvestri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel alternatives, such as solar energy, are moving to the forefront in a variety of research fields. Organic photovoltaic systems hold the promise of a lightweight, flexible, cost-effective solar energy conversion platform, which could benefit from simple solution-processing of the active layer. The discovery of semiconductive polyacetylene by Heeger et al. in the late 1970s was a milestone towards the use of organic materials in electronics; the development of efficient protocols for the palladium catalyzed alkynylation reactions and the new conception of steric and conformational advantages of acetylenes have been recently focused the attention on conjugated triple-bond containing systems as a promising class of semiconductors for OPVs applications. We review here the most important and representative (polyarylacetylenes that have been used in the field. A general introduction to (polyarylacetylenes, and the most common synthetic approaches directed toward making these materials will be firstly given. After a brief discussion on working principles and critical parameters of OPVs, we will focus on molecular arylacetylenes, (copolymers containing triple bonds, and metallopolyyne polymers as p-type semiconductor materials. The last section will deal with hybrids in which oligomeric/polymeric structures incorporating acetylenic linkages such as phenylene ethynylenes have been attached onto C60, and their use as the active materials in photovoltaic devices.

  12. Sterically controlled mechanochemistry under hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Yang, Fan; Pan, Ding; Lin, Yu; Hohman, J. Nathan; Solis-Ibarra, Diego; Li, Fei Hua; Dahl, Jeremy E. P.; Carlson, Robert M. K.; Tkachenko, Boryslav A.; Fokin, Andrey A.; Schreiner, Peter R.; Galli, Giulia; Mao, Wendy L.; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Melosh, Nicholas A.

    2018-02-01

    Mechanical stimuli can modify the energy landscape of chemical reactions and enable reaction pathways, offering a synthetic strategy that complements conventional chemistry. These mechanochemical mechanisms have been studied extensively in one-dimensional polymers under tensile stress using ring-opening and reorganization, polymer unzipping and disulfide reduction as model reactions. In these systems, the pulling force stretches chemical bonds, initiating the reaction. Additionally, it has been shown that forces orthogonal to the chemical bonds can alter the rate of bond dissociation. However, these bond activation mechanisms have not been possible under isotropic, compressive stress (that is, hydrostatic pressure). Here we show that mechanochemistry through isotropic compression is possible by molecularly engineering structures that can translate macroscopic isotropic stress into molecular-level anisotropic strain. We engineer molecules with mechanically heterogeneous components—a compressible (‘soft’) mechanophore and incompressible (‘hard’) ligands. In these ‘molecular anvils’, isotropic stress leads to relative motions of the rigid ligands, anisotropically deforming the compressible mechanophore and activating bonds. Conversely, rigid ligands in steric contact impede relative motion, blocking reactivity. We combine experiments and computations to demonstrate hydrostatic-pressure-driven redox reactions in metal-organic chalcogenides that incorporate molecular elements that have heterogeneous compressibility, in which bending of bond angles or shearing of adjacent chains activates the metal-chalcogen bonds, leading to the formation of the elemental metal. These results reveal an unexplored reaction mechanism and suggest possible strategies for high-specificity mechanosynthesis.

  13. Hydrostatic bearing with a stepped duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krevsun, Eh.P.; Ivanov, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method for calculating and experimental data from tests on a hydrostatic bearing whose operating hydraulic channel is formed by two cylincrical surfaces, are presented. Unlike currently used hydrostatic bearings, the bearing described has no capillary choke or diaphragm choke at the entrance. This simplifies the construction and increases the reliability, especially when it is operated with corrosive liquids or liquids containing solid suspensoids and causing erosion and blockage of the choke structures. In order to obtain the calculated relations, the flow of a liquid from the bearing in the axial direction to one side through a part of an aperture of unit width was examined. The effect of rotating the axle, of flow in the circumferential direction, and curvature of the aperture was not considered. Isothermal and laminar flows were considered. Because of the simplicity of the hydraulic circuit and the satisfactory properties (bearing capability and flow rate), the bearing described may be used in pumps operating with corrosive liquids, with those containing solid suspensoids and in nuclear energy establishments. (author)

  14. Modelling non-hydrostatic processes in sill regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A.; Xing, J.; Davies, A.; Berntsen, J.

    2007-12-01

    We use a non-hydrostatic model to compute tidally induced flow and mixing in the region of bottom topography representing the sill at the entrance to Loch Etive (Scotland). This site is chosen since detailed measurements were recently made there. With non-hydrostatic dynamics in the model our results showed that the model could reproduce the observed flow characteristics, e.g., hydraulic transition, flow separation and internal waves. However, when calculations were performed using the model in the hydrostatic form, significant artificial convective mixing occurred. This influenced the computed temperature and flow field. We will discuss in detail the effects of non-hydrostatic dynamics on flow over the sill, especially investigate non-linear and non-hydrostatic contributions to modelled internal waves and internal wave energy fluxes.

  15. Non-hydrostatic layered flows over a sill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, Mirmosadegh

    2013-01-01

    This work takes a new approach to solving non-hydrostatic equations of layered flows over bottom topography. A perturbation technique is used to find explicit expressions for a flow for different regimes of single- and two-layer flows over a sill. Excellent agreement with previous solutions and experimental data is obtained, and more details of the non-hydrostatic flow over a sill are revealed. The proposed method is simple and compact and removes the need for complex numerical techniques to solve the non-hydrostatic equations. It is shown that in the approach-controlled regime of two-layer flow over a sill, the flow upstream and farther downstream the sill crest can be described by the hydrostatic theory, and the flow is non-hydrostatic over only a short distance on the downstream side of the crest. (paper)

  16. Increased hydrostatic pressure enhances motility of lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chiu; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Kuo, Po-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial fluid pressures within most solid tumors are significantly higher than that in the surrounding normal tissues. Therefore, cancer cells must proliferate and migrate under the influence of elevated hydrostatic pressure while a tumor grows. In this study, we developed a pressurized cell culture device and investigated the influence of hydrostatic pressure on the migration speeds of lung cancer cells (CL1-5 and A549). The migration speeds of lung cancer cells were increased by 50-60% under a 20 mmHg hydrostatic pressure. We also observed that the expressions of aquaporin in CL1-5 and A549 cells were increased under the hydrostatic pressure. Our preliminary results indicate that increased hydrostatic pressure plays an important role in tumor metastasis.

  17. Numerical and Experimental Study of Friction Loss in Hydrostatic Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Mørk; Hansen, Michael R.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of the losses in a hydrostatic motor principle. The motor is designed so that the structural de ections and lubricating regimes between moving surfaces and, subsequently, the leakage and friction losses, can be controlled during operation....... This is done by means of additional pressure volumes that in uence the stator de ection. These pressures are referred to as compensation pressures and the main emphasis is on friction or torque loss modeling of the motor as a function of the compensation pressures and the high and low pressures related...... to the load torque. The torque loss modeling is identied as a Stribeck curve which depends on gap height. The asperity friction is decreasing exponentially with an increase in gap height. The parameters of the torque loss model are based on prototype measurements that include the structural de ections...

  18. Structural and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes under hydrostatic pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ying; Cao Juexian; Yang Wei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the structural and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes under hydrostatic pressures based on molecular dynamics simulations and first principles band structure calculations. It is found that carbon nanotubes experience a hard-to-soft transition as external pressure increases. The bulk modulus of soft phase is two orders of magnitude smaller than that of hard phase. The band structure calculations show that band gap of (10, 0) nanotube increases with the increase of pressure at low pressures. Above a critical pressure (5.70GPa), band gap of (10, 0) nanotube drops rapidly and becomes zero at 6.62GPa. Moreover, the calculated charge density shows that a large pressure can induce an sp 2 -to-sp 3 bonding transition, which is confirmed by recent experiments on deformed carbon nanotubes

  19. Reinforcement of Conducting Silver-based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike JUNG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver is a well-known material in the field of contact materials because of its high electrical and thermal conductivity. However, due to its bad mechanical and switching properties, silver alloys or reinforcements of the ductile silver matrix are required. Different reinforcements, e. g. tungsten, tungsten carbide, nickel, cadmium oxide or tin oxide, are used in different sectors of switches. To reach an optimal distribution of these reinforcements, various manufacturing techniques (e. g. powder blending, preform infiltration, wet-chemical methods, internal oxidation are being used for the production of these contact materials. Each of these manufacturing routes offers different advantages and disadvantages. The mechanical alloying process displays a successful and efficient method to produce particle-reinforced metal-matrix composite powders. This contribution presents the obtained fine disperse microstructure of tungsten-particle-reinforced silver composite powders produced by the mechanical alloying process and displays this technique as possible route to provide feedstock powders for subsequent consolidation processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4889

  20. A FEM simulation study of the solid state hydrostatic extrusion of PMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, André L. M.; Riffel, Douglas B.; Misiolek, Wojciech Z.; Valberg, Henry S.

    2018-05-01

    Solid state hydrostatic extrusion (SSHE) of polymers below glass transition temperature is used to obtain highly oriented structures. Experimental studies on the SSHE of polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) have been made since early eighties but there is no information on internal temperature, stress and strain distribution. In this work we have made 3D FEM simulations of SSHE of PMMA by using the commercial DEFORM package with experimental flow curves and thermal properties from literature. The initial temperature of tooling and workpiece was 90°C, ram speeds were 1.0 and 10.0 mm/min with extrusion ratio R = 3.0. For a comparative analysis, SSHE simulation of the AA7108 aluminum alloy at 400°C was also performed. These ranges of parameters were chosen in order to encompass the parameters found in previously mentioned experiments. The best correlation with experimental hydrostatic pressure was verified for a shear friction coefficient at the material-conical die interface m = 0.50. Force-displacement curve for PMMA presented a constitutive and thermal softening in contrast to a constant force curve for aluminum. The internal temperature in the deformation zone increased in a characteristic "owl's face" profile in contrast to quasi-constant profile of aluminum alloy. In both PMMA and aluminum the stress is hydrostatic inside the container, but the stress profiles are significantly different inside the deformation zone. As expected, the strain and strain-rate profiles are practically the same for the two materials, but the temperature profile has promoted slightly differences in material flow. The velocity gradient from center to surface is higher in PMMA than aluminum. It's supposed that during hydrostatic extrusion solid PMMA has a characteristic thermally-inducted mechanical behavior.

  1. MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTER MODELING OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HYDROSTATIC BEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Pelevin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents simulation results of hydrostatic bearing dynamics in spindle assembly of standard flexible production module with throttled circuit. The necessity of dynamic quality increase for automatic control system of the hydrostatic bearing with the use of correcting means in the form of RC-chains is shown. The features of correction parameters choice coming from the existence of the crossing connections in automatic control system structure are noted. We propose the block diagram of automatic control system of the hydrostatic bearing in Simulink working field and cyclic algorithm for determination program of RC-chain parameters implemented in MATLAB taking into account typical thermal processes for the finishing treatment. Graphic-analytical method for the correction parameters choice is presented based on the stability stock phase gradient for dynamic quality determination of automatic control system. Researches of the method estimability in case of using the standard metal bellow valve as the hydrocapacity for RC-chain are also carried out. Recommendations for the bellow valve choice are formulated. The check of dynamic quality indicators concerning transition processes calculated by means of the appropriate programs developed for MATLAB is performed. Examples are given for phase stability factor gradient schedules with partition of various areas of hydrostatic bearing dynamic quality for different frequencies of spindle rotation and procedure description of data cursor function application on MATLAB toolbar. Improvement of hydrostatic bearing dynamics under typical low loadings for finishing treatment is noted. Also, decrease of dynamic indicators for high loadings treatment in case of roughing treatment is marked.

  2. Materials data base as an interface between fusion reactor designs and materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, S.; Iwata, S.

    1983-01-01

    The materials data base is an integrated information system of experimental and/or calculated data of materials being compiled to meet the broad needs for materials data by taking advantage of the data base management systems. In this paper the objective of such computerized data base is described from the viewpoint of materials engineers and fusion system designers. Materials data spread themselves widely from the field that relates fundamental understanding of the behaviors of electrons, atoms, vacancies, dislocations and so on to the performance of components, devices, machines and systems. In our approach this information is described as ''relations'' by a set of tables which comprise related variables, for example, a set of values about essential properties for materials selection. This approach based on the relational model enables relational operations, i.e. SELECTION, PROJECTION, JOIN and so on, to select suitable materials, to set trade-off parameters for system designers and to establish design criteria. Stored data comprise (i) fundamental properties for all elements and potential structural materials, (ii) low cycle fatigue, irradiation creep and swelling data for type 316 stainless steels. These data have been selected and evaluated from critical reviews of existing data base of about 2 mega bytes data, some examples of materials selections and extraction of trade-off parameters are shown as a subject of critical issue concerning how to bridge the large gap between materials developments and system designs. (author)

  3. Diatom-Based Material Production Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    Haeger 0.02 Sean Hoban 0.05 Leila Kamakele 0.06 Jeff Kataoka 0.08 Randi Keipper 0.16 Brendan Lagather 0.17 Stephen Woods 0.10 Rodney Corpuz 0.13 Aga...to Cathleen Fischer at Dresden University of Technology for testing as a substrate for catalysis. Material is available for any other testing...also thank Dr. Pat Kociolek from University of Colorado for help with identifying girdle bands of GAI-216. Bibliography Jantschke A., C. Fischer

  4. Future perspectives of resin-based dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Klaus D; Sigusch, Bernd W

    2009-08-01

    This concise review and outlook paper gives a view of selected potential future developments in the area of resin-based biomaterials with an emphasis on dental composites. A selection of key publications (1 book, 35 scientific original publications and 1 website source) covering the areas nanotechnology, antimicrobial materials, stimuli responsive materials, self-repairing materials and materials for tissue engineering with direct or indirect relations and/or implications to resin-based dental materials is critically reviewed and discussed. Connections between these fields and their potential for resin-based dental materials are highlighted and put in perspective. The need to improve shrinkage properties and wear resistance is obvious for dental composites, and a vast number of attempts have been made to accomplish these aims. Future resin-based materials may be further improved in this respect if, for example nanotechnology is applied. Dental composites may, however, reach a completely new quality by utilizing new trends from materials science, such as introducing nanostructures, antimicrobial properties, stimuli responsive capabilities, the ability to promote tissue regeneration or repair of dental tissues if the composites were able to repair themselves. This paper shows selected potential future developments in the area of resin-based dental materials, gives basic and industrial researchers in dental materials science, and dental practitioners a glance into the potential future of these materials, and should stimulate discussion about needs and future developments in the area.

  5. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure and varying concentrations of sodium nitrite from traditional and vegetable-based sources on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat (RTE) sliced ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kevin; Cannon, Jerry; Montoya, Damian; Dickson, James; Lonergan, Steven; Sebranek, Joseph

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect the source of added nitrite and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) had on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat (RTE) sliced ham. Use of 600MPa HHP for 3min resulted in an immediate 3.9-4.3log CFU/g reduction in L. monocytogenes numbers, while use of 400MPa HHP (3min) provided less than 1log CFU/g reduction. With the 600MPa HHP treatment, sliced ham with a conventional concentration of sodium nitrite (200ppm) was not different in L. monocytogenes growth from use with 50 or 100ppm of sodium nitrite in pre-converted celery powder. Instrumental color values as well as residual nitrite and residual nitrate concentrations for cured (sodium nitrite and nitrite from celery powder) and uncured ham formulations are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. All-Metallic Vertical Transistors Based on Stacked Dirac Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yangyang; Ni, Zeyuan; Liu, Qihang; Quhe, Ruge; Zheng, Jiaxin; Ye, Meng; Yu, Dapeng; Shi, Junjie; Yang, Jinbo; Lu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    It is an ongoing pursuit to use metal as a channel material in a field effect transistor. All metallic transistor can be fabricated from pristine semimetallic Dirac materials (such as graphene, silicene, and germanene), but the on/off current ratio is very low. In a vertical heterostructure composed by two Dirac materials, the Dirac cones of the two materials survive the weak interlayer van der Waals interaction based on density functional theory method, and electron transport from the Dirac ...

  7. Advanced three dimensional characterization of silica-based ultraporous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Foray , Genevieve; Roiban , L.; Rong , Q.; Perret , A.; Ihiawakrim , D.; Masenelli-Varlot , K.; Maire , E.; Yrieix , B.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Whatever the field of application (building, transportation, packaging, etc.) energy losses must be reduced to meet the government target of a 40% cut in CO 2 emissions. This leads to a challenge for materials scientists: designing materials with thermal conductivities lower than 0.015 W m À1 K À1 under ambient conditions. Such a low value requires reducing air molecule mobility in highly porous materials, and silica-based superinsulation materials (SIM) made of packed...

  8. Materials data base for fusion reactors-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, S.; Nogami, A.; Ishino, S.; Mishima, Y.; Takao, Y.; Aruga, T.; Shiraishi, K.

    1982-01-01

    The materials data base is a set of experimental and/or calculated data being compiled to meet the broad needs for materials data by taking advantage of the data base management systems. In this paper the objective of such computerized data base is described and the characteristics of fusion reactor materials are discussed from the viewpoint of the data base development. The near-term emphasis of the development has been put on the irradiation data for 316 type stainless steels. Through the test of this small data base, it can be concluded that this approach is promising for materials data base management and for the establishment of the interface between fusion reactor designer and materials investigator. (orig.)

  9. Intermetallic-Based High-Temperature Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1999-04-25

    The intermetallic-based alloys for high-temperature applications are introduced. General characteristics of intermetallics are followed by identification of nickel and iron aluminides as the most practical alloys for commercial applications. An overview of the alloy compositions, melting processes, and mechanical properties for nickel and iron aluminizes are presented. The current applications and commercial producers of nickel and iron aluminizes are given. A brief description of the future prospects of intermetallic-based alloys is also given.

  10. Protein-Based Drug-Delivery Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jao, Dave; Xue, Ye; Medina, Jethro; Hu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    There is a pressing need for long-term, controlled drug release for sustained treatment of chronic or persistent medical conditions and diseases. Guided drug delivery is difficult because therapeutic compounds need to survive numerous transport barriers and binding targets throughout the body. Nanoscale protein-based polymers are increasingly used for drug and vaccine delivery to cross these biological barriers and through blood circulation to their molecular site of action. Protein-based pol...

  11. Chamber with punches made from polycrystal cubic boron nitrides for Moessbauer study at high hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitanov, E.V.; Yakovlev, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    The design of a high hydrostatic pressure chamber with polycrystallic boron nitride dies weakly absorbing gamma radiation with energies of more than 14 keV is described. The use of this material permits to investigate single- and polycrystal bodies using the Moessbauer effect when the geometry of the experiment remains unchanged and the hydrostatic pressure is up to 70 kbar. The basic units of the chamber are a teflon capsule placed in a container made of a pressed boron and epoxide resin mixture, electric inputs and a die of polycrystal cubic boron nitride. The pressure is transferred to the sample tested through a liquid (petrol or the 4 to 1 mixture of methanole and ethanole) which does not become solid at a pressure below 37 kbar. Basic dimensions of the chamber are given and the dependence of the pressure in the capsule on the force applied to the chamber is also presented

  12. Modern materials based on refractory compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosolapova, T.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the existing methods for synthesizing powders of binary refractory compounds and high-productivity techniques which hold promise as regards the manufacture of highly disperse and pure powders. Plasmochemical synthesis is shown to be an effective method for obtaining practically all carbides, nitrides and borides. A description is given of three main methods for obtaining single crystals of refractory compounds (TiN, TiC, ZrC, ZrB 2 , NbC) fairly perfect in structure and composition. These processes include deposition from vapour-gas phase, melting in arc plasma and crystallization from solutions in metallic melts. The advantages have been shown of the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of refractory compounds, ensuring the manufacture of products, close in composition to stoichiometric ones simultaneously with forming of items. Mechanical, thermal, abrasive, and resistive characteristics of the above materials are presented

  13. [Current status of bio-based materials industry in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Xiaoqian; Weng, Yunxuan; Huang, Zhigang; Yang, Nan; Wang, Xiyuan; Zhang, Min; Jin, Yujuan

    2016-06-25

    In recent years, bio-based materials are becoming a new dominant industry leading the scientific and technological innovation, and economic development of the world. We reviewed the new development of bio-based materials industry in China, analyzed the entire market of bio-based materials products comprehensively, and also stated the industry status of bio-based chemicals, such as lactic acid, 1,3-propanediol, and succinic acid; biodegradable bio-based polymers, such as co-polyester of diacid and diol, polylactic acid, carbon dioxide based copolymer, polyhydroxyalknoates, polycaprolactone, and thermoplastic bio-based plastics; non-biodegradable bio-based polymers, such as bio-based polyamide, polytrimethylene terephthalate, bio-based polyurethane, and bio-based fibers.

  14. Ti-Ni-based shape memory alloys as smart materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, K.; Xu, Y.; Ren, X.

    2003-01-01

    Smart materials consist of three principal materials, ferroelectrics, shape memory alloys (SMA) and electro-active polymers (EAP). Among these SMAs, especially Ti-Ni-based alloys are important, since only they can provide large recoverable strains and high recovery stress. In the present paper the unique characteristics of Ti-Ni-based shape memory alloys are reviewed on an up-to-date basis with the aim of their applications to smart materials and structures. (orig.)

  15. Listener: a probe into information based material specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Karmon, Ayelet

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the thinking and making of the architectural research probe Listener. Developed as an interdisciplinary collaboration between textile design and architecture, Listener explores how information based fabrication technologies are challenging the material practices of architecture....... The paper investigates how textile design can be understood as a model for architectural production providing new strategies for material specification and allowing the thinking of material as inherently variegated and performative. The paper traces the two fold information based strategies present...

  16. Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure on Carcinogenic Properties of Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Shinsaku; Kim, Young Hak; Matsumoto, Hisako; Muro, Shigeo; Hirai, Toyohiro; Mishima, Michiaki; Furuse, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. The inflammation increases the permeability of blood vessels and consequently elevates pressure in the interstitial tissues. However, there have been only a few reports on the effects of hydrostatic pressure on cultured cells, and the relationship between elevated hydrostatic pressure and cell properties related to malignant tumors is less well understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the cultured epithelial cells seeded on permeable filters. Surprisingly, hydrostatic pressure from basal to apical side induced epithelial stratification in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) I and Caco-2 cells, and cavities with microvilli and tight junctions around their surfaces were formed within the multi-layered epithelia. The hydrostatic pressure gradient also promoted cell proliferation, suppressed cell apoptosis, and increased transepithelial ion permeability. The inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) promoted epithelial stratification by the hydrostatic pressure whereas the activation of PKA led to suppressed epithelial stratification. These results indicate the role of the hydrostatic pressure gradient in the regulation of various epithelial cell functions. The findings in this study may provide clues for the development of a novel strategy for the treatment of the carcinoma.

  17. Densified ultra-light cement-based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro

    2015-01-01

    be used as a “clean technology” in the production of cement-based materials for structural applications with a low carbon footprint. This paper describes the principles of this concept coupled with experimental results on the basic properties of this enhanced type of cement-based materials with combined...

  18. Development of bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immobilization of a whole microbial cell is an important process used in nanotechnology of biosensors and other related fields, especially the development of bio-hybrid materials based on live organisms and inorganic compounds. Here, we described an essay to develop a bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

  19. Food processing by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2017-04-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) process, as a nonthermal process, can be used to inactivate microbes while minimizing chemical reactions in food. In this regard, a HHP level of 100 MPa (986.9 atm/1019.7 kgf/cm 2 ) and more is applied to food. Conventional thermal process damages food components relating color, flavor, and nutrition via enhanced chemical reactions. However, HHP process minimizes the damages and inactivates microbes toward processing high quality safe foods. The first commercial HHP-processed foods were launched in 1990 as fruit products such as jams, and then some other products have been commercialized: retort rice products (enhanced water impregnation), cooked hams and sausages (shelf life extension), soy sauce with minimized salt (short-time fermentation owing to enhanced enzymatic reactions), and beverages (shelf life extension). The characteristics of HHP food processing are reviewed from viewpoints of nonthermal process, history, research and development, physical and biochemical changes, and processing equipment.

  20. Graphene-based materials for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuanlong; El-Kady, Maher F; Wang, Lisa J; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Wang, Hongzhi; Mousavi, Mir F; Kaner, Richard B

    2015-06-07

    The demand for flexible/wearable electronic devices that have aesthetic appeal and multi-functionality has stimulated the rapid development of flexible supercapacitors with enhanced electrochemical performance and mechanical flexibility. After a brief introduction to flexible supercapacitors, we summarize current progress made with graphene-based electrodes. Two recently proposed prototypes for flexible supercapacitors, known as micro-supercapacitors and fiber-type supercapacitors, are then discussed. We also present our perspective on the development of graphene-based electrodes for flexible supercapacitors.

  1. Catalysis and Downsizing in Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianding Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg-based materials are promising candidates for hydrogen storage due to the low cost, high hydrogen storage capacity and abundant resources of magnesium for the realization of a hydrogen society. However, the sluggish kinetics and strong stability of the metal-hydrogen bonding of Mg-based materials hinder their application, especially for onboard storage. Many researchers are devoted to overcoming these challenges by numerous methods. Here, this review summarizes some advances in the development of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials related to downsizing and catalysis. In particular, the focus is on how downsizing and catalysts affect the hydrogen storage capacity, kinetics and thermodynamics of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials. Finally, the future development and applications of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials is discussed.

  2. 46 CFR 185.740 - Periodic servicing of hydrostatic release units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic servicing of hydrostatic release units. 185.740... Equipment § 185.740 Periodic servicing of hydrostatic release units. (a) Each hydrostatic release unit... specified by the Commandant. (b) Each disposable hydrostatic release unit must be marked with an expiration...

  3. 46 CFR 131.585 - Periodic servicing of hydrostatic-release units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic servicing of hydrostatic-release units. 131.585... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.585 Periodic servicing of hydrostatic-release units. (a) Except a disposable hydrostatic-release unit with an expiration date, each hydrostatic-release unit must...

  4. 46 CFR 122.740 - Periodic servicing of hydrostatic release units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic servicing of hydrostatic release units. 122.740... hydrostatic release units. (a) Each hydrostatic release unit, other than a disposable unit, must be serviced... hydrostatic release unit must be marked in clearly legible letters with an expiration date of two years after...

  5. Surface characterization of graphene based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarek, M.; Holdynski, M.; Krawczyk, M.; Nowakowski, R.; Roguska, A.; Malolepszy, A.; Stobinski, L.; Jablonski, A.

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, two kind of samples were used: (i) a monolayer graphene film with a thickness of 0.345 nm deposited by the CVD method on Cu foil, (ii) graphene flakes obtained by modified Hummers method and followed by reduction of graphene oxide. The inelastic mean free path (IMFP), characterizing electron transport in graphene/Cu sample and reduced graphene oxide material, which determines the sampling depth of XPS and AES were evaluated from relative Elastic Peak Electron Spectroscopy (EPES) measurements with the Au standard in the energy range 0.5-2 keV. The measured IMFPs were compared with IMFPs resulting from experimental optical data published in the literature for the graphite sample. The EPES IMFP values at 0.5 and 1.5 keV was practically identical to that calculated from optical data for graphite (less than 4% deviation). For energies 1 and 2 keV, the EPES IMFPs for rGO were deviated up to 14% from IMFPs calculated using the optical data by Tanuma et al. [1]. Before EPES measurements all samples were characterized by various techniques like: FE-SEM, AFM, XPS, AES and REELS to visualize the surface morphology/topography and identify the chemical composition.

  6. Research on Parameter Design of Multi - axis Hydrostatic Transmission Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain reasonable parameters in the design of driving system of multi-axis hydrostatic transmission vehicle, the working principle of single-side drive of hydrostatic transmission vehicle is introduced. The matching and control of engine and hydraulic pump are analyzed. According to the driving equation of vehicle, The driving force required for driving system is determined, and the parameters of hydraulic motor, hydraulic pump, system working pressure and braking system are designed and calculated, which provides the parameter design for driving system of multi-axis hydrostatic transmission Reliable theoretical basis.

  7. Research on Travel Control System of Hydrostatic Transmission Chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the control problem of driving system of hydrostatic transmission chassis, the composition of the control system of hydrostatic transmission chassis is introduced and the control method of dual engine is solved. According to the number of driving axles in driving process, The external characteristic curve of the engine controls the variable hydraulic pump by one parameter, controls the rotational speed of the variable hydraulic motor according to the change of the vehicle speed, and introduces the control flow of the brake system. It provides a reference for the design of driving control system of multi-axis hydrostatic transmission chassis.

  8. Surface properties of copper based cermet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinea, M.; Vladuta, C.; Bogatu, C.; Duta, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the characterization of the surface properties of copper based cermets obtained by two different techniques: spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) and electrodeposition. Copper acetate was used as precursor of Cu/CuO x cermet. The surface morphology was tailored by adding copolymers of maleic anhydride with controlled hydrophobia. The films morphology of Cu/CuO x was assessed using contact angle measurements and AFM analysis. The porous structures obtained via SPD lead to higher liquid adsorption rate than the electrodeposited films. A highly polar liquid - water is recommended as testing liquid in contact angle measurements, for estimating the porosity of copper based cermets, while glycerol can be used to distinguish among ionic and metal predominant structures. Thus, contact angle measurements can be used for a primary evaluation of the films morphology and, on the other hand, of the ratio between the cermet components

  9. Emerging Ceramic-based Materials for Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denry, I.; Kelly, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Our goal is to give an overview of a selection of emerging ceramics and issues for dental or biomedical applications, with emphasis on specific challenges associated with full-contour zirconia ceramics, and a brief synopsis on new machinable glass-ceramics and ceramic-based interpenetrating phase composites. Selected fabrication techniques relevant to dental or biomedical applications such as microwave sintering, spark plasma sintering, and additive manufacturing are also reviewed. Where appropriate, the authors have added their opinions and guidance. PMID:25274751

  10. Emerging ceramic-based materials for dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denry, I; Kelly, J R

    2014-12-01

    Our goal is to give an overview of a selection of emerging ceramics and issues for dental or biomedical applications, with emphasis on specific challenges associated with full-contour zirconia ceramics, and a brief synopsis on new machinable glass-ceramics and ceramic-based interpenetrating phase composites. Selected fabrication techniques relevant to dental or biomedical applications such as microwave sintering, spark plasma sintering, and additive manufacturing are also reviewed. Where appropriate, the authors have added their opinions and guidance. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  11. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED GEARS MATERIAL SELECTION HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.C. Li; W.X. Zhu; G. Chen; D.S. Mei; J. Zhang; K.M. Chen

    2003-01-01

    An artificial neural networks(ANNs) based gear material selection hybrid intelligent system is established by analyzing the individual advantages and weakness of expert system (ES) and ANNs and the applications in material select of them. The system mainly consists of tow parts: ES and ANNs. By being trained with much data samples,the back propagation (BP) ANN gets the knowledge of gear materials selection, and is able to inference according to user input. The system realizes the complementing of ANNs and ES. Using this system, engineers without materials selection experience can conveniently deal with gear materials selection.

  12. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Water Absorption of Adzuki Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Shigeaki; Shigematsu, Toru; Karo, Mineko; Hayashi, Mayumi; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on dried soybean, adzuki bean, and kintoki kidney bean, which are low-moisture-content cellular biological materials, was investigated from the viewpoint of water absorption. The samples were vacuum-packed with distilled water and pressurized at 200 MPa and 25 °C for 10 min. After the HHP treatment, time courses of the moisture contents of the samples were measured, and the dimensionless moisture contents were estimated. Water absorption in the case of soybean could be fitted well by a simple water diffusion model. High pressures were found to have negligible effects on water absorption into the cotyledon of soybean and kintoki kidney bean. A non-linear least square method based on the Weibull equation was applied for the adzuki beans, and the effective water diffusion coefficient was found to increase significantly from 8.6 × 10−13 to 6.7 × 10−10 m2/s after HHP treatment. Approximately 30% of the testa of the adzuki bean was damaged upon HHP treatment, which was comparable to the surface area of the testa in the partially peeled adzuki bean sample. Thus, HHP was confirmed to promote mass transfer to the cotyledon of legumes with a tight testa. PMID:28231195

  13. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Water Absorption of Adzuki Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeaki Ueno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP treatment on dried soybean, adzuki bean, and kintoki kidney bean, which are low-moisture-content cellular biological materials, was investigated from the viewpoint of water absorption. The samples were vacuum-packed with distilled water and pressurized at 200 MPa and 25 °C for 10 min. After the HHP treatment, time courses of the moisture contents of the samples were measured, and the dimensionless moisture contents were estimated. Water absorption in the case of soybean could be fitted well by a simple water diffusion model. High pressures were found to have negligible effects on water absorption into the cotyledon of soybean and kintoki kidney bean. A non-linear least square method based on the Weibull equation was applied for the adzuki beans, and the effective water diffusion coefficient was found to increase significantly from 8.6 × 10−13 to 6.7 × 10−10 m2/s after HHP treatment. Approximately 30% of the testa of the adzuki bean was damaged upon HHP treatment, which was comparable to the surface area of the testa in the partially peeled adzuki bean sample. Thus, HHP was confirmed to promote mass transfer to the cotyledon of legumes with a tight testa.

  14. A data base for aging of structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oland, C.B.; Naus, D.J.; Jerath, S.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated a Structural Aging (SAG) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the program is to provide assistance in identifying potential structural safety issues and to establish acceptance criteria for use in nuclear power plant evaluations for continued service. One of the main parts of the program focuses on the development of a Structural Materials Information Center where long-term and environment-dependent material properties are being collected and assembled into a data base. This data base is presented in two complementary formats. The Structural Materials Handbook is an expandable, hard-copy reference document that contains the complete data base for each material. The Structural Materials Electronic Data Base is accessible using an IBM-compatible personal computer. This paper presents an overview of the Structural Materials Information Center and briefly describes the features of the handbook and the electronic data base. In addition, a proposed method for using the data base to establish current property values for materials in existing concrete structures and to estimate the future performance of these materials is also presented. (author)

  15. A data base for aging of structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oland, C.B.; Naus, D.J.; Jerath, S.

    1993-01-01

    USNRC initiated a Structural Aging (SAG) Program ORNL. The objective of the program is to provide assistance in identifying potential structural safety issues and to establish acceptance criteria for use in nuclear power plant evaluations for continued service. One main part focuses on the development of a Structural Materials Information Center where long-term and environment-dependent material properties are being collected and assembled into a data base. This data base is presented in two complementary formats. The Structural Materials Handbook is an expandable, hard-copy reference document that contains the complete data base for each material. The Structural Materials Electronic Data Base is accessible using an IBM-compatible personal computer. This paper presents an overview of the Structural Materials Information Center and briefly describes the features of the handbook and the electronic data base. In addition, a proposed method for using the data base to establish current property values for materials in existing concrete structures and to estimate the future performance of these materials is also presented

  16. Wearable energy sources based on 2D materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fang; Ren, Huaying; Shan, Jingyuan; Sun, Xiao; Wei, Di; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-05-08

    Wearable energy sources are in urgent demand due to the rapid development of wearable electronics. Besides flexibility and ultrathin thickness, emerging 2D materials present certain extraordinary properties that surpass the properties of conventional materials, which make them advantageous for high-performance wearable energy sources. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of recent advances in 2D material based wearable energy sources including wearable batteries, supercapacitors, and different types of energy harvesters. The crucial roles of 2D materials in the wearable energy sources are highlighted. Based on the current progress, the existing challenges and future prospects are outlined and discussed.

  17. Topological Material-Based Spin Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minhao; Wang, Xuefeng

    Three-dimensional topological insulators have insulating bulk and gapless helical surface states. One of the most fascinating properties of the metallic surface states is the spin-momentum helical locking. The giant current-driven torques on the magnetic layer have been discovered in TI/ferromagnet bilayers originating from the spin-momentum helical locking, enabling the efficient magnetization switching with a low current density. We demonstrated the current-direction dependent on-off state in TIs-based spin valve devices for memory and logic applications. Further, we demonstrated the Bi2Se3 system will go from a topologically nontrivial state to a topologically trivial state when Bi atoms are replaced by lighter In atoms. Here, topologically trivial metal (BixIny)2 Se3 with high mobility also facilitates the realization of its application in multifunctional spintronic devices.

  18. Environmental assessment of biomass based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel

    of these impacts in LCA, in order to get a realistic picture of the overall impacts from a biomass feedstock crop establishment, and thus downstream products. However, there is a challenge in terms of e.g. the preliminary state of methods, and the requirements to availability of local data. Available biomass...... level. The temporal scope is defined by the impact category considered. The technological scope includes both current environmental performance of biomaterials and a discussion of future perspectives, including potentials for future change in their environmental impacts compared to fossil based...... place in biomaterials, on which there is currently no consensus. Other important environmental aspects related to biomaterials that are currently not generally included in LCAs are land use and land use change (LULUC) related impacts, such as changes in biogenic carbon stocks (especially including soil...

  19. Biofuels 2020: Biorefineries based on lignocellulosic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Miguel; Galan, Jose Luis; Laffarga, Joaquina; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2016-09-01

    The production of liquid biofuels to blend with gasoline is of worldwide importance to secure the energy supply while reducing the use of fossil fuels, supporting the development of rural technology with knowledge-based jobs and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Today, engineering for plant construction is accessible and new processes using agricultural residues and municipal solid wastes have reached a good degree of maturity and high conversion yields (almost 90% of polysaccharides are converted into monosaccharides ready for fermentation). For the complete success of the 2G technology, it is still necessary to overcome a number of limitations that prevent a first-of-a-kind plant from operating at nominal capacity. We also claim that the triumph of 2G technology requires the development of favourable logistics to guarantee biomass supply and make all actors (farmers, investors, industrial entrepreneurs, government, others) aware that success relies on agreement advances. The growth of ethanol production for 2020 seems to be secured with a number of 2G plants, but public/private investments are still necessary to enable 2G technology to move on ahead from its very early stages to a more mature consolidated technology. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Plasticity of pressure-sensitive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ochsner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Classical plasticity theory of metals is independent of the hydrostatic pressure. However, if the metal contains voids or pores or if the structure is composed of cells, this classical assumption is no more valid and the influence of the hydrostatic pressure must be incorporated in the constitutive description. Looking at the microlevel, metal plasticity is connected with the uniform planes of atoms organized with long-range order. Planes may slip past each other along their close-packed directions. The result is a permanent change of shape within the crystal and plastic deformation. The presence of dislocations increases the likelihood of planes slipping. Nowadays, the theory of pressure sensitive plasticity is successfully applied to many other important classes of materials (polymers, concrete, bones etc.) even if the phenomena on the micro-level are different to classical plasticity of metals. The theoretical background of this phenomenological approach based on observations on the macro-level is describe...

  1. Use of genetic algorithms for high hydrostatic pressure inactivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) for high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores, Bacillus subtilis spores and cells, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, all in milk buffer, were used to demonstrate the utility of genetic algorithms ...

  2. Propagation law of impact elastic wave based on specific materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmin CHEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the propagation law of the impact elastic wave on the platform, the experimental platform is built by using the specific isotropic materials and anisotropic materials. The glass cloth epoxy laminated plate is used for anisotropic material, and an organic glass plate is used for isotropic material. The PVDF sensors adhered on the specific materials are utilized to collect data, and the elastic wave propagation law of different thick plates and laminated plates under impact conditions is analyzed. The Experimental results show that in anisotropic material, transverse wave propagation speed along the fiber arrangement direction is the fastest, while longitudinal wave propagation speed is the slowest. The longitudinal wave propagation speed in anisotropic laminates is much slower than that in the laminated thick plates. In the test channel arranged along a particular angle away from the central region of the material, transverse wave propagation speed is larger. Based on the experimental results, this paper proposes a material combination mode which is advantageous to elastic wave propagation and diffusion in shock-isolating materials. It is proposed to design a composite material with high acoustic velocity by adding regularly arranged fibrous materials. The overall design of the barrier material is a layered structure and a certain number of 90°zigzag structure.

  3. Hydrostatic and shear consolidation tests with permeability measurements on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, N.S.

    1994-03-01

    Crushed natural rock salt is a primary candidate for use as backfill and barrier material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been pursuing a laboratory program designed to quantify its consolidation properties and permeability. Variables that influence consolidation rate that have been examined include stress state and moisture content. The experimental results presented in this report complement existing studies and work in progress conducted by SNL. The experiments described in this report were designed to (1) measure permeabilities of consolidated specimens of crushed salt, (2) determine the influence of brine saturation on consolidation under hydrostatic loads, and 3) measure the effects of small applied shear stresses on consolidation properties. The laboratory effort consisted of 18 individual tests: three permeability tests conducted on specimens that had been consolidated at Sandia, six hydrostatic consolidation and permeability tests conducted on specimens of brine-saturated crushed WIPP salt, and nine shear consolidation and permeability tests performed on crushed WIPP salt specimens containing 3 percent brine by weight. For hydrostatic consolidation tests, pressures ranged from 1.72 MPa to 6.90 MPa. For the shear consolidation tests, confining pressures were between 3.45 MPa and 6.90 MPa and applied axial stress differences were between 0.69 and 4.14 MPa. All tests were run under drained conditions at 25 degrees C

  4. Elasto-optics in double-coated optical fibers induced by axial strain and hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Ching; Lee, Haw-Long; Chou, Huann-Ming

    2002-04-01

    Stresses, microbending loss, and refractive-index changes induced simultaneously by axial strain and hydrostatic pressure in double-coated optical fibers are analyzed. The lateral pressure and normal stresses in the optical fiber, primary coating, and secondary coating are derived. Also presented are the microbending loss and refractive-index changes in the glass fiber. The normal stresses are affected by axial strain, hydrostatic pressure, material properties, and thickness of the primary and secondary coatings. It is found that microbending loss decreases with increasing thickness, the Young's modulus, and the Poisson's ratio of the secondary coating but increases with the increasing Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the primary coating. Similarly, changes in refractive index in the glass fiber decrease with the increasing Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the secondary coating but increase with the increasing Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the primary coating. Therefore, to minimize microbending loss induced simultaneously by axial strain and hydrostatic pressure in the glass fiber, the polymeric coatings should be suitably selected. An optimal design procedure is also indicated.

  5. Silicon based light-emitting materials and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weide

    1999-01-01

    Silicon based light-emitting materials and devices are the key to optoelectronic integration. Recently, there has been significant progress in materials engineering methods. The author reviews the latest developments in this area including erbium doped silicon, porous silicon, nanocrystalline silicon and Si/SiO 2 superlattice structures. The incorporation of these different materials into devices is described and future device prospects are assessed

  6. Biogas Filter Based on Local Natural Zeolite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Krido Wahono, Satriyo; Anggo Rizal, Wahyu

    2014-01-01

    UPT BPPTK LIPI has created a biogas filter tool to improve the purity of methane in the biogas. The device shaped cylindrical tube containing absorbent materials which based on local natural zeolite of Indonesia. The absorbent has been activated and modified with other materials. This absorbtion material has multi-adsorption capacity for almost impurities gas of biogas. The biogas  filter increase methane content of biogas for 5-20%. The biogas filter improve the biogas’s performance such as ...

  7. Graphene-Based Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of their unique 2D structure and numerous fascinating properties, graphene-based materials have attracted particular attention for their potential applications in energy storage devices. In this review paper, we focus on the latest work regarding the development of electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors from graphene and graphene-based carbon materials. To begin, the advantages of graphene as an electrode material and the existing problems facing its use in this application will be discussed. The next several sections deal with three different methods for improving the energy storage performance of graphene: the restacking of the nanosheets, the doping of graphene with other elements, and the creation of defects on graphene planes. State-of-the-art work is reviewed. Finally, the prospects and further developments in the field of graphene-based materials for electrochemical energy storage are discussed.

  8. Analysis and investigation of temperature and hydrostatic pressure effects on optical characteristics of multiple quantum well slow light devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolhosseini, Saeed; Kohandani, Reza; Kaatuzian, Hassan

    2017-09-10

    This paper represents the influences of temperature and hydrostatic pressure variations on GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well slow light systems based on coherence population oscillations. An analytical model in non-integer dimension space is used to study the considerable effects of these parameters on optical properties of the slow light apparatus. Exciton oscillator strength and fractional dimension constants have special roles on the analytical model in fractional dimension. Hence, the impacts of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on exciton oscillator strength and fractional dimension quantity are investigated theoretically in this paper. Based on the achieved results, temperature and hydrostatic pressure play key roles on optical parameters of the slow light systems, such as the slow down factor and central energy of the device. It is found that the slope and value of the refractive index real part change with alterations of temperature and hydrostatic pressure in the range of 5-40 deg of Kelvin and 1 bar to 2 kbar, respectively. Thus, the peak value of the slow down factor can be adjusted by altering these parameters. Moreover, the central energy of the device shifts when the hydrostatic pressure is applied to the slow light device or temperature is varied. In comparison with previous reported experimental results, our simulations follow them successfully. It is shown that the maximum value of the slow down factor is estimated close to 5.5×10 4 with a fine adjustment of temperature and hydrostatic pressure. Meanwhile, the central energy shift of the slow light device rises up to 27 meV, which provides an appropriate basis for different optical devices in which multiple quantum well slow light is one of their essential subsections. This multiple quantum well slow light device has potential applications for use as a tunable optical buffer and pressure/temperature sensors.

  9. Lens intracellular hydrostatic pressure is generated by the circulation of sodium and modulated by gap junction coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junyuan; Sun, Xiurong; Moore, Leon C.; White, Thomas W.; Brink, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    We recently modeled fluid flow through gap junction channels coupling the pigmented and nonpigmented layers of the ciliary body. The model suggested the channels could transport the secretion of aqueous humor, but flow would be driven by hydrostatic pressure rather than osmosis. The pressure required to drive fluid through a single layer of gap junctions might be just a few mmHg and difficult to measure. In the lens, however, there is a circulation of Na+ that may be coupled to intracellular fluid flow. Based on this hypothesis, the fluid would cross hundreds of layers of gap junctions, and this might require a large hydrostatic gradient. Therefore, we measured hydrostatic pressure as a function of distance from the center of the lens using an intracellular microelectrode-based pressure-sensing system. In wild-type mouse lenses, intracellular pressure varied from ∼330 mmHg at the center to zero at the surface. We have several knockout/knock-in mouse models with differing levels of expression of gap junction channels coupling lens fiber cells. Intracellular hydrostatic pressure in lenses from these mouse models varied inversely with the number of channels. When the lens’ circulation of Na+ was either blocked or reduced, intracellular hydrostatic pressure in central fiber cells was either eliminated or reduced proportionally. These data are consistent with our hypotheses: fluid circulates through the lens; the intracellular leg of fluid circulation is through gap junction channels and is driven by hydrostatic pressure; and the fluid flow is generated by membrane transport of sodium. PMID:21624945

  10. Supramolecular materials based on hydrogen-bonded polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, Gerrit; Ruokolainen, Janne; Ikkala, Olli; Binder, W

    2007-01-01

    Combining supramolecular principles with block copolymer self-assembly offers unique possibilities to create materials with responsive and/or tunable properties. The present chapter focuses on supramolecular materials based on hydrogen bonding and (block co-) polymers. Several cases will be

  11. Antibacterial properties of nanocomposite materials and compositions on there bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podol'skaya, V.I.; Vojtenko, O.Yu.; Grishenko, N.I.; Ul'berg, Z.P.; Yakubenko, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    The structured nanobiocomposite materials based on microbial cells and colloidal silver can serve as the new adjuvant systems. These composite materials being filled with active components, in particular the medications allow to prepare the long release preparations with synergetic effect or can just contribute to prolonged drug action

  12. Network-Based Material Requirements Planning (NBMRP) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Network-Based Material Requirements Planning (NBMRP) in Product Development Project. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... To address the problems, this study evaluated the existing material planning practice, and formulated a NBMRP model out of the variables of the existing MRP and ...

  13. Ceramic materials based on synthetic calcium phosphate for medical uses

    OpenAIRE

    Toropkov, N. E.; Antonkin, N. S.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the different methods of synthesis of hydroxyapatite and receiving on its base of ceramic materials in various ways. We have also developed our own technology. The conditions of compatibility and saddle the assumption and the suitability of the material for implantation.

  14. Mechanical properties of wood-based composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Robert J. Ross

    2010-01-01

    The term composite is used to describe any wood material bonded together with adhesives. The current product mix ranges from fiberboard to laminated beams and components. In this chapter, wood-based composite materials are classified into the following categories: panel products (plywood, oriented strandboard (OSB), particleboard, fiberboard, medium-density fiberboard...

  15. Hydrostatic Pressure Influences HIF-2 Alpha Expression in Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Inoue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-2α is considered to play a major role in the progression of osteoarthritis. Recently, it was reported that pressure amplitude influences HIF-2α expression in murine endothelial cells. We examined whether hydrostatic pressure is involved in expression of HIF-2α in articular chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were cultured and stimulated by inflammation or hydrostatic pressure of 0, 5, 10, or 50 MPa. After stimulation, heat shock protein (HSP 70, HIF-2α, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13, MMP-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene expression were evaluated. The levels of all gene expression were increased by inflammatory stress. When chondrocytes were exposed to a hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa, HIF-2α, MMP-13, and MMP-3 gene expression increased significantly although those of HSP70 and NF-κB were not significantly different from the control group. In contrast, HIF-2α gene expression did not increase under a hydrostatic pressure of 50 MPa although HSP70 and NF-κB expression increased significantly compared to control. We considered that hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa could regulate HIF-2α independent of NF-κB, because the level of HIF-2α gene expression increased significantly without upregulation of NF-κB expression at 5 MPa. Hydrostatic pressure may influence cartilage degeneration, inducing MMP-13 and MMP-3 expression through HIF-2α.

  16. Hydrostatic pressure influences HIF-2 alpha expression in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Arai, Yuji; Kishida, Tsunao; Terauchi, Ryu; Honjo, Kuniaki; Nakagawa, Shuji; Tsuchida, Shinji; Matsuki, Tomohiro; Ueshima, Keiichirou; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-01-05

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α is considered to play a major role in the progression of osteoarthritis. Recently, it was reported that pressure amplitude influences HIF-2α expression in murine endothelial cells. We examined whether hydrostatic pressure is involved in expression of HIF-2α in articular chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were cultured and stimulated by inflammation or hydrostatic pressure of 0, 5, 10, or 50 MPa. After stimulation, heat shock protein (HSP) 70, HIF-2α, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, MMP-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression were evaluated. The levels of all gene expression were increased by inflammatory stress. When chondrocytes were exposed to a hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa, HIF-2α, MMP-13, and MMP-3 gene expression increased significantly although those of HSP70 and NF-κB were not significantly different from the control group. In contrast, HIF-2α gene expression did not increase under a hydrostatic pressure of 50 MPa although HSP70 and NF-κB expression increased significantly compared to control. We considered that hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa could regulate HIF-2α independent of NF-κB, because the level of HIF-2α gene expression increased significantly without upregulation of NF-κB expression at 5 MPa. Hydrostatic pressure may influence cartilage degeneration, inducing MMP-13 and MMP-3 expression through HIF-2α.

  17. Sustainable future alternatives to petroleum-based polymeric conservation materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Curran, Claire

    2017-01-01

    and coating formulations. Bio-polyethylenes, bio-polyesters and bio-cellulose-based products were evaluated against petroleum-based materials. Bio- and petroleum-based polyethylenes shared optical, chemical and thermal properties. Bamboo and sugarcane fibre containers were also chemically stable. Polyester...

  18. Emerging terahertz photodetectors based on two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Qin, Hua; Zhang, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Inspired by the innovations in photonics and nanotechnology, the remarkable properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials have renewed interest for the development of terahertz (THz) photodetectors. The versatility of these materials enables ultrafast and ultrasensitive photodetection of THz radiation at room temperature. The atomically thin characteristic together with van der Waals interactions among the layers make it easy to scaling down and integrate with other 2D materials based devices, as well as silicon chips. Efforts have increased fast in the past decade in developing proof-of-concept and the further prospective THz photodetectors based on 2D materials. Here, the recent progress on the exploring of THz photodetectors based on 2D materials is reviewed. We summarized the THz photodetectors under different physical mechanism and introduced the state-of-the-art THz photodetectors based on various promising 2D materials, such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), black phosphorus (BP) and topological insulators (TIs). A brief discussion on the remaining challenges and a perspective of the 2D materials based THz photodetectors are also given.

  19. The effect of hydrostatic vs. shock pressure treatment on plant seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustey, Adrian; Leighs, James; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Wood, David; Hazael, Rachael; McMillan, Paul; Hazell, Paul

    2013-06-01

    The hydrostatic pressure and shock response of plant seeds have both been previously investigated (primarily driven by an interest in reducing bacterial contamination of crops and the theory of panspermia respectively). However, comparisons have not previously been made between these two methods of applying pressure to plant seeds. Here such a comparison has been undertaken based on the premise that any correlations in such data may provide a route to inform understanding of damage mechanisms in the seeds under test. In this work two varieties of plant seeds were subjected to hydrostatic pressure via a non-end-loaded piston cylinder set-up and shock compression via employment of a 50-mm bore, single stage gas gun using the flyer-plate technique. Results from germination tests of recovered seed samples have been compared and contrasted, and initial conclusions made regarding causes of trends in the resultant data-set.

  20. Linear Hyperfine Tuning of Donor Spins in Silicon Using Hydrostatic Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansir, J.; Conti, P.; Zeng, Z.; Pla, J. J.; Bertet, P.; Swift, M. W.; Van de Walle, C. G.; Thewalt, M. L. W.; Sklenard, B.; Niquet, Y. M.; Morton, J. J. L.

    2018-04-01

    We experimentally study the coupling of group V donor spins in silicon to mechanical strain, and measure strain-induced frequency shifts that are linear in strain, in contrast to the quadratic dependence predicted by the valley repopulation model (VRM), and therefore orders of magnitude greater than that predicted by the VRM for small strains |ɛ |hydrostatic component of strain and achieve semiquantitative agreement with the experimental values. Our results provide a framework for making quantitative predictions of donor spins in silicon nanostructures, such as those being used to develop silicon-based quantum processors and memories. The strong spin-strain coupling we measure (up to 150 GHz per strain, for Bi donors in Si) offers a method for donor spin tuning—shifting Bi donor electron spins by over a linewidth with a hydrostatic strain of order 10-6—as well as opportunities for coupling to mechanical resonators.

  1. Diamond to β-Sn phase transition of silicon under hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic compressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durandurdu, Murat

    2008-01-01

    We have carried out constant pressure ab initio simulations to study the pressure-induced phase transition of silicon. The diamond to β-Sn phase change under hydrostatic pressure is successfully observed in the simulation. The transformation is based on a fourfold coordinated tetragonal intermediate state having the space group I4 1 /amd. The energy barrier for the transformation is calculated to be about 0.35 eV/atom. Additionally, we investigate the influence of nonhydrostatic compressions on the phase transition of silicon and find that up to 20% stress deviations, silicon converts to a β-Sn structure with a reduced transition pressure. The triaxial compressions cause more reduction in the transition pressure than the uniaxial compressions. The transformation mechanism is practically identical under both hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic conditions

  2. Effects of hydrostatic pressure and supercritical carbon dioxide on the viability of Botryococcus braunii algae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz-Ozturk, Ece; Ilhan-Ayisigi, Esra; Togtema, Arnoud; Gouveia, Joao; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2018-05-01

    In bio-based industries, Botryococcus braunii is identified as a potential resource for production of hydrocarbons having a wide range of applications in chemical and biopolymer industries. For a sustainable production platform, the algae cultivation should be integrated with downstream processes. Ideally the algae are not harvested, but the product is isolated while cultivation and growth is continued especially if the doubling time is slow. Consequently, hydrocarbons can be extracted while keeping the algae viable. In this study, the effects of pressure on the viability of B. braunii cells were tested hydrostatically and under supercritical CO 2 conditions. Viability was determined by light microscopy, methylene blue uptake and by re-cultivation of the algae after treatments to follow the growth. It was concluded that supercritical CO 2 was lethal to the algae, whereas hydrostatic pressure treatments up to 150 bar have not affected cell viability and recultivation was successful. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Survival of marine heterotrophic flagellates isolated from the surface and the deep sea at high hydrostatic pressure: Literature review and own experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živaljić, Suzana; Schoenle, Alexandra; Nitsche, Frank; Hohlfeld, Manon; Piechocki, Julia; Reif, Farina; Shumo, Marwa; Weiss, Alexandra; Werner, Jennifer; Witt, Madeleine; Voss, Janine; Arndt, Hartmut

    2018-02-01

    Although the abyssal seafloor represents the most common benthic environment on Earth, eukaryotic microbial life at abyssal depths is still an uncharted territory. This is in striking contrast to their potential importance regarding the material flux and bacteria consumption in the deep sea. Flagellate genotypes determined from sedimentary DNA deep-sea samples might originate from vital deep-sea populations or from cysts of organisms sedimented down from surface waters. The latter one may have never been active under deep-sea conditions. We wanted to analyze the principal ability of cultivable heterotrophic flagellates of different phylogenetic groups (choanoflagellates, ancyromonads, euglenids, kinetoplastids, bicosoecids, chrysomonads, and cercozoans) to survive exposure to high hydrostatic pressure (up to 670 bar). We summarized our own studies and the few available data from literature on pressure tolerances of flagellates isolated from different marine habitats. Our results demonstrated that many different flagellate species isolated from the surface waters and deep-sea sediments survived drastic changes in hydrostatic pressure. Barophilic behavior was also recorded for several species isolated from the deep sea indicating their possible genetic adaptation to high pressures. This is in accordance with records of heterotrophic flagellates present in environmental DNA surveys based on clone libraries established for deep-sea environments.

  4. Data base of radiation-resistant dielectric and insulating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Yoshimasa; Sunazuka, Hideo; Nashiyama, Isamu; Kakuta, Tsunemi.

    1987-01-01

    In the data base of radiation-resistant dielectric and insulating materials, the data format contains such items as to give the summary; the data sheet contains the data in concrete form of respective properties from the references; the sheet of references contains the references in the former two. In the above three, there are attached code No., data sheet No., reference No. and key words. In the three areas as radiation-resistant dielectric and insulating materials, i.e., organic materials, inorganic materials and optical fibers, the following are explained: data format, data sheet and objectives. (Mori, K.)

  5. Electrical conduction in solid materials physicochemical bases and possible applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suchet, J P

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Conduction in Solid Materials (Physicochemical Bases and Possible Applications) investigates the physicochemical bases and possible applications of electrical conduction in solid materials, with emphasis on conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. Topics range from the interatomic bonds of conductors to the effective atomic charge in conventional semiconductors and magnetic transitions in switching semiconductors. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with a description of electrical conduction in conductors and semiconductors, metals and alloys, as well as interatomic bon

  6. Effect of Modifying Prosthetic Socket Base Materials by Adding Nanodiamonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The curing process of prosthetic socket base materials requires attention owing to a series of associated problems that are yet to be addressed and solved. However, to date, few relevant studies have been reported. In this paper, nanodiamonds modified with a silane coupling agent were dispersed into a prosthetic socket base material, and the performance of the modified base materials was investigated. Adding a predetermined amount of nanodiamonds to the prosthetic socket base material increased the glass transition temperature, improved the mechanical properties of the cured base material, and reduced the influence of the volatile gas formed during the curing process on the environment. With increasing nanodiamond contents, the glass transition temperature increased and the mechanical properties improved slightly. Owing to the high thermal conductivity of the nanodiamonds, the localized heat, as a result of the curing process, could be dissipated and released. Thus, adding nanodiamonds led to a more uniform temperature field forming in the curing system. This improved the curing process and reduced the formation of volatile monomers, thereby decreasing the adverse impact of the generated volatile gases on the environment. All of these provide a potential strategy for modifying prosthetic socket base materials.

  7. Polyaniline (PANi based electrode materials for energy storage and conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PANi as one kind of conducting polymers has been playing a great role in the energy storage and conversion devices besides carbonaceous materials and metallic compounds. Due to high specific capacitance, high flexibility and low cost, PANi has shown great potential in supercapacitor. It alone can be used in fabricating an electrode. However, the inferior stability of PANi limits its application. The combination of PANi and other active materials (carbon materials, metal compounds or other polymers can surpass these intrinsic disadvantages of PANi. This review summarizes the recent progress in PANi based composites for energy storage/conversion, like application in supercapacitors, rechargeable batteries, fuel cells and water hydrolysis. Besides, PANi derived nitrogen-doped carbon materials, which have been widely employed as carbon based electrodes/catalysts, are also involved in this review. PANi as a promising material for energy storage/conversion is deserved for intensive study and further development.

  8. Using learning materials for design-based interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Stig Toke

    2015-01-01

    This article considers a methodological issue concerning the use of learning materials for interventions in design-based research. When the researcher uses existing or creates new didacticised learning materials for research purposes and tests their applicability in authentic contexts, many...... variables are in play. When using or designing a learning material a lot of choices have to be made and effects are difficult to isolate. The advantage of using learning materials for interventions is that results could have high ecological validity. In the article this methodological issue is exemplified...... through a research project using and developing digital learning materials for developing literacy in the early grades. One of many important choices to be made in elaborating this learning material concerns which texts should be used for supporting students’ literacy development in the lower grades...

  9. SPR Hydrostatic Column Model Verification and Validation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Gram, Inc. Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A Hydrostatic Column Model (HCM) was developed to help differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen for testing the pressure integrity of crude oil storage wells at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This effort was motivated by steady, yet distinct, pressure behavior of a series of Big Hill caverns that have been placed under nitrogen for extended period of time. This report describes the HCM model, its functional requirements, the model structure and the verification and validation process. Different modes of operation are also described, which illustrate how the software can be used to model extended nitrogen monitoring and Mechanical Integrity Tests by predicting wellhead pressures along with nitrogen interface movements. Model verification has shown that the program runs correctly and it is implemented as intended. The cavern BH101 long term nitrogen test was used to validate the model which showed very good agreement with measured data. This supports the claim that the model is, in fact, capturing the relevant physical phenomena and can be used to make accurate predictions of both wellhead pressure and interface movements.

  10. Hydrostatic equilibrium of stars without electroneutrality constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.; Nadyozhin, D. K.; Yudin, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The general solution of hydrostatic equilibrium equations for a two-component fluid of ions and electrons without a local electroneutrality constraint is found in the framework of Newtonian gravity theory. In agreement with the Poincaré theorem on analyticity and in the context of Dyson's argument, the general solution is demonstrated to possess a fixed (essential) singularity in the gravitational constant G at G =0 . The regular component of the general solution can be determined by perturbation theory in G starting from a locally neutral solution. The nonperturbative component obtained using the method of Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin is exponentially small in the inner layers of the star and grows rapidly in the outward direction. Near the surface of the star, both components are comparable in magnitude, and their nonlinear interplay determines the properties of an electro- or ionosphere. The stellar charge varies within the limits of -0.1 to 150 C per solar mass. The properties of electro- and ionospheres are exponentially sensitive to variations of the fluid densities in the central regions of the star. The general solutions of two exactly solvable stellar models without a local electroneutrality constraint are also presented.

  11. Design of an intelligent materials data base for the IFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikaili, R.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Orth, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    In the development of the integral fast reactor (IFR) concept, there is a consensus that materials considerations are an important part of the reactor design, operation, and maintenance and that materials performance is central to liquid-metal reactor reliability and safety. In the design of the IRF materials data base, artificial intelligence techniques are being used to ensure efficient control of information. Intelligent control will provide for the selection of menus to be displayed, efficient data-base searches, and application-dependent guidance through the data base. The development of the IRF data base has progressed to the point of (a) completing the design of the data-base architecture and tables, (b) installing computer hardware for storing large amounts of data, (c) outlining strategies for data transferal, and (d) identifying ways to validate and secure the integrity of data

  12. Room temperature ferromagnetism in a phthalocyanine based carbon material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Z.; Sato, K.; Sakai, M.; Fukuda, T.; Kamata, N.; Hagiwara, M.; Kida, T.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a simple method to fabricate a magnetic carbon material that contains nitrogen-coordinated transition metals and has a large magnetic moment. Highly chlorinated iron phthalocyanine was used as building blocks and potassium as a coupling reagent to uniformly disperse nitrogen-coordinated iron atoms on the phthalocyanine based carbon material. The iron phthalocyanine based carbon material exhibits ferromagnetic properties at room temperature and the ferromagnetic phase transition occurs at T c  = 490 ± 10 K. Transmission electron microscopy observation, X-ray diffraction analysis, and the temperature dependence of magnetization suggest that the phthalocyanine molecules form three-dimensional random networks in the iron phthalocyanine based carbon material

  13. Development of a materials data base for modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, S.; Ashino, T.; Ishino, S.

    1988-01-01

    Materials selection for fusion reactors requires a materials data base and a set of methods to estimate material properties in a ''virtual'' fusion reactor. This estimation process, namely, modeling, is analyzed as compromising of design requirements, available data bases and methods of estimation, and a concept of an ideal computer system to support this modeling process is proposed. The limitations of a commercial DBMS (Data Base Management System) to handle sophisticated materials data are described in accordance with our experiences. Secondly, ways to manipulate analytical expressions are discussed as the next step for computer assisted modeling. Finally, an advanced method is presented which is able to manage models and data in the same manner without paying attention to annoying rules compelled by constraints of using computers. (orig.)

  14. Room temperature ferromagnetism in a phthalocyanine based carbon material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Z., E-mail: honda@fms.saitama-u.ac.jp; Sato, K.; Sakai, M.; Fukuda, T.; Kamata, N. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Hagiwara, M.; Kida, T. [KYOKUGEN (Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions), Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2014-02-07

    We report on a simple method to fabricate a magnetic carbon material that contains nitrogen-coordinated transition metals and has a large magnetic moment. Highly chlorinated iron phthalocyanine was used as building blocks and potassium as a coupling reagent to uniformly disperse nitrogen-coordinated iron atoms on the phthalocyanine based carbon material. The iron phthalocyanine based carbon material exhibits ferromagnetic properties at room temperature and the ferromagnetic phase transition occurs at T{sub c} = 490 ± 10 K. Transmission electron microscopy observation, X-ray diffraction analysis, and the temperature dependence of magnetization suggest that the phthalocyanine molecules form three-dimensional random networks in the iron phthalocyanine based carbon material.

  15. The research of establishing reactor materials thermophysical properties data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Danhui; Zhong Jianguo; Zhang Lili; Zhao Yongming

    1992-01-01

    In the process of nuclear reactor design and safety analysis, the reactor materials thermophysical properties parameters are very important as the main input data of reactor design and calculation. The goal of this work is to establish a practical, reliable data base of reactor materials thermophysical properties parameters with obvious function in reactor design, operation and safety analysis. At present phase, the focal point of this data base is to collect the materials thermophysical properties data based on the need of safety analysis in light water reactor and heavy water reactor. The materials to be chosen are as follows: Uranium, U-Al alloy, UO 2 , UO 2 -PuO 2 mixture, Zr-2, Zr-4, Zr-1% Ni alloy, Inconel-625, ZrO 2 (oxidic layer), boron carbide, cadmium in stainless steel, silver-indium-cadmium alloy, light water and heavy water, etc. The following thermophysical properties parameters are mainly included in the data base: thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, heat of melting, coefficient of thermal expansion, emittance, density, heat of vaporization, kinematic viscosity etc. The first phase of this work has been finished, which includes the method of establishing reactor materials thermophysical properties data base, the requirement of data collection, the requirement of establishing data base and the method of the data evaluation. This data base has been established and used on PC computer

  16. Manganese oxide-based materials as electrochemical supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Weifeng; Cui, Xinwei; Chen, Weixing; Ivey, Douglas G

    2011-03-01

    Electrochemical supercapacitors (ECs), characteristic of high power and reasonably high energy densities, have become a versatile solution to various emerging energy applications. This critical review describes some materials science aspects on manganese oxide-based materials for these applications, primarily including the strategic design and fabrication of these electrode materials. Nanostructurization, chemical modification and incorporation with high surface area, conductive nanoarchitectures are the three major strategies in the development of high-performance manganese oxide-based electrodes for EC applications. Numerous works reviewed herein have shown enhanced electrochemical performance in the manganese oxide-based electrode materials. However, many fundamental questions remain unanswered, particularly with respect to characterization and understanding of electron transfer and atomic transport of the electrochemical interface processes within the manganese oxide-based electrodes. In order to fully exploit the potential of manganese oxide-based electrode materials, an unambiguous appreciation of these basic questions and optimization of synthesis parameters and material properties are critical for the further development of EC devices (233 references).

  17. Multiscale experimental mechanics of hierarchical carbon-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Horacio D; Filleter, Tobin; Naraghi, Mohammad

    2012-06-05

    Investigation of the mechanics of natural materials, such as spider silk, abalone shells, and bone, has provided great insight into the design of materials that can simultaneously achieve high specific strength and toughness. Research has shown that their emergent mechanical properties are owed in part to their specific self-organization in hierarchical molecular structures, from nanoscale to macroscale, as well as their mixing and bonding. To apply these findings to manmade materials, researchers have devoted significant efforts in developing a fundamental understanding of multiscale mechanics of materials and its application to the design of novel materials with superior mechanical performance. These efforts included the utilization of some of the most promising carbon-based nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene, together with a variety of matrix materials. At the core of these efforts lies the need to characterize material mechanical behavior across multiple length scales starting from nanoscale characterization of constituents and their interactions to emerging micro- and macroscale properties. In this report, progress made in experimental tools and methods currently used for material characterization across multiple length scales is reviewed, as well as a discussion of how they have impacted our current understanding of the mechanics of hierarchical carbon-based materials. In addition, insight is provided into strategies for bridging experiments across length scales, which are essential in establishing a multiscale characterization approach. While the focus of this progress report is in experimental methods, their concerted use with theoretical-computational approaches towards the establishment of a robust material by design methodology is also discussed, which can pave the way for the development of novel materials possessing unprecedented mechanical properties. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

    2013-09-01

    The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

  19. The Effect of Size and Species on Lens Intracellular Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junyuan; Sun, Xiurong; Moore, Leon C.; Brink, Peter R.; White, Thomas W.; Mathias, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Previous experiments showed that mouse lenses have an intracellular hydrostatic pressure that varied from 335 mm Hg in central fibers to 0 mm Hg in surface cells. Model calculations predicted that in larger lenses, all else equal, pressure should increase as the lens radius squared. To test this prediction, lenses of different radii from different species were studied. Methods. All studies were done in intact lenses. Intracellular hydrostatic pressures were measured with a microelectrode-manometer–based system. Membrane conductances were measured by frequency domain impedance analysis. Intracellular Na+ concentrations were measured by injecting the Na+-sensitive dye sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate. Results. Intracellular hydrostatic pressures were measured in lenses from mice, rats, rabbits, and dogs with radii (cm) 0.11, 0.22, 0.49, and 0.57, respectively. In each species, pressure varied from 335 ± 6 mm Hg in central fiber cells to 0 mm Hg in surface cells. Further characterization of transport in lenses from mice and rats showed that the density of fiber cell gap junction channels was approximately the same, intracellular Na+ concentrations varied from 17 mM in central fiber cells to 7 mM in surface cells, and intracellular voltages varied from −45 mV in central fiber cells to −60 mV in surface cells. Fiber cell membrane conductance was a factor of 2.7 times larger in mouse than in rat lenses. Conclusions. Intracellular hydrostatic pressure is an important physiological parameter that is regulated in lenses from these different species. The most likely mechanism of regulation is to reduce the density of open Na+-leak channels in fiber cells of larger lenses. PMID:23211824

  20. A Task-Based Approach to Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a task-based approach to materials development. In the first part of the chapter, I sketch out the evolution of task based language teaching, drawing on a distinction between synthetic and analytical approaches to syllabus design first articulated by Wilkins (1976).

  1. A Study of Multimedia Annotation of Web-Based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Wang, Chin-Yu; Sharples, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Web-based learning has become an important way to enhance learning and teaching, offering many learning opportunities. A limitation of current Web-based learning is the restricted ability of students to personalize and annotate the learning materials. Providing personalized tools and analyzing some types of learning behavior, such as students'…

  2. Resonant frequency analysis on an electrostatically actuated microplate under uniform hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhikang; Zhao Libo; Ye Zhiying; Zhao Yulong; Jiang Zhuangde; Wang Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    The resonant frequency of a microplate is influenced by various physical parameters such as mass, surface stress, hydrostatic pressure and electrostatic force. In this paper, the effects of both electrostatic force and uniform hydrostatic pressure on the resonant frequency of a clamped circular microplate are investigated. An approximate solution is derived for the fundamental resonance frequency of the mciroplate under both types of loads using an energy equivalent method. It is found that both electrostatic force and uniform hydrostatic pressure decrease the resonant frequency of the microplate under small deflections. Additionally, the linearized expression of this solution shows that the resonant frequency varies linearly with pressure in the low and ultra-low range, and the corresponding pressure sensitivity depends on the voltage applied to the microplate. The analytical results are well validated by the finite element method. This study may be helpful for the design and optimization of electrostatically actuated resonance devices based on microplates, especially electrostatically actuated low- or ultra-low-pressure sensors. (paper)

  3. TESTING STRICT HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN SIMULATED CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR A1689

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, S. M.; Umetsu, K.; Chiu, I.-N.; Chen, P.; Hearn, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Bryan, G.; Shang, C.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mass determination of clusters of galaxies is crucial if they are to be used as cosmological probes. However, there are some discrepancies between cluster masses determined based on gravitational lensing and X-ray observations assuming strict hydrostatic equilibrium (i.e., the equilibrium gas pressure is provided entirely by thermal pressure). Cosmological simulations suggest that turbulent gas motions remaining from hierarchical structure formation may provide a significant contribution to the equilibrium pressure in clusters. We analyze a sample of massive clusters of galaxies drawn from high-resolution cosmological simulations and find a significant contribution (20%-45%) from non-thermal pressure near the center of relaxed clusters, and, in accord with previous studies, a minimum contribution at about 0.1 R vir , growing to about 30%-45% at the virial radius, R vir . Our results strongly suggest that relaxed clusters should have significant non-thermal support in their core region. As an example, we test the validity of strict hydrostatic equilibrium in the well-studied massive galaxy cluster A1689 using the latest high-resolution gravitational lensing and X-ray observations. We find a contribution of about 40% from non-thermal pressure within the core region of A1689, suggesting an alternate explanation for the mass discrepancy: the strict hydrostatic equilibrium is not valid in this region.

  4. Using Android-Based Educational Game for Learning Colloid Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, S.; Anjani, R.; Farida, I.; Ramdhani, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    This research is based on the importance of the development of student’s chemical literacy on Colloid material using Android-based educational game media. Educational game products are developed through research and development design. In the analysis phase, material analysis is performed to generate concept maps, determine chemical literacy indicators, game strategies and set game paths. In the design phase, product packaging is carried out, then validation and feasibility test are performed. Research produces educational game based on Android that has the characteristics that is: Colloid material presented in 12 levels of game in the form of questions and challenges, presents visualization of discourse, images and animation contextually to develop the process of thinking and attitude. Based on the analysis of validation and trial results, the product is considered feasible to use.

  5. Ontology based heterogeneous materials database integration and semantic query

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuai; Qian, Quan

    2017-10-01

    Materials digital data, high throughput experiments and high throughput computations are regarded as three key pillars of materials genome initiatives. With the fast growth of materials data, the integration and sharing of data is very urgent, that has gradually become a hot topic of materials informatics. Due to the lack of semantic description, it is difficult to integrate data deeply in semantic level when adopting the conventional heterogeneous database integration approaches such as federal database or data warehouse. In this paper, a semantic integration method is proposed to create the semantic ontology by extracting the database schema semi-automatically. Other heterogeneous databases are integrated to the ontology by means of relational algebra and the rooted graph. Based on integrated ontology, semantic query can be done using SPARQL. During the experiments, two world famous First Principle Computational databases, OQMD and Materials Project are used as the integration targets, which show the availability and effectiveness of our method.

  6. Advances in electrode materials for Li-based rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui [China Academy of Space Technology (CAST), Beijing (China); Mao, Chengyu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Jianlin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Chen, Ruiyong [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology (KIST), Saarbrucken (Germany); Saarland Univ., Saarbrucken (Germany)

    2017-07-05

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries store energy as chemical energy in electrode materials during charge and can convert the chemical energy into electrical energy when needed. Tremendous attention has been paid to screen electroactive materials, to evaluate their structural integrity and cycling reversibility, and to improve the performance of electrode materials. This review discusses recent advances in performance enhancement of both anode and cathode through nanoengineering active materials and applying surface coatings, in order to effectively deal with the challenges such as large volume variation, instable interface, limited cyclability and rate capability. We also introduce and discuss briefly the diversity and new tendencies in finding alternative lithium storage materials, safe operation enabled in aqueous electrolytes, and configuring novel symmetric electrodes and lithium-based flow batteries.

  7. Graphene oxide - Polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite based electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Shukla, Shobha; Saxena, Sumit

    2016-07-01

    Supercapacitors are high capacitive energy storage devices and find applications where rapid bursts of power are required. Thus materials offering high specific capacitance are of fundamental interest in development of these electrochemical devices. Graphene oxide based nanocomposites are mechanically robust and have interesting electronic properties. These form potential electrode materials efficient for charge storage in supercapacitors. In this perspective, we investigate low cost graphene oxide based nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitor. Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol were synthesized in solution phase by integrating graphene oxide as filler in polyvinyl alcohol matrix. Structural and optical characterizations suggest the formation of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites. These nanocomposites were found to have high specific capacitance, were cyclable, ecofriendly and economical. Our studies suggest that nanocomposites prepared by adding 0.5% wt/wt of graphene oxide in polyvinyl alcohol can be used an efficient electrode material for supercapacitors.

  8. Study of New Materials Design based on Hadoop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of information technology, the scientific research shows that the data mining and other information technology could be used in the design of new materials. It is explicit that Intelligent Materials research focuses on using physical and chemical principles combined with computer techniques such as Big Data, Cloud computing and Intelligent modeling and simulation to solve chemical problems. In this paper, based on the cluster based outlier algorithm as the main body, this paper discusses the definition New Materials research In the Hadoop cloud platform, and the parallel processing of Map-Reduce model. The performance this model of new material was established by using the method of Map-Reduction provided the basis for the performance optimization.

  9. Current status of nanostructured tungsten-based materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, H; Matsuo, S; Arakawa, H; Hatakeyama, M; Shikama, T; Sakamoto, T; Kobayashi, S; Nakai, K; Okano, H; Watanabe, H; Yoshida, N; Torikai, Y; Hatano, Y; Takida, T; Kato, M; Ikegaya, A; Ueda, Y

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured tungsten (W)-based materials offer many advantages for use as plasma facing materials and components exposed to heavy thermal loads combined with irradiation with high-energy neutron and low-energy ion. This paper first presents the recent progress in nanostructured toughened, fine grained, recrystallized W materials. Thermal desorption spectrometry apparatus equipped with an ion gun has been installed in the radiation controlled area in our Center at Tohoku University to systematically investigate the effects of displacement damage due to high-energy neutron irradiation on hydrogen isotope retention in connection with the nano- or micro-structures in W-based materials. In this paper, the effects of high-energy heavy ion irradiation on deuterium retention in W with different microstructures are described as a preliminary work with the prospective view of neutron irradiation effects. (paper)

  10. Data base concepts for managing the DOE nuclear material inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beams, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Information required by nuclear materials managers in the Department of Energy (DOE) is accessible with varying levels of difficulty. Currently, the most readily available information is provided by the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). Information not provided by NMMSS must be obtained either from field site data bases or collected through physical inventory inspections, both very costly and time-consuming alternatives. This paper discusses the possibility of providing more detailed information at DOE headquarters on nuclear material inventories than is provided by NMMSS. In particular, this paper considers some of the issues associated with managing materials at the lowest-level--the item-level--and uses a hypothetical item-level data base to describe some of the advantages and disadvantages of managing information at the item-level

  11. Instrumented hydrostatic testing of pipeline tracts with lamination defects; Ensayos de prueba hidrostatica de oleoductos con defectos de laminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzini, Pablo Gabriel [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (Argentina); [Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CIC) (Argentina). Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales (INTEMA)]. E-mail: pgf@fi.mdp.edu.ar; Otegui, Jose Luis [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (Argentina). Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales (INTEMA) (Argentina). CONICET; Motylicki, J [OLDELVAL S.A. (Argentina)

    2003-07-01

    Experimental results from seven hydrostatic tests on ex-service tubes from a 14'' diameter, 6.3 mm thickness ERW (electrical resistance seam welded) oil pipeline are presented. Lamination defects had been detected in these tracts by means of TFI in line inspection and the ultrasonic technique FAST. Of these tests, four were strain gauge instrumented. Five tubes failed in the ERW, burst pressures of defects in base material were larger. The fracture mechanics model of the most representative defect concludes that a lamination defect with an inclination of up to 3 mm in the radial direction, is not critical, test results show that this prediction is conservative. The largest laminations found in base material reduced burst pressure by less than 25%. On the contrary, defects that propagated in the ERW reduced burst resistance up to almost 50 %. These results show that the location of the defects is more important than size, the most important reason being the low toughness of the ERW. The results of this study confirm the validity of the restrictions that imposes section 8 of API 579. (author)

  12. Instrumented hydrostatic testing of pipeline tracts with lamination defects; Ensayos de prueba hidrostatica de oleoductos con defectos de laminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzini, Pablo Gabriel [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (Argentina)]|[Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CIC) (Argentina). Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales (INTEMA)]. E-mail: pgf@fi.mdp.edu.ar; Otegui, Jose Luis [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (Argentina). Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales (INTEMA) (Argentina). CONICET]. E-mail: jotegui@fi.mdp.edu.ar; Motylicki, J. [OLDELVAL S.A. (Argentina)]. E-mail: jmotylic@oldelval.com.ar

    2003-07-01

    Experimental results from seven hydrostatic tests on ex-service tubes from a 14'' diameter, 6.3 mm thickness ERW (electrical resistance seam welded) oil pipeline are presented. Lamination defects had been detected in these tracts by means of TFI in line inspection and the ultrasonic technique FAST. Of these tests, four were strain gauge instrumented. Five tubes failed in the ERW, burst pressures of defects in base material were larger. The fracture mechanics model of the most representative defect concludes that a lamination defect with an inclination of up to 3 mm in the radial direction, is not critical, test results show that this prediction is conservative. The largest laminations found in base material reduced burst pressure by less than 25%. On the contrary, defects that propagated in the ERW reduced burst resistance up to almost 50 %. These results show that the location of the defects is more important than size, the most important reason being the low toughness of the ERW. The results of this study confirm the validity of the restrictions that imposes section 8 of API 579. (author)

  13. Multifunctional composite material based on carbon-filled polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinovskaya, T; Melentyev, S; Pavlov, S

    2015-01-01

    The research paper deals with the performance of composite resistive material heating coatings based on the polyurethane binder, filled with colloidal-graphite preparation C- 1, which can be used in structures of electric heaters. Frequency dependences of transmission and reflection coefficients, dielectric permeability of composite materials with the various content of carbon fillers (technical carbon, graphite) in polyurethane varnish in ranges of frequencies 26-40 GHz and 110-260 GHz are experimentally investigated. (paper)

  14. Graphene-based filament material for thermal ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shick, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Siegfried, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-19

    The use of graphene oxide materials for thermal ionization mass spectrometry analysis of plutonium and uranium has been investigated. Filament made from graphene oxide slurries have been 3-D printed. A method for attaching these filaments to commercial thermal ionization post assemblies has been devised. Resistive heating of the graphene based filaments under high vacuum showed stable operation in excess of 4 hours. Plutonium ion production has been observed in an initial set of filaments spiked with the Pu 128 Certified Reference Material.

  15. Biogas Filter Based on Local Natural Zeolite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satriyo Krido Wahono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available UPT BPPTK LIPI has created a biogas filter tool to improve the purity of methane in the biogas. The device shaped cylindrical tube containing absorbent materials which based on local natural zeolite of Indonesia. The absorbent has been activated and modified with other materials. This absorbtion material has multi-adsorption capacity for almost impurities gas of biogas. The biogas  filter increase methane content of biogas for 5-20%. The biogas filter improve the biogas’s performance such as increasing methane contents, increasing heating value, reduction of odors, reduction of corrosion potential, increasing the efficiency and stability of the generator.

  16. Pentanol-based target material with polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyatova, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    1-pentanol is a promising material for a target with polarized protons owing to its high resistance to radiation damage. To develop the target, the solutions of 1-pentanol or 2-pentanol with complexes of pentavalent chromium ware investigated. The material based EHBA-Cr(V) solution in a glass-like matrix, consisting of 1-pentanol, 3-pentanol and 1,2-propanediol, was proposed as a target material. It was investigated by the electron paramagnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry methods. 24 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Molecular tools for the construction of peptide-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakers, B E I; van Hest, J C M; Löwik, D W P M

    2014-04-21

    Proteins and peptides are fundamental components of living systems where they play crucial roles at both functional and structural level. The versatile biological properties of these molecules make them interesting building blocks for the construction of bio-active and biocompatible materials. A variety of molecular tools can be used to fashion the peptides necessary for the assembly of these materials. In this tutorial review we shall describe five of the main techniques, namely solid phase peptide synthesis, native chemical ligation, Staudinger ligation, NCA polymerisation, and genetic engineering, that have been used to great effect for the construction of a host of peptide-based materials.

  18. Development of knowledge base system linked to material database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Shinichi; Miyakawa, Shunichi; Fujita, Mitsutane; Kinugawa, Junichi; Iwata, Shuichi

    2002-01-01

    The distributed material database system named 'Data-Free-Way' has been developed by four organizations (the National Institute for Materials Science, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, and the Japan Science and Technology Corporation) under a cooperative agreement in order to share fresh and stimulating information as well as accumulated information for the development of advanced nuclear materials, for the design of structural components, etc. In order to create additional values of the system, knowledge base system, in which knowledge extracted from the material database is expressed, is planned to be developed for more effective utilization of Data-Free-Way. XML (eXtensible Markup Language) has been adopted as the description method of the retrieved results and the meaning of them. One knowledge note described with XML is stored as one knowledge which composes the knowledge base. Since this knowledge note is described with XML, the user can easily convert the display form of the table and the graph into the data format which the user usually uses. This paper describes the current status of Data-Free-Way, the description method of knowledge extracted from the material database with XML and the distributed material knowledge base system. (author)

  19. Thermal energy storage based on cementitious materials: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadim Ndiaye

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy storage is now essential to enhance the energy performance of buildings and to reduce their environmental impact. Many heat storage materials can be used in the building sector in order to avoid the phase shift between solar radiation and thermal energy demand. However, the use of storage material in the building sector is hampered by problems of investment cost, space requirements, mechanical performance, material stability, and high storage temperature. Cementitious material is increasingly being used as a heat storage material thanks to its low price, mechanical performance and low storage temperature (generally lower than 100 °C. In addition, cementitious materials for heat storage have the prominent advantage of being easy to incorporate into the building landscape as self-supporting structures or even supporting structures (walls, floor, etc.. Concrete solutions for thermal energy storage are usually based on sensible heat transfer and thermal inertia. Phase Change Materials (PCM incorporated in concrete wall have been widely investigated in the aim of improving building energy performance. Cementitious material with high ettringite content stores heat by a combination of physical (adsorption and chemical (chemical reaction processes usable in both the short (daily, weekly and long (seasonal term. Ettringite materials have the advantage of high energy storage density at low temperature (around 60 °C. The encouraging experimental results in the literature on heat storage using cementitious materials suggest that they could be attractive in a number of applications. This paper summarizes the investigation and analysis of the available thermal energy storage systems using cementitious materials for use in various applications.

  20. Base isolation for nuclear power and nuclear material facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidinger, J.M.; Kircher, C.A.; Vaidya, N.; Constantinou, M.; Kelly, J.M.; Seidensticker, R.; Tajirian, F.F.; Ovadia, D.

    1989-01-01

    This report serves to document the status of the practice for the use of base isolation systems in the design and construction of nuclear power and nuclear material facilities. The report first describes past and current (1989) applications of base isolation in nuclear facilities. The report then provides a brief discussion of non-nuclear applications. Finally, the report summarizes the status of known base-isolation codes and standards

  1. Spintronic materials and devices based on antiferromagnetic metals

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.Y.; Song, C.; Zhang, J.Y.; Pan, F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we review our recent experimental developments on antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics mainly comprising Mn-based noncollinear AFM metals. IrMn-based tunnel junctions and Hall devices have been investigated to explore the manipulation of AFM moments by magnetic fields, ferromagnetic materials and electric fields. Room-temperature tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance based on IrMn as well as FeMn has been successfully achieved, and electrical control of the AFM exchange spring i...

  2. SYNTHESIS of MOLECULE/POLYMER-BASED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Joel S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We have synthesized and characterized several families of organic-based magnets, a new area showing that organic species can exhibit the technologically important property of magnetic ordering. Thin film magnets with ordering temperatures exceeding room temperature have been exceeded. Hence, organic-based magnets represent a new class of materials that exhibit magnetic ordering and do not require energy-intensive metallurgical processing and are based upon Earth-abundant elements.

  3. One hundred years of pressure hydrostatics from Stevin to Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, Alan F

    2017-01-01

    This monograph investigates the development of hydrostatics as a science. In the process, it sheds new light on the nature of science and its origins in the Scientific Revolution. Readers will come to see that the history of hydrostatics reveals subtle ways in which the science of the seventeenth century differed from previous periods. The key, the author argues, is the new insights into the concept of pressure that emerged during the Scientific Revolution. This came about due to contributions from such figures as Simon Stevin, Pascal, Boyle and Newton. The author compares their work with Galileo and Descartes, neither of whom grasped the need for a new conception of pressure. As a result, their contributions to hydrostatics were unproductive. The story ends with Newton insofar as his version of hydrostatics set the subject on its modern course. He articulated a technical notion of pressure that was up to the task. Newton compared the mathematical way in hydrostatics and the experimental way, and sided with t...

  4. Hydrostatic pressure mimics gravitational pressure in characean cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staves, M. P.; Wayne, R.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrostatic pressure applied to one end of a horizontal Chara cell induces a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming, thus mimicking the effect of gravity. A positive hydrostatic pressure induces a more rapid streaming away from the applied pressure and a slower streaming toward the applied pressure. In contrast, a negative pressure induces a more rapid streaming toward and a slower streaming away from the applied pressure. Both the hydrostatic pressure-induced and gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming respond identically to cell ligation, UV microbeam irradiation, external Ca2+ concentrations, osmotic pressure, neutral red, TEA Cl-, and the Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and LaCl3. In addition, hydrostatic pressure applied to the bottom of a vertically-oriented cell can abolish and even reverse the gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming. These data indicate that both gravity and hydrostatic pressure act at the same point of the signal transduction chain leading to the induction of a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming and support the hypothesis that characean cells respond to gravity by sensing a gravity-induced pressure differential between the cell ends.

  5. Recent Progress on PEDOT-Based Thermoelectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingshuo; Mukaida, Masakazu; Kirihara, Kazuhiro; Naitoh, Yasuhisa; Ishida, Takao

    2015-02-16

    The thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-based materials have attracted attention recently because of their remarkable electrical conductivity, power factor, and figure of merit. In this review, we summarize recent efforts toward improving the thermoelectric properties of PEDOT-based materials. We also discuss thermoelectric measurement techniques and several unsolved problems with the PEDOT system such as the effect of water absorption from the air and the anisotropic thermoelectric properties. In the last part, we describe our work on improving the power output of thermoelectric modules by using PEDOT, and we outline the potential applications of polymer thermoelectric generators.

  6. Cement-based materials' characterization using ultrasonic attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punurai, Wonsiri

    The quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of cement-based materials is a critical area of research that is leading to advances in the health monitoring and condition assessment of the civil infrastructure. Ultrasonic NDE has been implemented with varying levels of success to characterize cement-based materials with complex microstructure and damage. A major issue with the application of ultrasonic techniques to characterize cement-based materials is their inherent inhomogeneity at multiple length scales. Ultrasonic waves propagating in these materials exhibit a high degree of attenuation losses, making quantitative interpretations difficult. Physically, these attenuation losses are a combination of internal friction in a viscoelastic material (ultrasonic absorption), and the scattering losses due to the material heterogeneity. The objective of this research is to use ultrasonic attenuation to characterize the microstructure of heterogeneous cement-based materials. The study considers a real, but simplified cement-based material, cement paste---a common bonding matrix of all cement-based composites. Cement paste consists of Portland cement and water but does not include aggregates. First, this research presents the findings of a theoretical study that uses a set of existing acoustics models to quantify the scattered ultrasonic wavefield from a known distribution of entrained air voids. These attenuation results are then coupled with experimental measurements to develop an inversion procedure that directly predicts the size and volume fraction of entrained air voids in a cement paste specimen. Optical studies verify the accuracy of the proposed inversion scheme. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of using attenuation to measure the average size, volume fraction of entrained air voids and the existence of additional larger entrapped air voids in hardened cement paste. Finally, coherent and diffuse ultrasonic waves are used to develop a direct

  7. Carbon-based nanomaterials: multifunctional materials for biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chaenyung; Shin, Su Ryon; Annabi, Nasim; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-04-23

    Functional carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) have become important due to their unique combinations of chemical and physical properties (i.e., thermal and electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and optical properties), and extensive research efforts are being made to utilize these materials for various industrial applications, such as high-strength materials and electronics. These advantageous properties of CBNs are also actively investigated in several areas of biomedical engineering. This Perspective highlights different types of carbon-based nanomaterials currently used in biomedical applications.

  8. Hydrostatic and Flow Measurements on Wrinkled Membrane Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsun, Ozgur; Ekinci, Kamil

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigate structural properties of wrinkled silicon nitride (SiN) membranes, under both hydrostatic perturbations and flow conditions, through surface profile measurements. Rectangular SiN membranes with linear dimensions of 15 mm × 1 . 5 mm × 1 μ m are fabricated on a 500 - μ m-thick silicon substrate using standard lithography techniques. These thin, initially flat, tension-dominated membranes are wrinkled by bending the silicon substrate. The wrinkled membranes are subsequently incorporated as walls into rectangular micro-channels, which allow both hydrostatic and flow measurements. The structural response of the wrinkles to hydrostatic pressure provides a measure of the various energy scales in the problem. Flow experiments show that the elastic properties and the structural undulations on a compliant membrane completely dominate the flow, possibly providing drag reduction. These measurements pave the way for building and using compliant walls for drag reduction in micro-channels.

  9. Dislocations and point defects in hydrostatically compressed crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosevich, A.M.; Tokij, V.V.; Strel'tsov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    Within the framework of the theory of finite deformations, the elastic fields are considered, which are induced by the sources of internal stresses in a crystal compressed under a high pressure. In the case of a hydrostatically compressed crystal with defects, the use of a variation principle is discussed. Using the smallness of distorsions, the linear theory of elastic fields of defects in the crystal compressed under a high pressure, is developed. An analysis of the main relationships of the theory results in the following conclusion: in a course of the linear approximation the taking into account of the hydrostatic pressure brings to the renorming of the elasticity moduli and to the replacing of the hydrostatic parameters of defects by their values in the compressed crystal. That conclusion allows the results of the elasticity linear theory of the crystal with defects to be used to the full extent

  10. Tungsten-based composite materials for fusion reactor shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Karni, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Composite tungsten-based materials were recently proposed for the heavy constituent of compact fusion reactor shields. These composite materials will enable the incorporation of tungsten - the most efficient nonfissionable inelastic scattering (as well as good neutron absorbing and very good photon attenuating) material - in the shield in a relatively cheap way and without introducing voids (so as to enable minimizing the shield thickness). It is proposed that these goals be achieved by bonding tungsten powder, which is significantly cheaper than high-density tungsten, with a material having the following properties: good shielding ability and relatively low cost and ease of fabrication. The purpose of this work is to study the effectiveness of the composite materials as a function of their composition, and to estimate the economic benefit that might be gained by the use of these materials. Two materials are being considered for the binder: copper, second to tungsten in its shielding ability, and iron (or stainless steel), the common fusion reactor shield heavy constituent

  11. Neutron shielding material based on colemanite and epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, K.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a need for compact shielding design such as self-shielding of a PET cyclotron or up-gradation of radiation machinery in existing facilities. In these cases, high performance shielding materials are needed. Concrete or polyethylene have been used for a neutron shield. However, for compact shielding, they fall short in terms of performance or durability. Therefore, a new type of neutron shielding material based on epoxy resin and colemanite has been developed. Slab attenuation experiments up to 40 cm for the new shielding material were carried out using a 252 Cf neutron source. Measurement was carried out using a REM-counter, and compared with calculation. The results show that the shielding performance is better than concrete and polyethylene mixed with 10 wt% boron oxide. From the result, we confirmed that the performance of the new material is suitable for practical use. (authors)

  12. Thermotropic and Thermochromic Polymer Based Materials for Adaptive Solar Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Mühling

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to present the actual status of development in adaptive solar control by use of thermotropic and organic thermochromic materials. Such materials are suitable for application in smart windows. In detail polymer blends, hydrogels, resins, and thermoplastic films with a reversible temperature-dependent switching behavior are described. A comparative evaluation of the concepts for these energy efficient materials is given as well. Furthermore, the change of strategy from ordinary shadow systems to intrinsic solar energy reflection materials based on phase transition components and a first remark about their realization is reported. Own current results concerning extruded films and high thermally stable casting resins with thermotropic properties make a significant contribution to this field.

  13. Evaluation of nickel-based materials for VHTR heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlet, H.; Gentzbittel, J.M.; Cabet, C.; Lamagnere, P.; Blat, M.; Renaud, D.; Dubiez-Le Goff, S.; Pierron, D.

    2008-01-01

    Two available conventional nickel-based alloys (617 and 230) have been selected as structural materials for the advanced gas-cooled reactors, especially for the heat exchanger. An extensive research programme has been launched in France within the framework of the ANTARES programme to evaluate the performances of these materials in VHTR service environment. The experimental work is focused on mechanical properties, thermal stability and corrosion resistance in the temperature range (700-1 000 deg C) over long time. Thus the experimental work includes creep and fatigue tests on as-received materials, short- and medium-term thermal exposure tests followed by tensile and impact toughness tests, short- and medium-term corrosion exposure tests under impure He environment. The status of the results obtained up to now is given in this paper. Additional tests such as long-term thermal ageing and long-term corrosion tests are required to conclude on the selection of the material. (author)

  14. Experimental Study of Goaf Filling Materials Based on Red Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Mangen; Gao, Xiaozhen; Guo, Taoming; Hu, Xinping

    2018-01-01

    Red mud as soild waste is difficult to treatment. Goaf filling materials can make a large use of red mud. By the experimental study,we find that the red mud, fly ash, ground slag and desulfida-tion gypsum can be used to make goaf filling materials based on the principle of alkali excitation and metalion stability.Through the control variable method, we find that the optimal proportion of goaf filling materials based on red mud is red mud 55%, fly ash 30%, cement 7.5%, fly ash 2.5%, desulfurization gypsum 5%, admixture 1%, and water solid ratio=1:1.2.The 28days final material strength was 2.0 MPa,which achives the technical specification requirements.Through the test of SEM, XRD and IR, it is indicated that the strength formation of goaf filling material based on red mud is from the unformed linking hydration products of amorphous alkali excitation system. With curing time from 3 to 7 days, the unformed linking hydration products grown a lot of vitreous hydration products. When hydration reaction basicly finished after 28 days, the hydration products have developed into a large volume of massive vitreous with an extremely dense structure. The Ca2SiO3 mineral phase is significantly reduced, which is participate in hydration reactions. The decrease of Ca2SiO3 indicates that the Si-O bond in the system have been ruptured and reorganized.

  15. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Thermoelectric Materials and Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, Jeffrey L. [Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401-3305 USA; Ferguson, Andrew J. [Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401-3305 USA; Cho, Chungyeon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3003 USA; Grunlan, Jaime C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3003 USA

    2018-01-22

    Conversion of waste heat to voltage has the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of a number of critical energy sectors, such as the transportation and electricity-generation sectors, and manufacturing processes. Thermal energy is also an abundant low-flux source that can be harnessed to power portable/wearable electronic devices and critical components in remote off-grid locations. As such, a number of different inorganic and organic materials are being explored for their potential in thermoelectric-energy-harvesting devices. Carbon-based thermoelectric materials are particularly attractive due to their use of nontoxic, abundant source-materials, their amenability to high-throughput solution-phase fabrication routes, and the high specific energy (i.e., W g-1) enabled by their low mass. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) represent a unique 1D carbon allotrope with structural, electrical, and thermal properties that enable efficient thermoelectric-energy conversion. Here, the progress made toward understanding the fundamental thermoelectric properties of SWCNTs, nanotube-based composites, and thermoelectric devices prepared from these materials is reviewed in detail. This progress illuminates the tremendous potential that carbon-nanotube-based materials and composites have for producing high-performance next-generation devices for thermoelectric-energy harvesting.

  16. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Thermoelectric Materials and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Ferguson, Andrew J; Cho, Chungyeon; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2018-03-01

    Conversion of waste heat to voltage has the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of a number of critical energy sectors, such as the transportation and electricity-generation sectors, and manufacturing processes. Thermal energy is also an abundant low-flux source that can be harnessed to power portable/wearable electronic devices and critical components in remote off-grid locations. As such, a number of different inorganic and organic materials are being explored for their potential in thermoelectric-energy-harvesting devices. Carbon-based thermoelectric materials are particularly attractive due to their use of nontoxic, abundant source-materials, their amenability to high-throughput solution-phase fabrication routes, and the high specific energy (i.e., W g -1 ) enabled by their low mass. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) represent a unique 1D carbon allotrope with structural, electrical, and thermal properties that enable efficient thermoelectric-energy conversion. Here, the progress made toward understanding the fundamental thermoelectric properties of SWCNTs, nanotube-based composites, and thermoelectric devices prepared from these materials is reviewed in detail. This progress illuminates the tremendous potential that carbon-nanotube-based materials and composites have for producing high-performance next-generation devices for thermoelectric-energy harvesting. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Non-hydrostatic semi-elastic hybrid-coordinate SISL extension of HIRLAM. Part II: numerical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rõõm, Rein; Männik, Aarne; Luhamaa, Andres; Zirk, Marko

    2007-10-01

    The semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian (SISL), two-time-level, non-hydrostatic numerical scheme, based on the non-hydrostatic, semi-elastic pressure-coordinate equations, is tested in model experiments with flow over given orography (elliptical hill, mountain ridge, system of successive ridges) in a rectangular domain with emphasis on the numerical accuracy and non-hydrostatic effect presentation capability. Comparison demonstrates good (in strong primary wave generation) to satisfactory (in weak secondary wave reproduction in some cases) consistency of the numerical modelling results with known stationary linear test solutions. Numerical stability of the developed model is investigated with respect to the reference state choice, modelling dynamics of a stationary front. The horizontally area-mean reference temperature proves to be the optimal stability warrant. The numerical scheme with explicit residual in the vertical forcing term becomes unstable for cross-frontal temperature differences exceeding 30 K. Stability is restored, if the vertical forcing is treated implicitly, which enables to use time steps, comparable with the hydrostatic SISL.

  18. A hybrid finite-volume and finite difference scheme for depth-integrated non-hydrostatic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jing; Sun, Jia-wen; Wang, Xing-gang; Yu, Yong-hai; Sun, Zhao-chen

    2017-06-01

    A depth-integrated, non-hydrostatic model with hybrid finite difference and finite volume numerical algorithm is proposed in this paper. By utilizing a fraction step method, the governing equations are decomposed into hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic parts. The first part is solved by using the finite volume conservative discretization method, whilst the latter is considered by solving discretized Poisson-type equations with the finite difference method. The second-order accuracy, both in time and space, of the finite volume scheme is achieved by using an explicit predictor-correction step and linear construction of variable state in cells. The fluxes across the cell faces are computed in a Godunov-based manner by using MUSTA scheme. Slope and flux limiting technique is used to equip the algorithm with total variation dimensioning property for shock capturing purpose. Wave breaking is treated as a shock by switching off the non-hydrostatic pressure in the steep wave front locally. The model deals with moving wet/dry front in a simple way. Numerical experiments are conducted to verify the proposed model.

  19. Weighing galaxy clusters with gas. II. On the origin of hydrostatic mass bias in ΛCDM galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Kaylea; Nagai, Daisuke; Yu, Liang; Lau, Erwin T.; Rudd, Douglas H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of galaxy clusters as cosmological probes hinges on our ability to measure their masses accurately and with high precision. Hydrostatic mass is one of the most common methods for estimating the masses of individual galaxy clusters, which suffer from biases due to departures from hydrostatic equilibrium. Using a large, mass-limited sample of massive galaxy clusters from a high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulation, in this work we show that in addition to turbulent and bulk gas velocities, acceleration of gas introduces biases in the hydrostatic mass estimate of galaxy clusters. In unrelaxed clusters, the acceleration bias is comparable to the bias due to non-thermal pressure associated with merger-induced turbulent and bulk gas motions. In relaxed clusters, the mean mass bias due to acceleration is small (≲ 3%), but the scatter in the mass bias can be reduced by accounting for gas acceleration. Additionally, this acceleration bias is greater in the outskirts of higher redshift clusters where mergers are more frequent and clusters are accreting more rapidly. Since gas acceleration cannot be observed directly, it introduces an irreducible bias for hydrostatic mass estimates. This acceleration bias places limits on how well we can recover cluster masses from future X-ray and microwave observations. We discuss implications for cluster mass estimates based on X-ray, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and gravitational lensing observations and their impact on cluster cosmology.

  20. Hydrostatic Water Level Systems At Homestake DUSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, L. D.; Volk, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    Two arrays of Fermilab-style hydrostatic water level sensors have been installed in the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD, the site of the new Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Sensors were constructed at Fermilab from 8.5 cm diameter PVC pipe (housing) that was sealed on the ends and fit with a proximity sensor. The instrument have a height of 10 cm. Two ports in each sensor housing provide for connectivity, the upper port for air and the bottom port for water. Multiple instruments connected in series provide a precise water level and differences in readings between successive sensors provide for ground tilt to be resolved. Sensor resolution is 5 μm per count and has a range of approximately 1.25 cm. Data output from each sensor is relayed to a Fermilab-constructed readout card that also has temperature/relative humidity and barometric pressure sensors connected. All data are relayed out of the mine by fiber optic cable and can be recorded by Ethernet at remote locations. The current arrays have been installed on the 2000-ft level (610 m) and consist of six instruments in each array. Three sensors were placed in a N-S oriented drift and three in an E-W oriented drift. Using this orientation, it is anticipated that tilt direction may be resolved in addition to overall tilt magnitude. To date the data show passage of earth tides and frequency analysis has revealed five components to this signal, three associated with the semi-diurnal (~12.4 hr) and two with the diurnal (~24.9 hr) tides. Currently, installation methods are being analyzed between concrete pillar and rib-mounting using the existing setup on the 2000-ft level. Using these results, two additional arrays of Fermilab instruments will be installed on the 4550-ft and 4850-ft levels (1387 and 1478 m, respectively). In addition to Fermilab instruments, several high resolution Budker tiltmeters (1 μm resolution) will be installed in the mine workings in the near future, some

  1. Interactive multimedia-based teaching material for 3-dimensional geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, A.; Anggoro, R. P.; Astuti, D.; Fahmi, S.

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to develop the interactive multimedia-based teaching material for 3-dimensional geometry in junior high school. The product was produced through the stages of define, design, develop, and disseminate. Two media experts and two teaching experts had validated it. They judged that the product developed was valid. It had been revised based on their advice. It has been disseminated to 15 mathematics teachers and tried to 30 students of junior high school. Teachers stated that this product gives a new form of teaching material in 3-dimensional geometry. According to the student, the product is interesting. It can motivate them to study mathematics, help them to master the material and increase their interest in mathematics.

  2. [Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai

    2009-03-01

    Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials pays attention to collect evidence comprehensively and systematically, accumulate and create evidence through its own work and also evaluate evidence strictly. This can be used as a function to guide out job. Medical disposable materials evidence system contains product register qualification, product quality certification, supplier's behavior, internal and external communication evidence. Managers can find different ways in creating and using evidence referring to specific inside and outside condition. Evidence-based management can help accelerating the development of management of medical disposable materials from traditional experience pattern to a systematic and scientific pattern. It also has the very important meaning to improve medical quality, control the unreasonable growth of medical expense and make purchase and supply chain be more efficient.

  3. Plasma deposition of amorphous silicon-based materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Giovanni; Madan, Arun

    1995-01-01

    Semiconductors made from amorphous silicon have recently become important for their commercial applications in optical and electronic devices including FAX machines, solar cells, and liquid crystal displays. Plasma Deposition of Amorphous Silicon-Based Materials is a timely, comprehensive reference book written by leading authorities in the field. This volume links the fundamental growth kinetics involving complex plasma chemistry with the resulting semiconductor film properties and the subsequent effect on the performance of the electronic devices produced. Key Features * Focuses on the plasma chemistry of amorphous silicon-based materials * Links fundamental growth kinetics with the resulting semiconductor film properties and performance of electronic devices produced * Features an international group of contributors * Provides the first comprehensive coverage of the subject, from deposition technology to materials characterization to applications and implementation in state-of-the-art devices.

  4. Quantitative analysis of lead in polysulfide-based impression material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Silva Braga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Permlastic® is a polysulfide-based impression material widely used by dentists in Brazil. It is composed of a base paste and a catalyzer containing lead dioxide. The high toxicity of lead to humans is ground for much concern, since it can attack various systems and organs. The present study involved a quantitative analysis of the concentration of lead in the material Permlastic®. The lead was determined by plasma-induced optical emission spectrometry (Varian model Vista. The percentages of lead found in the two analyzed lots were 38.1 and 40.8%. The lead concentrations in the material under study were high, but the product’s packaging contained no information about these concentrations.

  5. High-purity aluminium creep under high hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, V.I.; Lyafer, E.I.; Tokij, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the hydrostatic pressure on the rate of steady-state creep of high-purity aluminium was investigated. It is shown that the hydrostatic pressure inhibits the creep. The activation volume of the creep is independent of the direction in the range of (4.7-6.2) kg/mm 2 and of the pressure in the range of (1-7.8000) atm. It is concluded that self-diffusion does not control the creep of high-purity aluminium at room temperature in the investigated stress and pressure range

  6. CHAPTER 9 : Virus-based systems for functional materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwegen, Martijn; Cornelissen, Jeroen J.L.M.; Boker, Alexander; van Rijn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Virus-based bionanotechnology holds the promise of control over the structure, properties and functionality of materials at the nanometre scale. After all, viruses, and by extension virus-like particles (VLPs), represent some of the largest hierarchical protein constructs found in Nature. Their

  7. Development of bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teodoro

    2016-07-13

    Jul 13, 2016 ... Full Length Research Paper. Development of bio-hybrid material based on. Salmonella Typhimurium and layered double hydroxides. Slah Hidouri .... the LDH with co-precipitation synthesis method was successfully done according the study given by Hidouri et al. (2011), Abdelkader et al. (2011), Hidouri et ...

  8. Silane-based hybrid materials for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, A.; Jansen, J.A.; Holder, S.J.; Nolte, R.J.M.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the preparation of different hybrid silane materials is presented and their possible use in biomedical applications is discussed. The first example describes the development of biocompatible coatings based on sol-gel silicates, which can be used as a protective coating for implantable

  9. Phosphorus-based compounds for EUV multilayer optics materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medvedev, Viacheslav; Yakshin, Andrey; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    We have evaluated the prospects of phosphorus-based compounds in extreme ultraviolet multilayer optics. Boron phosphide (BP) is suggested to be used as a spacer material in reflective multilayer optics operating just above the L-photoabsorption edge of P (λ ≈9.2 nm). Mo, Ag, Ru, Rh, and Pd were

  10. Energy enhancer for mask based laser materials processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    A device capable of drastically improving the energy efficiency of present mask based laser materials processing systems is presented. Good accordance between experiments and simulations for a TEA-CO2 laser system designed for laser marking has been demonstrated. The energy efficiency may...... be improved with a factor of 2 - 4 for typical mask transmittances between 10 - 40%....

  11. and O-based composite materials derived from differential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this work, we have made an effort to determine whether the effective atomic numbers of H-, C-, N- and O-based composite materials would indeed remain a constant over the energy grid of 280–1200 keV wherein incoherent scattering dominates their interaction with photons. For this purpose, the differential ...

  12. Two new inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on inorganic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fields such as catalysis, pharmacology, medicine, nan- otechnology, and molecular ... such POM-based hybrid materials: (a) organic ligands graft onto POMs directly; .... average value of 6.028, close to the ideal value of 6 for MoVI. The bond ...

  13. Penta-fibrillar assembly: A Building block collagen based materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There is a smartness in the way the penta-fibrils behave in collagen based biomaterials. It is one of the intriguing nano material with a size of about 4 nano meter diagonal size. There are several intermolecular forces that participate in the penta fibrillar assembly, which derive importance in smart behavior of collagen.

  14. A new, 13C-based material for neutron targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanenko, A.I.; Anikeeva, O.B.; Gorbachev, R.V.; Zhmurikov, E.I.; Gubin, K.V.; Logachev, P.V.; Avilov, M.S.; Tsybulya, S.V.; Kryukova, G.N.; Burgina, E.B.; Tecchio, L.

    2005-01-01

    A 13 C-based neutron-target material is investigated using X-ray diffraction, IR absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies, transmission electron microscopy, and electrical (conductivity, magnetoresistance, and Hall effect) measurements before and after high-power electron irradiation for various lengths of time [ru

  15. Finding Environmental Knowledge in SCUBA-Based Textual Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündogdu, Cemal; Aygün, Yalin; Ilkim, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    As marine environments within the adventure domain are future key-settings for recreational SCUBA diving experience, SCUBA-based textual materials should provide insight into environmental knowledge that is well connected to the novice divers' behaviour and attitude. This research is concerned with a major recreational SCUBA diver manual for…

  16. Hydrostatic self-locking bevel differential gear; Hydrostatisch selbstsperrendes Kegelraddifferentialgetriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalmbach, K.

    2001-07-01

    The product range of the rail vehicle industry comprises the construction of railroad material for long-distance and short-distance transport. This includes, for example, locomotives and cars, subway, light railway and tramway cars as well as rail vehicle equipment. The development of the industry is determined by the demand for transport services and government actions for the extension of railways and procurement of suitable vehicle types. In contrast to road vehicles, differential gears are only used in a negligible percentage of rail vehicles. Primarily in the short-distance rail transport sector, the demand for differential gears is growing due to increased drive power, smaller wheel diameters, lower vehicle mass with higher load capacity, the introduction of low-floor technology as well as the requirement of employing ever more quiet vehicles. In hydrostatic self-locking differential gears, oil is supplied to the gears within the differential gearbox. They only rotate relative to each other when the differential gear performs a compensation movement. In this case, oil is transported in the tooth space to the meshing of the gears, where it is displaced due to the meshing and must drain through tight gaps. The pressure generated by this process acts against the compensation movement of the gear, and the drive torque is transmitted to the wheel that has the higher friction. The achievable locking torque is linearly dependent on the differential speed of the drive wheel. This locking effect is achieved without wear-prone components and works automatically without active external intervention. The design space required corresponds to that of conventional differential gears, as the locking effect is integrated in the existing design. (orig.)

  17. Graphene-based materials for supercapacitor electrodes – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Ke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The graphene-based materials are promising for applications in supercapacitors and other energy storage devices due to the intriguing properties, i.e., highly tunable surface area, outstanding electrical conductivity, good chemical stability and excellent mechanical behavior. This review summarizes recent development on graphene-based materials for supercapacitor electrodes, based on their macrostructural complexity, i.e., zero-dimensional (0D (e.g. free-standing graphene dots and particles, one-dimensional (1D (e.g. fiber-type and yarn-type structures, two-dimensional (2D (e.g. graphenes and graphene-based nanocomposite films, and three-dimensional (3D (e.g. graphene foam and hydrogel-based nanocomposites. There are extensive and on-going researches on the rationalization of their structures at varying scales and dimensions, development of effective and low cost synthesis techniques, design and architecturing of graphene-based materials, as well as clarification of their electrochemical performance. It is indicated that future studies should focus on the overall device performance in energy storage devices and large-scale process in low costs for the promising applications in portable and wearable electronic, transport, electrical and hybrid vehicles.

  18. Hydrostatic-pressure studies of confined transitions in cubic Zn1-xCdxSe/ZnSe strained-layer quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.J.; Chandrasekhar, H.R.; Chandrasekhar, M.; Samarth, N.; Luo, H.; Furdyna, J.

    1992-01-01

    Photoluminescence spectra of cubic Zn 0.82 Cd 0.18 Se quantum wells of widths 30, 60, and 200 A are studied as a function of hydrostatic pressure (0--60 kbar) at 80 K. The pressure coefficients of heavy-hole excitons are found to decrease with increasing well width. The photoluminescence energies of the ZnSe barrier and cap layers are also observed to shift as a function of hydrostatic pressure, providing a measure of the pressure coefficient of the direct gap in this material

  19. Graphene-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanfeng; Chang, Huicong; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-09-23

    Lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors (LIHSs), also called Li-ion capacitors, have attracted much attention due to the combination of the rapid charge-discharge and long cycle life of supercapacitors and the high energy-storage capacity of lithium-ion batteries. Thus, LIHSs are expected to become the ultimate power source for hybrid and all-electric vehicles in the near future. As an electrode material, graphene has many advantages, including high surface area and porous structure, high electric conductivity, and high chemical and thermal stability, etc. Compared with other electrode materials, such as activated carbon, graphite, and metal oxides, graphene-based materials with 3D open frameworks show higher effective specific surface area, better control of channels, and higher conductivity, which make them better candidates for LIHS applications. Here, the latest advances in electrode materials for LIHSs are briefly summarized, with an emphasis on graphene-based electrode materials (including 3D graphene networks) for LIHS applications. An outlook is also presented to highlight some future directions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Phosphorene and Phosphorene-Based Materials - Prospects for Future Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar; Bat-Erdene, Munkhjargal; Shapter, Joseph G

    2016-10-01

    Phosphorene, a single- or few-layered semiconductor material obtained from black phosphorus, has recently been introduced as a new member of the family of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials. Since its discovery, phosphorene has attracted significant attention, and due to its unique properties, is a promising material for many applications including transistors, batteries and photovoltaics (PV). However, based on the current progress in phosphorene production, it is clear that a lot remains to be explored before this material can be used for these applications. After providing a comprehensive overview of recent advancements in phosphorene synthesis, advantages and challenges of the currently available methods for phosphorene production are discussed. An overview of the research progress in the use of phosphorene for a wide range of applications is presented, with a focus on enabling important roles that phosphorene would play in next-generation PV cells. Roadmaps that have the potential to address some of the challenges in phosphorene research are examined because it is clear that the unprecedented chemical, physical and electronic properties of phosphorene and phosphorene-based materials are suitable for various applications, including photovoltaics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Material Discrimination Based on K-edge Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral/multienergy CT employing the state-of-the-art energy-discriminative photon-counting detector can identify absorption features in the multiple ranges of photon energies and has the potential to distinguish different materials based on K-edge characteristics. K-edge characteristics involve the sudden attenuation increase in the attenuation profile of a relatively high atomic number material. Hence, spectral CT can utilize material K-edge characteristics (sudden attenuation increase to capture images in available energy bins (levels/windows to distinguish different material components. In this paper, we propose an imaging model based on K-edge characteristics for maximum material discrimination with spectral CT. The wider the energy bin width is, the lower the noise level is, but the poorer the reconstructed image contrast is. Here, we introduce the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR criterion to optimize the energy bin width after the K-edge jump for the maximum CNR. In the simulation, we analyze the reconstructed image quality in different energy bins and demonstrate that our proposed optimization approach can maximize CNR between target region and background region in reconstructed image.

  2. Solution processed nanogap organic diodes based on liquid crystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Fei; Iino, Hiroaki; Hanna, Jun-ichi

    2017-09-01

    Co-planar nanogap organic diodes were fabricated with smectic liquid crystalline materials of the benzothienobenzothiophene (BTBT) derivative by a spin-coating technique. A high rectification ratio of the order of 106 at ±3 V was achieved when a liquid crystalline material of 2,7-didecyl benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (10-BTBT-10) was used in a device configuration of Al/10-BTBT-10/pentafluorobenzenethiol-treated Au on a glass substrate, which was 4 orders higher than that of the device based on non-liquid crystalline materials of 2,7-dibutyl benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (4-BTBT-4) and BTBT. Similar results were also observed when another liquid crystalline material of ω, ω'-dioctylterthiophene (8-TTP-8) and a non-liquid crystalline material of terthiophene (TTP) were used. These improved rectifications can be ascribed to the self-assembly properties and controllable molecular orientation of liquid crystalline materials, which made uniform perpendicular oriented polycrystalline films favorable for superior charge transport in nano-channels.

  3. 46 CFR 54.10-10 - Standard hydrostatic test (modifies UG-99).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard hydrostatic test (modifies UG-99). 54.10-10... PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and Stamping § 54.10-10 Standard hydrostatic test (modifies UG-99). (a) All pressure vessels shall satisfactorily pass the hydrostatic test prescribed by this section...

  4. 46 CFR 56.97-30 - Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4). 56.97-30 Section 56... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Pressure Tests § 56.97-30 Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4). (a) Provision of... system is filling. (b) Test medium and test temperature. (1) Water will be used for a hydrostatic leak...

  5. 78 FR 70324 - Thy Hydrostatic Testing Provision of the Portable Fire Extinguishers Standard; Extension of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Hydrostatic Testing Provision of the Portable Fire Extinguishers Standard; Extension of the Office of...) approval of the information collection requirements contained in the Hydrostatic Testing provision of the... Hydrostatic Testing Provision of the Portable Fire Extinguishers Standard are necessary to reduce workers...

  6. 1D Piezoelectric Material Based Nanogenerators: Methods, Materials and Property Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Sun, Mei; Wei, Xianlong; Shan, Chongxin; Chen, Qing

    2018-03-23

    Due to the enhanced piezoelectric properties, excellent mechanical properties and tunable electric properties, one-dimensional (1D) piezoelectric materials have shown their promising applications in nanogenerators (NG), sensors, actuators, electronic devices etc. To present a clear view about 1D piezoelectric materials, this review mainly focuses on the characterization and optimization of the piezoelectric properties of 1D nanomaterials, including semiconducting nanowires (NWs) with wurtzite and/or zinc blend phases, perovskite NWs and 1D polymers. Specifically, the piezoelectric coefficients, performance of single NW-based NG and structure-dependent electromechanical properties of 1D nanostructured materials can be respectively investigated through piezoresponse force microscopy, atomic force microscopy and the in-situ scanning/transmission electron microcopy. Along with the introduction of the mechanism and piezoelectric properties of 1D semiconductor, perovskite materials and polymers, their performance improvement strategies are summarized from the view of microstructures, including size-effect, crystal structure, orientation and defects. Finally, the extension of 1D piezoelectric materials in field effect transistors and optoelectronic devices are simply introduced.

  7. External electric field and hydrostatic pressure effects on the binding energy and self-polarization of an off-center hydrogenic impurity confined in a GaAs/AlGaAs square quantum well wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, G.; Mousavi, S.; Sadeghi, E.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the effective-mass approximation within a variational scheme, binding energy and self-polarization of hydrogenic impurity confined in a finite confining potential square quantum well wire, under the action of external electric field and hydrostatic pressure, are investigated. The binding energy and self-polarization are computed as functions of the well width, impurity position, electric field, and hydrostatic pressure. Our results show that the external electric field and hydrostatic pressure as well as the well width and impurity position have a great influence on the binding energy and self-polarization.

  8. EFRC: Polymer-Based Materials for Harvesting Solar Energy (stimulus)"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2016-12-08

    The University of Massachusetts Amherst is proposing an Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) on Polymer-Based Materials for Harvesting Solar Energy that will integrate the widely complementary experimental and theoretical expertise of 23 faculty at UMass-Amherst Departments with researchers from the University of Massachusetts Lowell, University of Pittsburgh, the Pennsylvania State University and Konarka Technologies, Inc. Collaborative efforts with researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of Bayreuth, Seoul National University and Tohoku University will complement and expand the experimental efforts in the EFRC. Our primary research aim of this EFRC is the development of hybrid polymer-based devices with efficiencies more than twice the current organic-based devices, by combining expertise in the design and synthesis of photoactive polymers, the control and guidance of polymer-based assemblies, leadership in nanostructured polymeric materials, and the theory and modeling of non-equilibrium structures. A primary goal of this EFRC is to improve the collection and conversion efficiency of a broader spectral range of solar energy using the directed self-assembly of polymer-based materials so as to optimize the design and fabrication of inexpensive devices.

  9. Integrating UNESCO ICT-Based Instructional Materials in Chemistry Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHARLIE P. NACARIO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effectiveness of the lessons in Chemistry integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional material on the achievement of Chemistry students at Central Bicol State University of Agriculture. It aimed to identify lessons that may be developed integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional materials, determine the effect of the developed lessons using the material on: conceptual understanding; science process skills; and attitude towards chemistry and gather insights from the experiences of the students and teacher. The study used the single group pretest and posttest experimental design. Descriptive, quantitative and qualitative techniques were also utilized. Quantitative data were taken from the pretest-posttest results on the Test on Conceptual Understanding, Science Process Skills and Chemistry Attitudinaire. Qualitative data were drawn from the experts’ assessment of the developed lessons and research instruments, and the insights of students and teacher. The developed lessons integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional materials were Atomic Model and Structure, Periodic Table of Elements, Chemical Bonding, and Balancing Chemical Equation. These lessons increased the conceptual understanding of the students by topic and skill from very low mastery to average mastery level. The students have slightly improved along the different science process skills. After teaching the lessons, the students’ attitude also improved. The students became more motivated and interested in Chemistry and the lessons were student centered and entailed teacher’s competence and flexibility in computer use.

  10. Energy based model for temperature dependent behavior of ferromagnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, Sanjay; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2017-01-01

    An energy based model for temperature dependent anhysteretic magnetization curves of ferromagnetic materials is proposed and benchmarked against experimental data. This is based on the calculation of macroscopic magnetic properties by performing an energy weighted average over all possible orientations of the magnetization vector. Most prior approaches that employ this method are unable to independently account for the effect of both inhomogeneity and temperature in performing the averaging necessary to model experimental data. Here we propose a way to account for both effects simultaneously and benchmark the model against experimental data from ~5 K to ~300 K for two different materials in both annealed (fewer inhomogeneities) and deformed (more inhomogeneities) samples. This demonstrates that this framework is well suited to simulate temperature dependent experimental magnetic behavior. - Highlights: • Energy based model for temperature dependent ferromagnetic behavior. • Simultaneously accounts for effect of temperature and inhomogeneities. • Benchmarked against experimental data from 5 K to 300 K.

  11. Biological and chemical sensors based on graphene materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxin; Dong, Xiaochen; Chen, Peng

    2012-03-21

    Owing to their extraordinary electrical, chemical, optical, mechanical and structural properties, graphene and its derivatives have stimulated exploding interests in their sensor applications ever since the first isolation of free-standing graphene sheets in year 2004. This article critically and comprehensively reviews the emerging graphene-based electrochemical sensors, electronic sensors, optical sensors, and nanopore sensors for biological or chemical detection. We emphasize on the underlying detection (or signal transduction) mechanisms, the unique roles and advantages of the used graphene materials. Properties and preparations of different graphene materials, their functionalizations are also comparatively discussed in view of sensor development. Finally, the perspective and current challenges of graphene sensors are outlined (312 references).

  12. Verifiable Distribution of Material Goods Based on Cryptology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomír Palovský

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Counterfeiting of material goods is a general problem. In this paper an architecture for verifiable distribution of material goods is presented. This distribution is based on printing such a QR code on goods, which would contain digitally signed serial number of the product, and validity of this digital signature could be verifiable by a customer. Extension consisting of adding digital signatures to revenue stamps used for state-controlled goods is also presented. Discussion on possibilities in making copies leads to conclusion that cryptographic security needs to be completed by technical difficulties of copying.

  13. Knitted radar absorbing materials (RAM) based on nickel–cobalt magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teber, Ahmet; Unver, Ibrahim; Kavas, Huseyin; Aktas, Bekir; Bansal, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    There has been a long-standing interest in the development of flexible, lightweight, thin, and reconfigurable radar absorbing materials (RAM) for military applications such as camouflaging ground-based hardware against airborne radar observation. The use of polymeric Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics as a host matrix for magnetic metal nano-particles (either at the yarn-stage or after weaving the fabric) for shielding and absorbing applications has been described in the literature. In our experimental investigation, the relative concentrations of Nickel and Cobalt as well as the coating time are varied with a view to optimizing the microwave absorption characteristics of the resulting PAN-based composite material in the radar-frequency bands (X, K_u, and K). It is found that the PAN samples with the shortest coating time have the best return losses (under −20 dB return loss over a moderate bandwidth). - Graphical abstract: Here, we added the graphical abstract that provides summary the contents of the article in a concise pictorial form. - Highlights: • Flexible lightweight, thin, reconfigurable radar absorbing materials are proposed. • Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics are coated with nickel, cobalt magnetic materials. • The coating times affects microwave constitutive parameters and absorption. • Microwave absorption measurements were done via transmission line technique. • Microwave absorption is due to dielectric losses rather than magnetic losses.

  14. Knitted radar absorbing materials (RAM) based on nickel–cobalt magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teber, Ahmet, E-mail: aht10003@engr.uconn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Unver, Ibrahim, E-mail: iunver@gtu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Kavas, Huseyin, E-mail: huseyin.kavas@medeniyet.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul 34000 (Turkey); Aktas, Bekir, E-mail: aktas@gtu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Bansal, Rajeev, E-mail: rajeev@engr.uconn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    There has been a long-standing interest in the development of flexible, lightweight, thin, and reconfigurable radar absorbing materials (RAM) for military applications such as camouflaging ground-based hardware against airborne radar observation. The use of polymeric Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics as a host matrix for magnetic metal nano-particles (either at the yarn-stage or after weaving the fabric) for shielding and absorbing applications has been described in the literature. In our experimental investigation, the relative concentrations of Nickel and Cobalt as well as the coating time are varied with a view to optimizing the microwave absorption characteristics of the resulting PAN-based composite material in the radar-frequency bands (X, K{sub u}, and K). It is found that the PAN samples with the shortest coating time have the best return losses (under −20 dB return loss over a moderate bandwidth). - Graphical abstract: Here, we added the graphical abstract that provides summary the contents of the article in a concise pictorial form. - Highlights: • Flexible lightweight, thin, reconfigurable radar absorbing materials are proposed. • Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics are coated with nickel, cobalt magnetic materials. • The coating times affects microwave constitutive parameters and absorption. • Microwave absorption measurements were done via transmission line technique. • Microwave absorption is due to dielectric losses rather than magnetic losses.

  15. Cellular damage of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in apple juice treated with high hydrostatic pressure and thermal death time disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in membrane damage including leakage of intracellular UV-materials and loss of viability of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteria in apple juice, pH 3.1 following thermal-death-time (TDT) disk and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments were investigated. Salmonella an...

  16. Difference in cellular damage and cell death in thermal death time disks and high hydrostatic pressure treated Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC13076) in liquid whole egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in membrane damage including leakage of intracellular UV-materials and loss of viability of Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC13076) in liquid whole egg (LWE) following thermal-death-time (TDT) disk and high hydrostatic pressure treatments were examined. Salmonella enteritidis was inoculated ...

  17. Membrane damage and viability loss of thermally treated and high hydrostatic pressurized E. coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in apple juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in membrane damage including leakage of intracellular UV-materials and loss of viability of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteria in apple juice following thermal death time disk (TDT) and high hydrostatic pressure treatments were investigated. Salmonella and E. coli O157...

  18. Using bio-based polymers for curing cement-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.; Koenders, E.A.B.; Picken, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Curing is the process of controlling the rate and extent of moisture loss from the surface of cement based materials. It is the final stage in the production of cement-based materials and it is the essential part for achieving continuous hydration of cement, while avoiding cracking due to drying

  19. MATERIALS AND (LANGUAGE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT BASED ON MONTESSORI CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Kristiyani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Montessori Education is widely spread in almost all countries in the world. Even though this school is meant for all kinds of learners including “normal” learners, the Montessori education concepts used in Montessori schools will be very supportive education for children with special needs. Therefore, the schools which adopt Montessori education concepts can facilitate inclusion, especially with the concepts of ‘I can do it myself.’ Inclusive education needs to be carefully prepared and implemented by schools. The movement brings about some challenges for teachers. This paper explores the environment and materials based on Montessori education concepts. The environment and materials are suitable for all types of learners and thus can be an option to be implemented in the inclusive education setting. Teaching materials rooted in Montessori education concepts indeed cater all ages and embrace the needs of all students.

  20. Quantum engineering of transistors based on 2D materials heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Colombo, Luigi; Fiori, Gianluca

    2018-03-01

    Quantum engineering entails atom-by-atom design and fabrication of electronic devices. This innovative technology that unifies materials science and device engineering has been fostered by the recent progress in the fabrication of vertical and lateral heterostructures of two-dimensional materials and by the assessment of the technology potential via computational nanotechnology. But how close are we to the possibility of the practical realization of next-generation atomically thin transistors? In this Perspective, we analyse the outlook and the challenges of quantum-engineered transistors using heterostructures of two-dimensional materials against the benchmark of silicon technology and its foreseeable evolution in terms of potential performance and manufacturability. Transistors based on lateral heterostructures emerge as the most promising option from a performance point of view, even if heterostructure formation and control are in the initial technology development stage.

  1. Carbon-Based Materials for Photo-Triggered Theranostic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunya Albert

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-based nanomaterials serve as a type of smart material for photo-triggered disease theranostics. The inherent physicochemical properties of these nanomaterials facilitate their use for less invasive treatments. This review summarizes the properties and applications of materials including fullerene, nanotubes, nanohorns, nanodots and nanographenes for photodynamic nanomedicine in cancer and antimicrobial therapies. Carbon nanomaterials themselves do not usually act as photodynamic therapy (PDT agents owing to the high hydrophobicity, however, when the surface is passivated or functionalized, these materials become great vehicles for PDT. Moreover, conjugation of carbonaceous nanomaterials with the photosensitizer (PS and relevant targeting ligands enhances properties such as selectivity, stability, and high quantum yield, making them readily available for versatile biomedical applications.

  2. Thermal analysis of charring materials based on pyrolysis interface model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hai-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Charring thermal protection systems have been used to protect hypersonic vehicles from high heat loads. The pyrolysis of charring materials is a complicated physical and chemical phenomenon. Based on the pyrolysis interface model, a simulating approach for charring ablation has been designed in order to obtain one dimensional transient thermal behavior of homogeneous charring materials in reentry capsules. As the numerical results indicate, the pyrolysis rate and the surface temperature under a given heat flux rise abruptly in the beginning, then reach a plateau, but the temperature at the bottom rises very slowly to prevent the structural materials from being heated seriously. Pyrolysis mechanism can play an important role in thermal protection systems subjected to serious aerodynamic heat.

  3. Advanced fluoride-based materials for energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Fluoride-Based Materials for Energy Conversion provides thorough and applied information on new fluorinated materials for chemical energy devices, exploring the electrochemical properties and behavior of fluorinated materials in lithium ion and sodium ion batteries, fluoropolymers in fuel cells, and fluorinated carbon in capacitors, while also exploring synthesis applications, and both safety and stability issues. As electronic devices, from cell phones to hybrid and electric vehicles, are increasingly common and prevalent in modern lives and require dependable, stable chemical energy devices with high-level functions are becoming increasingly important. As research and development in this area progresses rapidly, fluorine compounds play a critical role in this rapid progression. Fluorine, with its small size and the highest electronegativity, yields stable compounds under various conditions for utilization as electrodes, electrolytes, and membranes in energy devices. The book is an ideal reference f...

  4. Quantum engineering of transistors based on 2D materials heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Colombo, Luigi; Fiori, Gianluca

    2018-03-01

    Quantum engineering entails atom-by-atom design and fabrication of electronic devices. This innovative technology that unifies materials science and device engineering has been fostered by the recent progress in the fabrication of vertical and lateral heterostructures of two-dimensional materials and by the assessment of the technology potential via computational nanotechnology. But how close are we to the possibility of the practical realization of next-generation atomically thin transistors? In this Perspective, we analyse the outlook and the challenges of quantum-engineered transistors using heterostructures of two-dimensional materials against the benchmark of silicon technology and its foreseeable evolution in terms of potential performance and manufacturability. Transistors based on lateral heterostructures emerge as the most promising option from a performance point of view, even if heterostructure formation and control are in the initial technology development stage.

  5. XRD Investigation of Some Thermal Degraded Starch Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Todica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal degradation of some starch based materials was investigated using XRD method. The samples were obtained by thermal extrusion of mixtures of different proportions of starch, glycerol, and water. Such materials are suitable for the manufacturing of low pollutant packaging. Thermal degradation is one of the simplest ways to destroy such materials and this process is followed by structural modification of the local ordering of samples, water evaporation, crystallization, oxidation, or destruction of the chemical bonds. These modifications need to be studied in order to reduce to the minimum production of pollutant residues by burning process. XRD measurements show modification of the local ordering of the starch molecules depending on the temperature and initial composition of the samples. The molecular ordering perturbation is more pronounced in samples with low content of starch.

  6. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear Waste Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Cau-di-Coumes, Céline; Frizon, Fabien; Lorente, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    As the re-emergence of nuclear power as an acceptable energy source on an international basis continues, the need for safe and reliable ways to dispose of radioactive waste becomes ever more critical. The ultimate goal for designing a predisposal waste-management system depends on producing waste containers suitable for storage, transportation and permanent disposal. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear-Waste Storage provides a roadmap for the use of cementation as an applied technique for the treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes.Coverage includes, but is not limited to, a comparison of cementation with other solidification techniques, advantages of calcium-silicate cements over other materials and a discussion of the long-term suitability and safety of waste packages as well as cement barriers. This book also: Discusses the formulation and production of cement waste forms for storing radioactive material Assesses the potential of emerging binders to improve the conditioning of problemati...

  7. Basalt fiber reinforced porous aggregates-geopolymer based cellular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Xu, Jin-Yu; Li, Weimin

    2015-09-01

    Basalt fiber reinforced porous aggregates-geopolymer based cellular material (BFRPGCM) was prepared. The stress-strain curve has been worked out. The ideal energy-absorbing efficiency has been analyzed and the application prospect has been explored. The results show the following: fiber reinforced cellular material has successively sized pore structures; the stress-strain curve has two stages: elastic stage and yielding plateau stage; the greatest value of the ideal energy-absorbing efficiency of BFRPGCM is 89.11%, which suggests BFRPGCM has excellent energy-absorbing property. Thus, it can be seen that BFRPGCM is easy and simple to make, has high plasticity, low density and excellent energy-absorbing features. So, BFRPGCM is a promising energy-absorbing material used especially in civil defense engineering.

  8. Nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianluo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Mei, Yueni; Huang, Yunhui

    2015-04-21

    The development of advanced energy storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. Nanostructured materials are advantageous in offering huge surface to volume ratios, favorable transport features, and attractive physicochemical properties. They have been extensively explored in various fields of energy storage and conversion. This review is focused largely on the recent progress in nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials including molybdenum oxides (MoO(x), 2 ≤ x ≤ 3), dichalconides (MoX2, X = S, Se), and oxysalts for rechargeable lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and supercapacitors. Mo-based compounds including MoO2, MoO3, MoO(3-y) (0 energy storage systems because of their unique physicochemical properties, such as conductivity, mechanical and thermal stability, and cyclability. In this review, we aim to provide a systematic summary of the synthesis, modification, and electrochemical performance of nanostructured Mo-based compounds, as well as their energy storage applications in lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and pseudocapacitors. The relationship between nanoarchitectures and electrochemical performances as well as the related charge-storage mechanism is discussed. Moreover, remarks on the challenges and perspectives of Mo-containing compounds for further development in electrochemical energy storage applications are proposed. This review sheds light on the sustainable development of advanced rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors with nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials.

  9. Magnetic phase transitions and hydrostatic pressure or uniaxial stress experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, D.

    1980-01-01

    Crystals submitted to high hydrostatic pressure or uniaxial stress have been investigated by means of neutron scattering. The techniques used are described and applications to pressure or stress induced T = 0 magnetic to nonmagnetic transitions (Pr,PrSb) and continuous to discontinuous order-disorder transitions (MnO) are given. (orig.)

  10. A single-institution experience with hydrostatic reduction for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/purpose Hydrostatic reduction for intussusception has the benefit ... The v2-test was used to compare categorical variables, and a P value of 0.05 was ... Conclusion Although less than half of the patients presenting with childhood ...

  11. High hydrostatic pressure extraction of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High hydrostatic pressure processing (HHPP) is a food processing method, in which food is subjected to the elevated pressure which is mostly between 100 to 800 MPa. HHPP is seen not only in food engineering, but also have other application areas, such as extraction of active ingredients from natural biomaterials.

  12. Hydrostatic reduction of intussusception with normal saline using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrostatic reduction of intussusception with normal saline using the gravity aided method in a Nigerian teaching hospital. M.A. Abdulsalam, B.O. Balogun, R.I. Osuoji, O.O. Olofinlade, O.M. Faboya, M.A. Bankole ...

  13. N2 vs H20 as purge/hydrostatic head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the information to explain to the customer the ETP for the N2 vs H20 as Purge/Hydrostatic Head. This ETP follows the format described in Issurance of New Characterization Equipment Engineering Desk Instructions, 75200-95-013

  14. static analysis of circular cylindrical shell under hydrostatic and ring

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    (Golzan et al, 2008). Circular cylindrical shells are used in a large variety of civil engineering structures, e.g. off-shore platforms, chimneys, silos, pipelines, bridge arches or wind turbine towers (Winterstetter et al, 2002). This work is concerned with the analysis of circular cylindri- cal shell subjected to hydrostatic pressure in.

  15. Intussusception in children: Hydrostatic reduction under US guidance - own experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roik, D.; Brzewski, M.; Biejat, A.; Marcinski, M.

    2008-01-01

    Intussusception in children is a common abdominal emergency. Recent years have brought a New promising method of nonsurgical invagination treatment, hydrostatic reduction under sonographic (US) guidance. The major advantage of this method is lack of the ionized radiation. The aim of our study is to asses the safety and effectiveness of hydrostatic reduction under US guidance used as a first choice method of invagination treatment in our department. >From July 2006 to December 2007, 33 procedures of hydrostatic reduction under US guidance were performed in 27 children, aged from 7 months to 6 years and 10 months. The procedure was performed in US room by radiologist and surgeon with the use of self-constructed set for saline enema. The sedation of patient was routinely performed. The initial procedure was effective in 23 patients (pts) (85%). In 5 pts the recurrence of intussusception occurred and in 3 of them next attempt of the reduction was successful. In 4 cases the initial procedures failed, and those children were operated. Total amount of 6 pts underwent an operation. We do not observe any complications connected with the procedure. Hydrostatic reduction of children intusussception under US-guidance is safe and effective method. Our initial results meet the recommended limits of successful reduction rates. It encouraged us to evaluation and further implementation of this method. Water enema is a first choice method of invagination treatment in our hospital. (authors)

  16. Anomalies of ultrasound attenuation in metals under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galkin, A.A.; Datsko, O.I.; Varyukhin, V.N.; Pilipenko, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation was measured in polycrystal specimens of molybdenum, chromium and zinc under hydrostatic pressure up to 6 kbar. On the plot of ultrasound attenuation dependence on the pressure in molybdenum the maxima are observed under the pressure of 2 kbar. The anomaly of ultrasound attenuation is shown to connect only with brittle-ductile transtion

  17. Technical Education Outreach in Materials Science and Technology Based on NASA's Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, James A.

    2003-01-01

    The grant NAG-1 -2125, Technical Education Outreach in Materials Science and Technology, based on NASA s Materials Research, involves collaborative effort among the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC), Norfolk State University (NSU), national research centers, private industry, technical societies, colleges and universities. The collaboration aims to strengthen math, science and technology education by providing outreach related to materials science and technology (MST). The goal of the project is to transfer new developments from LaRC s Center for Excellence for Structures and Materials and other NASA materials research into technical education across the nation to provide educational outreach and strengthen technical education. To achieve this goal we are employing two main strategies: 1) development of the gateway website and 2) using the National Educators Workshop: Update in Engineering Materials, Science and Technology (NEW:Updates). We have also participated in a number of national projects, presented talks at technical meetings and published articles aimed at improving k-12 technical education. Through the three years of this project the NSU team developed the successful MST-Online site and continued to upgrade and update it as our limited resources permitted. Three annual NEW:Updates conducted from 2000 though 2002 overcame the challenges presented first by the September 11,2001 terrorist attacks and the slow U.S. economy and still managed to conduct very effective workshops and expand our outreach efforts. Plans began on NEW:Update 2003 to be hosted by NASA Langley as a part of the celebration of the Centennial of Controlled Flight.

  18. A fuzzy logic based PROMETHEE method for material selection problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Gul

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is a complex problem in the design and development of products for diverse engineering applications. This paper presents a fuzzy PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation method based on trapezoidal fuzzy interval numbers that can be applied to the selection of materials for an automotive instrument panel. Also, it presents uniqueness in making a significant contribution to the literature in terms of the application of fuzzy decision-making approach to material selection problems. The method is illustrated, validated, and compared against three different fuzzy MCDM methods (fuzzy VIKOR, fuzzy TOPSIS, and fuzzy ELECTRE in terms of its ranking performance. Also, the relationships between the compared methods and the proposed scenarios for fuzzy PROMETHEE are evaluated via the Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Styrene Maleic Anhydride and Polypropylene are determined optionally as suitable materials for the automotive instrument panel case. We propose a generic fuzzy MCDM methodology that can be practically implemented to material selection problem. The main advantages of the methodology are consideration of the vagueness, uncertainty, and fuzziness to decision making environment.

  19. Magnetic Sensors Based on Amorphous Ferromagnetic Materials: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Cabrera, Carolina; Morón, Alberto; García, Alfonso; González, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Currently there are many types of sensors that are used in lots of applications. Among these, magnetic sensors are a good alternative for the detection and measurement of different phenomena because they are a “simple” and readily available technology. For the construction of such devices there are many magnetic materials available, although amorphous ferromagnetic materials are the most suitable. The existence in the market of these materials allows the production of different kinds of sensors, without requiring expensive manufacture investments for the magnetic cores. Furthermore, these are not fragile materials that require special care, favouring the construction of solid and reliable devices. Another important feature is that these sensors can be developed without electric contact between the measuring device and the sensor, making them especially fit for use in harsh environments. In this review we will look at the main types of developed magnetic sensors. This work presents the state of the art of magnetic sensors based on amorphous ferromagnetic materials used in modern technology: security devices, weapon detection, magnetic maps, car industry, credit cards, etc. PMID:26569244

  20. Magnetic Sensors Based on Amorphous Ferromagnetic Materials: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Cabrera, Carolina; Morón, Alberto; García, Alfonso; González, Mercedes

    2015-11-11

    Currently there are many types of sensors that are used in lots of applications. Among these, magnetic sensors are a good alternative for the detection and measurement of different phenomena because they are a "simple" and readily available technology. For the construction of such devices there are many magnetic materials available, although amorphous ferromagnetic materials are the most suitable. The existence in the market of these materials allows the production of different kinds of sensors, without requiring expensive manufacture investments for the magnetic cores. Furthermore, these are not fragile materials that require special care, favouring the construction of solid and reliable devices. Another important feature is that these sensors can be developed without electric contact between the measuring device and the sensor, making them especially fit for use in harsh environments. In this review we will look at the main types of developed magnetic sensors. This work presents the state of the art of magnetic sensors based on amorphous ferromagnetic materials used in modern technology: security devices, weapon detection, magnetic maps, car industry, credit cards, etc.

  1. Magnetic Sensors Based on Amorphous Ferromagnetic Materials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are many types of sensors that are used in lots of applications. Among these, magnetic sensors are a good alternative for the detection and measurement of different phenomena because they are a “simple” and readily available technology. For the construction of such devices there are many magnetic materials available, although amorphous ferromagnetic materials are the most suitable. The existence in the market of these materials allows the production of different kinds of sensors, without requiring expensive manufacture investments for the magnetic cores. Furthermore, these are not fragile materials that require special care, favouring the construction of solid and reliable devices. Another important feature is that these sensors can be developed without electric contact between the measuring device and the sensor, making them especially fit for use in harsh environments. In this review we will look at the main types of developed magnetic sensors. This work presents the state of the art of magnetic sensors based on amorphous ferromagnetic materials used in modern technology: security devices, weapon detection, magnetic maps, car industry, credit cards, etc.

  2. Membrane materials based on polyheteroarylenes and their application for pervaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulyalina, A Yu; Polotskaya, G A; Toikka, A M

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the transport properties of membrane materials are topical in connection with the need to solve the fundamental problems and to analyze the applied aspects of the theory of membrane separation processes including, in particular, the development of the energy- and resource-saving, environmentally safe technologies. The aim of the review is to generalize the experimental data on the separation of practically valuable mixtures using membranes based on polyheteroarylenes (thermally stable and mechanically strong polymers). First of all, our analysis covers publications that give a detailed description of the physicochemical properties of the membranes and an interpretation of the specific features of mass transfer during pervaporation of liquid mixtures using membrane materials based on polyheteroarylenes. The dependences of the transport parameters of pervaporation on the process conditions and on the methods for production of membrane materials are discussed. The data presented may be useful for the development of the theory of membrane processes taking into account the chemical nature and physicochemical features of polymeric membrane materials. The bibliography includes 151 references

  3. Novel hybrid materials based on the vanadium oxide nanobelts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabrodina, G.S., E-mail: kudgs@mail.ru [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Makarov, S.G.; Kremlev, K.V. [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Yunin, P.A.; Gusev, S.A. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603087 (Russian Federation); Kaverin, B.S.; Kaverina, L.B. [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Ketkov, S.Yu. [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flat and curved vanadium oxide nanobelts have been synthesized. • Hybrid material was prepared via decoration of flexible nanobelts with zinc phthalocyanine. • Investigations of the thermal stability, morphologies and structures were carried out. - Abstract: Novel hybrid materials based on zinc phthalocyanine and nanostructured vanadium oxides have attracted extensive attention for the development of academic research and innovative industrial applications such as flexible electronics, optical sensors and heterogeneous catalysts. Vanadium oxides nanobelts were synthesized via a hydrothermal treatment V{sub 2}O{sub 5}·nH{sub 2}O gel with surfactants (TBAB, CTAB) used as structure-directing agents, where CTAB – cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, TBAB – tetrabutylammonium bromide. Hybrid materials were prepared decoration of (CTA){sub 0.33}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} flexible nanobelts with cationic zinc phthalocyanine by the ion-exchange route. Investigations of the thermal stability, morphologies and structures of the (CTA){sub 0.33}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, (TBA){sub 0.16}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanobelts and zinc phthalocyanine exchange product were carried out. The hybrid materials based on the nanostructured vanadium oxide and zinc phthalocyanine were tested as photocatalysts for oxidation of citronellol and 2-mercaptoethanol by dioxygen.

  4. RIM as the data base management system for a material properties data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, P. H.; Wilson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Relational Information Management (RIM) was selected as the data base management system for a prototype engineering materials data base. The data base provides a central repository for engineering material properties data, which facilitates their control. Numerous RIM capabilities are exploited to satisfy prototype data base requirements. Numerical, text, tabular, and graphical data and references are being stored for five material types. Data retrieval will be accomplished both interactively and through a FORTRAN interface. The experience gained in creating and exercising the prototype will be used in specifying requirements for a production system.

  5. High-Pressure Design of Advanced BN-Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr O. Kurakevych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review is to highlight the state of the art in high-pressure design of new advanced materials based on boron nitride. Recent experimental achievements on the governing phase transformation, nanostructuring and chemical synthesis in the systems containing boron nitride at high pressures and high temperatures are presented. All these developments allowed discovering new materials, e.g., ultrahard nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride (nano-cBN with hardness comparable to diamond, and superhard boron subnitride B13N2. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of high-pressure synthesis are described based on the data obtained by in situ and ex situ methods. Mechanical and thermal properties (hardness, thermoelastic equations of state, etc. are discussed. New synthetic perspectives, combining both soft chemistry and extreme pressure–temperature conditions are considered.

  6. Bulk Material Based Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensor Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W S; Magnin, W; Wang, N; Hayes, M; O'Flynn, B; O'Mathuna, C

    2011-01-01

    The trend towards smart building and modern manufacturing demands ubiquitous sensing in the foreseeable future. Self-powered Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are essential for such applications. This paper describes bulk material based thermoelectric generator (TEG) design and implementation for WSN. A 20cm 2 Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 based TEG was created with optimized configuration and generates 2.7mW in typical condition. A novel load matching method is used to maximize the power output. The implemented power management module delivers 651μW to WSN in 50 deg. C. With average power consumption of Tyndall WSN measured at 72μW, feasibility of utilizing bulk material TEG to power WSN is demonstrated.

  7. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on magnetic phase transitions and magnetization in gadolinium monocrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, S.A.; Bezdushnyj, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of hydrostatic pressure on magnetization in gadolinium monocrystal (Δσ-effect) was investigated. Dependences of spesific magnetization, Δσ-effect and bulk magnetostriction of gadolinium monocrystal on temperatures were studied. Results of conducted investigation have shown that in gadolinium the change of specific magnetization under the hydrostatic pressure effect is caused in general case by three effects: a)change of spontaneous magnetization under the effect of hydrostatic pressure; b)change of magnetization within technical magnetization range due to the effect of hydrostatic pressure on magnetic anisotropy constants; c)change of magnetization due to the effect of hydrostatic pressure on temperature of spin-reoriented transition

  8. Synthesis and electrochemical study of Pt-based nanoporous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingpeng; Holt-Hindle, Peter; MacDonald, Duncan; Thomas, Dan F.; Chen Aicheng

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, a variety of Pt-based bimetallic nanostructured materials including nanoporous Pt, Pt-Ru, Pt-Ir, Pt-Pd and Pt-Pb networks have been directly grown on titanium substrates via a facile hydrothermal method. The as-fabricated electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical methods. The active surface areas of these nanoporous Pt-based alloy catalysts are increased by over 68 (Pt-Pd), 69 (Pt-Ru) and 113 (Pt-Ir) fold compared to a polycrystalline Pt electrode. All these synthesized nanoporous electrodes exhibit superb electrocatalytic performance towards electrochemical oxidation of methanol and formic acid. Among the five nanoporous Pt-based electrodes, the Pt-Ir shows the highest peak current density at +0.50 V, with 68 times of enhancement compared to the polycrystalline Pt for methanol oxidation, and with 86 times of enhancement in formic acid oxidation; whereas the catalytic activity of the nanoporous Pt-Pb electrode outperforms the other materials in formic acid oxidation at the low potential regions, delivering an enhanced current density by 280-fold compared to the polycrystalline Pt at +0.15 V. The new approach described in this study is suitable for synthesizing a wide range of bi-metallic and tri-metallic nanoporous materials, desirable for electrochemical sensor design and potential application in fuel cells

  9. Synthesis and electrochemical study of Pt-based nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jingpeng [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Holt-Hindle, Peter; MacDonald, Duncan [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Thomas, Dan F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Chen Aicheng [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada)], E-mail: aicheng.chen@lakeheadu.ca

    2008-10-01

    In the present work, a variety of Pt-based bimetallic nanostructured materials including nanoporous Pt, Pt-Ru, Pt-Ir, Pt-Pd and Pt-Pb networks have been directly grown on titanium substrates via a facile hydrothermal method. The as-fabricated electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical methods. The active surface areas of these nanoporous Pt-based alloy catalysts are increased by over 68 (Pt-Pd), 69 (Pt-Ru) and 113 (Pt-Ir) fold compared to a polycrystalline Pt electrode. All these synthesized nanoporous electrodes exhibit superb electrocatalytic performance towards electrochemical oxidation of methanol and formic acid. Among the five nanoporous Pt-based electrodes, the Pt-Ir shows the highest peak current density at +0.50 V, with 68 times of enhancement compared to the polycrystalline Pt for methanol oxidation, and with 86 times of enhancement in formic acid oxidation; whereas the catalytic activity of the nanoporous Pt-Pb electrode outperforms the other materials in formic acid oxidation at the low potential regions, delivering an enhanced current density by 280-fold compared to the polycrystalline Pt at +0.15 V. The new approach described in this study is suitable for synthesizing a wide range of bi-metallic and tri-metallic nanoporous materials, desirable for electrochemical sensor design and potential application in fuel cells.0.

  10. Synthesis and electrochemical study of Pt-based nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingpeng [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Holt-Hindle, Peter; MacDonald, Duncan; Chen, Aicheng [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Thomas, Dan F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2008-10-01

    In the present work, a variety of Pt-based bimetallic nanostructured materials including nanoporous Pt, Pt-Ru, Pt-Ir, Pt-Pd and Pt-Pb networks have been directly grown on titanium substrates via a facile hydrothermal method. The as-fabricated electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical methods. The active surface areas of these nanoporous Pt-based alloy catalysts are increased by over 68 (Pt-Pd), 69 (Pt-Ru) and 113 (Pt-Ir) fold compared to a polycrystalline Pt electrode. All these synthesized nanoporous electrodes exhibit superb electrocatalytic performance towards electrochemical oxidation of methanol and formic acid. Among the five nanoporous Pt-based electrodes, the Pt-Ir shows the highest peak current density at +0.50 V, with 68 times of enhancement compared to the polycrystalline Pt for methanol oxidation, and with 86 times of enhancement in formic acid oxidation; whereas the catalytic activity of the nanoporous Pt-Pb electrode outperforms the other materials in formic acid oxidation at the low potential regions, delivering an enhanced current density by 280-fold compared to the polycrystalline Pt at +0.15 V. The new approach described in this study is suitable for synthesizing a wide range of bi-metallic and tri-metallic nanoporous materials, desirable for electrochemical sensor design and potential application in fuel cells. (author)

  11. A hydrostatic leak test for water pipeline by using distributed optical fiber vibration sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huijuan; Sun, Zhenshi; Qian, Ya; Zhang, Tao; Rao, Yunjiang

    2015-07-01

    A hydrostatic leak test for water pipeline with a distributed optical fiber vibration sensing (DOVS) system based on the phase-sensitive OTDR technology is studied in this paper. By monitoring one end of a common communication optical fiber cable, which is laid in the inner wall of the pipe, we can detect and locate the water leakages easily. Different apertures under different pressures are tested and it shows that the DOVS has good responses when the aperture is equal or larger than 4 mm and the inner pressure reaches 0.2 Mpa for a steel pipe with DN 91cm×EN 2cm.

  12. Moisture measurement in wood, wood-based materials and building materials - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, A.; Mehlhorn, L.; Plinke, B.

    1989-10-01

    Methods of moisture measurement in solid substances, especially on wood, wood-based materials and building materials were examined and evaluated according to the literature available. The question was which methods of examining the moisture distribution in building elements at climate loading offer the best accuracy and spatial resolution as well as which methods are the most appropriate at present and in future for the solution of measurement problems in the wood and wood-based industry. The most common methods are electric measurement methods which are utilizing either the moisture-depending conductivity or the dielectric constant or the reflectivity of the material for infrared radiation but they offer only a limited accuracy. The same is valid for the rarely used microwave methods or X-ray and NMR tomography. Simple electric methods will further on play an important role in the industrial process measuring technique. For the examination of building elements, methods using nuclear radiation still offer possibilities for a further development. (orig.) With 207 refs., 13 figs [de

  13. Energy-based ferromagnetic material model with magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steentjes, Simon, E-mail: simon.steentjes@iem.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Electrical Machines - RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 4, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Henrotte, François, E-mail: francois.henrotte@uclouvain.be [Institute of Mechanics Materials and Civil Engineering - UCL, Av. G. Lemaître 4-6, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Hameyer, Kay [Institute of Electrical Machines - RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 4, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    Non-oriented soft magnetic materials are commonly assumed to be magnetically isotropic. However, due to the rolling process a preferred direction exists along the rolling direction. This uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, and the related magnetostriction effect, are critical to the accurate calculation of iron losses and magnetic forces in rotating electrical machines. This paper proposes an extension of an isotropic energy-based vector hysteresis model to account for these two effects. - Highlights: • Energy-based vector hysteresis model with magnetic anisotropy. • Two-scale model to account for pinning field distribution. • Pinning force and reluctivity are extended to anisotropic case.

  14. Modeling of ferrite-based materials for shielding enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koledintseva, Marina; Drewniak, James; Zhang Yaojiang; Lenn, James; Thoms, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    An analytical model for a magneto-dielectric composite material is presented based on the Maxwell Garnett rule for a dielectric mixture, and on Bruggeman's effective medium theory for permeability of a ferrite powder embedded in a dielectric. In order to simultaneously treat frequency-dispersive permittivity and permeability of a composite in a full-wave FDTD code, a new algorithm based on discretized auxiliary differential equations has been implemented. In this paper, numerical examples of modeling structures containing different magneto-dielectric mixtures are presented

  15. A new silver based composite material for SPA water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartanson, M A; Soussan, L; Rivallin, M; Chis, C; Penaranda, D; Lapergue, R; Calmels, P; Faur, C

    2014-10-15

    A new composite material based on alumina (Al2O3) modified by two surface nanocoatings - titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silver (Ag) - was studied for spa water disinfection. Regarding the most common microorganisms in bathing waters, two non-pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Gram positive) were selected as surrogates for bacterial contamination. The bactericidal properties of the Al2O3-TiO2-Ag material were demonstrated under various operating conditions encountered in spa water (temperature: 22-37 °C, presence of salt: CaCO3 or CaCl2, high oxygen content, etc.). Total removal of 10(8) CFU mL(-1) of bacteria was obtained in less than 10 min with 16 g L(-1) of material. Best results were observed for both conditions: a temperature of 37 °C and under aerobic condition; this latest favouring Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation. The CaCO3 salt had no impact on the bactericidal activity of the composite material and CaCl2 considerably stabilized the silver desorption from the material surface thanks to the formation of AgCl precipitate. Preliminary tests of the Al2O3-TiO2-Ag bactericidal behaviour in a continuous water flow confirmed that 2 g L(-1) of material eliminated more than 90% of a 2.0 × 10(8) CFU mL(-1) bacterial mixture after one water treatment recycle and reached the disinfection standard recommended by EPA (coliform removal = 6 log) within 22 h. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Learning material recommendation based on case-based reasoning similarity scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Mona; Mokmin, Nur Azlina Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    A personalized learning material recommendation is important in any Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). Case-based Reasoning (CBR) is an Artificial Intelligent Algorithm that has been widely used in the development of ITS applications. This study has developed an ITS application that applied the CBR algorithm in the development process. The application has the ability to recommend the most suitable learning material to the specific student based on information in the student profile. In order to test the ability of the application in recommending learning material, two versions of the application were created. The first version displayed the most suitable learning material and the second version displayed the least preferable learning material. The results show the application has successfully assigned the students to the most suitable learning material.

  17. Optimum permeability for a cement based backfill material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, F.; Wittmann, F.H.; Iriya, K.

    1989-01-01

    In Switzerland it is planned to dispose low- and intermediate radioactive waste (LLW/ILW) in an underground repository. Between the materials present in a repository different chemical reactions may occur. Due to radiolytic decomposition, microbiological degradation and corrosion gas (mainly hydrogen) may be produced. The release of gas can cause the build-up of pressure in the cavern and finally lead to the formation of cracks and/or serious damage in the concrete structure or host rock. Through cracks a contamination of the groundwater and the biosphere could be possible. This investigation develops a suitable cement based material which can be used as backfill for the repository. Besides other aspects mentioned later a suitable backfill material has to be characterized by a certain minimum gas permeability and a as low as possible hydraulic conductivity. On the one hand gas permeability is necessary to release gas overpressure and on the other hand a low hydraulic conductivity should prevent leaching of backfill materials and contamination of the environment

  18. Modification of clay-based waste containment materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Whang, J.M.; McDevitt, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Bentonite clays are used extensively for waste containment barriers to help impede the flow of water in the subsurface because of their low permeability characteristics. However, they do little to prevent diffusion of contaminants, which is the major transport mechanism at low water flows. A more effective way of minimizing contaminant migration in the subsurface is to modify the bentonite clay with highly sorptive materials. Batch sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the sorptive capabilities of organo-clays and humic- and iron-based materials. These materials proved to be effective sorbents for the organic contaminants 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, nitrobenzene, and aniline in water, humic acid, and methanol solution media. The sorption capacities were several orders of magnitude greater than that of unmodified bentonite clay. Modeling results indicate that with small amounts of these materials used as additives in clay barriers, contaminant flux through walls could be kept very small for 100 years or more. The cost of such levels of additives can be small compared to overall construction costs

  19. Electrically tunable polarizer based on 2D orthorhombic ferrovalley materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin-Wei; Tong, Wen-Yi; Gong, Shi-Jing; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2018-03-01

    The concept of ferrovalley materials has been proposed very recently. The existence of spontaneous valley polarization, resulting from ferromagnetism, in such hexagonal 2D materials makes nonvolatile valleytronic applications realizable. Here, we introduce a new member of ferrovalley family with orthorhombic lattice, i.e. monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides (GIVMs), in which the intrinsic valley polarization originates from ferroelectricity, instead of ferromagnetism. Combining the group theory analysis and first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that, different from the valley-selective circular dichroism in hexagonal lattice, linearly polarized optical selectivity for valleys exists in the new type of ferrovalley materials. On account of the distinctive property, a prototype of electrically tunable polarizer is realized. In the ferrovalley-based polarizer, a laser beam can be optionally polarized in x- or y-direction, depending on the ferrovalley state controlled by external electric fields. Such a device can be further optimized to emit circularly polarized radiation with specific chirality and to realize the tunability for operating wavelength. Therefore, we show that 2D orthorhombic ferrovalley materials are the promising candidates to provide an advantageous platform to realize the polarizer driven by electric means, which is of great importance in extending the practical applications of valleytronics.

  20. Basic properties of a zirconia based fuel material for LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, C.; Paratte, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of zirconia cubic solid solutions doped with yttria, erbia and ceria or thoria are investigated with emphasis on the potential use of this material as inert matrix fuel for plutonium incineration in a light water reactor (LWR). The material is selected on the basis of its neutronic properties. Zr and Y are not neutron absorbers. Among the rare earth elements, Er was identified as a suitable burnable poison. The high density cubic solid solution is stable for a rather large range of compositions and from room temperature up to about 3000 K. Samples irradiated under low and high energy Xe ion irradiation up to a fluence of 1.8.10 16 Xe.cm -2 were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Low energy (60 keV) Xe ions did not produce amorphization. From the observed bubble formation, swelling values during irradiation at room temperature or at high temperature (925 K) were estimated to be 0.1-0.72% by volume. Furthermore, no amorphization was obtained by Xe irradiation under extreme conditions such as high energy (1.5 MeV) Xe ion irradiation and low temperature (20 K). This confirms the robustness of this material and argues in favour of the selection of a zirconia based material as an advanced nuclear fuel for plutonium incineration. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs

  1. Hydrostatic Stress Effects Incorporated Into the Analysis of the High-Strain-Rate Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    Procedures for modeling the effect of high strain rate on composite materials are needed for designing reliable composite engine cases that are lighter than the metal cases in current use. The types of polymer matrix composites that are likely to be used in such an application have a deformation response that is nonlinear and that varies with strain rate. The nonlinearity and strain rate dependence of the composite response is primarily due to the matrix constituent. Therefore, in developing material models to be used in the design of impact-resistant composite engine cases, the deformation of the polymer matrix must be correctly analyzed. However, unlike in metals, the nonlinear response of polymers depends on the hydrostatic stresses, which must be accounted for within an analytical model. An experimental program has been carried out through a university grant with the Ohio State University to obtain tensile and shear deformation data for a representative polymer for strain rates ranging from quasi-static to high rates of several hundred per second. This information has been used at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop, characterize, and correlate a material model in which the strain rate dependence and nonlinearity (including hydrostatic stress effects) of the polymer are correctly analyzed. To obtain the material data, Glenn s researchers designed and fabricated test specimens of a representative toughened epoxy resin. Quasi-static tests at low strain rates and split Hopkinson bar tests at high strain rates were then conducted at the Ohio State University. The experimental data confirmed the strong effects of strain rate on both the tensile and shear deformation of the polymer. For the analytical model, Glenn researchers modified state variable constitutive equations previously used for the viscoplastic analysis of metals to allow for the analysis of the nonlinear, strain-rate-dependent polymer deformation. Specifically, we accounted for the effects of

  2. Interactive teaching materials based on scientific approach: triangles and quadrilaterals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiastuti Heni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the Indonesian government’s efforts to improve the quality of education is by changing the curriculum. Currently the Curriculum 2013 is being implemented in schools. Implementation of Curriculum 2013 is require teaching materials in accordance with the characteristics of the students, utilizing computer technology facilities, and contains the components of the scientific approach. Therefore, it is necessary to develop teaching materials in accordance with the Curriculum 2013. In this research we developed the Interactive Teaching Materials based on Scientific Approach (ITMSA. The research method is research and development (R&D which consist of ten steps. The product design validation performed by multimedia, mathematics, and mathematics education expert involving lecturers and mathematics teacher. Utility testing of product conducted on junior high school students in Serang City, Banten Province, Indonesia. Based on research known that the ITMSA obtained a total score 85,30% from mathematics expert, 87,80% from mathematics education expert, 83,60% from multimedia expert, and 89,40% from students. In addition, students mathematical concept understanding who learn by using ITMSA better than student who learn without ITMSA. From these results concluded that the ITMSA is considered feasible and can be used in mathematics teaching in schools.

  3. Development of antimicrobial active packaging materials based on gluten proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Heincke, Diana; Martínez, Inmaculada; Partal, Pedro; Guerrero, Antonio; Gallegos, Críspulo

    2016-08-01

    The incorporation of natural biocide agents into protein-based bioplastics, a source of biodegradable polymeric materials, manufactured by a thermo-mechanical method is a way to contribute to a sustainable food packaging industry. This study assesses the antimicrobial activity of 10 different biocides incorporated into wheat gluten-based bioplastics. The effect that formulation, processing, and further thermal treatments exert on the thermo-mechanical properties, water absorption characteristics and rheological behaviour of these materials is also studied. Bioplastics containing six of the 10 examined bioactive agents have demonstrated suitable antimicrobial activity at 37 °C after their incorporation into the bioplastic. Moreover, the essential oils are able to create an antimicrobial atmosphere within a Petri dish. Depending on the selected biocide, its addition may alter the bioplastics protein network in a different extent, which leads to materials exhibiting less water uptake and different rheological and thermo-mechanical behaviours. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Investigation of graphene-based nanoscale radiation sensitive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joshua A.; Wetherington, Maxwell; Hughes, Zachary; LaBella, Michael, III; Bresnehan, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Current state-of-the-art nanotechnology offers multiple benefits for radiation sensing applications. These include the ability to incorporate nano-sized radiation indicators into widely used materials such as paint, corrosion-resistant coatings, and ceramics to create nano-composite materials that can be widely used in everyday life. Additionally, nanotechnology may lead to the development of ultra-low power, flexible detection systems that can be embedded in clothing or other systems. Graphene, a single layer of graphite, exhibits exceptional electronic and structural properties, and is being investigated for high-frequency devices and sensors. Previous work indicates that graphene-oxide (GO) - a derivative of graphene - exhibits luminescent properties that can be tailored based on chemistry; however, exploration of graphene-oxide's ability to provide a sufficient change in luminescent properties when exposed to gamma or neutron radiation has not been carried out. We investigate the mechanisms of radiation-induced chemical modifications and radiation damage induced shifts in luminescence in graphene-oxide materials to provide a fundamental foundation for further development of radiation sensitive detection architectures. Additionally, we investigate the integration of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) with graphene-based devices to evaluate radiation induced conductivity in nanoscale devices. Importantly, we demonstrate the sensitivity of graphene transport properties to the presence of alpha particles, and discuss the successful integration of hBN with large area graphene electrodes as a means to provide the foundation for large-area nanoscale radiation sensors.

  5. Degradation of chitosan-based materials after different sterilization treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Juan, A; Montembault, A; Royaud, I; David, L; Gillet, D; Say, J P; Rouif, S; Bouet, T

    2012-01-01

    Biopolymers have received in recent years an increasing interest for their potential applications in the field of biomedical engineering. Among the natural polymers that have been experimented, chitosan is probably the most promising in view of its exceptional biological properties. Several techniques may be employed to sterilize chitosan-based materials. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of common sterilization treatments on the degradation of chitosan-based materials in various physical states: solutions, hydrogels and solid flakes. Four sterilization methods were compared: gamma irradiation, beta irradiation, exposure to ethylene oxide and saturated water steam sterilization (autoclaving). Exposure to gamma or beta irradiation was shown to induce an important degradation of chitosan, regardless of its physical state. The chemical structure of chitosan flakes was preserved after ethylene oxide sterilization, but this technique has a limited use for materials in the dry state. Saturated water steam sterilization of chitosan solutions led to an important depolymerization. Nevertheless, steam sterilization of chitosan flakes bagged or dispersed in water was found to preserve better the molecular weight of the polymer. Hence, the sterilization of chitosan flakes dispersed in water would represent an alternative step for the preparation of sterilized chitosan solutions. Alternatively, autoclaving chitosan physical hydrogels did not significantly modify the macromolecular structure of the polymer. Thus, this method is one of the most convenient procedures for the sterilization of physical chitosan hydrogels after their preparation.

  6. Safety issues of tooth whitening using peroxide-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Greenwall, L

    2013-07-01

    In-office tooth whitening using hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) has been practised in dentistry without significant safety concerns for more than a century. While few disputes exist regarding the efficacy of peroxide-based at-home whitening since its first introduction in 1989, its safety has been the cause of controversy and concern. This article reviews and discusses safety issues of tooth whitening using peroxide-based materials, including biological properties and toxicology of H₂O₂, use of chlorine dioxide, safety studies on tooth whitening, and clinical considerations of its use. Data accumulated during the last two decades demonstrate that, when used properly, peroxide-based tooth whitening is safe and effective. The most commonly seen side effects are tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation, which are usually mild to moderate and transient. So far there is no evidence of significant health risks associated with tooth whitening; however, potential adverse effects can occur with inappropriate application, abuse, or the use of inappropriate whitening products. With the knowledge on peroxide-based whitening materials and the recognition of potential adverse effects associated with the procedure, dental professionals are able to formulate an effective and safe tooth whitening regimen for individual patients to achieve maximal benefits while minimising potential risks.

  7. Competitive light absorbers in photoactive dental resin-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadis, Mohammed A; Shortall, Adrian C; Palin, William M

    2012-08-01

    The absorbance profile of photoinitiators prior to, during and following polymerization of light curable resin-based materials will have a significant effect on the cure and color properties of the final material. So-called "colorless" photoinitiators are used in some light-activated resin-based composite restorative materials to lessen the yellowing effect of camphoroquinone (CQ) in order to improve the esthetic quality of dental restorations. This work characterizes absorption properties of commonly used photoinitiators, an acylphosphine oxide (TPO) and CQ, and assesses their influence on material discoloration. Dimethacrylate resin formulations contained low (0.0134 mol/dm(3)), intermediate (0.0405 mol/dm(3)) or high (0.0678 mol/dm(3)) concentrations of the photoinitiators and the inhibitor, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at 0, 0.1 or 0.2% by mass. Disc shaped specimens (n = 3) of each resin were polymerized for 60s using a halogen light curing unit. Dynamic measurements of photoinitiator absorption, polymer conversion and reaction temperature were performed. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the color change before and after cure. GLM three-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences (pphotoinitiator type (df = 1; F = 176.12)>% BHT (df = 2, F = 13.17). BHT concentration affected the rate of polymerization and produced lower conversion in some of the CQ-based resins. Significant differences between photoinitiator type and concentrations were seen in color (where TPO resins became yellower and camphoroquinone resins became less yellow upon irradiation). Reaction temperature, kinetics and conversion also differed significantly for both initiators (presins producing a visually perceptible color change upon polymerization, the color change was significantly less than that produced with CQ-based resins. Although some photoinitiators such as TPO may be a more esthetic alternative to CQ, they may actually cause significant color contamination when

  8. Nondestructive testing diagnosis for corrosion and welding by means of hydrostatic test and gamma ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Alex E.; Dantas, Carlos C.; Nery, Marcelo S.; Barbosa, Jose Maria A.; Rolim, Tiago L.; Melo, Silvio B.; Lima, Emerson A.O.

    2013-01-01

    Diagnoses of light and severe corrosion process in steel tubes are carried out and results are presented. The material discontinuity in metallic pieces was investigated and signals from gamma source detection shown defect present or no defect present. Samples taken from street illumination posts were placed in computerized gamma ray scan to investigate corrosion effect. Scanning at three angles 0 deg, 60 deg and 120 deg degrees with five repetitions provide data set sufficient to a statistical analysis. Samples taken from small diameter steel tubes with light corrosion were analyzed too. Comparing corrosion-free samples detection of transmission gamma ray shows that along with diameter reduction a random density distribution takes place with severe corrosive process. The asymmetry induced in sample density provided to be effective for diagnosis of light corrosion by means of straight-line slope obtained in gamma profile. Structural integrity of steel pipes affected by welding process and defect propagation due to Hydrostatic Testing - HT was simulated by numerical finite element method and data comparison with experimental gamma tomography was carried out. Samples of pipes with preexisting defect on the welding region were submitted to hydrostatic tests over working pressure and a correlation between defect degree and structural resistance was evaluated. (author)

  9. Bismuth Sodium Titanate Based Materials for Piezoelectric Actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Klaus; Feteira, Antonio; Li, Ming

    2015-12-04

    The ban of lead in many electronic products and the expectation that, sooner or later, this ban will include the currently exempt piezoelectric ceramics based on Lead-Zirconate-Titanate has motivated many research groups to look for lead-free substitutes. After a short overview on different classes of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with large strain, this review will focus on Bismuth-Sodium-Titanate and its solid solutions. These compounds exhibit extraordinarily high strain, due to a field induced phase transition, which makes them attractive for actuator applications. The structural features of these materials and the origin of the field-induced strain will be revised. Technologies for texturing, which increases the useable strain, will be introduced. Finally, the features that are relevant for the application of these materials in a multilayer design will be summarized.

  10. Towards Flexible Transparent Electrodes Based on Carbon and Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs with high stability and scalability are in high demand for the extremely widespread applications in flexible optoelectronic devices. Traditionally, thin films of indium thin oxide (ITO served the role of FTEs, but film brittleness and scarcity of materials limit its further application. This review provides a summary of recent advances in emerging transparent electrodes and related flexible devices (e.g., touch panels, organic light-emitting diodes, sensors, supercapacitors, and solar cells. Mainly focusing on the FTEs based on carbon nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes and graphene and metal materials (e.g., metal grid and metal nanowires, we discuss the fabrication techniques, the performance improvement, and the representative applications of these highly transparent and flexible electrodes. Finally, the challenges and prospects of flexible transparent electrodes will be summarized.

  11. REQUIREMENTS FOR DRILLING CUTTINGS AND EARTH-BASED BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chertes Konstantin L'vovich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the problem of utilization of drilling cuttings by means of scavenging, is researched. The product received could be used for the restoration of lands disturbed during construction and economic activities. When assessing technogenic formations, the binary approach was used, as a system of two components. The purpose of the study is to assess the state and possibility of utilizing drilling cuttings as raw materials in order to produce technogenic building materials; to study the effect of the degree of homogeneity of initial mixtures based on drilling cuttings, on kinetics of their hardening which leads to obtaining final products for various applications . As a result of research, relations of hardening and subsequent strengthening of slurry-cement mixtures were obtained; the plan of the process area for treatment of drilling cuttings is presented on the spot of demolished drilling pit.

  12. Development of Web Based Learning Material in Physics Subject for Kalor and Temperature Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa Aji Kurniawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been done, the research which aims to develop a web-based teaching materials on the subjects of physics subject with subject mater of temperature and heat. This study using a modified model of the 4D development by eliminating the deployment phase. The validation of product development conducted by validator media experts and experts matter of physics, whereas small-scale trials conducted by physics teacher and 10 students. Validator review results stating that the quality of the product development were included in the category very well with the average percentage rating of 83.93%. The percentage value assigned by media expert by 75% in the good category and the percentage of the value provided by a matter expert 92.85% were in the very good category. Experiments by physics teacher to obtain result of equal to 94.44% were in the very good category and the average percentage of the test results by the students of 90.5% were in the very good category. The characteristics of the products developed include material composition using the curriculum in 2013, there was a recording facility and the results of evaluation of students' activities, there were feedback evaluation results were immediately known by the students and there were some links related to the material either youtube or other learning website.

  13. Marine fungi: Degraders of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate based plastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matavulj Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for new biosynthetic and biodegradable materials to save nonrenewable resources and reduce global pollution problems is an urgent task. Recently, materials like thermoplastic poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA, have been found synthesized by bacteria as storage materials. The major PHAs synthesized are poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, poly-b-hydroxyvalerate (PHV and their copolymers. They are already commercially produced and used as BIOPOLTM (ICI, England. Their complete degradability by bacteria has already been shown. Today, oceans and estuaries serve as major landfills, and since fungi are an important part of the degrading microbiota, in order to prove their participation in the degradation process, a simple degradation test suitable for fungi and marine conditions had to be developed. Several solid media based on artificial sea water, differing in the content of non-alkanoate organics and supplemented with 0.1% PHA (or BIOPOLTM as a main source of carbon have been tested. The testing principle consists of clearing the turbid medium in test tube or plates caused by suspended granules of PHA. All media tested supported the growth of fungi. For the discrete and transparent clearing of zones, a mineral medium with 0.01% peptone, 0.01% yeast extract, and 0.1% PHB or BIOPOLTM was finally chosen where the fine and evenly distributed turbidity is accomplished by a specific procedure. This method allows the investigation of degradability of PHA-based plastic materials as well as screening for fungal ability to depolymerise pure PHA homopolymers. Using this medium, 32 strains of marine yeasts and 102 strains of marine mycelial fungi belonging to different systematic and ecological groups were tested for their ability to degrade PHAs. Only about 4% of the strains were able to degrade BIOPOLTM and about 6% depolymerised pure PHB homopolymer. This is in sharp contrast to the results of our previous experiments with 143 strains of terrestrial fungi

  14. Graphene-Based Materials for Biosensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phitsini Suvarnaphaet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The advantages conferred by the physical, optical and electrochemical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials have contributed to the current variety of ultrasensitive and selective biosensor devices. In this review, we present the points of view on the intrinsic properties of graphene and its surface engineering concerned with the transduction mechanisms in biosensing applications. We explain practical synthesis techniques along with prospective properties of the graphene-based materials, which include the pristine graphene and functionalized graphene (i.e., graphene oxide (GO, reduced graphene oxide (RGO and graphene quantum dot (GQD. The biosensing mechanisms based on the utilization of the charge interactions with biomolecules and/or nanoparticle interactions and sensing platforms are also discussed, and the importance of surface functionalization in recent up-to-date biosensors for biological and medical applications.

  15. Unreacted equation of states of typical energetic materials under static compression: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zhaoyang; Zhao Jijun

    2016-01-01

    The unreacted equation of state (EOS) of energetic materials is an important thermodynamic relationship to characterize their high pressure behaviors and has practical importance. The previous experimental and theoretical works on the equation of state of several energetic materials including nitromethane, 1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazacyclooctane (HMX), hexanitrostilbene (HNS), hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW or CL-20), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105), triamino-trinitrobenzene (TATB), 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (DADNE or FOX-7), and trinitrotoluene (TNT) are reviewed in this paper. The EOS determined from hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic compressions are discussed and compared. The theoretical results based on ab initio calculations are summarized and compared with the experimental data. (topical review)

  16. Effect of upper body position on arterial stiffness: influence of hydrostatic pressure and autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Elizabeth C; Rosenberg, Alexander J; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; White, Daniel W; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate changes in arterial stiffness with positional change and whether the stiffness changes are due to hydrostatic pressure alone or if physiological changes in vasoconstriction of the conduit arteries play a role in the modulation of arterial stiffness. Thirty participants' (male = 15, 24 ± 4 years) upper bodies were positioned at 0, 45, and 72° angles. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), cardio-ankle vascular index, carotid beta-stiffness index, carotid blood pressure (cBP), and carotid diameters were measured at each position. A gravitational height correction was determined using the vertical fluid column distance (mmHg) between the heart and carotid artery. Carotid beta-stiffness was calibrated using three methods: nonheight corrected cBP of each position, height corrected cBP of each position, and height corrected cBP of the supine position (theoretical model). Low frequency systolic blood pressure variability (LFSAP) was analyzed as a marker of sympathetic activity. PWV and cardio-ankle vascular index increased with position (P hydrostatic pressure. Arterial stiffness indices based on Method 2 were not different from Method 3 (P = 0.65). LFSAP increased in more upright positions (P pressure did not (P > 0.05). Arterial stiffness increases with a more upright body position. Carotid beta-stiffness needs to be calibrated accounting for hydrostatic effects of gravity if measured in a seated position. It is unclear why PWV increased as this increase was independent of blood pressure. No difference between Methods 2 and 3 presumably indicates that the beta-stiffness increases are only pressure dependent, despite the increase in vascular sympathetic modulation.

  17. Friction behavior of cobalt base and nickel base hardfacing materials in high temperature sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Syotaro; Kano, Shigeki; Nakayama, Kohichi; Atsumo, Hideo

    1980-01-01

    A friction behavior of the hardfacing materials such as cobalt base alloy ''Stellite'' and nickel base alloy ''Colmonoy'' used in the sliding components of a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor was investigated in various sodium environments. Also, friction tests on these materials were carried out in argon environment. And they were compared with those in sodium environment. The results obtained are as follows: (1) In argon, the cobalt base hardfacing alloy showed better friction behavior than the nickel base hardfacing alloy. In sodium, the latter was observed to have the better friction behavior being independent of the sodium temperature. (2) The friction coefficient of each material tends to become lower by pre-exposure in sodium. Particularly, this tendency was remarkable for the nickel base hardfacing alloy. (3) The friction coefficient between SUS 316 and one of these hardfacing materials was higher than that between latter materials. Also, some elements of hardfacing alloys were recognized to transfer on the friction surface of SUS 316 material. (4) It was observed that each tested material has a greater friction coefficient with a decrease of the oxygen content in sodium. (author)

  18. Fourier analysis for hydrostatic pressure sensing in a polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, Paul; Wong, Allan C. L.; Fu, H. Y.; Liao, Yanbiao; Tam, Hwayaw; Lu Chao; Wai, P. K. A.

    2010-01-01

    .We measured the hydrostatic pressure dependence of the birefringence and birefringent dispersion of a Sagnac interferometric sensor incorporating a length of highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber using Fourier analysis. Sensitivity of both the phase and chirp spectra to hydrostatic pressure is demonstrated. Using this analysis, phase-based measurements showed a good linearity with an effective sensitivity of 9.45nm/MPa and an accuracy of ±7.8kPa using wavelength-encoded data and an effective sensitivity of -55.7cm -1 /MPa and an accuracy of ±4.4kPa using wavenumber-encoded data. Chirp-based measurements, though nonlinear in response, showed an improvement in accuracy at certain pressure ranges with an accuracy of ±5.5kPa for the full range of measured pressures using wavelength-encoded data and dropping to within ±2.5kPa in the range of 0.17 to 0.4MPa using wavenumber-encoded data. Improvements of the accuracy demonstrated the usefulness of implementing chirp-based analysis for sensing purposes.

  19. Porous materials based on foaming solutions obtained from industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostina, I. V.; Antipova, A. N.; Ovcharova, I. V.; Starostina, Yu L.

    2018-03-01

    This study analyzes foam concrete production efficiency. Research has shown the possibility of using a newly-designed protein-based foaming agent to produce porous materials using gypsum and cement binders. The protein foaming agent is obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of a raw mixture consisting of industrial waste in an electromagnetic field. The mixture consists of spent biomass of the Aspergillus niger fungus and dust from burning furnaces used in cement production. Varying the content of the foaming agent allows obtaining gypsum binder-based foam concretes with the density of 200-500 kg/m3 and compressive strength of 0.1-1.0 MPa, which can be used for thermal and sound insulation of building interiors. Cement binders were used to obtain structural and thermal insulation materials with the density of 300-950 kg/m3 and compressive strength of 0.9-9.0 MPa. The maximum operating temperature of cement-based foam concretes is 500°C because it provides the shrinkage of less than 2%.

  20. Hydrostatic pressure in combination with topographical cues affects the fate of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinwald, Yvonne; El Haj, Alicia J

    2018-03-01

    Topographical and mechanical cues are vital for cell fate, tissue development in vivo, and to mimic the native cell growth environment in vitro. To date, the combinatory effect of mechanical and topographical cues as not been thoroughly investigated. This study investigates the effect of PCL nanofiber alignment and hydrostatic pressure on stem cell differentiation for bone tissue regeneration. Bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells were seeded onto standard tissue culture plastic and electrospun random and aligned nanofibers. These substrates were either cultured statically or subjected to intermittent hydrostatic pressure at 270 kPa, 1 Hz for 60 min daily over 21 days in osteogenic medium. Data revealed higher cell metabolic activities for all mechanically stimulated cell culture formats compared with non-stimulated controls; and random fibers compared with aligned fibers. Fiber orientation influenced cell morphology and patterns of calcium deposition. Significant up-regulation of Collagen-I, ALP, and Runx-2 were observed for random and aligned fibers following mechanical stimulation; highest levels of osteogenic markers were expressed when hydrostatic pressure was applied to random fibers. These results indicate that fiber alignment and hydrostatic pressure direct stem cell fate and are important stimulus for tissue regeneration. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: A: 629-640, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Phase transition transistors based on strongly-correlated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masaki

    2013-03-01

    The field-effect transistor (FET) provides electrical switching functions through linear control of the number of charges at a channel surface by external voltage. Controlling electronic phases of condensed matters in a FET geometry has long been a central issue of physical science. In particular, FET based on a strongly correlated material, namely ``Mott transistor,'' has attracted considerable interest, because it potentially provides gigantic and diverse electronic responses due to a strong interplay between charge, spin, orbital and lattice. We have investigated electric-field effects on such materials aiming at novel physical phenomena and electronic functions originating from strong correlation effects. Here we demonstrate electrical switching of bulk state of matter over the first-order metal-insulator transition. We fabricated FETs based on VO2 with use of a recently developed electric-double-layer transistor technique, and found that the electrostatically induced carriers at a channel surface drive all preexisting localized carriers of 1022 cm-3 even inside a bulk to motion, leading to bulk carrier delocalization beyond the electrostatic screening length. This non-local switching of bulk phases is achieved with just around 1 V, and moreover, a novel non-volatile memory like character emerges in a voltage-sweep measurement. These observations are apparently distinct from those of conventional FETs based on band insulators, capturing the essential feature of collective interactions in strongly correlated materials. This work was done in collaboration with K. Shibuya, D. Okuyama, T. Hatano, S. Ono, M. Kawasaki, Y. Iwasa, and Y. Tokura. This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSAP) through its ``Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST Program).''

  2. Single-crystal growth of ceria-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In this work it could be shown that Skull-Melting is a suitable method for growing ceria single crystals. Twenty different ceria-based single crystals could be manufactured. It was possible to dope ceria single crystals with Gd, Sm, Y, Zr, Ti, Ta, and Pr in different concentrations. Also co-doping with the named metals was realized. However, there remain some problems for growing ceria-based single crystals by Skull-Melting. As ignition metal zirconium was used because no ceria-based material works well. For that reason all single crystals show small zirconium contamination. Another problem is the formation of oxygen by the heat-induced reduction of ceria during the melting process. Because of that the skull of sintered material is often destroyed by gas pressure. This problem had to be solved individually for every single crystal. The obtained single crystals were characterized using different methods. To ensure the single crystal character the y were examined by Laue diffraction. All manufactured crystals are single crystals. Also powder diffraction patterns of the milled and oxidized samples were measured. For the determination of symmetry and metric the structural parameters were analyzed by the Rietveld method. All synthesized materials crystallize in space group Fm-3m known from calcium fluoride. The cubic lattice parameter a was determined for all crystals. In the case of series with different cerium and zirconium concentrations a linear correlation between cerium content and cubic lattice parameter was detected. The elemental composition was determined by WDX. All crystals show a homogeneous elemental distribution. The oxygen content was calculated because the WDX method isn't useful for determination.

  3. Dissolution performance of plutonium nitride based fuel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneheim, E.; Hedberg, M. [Nuclear Chemistry, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivaegen 4, Gothenburg, SE41296 (Sweden)

    2016-07-01

    Nitride fuels have been regarded as one viable fuel option for Generation IV reactors due to their positive features compared to oxides. To be able to close the fuel cycle and follow the Generation IV concept, nitrides must, however, demonstrate their ability to be reprocessed. This means that the dissolution performance of actinide based nitrides has to be thoroughly investigated and assessed. As the zirconium stabilized nitrides show even better potential as fuel material than does the pure actinide containing nitrides, investigations on the dissolution behavior of both PuN and (Pu,Zr)N has been undertaken. If possible it is desirable to perform the fuel dissolutions using nitric acid. This, as most reprocessing strategies using solvent-solvent extraction are based on a nitride containing aqueous matrix. (Pu,Zr)N/C microspheres were produced using internal gelation. The spheres dissolution performance was investigated using nitric acid with and without additions of HF and Ag(II). In addition PuN fuel pellets were produced from powder and their dissolution performance were also assessed in a nitric acid based setting. It appears that both PuN and (Pu,Zr)N/C fuel material can be completely dissolved in nitric acid of high concentration with the use of catalytic amounts of HF. The amount of HF added strongly affects dissolution kinetics of (Pu, Zr)N and the presence of HF affects the 2 solutes differently, possibly due to inhomogeneity o the initial material. Large additions of Ag(II) can also be used to facilitate the dissolution of (Pu,Zr)N in nitric acid. PuN can be dissolved by pure nitric acid of high concentration at room temperature while (Pu, Zr)N is unaffected under similar conditions. At elevated temperature (reflux), (Pu,Zr)N can, however, also be dissolved by concentrated pure nitric acid.

  4. New gadolinium based glasses for gamma-rays shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewjang, S.; Maghanemi, U.; Kothan, S.; Kim, H.J.; Limkitjaroenporn, P.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gd 2 O 3 based glasses have been fabricated and investigated radiation shielding properties between 223 and 662 keV. • Density of the glass increases with increasing of Gd 2 O 3. • All the glasses of Gd 2 O 3 compositions studied had been shown lower HVL than X-rays shielding window. • Prepared glasses to be utilized as radiation shielding material with Pb-free advantage. • This work is the first to reports on radiation shielding properties of Gd 2 O 3 based glass matrices. - Abstract: In this work, Gd 2 O 3 based glasses in compositions (80−x)B 2 O 3 -10SiO 2 -10CaO-xGd 2 O 3 (where x = 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mol%) have been fabricated and investigated for their radiation shielding, physical and optical properties. The density of the glass was found to increase with the increasing of Gd 2 O 3 concentration. The experimental values of mass attenuation coefficients (μ m ), effective atomic number (Z eff ) and effective electron densities (N e ) of the glasses were found to increase with the increasing of Gd 2 O 3 concentration and also with the decreasing of photon energy from 223 to 662 keV. The glasses of all Gd 2 O 3 compositions studied have been shown with lower HVL values in comparison to an X-rays shielding window, ordinary concrete and commercial window; indicating their potential as radiation shielding materials with Pb-free advantage. Optical spectra of the glasses in the present study had been shown with light transparency; an advantage when used as radiation shielding materials

  5. New gadolinium based glasses for gamma-rays shielding materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaewjang, S.; Maghanemi, U.; Kothan, S. [Department of Radiologic Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chang Mai University, Chang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Kim, H.J. [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Limkitjaroenporn, P. [Center of Excellence in Glass Technology and Materials Science (CEGM), Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Kaewkhao, J., E-mail: mink110@hotmail.com [Center of Excellence in Glass Technology and Materials Science (CEGM), Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} based glasses have been fabricated and investigated radiation shielding properties between 223 and 662 keV. • Density of the glass increases with increasing of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3.} • All the glasses of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} compositions studied had been shown lower HVL than X-rays shielding window. • Prepared glasses to be utilized as radiation shielding material with Pb-free advantage. • This work is the first to reports on radiation shielding properties of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} based glass matrices. - Abstract: In this work, Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} based glasses in compositions (80−x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-10SiO{sub 2}-10CaO-xGd{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x = 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mol%) have been fabricated and investigated for their radiation shielding, physical and optical properties. The density of the glass was found to increase with the increasing of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. The experimental values of mass attenuation coefficients (μ{sub m}), effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) and effective electron densities (N{sub e}) of the glasses were found to increase with the increasing of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration and also with the decreasing of photon energy from 223 to 662 keV. The glasses of all Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} compositions studied have been shown with lower HVL values in comparison to an X-rays shielding window, ordinary concrete and commercial window; indicating their potential as radiation shielding materials with Pb-free advantage. Optical spectra of the glasses in the present study had been shown with light transparency; an advantage when used as radiation shielding materials.

  6. Porphyrin Based Near Infrared-Absorbing Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiwen

    The conservation and transformation of energy is essential to the survival of mankind, and thus concerns every modern society. Solar energy, as an everlasting source of energy, holds one of the key solutions to some of the most urgent problems the world now faces, such as global warming and the oil crisis. Advances in technologies utilizing clean, abundant solar energy, could be the steering wheel of our societies. Solar cells, one of the major advances in converting solar energy into electricity, are now capturing people's interest all over the globe. While solar cells have been commercially available for many years, the manufacturing of solar cells is quite expensive, limiting their broad based implementation. The cost of solar cell based electricity is 15-50 cents per kilowatt hour (¢/kwh), depending on the type of solar cell, compared to 0.7 ¢/kwh for fossil fuel based electricity. Clearly, decreasing the cost of electricity from solar cells is critical for their wide spread deployment. This will require a decrease in the cost of light absorbing materials and material processing used in fabricating the cells. Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) utilize organic materials such as polymers and small molecules. These devices have the advantage of being flexible and lower cost than conventional solar cells built from inorganic semiconductors (e.g. silicon). The low cost of OPVs is tied to lower materials and fabrication costs of organic cells. However, the current power conversion efficiencies of OPVs are still below 15%, while convention crystalline Si cells have efficiencies of 20-25%. A key limitation in OPVs today is their inability to utilize the near infrared (NIR) portion of the solar spectrum. This part of the spectrum comprises nearly half of the energy in sunlight that could be used to make electricity. The first and foremost step in conversion solar energy conversion is the absorption of light, which nature has provided us optimal model of, which is

  7. On the hydrostatic test for nuclear vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmero, A.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of the pressure test requirements, namely specified values of pressure and temperature, for nuclear vessels designed and constructed according to the ASME Code and Spanish Rules is presented. Also the relationship of the design criteria and the pressure test requirements is indicated with a particular emphasis on the test temperature in order to avoid brittle behaviour of the materials. (author)

  8. Ohmic contacts to InN-based materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai P. O.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The key aspects of ohmic contact formation to InN-based materials were investigated. Detailed analysis of studies conducted over the past three decades, allows determining the basic principles of such contacts. The contact structure properties and optimal conditions for them are presented. Different types of metallization are considered, the advantages and disadvantages of each are determined, including the basic requirements that such contact must meet. There is emphasis on the using multilayer metallization with the barrier layers. In the case of the InAlN/GaN systems, the general approaches of forming ohmic contacts were considered.

  9. Behavior of W-based materials in hot helium gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Matějíček

    2016-12-01

    A number of W-based materials (pure tungsten and some of its alloys prepared by powder metallurgy techniques was exposed to He atmosphere at 720ºC and 500kPa for 500h. Morphological surface changes were observed by SEM, chemical and phase composition was analyzed by EDS and XRD, respectively. The internal microstructure was observed by a combination of SEM, FIB and TEM techniques. Mechanical properties were determined by instrumented indentation. Some alloys developed a thin oxide layer, in some cases new morphological features were observed, while some samples remained mostly intact. The observed changes are correlated with specific compositions and microstructures.

  10. Tough hybrid ceramic-based material with high strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shuqi; Kagawa, Yutaka; Nishimura, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a tough and strong hybrid ceramic material consisting of platelet-like zirconium compounds and metal. A mixture of boron carbide and excess zirconium powder was heated to 1900 °C using a liquid-phase reaction sintering technique to produce a platelet-like ZrB 2 -based hybrid ceramic bonded by a thin zirconium layer. The platelet-like ZrB 2 grains were randomly present in the as-sintered hybrid ceramic. Relative to non-hybrid ceramics, the fracture toughness and flexural strength of the hybrid ceramic increased by approximately 2-fold.

  11. Charge transport in metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnerstrom, Evan Lars

    There is probably no class of materials more varied, more widely used, or more ubiquitous than metal oxides. Depending on their composition, metal oxides can exhibit almost any number of properties. Of particular interest are the ways in which charge is transported in metal oxides: devices such as displays, touch screens, and smart windows rely on the ability of certain metal oxides to conduct electricity while maintaining visible transparency. Smart windows, fuel cells, and other electrochemical devices additionally rely on efficient transport of ionic charge in and around metal oxides. Colloidal synthesis has enabled metal oxide nanocrystals to emerge as a relatively new but highly tunable class of materials. Certain metal oxide nanocrystals, particularly highly doped metal oxides, have been enjoying rapid development in the last decade. As in myriad other materials systems, structure dictates the properties of metal oxide nanocrystals, but a full understanding of how nanocrystal synthesis, the processing of nanocrystal-based materials, and the structure of nanocrystals relate to the resulting properties of nanocrystal-based materials is still nascent. Gaining a fundamental understanding of and control over these structure-property relationships is crucial to developing a holistic understanding of metal oxide nanocrystals. The unique ability to tune metal oxide nanocrystals by changing composition through the introduction of dopants or by changing size and shape affords a way to study the interplay between structure, processing, and properties. This overall goal of this work is to chemically synthesize colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, process them into useful materials, characterize charge transport in materials based on colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, and develop ways to manipulate charge transport. In particular, this dissertation characterizes how the charge transport properties of metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials depend on their processing and

  12. High Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of ZnO Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li

    of the dopants and dopant concentrations, a large power factor was obtainable. The sample with the composition of Zn0.9Cd0.1Sc0.01O obtained the highest zT ∼0.3 @1173 K, ~0.24 @1073K, and a good average zT which is better than the state-of-the-art n-type thermoelectric oxide materials. Meanwhile, Sc-doped Zn......This thesis investigated the high temperature thermoelectric properties of ZnO based materials. The investigation first focused on the doping mechanisms of Al-doped ZnO, and then the influence of spark plasma sintering conditions on the thermoelectric properties of Al, Ga-dually doped Zn......O. Following that, the nanostructuring effect for Al-doped ZnO was systematically investigated using samples with different microstructure morphologies. At last, the newly developed ZnCdO materials with superior thermoelectric properties and thermal stability were introduced as promising substitutions...

  13. Material flow-based economic assessment of landfill mining processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieckhäfer, Karsten; Breitenstein, Anna; Spengler, Thomas S

    2017-02-01

    This paper provides an economic assessment of alternative processes for landfill mining compared to landfill aftercare with the goal of assisting landfill operators with the decision to choose between the two alternatives. A material flow-based assessment approach is developed and applied to a landfill in Germany. In addition to landfill aftercare, six alternative landfill mining processes are considered. These range from simple approaches where most of the material is incinerated or landfilled again to sophisticated technology combinations that allow for recovering highly differentiated products such as metals, plastics, glass, recycling sand, and gravel. For the alternatives, the net present value of all relevant cash flows associated with plant installation and operation, supply, recycling, and disposal of material flows, recovery of land and landfill airspace, as well as landfill closure and aftercare is computed with an extensive sensitivity analyses. The economic performance of landfill mining processes is found to be significantly influenced by the prices of thermal treatment (waste incineration as well as refuse-derived fuels incineration plant) and recovered land or airspace. The results indicate that the simple process alternatives have the highest economic potential, which contradicts the aim of recovering most of the resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Base technology approaches in materials research for future nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tatsuo

    1992-01-01

    In the development of advanced nuclear systems for future, majority of critical issues in material research and development are more or less related with the effects of neutron irradiation. The approaches to those issues in the past have been mainly concerned with interpretation of the facts and minor modification of existing materials, having been inevitably of passive nature. In combating against predicted complex effects arising from variety of critical parameters, approaches must be reviewed more strategically. Some attempts of shifting research programs to such a direction have been made at JAERI in the Base (Common) Technology Programs either by adding to or restructuring the existing tasks. Major tasks currently in progress after the reorientation are categorized in several disciplines including new tasks for material innovation and concept development for neutron sources. The efforts have been set forth since 1988, and a few of them are now mature to transfer to the tasks in the projects of advanced reactors. The paper reviews the status of some typical activities emphasizing the effects of the reorientation and possible extensions of the outcomes to future applications. (author)

  15. Influence of magnetic field, chemical pressure and hydrostatic pressure on the structural and magnetocaloric properties of the Mn-Ni-Ge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubel, Andreas; Gottschall, Tino; Fries, Maximilian; Faske, Tom; Skokov, Konstantin P.; Gutfleisch, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    The magnetic, structural and thermomagnetic properties of the MM’X material system of MnNiGe are evaluated with respect to their utilization in magnetocaloric refrigeration. The effects of separate and simultaneous substitution of Fe for Mn and Si on the Ge site are analysed in detail to highlight the benefits of the isostructural alloying method. A large range of compounds with precisely tunable structural and magnetic properties and the tuning of the phase transition by chemical pressure are compared to the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the martensitic transition. We obtained very large isothermal entropy changes Δ S_iso of up to -37.8 J kg-1 K-1 based on magnetic measurements for (Mn,Fe)NiGe in moderate fields of 2 T. The enhanced magnetocaloric properties for transitions around room temperature are demonstrated for samples with reduced Ge, a resource critical element. An adiabatic temperature change of 1.3 K in a magnetic field change of 1.93 T is observed upon direct measurement for a sample with Fe and Si substitution. However, the high volume change of 2.8% results in an embrittlement of large particles into several smaller fragments and leads to a sensitivity of the magnetocaloric properties towards sample shape and size. On the other hand, this large volume change enables to induce the phase transition with a large shift of the transition temperature by application of hydrostatic pressure (72 K GPa-1 ). Thus, the effect of 1.88 GPa is equivalent to a substitution of 10% Fe for Mn and can act as an additional stimulus to induce the phase transition and support the low magnetic field dependence of the phase transition temperature for multicaloric applications.

  16. DC Electrical Ageing of XLPE under Hydrostatic Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila Benlizidia Lalam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental electrical ageing, of cross-linked polyethylene films 100 μm thick, was investigated under high hydrostatic pressure of 300 bar and at atmospheric pressure. The tests are conducted on direct current (dc for up to 1000 h ageing and at temperature of 70°C. The use of the Weibull statistic, with the estimation of confidence bounds at 90%, has shown that the hydrostatic pressure has a real effect on the lifetime. These lifetime data are qualitatively analyzed with the inverse power model. It was found that thermally activated process is able to describe the pressure effect on the electrical ageing of XLPE.

  17. Achieving Textbook Multigrid Efficiency for Hydrostatic Ice Sheet Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Jed

    2013-03-12

    The hydrostatic equations for ice sheet flow offer improved fidelity compared with the shallow ice approximation and shallow stream approximation popular in today\\'s ice sheet models. Nevertheless, they present a serious bottleneck because they require the solution of a three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear system, as opposed to the two-dimensional system present in the shallow stream approximation. This 3D system is posed on high-aspect domains with strong anisotropy and variation in coefficients, making it expensive to solve with current methods. This paper presents a Newton--Krylov multigrid solver for the hydrostatic equations that demonstrates textbook multigrid efficiency (an order of magnitude reduction in residual per iteration and solution of the fine-level system at a small multiple of the cost of a residual evaluation). Scalability on Blue Gene/P is demonstrated, and the method is compared to various algebraic methods that are in use or have been proposed as viable approaches.

  18. Achieving Textbook Multigrid Efficiency for Hydrostatic Ice Sheet Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Jed; Smith, Barry; Ahmadia, Aron

    2013-01-01

    The hydrostatic equations for ice sheet flow offer improved fidelity compared with the shallow ice approximation and shallow stream approximation popular in today's ice sheet models. Nevertheless, they present a serious bottleneck because they require the solution of a three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear system, as opposed to the two-dimensional system present in the shallow stream approximation. This 3D system is posed on high-aspect domains with strong anisotropy and variation in coefficients, making it expensive to solve with current methods. This paper presents a Newton--Krylov multigrid solver for the hydrostatic equations that demonstrates textbook multigrid efficiency (an order of magnitude reduction in residual per iteration and solution of the fine-level system at a small multiple of the cost of a residual evaluation). Scalability on Blue Gene/P is demonstrated, and the method is compared to various algebraic methods that are in use or have been proposed as viable approaches.

  19. Moessbauer study of phase transitions under high hydrostatic pressures. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitanov, E.V.; Yakovlev, E.N.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results of the hydrostatic pressure influence on Moessbauer spectrum parameters are obtained over the pressure range including the area of structural phase transition. A linear increase of the Moessbauer effect probability (recoilless fraction) is accompanied by a linear decrease of the electron density at tin nuclei within the pressure range foregoing the phase transition. The electric resistance and the recoilless fraction of the new phase of Mg 2 Sn are lower, but the electron density at tin nuclei is greater than the initial phase ones. Hydrostatic conditions allow to fix clearly the diphasic transition area and to determine the influence of the pressure on the Moessbauer line position and on the recoilless fraction of the high pressure phase. The phase transition heat Q = 415 cal mol -1 is calculated using recoilless fractions of the high and low pressure phases at 25 kbar. The present results are qualitatively and quantitatively different from the results, obtained at nonhydrostatic conditions. (author)

  20. Hydrostatic Pressure Sensing with High Birefringence Photonic Crystal Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávero, Fernando C.; Quintero, Sully M. M.; Martelli, Cicero; Braga, Arthur M.B.; Silva, Vinícius V.; Carvalho, Isabel C. S.; Llerena, Roberth W. A.; Valente, Luiz C. G.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the waveguiding properties of high birefringence photonic crystal fibers (HiBi PCF) is evaluated both numerically and experimentally. A fiber design presenting form birefringence induced by two enlarged holes in the innermost ring defining the fiber core is investigated. Numerical results show that modal sensitivity to the applied pressure depends on the diameters of the holes, and can be tailored by independently varying the sizes of the large or small holes. Numerical and experimental results are compared showing excellent agreement. A hydrostatic pressure sensor is proposed and demonstrated using an in-fiber modal interferometer where the two orthogonally polarized modes of a HiBi PCF generate fringes over the optical spectrum of a broad band source. From the analysis of experimental results, it is concluded that, in principle, an operating limit of 92 MPa in pressure could be achieved with 0.0003% of full scale resolution. PMID:22163435

  1. Stem cell homing-based tissue engineering using bioactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinxian; Sun, Binbin; Yi, Chengqing; Mo, Xiumei

    2017-06-01

    Tissue engineering focuses on repairing tissue and restoring tissue functions by employing three elements: scaffolds, cells and biochemical signals. In tissue engineering, bioactive material scaffolds have been used to cure tissue and organ defects with stem cell-based therapies being one of the best documented approaches. In the review, different biomaterials which are used in several methods to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds were explained and show good properties (biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mechanical properties etc.) for cell migration and infiltration. Stem cell homing is a recruitment process for inducing the migration of the systemically transplanted cells, or host cells, to defect sites. The mechanisms and modes of stem cell homing-based tissue engineering can be divided into two types depending on the source of the stem cells: endogenous and exogenous. Exogenous stem cell-based bioactive scaffolds have the challenge of long-term culturing in vitro and for endogenous stem cells the biochemical signal homing recruitment mechanism is not clear yet. Although the stem cell homing-based bioactive scaffolds are attractive candidates for tissue defect therapies, based on in vitro studies and animal tests, there is still a long way before clinical application.

  2. DNA based identification of medicinal materials in Chinese patent medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Dong, Juan; Cui, Xin; Wang, Wei; Yasmeen, Afshan; Deng, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomao; Tang, Zhuo

    2012-12-01

    Chinese patent medicines (CPM) are highly processed and easy to use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The market for CPM in China alone is tens of billions US dollars annually and some of the CPM are also used as dietary supplements for health augmentation in the western countries. But concerns continue to be raised about the legality, safety and efficacy of many popular CPM. Here we report a pioneer work of applying molecular biotechnology to the identification of CPM, particularly well refined oral liquids and injections. What's more, this PCR based method can also be developed to an easy to use and cost-effective visual chip by taking advantage of G-quadruplex based Hybridization Chain Reaction. This study demonstrates that DNA identification of specific Medicinal materials is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed CPM and will assist in monitoring their quality and legality.

  3. N,O-Type Carborane-Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Giner Planas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the synthesis and coordination chemistry of a series of carboranyl ligands containing N,O donors. Such carborane-based ligands are scarcely reported in the literature when compared to other heteroatom-containing donors. The synthetic routes for metal complexes of these N,O-type carborane ligands are summarized and the properties of such complexes are described in detail. Particular attention is paid to the effect that the incorporation of carboranes has into the coordination chemistry of the otherwise carbon-based ligands and the properties of such materials. The reported complexes show a variety of properties such as those used in magnetic, chiroptical, nonlinear optical, catalytic and biomedical applications.

  4. Smart Material-Actuated Flexible Tendon-Based Snake Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiuddin Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A flexible snake robot has better navigation ability compare with the existing electrical motor-based rigid snake robot, due to its excellent bending capability during navigation inside a narrow maze. This paper discusses the modelling, simulation and experiment of a flexible snake robot. The modelling consists of the kinematic analysis and the dynamic analysis of the snake robot. A platform based on the Incompletely Restrained Positioning Mechanism (IRPM is proposed, which uses the external force provided by a compliant flexible beam in each of the actuators. The compliant central column allows the configuration to achieve three degrees of freedom (3DOFs with three tendons. The proposed flexible snake robot has been built using smart material, such as electroactive polymers (EAPs, which can be activated by applying power to it. Finally, the physical prototype of the snake robot has been built. An experiment has been performed in order to justify the proposed model.

  5. High hydrostatic pressure: Can we trust published data?

    OpenAIRE

    Németh Cs.; Castillo L. A.; Horváth F.; Zeke I.; Friedrich L.; Balla Cs.; Németh Z.; Póti P.

    2015-01-01

    There are numerous new technologies whose implementation in food industry is hampered by the fact that people hesitate to invest in expensive systems which they cannot be sure will work or at least are questionable in terms of a given product. Until recently, preservation by HHP, high hydrostatic pressure, was such a technology, and still is today in some branches of the food industry. Investigations were conducted to answer the question of whether the literature, the laboratory, and the indu...

  6. HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE SYSTEMS USE IN FOOD INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya TÜLEK; Gökçe FİLİZAY

    2006-01-01

    Food preservation is a continuous fight against microorganisms spoiling the food or making it unsafe. The last decade, non-thermal inactivation techniques have been a major research issue, driven by an increased consumer demand for nutritious, fresh like food products with a high organoleptical quality and an acceptable shelf life. Investigated inactivation technologies are ionisation radiation, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), pulsed electrical fields, high pressure homogenisation, UV decont...

  7. Fe-based composite materials with improved mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werniewicz, Katarzyna [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Kuehn, Uta; Mattern, Norbert; Eckert, Juergen; Schultz, Ludwig [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Kulik, Tadeusz [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland)

    2008-07-01

    Following a previous study by the authors two new compositions (Fe{sub 89.0}Cr{sub 5.5}Mo{sub 5.5}){sub 91}C{sub 9} and (Fe{sub 89.0}Cr{sub 5.5}Mo{sub 5.5}){sub 83}C{sub 17} have been developed with the aim of improving the ductility of Fe{sub 65.5}Cr{sub 4}Mo{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}P{sub 12}C{sub 5}B{sub 5.5} bulk metallic glass (BMG). In contrast to the alloys in that study, the recently prepared Fe-based materials are Ga-free. It was expected that the variations in the composition will lead to the changes in the phase formation and, hence, in the mechanical response of the investigated alloys. It was recognized that in-situ formed Fe-based composites show superior plasticity ({epsilon}{sub pl}{approx}37%) for the alloy with lower C content and ({epsilon}{sub pl}{approx}4%) for the alloy with higher C content compared to monolithic glass ({epsilon}{sub pl}{approx}0.2%). Furthermore, on the basis of present as well as previous investigations it has been shown that the Ga addition is beneficial for the plasticity of these Fe-based alloys. It was observed that the (Fe{sub 89.0}Cr{sub 5.5}Mo{sub 5.5}){sub 83}C{sub 17} alloy exhibits a significantly smaller fracture strain ({epsilon}{sub f}{approx}5%) compared to its Ga-containing counterpart ({epsilon}{sub f}{approx}16%). Therefore, it can be concluded that appropriate alloying additions are crucial in enhancing the mechanical properties of the complex Fe-based materials developed here.

  8. Corrosion of copper-based materials in gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunker, W.H.

    1986-06-01

    The corrosion behaviors of pure copper (CDA 101), 7% aluminum-copper bronze (CDA 613) and 30% nickel-copper (CDA 715) are being studied in a gamma radiation field of 1 x 10 5 R/h. These studies are in support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project, by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), of copper-based materials for possible use in container systems for the permanent geologic burial of nuclear waste. Weight loss, tear drop (stressed), and crevice specimens of the three materials were exposed to water vapor-air atmospheres at 95 0 C and 150 0 C and to liquid water at 95 0 C for periods of one, three, and six months. Longer exposures are in progress. Measurements include: changes in the chemical composition of the gas and water, specimen weight changes, oxide film weights, evidence of microcracking and crevice corrosion, and chemical composition of the oxide films by Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Interim results show considerable pit and under-film corrosion of alloys CDA 613 and CDA 715. Uniform corrosion rates range from 0.012 mil/yr (0.30 μm/yr) to 0.22 mil/yr (5.6 μm/yr), based on specimen weight losses during six- and seven-month exposures. The time dependencies will be determined as more data become available

  9. Graphene-Based Materials for Stem Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyung Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although graphene and its derivatives have been proven to be suitable for several biomedical applications such as for cancer therapy and biosensing, the use of graphene for stem cell research is a relatively new area that has only recently started to be investigated. For stem cell applications, graphene has been utilized by itself or in combination with other types of materials such as nanoparticles, nanofibers, and polymer scaffolds to take advantage of the several unique properties of graphene, such as the flexibility in size, shape, hydrophilicity, as well as its excellent biocompatibility. In this review, we will highlight a number of previous studies that have investigated the potential of graphene or its derivatives for stem cell applications, with a particular focus on guiding stem cell differentiation into specific lineages (e.g., osteogenesis, neurogenesis, and oligodendrogenesis, promoting stem cell growth, stem cell delivery/transplantation, and effective monitoring of their differentiation. We hope that this review promotes and accelerates the use of graphene-based materials for regenerative therapies, especially for stem cell-based approaches to cure various incurable diseases/disorders such as neurological diseases (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, stroke, spinal cord injuries, bone/cartilage defects, and cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Wood-based composite materials : panel products, glued-laminated timber, structural composite lumber, and wood-nonwood composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Zhiyong Cai; Charles Carll

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the general types and composition of wood-based composite products and the materials and processes used to manufacture them. It describes conventional wood-based composite panels and structural composite materials intended for general construction, interior use, or both. This chapter also describes wood–nonwood composites. Mechanical...

  11. High-pressure crystal structure of elastically isotropic CaTiO3 perovskite under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Ross, Nancy L; Wang, Di; Angel, Ross J

    2011-11-16

    The structural evolution of orthorhombic CaTiO3 perovskite has been studied using high-pressure single-crystal x-ray diffraction under hydrostatic conditions up to 8.1 GPa and under a non-hydrostatic stress field formed in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) up to 4.7 GPa. Under hydrostatic conditions, the TiO6 octahedra become more tilted and distorted with increasing pressure, similar to other 2:4 perovskites. Under non-hydrostatic conditions, the experiments do not show any apparent difference in the internal structural variation from hydrostatic conditions and no additional tilts and distortions in the TiO6 octahedra are observed, even though the lattice itself becomes distorted due to the non-hydrostatic stress. The similarity between the hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic cases can be ascribed to the fact that CaTiO3 perovskite is nearly elastically isotropic and, as a consequence, its deviatoric unit-cell volume strain produced by the non-hydrostatic stress is very small; in other words, the additional octahedral tilts relevant to the extra unit-cell volume associated with the deviatoric unit-cell volume strain may be totally neglected. This study further addresses the role that three factors--the elastic properties, the crystal orientation and the pressure medium--have on the structural evolution of an orthorhombic perovskite loaded in a DAC under non-hydrostatic conditions. The influence of these factors can be clearly visualized by plotting the three-dimensional distribution of the deviatoric unit-cell volume strain in relation to the cylindrical axis of the DAC and indicates that, if the elasticity of a perovskite is nearly isotropic as it is for CaTiO3, the other two factors become relatively insignificant.

  12. High-pressure crystal structure of elastically isotropic CaTiO3 perovskite under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Ross, Nancy L; Wang, Di; Angel, Ross J

    2011-01-01

    The structural evolution of orthorhombic CaTiO 3 perovskite has been studied using high-pressure single-crystal x-ray diffraction under hydrostatic conditions up to 8.1 GPa and under a non-hydrostatic stress field formed in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) up to 4.7 GPa. Under hydrostatic conditions, the TiO 6 octahedra become more tilted and distorted with increasing pressure, similar to other 2:4 perovskites. Under non-hydrostatic conditions, the experiments do not show any apparent difference in the internal structural variation from hydrostatic conditions and no additional tilts and distortions in the TiO 6 octahedra are observed, even though the lattice itself becomes distorted due to the non-hydrostatic stress. The similarity between the hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic cases can be ascribed to the fact that CaTiO 3 perovskite is nearly elastically isotropic and, as a consequence, its deviatoric unit-cell volume strain produced by the non-hydrostatic stress is very small; in other words, the additional octahedral tilts relevant to the extra unit-cell volume associated with the deviatoric unit-cell volume strain may be totally neglected. This study further addresses the role that three factors-the elastic properties, the crystal orientation and the pressure medium-have on the structural evolution of an orthorhombic perovskite loaded in a DAC under non-hydrostatic conditions. The influence of these factors can be clearly visualized by plotting the three-dimensional distribution of the deviatoric unit-cell volume strain in relation to the cylindrical axis of the DAC and indicates that, if the elasticity of a perovskite is nearly isotropic as it is for CaTiO 3 , the other two factors become relatively insignificant. (paper)

  13. Nanostructured carbon materials based electrothermal air pump actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Liu, Luqi; Kuang, Jun; Dai, Zhaohe; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid films as heating elements to transfer electrical stimulus into thermal energy, and finally convert it into mechanical energy. Both the actuation displacement and working temperature of the actuator films show the monotonically increasing trend with increasing driving voltage within the actuation process. Compared with common polymer nanocomposites based electrothermal actuators, our actuators exhibited better actuation performances with a low driving voltage (film actuator due to the intrinsic gas-impermeability nature of graphene platelets. In addition, the high modulus of the r-GO and GO/SWCNT films also guaranteed the large generated stress and high work density. Specifically, the generated stress and gravimetric work density of the GO/SWCNT hybrid film actuator could reach up to more than 50 MPa and 30 J kg-1, respectively, under a driving voltage of 10 V. The resulting stress value is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of natural muscles (~0.4 MPa).Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid films as heating elements to transfer electrical stimulus into thermal energy, and finally convert it into mechanical energy. Both the actuation displacement and working temperature of the actuator films show the monotonically increasing trend with increasing driving voltage within the actuation process. Compared with

  14. Competing hydrostatic compression mechanisms in nickel cyanide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Lucas, T.C. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Cairns, A.B.; Funnell, N.P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Tucker, M.G. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Kleppe, A.K. [Diamond Light Source, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Hriljac, J.A. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Goodwin, A.L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    We use variable-pressure neutron and X-ray diffraction measurements to determine the uniaxial and bulk compressibilities of nickel(II) cyanide, Ni(CN){sub 2}. Whereas other layered molecular framework materials are known to exhibit negative area compressibility, we find that Ni(CN){sub 2} does not. We attribute this difference to the existence of low-energy in-plane tilt modes that provide a pressure-activated mechanism for layer contraction. The experimental bulk modulus we measure is about four times lower than that reported elsewhere on the basis of density functional theory methods [Phys. Rev. B 83 (2011) 024301].

  15. Variable load failure mechanism for high-speed load sensing electro-hydrostatic actuator pump of aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cun SHI

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel transient lubrication model for the analysis of the variable load failure mechanism of high-speed pump used in Load Sensing Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator (LS-EHA. Focusing on the slipper/swashplate pair partial abrasion, which is considered as the dominant failure mode in the high-speed condition, slipper dynamic models are established. A forth sliding motion of the slipper on the swashplate surface is presented under the fact that the slipper center of mass will rotate around the center of piston ball when the swashplate angle is dynamically adjusted. Besides, extra inertial tilting moments will be produced for the slipper based on the theorem on translation of force, which will increase rapidly when LS-EHA pump operates under high-speed condition. Then, a dynamic lubricating model coupling with fluid film thickness field, temperature field and pressure field is proposed. The deformation effects caused by thermal deflection and hydrostatic pressure are considered. A numerical simulation model is established to validate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed model. Finally, based on the load spectrum of aircraft flight profile, the variable load conditions and the oil film characteristics are analyzed, and series of variable load rules of oil film thickness with variable speed/variable pressure/variable displacement are concluded. Keywords: Coupling lubrication model, Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator (EHA, High-speed pump, Partial abrasion, Slipper pair, Variable load

  16. Organic material in clay-based buffer materials and its potential impact on radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilks, P.; Goulard, M.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Haveman, S.A.; Bachinski, D.B.; Hamon, C.J.; Comba, R.

    1997-03-01

    AECL has submitted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel disposal at depth in crystalline rock of the Canadian Shield. In this disposal concept used fuel would be emplaced in corrosion-resistant containers which would be surrounded by clay-based buffer and backfill materials. Once groundwater is able to penetrate the buffer and corrosion-resistant container, radionuclides could be transported from the waste form to the surrounding geosphere, and eventually to the biosphere. The release of radionuclides from the waste form and their subsequent transport would be determined by the geochemistry of the disposal vault and surrounding geosphere. Organic substances affect the geochemistry of radionuclides through complexation reactions that increase solubility and alter mobility, by affecting the redox of certain radionuclides and by providing food for microbes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the buffer and backfill materials proposed for use in a disposal vault contain organics that could be leached by groundwater in large enough quantities to complex with radionuclides and affect their mobility within the disposal vault and surrounding geosphere. Buffer material, made from a mixture of 50 wt.% Avonlea sodium bentonite and 50 wt.% silica sand, was extracted with deionized water to determine the release of dissolved organic carbon, humic acid and fulvic acid. The effect of radiation and heat from the used fuel was simulated by treating samples of buffer before leaching to various amounts of heat (60 deg C and 90 deg C) for periods of 2, 4 and 6 weeks, and to ionizing radiation with doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy. Humic substances were isolated from the leachates to determine the concentrations of humic and fulvic acids and to determine their functional group content by acid-base titrations. The results showed that groundwater would leach significant amounts of organics that would complex with radionuclides such as

  17. Materials interaction tests to identify base and coating materials for an enhanced in-vessel core catcher design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempe, J.L.; Knudson, D.L.; Condie, K.G.; Swank, W.D. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls ID (United States); Cheung, F.B. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, University Park PA (United States); Suh, K.Y. [Seoul National University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Severe Accident Research Project, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    An enhanced in-vessel core catcher is being designed and evaluated, it must ensure In-Vessel Retention of core materials that may relocate under severe accident conditions in advanced reactors. To reduce cost and simplify manufacture and installation, this new core catcher design consists of several interlocking sections that are machined to fit together when inserted into the lower head. If needed, the core catcher can be manufactured with holes to accommodate lower head penetrations. Each section of the core catcher consists of two material layers with an option to add a third layer (if deemed necessary): a base material, which has the capability to support and contain the mass of core materials that may relocate during a severe accident; an insulating oxide coating material on top of the base material, which resists interactions with high-temperature core materials; and an optional coating on the bottom side of the base material to prevent any potential oxidation of the base material during the lifetime of the reactor. Initial evaluations suggest that a thermally-sprayed oxide material is the most promising candidate insulator coating for a core catcher. Tests suggest that 2 coatings can provide adequate protection to a stainless steel core catcher: -) a 500 {mu}m thick zirconium dioxide coating over a 100-200 {mu}m Inconel 718 bond coating, and -) a 500 {mu}m thick magnesium zirconate coating.

  18. The difference in endolymphatic hydrostatic pressure elevation induced by isoproterenol between the ampulla and the cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamoto, Ryuhei; Miyashita, Takenori; Matsubara, Ai; Hoshikawa, Hiroshi; Mori, Nozomu

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the difference in the responses of endolymphatic hydrostatic pressure to isoproterenol, β-adrenergic receptor agonist, between pars superior and pars inferior. The hydrostatic pressure of endolymph and perilymph and endolymphatic potential in the ampulla and the cochlea during the intravenous administration of isoproterenol were recorded using a servo-null system in guinea pigs. The hydrostatic pressure of endolymph and perilymph in the ampulla and cochlea was similar in magnitude. Isoproterenol significantly increased hydrostatic pressure of ampullar and cochlear endolymph and perilymph with no change in the ampullar endolymphatic potential and endocochlear potential, respectively. The isoproterenol-induced maximum change of endolymphatic hydrostatic pressure in ampulla was significantly (phydrostatic pressure in the ampulla disappeared like that in the cochlea. Isoproterenol elevates endolymphatic hydrostatic pressure in different manner between the vestibule and the cochlea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on flow and fracture of a Zr-Ti-Ni-Cu-Be bulk amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowhaphandu, P.; Montgomery, S.L.; Lewandowski, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent successes in producing bulk amorphous alloys have renewed interest in this class of materials. Although amorphous metallic alloys have been shown to exhibit strengths in excess of 2.0 GPa, most of the earlier studies on such materials were conducted on tape or ribbon specimens due to the high cooling rates required to achieve the amorphous structure. The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the flow and fracture behavior of a Zr-Ti-Ni-Cu-Be bulk metallic glass utilizing procedures successfully utilized on a range of structural materials, as reviewed recently. In general, few studies of this type have been conducted on metallic glasses, although thin ribbons (i.e., 300 microm thick) of a Pd-Cu-Si amorphous material tested with superimposed pressure have been reported previously. In particular, the effects of superimposed hydrostatic pressure over levels ranging from 50 MPa to 575 MPa on the flow/fracture behavior of cylindrical tensile specimens were compared to the flow and fracture behavior of identical materials tested in uniaxial tension and compression. It is shown that changes in stress triaxiality, defined as σ m /bar σ, over the range of -0.33 to 0.33 produced a negligible effect on the fracture stress and fracture strain, while the orientation of the macroscopic fracture plane with respect to the loading axis was significantly affected by changes in σ m /bar σ

  20. Development of structural materials on the base of new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, A.F.; Anoshkin, N.F.

    1982-01-01

    Some results are considered and possibilities which discovered in development of structural materials connected with development of such new technological processes as skull melting of titanium alloys, granule metallurgy, hot isostatic, diffusion welding are estimated. The method of skull melting with remelted skull is developed. The method assures sufficient possibilities for dissolving of high-heat components of charge and obtaining homogeneous ingots of series of new alloys. Granule metallurgy based on crystallization of the metal with high rate in the form of small (up to 300 μkm) particles and subsequent consolidation of them into compact billet discoveres a wide possibilities of creation of new structural material with more high operation indexes. It is noted that developed processes of granule production, their treatment, compacting and thermal treatment of the billets assure production of metal of high quality, satisfied the strong requirements of present standards. The process of hot isostatic pressing at which the workable metal is subjected to through uniform pressure by compressed gas after heating or semultaneously with its heating up to the temperatures of working in gasostats is one of new technological processes. A certain experience of the HIP use for production of compact billets from granules for diffusion welding of the billets is accumulated. This process has a great possibilities for densification of shaped castings. Investigation and application of the diffusion welding represent combination of elements into details of complex form in vacuum at the temperatures low of melting point under effect of small pressures are investigated both in our country and abroad. Diffusion welding gives a wide possibilities in the development of materials with higher properties at the expence of production of products of large dimensions from thin elements with fine-grained structure as well as products with assigned gradient of chemical composition, structure

  1. Oxidation of carbon based first wall materials of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moormann, R.R.M.; Hinssen, H.K.; Wu, C.H.

    2001-01-01

    The safety relevance of oxidation reactions on carbon materials in fusion reactors is discussed. Because tritium codeposited in ITER will probably exceed tolerable limits, countermeasures have to be developed: In this paper ozone is tested as oxidising agent for removal of codeposited layers on thick a-C:D-flakes from TEXTOR. In preceeding experiments the advantageous features of using ozonised air instead of ozonised oxygen, reported in literature for reactions with graphite, is not found for nuclear grade graphite. At 185 deg. C = 458 K ozone (0.8-3.4 vol-% in oxygen) is able to gasify the carbon content of these flakes with initial rates, comparable to initial rates in oxygen (21 kPa) for the same material at >200K higher temperatures. The layer reduction rate in ozone drops with increasing burn-off rapidly from about 0.9-2.0 μm/h to 0.20-0.25 μm/h, but in oxygen it drops to zero for all temperatures ≤ 450 deg. C = 723 K, before carbon is completely gasified. Altogether, ozone seems to be a promising oxidising agent for removal of codeposited layers, but further studies are necessary with respect to rate dependence on temperature and ozone concentration even on other kinds of codeposited layers. Further on, the optimum reaction temperature considering the limited thermal stability of ozone has to be found out and studies on the general reaction mechanism have to be done. Besides these examinations on codeposited layers, a short overview on the status of our oxidation studies on different types of fusion relevant C-based materials is given; open problems in this field are outlined. (author)

  2. The effect of hydrostatic vs. shock pressure treatment of plant seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustey, A; Leighs, J A; Appleby, G J; Wood, D C; Hazael, R; McMillan, P F; Hazell, P J

    2014-01-01

    The hydrostatic pressure and shock response of plant seeds has been investigated antecedently, primarily driven by interest in reducing bacterial contamination of crops and the theory of panspermia, respectively. However, comparisons have not previously been made between these two methods ofapplying pressure to plant seeds. Here such a comparison has been undertaken based on the premise that any correlations in collected data may provide a route to inform understanding of damage mechanisms in the seeds under test. In this work two varieties of plant seeds were subjected to hydrostatic pressure via a non-end-loaded piston cylinder setup and shock compression via employment of a 50 mm bore, single stage gas gun using the flyer plate technique. Results from germination tests of recovered seed samples have been compared and contrasted, and initial conclusions made regarding causes of trends in the resultant data-set. Data collected has shown that cress seeds are extremely resilient to static loading, whereas the difference in the two forms of loading is negligible for lettuce seeds. Germination time has been seen to extend dramatically following static loading of cress seeds to greater than 0.4 GPa. In addition, the cut-off pressure previously seen to cause 0% germination in dynamic experiments performed on cress seeds has now also been seen in lettuce seeds.

  3. Exciton states in GaAs δ-doped systems under magnetic fields and hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellín (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-04-15

    Excitons in GaAs n-type δ-doped quantum wells are studied taking into account the effects of externally applied magnetic fields as well as of hydrostatic pressure. The one-dimensional potential profile in both the conduction and valence bands is described including Hartree effects via a Thomas–Fermi-based local density approximation. The allowed uncorrelated energy levels are calculated within the effective mass and envelope function approximations by means of an expansion over an orthogonal set of infinite well eigenfunctions and a variational method is used to obtain the exciton states. The results are presented as functions of the two-dimensional doping concentration and the magnetic field strength for zero and finite values of the hydrostatic pressure. In general, it is found that the exciton binding energy is a decreasing function of the doping-density and an increasing function of the magnetic field intensity. A comparison with recent experiments on exciton-related photoluminescence in n-type δ-doped GaAs is made.

  4. The effect of hydrostatic vs. shock pressure treatment of plant seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustey, A.; Leighs, J. A.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Wood, D. C.; Hazael, R.; McMillan, P. F.; Hazell, P. J.

    2014-05-01

    The hydrostatic pressure and shock response of plant seeds has been investigated antecedently, primarily driven by interest in reducing bacterial contamination of crops and the theory of panspermia, respectively. However, comparisons have not previously been made between these two methods ofapplying pressure to plant seeds. Here such a comparison has been undertaken based on the premise that any correlations in collected data may provide a route to inform understanding of damage mechanisms in the seeds under test. In this work two varieties of plant seeds were subjected to hydrostatic pressure via a non-end-loaded piston cylinder setup and shock compression via employment of a 50 mm bore, single stage gas gun using the flyer plate technique. Results from germination tests of recovered seed samples have been compared and contrasted, and initial conclusions made regarding causes of trends in the resultant data-set. Data collected has shown that cress seeds are extremely resilient to static loading, whereas the difference in the two forms of loading is negligible for lettuce seeds. Germination time has been seen to extend dramatically following static loading of cress seeds to greater than 0.4 GPa. In addition, the cut-off pressure previously seen to cause 0% germination in dynamic experiments performed on cress seeds has now also been seen in lettuce seeds.

  5. The electron mobility and thermoelectric power in InSb at atmospheric and hydrostatic pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litwin-Staszewska, E.; Piotrzkowski, R.; Szymanska, W.

    1981-01-01

    First, theoretical calculations of electron mobility and thermoelectric power in n-type InSb are reported at liquid nitrogen and room temperatures. All the scattering mechanisms of importance in InSb are taken into account. The calculations based upon a variational solution of the Boltzmann equation are compared with experimental results over the whole available range of electron concentrations. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained using the value of deformation potential constant C = 14.6 eV. Secondly, both, experimental and theoretical investigations are made of mobility in InSb under hydrostatic pressure at 77 K within a wide range of electron concentrations. The smallest electron concentrations obtained by freezing the conduction electrons on the metastable states are of order of 1x10 12 cm -3 . Also for those smallest concentration it is possible to describe theoretically the dependence of mobility on the hydrostatic pressure using the same set of parameters as previously, and assuming some compensation of donors by acceptors. (author)

  6. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on yeasts isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaud, Gaëtan; Hué, Nguyen Thi Minh; Arzur, Danielle; Coton, Monika; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Jebbar, Mohamed; Barbier, Georges

    2015-11-01

    Hydrostatic pressure plays a significant role in the distribution of life in the biosphere. Knowledge of deep-sea piezotolerant and (hyper)piezophilic bacteria and archaea diversity has been well documented, along with their specific adaptations to cope with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Recent investigations of deep-sea microbial community compositions have shown unexpected micro-eukaryotic communities, mainly dominated by fungi. Molecular methods such as next-generation sequencing have been used for SSU rRNA gene sequencing to reveal fungal taxa. Currently, a difficult but fascinating challenge for marine mycologists is to create deep-sea marine fungus culture collections and assess their ability to cope with pressure. Indeed, although there is no universal genetic marker for piezoresistance, physiological analyses provide concrete relevant data for estimating their adaptations and understanding the role of fungal communities in the abyss. The present study investigated morphological and physiological responses of fungi to HHP using a collection of deep-sea yeasts as a model. The aim was to determine whether deep-sea yeasts were able to tolerate different HHP and if they were metabolically active. Here we report an unexpected taxonomic-based dichotomic response to pressure with piezosensitve ascomycetes and piezotolerant basidiomycetes, and distinct morphological switches triggered by pressure for certain strains. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of the hydrostatic pressure on the electron mobility in delta-doped systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oubram, O; Mora-Ramos, M E; Gaggero-Sager, L M, E-mail: 1gaggero@uaem.m [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure on the electron states and low-temperature mobility in n-type GaAs delta-doped single quantum wells is studied. Values of hydrostatic pressure consider are below the so-called GAMMA-X crossover, keeping all attention in the electronic properties at the Brillouin zone center. The effect of the pressure on the electron mobility is described via a relative quantity that is proportional to the ratio between P not = 0 and zero pressure results. Calculation is performed using an analytical description of the potential energy function profile, based on the Thomas-Fermi approach, taking explicitly into account the dependence upon P of the main input parameters: effective masses and dielectric constant. The relative mobility increases for higher values of P. The cases of zero and finite -although small- temperature are studied, showing that the influence of T is mainly to lower the values of the relative mobility in the entire range of P considered. Numerical results are reported for a two-dimensional density of ionized impurities equals to 7.5 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}.

  8. Gamma irradiation induced effects of butyl rubber based damping material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Bing; Wang, Pu-Cheng; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Feng-Shun; Ao, Yin-Yong

    2018-04-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the butyl rubber based damping material (BRP) at various doses in nitrogen were investigated in this study. The results show that irradiation leads to radiolysis of BRP, with extractives increasing from 14.9 ± 0.8% of control to 37.2 ± 1.2% of sample irradiated at 350 kGy, while the swelling ratio increasing from 294 ± 3% to 766 ± 4%. The further investigation of the extractives with FTIR shows that the newly generated extractives are organic compounds containing C-H and C˭C bonds, with molecular weight ranging from 26,500 to 46,300. SEM characterization shows smoother surface with holes disappearing with increasing absorbed doses, consistent with "softer" material because of radiolysis. Dynamic mechanical study of BRP show that tan δ first slightly then obviously increases with increasing absorbed dose, while storage modulus slightly decreases. The tensile testing shows that the tensile strength decreases while the elongation at break increases with increasing dose. The positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy show no obvious relations between free volume parameters and the damping properties, indicating the complicated influencing factors of damping properties.

  9. Perovskite-Based Solar Cells: Materials, Methods, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel all-solid-state, hybrid solar cell based on organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbX3 materials has attracted great attention from the researchers all over the world and is considered to be one of the top 10 scientific breakthroughs in 2013. The perovskite materials can be used not only as light-absorbing layer, but also as an electron/hole transport layer due to the advantages of its high extinction coefficient, high charge mobility, long carrier lifetime, and long carrier diffusion distance. The photoelectric power conversion efficiency of the perovskite solar cells has increased from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in 2016, making perovskite solar cells the best potential candidate for the new generation of solar cells to replace traditional silicon solar cells in the future. In this paper, we introduce the development and mechanism of perovskite solar cells, describe the specific function of each layer, and focus on the improvement in the function of such layers and its influence on the cell performance. Next, the synthesis methods of the perovskite light-absorbing layer and the performance characteristics are discussed. Finally, the challenges and prospects for the development of perovskite solar cells are also briefly presented.

  10. A nonlinear CDM based damage growth law for ductile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Abhinav; Priya Ajit, K.; Sarkar, Prabir Kumar

    2018-02-01

    A nonlinear ductile damage growth criterion is proposed based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) approach. The model is derived in the framework of thermodynamically consistent CDM assuming damage to be isotropic. In this study, the damage dissipation potential is also derived to be a function of varying strain hardening exponent in addition to damage strain energy release rate density. Uniaxial tensile tests and load-unload-cyclic tensile tests for AISI 1020 steel, AISI 1030 steel and Al 2024 aluminum alloy are considered for the determination of their respective damage variable D and other parameters required for the model(s). The experimental results are very closely predicted, with a deviation of 0%-3%, by the proposed model for each of the materials. The model is also tested with predictabilities of damage growth by other models in the literature. Present model detects the state of damage quantitatively at any level of plastic strain and uses simpler material tests to find the parameters of the model. So, it should be useful in metal forming industries to assess the damage growth for the desired deformation level a priori. The superiority of the new model is clarified by the deviations in the predictability of test results by other models.

  11. Porous silicon based anode material formed using metal reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Masarapu, Charan; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2015-09-22

    A porous silicon based material comprising porous crystalline elemental silicon formed by reducing silicon dioxide with a reducing metal in a heating process followed by acid etching is used to construct negative electrode used in lithium ion batteries. Gradual temperature heating ramp(s) with optional temperature steps can be used to perform the heating process. The porous silicon formed has a high surface area from about 10 m.sup.2/g to about 200 m.sup.2/g and is substantially free of carbon. The negative electrode formed can have a discharge specific capacity of at least 1800 mAh/g at rate of C/3 discharged from 1.5V to 0.005V against lithium with in some embodiments loading levels ranging from about 1.4 mg/cm.sup.2 to about 3.5 mg/cm.sup.2. In some embodiments, the porous silicon can be coated with a carbon coating or blended with carbon nanofibers or other conductive carbon material.

  12. Hydrostatic control system for the height position of the JINR synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasyutinskij, I.Yu.; Zinov'ev, L.P.; Karpov, I.I.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrostatic system with remote read-out is created for a more operative control of height position of synchrocyclotrone electromagnet. 3 hydrostatic heads with electrocontact registration of liquid level position were mounted on every electromagnet quadrant. The heads are placed under the magnet in centers of survey channel of the foundation and are switched on in series. Teh schemes of the main system units are given. The order of assembling and adjustment of hydrostatic system elements of the accelerator is described

  13. Spintronic materials and devices based on antiferromagnetic metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Y. Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review our recent experimental developments on antiferromagnet (AFM spintronics mainly comprising Mn-based noncollinear AFM metals. IrMn-based tunnel junctions and Hall devices have been investigated to explore the manipulation of AFM moments by magnetic fields, ferromagnetic materials and electric fields. Room-temperature tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance based on IrMn as well as FeMn has been successfully achieved, and electrical control of the AFM exchange spring is realized by adopting ionic liquid. In addition, promising spin-orbit effects in AFM as well as spin transfer via AFM spin waves reported by different groups have also been reviewed, indicating that the AFM can serve as an efficient spin current source. To explore the crucial role of AFM acting as efficient generators, transmitters, and detectors of spin currents is an emerging topic in the field of magnetism today. AFM metals are now ready to join the rapidly developing fields of basic and applied spintronics, enriching this area of solid-state physics and microelectronics.

  14. Hydrostatic pressure in combination with topographical cues affects the fate of bone marrow‐derived human mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Alicia J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Topographical and mechanical cues are vital for cell fate, tissue development in vivo, and to mimic the native cell growth environment in vitro. To date, the combinatory effect of mechanical and topographical cues as not been thoroughly investigated. This study investigates the effect of PCL nanofiber alignment and hydrostatic pressure on stem cell differentiation for bone tissue regeneration. Bone marrow‐derived human mesenchymal stem cells were seeded onto standard tissue culture plastic and electrospun random and aligned nanofibers. These substrates were either cultured statically or subjected to intermittent hydrostatic pressure at 270 kPa, 1 Hz for 60 min daily over 21 days in osteogenic medium. Data revealed higher cell metabolic activities for all mechanically stimulated cell culture formats compared with non‐stimulated controls; and random fibers compared with aligned fibers. Fiber orientation influenced cell morphology and patterns of calcium deposition. Significant up‐regulation of Collagen‐I, ALP, and Runx‐2 were observed for random and aligned fibers following mechanical stimulation; highest levels of osteogenic markers were expressed when hydrostatic pressure was applied to random fibers. These results indicate that fiber alignment and hydrostatic pressure direct stem cell fate and are important stimulus for tissue regeneration. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: A: 629–640, 2018. PMID:28984025

  15. The digital divide in Internet-based patient education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gordon H

    2012-11-01

    The ubiquity of the Internet has led to the widespread availability of health-related information to the public, and the subsequent empowerment of patients has fundamentally altered the patient-physician relationship. Among several concerns of physicians is the possibility that patients may be misinformed by information obtained from the Internet. One opportunity for health care providers to address this problem exists within Internet-based patient education materials (IPEMs). According to recent research in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, IPEMs found within professional otolaryngology websites are written at the 8th- to 18th-grade reading comprehension level, essentially unchanged over the past 3 years. This greatly exceeds the fourth- to sixth-grade reading level recommended by the National Institutes of Health. Benefits, strategies, and challenges to improving the readability of IPEMs are discussed.

  16. Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-09-01

    Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.

  17. Hydrothermal stability of bentonite-based buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.M.; Miller, H.G.

    1985-02-01

    The reactions expected in bentonite-based buffer materials under conditions typical of a nuclear fuel waste disposal include mineral transformations (e.g. smectite to illite; smectite to zeolite) and a range of low-temperature cementation reactions. The probable extent and significance of these reactions are reviewed, and other reactions involving proposed filler sands are also examined briefly. The effects of mineral transformations on buffer performance will be insignificant if disposal vault temperatures do not exceed 100-120 degrees C and pH remains in the range 4 to 8. At pH > 9, zeolitization and silica dissolution may occur and buffer stability cannot be assured. The effects of cementation reactions may be significant, but are difficult to predict and require further investigation

  18. A sensor-based automation system for handling nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.; Kimberly, H.; Wapman, W.; Darras, D.

    1997-01-01

    An automated system is being developed for handling large payloads of radioactive nuclear materials in an analytical laboratory. The automation system performs unpacking and repacking of payloads from shipping and storage containers, and delivery of the payloads to the stations in the laboratory. The system uses machine vision and force/torque sensing to provide sensor-based control of the automation system in order to enhance system safety, flexibility, and robustness, and achieve easy remote operation. The automation system also controls the operation of the laboratory measurement systems and the coordination of them with the robotic system. Particular attention has been given to system design features and analytical methods that provide an enhanced level of operational safety. Independent mechanical gripper interlock and tool release mechanisms were designed to prevent payload mishandling. An extensive Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the automation system was developed as a safety design analysis tool

  19. Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed. (topical review)

  20. Densification and properties of HfB2 based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonber, J.K.; Ch Murthy, T.S.R.; Bedse, R.D.; Subramanian, C.; Kumar, Sunil; Fotedar, R.K.; Krishnamurthy, N.; Suri, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on densification and properties of HfB 2 based materials. Densification study of HfB 2 with and without sinter additive was carried out by hot pressing. TiSi 2 and CrSi 2 were used as sinter additive. Monolithic HfB 2 was densified to only 80%ρ th at 1850 deg C with a pressure of 35 MPa. Addition of 10 wt% TiSi 2 resulted in a density of 95% TD at a relatively low temperature of 1650 deg C and a low pressure of 20 MPa. Addition of 10% CrSi 2 resulted in a density of 99% TD at the same operating conditions. All the samples were characterized by SEM/EDS and mechanical property measurement. (author)

  1. Polymeric Materials for Printed-Based Electroanalytical (BioApplications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cinti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in design of selective interfaces and printed technology have mighty contributed to the expansion of the electroanalysis fame. The real advantage in electroanalytical field is the possibility to manufacture and customize plenty of different sensing platforms, thus avoiding expensive equipment, hiring skilled personnel, and expending economic effort. Growing developments in polymer science have led to further improvements in electroanalytical methods such as sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility, and accuracy. This review provides an overview of the technical procedures that are used in order to establish polymer effectiveness in printed-based electroanalytical methods. Particular emphasis is placed on the development of electronalytical sensors and biosensors, which highlights the diverse role of the polymeric materials depending on their specific application. A wide overview is provided, taking into account the most significant findings that have been reported from 2010 to 2017.

  2. Self Passivating W-based Alloys as Plasma Facing Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.; Koeppl, S.; Bolt, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten (W) is presently the main candidate material for the plasma-facing protection of future fusion power reactors due to the low sputter erosion under bombardment by energetic D, T and He ions. Thus a W-based protection material may provide a wall erosion lifetime of the order of five years which is a pre-requisite for economic fusion reactor operation. A potential problem with the use of pure W in a fusion reactor is the formation of radioactive and highly volatile WO 3 compounds and their potential release under accidental conditions. A loss-of-coolant event in a He-cooled reactor would lead to a temperature rise to 1100 deg. C after approx. 10 to 30 days due to the nuclear decay heat of the in-vessel components. In such a situation additional accidental intense air ingress into the reactor vessel would lead to the formation of WO 3 and subsequent evaporation of radioactive (WO 3 ) x -clusters. The use of self passivating W alloys either as bulk material or as thick coating on the steel wall may be a passively safe alternative for the plasma-facing protection. The use of this material would eliminate the above mentioned concern related to pure W. To enable the formation of a protective film in oxidizing atmosphere which seals the tungsten surface from further oxidation, different elements have been investigated as corrosion protection additives. Therefore binary and ternary tungsten alloys were synthesised using magnetron sputtering. The oxidation behaviour of films deposited on inert substrates was measured with a thermo-balance set up under synthetic air at temperatures up to 1000 deg. C. Binary alloys of W-Si showed good self passivation properties by forming a SiO 2 film at the surface. The oxidation rate of a compound containing 11 wt.% Si was reduced by a factor of 10 2 compared to pure tungsten between 800 deg. C and 1000 deg. C. Using ternary alloys the oxidation behaviour could be further improved. A compound of W

  3. Enhanced Materials Based on Submonolayer Type-II Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamargo, Maria C [City College of New York, NY (United States); Kuskovsky, Igor L. [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States) Queens College; Meriles, Carlos [City College of New York, NY (United States); Noyan, Ismail C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2017-04-15

    We have investigated a nanostructured material known as sub-monolayer type-II QDs, made from wide bandgap II-VI semiconductors. Our goal is to understand and exploit their tunable optical and electrical properties by taking advantage of the type-II band alignment and quantum confinement effects. Type-II ZnTe quantum dots (QDs) in a ZnSe host are particularly interesting because of their relatively large valence band and conduction band offsets. In the current award we have developed new materials based on sub-monolayer type-II QDs that may be advantageous for photovoltaic and spintronics applications. We have also expanded the structural characterization of these materials by refining the X-ray diffraction methodologies needed to investigate them. In particular, we have 1) demonstrated ZnCdTe/ZnCdSe type-II QDs materials that have ideal properties for the development of novel high efficiency “intermediate band solar cells”, 2) we developed a comprehensive approach to describe and model the growth of these ultra-small type-II QDs, 3) analysis of the evolution of the photoluminescence (PL) emission, combined with other characterization probes allowed us to predict the size and density of the QDs as a function of the growth conditions, 4) we developed and implemented novel sophisticated X-ray diffraction techniques from which accurate size and shape of the buried type-II QDs could be extracted, 5) a correlation of the shape anisotropy with polarization dependent PL was observed, confirming the QDs detailed shape and providing insight about the effects of this shape anisotropy on the physical properties of the type-II QD systems, and 6) a detailed “time-resolved Kerr rotation” investigation has led to the demonstration of enhanced electron spin lifetimes for the samples with large densities of type-II QDs and an understanding of the interplay between the QDs and Te-isoelectroic centers, a defect that forms in the spacer layers that separate the QDs.

  4. Carbon superfine materials as a promising material for Gluconobacter oxydans based microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenchurin, Timur K.; Reshetilov, Anatoly N.; Plekhanova, Yuliya V.; Tarasov, Sergey E.; Bykov, Aleksandr G.; Gutorov, Michail A.; Alferov, Sergey V.; Chvalun, Sergei N.; Orekhov, Anton S.; Shepelev, Alexey D.; Gotovtsev, Pavel M.; Vasilov, Raif G.

    2018-02-01

    We have investigated the properties of a several bioelectrodes based on the immobilization of Gluconobacter oxydans bacterial cells on carbon superfine materials (CFMs). We use three types of CFMs (as adopted by the working classification CFM 1-3). All bioelectrodes was formed by covering the surface of the CFM via suspension of bacteria in a chitosan gel. The properties of samples are evaluated by measuring the physiological state of the bacteria immobilized: (a) recording the intensity of cellular respiration, (b) for measuring the charge transport characteristics of electrode (bioelectrocatalysis), and (c) by measuring the electrode impedance. Measurements (b) and (c) are made on two and three-electrode circuits in the oxidation of ethanol in the presence of 2,6-dichlorophenol electron transport mediator. For CFMs 1 and 2 the electron transport by the oxidation of the substrate is not registered, while for CFM 3 the current generation occurs. The resistance of CFM 3 bioelectrode is below the resistance of CFMs 1 and 2 both before (39.6 kΩ/cm2 for CFM 3, 630 Ω/cm2 for CFM 2, and 1329 Ω/cm2 for CFM 1) and after the addition of the substrate (2.9 kΩ/cm2 for CFM 3, 45 kΩ/cm2 for CFM 2, and 58 kΩ/cm2 for CFM 1). The bioelectrode made of CFM 3 has a capacitance of 196 μF/cm2—greater than two orders of magnitude of the bioelectrode capacity of CFMs 1 and 2 (0.51 and 0.58 μF/cm2, respectively). It is important to further study the properties of the CFM class of materials, which are promising as the basis of mechanically flexible electrodes with controlled parameters.

  5. Predictive Multiscale Modeling of Nanocellulose Based Materials and Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, Andriy

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose Nanocrysals (CNC) is a renewable biodegradable biopolymer with outstanding mechanical properties made from highly abundant natural source, and therefore is very attractive as reinforcing additive to replace petroleum-based plastics in biocomposite materials, foams, and gels. Large-scale applications of CNC are currently limited due to its low solubility in non-polar organic solvents used in existing polymerization technologies. The solvation properties of CNC can be improved by chemical modification of its surface. Development of effective surface modifications has been rather slow because extensive chemical modifications destabilize the hydrogen bonding network of cellulose and deteriorate the mechanical properties of CNC. We employ predictive multiscale theory, modeling, and simulation to gain a fundamental insight into the effect of CNC surface modifications on hydrogen bonding, CNC crystallinity, solvation thermodynamics, and CNC compatibilization with the existing polymerization technologies, so as to rationally design green nanomaterials with improved solubility in non-polar solvents, controlled liquid crystal ordering and optimized extrusion properties. An essential part of this multiscale modeling approach is the statistical- mechanical 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation, coupled with quantum mechanics, molecular mechanics, and multistep molecular dynamics simulation. The 3D-RISM-KH theory provides predictive modeling of both polar and non-polar solvents, solvent mixtures, and electrolyte solutions in a wide range of concentrations and thermodynamic states. It properly accounts for effective interactions in solution such as steric effects, hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity, hydrogen bonding, salt bridges, buffer, co-solvent, and successfully predicts solvation effects and processes in bulk liquids, solvation layers at solid surface, and in pockets and other inner spaces of macromolecules and supramolecular assemblies. This methodology

  6. Predictive Multiscale Modeling of Nanocellulose Based Materials and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Andriy

    2014-08-01

    Cellulose Nanocrysals (CNC) is a renewable biodegradable biopolymer with outstanding mechanical properties made from highly abundant natural source, and therefore is very attractive as reinforcing additive to replace petroleum-based plastics in biocomposite materials, foams, and gels. Large-scale applications of CNC are currently limited due to its low solubility in non-polar organic solvents used in existing polymerization technologies. The solvation properties of CNC can be improved by chemical modification of its surface. Development of effective surface modifications has been rather slow because extensive chemical modifications destabilize the hydrogen bonding network of cellulose and deteriorate the mechanical properties of CNC. We employ predictive multiscale theory, modeling, and simulation to gain a fundamental insight into the effect of CNC surface modifications on hydrogen bonding, CNC crystallinity, solvation thermodynamics, and CNC compatibilization with the existing polymerization technologies, so as to rationally design green nanomaterials with improved solubility in non-polar solvents, controlled liquid crystal ordering and optimized extrusion properties. An essential part of this multiscale modeling approach is the statistical- mechanical 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation, coupled with quantum mechanics, molecular mechanics, and multistep molecular dynamics simulation. The 3D-RISM-KH theory provides predictive modeling of both polar and non-polar solvents, solvent mixtures, and electrolyte solutions in a wide range of concentrations and thermodynamic states. It properly accounts for effective interactions in solution such as steric effects, hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity, hydrogen bonding, salt bridges, buffer, co-solvent, and successfully predicts solvation effects and processes in bulk liquids, solvation layers at solid surface, and in pockets and other inner spaces of macromolecules and supramolecular assemblies. This methodology

  7. Induction of Shiga Toxin-Converting Prophage in Escherichia coli by High Hydrostatic Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Aertsen, Abram; Faster, David; Michiels, Chris W.

    2005-01-01

    Since high hydrostatic pressure is becoming increasingly important in modern food preservation, its potential effects on microorganisms need to be thoroughly investigated. In this context, mild pressures (

  8. The numerics of hydrostatic structured-grid coastal ocean models: State of the art and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, Knut; Lemarié, Florian; Debreu, Laurent; Burchard, Hans

    2018-05-01

    The state of the art of the numerics of hydrostatic structured-grid coastal ocean models is reviewed here. First, some fundamental differences in the hydrodynamics of the coastal ocean, such as the large surface elevation variation compared to the mean water depth, are contrasted against large scale ocean dynamics. Then the hydrodynamic equations as they are used in coastal ocean models as well as in large scale ocean models are presented, including parameterisations for turbulent transports. As steps towards discretisation, coordinate transformations and spatial discretisations based on a finite-volume approach are discussed with focus on the specific requirements for coastal ocean models. As in large scale ocean models, splitting of internal and external modes is essential also for coastal ocean models, but specific care is needed when drying & flooding of intertidal flats is included. As one obvious characteristic of coastal ocean models, open boundaries occur and need to be treated in a way that correct model forcing from outside is transmitted to the model domain without reflecting waves from the inside. Here, also new developments in two-way nesting are presented. Single processes such as internal inertia-gravity waves, advection and turbulence closure models are discussed with focus on the coastal scales. Some overview on existing hydrostatic structured-grid coastal ocean models is given, including their extensions towards non-hydrostatic models. Finally, an outlook on future perspectives is made.

  9. Theoretical backgrounds of non-tempered materials production based on new raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesovik, V. S.; Volodchenko, A. A.; Glagolev, E. S.; Chernysheva, N. V.; Lashina, I. V.; Feduk, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    One of the trends in construction material science is development and implementation of highly effective finish materials which improve architectural exterior of cities. Silicate materials widely-used in the construction today have rather low decorative properties. Different coloring agents are used in order to produce competitive materials, but due to the peculiarities of the production, process very strict specifications are applied to them. The use of industrial wastes or variety of rock materials as coloring agents is of great interest nowadays. The article shows that clay rock can be used as raw material in production of finish materials of non-autoclaved solidification. This raw material due to its material composition actively interacts with cementing component in steam treatment at 90–95 °C with formation of cementing joints that form a firm coagulative-cristalized and crystallization structure of material providing high physic-mechanical properties of silicate goods. It is determined that energy-saving, colored finish materials with compression strength up to 16 MPa can be produced from clay rocks.

  10. Analysis of carbon based materials under fusion relevant thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compan, Jeremie Saint-Helene

    2008-01-01

    Carbon based materials (CBMs) are used in fusion devices as plasma facing materials for decades. They have been selected due to the inherent advantages of carbon for fusion applications. The main ones are its low atomic number and the fact that it does not melt but sublimate (above 3000 C) under the planned working conditions. In addition, graphitic materials retain their mechanical properties at elevated temperatures and their thermal shock resistance is one of the highest, making them suitable for thermal management purpose during long or extremely short heat pulses. Nuclear grade fine grain graphite was the prime form of CBM which was set as a standard but when it comes to large fusion devices created nowadays, thermo-mechanical constraints created during transient heat loads (few GW.m-2 can be deposited in few ms) are so high that carbon/carbon composites (so-called Carbon Fiber Composites (CFCs)) have to be utilized. CFCs can achieve superior thermal conductivity as well as mechanical properties than fine grain graphite. However, all the thermo-mechanical properties of CFCs are highly dependent on the loading direction as a consequence of the graphite structure. In this work, the background on the anisotropy of the graphitic structures but also on the production of fine grain graphite and CFCs is highlighted, showing the major principles which are relevant for the further understanding of the study. Nine advanced CBMs were then compared in terms of microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. Among them, two fine grain graphites were considered as useful reference materials to allow comparing advantages reached by the developed CFCs. The presented microstructural investigation methods permitted to make statements which can be applied for CFCs presenting similarities in terms of fiber architecture. Determination of the volumetric percentage of the major sub-units of CFCs, i.e. laminates, felt layers or needled fiber groups, lead to a better understanding on

  11. Experimental investigations of piping phenomena in bentonite based buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Asano, H.; Kobayashi, I.; Sellin, P.; Svemar, C.; Holmqvist, M.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Formation of channels in a clay based buffer material is often referred to as 'piping'. Piping is likely to occur in bentonite based buffer materials in a fractured host rock during the early evolution of the repository when strong hydraulic gradients are present. After water saturation of the repository and reestablishment of the hydraulic gradients piping will not be an issue. However, piping in the early phase may still have implications for long-term performance: 1. if the pipes fail to close there may be remaining conductive pathways in the engineered barrier, and 2. piping may lead to erosion or redistribution of material which needs to be taken into account in the long-term performance assessment. This means that the piping process may affect requirements on rock characterization, water inflow and water management during the installation phase, buffer material properties and buffer installation methodology. As a part of the 'Bentonite re-saturation' program, RWMC has initiated and performed studies of the piping process. The main objectives of the studies are to answer: 1. Under what conditions can pipes form? 2. How do pipes evolve with time? 3. When and how do pipes close/reseal? 4. How does piping affect the buffer properties? 5. How much mass can be lost by erosion? The answers will be used in the development of the requirements stated above as well as input to long term performance assessments. overview of the experiment Test apparatuses were manufactured for investigation of the piping phenomena, see Figure 1. The apparatuses have drainage gutter to prevent clogging to take place with eroded material, and to keep an advection field around specimens. There is also a storage chamber for eroded material on the apparatuses. In the investigation, specimens of bentonite block and pellets were used. The block specimen consisted of a mixture of Japanese Na type bentonite, termed Kunigel V1, and 30 wt% silica

  12. Subscale Water Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental heat rejection devices are required in many spacecraft as the radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demand. One means of obtaining additional heat rejection is through the use of phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HX's). PCM HX's utilize phase change to store energy in unfavorable thermal environments (melting) and reject the energy in favorable environments (freezing). Traditionally, wax has been used as a PCM on spacecraft. However, water is an attractive alternative because it is capable of storing about 40% more energy per unit mass due to its higher latent heat of fusion. The significant problem in using water as a PCM is its expansion while freezing, leading to structural integrity concerns when housed in an enclosed heat exchanger volume. Significant investigation and development has taken place over the past five years to understand and overcome the problems associated with water PCM HX's. This paper reports on the final efforts by Johnson Space Center's Thermal Systems Branch to develop a water based PCM HX. The test article developed and reported on is a subscale version of the full-scale water-based PCM HX's constructed by Mezzo Technologies. The subscale unit was designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation and previous full-scale water PCM HX development. Design modifications to the subscale unit included use of urethane bladder, decreased aspect ratio, perforated protection sheet, and use of additional mid-plates. Testing of the subscale unit was successful and 150 cycles were completed without fail.

  13. Photonic devices based on black phosphorus and related hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitiello, M.S.; Viti, L.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial semiconductor heterostructures played a pivotal role in modern electronic and photonic technologies, providing a highly effective means for the manipulation and control of carriers, from the visible to the far-infrared, leading to the development of highly efficient devices like sources, detectors and modulators. The discovery of graphene and the related fascinating capabilities have triggered an unprecedented interest in devices based on inorganic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Amongst them, black phosphorus (BP) recently showed an extraordinary potential in a variety of applications across micro-electronics and photonics. With an energy gap between the gapless graphene and the larger gap transition metal dichalcogenides, BP can form the basis for a new generation of high-performance photonic devices that could be specifically engineered to comply with different applications, like transparent saturable absorbers, fast photocounductive switches and low noise photodetectors, exploiting its peculiar electrical, thermal and optical anisotropy. This paper will review the latest achievements in black-phosphorus–based THz photonics and discuss future perspectives of this rapidly developing research field.

  14. The potential of organic polymer-based hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Peter M; Butler, Anna; Selbie, James; Mahmood, Khalid; McKeown, Neil B; Ghanem, Bader; Msayib, Kadhum; Book, David; Walton, Allan

    2007-04-21

    The challenge of storing hydrogen at high volumetric and gravimetric density for automotive applications has prompted investigations into the potential of cryo-adsorption on the internal surface area of microporous organic polymers. A range of Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity (PIMs) has been studied, the best PIM to date (a network-PIM incorporating a triptycene subunit) taking up 2.7% H(2) by mass at 10 bar/77 K. HyperCrosslinked Polymers (HCPs) also show promising performance as H(2) storage materials, particularly at pressures >10 bar. The N(2) and H(2) adsorption behaviour at 77 K of six PIMs and a HCP are compared. Surface areas based on Langmuir plots of H(2) adsorption at high pressure are shown to provide a useful guide to hydrogen capacity, but Langmuir plots based on low pressure data underestimate the potential H(2) uptake. The micropore distribution influences the form of the H(2) isotherm, a higher concentration of ultramicropores (pore size <0.7 nm) being associated with enhanced low pressure adsorption.

  15. Towards highly sensitive strain sensing based on nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Dzung Viet; Nakamura, Koichi; Sugiyama, Susumu; Bui, Tung Thanh; Dau, Van Thanh; Yamada, Takeo; Hata, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents our recent theoretical and experimental study of piezo-effects in nanostructured materials for highly sensitive, high resolution mechanical sensors. The piezo-effects presented here include the piezoresistive effect in a silicon nanowire (SiNW) and single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin film, as well as the piezo-optic effect in a Si photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity. Firstly, the electronic energy band structure of the silicon nanostructure is discussed and simulated by using the First-Principles Calculations method. The result showed a remarkably different energy band structure compared with that of bulk silicon. This difference in the electronic state will result in different physical, chemical, and therefore, sensing properties of silicon nanostructures. The piezoresistive effects of SiNW and SWCNT thin film were investigated experimentally. We found that, when the width of ( 110 ) p-type SiNW decreases from 500 to 35 nm, the piezoresistive effect increases by more than 60%. The longitudinal piezoresistive coefficient of SWCNT thin film was measured to be twice that of bulk p-type silicon. Finally, theoretical investigations of the piezo-optic effect in a PhC nanocavity based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) showed extremely high resolution strain sensing. These nanostructures were fabricated based on top-down nanofabrication technology. The achievements of this work are significant for highly sensitive, high resolution and miniaturized mechanical sensors

  16. PEDOT-based composites as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhiheng; Richardson, Georgia F; Meng, Qingshi; Ma, Jun; Zhu, Shenmin; Kuan, Hsu-Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (denoted PEDOT) already has a brief history of being used as an active material in supercapacitors. It has many advantages such as low-cost, flexibility, and good electrical conductivity and pseudocapacitance. However, the major drawback is low stability, which means an obvious capacitance drop after a certain number of charge–discharge cycles. Another disadvantage is its limited capacitance and this becomes an issue for industrial applications. To solve these problems, there are several approaches including the addition of conducting nanofillers to increase conductivity, and mixing or depositing metal oxide to enhance capacitance. Furthermore, expanding the surface area of PEDOT is one of the main methods to improve its performance in energy storage applications through special processes; for example using a three-dimensional substrate or preparing PEDOT aerogel through freeze drying. This paper reviews recent techniques and outcomes of PEDOT based composites for supercapacitors, as well as detailed calculations about capacitances. Finally, this paper outlines the new direction and recent challenges of PEDOT based composites for supercapacitor applications. (topical review)

  17. Characterization techniques for graphene-based materials in catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maocong Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-based materials have been studied in a wide range of applications including catalysis due to the outstanding electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties. The unprecedented features of graphene-based catalysts, which are believed to be responsible for their superior performance, have been characterized by many techniques. In this article, we comprehensively summarized the characterization methods covering bulk and surface structure analysis, chemisorption ability determination, and reaction mechanism investigation. We reviewed the advantages/disadvantages of different techniques including Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS, atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM. The application of temperature-programmed reduction (TPR, CO chemisorption, and NH3/CO2-temperature-programmed desorption (TPD was also briefly introduced. Finally, we discussed the challenges and provided possible suggestions on choosing characterization techniques. This review provides key information to catalysis community to adopt suitable characterization techniques for their research.

  18. Development of polylactic acid-based materials through reactive modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlks, Alison Camille

    2009-12-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA)-based systems have shown to be of great potential for the development of materials requiring biobased content, biodegradation, and sufficient properties. The efforts in this study are directed toward addressing the current research need to overcome some of the inherent drawbacks of PLA. To meet this need, reactive extrusion was employed to develop new materials based on PLA by grafting, compounding, and polymer blending. In the first part of this work, maleic anhydride (MA) was grafted onto PLA by reactive extrusion. Two structurally different peroxides were used to initiate grafting and results were reported on the basis of grafting, molecular weight, and thermal behavior. An inverse relationship between degree of grafting and molecular weight was established. It was also found that, regardless of peroxide type, there is an optimum peroxid-to-MA ratio of 0.5:2 that promotes maximum grafting, beyond which degradation reactions become predominant. Overall, it was found that the maleated copolymer (MAPLA) could be used as an interfacial modifier in PLA-based composites. Therefore, MAPLA was incorporated into PLA-talc composites in varying concentrations. The influence of the MAPLA addition on the mechanical and thermal behavior was investigated. When added in an optimum concentration, MAPLA improved the tensile strength and crystallization of the composite. Furthermore, microscopic observation confirmed the compatibilization effect of MAPLA in PLA-talc composites. Vinyltrimethoxysilane was free-radically grafted onto the backbone of PLA and subsequently moisture crosslinked. The effects of monomer, initiator, and catalyst concentration on the degree of crosslinking and the mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The presence of a small amount of catalyst showed to be a major contributor to the crosslinking formation in the time frame investigated, shown by an increase in gel content and decrease in crystallinity. Furthermore

  19. Silk fibroin based antibacterial bionanotextiles as wound dressing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çalamak, Semih [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Hacettepe University, Department of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Erdoğdu, Ceren; Özalp, Meral [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Ulubayram, Kezban, E-mail: ukezban@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Hacettepe University, Department of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-10-01

    New applications for medical biotextiles have been identified with the development of nanotechnological manufacturing technologies. Combination of nanotechnology and biotextile technology has resulted into a new field called bionanotextiles. Bionanotextiles are used in many areas which include wound dressings, bandages and tissue scaffolds. Silk fibroin (SF) from the cocoon of Bombyx mori, is one of the most favorable wound dressing materials due to its unique properties including biocompatibility, permeability, biodegradability, morphologic flexibility, and proper mechanical properties. The modification of antimicrobial properties of SFs can provide a barrier for bacterial penetration as wound dressing materials. In the present study, antibacterial polyethylenimine (PEI) (10, 20 and 30% (w/w)) was blended with SF and bionanotextiles were successfully fabricated by electrospinning. In addition, silk fibroin nanofibers were also functionalized with sulphate group in order to test whether they exhibit an antibacterial activity or not. Fibroin based bionanotextiles were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The cytotoxicity evaluations were carried out by L929 fibroblasts with MTT assay. The indirect cytotoxicity results demonstrate that all fibroin and PEI/fibroin extracts have no cytotoxicity on L929 cancer cell line. PEI/fibroin bionanotextiles showed strong antibacterial activities against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa. - Highlights: • Bionanotextiles are combination of nanotechnology and biotextile technology. • Bionanotextiles have good antibacterial activity against both of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. • Antibacterial bionanotextiles are applicable to most of the infected wounds. • No cytotoxicity was observed on L929 cell line.

  20. Silk fibroin based antibacterial bionanotextiles as wound dressing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çalamak, Semih; Erdoğdu, Ceren; Özalp, Meral; Ulubayram, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    New applications for medical biotextiles have been identified with the development of nanotechnological manufacturing technologies. Combination of nanotechnology and biotextile technology has resulted into a new field called bionanotextiles. Bionanotextiles are used in many areas which include wound dressings, bandages and tissue scaffolds. Silk fibroin (SF) from the cocoon of Bombyx mori, is one of the most favorable wound dressing materials due to its unique properties including biocompatibility, permeability, biodegradability, morphologic flexibility, and proper mechanical properties. The modification of antimicrobial properties of SFs can provide a barrier for bacterial penetration as wound dressing materials. In the present study, antibacterial polyethylenimine (PEI) (10, 20 and 30% (w/w)) was blended with SF and bionanotextiles were successfully fabricated by electrospinning. In addition, silk fibroin nanofibers were also functionalized with sulphate group in order to test whether they exhibit an antibacterial activity or not. Fibroin based bionanotextiles were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The cytotoxicity evaluations were carried out by L929 fibroblasts with MTT assay. The indirect cytotoxicity results demonstrate that all fibroin and PEI/fibroin extracts have no cytotoxicity on L929 cancer cell line. PEI/fibroin bionanotextiles showed strong antibacterial activities against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa. - Highlights: • Bionanotextiles are combination of nanotechnology and biotextile technology. • Bionanotextiles have good antibacterial activity against both of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. • Antibacterial bionanotextiles are applicable to most of the infected wounds. • No cytotoxicity was observed on L929 cell line