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Sample records for based lung cancer

  1. Smoking habits in lung cancer patients: a hospital based case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective, hospital based case-control study was designed to investigate the cigarette smoking history, the relationship between cigarette smoking and the risk of lung cancer in KHMC-Jordan. Six hundred cases with lung cancer (576 males, 24 females) and 600 controls were included in the study. The majority of ...

  2. Screening and Biosensor-Based Approaches for Lung Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of lung cancer helps to reduce the cancer death rate significantly. Over the years, investigators worldwide have extensively investigated many screening modalities for lung cancer detection, including computerized tomography, chest X-ray, positron emission tomography, sputum cytology, magnetic resonance imaging and biopsy. However, these techniques are not suitable for patients with other pathologies. Developing a rapid and sensitive technique for early diagnosis of lung cancer is urgently needed. Biosensor-based techniques have been recently recommended as a rapid and cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of lung tumor markers. This paper reviews the recent development in screening and biosensor-based techniques for early lung cancer detection.

  3. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  4. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  5. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust Exposure to radon gas Family history of lung cancer ...

  7. Screening and Biosensor-Based Approaches for Lung Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Lulu Wang

    2017-01-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer helps to reduce the cancer death rate significantly. Over the years, investigators worldwide have extensively investigated many screening modalities for lung cancer detection, including computerized tomography, chest X-ray, positron emission tomography, sputum cytology, magnetic resonance imaging and biopsy. However, these techniques are not suitable for patients with other pathologies. Developing a rapid and sensitive technique for early diagnosis of lung cance...

  8. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  9. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  10. MiRNA-based Therapeutics for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Miaowei; Wang, Guosheng; Tian, Wei; Deng, Yongchuan; Xu, Yibing

    2018-02-12

    miRNA, a small non-coding RNA molecule containing about 22 nucleotides, functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. With these qualities, miRNAs modulate multiple signaling pathways involved in cancer development, such as cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. The goal of this review is to discuss possible miRNAs-based therapeutic strategies, through defining performance of miRNAs in carcinogenesis, in particular in lung cancer. miRNA, a non-coding RNA, is divided into two main types: tumor suppressor miRNAs and oncogenic miRNAs. In addition, special processed miRNAs can be an assistant therapeutic tool. In order to develope antitumor therapy, miRNAs-based therapeutic strategies are worth of deeper studies. In this process, the stability, effectiveness, and side effects should be considered. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxi...... II trials, but results from large phase III trials are necessary in order to measure the impact of these new agents in the management of NSCLC. Major improvements of therapy for mesothelioma have not occurred within the last year....

  12. Lung Cancer Precision Medicine Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with lung cancer are benefiting from the boom in targeted and immune-based therapies. With a series of precision medicine trials, NCI is keeping pace with the rapidly changing treatment landscape for lung cancer.

  13. Mass Spectrometry–based Proteomic Profiling of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Sebahat; Chaurand, Pierre; Massion, Pierre P.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to further our understanding of lung cancer biology and to identify new candidate biomarkers to be used in the management of lung cancer, we need to probe these tissues and biological fluids with tools that address the biology of lung cancer directly at the protein level. Proteins are responsible of the function and phenotype of cells. Cancer cells express proteins that distinguish them from normal cells. Proteomics is defined as the study of the proteome, the complete set of proteins produced by a species, using the technologies of large-scale protein separation and identification. As a result, new technologies are being developed to allow the rapid and systematic analysis of thousands of proteins. The analytical advantages of mass spectrometry (MS), including sensitivity and high-throughput, promise to make it a mainstay of novel biomarker discovery to differentiate cancer from normal cells and to predict individuals likely to develop or recur with lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the progress made in clinical proteomics as it applies to the management of lung cancer. We will focus our discussion on how MS approaches may advance the areas of early detection, response to therapy, and prognostic evaluation. PMID:19349484

  14. Lung cancer in Northern Portugal: A hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol, V; Parente, B; Araújo, A; Cunha, J; Fernandes, A; Figueiredo, M M; Neveda, R; Soares, M; João, F; Queiroga, H

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer worldwide. In Portugal, the disease remains the main cause of cancer death in males. This study aims to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of lung cancer patients diagnosed and treated in northern Portugal hospitals from 2000 to 2010. Twelve hospitals in the north of Portugal contributed to this study. The demographic and clinic characteristics of the patients registered in each hospital from 2000 to 2010 and the patterns of their occurrence were analyzed. During an 11-year period (2000-2010), 9767 lung cancer patients were registered in the participating hospitals. Comparing the number of the patients registered in the year 2000 to those registered during 2010, there was a significant increase in lung cancer cases. Females represent only 20% of the total registered lung cancer cases; however, during the study period, the number of female patients increased by 30%. A significant number of the patients, 3117 (48.6%), had poor performance status at presentation. The adenocarcinoma histology became more preponderant over the study period. Most of the patients were diagnosed as stages IIIB or IV: 7206 of 9267 (77.8%). Chemotherapy was the treatment of choice for 3529 (40.4%) patients, whereas surgical treatment was achieved in 1301 (14.9%) cases. A significant number of lung cancer patients have been diagnosed and treated in hospitals in northern Portugal, and the incidence of the disease among females has been increasing. The overwhelming majority of the tumors were diagnosed in advanced stage; nevertheless, surgical treatment was possible in 14.9% of the patients. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Community-Based Multidisciplinary Computed Tomography Screening Program Improves Lung Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel L; Mayfield, William R; Luu, Theresa D; Helms, Gerald A; Muster, Alan R; Beckler, Vickie J; Cann, Aaron

    2016-05-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Overall survival is less than 20%, with the majority of patients presenting with advanced disease. The National Lung Screening Trial, performed mainly in academic medical centers, showed that cancer mortality can be reduced with computed tomography (CT) screening compared with chest radiography in high-risk patients. To determine whether this survival advantage can be duplicated in a community-based multidisciplinary thoracic oncology program, we initiated a CT scan screening program for lung cancer within an established health care system. In 2008, we launched a lung cancer CT screening program within the WellStar Health System (WHS) consisting of five hospitals, three health parks, 140 outpatient medical offices, and 12 imaging centers that provide care in a five-county area of approximately 1.4 million people in Metro-Atlanta. Screening criteria incorporated were the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (2008 to 2010) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines (2011 to 2013) for moderate- and high-risk patients. A total of 1,267 persons underwent CT lung cancer screening in WHS from 2008 through 2013; 53% were men, 87% were 50 years of age or older, and 83% were current or former smokers. Noncalcified indeterminate pulmonary nodules were found in 518 patients (41%). Thirty-six patients (2.8%) underwent a diagnostic procedure for positive findings on their CT scan; 30 proved to have cancer, 28 (2.2%) primary lung cancer and 2 metastatic cancer, and 6 had benign disease. Fourteen patients (50%) had their lung cancer discovered on their initial CT scan, 11 on subsequent scans associated with indeterminate pulmonary nodules growth and 3 patients who had a new indeterminate pulmonary nodules. Only 15 (54%) of these 28 patients would have qualified as a National Lung Screening Trial high-risk patient; 75% had stage I or II disease. Overall 5-year survival was 64% and 5-year

  16. Predictive Accuracy of the PanCan Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Model -External Validation based on CT from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wille, M.M.W.; Riel, S.J. van; Saghir, Z.; Dirksen, A.; Pedersen, J.H.; Jacobs, C.; Thomsen, L.H.u.; Scholten, E.T.; Skovgaard, L.T.; Ginneken, B. van

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer risk models should be externally validated to test generalizability and clinical usefulness. The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) is a population-based prospective cohort study, used to assess the discriminative performances of the PanCan models.From the DLCST database, 1,152

  17. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience complications from follow-up tests. For this reason, lung cancer screening is offered to people who are in ... is more likely to be cancerous. For that reason, you might be referred to a lung ... problems. Your lung cancer screening test may detect other lung and heart ...

  18. Integration of Anatomic and Pathogenetic Bases for Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    means clustering was then applied to the segmented image. K=2 with one cluster for the lung field and the other for the soft tissues and bones . Only...Yang YB, and others. Lung cancer cell identification based on artificial neural network ensembles. Artif Intell Med (Artificial intelligence in medicine

  19. Lung Cancer: Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Timothy F

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer management that is individualized for age, comorbidities, cancer type, cancer stage, and patient preference has long been a cornerstone of management. New to this realm of individualized management are the emerging biologic therapies, immunotherapies, and targeted therapies for non-small-cell lung cancer provided by advances in genetics and molecular medicine. These techniques have led to a new field of precision medicine based on the unique molecular characteristics of a specific patient and the specific cancer. However, standard management including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy remains the most common management options for stage I through III lung cancers. Advancements in precision medicine are most relevant to patients with stage IV (ie, metastatic) lung cancers. Functional patient assessment and pulmonary function testing are keys to preoperative assessment. Early palliative care and a minimally invasive approach to surgery should be considered in patients who can tolerate surgery. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  20. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyea Young

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  1. 1-D grating based SPR biosensor for the detection of lung cancer biomarkers using Vroman effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotia, Pradeep Kumar; Kaler, R. S.

    2018-01-01

    Grating based surface plasmon resonance waveguide biosensor have been reported for the detection of lung cancer biomarkers using Vroman effect. The proposed grating based multilayered biosensor is designed with high detection accuracy for Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and also analysed to show high detection accuracy with acceptable sensitivity for both cancer biomarkers. The introduction of periodic grating with multilayer metals generates a good resonance that make it possible for early detection of cancerous cells. Using finite difference time domain method, it is observed wavelength of biosensor get red-shifted on variations of the refractive index due to the presence of both the cancerous bio-markers. The reported detection accuracy and sensitivity of proposed biosensor is quite acceptable for both lung cancer biomarkers i.e. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) which further offer us label free early detection of lung cancer using these biomarkers.

  2. Lung Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... in the United States, the incidence rate of lung cancer— Men Decreased significantly by 2.5% per year ...

  3. Predictive Accuracy of the PanCan Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Model -External Validation based on CT from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; van Riel, Sarah J.; Saghir, Zaigham

    2015-01-01

    ; in fact opposing effects of sex were observed in the two cohorts. Thus, female sex appeared to lower the risk (p = 0.047 and p = 0.040) in the DLCST. Conclusions: High risk discrimination was validated in the DLCST cohort, mainly determined by nodule size. Age and family history of lung cancer were......Objectives: Lung cancer risk models should be externally validated to test generalizability and clinical usefulness. The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) is a population-based prospective cohort study, used to assess the discriminative performances of the PanCan models. Methods: From...... used to evaluate risk discrimination. Results: AUCs of 0.826–0.870 were found for DLCST data based on PanCan risk prediction models. In the DLCST, age and family history were significant predictors (p = 0.001 and p = 0.013). Female sex was not confirmed to be associated with higher risk of lung cancer...

  4. microRNA-Based Immunotherapy for Control of Early Stage Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    an essential role in innate immunity against lung cancer but they can be compromised in the tumor microenvironment due to immunosuppressive factors...to develop miR-based therapeutics that restores NK cells, which are critical for early immune surveillance against lung cancer. What was...complex molecular technical training to clone and construct viral vectors and second in becoming proficient in all the immune assays required to

  5. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...

  6. Lung cancer in Northern Portugal: A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Hespanhol

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer worldwide. In Portugal, the disease remains the main cause of cancer death in males. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of lung cancer patients diagnosed and treated in northern Portugal hospitals from 2000 to 2010. Patients and methods: Twelve hospitals in the north of Portugal contributed to this study. The demographic and clinic characteristics of the patients registered in each hospital from 2000 to 2010 and the patterns of their occurrence were analyzed. Results: During an 11-year period (2000–2010, 9767 lung cancer patients were registered in the participating hospitals. Comparing the number of the patients registered in the year 2000 to those registered during 2010, there was a significant increase in lung cancer cases. Females represent only 20% of the total registered lung cancer cases; however, during the study period, the number of female patients increased by 30%. A significant number of the patients, 3117 (48.6%, had poor performance status at presentation. The adenocarcinoma histology became more preponderant over the study period. Most of the patients were diagnosed as stages IIIB or IV: 7206 of 9267 (77.8%. Chemotherapy was the treatment of choice for 3529 (40.4% patients, whereas surgical treatment was achieved in 1301 (14.9% cases. Conclusion: A significant number of lung cancer patients have been diagnosed and treated in hospitals in northern Portugal, and the incidence of the disease among females has been increasing. The overwhelming majority of the tumors were diagnosed in advanced stage; nevertheless, surgical treatment was possible in 14.9% of the patients. Resumo: Introdução: O cancro do pulmão é o cancro que mais mortalidade determina em todo mundo. Em Portugal a doença mantém-se a principal causa de morte por cancro no sexo masculino. Objetivo: Neste estudo pretendeu-se avaliar as caracter

  7. Biology Based Lung Cancer Model for Chronic Low Radon Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truta-Popa, Lucia-Adina; Hofmann, Werner; Fakir, Hatim; Cosma, Constantin

    2008-01-01

    Low dose effects of alpha particles at the tissue level are characterized by the interaction of single alpha particles, affecting only a small fraction of the cells within that tissue. Alpha particle intersections of bronchial target cells during a given exposure period were simulated by an initiation-promotion model, formulated in terms of cellular hits within the cycle time of the cell (dose-rate) and then integrated over the whole exposure period (dose). For a given average number of cellular hits during the lifetime of bronchial cells, the actual number of single and multiple hits was selected from a Poisson distribution. While oncogenic transformation is interpreted as the primary initiation step, stimulated mitosis by killing adjacent cells is assumed to be the primary radiological promotion event. Analytical initiation and promotion functions were derived from experimental in vitro data on oncogenic transformation and cellular survival.To investigate the shape of the lung cancer risk function at chronic, low level exposures in more detail, additional biological factors describing the tissue response and operating specifically at low doses were incorporated into the initiation-promotion model. These mechanisms modifying the initial response at the cellular level were: adaptive response, genomic instability, induction of apoptosis by surrounding cells, and detrimental as well as protective bystander mechanisms. To quantify the effects of these mechanisms as functions of dose, analytical functions were derived from the experimental evidence presently available. Predictions of lung cancer risk, including these mechanisms, exhibit a distinct sublinear dose-response relationship at low exposures, particularly for very low exposure rates

  8. Identification of Gene Biomarkers for Distinguishing Small-Cell Lung Cancer from Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using a Network-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Long

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer consists of two main subtypes: small-cell lung cancer (SCLC and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC that are classified according to their physiological phenotypes. In this study, we have developed a network-based approach to identify molecular biomarkers that can distinguish SCLC from NSCLC. By identifying positive and negative coexpression gene pairs in normal lung tissues, SCLC, or NSCLC samples and using functional association information from the STRING network, we first construct a lung cancer-specific gene association network. From the network, we obtain gene modules in which genes are highly functionally associated with each other and are either positively or negatively coexpressed in the three conditions. Then, we identify gene modules that not only are differentially expressed between cancer and normal samples, but also show distinctive expression patterns between SCLC and NSCLC. Finally, we select genes inside those modules with discriminating coexpression patterns between the two lung cancer subtypes and predict them as candidate biomarkers that are of diagnostic use.

  9. Inhalation of nanoparticle-based drug for lung cancer treatment: Advantages and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Hin Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the success of developing inhalable insulin, drug delivery via pulmonary administration has become an attractive route to treat chronic diseases. Pulmonary delivery system for nanotechnology is a relatively new concept especially when applicable to lung cancer therapy. Nano-based systems such as liposome, polymeric nanoparticles or micelles are strategically designed to enhance the therapeutic index of anti-cancer drugs through improvement of their bioavailability, stability and residency at targeted lung regions. Along with these benefits, nano-based systems also provide additional diagnostic advantages during lung cancer treatment, including imaging, screening and drug tracking. Nevertheless, delivery of nano-based drugs via pulmonary administration for lung cancer therapy is still in its infancy and numerous challenges are expected. Pharmacology, immunology, toxicology and large-scale manufacturing (stability and activity of drugs are some aspects in nanotechnology that should be taken into consideration for the development of inhalable nano-based chemotherapeutic drugs. This review will focus on the current inhalable nano-based drugs for lung cancer treatment.

  10. American Cancer Society Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Richard; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Barrera, Ermilo; Colditz, Graham A.; Church, Timothy R.; Ettinger, David S.; Etzioni, Ruth; Flowers, Christopher R.; Gazelle, G. Scott; Kelsey, Douglas K.; LaMonte, Samuel J.; Michaelson, James S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Sullivan, Daniel C.; Travis, William; Walter, Louise; Wolf, Andrew M. D.; Brawley, Otis W.; Smith, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Findings from the National Cancer Institute’s National Lung Screening Trial established that lung cancer mortality in specific high-risk groups can be reduced by annual screening with low-dose computed tomography. These findings indicate that the adoption of lung cancer screening could save many lives. Based on the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, the American Cancer Society is issuing an initial guideline for lung cancer screening. This guideline recommends that clinicians with access to high-volume, high-quality lung cancer screening and treatment centers should initiate a discussion about screening with apparently healthy patients aged 55 years to 74 years who have at least a 30-pack-year smoking history and who currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. A process of informed and shared decision-making with a clinician related to the potential benefits, limitations, and harms associated with screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography should occur before any decision is made to initiate lung cancer screening. Smoking cessation counseling remains a high priority for clinical attention in discussions with current smokers, who should be informed of their continuing risk of lung cancer. Screening should not be viewed as an alternative to smoking cessation. PMID:23315954

  11. Sex differences in lung cancer survival: long-term trends using population-based cancer registry data in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Fukuaki Lee; Ito, Yuri; Morishima, Toshitaka; Miyashiro, Isao; Nakayama, Tomio

    2017-09-01

    Several studies of sex differences in lung cancer survival have been reported. However, large-size population-based studies based on long-term observation are scarce. We investigated long-term trends in sex differences in lung cancer survival using population-based cancer registry data from Osaka, Japan. We analyzed 79 330 cases from the Osaka Cancer Registry (OCR) diagnosed between 1975 and 2007. We calculated 5-year relative survival in the six periods (1975-1980, 1981-1986, 1987-1992, 1993-1997, 1998-2002 and 2003-2007). To estimate the trends in sex differences in lung cancer survival throughout the study period, we applied a multivariate excess hazard model to control for confounders. The proportion of adenocarcinoma (ADC) and 5-year relative relative survival have increased for both sexes. Sex differences in lung cancer survival have widened over the period, especially in ADC and since the late 1990s. The excess hazard ratio of death within 5 years for males was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.16-1.21), adjusting for period at diagnosis, histologic type, stage, age group and treatment. We reported that females have better prognosis in lung cancer than males and the sex differences in lung cancer survival have become wider in Osaka, Japan. This can be partly explained by the sex differences in the proportions of histologic type and stage. Further studies considering other factors that influence sex differences in lung cancer survival are needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  13. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet....

  14. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for lung cancer patients and their partners: Results of a mixed methods pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, D.G.M. van den; Schellekens, M.P.J.; Molema, J.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Drift, M.A. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung cancer patients and partners show high rates of impaired quality of life and heightened distress levels. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction has proven to be effective in reducing psychological distress in cancer patients. However, studies barely included lung cancer patients. AIM:

  15. Anxiety After Diagnosis Predicts Lung Cancer-Specific and Overall Survival in Patients With Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodermaier, Andrea; Lucas, Sarah; Linden, Wolfgang; Olson, Robert

    2017-06-01

    The question as to whether anxiety and depression are related to mortality in patients with lung cancer is inconclusive. Therefore, the present study is examining associations of anxiety and depression in a large representative sample of patients with Stage III non-small cell lung cancer. Patients (n = 684) were routinely assessed for anxiety and depression with the PsychoSocial Screen for Cancer questionnaire after diagnosis of lung cancer and before treatment initiation between 2004 and 2010. Survival data were retrieved in May 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses had been used as statistical procedures allowing adjustment for demographic, biomedical, and treatment variables. In analyses controlling for demographic, biomedical, and treatment prognosticators, anxiety but not depression was associated with increased lung cancer-specific (hazard ratio 1.04; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.07; P = 0.035) and all-cause (hazard ratio 1.04; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.07; P = 0.005) mortality. Secondary analyses revealed a confounder effect of performance status on the association between depression and mortality, such that the removal of performance status identified a significant relationship of depression on lung cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. In a large population-based sample of patients with non-small cell lung cancer analyses demonstrated associations of anxiety with mortality, adding to the evidence that psychosocial factors might play a role in disease progression in this patient group. Because emotional distress is associated with continued smoking and lack of success of smoking cessation attempts, psychological interventions potentially could influence length of survival in lung cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  17. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  18. Recent mass spectrometry-based proteomics for biomarker discovery in lung cancer, COPD, and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Kiyonaga; Nakamura, Haruhiko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2017-04-01

    Lung cancer and related diseases have been one of the most common causes of deaths worldwide. Genomic-based biomarkers may hardly reflect the underlying dynamic molecular mechanism of functional protein interactions, which is the center of a disease. Recent developments in mass spectrometry (MS) have made it possible to analyze disease-relevant proteins expressed in clinical specimens by proteomic challenges. Areas covered: To understand the molecular mechanisms of lung cancer and its subtypes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and others, great efforts have been taken to identify numerous relevant proteins by MS-based clinical proteomic approaches. Since lung cancer is a multifactorial disease that is biologically associated with asthma and COPD among various lung diseases, this study focused on proteomic studies on biomarker discovery using various clinical specimens for lung cancer, COPD, and asthma. Expert commentary: MS-based exploratory proteomics utilizing clinical specimens, which can incorporate both experimental and bioinformatic analysis of protein-protein interaction and also can adopt proteogenomic approaches, makes it possible to reveal molecular networks that are relevant to a disease subgroup and that could differentiate between drug responders and non-responders, good and poor prognoses, drug resistance, and so on.

  19. Study and Search for Main Reason of Lung Cancers Based on Cherenkov Radiation in Environmental Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Emoto, Yusaku; Fujihara, Kento; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kimura, Shota; Kodama, Satoshi; Mizuno, Takahiro

    2018-01-01

    The number of lung-cancer-related death is highest among all cancers in the world, and it is increasing in Japan where population aging in progressing. The main reason for the lung cancer of non-smokers is regarded to be environmental pollution or exposure of the lung to radon in the nature. The risk of lung cancer was estimated to increase by 8 to 13% per every 100 Bq m-3 concentration of radon in the air. We observed beta rays with maximum energy of 3.27 MeV emitted from 214Bi as one of the progenies based on a detection of Cherenkov radiation. The surface radioactivity concentration of 214Bi on the sample was measured; the relation between the concentration and exposure time for the sample at the room air is researched. The behavior of the radon progenies in the air is discussed by a research for the progenies attaching on the sample after the radon decay. The inhalation of the radon progenies is not clear. Thus, to understand the behavior of progenies in the air make to clear the causal relation between the radon concentration and lung cancers.

  20. Study and Search for Main Reason of Lung Cancers Based on Cherenkov Radiation in Environmental Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of lung-cancer-related death is highest among all cancers in the world, and it is increasing in Japan where population aging in progressing. The main reason for the lung cancer of non-smokers is regarded to be environmental pollution or exposure of the lung to radon in the nature. The risk of lung cancer was estimated to increase by 8 to 13% per every 100 Bq m-3 concentration of radon in the air. We observed beta rays with maximum energy of 3.27 MeV emitted from 214Bi as one of the progenies based on a detection of Cherenkov radiation. The surface radioactivity concentration of 214Bi on the sample was measured; the relation between the concentration and exposure time for the sample at the room air is researched. The behavior of the radon progenies in the air is discussed by a research for the progenies attaching on the sample after the radon decay. The inhalation of the radon progenies is not clear. Thus, to understand the behavior of progenies in the air make to clear the causal relation between the radon concentration and lung cancers.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and a history of lung disease such as tuberculosis, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis. A history of lung ... Cancer Society: Cancer Facts & Figures 2017 (PDF) Byers LA, Rudin CM. Small cell lung cancer: where do ...

  2. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  3. Inhalation of nanoparticle-based drug for lung cancer treatment: Advantages and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wing-Hin; Loo, Ching-Yee; Traini, Daniela; Young, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Ever since the success of developing inhalable insulin, drug delivery via pulmonary administration has become an attractive route to treat chronic diseases. Pulmonary delivery system for nanotechnology is a relatively new concept especially when applicable to lung cancer therapy. Nano-based systems such as liposome, polymeric nanoparticles or micelles are strategically designed to enhance the therapeutic index of anti-cancer drugs through improvement of their bioavailability, stability and re...

  4. Cancer Genes in Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Telbany, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is now known as a disease of genomic alterations. Mutational analysis and genomics profiling in recent years have advanced the field of lung cancer genetics/genomics significantly. It is becoming more accepted now that the identification of genomic alterations in lung cancer can impact therapeutics, especially when the alterations represent “oncogenic drivers” in the processes of tumorigenesis and progression. In this review, we will highlight the key driver oncogenic gene mutations and fusions identified in lung cancer. The review will summarize and report the available demographic and clinicopathological data as well as molecular details behind various lung cancer gene alterations in the context of race. We hope to shed some light into the disparities in the incidence of various genetic mutations among lung cancer patients of different racial backgrounds. As molecularly targeted therapy continues to advance in lung cancer, racial differences in specific genetic/genomic alterations can have an important impact in the choices of therapeutics and in our understanding of the drug sensitivity/resistance profile. The most relevant genes in lung cancer described in this review include the following: EGFR, KRAS, MET, LKB1, BRAF, PIK3CA, ALK, RET, and ROS1. Commonly identified genetic/genomic alterations such as missense or nonsense mutations, small insertions or deletions, alternative splicing, and chromosomal fusion rearrangements were discussed. Relevance in current targeted therapeutic drugs was mentioned when appropriate. We also highlighted various targeted therapeutics that are currently under clinical development, such as the MET inhibitors and antibodies. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the landscape of genomic alterations in lung cancer is expected to be much transformed and detailed in upcoming years. These genomic landscape differences in the context of racial disparities should be emphasized both in tumorigenesis and in drug

  5. Fuzzy logic-based tumor-marker profiles improved sensitivity in the diagnosis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Joachim; Bitterlich, Norman; Velcovsky, Hans-Georg; Morr, Harald; Katz, Norbert; Eigenbrodt, Erich

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the diagnostic efficiency of tumor markers in the diagnosis of lung cancer, by the mathematical evaluation of a tumor marker profile employing fuzzy logic modelling. A panel of four tumor markers, i.e., carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 19 antibody (CYFRA 21-1), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), squamous cell carcinoma-related antigen (SCC) and, additionally, C-reactive protein (CRP), was measured in 175 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients with different histological types and stages. Results were compared with those in 120 control subjects, including 27 with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), 65 with pneumoconiosis, and 11 persons with acute inflammatory lung diseases. A classificator was developed using a fuzzy-logic rule-based system. Application of the fuzzy-logic rule-based system to the tumor marker values of CYFRA 21-1, NSE, and CRP yielded an increase in sensitivity of approximately 20%, i.e., 92%, compared with that of the best single marker, CYFRA 21-1(sensitivity, 72%). The corresponding specificity was 95%. The fuzzy classificator significantly improved the sensitivity of the tumor marker panel in stages I and IIIa for non-small-cell lung cancer, as well as in "limited disease" status for small-cell lung cancer. Also, the diagnosis of other stages of lung cancer was enhanced. Fuzzy-logic analysis was proven to be more powerful than the measurement of single markers alone or combinations using multiple logistic regression analysis of all markers. Therefore, fuzzy logic offers a promising diagnostic tool to improve tumor marker efficiency.

  6. Nanotechnology-based inhalation treatments for lung cancer: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Javed Ahmad,1,* Sohail Akhter,2,3,* Md Rizwanullah,1 Saima Amin,1 Mahfoozur Rahman,4 Mohammad Zaki Ahmad,5 Moshahid Alam Rizvi,6 Mohammad A Kamal,7 Farhan Jalees Ahmad1,21Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Nanomedicine Research Lab, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India; 3Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire(CBM-CNRS UPR4301, University of Orléans, Orléans Cedex 2, France; 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Abhilashi College of Pharmacy, Mandi, HP, India; 5Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Najran University, Saudi Arabia; 6Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India; 7Metabolomics and Enzymology Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Considering the challenges associated with conventional chemotherapy, targeted and local delivery of chemotherapeutics via nanoparticle (NP carriers to the lungs is an emerging area of interest. Recent studies and growing clinical application in cancer nanotechnology showed the huge potential of NPs as drug carriers in cancer therapy, including in lung carcinoma for diagnosis, imaging, and theranostics. Researchers have confirmed that nanotechnology-based inhalation chemotherapy is viable and more effective than conventional chemotherapy, with lesser side effects. Recently, many nanocarriers have been investigated, including liposomes, polymeric micelles, polymeric NPs, solid lipid NPs, and inorganic NPs for inhalation treatments of lung cancer. Yet, the toxicity of such nanomaterials to the lungs tissues and further distribution to other organs due to systemic absorption on inhalation delivery is a debatable concern. Here, prospect of NPs-based local lung cancer targeting through inhalation route as well as its associated challenges are discussed.Keywords: nanoparticles, lung cancer, inhalational chemotherapy, drug targeting, nanotoxicity

  7. Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE study: An integrative population-based case-control study of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombi Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Tobacco smoking is its primary cause, and yet the precise molecular alterations induced by smoking in lung tissue that lead to lung cancer and impact survival have remained obscure. A new framework of research is needed to address the challenges offered by this complex disease. Methods/Design We designed a large population-based case-control study that combines a traditional molecular epidemiology design with a more integrative approach to investigate the dynamic process that begins with smoking initiation, proceeds through dependency/smoking persistence, continues with lung cancer development and ends with progression to disseminated disease or response to therapy and survival. The study allows the integration of data from multiple sources in the same subjects (risk factors, germline variation, genomic alterations in tumors, and clinical endpoints to tackle the disease etiology from different angles. Before beginning the study, we conducted a phone survey and pilot investigations to identify the best approach to ensure an acceptable participation in the study from cases and controls. Between 2002 and 2005, we enrolled 2101 incident primary lung cancer cases and 2120 population controls, with 86.6% and 72.4% participation rate, respectively, from a catchment area including 216 municipalities in the Lombardy region of Italy. Lung cancer cases were enrolled in 13 hospitals and population controls were randomly sampled from the area to match the cases by age, gender and residence. Detailed epidemiological information and biospecimens were collected from each participant, and clinical data and tissue specimens from the cases. Collection of follow-up data on treatment and survival is ongoing. Discussion EAGLE is a new population-based case-control study that explores the full spectrum of lung cancer etiology, from smoking addiction to lung cancer outcome, through

  8. Development of diagnostic model of lung cancer based on multiple tumor markers and data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoxian; Feng, Feifei; Zhou, Xiaoshan; Duan, Liju; Wang, Jing; Wu, Yongjun; Wang, Na

    2017-11-07

    To develop early intelligent discriminative model of lung cancer and evaluate the efficiency of diagnosis value. Based on the genetic polymorphism profile of CYP1A1-rs1048943, GSTM1, mEH-rs1051740, XRCC1-rs1799782 and XRCC1-rs25489 and the methylations of p16 and RASSF1A gene, and the length of telomere in the peripheral blood from 200 lung cancer patients and 200 health persons, the discriminative model was established through decision tree and ANN technique. ACU of the discriminative model based on multiple tumour markers increased by about 10%; The accuracy rate of decision tree model and ANN model for testing set were 93.00% and 89.62% respectively. The ROC analysis showed the decision tree model's AUC is 0.929 (0.894∼0.964), the ANN model's AUC is 0.894 (0.853∼0.935). However, the classify accuracy rate and AUC of Fisher discriminatory analysis model are all about 0.7. The early intelligent discriminative model of lung cancer based on multiple tumor markers and data mining techniques has a higher accuracy rate and might be useful for early diagnosis of lung cancer.

  9. The significance and robustness of a plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile-based multiplex function for detecting lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingyoji, Masato; Mitsushima, Toru; Yamakado, Minoru; Kimura, Hideki; Iizasa, Toshihiko; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Imamura, Fumio; Saruki, Nobuhiro; Imaizumi, Akira; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Daimon, Takashi; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported on the changes in plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiles in lung cancer patients and the efficacy of a PFAA-based, multivariate discrimination index for the early detection of lung cancer. In this study, we aimed to verify the usefulness and robustness of PFAA profiling for detecting lung cancer using new test samples. Plasma samples were collected from 171 lung cancer patients and 3849 controls without apparent cancer. PFAA levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–electrospray ionization (ESI)–mass spectrometry (MS). High reproducibility was observed for both the change in the PFAA profiles in the lung cancer patients and the discriminating performance for lung cancer patients compared to previously reported results. Furthermore, multivariate discriminating functions obtained in previous studies clearly distinguished the lung cancer patients from the controls based on the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC of ROC = 0.731 ~ 0.806), strongly suggesting the robustness of the methodology for clinical use. Moreover, the results suggested that the combinatorial use of this classifier and tumor markers improves the clinical performance of tumor markers. These findings suggest that PFAA profiling, which involves a relatively simple plasma assay and imposes a low physical burden on subjects, has great potential for improving early detection of lung cancer

  10. Identificationof potential lung cancer biomarkers by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis of secretomes of two lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Valeriy E; Kovalev, Sergey V; Arnotskaya, Natalia E; Kudryavtsev, Igor A

    2013-01-01

    A label-free nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry proteomics analysis on the conditioned media (CM) of two lung cancer cell lines of different histological backgrounds to identify secreted or membrane-bound proteins as novel lung cancer biomarkers was performed. Five hundred and seventy seven proteins were identified and 38% of them were classified as extracellular or membrane-bound. For the search of potential biomarkers of lung cancer a series of selection criteria were proposed. We detected known or putative lung cancer markers. In addition, 40 novel proteins were identified, whose role as biomarkers of lung cancer should be explored further.

  11. Predictive accuracy of the PanCan lung cancer risk prediction model - external validation based on CT from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; Dirksen, Asger; Riel, Sarah J. van; Jacobs, Colin; Scholten, Ernst T.; Ginneken, Bram van; Saghir, Zaigham; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Hohwue Thomsen, Laura; Skovgaard, Lene T.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer risk models should be externally validated to test generalizability and clinical usefulness. The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) is a population-based prospective cohort study, used to assess the discriminative performances of the PanCan models. From the DLCST database, 1,152 nodules from 718 participants were included. Parsimonious and full PanCan risk prediction models were applied to DLCST data, and also coefficients of the model were recalculated using DLCST data. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate risk discrimination. AUCs of 0.826-0.870 were found for DLCST data based on PanCan risk prediction models. In the DLCST, age and family history were significant predictors (p = 0.001 and p = 0.013). Female sex was not confirmed to be associated with higher risk of lung cancer; in fact opposing effects of sex were observed in the two cohorts. Thus, female sex appeared to lower the risk (p = 0.047 and p = 0.040) in the DLCST. High risk discrimination was validated in the DLCST cohort, mainly determined by nodule size. Age and family history of lung cancer were significant predictors and could be included in the parsimonious model. Sex appears to be a less useful predictor. (orig.)

  12. Predictive accuracy of the PanCan lung cancer risk prediction model - external validation based on CT from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; Dirksen, Asger [Gentofte Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hellerup (Denmark); Riel, Sarah J. van; Jacobs, Colin; Scholten, Ernst T.; Ginneken, Bram van [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Saghir, Zaigham [Herlev Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Herlev (Denmark); Pedersen, Jesper Holst [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark); Hohwue Thomsen, Laura [Hvidovre Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hvidovre (Denmark); Skovgaard, Lene T. [University of Copenhagen, Department of Biostatistics, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark)

    2015-10-15

    Lung cancer risk models should be externally validated to test generalizability and clinical usefulness. The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) is a population-based prospective cohort study, used to assess the discriminative performances of the PanCan models. From the DLCST database, 1,152 nodules from 718 participants were included. Parsimonious and full PanCan risk prediction models were applied to DLCST data, and also coefficients of the model were recalculated using DLCST data. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate risk discrimination. AUCs of 0.826-0.870 were found for DLCST data based on PanCan risk prediction models. In the DLCST, age and family history were significant predictors (p = 0.001 and p = 0.013). Female sex was not confirmed to be associated with higher risk of lung cancer; in fact opposing effects of sex were observed in the two cohorts. Thus, female sex appeared to lower the risk (p = 0.047 and p = 0.040) in the DLCST. High risk discrimination was validated in the DLCST cohort, mainly determined by nodule size. Age and family history of lung cancer were significant predictors and could be included in the parsimonious model. Sex appears to be a less useful predictor. (orig.)

  13. Lung Cancer Signature Biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of Digital Differential Display (DDD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Mousami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used ‘Gene Ontology semantic similarity score’ to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal and disease (cancer sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability. Results Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (α = 0.95 identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1–4. Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1, chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2, hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3 and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4. Conclusions Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3, HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1

  14. Lung cancer signature biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of digital differential display (DDD) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Mousami; Khurana, Pankaj; Sugadev, Ragumani

    2012-11-02

    The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD) rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used 'Gene Ontology semantic similarity score' to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal) and disease (cancer) sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability. Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (α = 0.95) identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1-4). Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1), chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2), hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3) and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4). Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3), HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1/SAG, AIB1 and AZIN1) are significantly down regulated

  15. Correlation analysis of lung cancer and urban spatial factor: based on survey in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Zhao, Xiaojing; Xu, Wangyue; Tang, Jian; Jiang, Xiji

    2016-09-01

    The density of particulate matter (PM) in mega-cities in China such as Beijing and Shanghai has exceeded basic standards for health in recent years. Human exposure to PMs has been identified as traceable and controllable factor among all complicated risk factors for lung cancer. While the improvement of air quality needs tremendous efforts and time, certain revision of PM's density might happen associated with the adjustment of built environment. It is also proved that urban built environment is directly relevant to respiratory disease. Studies have respectively explored the indoor and outdoor factors on respiratory diseases. More comprehensive spatial factors need to be analyzed to understand the cumulative effect of built environment upon respiratory system. This interdisciplinary study examines the impact of both indoor (including age of housing, interval after decoration, indoor humidity etc.) and outdoor spatial factors (including density, parking, green spaces etc.) on lung cancer. A survey of lung cancer patients and a control group has been conducted in 2014 and 2015. A total of 472 interviewees are randomly selected within a pool of local residents who have resided in Shanghai for more than 5 years. Data are collected including their socio-demographic factors, lifestyle factors, and external and internal residential area factors. Regression models are established based on collected data to analyze the associations between lung cancer and urban spatial factors. Regression models illustrate that lung cancer presents significantly associated with a number of spatial factors. Significant outdoor spatial factors include external traffic volume (P=0.003), main plant type (P=0.035 for trees) of internal green space, internal water body (P=0.027) and land use of surrounding blocks (P=0.005 for residential areas of 7-9 floors, P=0.000 for residential areas of 4-6 floors, P=0.006 for business/commercial areas over 10 floors, P=0.005 for business/commercial areas of

  16. An intelligent system for lung cancer diagnosis using a new genetic algorithm based feature selection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunhong; Zhu, Zhaomin; Gu, Xiaofeng

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we develop a novel feature selection algorithm based on the genetic algorithm (GA) using a specifically devised trace-based separability criterion. According to the scores of class separability and variable separability, this criterion measures the significance of feature subset, independent of any specific classification. In addition, a mutual information matrix between variables is used as features for classification, and no prior knowledge about the cardinality of feature subset is required. Experiments are performed by using a standard lung cancer dataset. The obtained solutions are verified with three different classifiers, including the support vector machine (SVM), the back-propagation neural network (BPNN), and the K-nearest neighbor (KNN), and compared with those obtained by the whole feature set, the F-score and the correlation-based feature selection methods. The comparison results show that the proposed intelligent system has a good diagnosis performance and can be used as a promising tool for lung cancer diagnosis.

  17. Lung cancer imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ravenel, James G

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to the diagnosis, staging and overview of the management of lung cancer relevant to practicing radiologists so that they can better understand the decision making issues and provide more useful communication to treating physicians.

  18. The Danish Lung Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established by the Danish Lung Cancer Group. The primary and first goal of the DLCR was to improve survival and the overall clinical management of Danish lung cancer patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish primary lung cancer patients since...... 2000 are included into the registry and the database today contains information on more than 50,000 cases of lung cancer. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information on patient characteristics such as age, sex, diagnostic procedures, histology, tumor stage, lung function, performance...... as a source for research regarding lung cancer in Denmark and in comparisons with other countries....

  19. Current concepts in F18 FDG PET/CT-based Radiation Therapy planning for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy eLee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is an important component of cancer therapy for early stage as well as locally advanced lung cancer. The use of F18 FDG PET/CT has come to the forefront of lung cancer staging and overall treatment decision-making. FDG PET/CT parameters such as standard uptake value and metabolic tumor volume provide important prognostic and predictive information in lung cancer. Importantly, FDG PET/CT for radiation planning has added biological information in defining the gross tumor volume as well as involved nodal disease. For example, accurate target delineation between tumor and atelectasis is facilitated by utilizing PET and CT imaging. Furthermore, there has been meaningful progress in incorporating metabolic information from FDG PET/CT imaging in radiation treatment planning strategies such as radiation dose escalation based on standard uptake value thresholds as well as using respiratory gated PET and CT planning for improved target delineation of moving targets. In addition, PET/CT based follow-up after radiation therapy has provided the possibility of early detection of local as well as distant recurrences after treatment. More research is needed to incorporate other biomarkers such as proliferative and hypoxia biomarkers in PET as well as integrating metabolic information in adaptive, patient-centered, tailored radiation therapy.

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the foreign antigens on the surface of cancer cells and help destroy them. Recent studies indicate this approach holds promise. Bevacizumab and chemotherapy: Last year, scientists announced a new development in treating advanced lung cancer. In a large study, people taking bevacizumab (Avastin) ...

  1. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes ...

  2. Image processing based detection of lung cancer on CT scan images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdillah, Bariqi; Bustamam, Alhadi; Sarwinda, Devvi

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we implement and analyze the image processing method for detection of lung cancer. Image processing techniques are widely used in several medical problems for picture enhancement in the detection phase to support the early medical treatment. In this research we proposed a detection method of lung cancer based on image segmentation. Image segmentation is one of intermediate level in image processing. Marker control watershed and region growing approach are used to segment of CT scan image. Detection phases are followed by image enhancement using Gabor filter, image segmentation, and features extraction. From the experimental results, we found the effectiveness of our approach. The results show that the best approach for main features detection is watershed with masking method which has high accuracy and robust.

  3. Lung Cancer Survivorship

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-20

    A lung cancer survivor shares her story about diagnosis, treatment, and community support. She also gives advice for other cancer survivors.  Created: 10/20/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/20/2016.

  4. Detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in community-based annual lung cancer screening: Chiba Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Lung Cancer Screening Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Yasuo; Fujisawa, Takehiko; Suzuki, Kiminori; Tsutatani, Shuko; Kubota, Kazuko; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Isobe, Yuji; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is crucial in the management of COPD. The aim of this study was to establish the utility of a community-based lung cancer screening for detecting COPD. In Japan, community-based lung cancer screening for residents who are 40 years or older using chest radiography is well established. A screening system in Chiba City, Japan, was used to detect COPD. The criteria to consider COPD at screening included age of 60 years or older, a smoking history and chronic respiratory symptoms. Participants fulfilling these criteria were referred for diagnostic evaluation consisting of pulmonary function testing (PFT) and chest computed tomography (CT). Of 89,100 Chiba City residents who underwent lung cancer screening, 72,653 residents were 60 years or older. Among them, 878 (1.0%) were identified with suspected COPD and referred for further evaluation. Of those identified, a total of 567 residents (64.6%, 567/878) underwent further evaluations, and 161 (28.4%) were reported to have COPD, with 38.5% of them requiring COPD treatment. To verify the diagnoses from the secondary evaluation centres, PFT and CT data were collected from 228 study participants, and 24.9% were diagnosed with COPD. CT findings classified according to the Goddard classification revealed that 20.1% of these participants had moderate to severe emphysema. COPD screening added to a community-based lung cancer screening programme may be effective in the detection of patients with COPD. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  5. Immune-based Therapies for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafei, Hind; El-Bahesh, Ehab; Finianos, Antoine; Nassereddine, Samah; Tabbara, Imad

    2017-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer has evolved tremendously over the past decade. Specifically, immune checkpoint inhibitors have become an increasingly interesting target of pharmacological blockade. These immune inhibitors have shown promising results in front-line therapy and after failure of multiple lines, as well as in monotherapy and combination with other therapies. Vaccination in non-small cell lung cancer is also an emerging field of research that holds promising results for the future of immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. This review presents a concise update on the most recent data regarding the role of checkpoint inhibitors as well as vaccination in non-small cell lung cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Staging of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-06-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Thorough clinical staging of patients with lung cancer is important, because therapeutic options and management are to a considerable degree dependent on stage at presentation. Radiologic imaging is an essential component of clinical staging, including chest radiography in some cases, computed tomography, MRI, and PET. Multiplanar imaging modalities allow assessment of features that are important for surgical, oncologic, and radiation therapy planning, including size of the primary tumor, location and relationship to normal anatomic structures in the thorax, and existence of nodal and/or metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Index-based dietary patterns and risk of lung cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anic, G M; Park, Y; Subar, A F; Schap, T E; Reedy, J

    2016-01-01

    Dietary pattern analysis considers combinations of food intake and may offer a better measure to assess diet-cancer associations than examining individual foods or nutrients. Although tobacco exposure is the major risk factor for lung cancer, few studies have examined whether dietary patterns, based on preexisting dietary guidelines, influence lung cancer risk. After controlling for smoking, we examined associations between four diet quality indices-Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet score (aMED) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-and lung cancer risk in the NIH-AARP (National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed in 460 770 participants. Over a median of 10.5 years of follow-up, 9272 incident lung cancer cases occurred. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs). Comparing highest to lowest quintiles, HRs (95% CIs) for lung cancer were as follows: HEI-2010=0.83 (0.77-0.89), AHEI-2010=0.86 (0.80-0.92), aMED=0.85 (0.79-0.91) and DASH=0.84 (0.78-0.90). Among the individual components of the dietary indices, higher consumption of whole grains and fruits was significantly inversely associated with lung cancer risk for several of the diet indices. Total index score analyses stratified by smoking status showed inverse associations with lung cancer for former smokers; however, only HEI-2010 was inversely associated in current smokers and no index score was inversely associated among never smokers. Although smoking is the factor most strongly associated with lung cancer, this study adds to a growing body of evidence that diet may have a modest role in reducing lung cancer risk, especially among former smokers.

  8. Clinical Research on Albumin-bound Paclitaxel-based Therapy in Advanced Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu LI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Albumin-bound paclitaxel is a novel paclitaxel formulation formed by the combination of paclitaxel and human serum albumin (HSA to improve the efficacy of paclitaxel and reduce its adverse reactions. The aim of this retrospective study is to observe the efficacy and safety of albumin-bound paclitaxel-based therapy in the treatment of lung cancer. Methods We have enrolled 50 patients with advanced or unresectable retreatment lung cancer who were admitted from November 2011 to December 2014. All patients were treated with albumin-bound paclitaxel-based therapy with a 21 day cycle (albumin-bound paclitaxel weekly by intravenous dose of 130 mg/m2 on day 1 and day 8. Efficacy was evaluated every two cycles according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1 and side effects were observed during each cycle. All patients were evaluated. Results The total objective response rate (ORR of albumin-bound paclitaxel-based therapy was 20%, disease control rate (DCR was 68%. In the subgroup analysis, in squamous non-small-cell lung carcinoma groups, ORR and DCR were 26.7% and 80% respectively. Albumin-bound paclitaxel based chemotherapy combined anti-angiogenesis therapy had a promising overall response rate 36.4%. In the patients who had been previously treated with≥4 lines of chemotherapy DCR also reached 69.2%. The most common adverse reactions were hematologic toxicities and were all manageable, no hypersensitivity reactions or treatment-related grade 4 adverse events were reported. Conclusion Weekly albumin-bound paclitaxel is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of advanced lung cancer including all histological subtypes. Albumin-bound paclitaxel was associated with superior efficacy in patients with squamous (SCC histology and combined with anti-angiogenesis therapy. Albumin-bound paclitaxel shown to be an effective and safe regimen for elderly or previous heavily treated patients.

  9. Clinical evaluation of atlas and deep learning based automatic contouring for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustberg, Tim; van Soest, Johan; Gooding, Mark; Peressutti, Devis; Aljabar, Paul; van der Stoep, Judith; van Elmpt, Wouter; Dekker, Andre

    2018-02-01

    Contouring of organs at risk (OARs) is an important but time consuming part of radiotherapy treatment planning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether using institutional created software-generated contouring will save time if used as a starting point for manual OAR contouring for lung cancer patients. Twenty CT scans of stage I-III NSCLC patients were used to compare user adjusted contours after an atlas-based and deep learning contour, against manual delineation. The lungs, esophagus, spinal cord, heart and mediastinum were contoured for this study. The time to perform the manual tasks was recorded. With a median time of 20 min for manual contouring, the total median time saved was 7.8 min when using atlas-based contouring and 10 min for deep learning contouring. Both atlas based and deep learning adjustment times were significantly lower than manual contouring time for all OARs except for the left lung and esophagus of the atlas based contouring. User adjustment of software generated contours is a viable strategy to reduce contouring time of OARs for lung radiotherapy while conforming to local clinical standards. In addition, deep learning contouring shows promising results compared to existing solutions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detecting lung cancer symptoms with analogic CNN algorithms based on a constrained diffusion template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Satoshi; Nishio, Yoshifumi; Ushida, Akio; Ueno, Junji; Kasem, I.; Nishitani, Hiromu; Rekeczky, C.; Roska, T.

    1997-01-01

    In this article, a new type of diffusion template and an analogic CNN algorithm using this diffusion template for detecting some lung cancer symptoms in X-ray films are proposed. The performance of the diffusion template is investigated and our CNN algorithm is verified to detect some key lung cancer symptoms, successfully. (author)

  11. CANADIAN POPULATION RISK OF RADON INDUCED LUNG CANCER-VARIATION RANGE ASSESSMENT BASED ON VARIOUS RADON RISK MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing

    2017-11-01

    To address public concerns regarding radon risk and variations in risk estimates based on various risk models available in the literature, lifetime lung cancer risks were calculated with five well-known risk models using more recent Canadian vital statistics (5-year averages from 2008 to 2012). Variations in population risk estimation among various models were assessed. The results showed that the Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer can vary from 5.0 to 17% for men and 5.1 to 18% for women based on different radon risk models. Averaged over the estimates from various risk models with better radon dosimetry, 13% of lung cancer deaths among Canadian males and 14% of lung cancer deaths among Canadian females were attributable to long-term indoor radon exposure. © Crown copyright 2017.

  12. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Rates by State for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined ... Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  13. Risk of lung cancer in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Kuei Hsu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This large-scale, controlled cohort study estimated the risks of lung cancer in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD in Taiwan. We conducted this population-based study using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan during the period from 1997 to 2010. Patients with GERD were diagnosed using endoscopy, and controls were matched to patients with GERD at a ratio of 1:4. We identified 15,412 patients with GERD and 60,957 controls. Compared with the controls, the patients with GERD had higher rates of osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, bronchiectasis, depression, anxiety, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic liver disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, chronic kidney disease, and coronary artery disease (all P < .05. A total of 85 patients had lung cancer among patients with GERD during the follow-up of 42,555 person-years, and the rate of lung cancer was 0.0020 per person-year. By contrast, 232 patients had lung cancer among patients without GERD during the follow-up of 175,319 person-years, and the rate of lung cancer was 0.0013 per person-year. By using stepwise Cox regression model, the overall incidence of lung cancer remained significantly higher in the patients with GERD than in the controls (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% CI [1.19–1.98]. The cumulative incidence of lung cancer was higher in the patients with GERD than in the controls (P = .0012. In conclusion, our large population-based cohort study provides evidence that GERD may increase the risk of lung cancer in Asians.

  14. Relationship between solitary pulmonary nodule lung cancer and CT image features based on gradual clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weipeng

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between the medical characteristics of lung cancers and computer tomography (CT) images are explored so as to improve the early diagnosis rate of lung cancers. This research collected CT images of patients with solitary pulmonary nodule lung cancer, and used gradual clustering methodology to classify them. Preliminary classifications were made, followed by continuous modification and iteration to determine the optimal condensation point, until iteration stability was achieved. Reasonable classification results were obtained. the clustering results fell into 3 categories. The first type of patients was mostly female, with ages between 50 and 65 years. CT images of solitary pulmonary nodule lung cancer for this group contain complete lobulation and burr, with pleural indentation; The second type of patients was mostly male with ages between 50 and 80 years. CT images of solitary pulmonary nodule lung cancer for this group contain complete lobulation and burr, but with no pleural indentation; The third type of patients was also mostly male with ages between 50 and 80 years. CT images for this group showed no abnormalities. the application of gradual clustering methodology can scientifically classify CT image features of patients with lung cancer in the initial lesion stage. These findings provide the basis for early detection and treatment of malignant lesions in patients with lung cancer.

  15. The role of comorbidity in the management and prognosis in nonsmall cell lung cancer: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jonas; Berglund, Anders; Bergström, Stefan; Bergqvist, Michael; Lambe, Mats

    2017-07-01

    Coexisting disease constitutes a challenge for the provision of optimal cancer care. The influence of comorbidity on lung cancer management and prognosis remains incompletely understood. We assessed the influence of comorbidity on treatment intensity and prognosis in a population-based setting in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer. Our study was based on information available in Lung Cancer Data Base Sweden (LcBaSe), a database generated by record linkage between the National Lung Cancer Register (NLCR) and several other population-based registers in Sweden. The NLCR includes data on clinical characteristics on 95% of all patients with lung cancer in Sweden since 2002. Comorbidity was assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Logistic regression and time to event analysis was used to address the association between comorbidity and treatment and prognosis. In adjusted analyses encompassing 19,587 patients with a NSCLC diagnosis and WHO Performance Status 0-2 between 2002 and 2011, those with stage-IA-IIB disease and severe comorbidity were less likely to be offered surgery (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.36-0.57). In late-stage disease (IIIB-IV), severe comorbidity was also associated with lower chemotherapy treatment intensity (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.65-0.89). In patients with early, but not late-stage disease, severe comorbidity in adjusted analyses was associated with an increased all-cause mortality, while lung cancer-specific mortality was largely unaffected by comorbidity burden. Comorbidity contributes to the poor prognosis in NSCLC patients. Routinely published lung cancer survival statistics not considering coexisting disease conveys a too pessimistic picture of prognosis. Optimized management of comorbid conditions pre- and post-NSCLC-specific treatment is likely to improve outcomes.

  16. small Cell Lung Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hospital of Qiqihar Medical University Hospital. Inclusion criteria for the current study was histologically and cytologically confirmed NSCLC patients, patients with either lung cancer stage. IIIA, IIIB or IV, chemotherapy naïve, patients having evaluable and measureable disease,. WHO performance status (PS): 0 – 2, no active.

  17. Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Eva; Mao, Jenny T.; Lam, Stephen; Reid, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor. Former smokers are at a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer compared with lifetime never smokers. Chemoprevention refers to the use of specific agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent the process of carcinogenesis. This article reviews the major agents that have been studied for chemoprevention. Methods: Articles of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention trials were reviewed and summarized to obtain recommendations. Results: None of the phase 3 trials with the agents β-carotene, retinol, 13-cis-retinoic acid, α-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, acetylsalicylic acid, or selenium has demonstrated beneficial and reproducible results. To facilitate the evaluation of promising agents and to lessen the need for a large sample size, extensive time commitment, and expense, surrogate end point biomarker trials are being conducted to assist in identifying the most promising agents for later-stage chemoprevention trials. With the understanding of important cellular signaling pathways and the expansion of potentially important targets, agents (many of which target inflammation and the arachidonic acid pathway) are being developed and tested which may prevent or reverse lung carcinogenesis. Conclusions: By integrating biologic knowledge, additional early-phase trials can be performed in a reasonable time frame. The future of lung cancer chemoprevention should entail the evaluation of single agents or combinations that target various pathways while working toward identification and validation of intermediate end points. PMID:23649449

  18. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a radioactive gas that comes from the breakdown of uranium in rocks and soil. It seeps up through the ground, and leaks ... show that living in areas with higher levels of air pollution increases the risk of lung cancer. Beta carotene ...

  19. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  20. Diabetes but not insulin increases the risk of lung cancer: a Taiwanese population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The trend of lung cancer incidence in Taiwan is unknown, and the association between type 2 diabetes/insulin use and lung cancer is rarely studied. METHODS: The trends of lung cancer incidence in 1979-2007 in the Taiwanese general population were calculated. A random sample of 1,000,000 subjects covered by the National Health Insurance in 2005 was recruited. A total of 494,002 men and 502,948 women and without lung cancer were followed for the annual cumulative incidence of lung cancer in 2005, with calculation of the risk ratios between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Logistic regression estimated the adjusted odds ratios for risk factors. RESULTS: The trends increased significantly in both sexes (P<0.0001. The sex-specific annual cumulative incidence increased with age in either the diabetic or non-diabetic subjects, but the risk ratios attenuated with age. In logistic regressions, diabetes was associated with a significantly higher risk, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval for diabetes duration <1, 1-3, 3-5 and ≥5 years versus non-diabetes of 2.189 (1.498-3.200, 1.420 (1.014-1.988, 1.545 (1.132-2.109, and 1.329 (1.063-1.660, respectively. Such an association was not related to a higher detection with chest X-ray examination. Insulin use and medications including oral anti-diabetic drugs, statin, fibrate, and anti-hypertensive agents were not significantly associated with lung cancer. Age, male sex, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were positively; but dyslipidemia, stroke and higher socioeconomic status were negatively associated with lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes is significantly associated with a higher risk of lung cancer, but insulin use does not increase the risk.

  1. Methodology for development of guidelines for lung cancer: Diagnosis and management of lung cancer, 3rd ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sandra Zelman; Diekemper, Rebecca; Addrizzo-Harris, Doreen J

    2013-05-01

    The objective was to develop high-quality and comprehensive evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis and management of lung cancer. A carefully crafted panel of lung cancer experts, methodologists, and other specialists was assembled and reviewed for relevant conflicts of interest. The American College of Chest Physicians guideline methodology was used. Population, intervention, comparator, outcome (PICO)-based key questions and defined criteria for eligible studies were developed to inform the search strategies, subsequent evidence summaries, and recommendations. Research studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, where they existed, were assessed for quality and summarized to inform the recommendations. Each recommendation was developed with supporting evidence and the consensus of the writing committees. Controversial recommendations were identified for further consultation by the entire panel, with anonymous voting to achieve consensus. The final recommendations can be trusted by health-care providers, patients, and other stakeholders since they are based on the current evidence in these areas and were developed with trustworthy processes for guideline development.

  2. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cima, María Felicitas; García-Pérez, Javier; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Tardón, Adonina; Pollán, Marina

    2011-01-25

    Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39), which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92), residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38). In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76), whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer.

  3. Feasibility of Tomotherapy-based image-guided radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Phong Nguyen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the tolerance of patients with small cell lung cancer undergoing chemoradiation with tomotherapy-based image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT.Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the toxicity profile for nine patients with small cell lung cancer of the limited stage who underwent chemoradiation delivered with helical tomotherapy (HT has been conducted.Results: Acute grade 3-4 hematologic and esophagitis toxicities developed in two and three patients respectively. One patient developed a pulmonary embolism during radiotherapy. Seven patients had weight loss ranging from 0 to 30 pounds (median: 4 pounds. Three patients had treatment breaks ranging from 2 to 12 days. At a median follow-up of 11 months (range: 2-24 months, no patients developed any radiation related toxicities such as grade 3-4 pneumonitis or other long-term complications. The median survival was estimated to be 15 months. There were 2 local recurrences, 3 mediastinal recurrences, and six distant metastases.Conclusion: Grade 3-4 toxicities remained significant during chemoradiation when radiation was delivered with tomotherapy-based IGRT. However, the absence of grade 3-4 pneumonitis is promising and the use of HT needs to be investigated in future prospective studies.

  4. Decision logic for retreatment of asymptomatic lung cancer recurrence based on positron emission tomography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Albert; Lefkowitz, David; Jaeger, Stanley; Gobar, Lisa; Sunderland, John; Gupta, Naresh; Scott, Walter; Mailliard, James; Lynch, Henry; Bishop, John; Thorpe, Patricia; Dewan, Naresh

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine if Positron emission tomography (PET) 2-[F-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) imaging could detect subclinical local lung cancer recurrence and whether retreatment of such recurrence was feasible and beneficial. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with biopsy proven lung cancer were studied with Positron emission tomography for the purpose of detecting subclinical lung cancer recurrence over a period of 4.25 years. All patients were treated with external radiation as part or all of their therapy. Twenty patients had baseline PET and computed tomography (CT) studies for comparison with later studies. Surviving patients had a total of 40 sequential PET scans and 35 CT scans. The follow-up interval ranged from 5 to 40 months posttreatment. The differential uptake ratio (DUR) was determined for regions of interest of increased FDG uptake. Results: The median DUR value of the 20 baseline PET studies was 5.59. The DUR value of greater than 3 was empirically selected as being positive for tumor detection. On baseline studies, PET had a 100% correlation with the CT findings in regard to detection of the site of primary tumor involvement. Four of 20 patients showed areas of discordance in the mediastinal and hilar areas on initial PET and CT studies. Seven of 17 patients showed discordant posttreatment PET-CT findings. Two false positive PET studies were due to radiation pneumonitis and one to macrophage glycolysis in tumor necrosis. For detection of asymptomatic tumor recurrence, analysis of sequential PET and CT studies, biopsy results, and the patient's clinical course suggested that PET had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 89.3%, and accuracy of 92.5%. Computerized Tomography was found to have a sensitivity of 67%, specificity of 85%, and accuracy of 82% for detection of such early-stage recurrence. Five patients went on to have retreatment with external irradiation based upon the PET evidence. Four retreated

  5. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  6. Proteomic-Based Approaches for the Study of Cytokines in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Marrugal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic techniques are currently used to understand the biology of different human diseases, including studies of the cell signaling pathways implicated in cancer progression, which is important in knowing the roles of different proteins in tumor development. Due to its poor prognosis, proteomic approaches are focused on the identification of new biomarkers for the early diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted treatment of lung cancer. Cytokines are proteins involved in inflammatory processes and have been proposed as lung cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets because it has been reported that some cytokines play important roles in tumor development, invasion, and metastasis. In this review, we aim to summarize the different proteomic techniques used to discover new lung cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Several cytokines have been identified as important players in lung cancer using these techniques. We underline the most important cytokines that are useful as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. We also summarize some of the therapeutic strategies targeted for these cytokines in lung cancer.

  7. Automatic feature learning using multichannel ROI based on deep structured algorithms for computerized lung cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqing; Zheng, Bin; Qian, Wei

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the ability of extracting automatically generated features using deep structured algorithms in lung nodule CT image diagnosis, and compare its performance with traditional computer aided diagnosis (CADx) systems using hand-crafted features. All of the 1018 cases were acquired from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) public lung cancer database. The nodules were segmented according to four radiologists' markings, and 13,668 samples were generated by rotating every slice of nodule images. Three multichannel ROI based deep structured algorithms were designed and implemented in this study: convolutional neural network (CNN), deep belief network (DBN), and stacked denoising autoencoder (SDAE). For the comparison purpose, we also implemented a CADx system using hand-crafted features including density features, texture features and morphological features. The performance of every scheme was evaluated by using a 10-fold cross-validation method and an assessment index of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The observed highest area under the curve (AUC) was 0.899±0.018 achieved by CNN, which was significantly higher than traditional CADx with the AUC=0.848±0.026. The results from DBN was also slightly higher than CADx, while SDAE was slightly lower. By visualizing the automatic generated features, we found some meaningful detectors like curvy stroke detectors from deep structured schemes. The study results showed the deep structured algorithms with automatically generated features can achieve desirable performance in lung nodule diagnosis. With well-tuned parameters and large enough dataset, the deep learning algorithms can have better performance than current popular CADx. We believe the deep learning algorithms with similar data preprocessing procedure can be used in other medical image analysis areas as well. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a

  9. Distinctive serum protein profiles involving abundant proteins in lung cancer patients based upon antibody microarray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Wei-Min; Haab, Brian B; Hanash, Samir M; Kuick, Rork; Orchekowski, Randal P; Misek, David E; Qiu, Ji; Greenberg, Alissa K; Rom, William N; Brenner, Dean E; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2005-01-01

    Cancer serum protein profiling by mass spectrometry has uncovered mass profiles that are potentially diagnostic for several common types of cancer. However, direct mass spectrometric profiling has a limited dynamic range and difficulties in providing the identification of the distinctive proteins. We hypothesized that distinctive profiles may result from the differential expression of relatively abundant serum proteins associated with the host response. Eighty-four antibodies, targeting a wide range of serum proteins, were spotted onto nitrocellulose-coated microscope slides. The abundances of the corresponding proteins were measured in 80 serum samples, from 24 newly diagnosed subjects with lung cancer, 24 healthy controls, and 32 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two-color rolling-circle amplification was used to measure protein abundance. Seven of the 84 antibodies gave a significant difference (p < 0.01) for the lung cancer patients as compared to healthy controls, as well as compared to COPD patients. Proteins that exhibited higher abundances in the lung cancer samples relative to the control samples included C-reactive protein (CRP; a 13.3 fold increase), serum amyloid A (SAA; a 2.0 fold increase), mucin 1 and α-1-antitrypsin (1.4 fold increases). The increased expression levels of CRP and SAA were validated by Western blot analysis. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to construct Diagonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (DLDA) classifiers. At a cutoff where all 56 of the non-tumor samples were correctly classified, 15/24 lung tumor patient sera were correctly classified. Our results suggest that a distinctive serum protein profile involving abundant proteins may be observed in lung cancer patients relative to healthy subjects or patients with chronic disease and may have utility as part of strategies for detecting lung cancer

  10. Lung cancer: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pass, Harvey I

    2005-01-01

    "A comprehensive review of lung cancer, from screening, early detection, and prevention, to management strategies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and multimodality therapy, as well...

  11. Lung cancer in younger patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, Leda; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. The incidence increases with age and the occurrence in young patients is relatively low. The clinicopathological features of lung cancer in younger patients have not been fully explored previously. METHODS: To assess the age...... differences in the clinical characteristics of lung cancer, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing young patients ≤ 65 years of age with an elderly group > 65 years of age. Among 1,232 patients evaluated due to suspicion of lung cancer in our fast-track setting from January-December 2013, 312 newly...... diagnosed lung cancer patients were included. RESULTS: Patients ≤ 65 years had a significantly higher representation of females (p = 0.0021), more frequent familial cancer aggregation (p = 0.028) and a lower incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0133). When excluding pure carcinoid tumours...

  12. A population-based evaluation of the seventh edition of the TNM system for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, T-E; Rostad, H; Wentzel-Larsen, T

    2010-01-01

    Our study describes the new seventh edition of the TNM system for lung cancer in a national population and its clinical implications. We classified 1,885 operated patients with lung cancer, reported to the Cancer Registry of Norway (Oslo, Norway) from 2001 to 2005, according to the sixth and the ......Our study describes the new seventh edition of the TNM system for lung cancer in a national population and its clinical implications. We classified 1,885 operated patients with lung cancer, reported to the Cancer Registry of Norway (Oslo, Norway) from 2001 to 2005, according to the sixth...... to stage II and 161 (48%) patients migrated from stage IIB to IIA. Stage migrations could change the treatment for up to 326 (17.3%) of the study patients. The seventh edition did not improve the overall predictive ability of the TNM system; however, the new classification implies changes in treatment...... for nearly one-fifth of the cases. The implications of the seventh TNM edition for the outcomes of patients should be studied further....

  13. Gene therapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloza, Eric M; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2006-09-01

    Lung cancer patients suffer a 15% overall survival despite advances in chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. This unacceptably low survival rate is due to the usual finding of advanced disease at diagnosis. However, multimodality strategies using conventional therapies only minimally improve survival rates even in early stages of lung cancer. Attempts to improve survival in advanced disease using various combinations of platinum-based chemotherapy have demonstrated that no regimen is superior, suggesting a therapeutic plateau and the need for novel, more specific, and less toxic therapeutic strategies. Over the past three decades, the genetic etiology of cancer has been gradually delineated, albeit not yet completely. Understanding the molecular events that occur during the multistep process of bronchogenic carcinogenesis may make these tasks more surmountable. During these same three decades, techniques have been developed which allow transfer of functional genes into mammalian cells. For example, blockade of activated tumor-promoting oncogenes or replacement of inactivated tumor-suppressing or apoptosis-promoting genes can be achieved by gene therapy. This article will discuss the therapeutic implications of these molecular changes associated with bronchogenic carcinomas and will then review the status of gene therapies for treatment of lung cancer. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Six versus fewer planned cycles of first-line platinum-based chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Antonio; Chiodini, Paolo; Sun, Jong-Mu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Platinum-based chemotherapy is the standard first-line treatment for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. However, the optimum number of treatment cycles remains controversial. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data to compare ...

  15. Proteasome-based mechanisms of intrinsic and acquired bortezomib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilt, Leonie H. A. M.; Jansen, Gerrit; Assaraf, Yehuda G.; van Meerloo, Johan; Cloos, Jacqueline; Schimmer, Aaron D.; Chan, Elena T.; Kirk, Christopher J.; Peters, Godefridus J.; Kruyt, Frank A. E.

    2012-01-01

    The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, registered for Multiple Myeloma treatment, is currently explored for activity in solid tumors including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we studied the proteasome-based mechanisms underlying intrinsic and acquired bortezomib resistance in NSCLC cells.

  16. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  17. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the lung cancer and your overall health. Radiation Therapy Radiation is a high-energy X-ray that ... surgery, chemotherapy or both depending upon the circumstances. Radiation therapy works within cancer cells by damaging their ability ...

  18. Cytology-based treatment decision in primary lung cancer: is it accurate enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Lama; Roll, Patrice; Payan, Marie-José; Liprandi, Agnès; Dutau, Hervé; Astoul, Philippe; Robaglia-Schlupp, Andrée; Loundou, Anderson; Barlesi, Fabrice

    2012-03-01

    Accurate distinction of lung cancer types has become increasingly important as recent trials have shown differential response to chemotherapy among non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) subtypes. Cytological procedures are frequently used but their diagnostic accuracy has been previously questioned. However, new endoscopic and cytological techniques might have improved cytological accuracy in comparison with prior findings. The aim of this study was to reassess cytological accuracy for diagnosis of lung cancer subtypes. A retrospective chart review of subjects who underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) for suspicion of lung cancer in 2007-2008, was undertaken. Reports of bronchoscopically derived cytological specimens were compared to those of histological material. Endoscopic findings and specific investigational techniques were taken into account. A total of 467 FOB with both cytological and histological diagnostic techniques were performed in 449 subjects. Patients consisted of 345 men and 104 women (median age, 65 yrs). Cytology proved malignancy in 157 patients. Cytologically diagnosed carcinomas were classified into squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) in 56, adenocarcinoma (ADC) in 6, small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) in 12, non-small cell lung carcinoma not otherwise specified (NSCLC-NOS) in 71, and unclassified carcinoma in 12. Cytology correlated fairly with biopsy specimens, as agreement was observed in 83% of SCLC, 100% of ADC, 74% of SqCC and 8% of NSCLC-NOS. Interestingly, 61% of cytologically identified NSCLC-NOS were classified as ADC by histology. Cytological accuracy improved in case of an endobronchial lesion, mainly for SqCC. These results indicate that cytological accuracy remains fair with regard to diagnosis of squamous and non-squamous lung cancer subtypes. Improvement of cytological accuracy is expected however with novel diagnostic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. BATTLE (Biomarker-based Approaches of Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Elimination)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    lung cancer development. Cancer Res 69:7439–7448 11. Firth SI, Kaufman PL, De Jean BJ, Byers JM, Marshak DW 2002 Innervation of the uvea by galanin and...Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I and risk of squa- mous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix . Clin Cancer Res 9:3356– 3361 15. Silha JV...ability in well- differentiated pancreatic endocrine neoplasms. Clin Cancer Res 10: 6152–6158 46. De Mellow JS, Baxter RC 1988 Growth hormone-dependent

  20. Base excision repair activities differ in human lung cancer cells and corresponding normal controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahalil, Bensu; Bohr, Vilhelm A; De Souza-Pinto, Nadja C

    2010-01-01

    for the repair of oxidized modifications both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. In order to ascertain whether diminished BER capacity might account for increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in cancer cells, the activities of BER enzymes in three different lung cancer cell lines and their non...... cell lines used. However, the specific activities and cancer versus control comparison differed significantly between the nuclear and mitochondrial compartments. OGG1 activity, as measured by 8-oxodA incision, was up-regulated in cancer cell mitochondria but down-regulated in the nucleus when compared...

  1. Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines: How Readable Are Internet-Based Patient Education Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansberry, David Richard; White, Michael D; D'Angelo, Michael; Prabhu, Arpan V; Kamel, Sarah; Lakhani, Paras; Sundaram, Baskaran

    2018-04-30

    Following the findings of the National Lung Screening Trial, several national societies from multiple disciplines have endorsed the use of low-dose chest CT to screen for lung cancer. Online patient education materials are an important tool to disseminate information to the general public regarding the proven health benefits of lung cancer screening. This study aims to evaluate the reading level at which these materials related to lung cancer screening are written. The four terms "pulmonary nodule," "radiation," "low-dose CT," and "lung cancer screening" were searched on Google, and the first 20 online resources for each term were downloaded, converted into plain text, and analyzed using 10 well-established readability scales. If the websites were not written specifically for patients, they were excluded. The 80 articles were written at a 12.6 ± 2.7 (mean ± SD) grade level, with grade levels ranging from 4.0 to 19.0. Of the 80 articles, 62.5% required a high school education to comprehend, and 22.6% required a college degree or higher (≥ 16th grade) to comprehend. Only 2.5% of the analyzed articles adhered to the recommendations of the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association that patient education materials be written at a 3rd- to 7th-grade reading level. Commonly visited online lung cancer screening-related patient education materials are written at a level beyond the general patient population's ability to comprehend and may be contributing to a knowledge gap that is inhibiting patients from improving their health literacy.

  2. Radiomics-based Prognosis Analysis for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yucheng; Oikonomou, Anastasia; Wong, Alexander; Haider, Masoom A.; Khalvati, Farzad

    2017-04-01

    Radiomics characterizes tumor phenotypes by extracting large numbers of quantitative features from radiological images. Radiomic features have been shown to provide prognostic value in predicting clinical outcomes in several studies. However, several challenges including feature redundancy, unbalanced data, and small sample sizes have led to relatively low predictive accuracy. In this study, we explore different strategies for overcoming these challenges and improving predictive performance of radiomics-based prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). CT images of 112 patients (mean age 75 years) with NSCLC who underwent stereotactic body radiotherapy were used to predict recurrence, death, and recurrence-free survival using a comprehensive radiomics analysis. Different feature selection and predictive modeling techniques were used to determine the optimal configuration of prognosis analysis. To address feature redundancy, comprehensive analysis indicated that Random Forest models and Principal Component Analysis were optimum predictive modeling and feature selection methods, respectively, for achieving high prognosis performance. To address unbalanced data, Synthetic Minority Over-sampling technique was found to significantly increase predictive accuracy. A full analysis of variance showed that data endpoints, feature selection techniques, and classifiers were significant factors in affecting predictive accuracy, suggesting that these factors must be investigated when building radiomics-based predictive models for cancer prognosis.

  3. Polonium and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Zagà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210 is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma. According to several studies, the principal source of Po-210 is the fertilizers used in tobacco plants, which are rich in polyphosphates containing radio (Ra-226 and its decay products, lead 210 (Pb-210 and Po-210. Tobacco leaves accumulate Pb-210 and Po-210 through their trichomes, and Pb-210 decays into Po-210 over time. With the combustion of the cigarette smoke becomes radioactive and Pb-210 and Po-210 reach the bronchopulmonary apparatus, especially in bifurcations of segmental bronchi. In this place, combined with other agents, it will manifest its carcinogenic activity, especially in patients with compromised mucous-ciliary clearance. Various studies have confirmed that the radiological risk from Po-210 in a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day for a year is equivalent to the one deriving from 300 chest X-rays, with an autonomous oncogenic capability of 4 lung cancers per 10000 smokers. Po-210 can also be found in passive smoke, since part of Po-210 spreads in the surrounding environment during tobacco combustion. Tobacco manufacturers have been aware of the alpha-radioactivity presence in tobacco smoke since the sixties.

  4. Optical and Functional Imaging in Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. van der Leest (Cor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer related death. In industrialized countries the mortality rate of lung cancer is higher than the mortality rate of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer combined 1. When lung cancer is

  5. History of Depression in Lung Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iachina, M; Brønserud, M M; Jakobsen, E

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the influence of a history of depression in the process of diagnostic evaluation and the choice of treatment in lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analysis was based on all patients with non-small cell lung cancer who were registered in 2008-2014; in total, 27 234 patients....... To estimate the effect of depression on the diagnostic process and the choice of treatment in lung cancer we fitted a logistic regression model and a Cox regression model adjusting for age, gender, resection and stage. RESULTS: Depression in a patient's anamnesis had no significant effect on the delay...... that patients with a history of periodic depression need special attention when diagnosed with lung cancer....

  6. Targeting apoptosis pathways in lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, Milind M.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.; Kruyt, Frank A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is a devastating disease with a poor prognosis. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) represent different forms of lung cancer that are associated with distinct genetic causes and display different responses to therapy in the clinic. Whereas SCLC is often

  7. Estimation of residential radon exposure and definition of Radon Priority Areas based on expected lung cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elío, J; Crowley, Q; Scanlon, R; Hodgson, J; Zgaga, L

    2018-05-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring gas, classified as a Class 1 human carcinogen, being the second most significant cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. A robust spatial definition of radon distribution in the built environment is therefore essential for understanding the relationship between radon exposure and its adverse health effects on the general population. Using Ireland as a case study, we present a methodology to estimate an average indoor radon concentration and calculate the expected radon-related lung cancer incidence. We use this approach to define Radon Priority Areas at the administrative level of Electoral Divisions (EDs). Geostatistical methods were applied to a data set of almost 32,000 indoor radon measurements, sampled in Ireland between 1992 and 2013. Average indoor radon concentrations by ED range from 21 to 338 Bq m -3 , corresponding to an effective dose ranging from 0.8 to 13.3 mSv y -1 respectively. Radon-related lung cancer incidence by ED was calculated using a dose-effect model giving between 15 and 239 cases per million people per year, depending on the ED. Based on these calculations, together with the population density, we estimate that of the approximately 2,300 lung cancer cases currently diagnosed in Ireland annually, about 280 may be directly linked to radon exposure. This figure does not account for the synergistic effect of radon exposure with other factors (e.g. tobacco smoking), so likely represents a minimum estimate. Our approach spatially defines areas with the expected highest incidence of radon-related lung cancer, even though indoor radon concentrations for these areas may be moderate or low. We therefore recommend that both indoor radon concentration and population density by small area are considered when establishing national radon action plans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Sensor-Based Wrist Pulse Signal Processing and Lung Cancer Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichao; Zhang, Yuan; Song, Houbing; Yao, Lina; Kos, Anton

    2018-02-08

    Pulse diagnosis is an efficient method in traditional Chinese medicine for detecting the health status of a person in a non-invasive and convenient way. Jin's pulse diagnosis (JPD) is a very efficient recent development that is gradually recognized and well validated by the medical community in recent years. However, no acceptable results have been achieved for lung cancer recognition in the field of biomedical signal processing using JPD. More so, there is no standard JPD pulse feature defined with respect to pulse signals. Our work is designed mainly for care giving service conveniently at home to the people having lung cancer by proposing a novel wrist pulse signal processing method, having an insight from JPD. We developed an iterative slide window (ISW) algorithm to segment the de-noised signal into single periods. We analyzed the characteristics of the segmented pulse waveform and for the first time summarized 26 features to classify the pulse waveforms of healthy individuals and lung cancer patients using a cubic support vector machine (CSVM). The result achieved by the proposed method is found to be 78.13% accurate. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Evidence-based recommendations of postoperative radiotherapy in lung cancer from Oncologic Group for the Study of Lung Cancer (Spanish Radiation Oncology Society).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A; González, J A; Couñago, F; Vallejo, C; Casas, F; de Dios, N Rodríguez

    2016-04-01

    Locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a diversified illness in which postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) for complete resection with positive hiliar (pN1) and/or mediastinal (pN2) lymph nodes is controversial. Although several studies have shown that PORT has beneficial effects, randomized trials are needed to demonstrate its impact on overall survival. In this review, the Spanish Radiation Oncology Group for Lung Cancer describes the most relevant literature on PORT in NSCLC patients stage pN1-2. In addition, we have outlined the current recommendations of different national and international clinical guidelines and have also specified practical issues regarding treatment volume definition, doses and fractionation.

  10. HapMap-based study of the DNA repair gene ERCC2 and lung cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Jiaoyang; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Ma, Yegang

    2009-01-01

    (NER) pathway. To elucidate whether common ERCC2 variants are associated with lung cancer susceptibility, we conducted a case–control study consisting of 339 cases with primary lung cancer and 358 controls matched on age, gender and ethnicity in a Chinese population. Six haplotype tagging single...... polymorphisms. Our results provide evidence to support a role for ERCC2 in lung cancer development in a Chinese population....

  11. Application of machine learning methodology for pet-based definition of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerhet, A.; Small, C.; Quon, H.; Riauka, T.; Schrader, L.; Greiner, R.; Yee, D.; McEwan, A.; Roa, W.

    2010-01-01

    We applied a learning methodology framework to assist in the threshold-based segmentation of non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) tumours in positron-emission tomography–computed tomography (pet–ct) imaging for use in radiotherapy planning. Gated and standard free-breathing studies of two patients were independently analysed (four studies in total). Each study had a pet–ct and a treatment-planning ct image. The reference gross tumour volume (gtv) was identified by two experienced radiation oncologists who also determined reference standardized uptake value (suv) thresholds that most closely approximated the gtv contour on each slice. A set of uptake distribution-related attributes was calculated for each pet slice. A machine learning algorithm was trained on a subset of the pet slices to cope with slice-to-slice variation in the optimal suv threshold: that is, to predict the most appropriate suv threshold from the calculated attributes for each slice. The algorithm’s performance was evaluated using the remainder of the pet slices. A high degree of geometric similarity was achieved between the areas outlined by the predicted and the reference suv thresholds (Jaccard index exceeding 0.82). No significant difference was found between the gated and the free-breathing results in the same patient. In this preliminary work, we demonstrated the potential applicability of a machine learning methodology as an auxiliary tool for radiation treatment planning in nsclc. PMID:20179802

  12. The emerging roles of NGS-based liquid biopsy in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The treatment paradigm of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC has evolved into oncogene-directed precision medicine. Identifying actionable genomic alterations is the initial step towards precision medicine. An important scientific progress in molecular profiling of NSCLC over the past decade is the shift from the traditional piecemeal fashion to massively parallel sequencing with the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS. Another technical advance is the development of liquid biopsy with great potential in providing a dynamic and comprehensive genomic profiling of NSCLC in a minimally invasive manner. The integration of NGS with liquid biopsy has been demonstrated to play emerging roles in genomic profiling of NSCLC by increasing evidences. This review summarized the potential applications of NGS-based liquid biopsy in the diagnosis and treatment of NSCLC including identifying actionable genomic alterations, tracking spatiotemporal tumor evolution, dynamically monitoring response and resistance to targeted therapies, and diagnostic value in early-stage NSCLC, and discussed emerging challenges to overcome in order to facilitate clinical translation in future.

  13. Measurement of Tumor Volumes Improves RECIST-Based Response Assessments in Advanced Lung Cancer1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozley, P David; Bendtsen, Claus; Zhao, Binsheng; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Thorn, Matthias; Rong, Yuanxin; Zhang, Luduan; Perrone, Andrea; Korn, René; Buckler, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to characterize the reproducibility of measurement for tumor volumes and their longest tumor diameters (LDs) and estimate the potential impact of using changes in tumor volumes instead of LDs as the basis for response assessments. METHODS: We studied patients with advanced lung cancer who have been observed longitudinally with x-ray computed tomography in a multinational trial. A total of 71 time points from 10 patients with 13 morphologically complex target lesions were analyzed. A total of 6461 volume measurements and their corresponding LDs were made by seven independent teams using their own work flows and image analysis tools. Interteam agreement and overall interrater concurrence were characterized. RESULTS: Interteam agreement between volume measurements was better than between LD measurements (ı = 0.945 vs 0.734, P = .005). The variability in determining the nadir was lower for volumes than for LDs (P = .005). Use of standard thresholds for the RECIST-based method and use of experimentally determined cutoffs for categorizing responses showed that volume measurements had a significantly greater sensitivity for detecting partial responses and disease progression. Earlier detection of progression would have led to earlier changes in patient management in most cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that measurement of changes in tumor volumes is adequately reproducible. Using tumor volumes as the basis for response assessments could have a positive impact on both patient management and clinical trials. More authoritative work to qualify or discard changes in volume as the basis for response assessments should proceed. PMID:22348172

  14. Lung cancer in the Kashmir valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Parvaiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer has been found to be the second commonest cancer according to a hospital-based data from Kashmir, India. However, no incidence studies are available. Objective: To ascertain the incidence of lung cancer in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: All newly histologically diagnosed cases of lung cancer seen in various hospital and private laboratories of the Kashmir valley were registered over a period of two years (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005. Also included were patients attending the various oncological service areas of the institute and those diagnosed from any other laboratory outside the state. The incidence rate was calculated using the January 2005 population as the reference population estimated using the census-based projected populations. Results: Four hundred and sixty-two incident cases of lung cancer were seen during the study period. The crude incidence rate, age standardized (world and truncated age adjusted (40-69 years, world incidence rates for lung cancer per 100 000 population were 4.01, 6.48 and 15.28 respectively (males 6.55, 10.09 and 23.94 respectively and females 1.19, 2.14 and 4.65. The age adjusted rates for males in district Srinagar was 19.34 per 100 000. One hundred and fifty nine (69.8% of the 221 had a history of Hukkah smoking. Conclusions: Even though Kashmir as a whole is a low incidence area for lung cancer (ASR of < 15, Srinagar district has the highest incidence of lung cancer among the males in Kashmir. The data presented is assumed to be the closest approximation to a population-based data registry and the geographical incidence maps of ICMR need appropriate updating

  15. Using gEUD based plan analysis method to evaluate proton vs. photon plans for lung cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiyan; Zou, Wei J; Chen, Ting; Yue, Ning J; Jabbour, Salma K; Parikh, Rahul; Zhang, Miao

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this study was to exam the efficacy of current DVH based clinical guidelines draw from photon experience for lung cancer radiation therapy on proton therapy. Comparison proton plans and IMRT plans were generated for 10 lung patients treated in our proton facility. A gEUD based plan evaluation method was developed for plan evaluation. This evaluation method used normal lung gEUD(a) curve in which the model parameter "a" was sampled from the literature reported value. For all patients, the proton plans delivered lower normal lung V 5 Gy with similar V 20 Gy and similar target coverage. Based on current clinical guidelines, proton plans were ranked superior to IMRT plans for all 10 patients. However, the proton and IMRT normal lung gEUD(a) curves crossed for 8 patients within the tested range of "a", which means there was a possibility that proton plan would be worse than IMRT plan for lung sparing. A concept of deficiency index (DI) was introduced to quantify the probability of proton plans doing worse than IMRT plans. By applying threshold on DI, four patients' proton plan was ranked inferior to the IMRT plan. Meanwhile if a threshold to the location of curve crossing was applied, 6 patients' proton plan was ranked inferior to the IMRT plan. The contradictory ranking results between the current clinical guidelines and the gEUD(a) curve analysis demonstrated there is potential pitfalls by applying photon experience directly to the proton world. A comprehensive plan evaluation based on radio-biological models should be carried out to decide if a lung patient would really be benefit from proton therapy. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. Patients with ROS1 rearrangement?positive non?small?cell lung cancer benefit from pemetrexed?based chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Zhengbo; Su, Haiyan; Zhang, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract ROS1 gene?rearrangement in non?small?cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients has recently been identified as a driver gene and benefited from crizotinib treatment. However, no data are available for ROS1?positive NSCLC about chemotherapeutic options and prognostic data. We investigated pemetrexed?based treatment efficacy in ROS1 translocation NSCLC patients and determined the expression of thymidylate synthetase (TS) to provide a rationale for the efficacy results. We determined the ROS1 s...

  17. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to help prepare meals or do the grocery shopping for you. Most people you know want to ... Better Breathers Clubs Asthma Basics LUNG FORCE Expos Online Support Communities FUNDRAISERS Fight For Air Climb LUNG ...

  18. Risk factors and survival outcome for non-elective referral in non-small cell lung cancer patients--analysis based on the National Lung Cancer Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, P; Tata, L J; Hubbard, R B

    2014-03-01

    Survival after diagnosis of lung cancer is poor and seemingly lower in the UK than other Western countries, due in large part to late presentation with advanced disease precluding curative treatment. Recent research suggests that around one-third of lung cancer patients reach specialist care after emergency presentation and have a worse survival outcome. Confirmation of these data and understanding which patients are affected may allow a targeted approach to improving outcomes. We used data from the UK National Lung Cancer Audit in a multivariate logistic regression model to quantify the association of non-elective referral in non-small cell lung cancer patients with covariates including age, sex, stage, performance status, co-morbidity and socioeconomic status and used the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model to quantify survival by source of referral. In an analysis of 133,530 cases of NSCLC who presented 2006-2011, 19% of patients were referred non-electively (following an emergency admission to hospital or following an emergency presentation to A&E). This route of referral was strongly associated with more advanced disease stage (e.g. in Stage IV - OR: 2.34, 95% CI: 2.14-2.57, p<0.001) and worse performance status (e.g. in PS 4 - OR: 7.28, 95% CI: 6.75-7.86, p<0.001), but was also independently associated with worse socioeconomic status, and extremes of age. These patients were more likely to have died within 1 year of diagnosis (hazard ratio of 1.51 (95% CI: 1.49-1.54) after adjustment for key clinical variables. Our data confirm and quantify poorer survival in lung cancer patients who are referred non-electively to specialist care, which is more common in patients with poorer performance status, higher disease stage and less advantaged socioeconomic status. Work to tackle this late presentation should be urgently accelerated, since its realisation holds the promise of improved outcomes and better healthcare resource utilisation. Copyright

  19. Technical Note: Is bulk electron density assignment appropriate for MRI-only based treatment planning for lung cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Phil; Chen, Xinfeng; Gore, Elizabeth; Johnstone, Candice; Li, X Allen

    2017-07-01

    MRI-based treatment planning in radiation therapy (RT) is prohibitive, in part, due to the lack of electron density (ED) information within the image. The dosimetric differences between MRI- and CT-based planning for intensity modulated RT (IMRT) of lung cancer were investigated to assess the appropriateness of bulk ED assignment. Planning CTs acquired for six representative lung cancer patients were used to generate bulk ED IMRT plans. To avoid the effect of anatomic differences between CT and MRI, "simulated MRI-based plans" were generated by forcing the relative ED (rED) to water on CT-delineated structures using organ specific values from the ICRU Report 46 and using the mean rED value of the internal target volume (ITV) from the planning CT. The "simulated MRI-based plans" were generated using a research planning system (Monaco v5.09.07a, Elekta, AB) and employing Monte Carlo dose calculation. The following dose-volume-parameters (DVPs) were collected from both the "simulated MRI-based plans" and the original planning CT: D 95 , the dose delivered to 95% of the ITV & planning target volume (PTV), D 5 and V 5 , the volume of normal lung irradiated ≥5 Gy. The percent point difference and relative dose difference were used for comparison with the CT based plan for V 5 and D 95 respectively. A total of five plans per patient were generated; three with the ITV rED (rED ITV ) = 1.06, 1.0 and the mean value from the planning CT while the lung rED (rED lung ) was fixed at the ICRU value of 0.26 and two with rED lung = 0.1 and 0.5 while the rED ITV was fixed to the mean value from the planning CT. Noticeable differences in the ITV and PTV DVPs were observed. Variations of the normal lung V 5 can be as large as 9.6%. In some instances, varying the rED ITV between rED mean and 1.06 resulted in D 95 increases ranging from 3.9% to 6.3%. Bulk rED assignment on normal lung affected the DVPs of the ITV and PTV by 4.0-9.8% and 0.3-19.6% respectively. Dose volume histograms

  20. Radioimmunoscintigraphy in lung cancer diagnosing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjikostova, H.

    1999-01-01

    As the lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer at males, the exact staging is essential. Monoclonal antibodies marked with radionuclides like 131 I, 111 In, 99m Tc, etc., allow detecting and staging the small cell lung cancer with sensibility 90%, specificity 45% and accuracy 85%. It is suggested this method to be applied simultaneously with computerized tomography. The diagnostic possibility of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) in earlier detection, recurrence or metastasis as well as follow up the effect of therapy performed at patients with lung cancer are reviewed. RIS is performed with IODOMAB-R-2 (Sorin Biomedica) 131 I antiCEA Mob F(ab') 2 , dose 92.5-185 MBq. Planar images were performed 72 hours after i.v. injection. Four patients with epidermoid squamous cell cancer were examined. Positive results were obtained at 3 patients and one false negative. In general sensitivity of radioimmunoscintigraphy of lung cancer is 75-90%. However there are difficulties at its application linked with necessity of permanent availability of radiolabelled antibodies with high specific activity at the moment of their injection. Despite all radioimmunoscintigraphy is developing as an useful diagnostic method for evaluation and follow up of lung cancer patients

  1. Spine Metastases in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Stolyarova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and the objectives of the study were to determine the incidence of metastatic lesions to various parts of the spine, the assessment of the association with other clinical signs of lung cancer (localization, form, histology, degree of differentiation, staging, nature of extraosseous metastasis, to investigate the effect of these parameters on the survi­val of the patients. Material and methods. The study included 1071 patients with lung cancer aged 24 to 86 years. None of the examined patients has been operated previously for lung cancer, and after arriving at a diagnosis, all patients received radiation therapy, 73 % of them — combined radiochemothe­rapy. Results. Metastasis in the vertebral bodies and vertebral joints occurs in 13 % of patients with lung cancer and in 61 % of patients with bone form of the disease, the ratio of the defeat of thoracic, sacral, lumbar and cervical spine was 6 : 4 : 2 : 1. The development of metastases in the spine is mostly associa­ted with the localization of the tumor in the upper lobe of the lung, the peripheral form of the disease, with non-small cell histologic variants (adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The number of metastases in the spinal column directly correlates with the degree of metastatic involvement of the inguinal lymph nodes, abdominal wall and the liver, has an impact on the invasion of lung tumor into the esophagus and the trachea. The life expectancy of the deceased persons with spine metastases is less than that of other patients with the lung cancer, but the overall survival rate in these groups of patients is not very different. Conclusions. Clinical features of lung cancer with metastases in the spine necessitate the development of medical technology of rational radiochemotherapy in such patients.

  2. Development of a risk prediction model for lung cancer: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Hadrien; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Shimazu, Taichi; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Inoue, Manami; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2018-03-01

    Although the impact of tobacco consumption on the occurrence of lung cancer is well-established, risk estimation could be improved by risk prediction models that consider various smoking habits, such as quantity, duration, and time since quitting. We constructed a risk prediction model using a population of 59 161 individuals from the Japan Public Health Center (JPHC) Study Cohort II. A parametric survival model was used to assess the impact of age, gender, and smoking-related factors (cumulative smoking intensity measured in pack-years, age at initiation, and time since cessation). Ten-year cumulative probability of lung cancer occurrence estimates were calculated with consideration of the competing risk of death from other causes. Finally, the model was externally validated using 47 501 individuals from JPHC Study Cohort I. A total of 1210 cases of lung cancer occurred during 986 408 person-years of follow-up. We found a dose-dependent effect of tobacco consumption with hazard ratios for current smokers ranging from 3.78 (2.00-7.16) for cumulative consumption ≤15 pack-years to 15.80 (9.67-25.79) for >75 pack-years. Risk decreased with time since cessation. Ten-year cumulative probability of lung cancer occurrence estimates ranged from 0.04% to 11.14% in men and 0.07% to 6.55% in women. The model showed good predictive performance regarding discrimination (cross-validated c-index = 0.793) and calibration (cross-validated χ 2 = 6.60; P-value = .58). The model still showed good discrimination in the external validation population (c-index = 0.772). In conclusion, we developed a prediction model to estimate the probability of developing lung cancer based on age, gender, and tobacco consumption. This model appears useful in encouraging high-risk individuals to quit smoking and undergo increased surveillance. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  3. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  4. The benefit of cisplatin-based polychemotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the lung. The Kyushu Lung Cancer Chemotherapy Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, N; Ohta, M; Ichikawa, Y; Kanda, T; Shima, K; Tamura, K; Hokama, M

    1990-01-01

    We studied the efficacy of cisplatin-based polychemotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the lung. A total of 136 patients were randomized for treatment with either cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, cisplatin and mitomycin C (CAPM) or mitomycin C, cytosine arabinoside and tegafur (MCT). Radiation was given to the chests of patients at stage III. The differences in the response rate (35% in the CAPM arm and 13% in the MCT arm) were statistically significant (P less than 0.01). However, the significant difference was observed in stage-IV patients (CAPM, 33%; MCT, 4%; P less than 0.001) and not in stage-III patients (CAPM, 40%; MCT, 40%). The median period of survival was 9.5 months for the CAPM arm and 5.5 months for the MCT arm (P less than 0.035, Wilcoxon-Gehan test; P less than 0.1, log-rank test). Improved median survival for the CAPM regimen was demonstrated only by stage-IV patients (CAPM, 10 months; MCT, 5.5 months; P less than 0.025, Wilcoxon-Gehan test; P less than 0.05, log-rank test). The duration of the response, including PRs and NCs, was significantly different depending on the treatment, showing 5 months for the CAPM arm and 3 months for the MCT arm (P less than 0.05). The significant difference was also only observed in stage-IV patients. Myelosuppression was more severe with CAPM than with the MCT regimen. Nausea and vomiting were significantly increased in patients receiving the CAPM regimen. However, all toxicities were acceptable and there were no treatment-related deaths. We concluded that cisplatin-based chemotherapy, CAPM therapy, was of more benefit to patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung than MCT therapy.

  5. Markerless gating for lung cancer radiotherapy based on machine learning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Tong; Li Ruijiang; Tang Xiaoli; Jiang, Steve B; Dy, Jennifer G

    2009-01-01

    In lung cancer radiotherapy, radiation to a mobile target can be delivered by respiratory gating, for which we need to know whether the target is inside or outside a predefined gating window at any time point during the treatment. This can be achieved by tracking one or more fiducial markers implanted inside or near the target, either fluoroscopically or electromagnetically. However, the clinical implementation of marker tracking is limited for lung cancer radiotherapy mainly due to the risk of pneumothorax. Therefore, gating without implanted fiducial markers is a promising clinical direction. We have developed several template-matching methods for fluoroscopic marker-less gating. Recently, we have modeled the gating problem as a binary pattern classification problem, in which principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) are combined to perform the classification task. Following the same framework, we investigated different combinations of dimensionality reduction techniques (PCA and four nonlinear manifold learning methods) and two machine learning classification methods (artificial neural networks-ANN and SVM). Performance was evaluated on ten fluoroscopic image sequences of nine lung cancer patients. We found that among all combinations of dimensionality reduction techniques and classification methods, PCA combined with either ANN or SVM achieved a better performance than the other nonlinear manifold learning methods. ANN when combined with PCA achieves a better performance than SVM in terms of classification accuracy and recall rate, although the target coverage is similar for the two classification methods. Furthermore, the running time for both ANN and SVM with PCA is within tolerance for real-time applications. Overall, ANN combined with PCA is a better candidate than other combinations we investigated in this work for real-time gated radiotherapy.

  6. Improving the Diagnostic Specificity of CT for Early Detection of Lung Cancer: 4D CT-Based Pulmonary Nodule Elastometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A549 and SK-MES-1 cells from American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC), carbon nanotubes (catalogue number 900–1501, lot GS1801), SES research...protocol and optimize software 3a. Inoculate 10 rats with orthotopic human lung cancer cells ( A549 , left lung) and carbon nanotubes (right lung...benign lesions and follow with serial MicroCT imaging, analyze data 4a. Inoculate remaining 40 rats ( A549 cells, left lung in Rowett nude rats) and

  7. BARD1 serum autoantibodies for the detection of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilyugin, Maxim; Descloux, Pascaline; André, Pierre-Alain; Laszlo, Viktoria; Dome, Balazs; Hegedus, Balazs; Sardy, Sylvain; Janes, Samuel; Bianco, Andrea; Laurent, Geoffrey J; Irminger-Finger, Irmgard

    2017-01-01

    Currently the screening for lung cancer for risk groups is based on Computed Tomography (CT) or low dose CT (LDCT); however, the lung cancer death rate has not decreased significantly with people undergoing LDCT. We aimed to develop a simple reliable blood test for early detection of all types of lung cancer based on the immunogenicity of aberrant forms of BARD1 that are specifically upregulated in lung cancer. ELISA assays were performed with a panel of BARD1 epitopes to detect serum levels of antibodies against BARD1 epitopes. We tested 194 blood samples from healthy donors and lung cancer patients with a panel of 40 BARD1 antigens. Using fitted Lasso logistic regression we determined the optimal combination of BARD1 antigens to be used in ELISA for discriminating lung cancer from healthy controls. Random selection of samples for training sets or validations sets was applied to validate the accuracy of our test. Fitted Lasso logistic regression models predict high accuracy of the BARD1 autoimmune antibody test with an AUC = 0.96. Validation in independent samples provided and AUC = 0.86 and identical AUCs were obtained for combined stages 1-3 and late stage 4 lung cancers. The BARD1 antibody test is highly specific for lung cancer and not breast or ovarian cancer. The BARD1 lung cancer test shows higher sensitivity and specificity than previously published blood tests for lung cancer detection and/or diagnosis or CT scans, and it could detect all types and all stages of lung cancer. This BARD1 lung cancer test could therefore be further developed as i) screening test for early detection of lung cancers in high-risk groups, and ii) diagnostic aid in complementing CT scan.

  8. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Lung Cancer Biomarker Using Nanoporous Biosensor Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Coupled with Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sung Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a nanobiosensor to evaluate a lung cancer-specific biomarker. The nanobiosensor is based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO chip and functions on the principles of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR and interferometry. The pore-depth of the fabricated nanoporous AAO chip was 1 µm and was obtained using a two-step electrochemical anodization process. The sensor chip is sensitive to the refractive index (RI changes of the surrounding medium and also provides simple and label-free detection when specific antibodies are immobilized on the gold-deposited surface of the AAO chip. In order to confirm the effectiveness of the sensor, the antibodies were immobilized on the surface of the AAO chip, and the lung cancer-specific biomarker was applied atop of the immobilized-antibody layer using the self-assembled monolayer method. The nanoporous AAO chip was used as a sensor system to detect serum amyloid A1, which is a lung cancer-specific biomarker. The specific reaction of the antigen-antibody contributes to the change in the RI. This in turn causes a shift in the resonance spectrum in the refractive interference pattern. The limit of detection (LOD was found to be 100 ag/mL and the biosensor had high sensitivity over a wide concentration range.

  9. Potentially Curative Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Norway: A Population-Based Study of Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, Trond-Eirik; Brunsvig, Paal Fredrik; Johannessen, Dag Clement; Sundstrom, Stein; Wang, Mari; Hornslien, Kjersti; Bremnes, Roy Martin; Stensvold, Andreas; Garpestad, Oddveig; Norstein, Jarle

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The efficacy of curative irradiation in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer patients is considered limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term survival in a population-based approach. Methods and Materials: Cases of non-small-cell lung cancer diagnosed from 1993 to 2001 were identified in the Cancer Registry of Norway. Electronic linkage with national data from the hospitals' radiotherapy verification systems identified those who received potentially curative doses (≥50 Gy). Hospital records were reviewed for all patients. Results: A total of 497 patients (336 men) were identified with a radiation dose of ≥50 Gy delivered to the lung region. Of these, 41% received 60 Gy or more. The majority (70%) of patients included had advanced stage disease: 24% Stage IIIA and 46% Stage IIIB. The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year observed survival rates were 53%, 16%, and 9%, respectively. Multivariable analyses identified stage and chemotherapy, but not radiation dose, as significant independent prognostic variables for survival. However, 68% of patients treated with chemotherapy participated in prospective studies with inclusion criteria that excluded patients with less favorable prognostic factors, leading to a selection bias. The number of fractions and the radiation doses varied widely among different hospitals. Conclusion: The long-term prognosis after radiation therapy is poor. More sophisticated, targeted, and uniform delivery of radiation therapy is needed. The apparent benefit of chemotherapy may in part be due to selection of patients with more favorable prognostic factors for this therapy.

  10. Lung Cancer Screening May Benefit Those at Highest Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    People at the highest risk for lung cancer, based on a risk model, may be more likely to benefit from screening with low-dose CT, a new analysis suggests. The study authors believe the findings may better define who should undergo lung cancer screening, as this Cancer Currents blog post explains.

  11. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauczor, H.U.; Bonomo, L.; Gaga, M.; Nackaerts, K.; Peled, N.; Prokop, M.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Stackelberg, O. von; Sculier, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the

  12. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction of CT histogram based feature space for predicting recurrence-free survival in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Ohmatsu, H.; Aokage, K.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.

    2015-03-01

    Advantages of CT scanners with high resolution have allowed the improved detection of lung cancers. In the recent release of positive results from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) in the US showing that CT screening does in fact have a positive impact on the reduction of lung cancer related mortality. While this study does show the efficacy of CT based screening, physicians often face the problems of deciding appropriate management strategies for maximizing patient survival and for preserving lung function. Several key manifold-learning approaches efficiently reveal intrinsic low-dimensional structures latent in high-dimensional data spaces. This study was performed to investigate whether the dimensionality reduction can identify embedded structures from the CT histogram feature of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) space to improve the performance in predicting the likelihood of RFS for patients with NSCLC.

  13. Alternative Splicing in Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pio, Ruben; Montuenga, Luis M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Alterations in alternative splicing affect essential biologic processes and are the basis for a number of pathologic conditions, including cancer. In this review we will summarize the evidence supporting the relevance of alternative splicing in lung cancer. An example that illustrates this relevance is the altered balance between Bcl-xL and Bcl-xS, two splice variants of the apoptosis regulator Bcl-x. Splice modifications in cancer-related genes can be associated ...

  14. Helical Tomotherapy Planning for Lung Cancer Based on Ventilation Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jing; McLawhorn, Robert; Altes, Tallisa A.; Lange, Eduard de; Read, Paul W.; Larner, James M.; Benedict, Stanley H.; Sheng Ke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of lung ventilation-based treatment planning, computed tomography and hyperpolarized (HP) helium-3 (He-3) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ventilation images of 6 subjects were coregistered for intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning in Tomotherapy. Highly-functional lungs (HFL) and less-functional lungs (LFL) were contoured based on their ventilation image intensities, and a cylindrical planning-target-volume was simulated at locations adjacent to both HFL and LFL. Annals of an anatomy-based plan (Plan 1) and a ventilation-based plan (Plan 2) were generated. The following dosimetric parameters were determined and compared between the 2 plans: percentage of total/HFL volume receiving ≥20 Gy, 15 Gy, 10 Gy, and 5 Gy (TLV 20 , HFLV 20 , TLV 15 , HFLV 15 , TLV 10 , HFLV 10 , TLV 5 , HFLV 5 ), mean total/HFL dose (MTLD/HFLD), maximum doses to all organs at risk (OARs), and target dose conformality. Compared with Plan 1, Plan 2 reduced mean HFLD (mean reduction, 0.8 Gy), MTLD (mean reduction, 0.6 Gy), HFLV 20 (mean reduction, 1.9%), TLV 20 (mean reduction, 1.5%), TLV 15 (mean reduction, 1.7%), and TLV 10 (mean reduction, 2.1%). P-values of the above comparisons are less than 0.05 using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. For HFLV 15 , HFLV 10 , TLV 5 , and HTLV 5 , Plan 2 resulted in lower values than plan 1 but the differences are not significant (P-value range, 0.063–0.219). Plan 2 did not significantly change maximum doses to OARs (P-value range, 0.063–0.563) and target conformality (P = 1.000). HP He-3 MRI of patients with lung disease shows a highly heterogeneous ventilation capacity that can be utilized for functional treatment planning. Moderate but statistically significant improvements in sparing functional lungs were achieved using helical tomotherapy plans.

  15. Lung Cancer and Tobacco: What Is New?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Sarna, Linda

    2017-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Tobacco use remains the single most important preventable cause of cancer and is responsible for 80% of all cases of lung cancer. Implementation of tobacco control measures, including preventing initiation and treating dependence, are pivotal to address the lung cancer epidemic. New evidence continues to emerge on the significant positive impact of incorporating tobacco dependence treatment within all lung cancer treatment protocols. Evidence and guidelines on how to implement these strategies exist and present an opportunity for nurses to make a difference in reducing suffering and preventing deaths from lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. COPD and lung cancer in patients with pemphigus- a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridin, Khalaf; Comaneshter, Doron; Batat, Erez; Cohen, Arnon D

    2018-03-01

    Recent evidence indicates that autoimmunity may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD was observed at higher frequency in patients with several autoimmune diseases. The association between pemphigus and COPD has not been evaluated in the past. To study the association between pemphigus and COPD using a large-scale real-life computerized database. A cross-sectional study was conducted comparing pemphigus patients with age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched control subjects regarding the prevalence of COPD and lung cancer. Chi-square and t-tests were used for bivariate analysis, and logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. The study was performed utilizing the computerized database of Clalit Health Services ensuring 4.4 million subjects. A total of 1985 pemphigus patients and 9874 controls were included in the study. The prevalence of COPD was greater in patients with pemphigus as compared to the control group (13.4% vs. 10.1%, respectively; P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis adjusting for smoking and other confounding factors, pemphigus was significantly associated with COPD (OR, 1.312-1. 5) but not with lung cancer. Study findings were robust to sensitivity analysis that included patients under pemphigus-specific treatments. A significant association was found between COPD and pemphigus. Physicians treating patients with pemphigus might be aware of this possible association. This observation may further support the hypothesis that COPD has an autoimmune component. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. PET in lung cancer staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, R. E. [Duke University Medical Center, Dept. of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The primary clinical application of FDG-PET is in the evaluation of patients with lung cancer and includes diagnosis, staging and restaging of non-small cell lung cancer. PET has a very high accuracy (sensitivity=97%, specificity=78%) for characterizing nodules that are indeterminate by chest radiograph and computed tomography. The major utility of PET in the evaluation of patients with lung cancer is the staging of the entire body. PET is more accurate than the conventional imaging modalities of CT and bone scans in the detection of metastatic disease. PET is accurate in the staging of the mediastinum, adrenal glands, and the skeletal system. PET is not as accurate in the detection of brain metastases because of their small size and the normal cortical accumulation.

  18. Socioeconomic position and survival after lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalton, Susanne O.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Jakobsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    conditions and socioeconomic information (education, income and cohabitation status) from nationwide population-based registers. Associations between SEP and receipt of first-line treatment were analysed in multivariate logistic regression models and those with overall mortality in Cox regression models......BACKGROUND: To address social inequality in survival after lung cancer, it is important to consider how socioeconomic position (SEP) influences prognosis. We investigated whether SEP influenced receipt of first-line treatment and whether socioeconomic differences in survival could be explained...... by differences in stage, treatment and comorbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Danish Lung Cancer Register, we identified 13 045 patients with lung cancer diagnosed in 2004-2010, with information on stage, histology, performance status and first-line treatment. We obtained age, gender, vital status, comorbid...

  19. Laryngeal metastasis from lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Umasankar; Madan, Karan; Jain, Deepali; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of the larynx are rare. The most common tumors metastasizing to the larynx are melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Bronchogenic carcinoma metastasizing to the larynx has been rarely described. Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old, chronic smoker, who incidentally had a laryngeal growth detected during flexible bronchoscopy examination for evaluation of suspected lung cancer. Histopathological examination of the laryngeal nodule and the biopsy obtained from the main bronchus growth confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the larynx from primary lung cancer. PMID:25983415

  20. Laryngeal metastasis from lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umasankar Kalai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors of the larynx are rare. The most common tumors metastasizing to the larynx are melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Bronchogenic carcinoma metastasizing to the larynx has been rarely described. Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old, chronic smoker, who incidentally had a laryngeal growth detected during flexible bronchoscopy examination for evaluation of suspected lung cancer. Histopathological examination of the laryngeal nodule and the biopsy obtained from the main bronchus growth confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the larynx from primary lung cancer.

  1. Nationwide quality improvement in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik Winther; Green, Anders; Oesterlind, Kell

    2013-01-01

    To improve prognosis and quality of lung cancer care the Danish Lung Cancer Group has developed a strategy consisting of national clinical guidelines and a clinical quality and research database. The first edition of our guidelines was published in 1998 and our national lung cancer registry...... was opened for registrations in 2000. This article describes methods and results obtained by multidisciplinary collaboration and illustrates how quality of lung cancer care can be improved by establishing and monitoring result and process indicators....

  2. TU-E-BRA-10: Personalized Utility Function for Radiotherapy Based on Pulmonary Ventilation of Locally Advanced Lung Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Diwanji, T; Mistry, N; Lu, W; D'Souza, W

    2012-06-01

    To develop tailor-made utility functions based on each patient's pulmonary function distribution so that personalized organ-function-based treatment plan is obtained for locally advanced lung cancer patients. Five locally advanced lung cancer patients were retrospectively evaluated in the study. Fractional regional ventilation was obtained by performing subtraction of spatially matched and corrected 4DCT images. Histogram of the fraction ventilation values was generated for each patient. The cumulative distribution function (CDF), which represented an inverse relationship with the desired dose to each voxel for function preservation, showed potential as personalized utility function. In order to spare the majority of the volume with pulmonary function, a more aggressive utility function was defined as a piece-wise linear function based on the most frequent fractional ventilation value (peak of the histogram). This utility function was used in the objective function during treatment planning. Conventional objectives and constraints were maintained during the planning process. Both conventional plan and personalized functional plan were classified as satisfactory plans by physician based on conventional dose and dose-volume metrics. However, functional plan successfully spared high ventilation volume based on each patient's unique condition. When spatial function information was included to collect function dose/dose-volume metrics, significant reduction of fV20, fV30 and mean lung dose was achieved by function-based personalized plan with p-value < 0.01. Organ-function-based radiotherapy has been presented to incorporate patient's pulmonary function in hopes of reducing the risk of complications. Current methods utilize the function information in the same fashion across patients. We took one step further to not only incorporate heterogeneous pulmonary function during treatment planning but also generate personalized utility function based on the function

  3. Lactose intolerance and risk of lung, breast and ovarian cancers: aetiological clues from a population-based study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, J; Sundquist, J; Sundquist, K

    2015-01-06

    Individuals with lactose intolerance are recommended to avoid milk or dairy products, which may affect the development of cancer. We identified individuals with lactose intolerance from several Swedish Registers linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry to calculate standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) for cancers in the breast, lung, and ovary. A total of 22,788 individuals with lactose intolerance were identified, and their risks of lung (SIR=0.55), breast (SIR=0.79), and ovarian (SIR=0.61) cancers were significantly decreased. Cancer incidences in the siblings and parents of individuals with lactose intolerance were similar to those in the general population. In this large cohort study, people with lactose intolerance, characterised by low consumption of milk and other dairy products, had decreased risks of lung, breast, and ovarian cancers, but the decreased risks were not found in their family members, suggesting that the protective effects against these cancers may be related to their specific dietary pattern.

  4. Formulation of Biologically-Inspired Silk-Based Drug Carriers for Pulmonary Delivery Targeted for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sally Yunsun; Naskar, Deboki; Kundu, Subhas C; Bishop, David P; Doble, Philip A; Boddy, Alan V; Chan, Hak-Kim; Wall, Ivan B; Chrzanowski, Wojciech

    2015-08-03

    The benefits of using silk fibroin, a major protein in silk, are widely established in many biomedical applications including tissue regeneration, bioactive coating and in vitro tissue models. The properties of silk such as biocompatibility and controlled degradation are utilized in this study to formulate for the first time as carriers for pulmonary drug delivery. Silk fibroin particles are spray dried or spray-freeze-dried to enable the delivery to the airways via dry powder inhalers. The addition of excipients such as mannitol is optimized for both the stabilization of protein during the spray-freezing process as well as for efficient dispersion using an in vitro aerosolisation impactor. Cisplatin is incorporated into the silk-based formulations with or without cross-linking, which show different release profiles. The particles show high aerosolisation performance through the measurement of in vitro lung deposition, which is at the level of commercially available dry powder inhalers. The silk-based particles are shown to be cytocompatible with A549 human lung epithelial cell line. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin is demonstrated to be enhanced when delivered using the cross-linked silk-based particles. These novel inhalable silk-based drug carriers have the potential to be used as anti-cancer drug delivery systems targeted for the lungs.

  5. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... origin, usually the organ where it began. Locally Advanced Cancer: Cancer that has spread only to nearby ... to enjoy life. R Radiation: Energy carried by waves or a stream of particles. Radiation Field: The ...

  6. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G.; Efimova, Nataliya Y.; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B.

    2016-08-01

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  7. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G., E-mail: kng@cardio-tomsk.ru [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Efimova, Nataliya Y., E-mail: efimova@cardio-tomsk.ru; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B. [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  8. Increased mean lung density: Another independent predictor of lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.sverzellati@unipr.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Randi, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgia.randi@marionegri.it [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Spagnolo, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.spagnolo@unimore.it [Respiratory Disease Unit, Center for Rare Lung Disease, Department of Oncology, Hematology and Respiratory Disease, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 44124 Modena (Italy); Marchianò, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonso.marchiano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Radiology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Silva, Mario, E-mail: mac.mario@hotmail.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin, E-mail: Jan-Martin.Kuhnigk@mevis.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany); La Vecchia, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.lavecchia@marionegri.it [Department of Occupational Health, University of Milan, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zompatori, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.zompatori@unibo.it [Department of Radiology, Cardio-Thoracic Section, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Albertoni 15, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Pastorino, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.pastorino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between emphysema phenotype, mean lung density (MLD), lung function and lung cancer by using an automated multiple feature analysis tool on thin-section computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Both emphysema phenotype and MLD evaluated by automated quantitative CT analysis were compared between outpatients and screening participants with lung cancer (n = 119) and controls (n = 989). Emphysema phenotype was defined by assessing features such as extent, distribution on core/peel of the lung and hole size. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent associations of CT densitometric measurements and pulmonary function test (PFT) with lung cancer risk. Results: No emphysema feature was associated with lung cancer. Lung cancer risk increased with decreasing values of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) independently of MLD (OR 5.37, 95% CI: 2.63–10.97 for FEV{sub 1} < 60% vs. FEV{sub 1} ≥ 90%), and with increasing MLD independently of FEV{sub 1} (OR 3.00, 95% CI: 1.60–5.63 for MLD > −823 vs. MLD < −857 Hounsfield units). Conclusion: Emphysema per se was not associated with lung cancer whereas decreased FEV{sub 1} was confirmed as being a strong and independent risk factor. The cross-sectional association between increased MLD and lung cancer requires future validations.

  9. Tuberculosis mimicking lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hammen

    2015-01-01

    Our case report presents two patients, who were referred to the Thorax diagnostic centre at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Odense University Hospital, with presumptive diagnosis of neoplasm and had proved lung TB with no evidence of malignancy instead. In the first case diagnosis was confirmed after thoracotomy, in the second case after bronchoscopy.

  10. Current status of radiation therapy. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) of radiation therapy. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Minako

    2002-01-01

    The goal of radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is to improve the survival rate of patients without increasing treatment-related toxicity and to improve patients' quality of life. Several prospective randomized trials have demonstrated a survival advantage in combined modality treatment over radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone when a cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimen is utilized in the treatment plan. Combined modality treatment of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy is standard treatment for selected patients such as those with better performance status with locally or regionally advanced lung cancer including T3-T4 or N2-N3. Determining the contribution of new agents in combined modality treatment will require carefully designed and conducted clinical trials. High-dose involved field radiation therapy using 3D-conformal radiation therapy potentially enables the use of higher doses than standard radiation therapy, because less normal tissue is irradiated, and may improve local control and survival. The combination of radiotherapy with chemotherapy and dose escalation using 3D-conformal radiation therapy is also a possibility in unresectable NSCLC. In surgery cases, the results of several Phase III trials of cisplatin-based preoperative chemotherapy have suggested survival improvement. But the concept needs to be tested in a larger Phase III trial. (author)

  11. Genetic evidence linking lung cancer and COPD: a new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapo JD

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Robert P Young1,4, Raewyn J Hopkins1, Gregory D Gamble1, Carol Etzel2, Randa El-Zein2, James D Crapo31Department of Medicine and School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Department of Epidemiology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA; 4Synergenz Biosciences Ltd, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: Epidemiological studies indicate that tobacco smoke exposure accounts for nearly 90% of cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer. However, genetic factors may explain why 10%–30% of smokers develop these complications. This perspective reviews the evidence suggesting that COPD is closely linked to susceptibility to lung cancer and outlines the potential relevance of this observation. Epidemiological studies show that COPD is the single most important risk factor for lung cancer among smokers and predates lung cancer in up to 80% of cases. Genome-wide association studies of lung cancer, lung function, and COPD have identified a number of overlapping “susceptibility” loci. With stringent phenotyping, it has recently been shown that several of these overlapping loci are independently associated with both COPD and lung cancer. These loci implicate genes underlying pulmonary inflammation and apoptotic processes mediated by the bronchial epithelium, and link COPD with lung cancer at a molecular genetic level. It is currently possible to derive risk models for lung cancer that incorporate lung cancer-specific genetic variants, recently identified “COPD-related” genetic variants, and clinical variables. Early studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphism-based risk stratification of smokers might help better target novel prevention and early diagnostic strategies in lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, association study, single nucleotide polymorphism, risk model

  12. Innovative strategy for treatment of lung cancer: targeted nanotechnology-based inhalation co-delivery of anticancer drugs and siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taratula, Oleh; Garbuzenko, Olga B; Chen, Alex M; Minko, Tamara

    2011-12-01

    A tumor targeted mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN)-based drug delivery system (DDS) was developed for inhalation treatment of lung cancer. The system was capable of effectively delivering inside cancer cells anticancer drugs (doxorubicin and cisplatin) combined with two types of siRNA targeted to MRP1 and BCL2 mRNA for suppression of pump and nonpump cellular resistance in non-small cell lung carcinoma, respectively. Targeting of MSN to cancer cells was achieved by the conjugation of LHRH peptide on the surface of MSN via poly(ethylene glycol) spacer. The delivered anticancer drugs and siRNA preserved their specific activity leading to the cell death induction and inhibition of targeted mRNA. Suppression of cellular resistance by siRNA effectively delivered inside cancer cells and substantially enhanced the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs. Local delivery of MSN by inhalation led to the preferential accumulation of nanoparticles in the mouse lungs, prevented the escape of MSN into the systemic circulation, and limited their accumulation in other organs. The experimental data confirm that the developed DDS satisfies the major prerequisites for effective treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma. Therefore, the proposed cancer-targeted MSN-based system for complex delivery of drugs and siRNA has high potential in the effective treatment of lung cancer.

  13. Implementing patient-centred cancer care: using experience-based co-design to improve patient experience in breast and lung cancer services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsianakas, Vicki; Robert, Glenn; Maben, Jill; Richardson, Alison; Dale, Catherine; Griffin, Mairead; Wiseman, Theresa

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to briefly describe how the experience-based co-design (EBCD) approach was used to identify and implement improvements in the experiences of breast and lung cancer patients before (1) comparing the issues identified as shaping patient experiences in the different tumour groups and (2) exploring participants' reflections on the value and key characteristics of this approach to improving patient experiences. Fieldwork involved 36 filmed narrative patient interviews, 219 h of ethnographic observation, 63 staff interviews and a facilitated co-design change process involving patient and staff interviewees over a 12-month period. Four of the staff and five patients were interviewed about their views on the value of the approach and its key characteristics. The project setting was a large, inner-city cancer centre in England. Patients from both tumour groups generally identified similar issues (or 'touchpoints') that shaped their experience of care, although breast cancer patients identified a need for better information about side effects of treatment and end of treatment whereas lung cancer patients expressed a need for more information post-surgery. Although the issues were broadly similar, the particular improvement priorities patients and staff chose to work on together were tumour specific. Interviewees highlighted four characteristics of the EBCD approach as being key to its successful implementation: patient involvement, patient responsibility and empowerment, a sense of community, and a close connection between their experiences and the subsequent improvement priorities. EBCD positions patients as active partners with staff in quality improvement. Breast and lung cancer patients identified similar touchpoints in their experiences, but these were translated into different improvement priorities for each tumour type. This is an important consideration when developing patient-centred cancer services across different tumour types.

  14. Effectiveness of adjuvant carboplatin-based chemotherapy compared to cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couillard-Montminy, Valérie; Gagnon, Pierre-Yves; Fortin, Sebastien; Côté, Jimmy

    2017-01-01

    Background Cisplatin and vinorelbine given intravenously is a well-established adjuvant chemotherapy regimen after surgery for early non-small cell lung cancer. However, few validated alternatives exist when cisplatin is not indicated or tolerated. Carboplatin is frequently used in this setting. We evaluated the 5-year overall survival, progression-free survival and toxicity in patients treated for stage IB to IIIB resected non-small cell lung cancer receiving adjuvant carboplatin-based chemotherapy compared to cisplatin in association with vinorelbine. Methods Single-center retrospective study of patients having received adjuvant chemotherapy between January 2004 and December 2013 at the oncology clinic at Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec (Canada). Three sub-groups, cisplatin/vinorelbine, carboplatin/vinorelbine and the substitution of cisplatin/vinorelbine for carboplatin/vinorelbine (cisplatin/vinorelbine/carboplatin/vinorelbine), were studied during treatment. Results One hundred twenty-seven patients were included in this study. The median PFS was not significantly different, with 50.4 months for cisplatin/vinorelbine, 57.3 months for cisplatin/vinorelbine/carboplatin/vinorelbine and not yet achieved for the carboplatin/vinorelbine group ( p = 0.80). Overall survival also did not differ significantly between the three groups. The 5-year overall survival rates were 66% in cisplatin/vinorelbine group, 55% in carboplatin/vinorelbine group and 70% in cisplatin/vinorelbine/carboplatin/vinorelbine group ( p = 0, 95). No differences were noted between groups concerning high-grade hematologic toxicity. Conclusions Although the effectiveness and hematologic toxicity are comparable between cisplat in and carboplatin in the adjuvant treatment of resected non-small cell lung cancer, the results obtained corroborate the practice used at our oncology clinic. Nevertheless, more prospective studies would be needed to confirm these

  15. Improving lung cancer survival: Time to move on

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Heuvers (Marlies)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In 1761, lung cancer was first described as a distinct disease based on autopsies by Giovanni Morgagni. In 1810, Gaspard Laurent Bayle described lung cancer in more detail in his book entitled Recherches sur la phthisie pulmonaire. At that time it was an extremely

  16. SCREENING FOR LUNG CANCER BY IMAGING : THE NELSON STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudkerk, M.; Heuvelmans, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The NELSON trial is the first randomised lung cancer screening trial in which pulmonary nodule management is based on volumetry. This led to considerably less false-positive referrals compared to other lung cancer screening trials, with very high negative predictive values found in the first and

  17. The Role of Proteasome Inhibition in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Escobar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer therapy with current available chemotherapeutic agents is mainly palliative. For these and other reasons there is now a great interest to find targeted therapies that can be effective not only palliating lung cancer or decreasing treatment-related toxicity, but also giving hope to cure these patients. It is already well known that the ubiquitin-proteasome system like other cellular pathways is critical for the proliferation and survival of cancer cells; thus, proteosome inhibition has become a very attractive anticancer therapy. There are several phase I and phase II clinical trials now in non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer using this potential target. Most of the trials use bortezomib in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. This paper tends to make a state-of-the-art review based on the available literature regarding the use of bortezomib as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer.

  18. Spirometry: a predictor of lung cancer among asbestos workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila

    2017-01-01

    The significance of lung function as an independent risk factor for lung cancer remains unclear. The objective of the study is to answer the question if spirometry can identify patients at risk for lung cancer among people occupationally exposed to asbestos dust in the past. In order to identify a group of individuals with the highest risk of lung cancer incidence based on lung function levels of FEV 1 % predicted value, we examined 6882 subjects enrolled in the health surveillance program for asbestos related diseases over the years 2000-2014. We found a total of 110 cases confirmed as primary lung cancer. Using Cox's proportional hazards model after adjustment for age, gender, number of cigarettes, duration of smoking and cumulative asbestos exposure, we estimated that compared with the subjects with FEV 1 ≥90% pred, the HR of lung cancer was 1.40 (95%CI: 0.94-2.08) for the subjects with FEV 1 less than 90% and 1.95 (HR = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.12-3.08) for those with FEV 1 less than 70%. In addition, probability of the occurrence of lung cancer for FEV 1 spirometry and cancer diagnosis was three years or less. The results strongly support the hypothesis that spirometry can identify patients at a risk of lung cancer development. Regular spirometry should be offered to all patients with a history of asbestos exposure, at least once every three years.

  19. [THE ROLE OF ESTROGENS IN THE CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer.

  20. Chemoradiotherapy for youngster lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tingfeng; Jiang Guoliang; Fu Xiaolong; Wang Lijuan; Qian Hao; Zhao Sen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To define the clinico-pathologic characteristics and survival of young-robust patients ( 2 vs 70 mg/m 2 , P<0.001), and more cycles of chemotherapy 6 vs 4, P<0.001) were observed in the youngster group. There was no difference between the two groups in family history of cancer, cigarette smoking, weight loss, and KPS. The median survival intervals of all stages (10 months vs 12 months), and the 2-and 5-year survival rates (11.1% vs 23.1% and 3.1% vs 5.4%) were comparable (P=0.090) between them. For stage IIIb, there was a trend that young patients would give better outcome than the older ones with median survivals of 11 months to 9 months and the 2-year survivals of 3.8% to 0% (P=0.071). Conclusions: The different clinico-pathologic features of the young lung cancer patients are confirmed from that of old patients, but without any survival disparity. In order to enhance our understanding and reduce the mis-diagnosis rate, it is rational to define the lung cancer in relative young people as the youngster lung cancer, which may be beneficial to the clinical practice

  1. Estrogen, Estrogen Receptor and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Han Hsu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen has been postulated as a contributor for lung cancer development and progression. We reviewed the current knowledge about the expression and prognostic implications of the estrogen receptors (ER in lung cancer, the effect and signaling pathway of estrogen on lung cancer, the hormone replacement therapy and lung cancer risk and survival, the mechanistic relationship between the ER and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and the relevant clinical trials combining the ER antagonist and the EGFR antagonist, to investigate the role of estrogen in lung cancer. Estrogen and its receptor have the potential to become a prognosticator and a therapeutic target in lung cancer. On the other hand, tobacco smoking aggravates the effect of estrogen and endocrine disruptive chemicals from the environment targeting ER may well contribute to the lung carcinogenesis. They have gradually become important issues in the course of preventive medicine.

  2. Lung Cancer: Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Kelly M

    2018-01-01

    In the absence of screening, most patients with lung cancer are not diagnosed until later stages, when the prognosis is poor. The most common symptoms are cough and dyspnea, but the most specific symptom is hemoptysis. Digital clubbing, though rare, is highly predictive of lung cancer. Symptoms can be caused by the local tumor, intrathoracic spread, distant metastases, or paraneoplastic syndromes. Clinicians should suspect lung cancer in symptomatic patients with risk factors. The initial study should be chest x-ray, but if results are negative and suspicion remains, the clinician should obtain a computed tomography scan with contrast. The diagnostic evaluation for suspected lung cancer includes tissue diagnosis, staging, and determination of functional capacity, which are completed simultaneously. Tissue samples should be obtained using the least invasive method possible. Management is based on the individual tumor histology, molecular testing results, staging, and performance status. The management plan is determined by a multidisciplinary team consisting of a pulmonology subspecialist, medical oncology subspecialist, radiation oncology subspecialist, and thoracic surgeon. The family physician should remain involved with the patient to ensure that patient priorities are supported and, if necessary, to arrange for end-of-life care. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  3. Lung cancer following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blot, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    A case-control study of lung cancer was conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, to evaluate risk factors for this common neoplasm, with special attention given to assessing the potentially interactive roles of cigarette smoking and atomic radiation. The investigation involved interviews with 428 patients with primary lung cancer and 957 matched controls, or with their next of kin in the event of death or disability. The interview information was supplemented by data on atomic bomb radiation exposure for each individual and on smoking and other factors from prior surveys of subsets of the population studied. Separate effects of smoking and high dose (greater than 100 rad) radiation were found, with the two exposures combining to affect lung cancer risk in an approximate additive fashion. The additive rather than multiplicative model was favored whether the smoking variable was dichotomized (ever vs. never smoked), categorized into one of several groups based on amount smoked, or treated as a discrete variable. The findings are contrasted with those for Colorado uranium miners and other cohorts occupationally exposed to radon and its daughter products, where smoking and radiation have been reported to combine multiplicatively to enhance lung cancer risk

  4. 4D cone beam CT-based dose assessment for SBRT lung cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Weixing; Dhou, Salam; Cifter, Fulya; Myronakis, Marios; Hurwitz, Martina H; Williams, Christopher L; Berbeco, Ross I; Seco, Joao; Lewis, John H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a 4DCBCT-based dose assessment method for calculating actual delivered dose for patients with significant respiratory motion or anatomical changes during the course of SBRT. To address the limitation of 4DCT-based dose assessment, we propose to calculate the delivered dose using time-varying (‘fluoroscopic’) 3D patient images generated from a 4DCBCT-based motion model. The method includes four steps: (1) before each treatment, 4DCBCT data is acquired with the patient in treatment position, based on which a patient-specific motion model is created using a principal components analysis algorithm. (2) During treatment, 2D time-varying kV projection images are continuously acquired, from which time-varying ‘fluoroscopic’ 3D images of the patient are reconstructed using the motion model. (3) Lateral truncation artifacts are corrected using planning 4DCT images. (4) The 3D dose distribution is computed for each timepoint in the set of 3D fluoroscopic images, from which the total effective 3D delivered dose is calculated by accumulating deformed dose distributions. This approach is validated using six modified XCAT phantoms with lung tumors and different respiratory motions derived from patient data. The estimated doses are compared to that calculated using ground-truth XCAT phantoms. For each XCAT phantom, the calculated delivered tumor dose values generally follow the same trend as that of the ground truth and at most timepoints the difference is less than 5%. For the overall delivered dose, the normalized error of calculated 3D dose distribution is generally less than 3% and the tumor D95 error is less than 1.5%. XCAT phantom studies indicate the potential of the proposed method to accurately estimate 3D tumor dose distributions for SBRT lung treatment based on 4DCBCT imaging and motion modeling. Further research is necessary to investigate its performance for clinical patient data. (paper)

  5. Lung cancer gene expression database analysis incorporating prior knowledge with support vector machine-based classification method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Desheng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reliable and precise classification is essential for successful diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Gene expression microarrays have provided the high-throughput platform to discover genomic biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Rational use of the available bioinformation can not only effectively remove or suppress noise in gene chips, but also avoid one-sided results of separate experiment. However, only some studies have been aware of the importance of prior information in cancer classification. Methods Together with the application of support vector machine as the discriminant approach, we proposed one modified method that incorporated prior knowledge into cancer classification based on gene expression data to improve accuracy. A public well-known dataset, Malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma gene expression database, was used in this study. Prior knowledge is viewed here as a means of directing the classifier using known lung adenocarcinoma related genes. The procedures were performed by software R 2.80. Results The modified method performed better after incorporating prior knowledge. Accuracy of the modified method improved from 98.86% to 100% in training set and from 98.51% to 99.06% in test set. The standard deviations of the modified method decreased from 0.26% to 0 in training set and from 3.04% to 2.10% in test set. Conclusion The method that incorporates prior knowledge into discriminant analysis could effectively improve the capacity and reduce the impact of noise. This idea may have good future not only in practice but also in methodology.

  6. Isolated lung events following radiation for early stage breast cancer: incidence and predictors for primary lung vs metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buren, Teresa A; Harris, Jay R; Sugarbaker, David J; Schneider, Lindsey; Healey, Elizabeth A

    1995-01-01

    =0.027). Factors related to the initial breast cancer which were not predictive for diagnosis of the lung event included nodal status, prior local or regional recurrence, 2 vs 3 field RT technique and machine energy. Time to lung event appeared fairly constant over two year intervals up to 10 years and beyond for patients with both metastatic breast lesions and primary lung cancers. In particular, there did not appear to be a relative increase in the risk of lung cancer after 10 years. Eleven of the initial cohort of 1865 patients (0.6%) had an ultimate pathologic diagnosis of lung cancer. With respect to the irradiated breast, these lung cancers were located in the ipsilateral lung for 5, the contralateral lung for 5 and the location was unknown for one. Conclusions: 1) Isolated lung events following early stage breast cancer are uncommon. 2) Smoking history and presentation as a solitary pulmonary nodule were more likely to be associated with a diagnosis of lung cancer than a metastatic breast lesion. However, even with a biopsy, it is often impossible to distinguish with certainty between the two diagnoses. In these situations, management must be based on clinical judgment. 3) In this cohort, the development of lung cancer was a rare event. There was no demonstrable evidence of radiation-induced lung cancer through this time of follow-up based on laterality or radiation technique

  7. Integrated analysis of differential expression and alternative splicing of non-small cell lung cancer based on RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zulei; Zhao, Kai; Tian, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Numerous diagnosis and treatment methods have been proposed, and the prognosis of NSCLC has improved to a certain extent. However, the mechanisms of NSCLC remain largely unknown, and additional studies are required. In the present study, the RNA sequencing dataset of NSCLC was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/). The clean reads obtained from the raw data were mapped to the University of California Santa Cruz human genome (hg19), based on TopHat, and were assembled into transcripts via Cufflink. The differential expression (DE) and differential alternative splicing (DAS) genes were screened out through Cuffdiff and rMATS, respectively. The significantly enriched gene ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways were obtained through the Database of Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Different numbers of DE and DAS genes were identified in different types of NSCLC samples, but a number of common functions and pathways were obtained, including biological processes associated with abnormal immune and cell activity. GO terms and pathways associated with substance metabolism, including the insulin signaling pathway and oxidative phosphorylation, were enriched in DAS genes rather than DE genes. Integrated analysis of differential expression and alternative splicing may be helpful in understanding the mechanisms of NSCLC, in addition to its early diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Prognostic implications of survivin and lung resistance protein in advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with platinum-based chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUANG, WENFENG; MAO, YAN; ZHAN, YONGZI; HUANG, JIANFENG; WANG, XIANGPING; LUO, PENGHUI; LI, LI; MO, DUNCHANG; LIU, QIONG; XU, HUIMIN; HUANG, CHANGJIE

    2016-01-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the chemotherapy often results in the development of chemoresistance. The present study aimed to explore the prognostic implications of survivin and lung resistance protein (LRP) in advanced NSCLC treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Tumor samples were collected from 61 hospitalized patients with stage IIIB-IV NSCLC that underwent platinum-based chemotherapy. All patient samples were collected in the Oncology Department of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University between January 2006 and January 2011. Cytoplasmic survivin and LRP expression were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The expression of LRP and survivin reached 77% (47/61) and 76% (45/61), respectively. Positive expression of survivin was associated with a lower median progression-free survival (PFS) time (4 vs. 9 months; P=0.038) and a lower median overall survival (OS) time compared with the absence of survivin expression (9 vs. 16 months; P=0.039). Patients with LRP and survivin expression (n=41) demonstrated a median PFS time of 4 months. However, patients with either LRP or survivin expression (n=10) demonstrated a median PFS time of 8 months, which is similar to the median PFS time of the 10 patients with no expression of LRP and survivin (9 months; P=0.022). Either the expression of survivin or the combined expression of LRP and survivin is associated with a poor prognosis in advanced NSCLC treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. PMID:26870274

  9. Mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark: Results from the Danish Lung Cancer Group 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Green, Anders

    2016-01-01

    of the millennium. As of today, survival after lung cancer in Denmark is probably in line with the international standard. Based on our results we recommend introducing mortality indicators based on all-cause mortality within the patient population in international benchmarking studies as comparisons based......Background In the 1990s outcomes in Danish lung cancer patients were poor compared with the other Nordic countries. The five-year survival was only about 5%, only 10% of patients were operated on and less than 60% received active surgical or oncologic treatment. This paper describes trends...... in mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Methods The study population comprised 52 435 patients with a diagnosis of cancer of the trachea and the lung, primarily ascertained from the Danish Lung Cancer Register and grouped into three cohorts by year of diagnosis. The outcome...

  10. [Assessment of nutritional status in patients with primary lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermiti Ben Abdallah, Fatma; Ben Saïd, Hanène; Chamkhi, Najiba; Ferchichi, Marwa; Chtourou, Amel; Taktak, Sofia; Ben Kheder, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Malnutrition is a common problem among patients with cancer, affecting up to 85% of patients with certain cancers and represents a risk factor for poor prognosis. aim: evaluate nutritional status in patients with lung cancer before and during treatment using nutritional risk index. it's a prospective study conducted in pneumology IV department in Abderahman Mami hospital, from January to May 2011. 30 male patients with a lung cancer were included. Nutritional status was assessed before and during treatment based on anthropometric measures, biological markers and nutritional risk index (NRI). Mean age of patients was 58 ± 12 years, ranging from 19 to 82 years. 29 patients had non small cell lung cancer and one patient had small cell cancer. Malnutrition was noted in 14 patients (47%) before treatment according to the NRI. It was noted in 23 patients (77%) after three cycles of chemotherapy with severe malnutrition in 8 patients. Relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the NRI was linear, but NRI tends to evaluate more objectively risk of malnutrition in patients with lung cancer. Nutritional assessment in patient with lung cancer should be performed systematically, early and repeatedly. Several markers can be used such as BMI and NRI. Nutritional support will reduce morbidity and improve quality of life in patients with lung cancer.

  11. Lung cancer in asbestos cement workers in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffn, E; Villadsen, E; Engholm, G; Lynge, E

    1996-06-01

    To study the relative and absolute risks of main types of lung cancer in a cohort of asbestos cement workers from Denmark. A cohort of 7887 men and 576 women employed between 1928 and 1984 was compiled from the personnel files of Danish Eternit Production. The cohort was followed up for deaths, emigrations, and incident cancer cases during the period 1943-90. The observed number of lung cancer cases in the cohort was compared with the expected number based on incidences for the Danish population. Internal comparison was made with Poisson modelling. A total of 226 lung cancer cases were observed (223 men and three women). The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for all lung cancer among men was 1.7 (observed number 223, expected number 129.7, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-2.0). The SIRs were raised for all main types of lung cancer; adenocarcinoma 2.6, squamous cell carcinoma 1.7, and anaplastic carcinoma 1.5. The higher SIR for adenocarcinomas was found particularly with a latency period of 25 years or more. Among the 93 excess lung cancer cases, 36 were squamous cell carcinomas and 32 were adenocarcinomas. Asbestos cement work is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer of all main types. During the first 25 years after the start of employment this excess risk is shared almost equally between the different histological types of lung cancer, but the risk of adenocarcinomas is clearly higher after this point.

  12. Cryotherapy in Treating Patients With Lung Cancer That Has Spread to the Other Lung or Parts of the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  13. Clinical Significance of Long Non-Coding RNA CASC8 rs10505477 Polymorphism in Lung Cancer Susceptibility, Platinum-Based Chemotherapy Response, and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA CASC8 rs10505477 polymorphism has been identified to be related to risk of many kinds of cancers, such as colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, and invasive ovarian cancer, and it may be involved in the prognosis of gastric cancer patients who have received platinum-based chemotherapy after surgical treatment. So far, there is no study investigating the clinical significance of lncRNA CASC8 rs10505477 in lung cancer susceptibility and treatment. In this study, we genotyped 498 lung cancer patients and 213 healthy control subjects to explore the correlation between the rs10505477 polymorphism and lung cancer risk in a Chinese population. Among the 498 patients, 467 were selected for the chemotherapy response and toxicity study. We found that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP rs10505477 was greatly related to lung cancer risk in male and adenocarcinoma subgroups in recessive model (adjusted OR = 0.51, 95%CI = 0.29–0.90, p = 0.02; adjusted OR = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.30–0.89, p = 0.02, respectively. It was also closely correlated with platinum-based chemotherapy response in dominant model (adjusted OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.05–2.39, p = 0.03. Additionally, we observed that CASC8 rs10505477 polymorphism was significantly relevant to severe hematologic toxicity in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC subgroup in dominant model (adjusted OR = 0.59, 95%CI = 0.35–0.98, p = 0.04 and in additive model (adjusted OR = 0.62, 95%CI = 0.43–0.90, p = 0.01. Furthermore, it was found that rs10505477 polymorphism was greatly associated with gastrointestinal toxicity in SCLC and cisplatin subgroups in dominant model (adjusted OR = 7.82, 95%CI = 1.36–45.07, p = 0.02; adjusted OR = 1.94, 95%CI = 1.07–3.53, p = 0.03, respectively. Thus, lncRNA CASC8 rs10505477 could serve as a possible risk marker for diagnosing lung cancer, and could be used to forecast the response and toxicity of platinum-based treatment in lung cancer patients.

  14. Cancer of lung in miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Volckova, A.; Zimacek, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the period of 1983-1994 was registered at Clinic of occupational diseases 87 cases of professional cancer of lung. Mostly /85/ of cases was related to miners, by whom act as risk factor alpha ionisation from radon. Average age group was 60.2 y, average time of exposition was 21.6 y. Epidermoid carcinoma was the most frequent type of tumor /46.5 %/ of cases/. Smoking plays a supportive role. (authors)

  15. Environmental determinants of lung cancer in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z Y; Blot, W J; Li, G; Fraumeni, J F; Zhao, D Z; Stone, B J; Yin, Q; Wu, A; Henderson, B E; Guan, B P

    1991-01-01

    To investigate determinants of the high rates of lung cancer in Shenyang, an industrial city in north-eastern China, a case-control study was conducted. Interviews with 1249 lung cancer patients and 1345 population-based controls revealed that cigarette smoking was the main cause of lung cancer. Smoking accounted for 55% of the lung tumours in men and 37% in women. In addition, air pollution from coal-burning heating and cooking devices was significantly linked to lung cancer, with risks rising in proportion to duration of exposure to indoor pollutants. Measurement of benzo[a]pyrene revealed average wintertime levels in air that were nearly 60 times the recommended upper limit for US cities, with even higher concentrations indoors in traditional single-storey homes using coal-burning kang (stoves). Occupational factors were also involved, the risk being elevated by three fold among smelter workers. Soil levels of arsenic and other metals rose with increasing proximity to the Shenyang copper smelter, and elevated risks of lung cancer were found among men, but not women, living within 1 km of its central stacks. Prior nonmalignant lung disease was common and was reported more often among the lung cancer patients than among controls. The findings suggest that cigarette smoking and environmental pollutants combine to account for most of the excess risk of lung cancer in this population.

  16. Bronchoplastic operations for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicenas, S.; Naujokaitis, P.; Jackevicius, A. and others

    2002-01-01

    Objective of our work was to evaluate efficacy of bronchoplastic operations for lung cancer and time to progression in combined treatment. From 1997 till 2001, 57pts were operated for early I-IIB stages of lung cancer. Operations were: tracheal resections in 3pts (5.2%), window right pneumonectomies in 5pts (8.7%), window left pneumonectomies in 2pts (3.5%), window right upper lobe in 22pts (38.5%), bifurcation resections 2pts (3.5%), sleeve right upper lobe resections 7pts (12.2%), sleeve left upper lobe resections in 11pts (19.2%). We had complications: in 7pts (12.2%) suture failure, 26pts (45.6%) obstructive pneumonia, 3pts (5.2%) kinking of anastomosis, 2pts (3.7%) bronchial bleeding, 6pts (10.5%) covered bronchial fistulas, 5pts (8.7%) died after operations. 32pts (56%) underwent radiation after surgery, 13pts (22.8%) radiation and chemotherapy. Three-year survival was in 82.4% (47pts), in 10pts (17.4%) disease progressed. Bronchoplastic operations are sufficient for early lung cancer treatment. Three-year was in survival 82.7% of pts. Seventeen percent of patients failed after combined treatment. (author)

  17. Pain experiences among a population-based cohort of current, former, and never regular smokers with lung and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam; Japuntich, Sandra; Keating, Nancy L; Wallace, Robert; He, Yulei; Streck, Joanna M; Park, Elyse R

    2014-11-15

    Smoking and pain are prevalent and comorbid among patients with cancer. Limited work has compared pain experiences among current, former, and never (regular) smokers with lung and colorectal cancer. We studied pain experiences of patients with lung (n = 2390) and colorectal (n = 2993) cancer participating in the multi-regional Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance study. We examined reports of pain, pain treatment, pain severity, and pain-related interference within each cancer group by smoking status, adjusting for demographic, psychosocial, and cancer characteristics. Among lung cancer patients, current smokers reported pain and receiving pain treatment more often than former smokers. Never smokers did not differ from current and former smokers on endorsement of pain; however, they reported pain treatment less often than their counterparts. Current smokers reported greater pain severity than former smokers after adjusting for other contributing factors; however, no differences were detected between current and never smokers. There were no differences in pain-related interference. Among colorectal cancer patients, current smokers reported pain and pain treatment more often than former and never smokers; however, the latter 2 groups did not differ. Current smokers also reported greater pain severity than never smokers after adjustments; however, no differences were detected between current and former smokers. An identical pattern of findings was observed for pain-related interference. Many smokers with lung and colorectal cancer experience pain following a cancer diagnosis. Future work should assess if comprehensive smoking cessation treatments that address pain can reduce pain and facilitate smoking cessation among patients with cancer. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  18. RANK rewires energy homeostasis in lung cancer cells and drives primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shuan; Sigl, Verena; Wimmer, Reiner Alois; Novatchkova, Maria; Jais, Alexander; Wagner, Gabriel; Handschuh, Stephan; Uribesalgo, Iris; Hagelkruys, Astrid; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Tortola, Luigi; Nitsch, Roberto; Cronin, Shane J; Orthofer, Michael; Branstetter, Daniel; Canon, Jude; Rossi, John; D'Arcangelo, Manolo; Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick; Fleur, Linnea La; Edlund, Karolina; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Lendl, Thomas; Popper, Helmut; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Kenner, Lukas; Hirsch, Fred R; Dougall, William; Penninger, Josef M

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Besides smoking, epidemiological studies have linked female sex hormones to lung cancer in women; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), the key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, is frequently expressed in primary lung tumors, an active RANK pathway correlates with decreased survival, and pharmacologic RANK inhibition reduces tumor growth in patient-derived lung cancer xenografts. Clonal genetic inactivation of KRas G12D in mouse lung epithelial cells markedly impairs the progression of KRas G12D -driven lung cancer, resulting in a significant survival advantage. Mechanistically, RANK rewires energy homeostasis in human and murine lung cancer cells and promotes expansion of lung cancer stem-like cells, which is blocked by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. Our data also indicate survival differences in KRas G12D -driven lung cancer between male and female mice, and we show that female sex hormones can promote lung cancer progression via the RANK pathway. These data uncover a direct role for RANK in lung cancer and may explain why female sex hormones accelerate lung cancer development. Inhibition of RANK using the approved drug denosumab may be a therapeutic drug candidate for primary lung cancer. © 2017 Rao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Lung Cancer Screening: Optimization through risk stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. ten Haaf (Kevin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. However, results from randomized controlled trials indicate that lung cancer mortality can be reduced by early detection through computed tomography screening. This thesis describes the development of a

  20. [Innovation in Surgery for Advanced Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Yasunori, Sohara; Endo, Shunsuke

    2016-07-01

    Thoracoscopic surgery can be one of less invasive surgical interventions for early stage lung cancer. Locally advanced lung cancer, however, cannot avoid aggressive procedures including pneumonectomy and/or extended combined resection of chest wall, aorta, esophagus, etc. for complete resection. Surgical approach even for advanced lung cancer can be less invasive by benefit from new anti-cancer treatment, innovated manipulations of bronchoplasty and angioplasty, and bench surgery( lung autotransplantation technique). We herein reviewed the strategy to minimize invasive interventions for locally advanced lung cancer, introducing 2 successful cases with advanced lung cancer. The 1st patient is a 62-year old man with centrally advanced lung cancer invading to mediastinum. Right upper sleeve lobectomy with one-stoma carinoplasty following induction chemoradiation therapy was successful. The operation time was 241 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 60 months after surgery. The 2nd is a 79-year old man with advanced lung cancer invading to the distal aortic arch. Left upper segmentectomy following thoracic endovascular aortic repair with stentgraft was successful with no extracorporeal circulation. The operation time was 170 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 30 months after surgery. The invasiveness of surgical interventions for local advanced lung cancer can be minimized by innovated device and new anti-cancer drugs.

  1. [Benefits of cisplatin-based polychemotherapy in non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma. Kyushu Lung Cancer Chemotherapy Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, M; Hara, N; Ichikawa, Y; Kanda, T; Shima, K; Tamura, K; Hokama, M

    1988-06-01

    We studied the efficacy of cisplatin-based polychemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. One hundred nineteen patients with adenocarcinoma or large cell carcinoma were randomized to receive cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, cisplatin and mitomycin C (CAPM) or mitomycin C, cytosine arabinoside and tegafur (MCT), and 48 patients with squamous cell carcinoma were randomized to receive cisplatin, adriamycin and peplomycin (PAP) or mitomycin C, cyclophosphamide, tespamine, toyomycin and tegafur (MCTTT). Radiation was given to the chest in patients with stage I-III disease. The response rates were CAPM, 34.5%; MCT, 13.1% (p less than 0.01) and PAP, 63.3%; MCTTT, 42.3%. A significant difference in response rate between the CAPM and MCT regimens was observed only in stage IV patients and not in stage I-III patients. The median survival was 9.5 months in the CAPM arm vs. 6.5 months in the MCT arm (p less than 0.007), and 8.5 months in the PAP arm vs. 6.5 months in the MCTTT arm. Improved median survival for the CAPM regimen was noted only in stage IV patients and not in stage I-III patients when compared to patients given the MCT regimen, respectively. Nausea and vomiting were significantly increased in patients with cisplatin-based polychemotherapy. Myelosuppression was more severe with the CAPM regimen than with the other chemotherapy regimens. We concluded that cisplatin-based polychemotherapy, CAPM and PAP therapy were of more benefit to patients with disseminated non-small-cell lung cancer than MCT and MCTTT therapy.

  2. Tandem mass spectrometry-based newborn screening strategy could be used to facilitate rapid and sensitive lung cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ting Huang,1,* Yunfeng Cao,1,* Jia Zeng,1 Jun Dong,2 Xiaoyu Sun,2 Jianxing Chen,1 Peng Gao2,3 1Key Laboratory of Contraceptives and Devices Research (NPFPC, Shanghai Engineer and Technology Research Center of Reproductive Health Drug and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, Shanghai, 2Clinical Laboratory, Dalian Sixth People’s Hospital, 3CASKey Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Newborn screening (NBS helps in the early detection of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM. The most effective NBS strategy prevailing in clinics is tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS analysis using dried blood spot (DBS samples. Taking lung cancer (LC as an example, this study tried to explore if this technique could be of any assistance for the discovery of tumor metabolite markers.Materials and methods: Twenty-six acylcarnitines and 23 amino acids, which are commonly used in IEM screening, were quantified using DBS samples from 222 LC patients, 118 benign lung disease (LD patients, and 96 healthy volunteers (CONT. Forty-four calculated ratios based on the abovementioned metabolites were also included using MS/MS quantification results.Results: This pilot study led to the findings of 65 significantly changed amino acids, acylcarnitines, and some of their ratios for the LC, LD, and CONT groups. Among the differential parameters, 12 items showed reverse changing trends between the LC and LD groups compared to the CONT group. Regression analysis demonstrated that six of them – Arg, Pro, C10:1, Arg/Orn, Cit/Arg, and C5-OH/C0 – could be used to diagnose LC with a sensitivity of 91.3% and a specificity of 92.7%.Conclusion: This study demonstrated the DBS-based MS/MS strategy was a promising tool for the discovery of tumor metabolite markers. Remarkably, this MS

  3. Curbing the burden of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urman, Alexandra; Hosgood, H Dean

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer contributes substantially to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. New screening modalities using low-dose computerized tomography are promising tools for early detection leading to curative surgery. However, the screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures of these techniques may be costly. Focusing on prevention is an important factor to reduce the burden of screening, treatment, and lung cancer deaths. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified several lung carcinogens, which we believe can be considered actionable when developing prevention strategies. To curb the societal burden of lung cancer, healthcare resources need to be focused on early detection and screening and on mitigating exposure(s) of a person to known lung carcinogens, such as active tobacco smoking, household air pollution (HAP), and outdoor air pollution. Evidence has also suggested that these known lung carcinogens may be associated with genetic predispositions, supporting the hypothesis that lung cancers attributed to differing exposures may have developed from unique underlying genetic mechanisms attributed to the exposure of interest. For instance, smokingattributed lung cancer involves novel genetic markers of risk compared with HAP-attributed lung cancer. Therefore, genetic risk markers may be used in risk stratification to identify subpopulations that are at a higher risk for developing lung cancer attributed to a given exposure. Such targeted prevention strategies suggest that precision prevention strategies may be possible in the future; however, much work is needed to determine whether these strategies will be viable.

  4. Fludeoxyglucose F-18-PET in Planning Lung Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-19

    Stage I Lung Cancer; Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage II Lung Cancer; Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7

  5. PET imaging-based phenotyping as a predictive biomarker of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in non-small cell lung cancer: Are we there yet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Kim, Chun K. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Dept. of Radiology,Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The increased understanding of the molecular pathology of different malignancies, especially lung cancer, has directed investigational efforts to center on the identification of different molecular targets and on the development of targeted therapies against these targets. A good representative is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR); a major driver of non-small cell lung cancer tumorigenesis. Today, tumor growth inhibition is possible after treating lung tumors expressing somatic mutations of the EGFR gene with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). This opened the doors to biomarker-directed precision or personalized treatments for lung cancer patients. The success of these targeted anticancer therapies depends in part on being able to identify biomarkers and their patho-molecular make-up in order to select patients that could respond to specific therapeutic agents. While the identification of reliable biomarkers is crucial to predict response to treatment before it begins, it is also essential to be able to monitor treatment early during therapy to avoid the toxicity and morbidity of futile treatment in non-responding patients. In this context, we share our perspective on the role of PET imaging-based phenotyping in the personalized care of lung cancer patients to non-invasively direct and monitor the treatment efficacy of TKIs in clinical practice.

  6. Risk of second primary lung cancer in women after radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantzau, Trine; Thomsen, Mette Skovhus; Væth, Michael; Overgaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several epidemiological studies have reported increased risks of second lung cancers after breast cancer irradiation. In this study we assessed the effects of the delivered radiation dose to the lung and the risk of second primary lung cancer. Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study of second lung cancer in a population based cohort of 23,627 early breast cancer patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy from 1982 to 2007. The cohort included 151 cases diagnosed with second primary lung cancer and 443 controls. Individual dose-reconstructions were performed and the delivered dose to the center of the second lung tumor and the comparable location for the controls were estimated, based on the patient specific radiotherapy charts. Results: The median age at breast cancer diagnosis was 54 years (range 34–74). The median time from breast cancer treatment to second lung cancer diagnosis was 12 years (range 1–26 years). 91% of the cases were categorized as ever smokers vs. 40% among the controls. For patients diagnosed with a second primary lung cancer five or more years after breast cancer treatment the rate of lung cancer increased linearly with 8.5% per Gray (95% confidence interval = 3.1–23.3%; p < 0.001). This rate was enhanced for ever smokers with an excess rate of 17.3% per Gray (95% CI = 4.5–54%; p < 0.005). Conclusions: Second lung cancer after radiotherapy for early breast cancer is associated with the delivered dose to the lung. Although the absolute risk is relative low, the growing number of long-time survivors after breast cancer treatment highlights the need for advances in normal tissue sparing radiation techniques

  7. [Development of the lung cancer diagnostic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, You-Jiang; Yu, Shou-Yi

    2009-07-01

    To develop a lung cancer diagnosis system. A retrospective analysis was conducted in 1883 patients with primary lung cancer or benign pulmonary diseases (pneumonia, tuberculosis, or pneumonia pseudotumor). SPSS11.5 software was used for data processing. For the relevant factors, a non-factor Logistic regression analysis was used followed by establishment of the regression model. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 system development platform and VB.Net corresponding language were used to develop the lung cancer diagnosis system. The non-factor multi-factor regression model showed a goodness-of-fit (R2) of the model of 0.806, with a diagnostic accuracy for benign lung diseases of 92.8%, a diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer of 89.0%, and an overall accuracy of 90.8%. The model system for early clinical diagnosis of lung cancer has been established.

  8. [A meta-analysis of the curative effects of carboplatin-based and cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimens on advance non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing-wei; Liang, Xiao-hua; Zhou, Xin-li; Huang, Ruo-fan

    2006-10-10

    To evaluate whether there is a difference in the curative effect of carboplatin-based and cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimens on advance non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The databases PudMed, CENTRAL, and Chinese biomedical database were retrieved by using the key words "non-small cell lung cancer" or "carcinoma, non-small cell lung" so as to search the materials about the randomized controlled clinical trials that had compared the curative effects of carboplatin-based and cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimens on advance NSCLC. A meta-analysis was conducted. Eighteen documents about randomized controlled clinical trials, including 6478 patients, from the retrieved 3531 documents accorded to the demand of enrollment. The overall response rates of the carboplatin-based and cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic groups were both 27% (RR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86 approximately 1.01, P = 0.10). Neither funnel plot nor rank correlation test regarding response rate indicated the existence of publication bias (chi(2) = 18.63, P = 0.63). The 0ne-year survival rate of the carboplatin-based regimen group was 36%, not significantly different from that of the cisplatin-based regimen group (35%, RR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 - 1.17, P = 0.5). Sensitive analysis confirmed the non-existence of differences in the overall response rate and one-year survival rate between these 2 groups. The curative effects of the carboplatin-based and cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimens are similar. The choice of carboplatin or cisplatin depends on the toxicity of the drugs and the patients' tolerance.

  9. Hypo fractionated radiotherapy in advanced lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Carvalho, Heloisa de; Saito, Newton Heitetsu; Gomes, Herbeni Cardoso; Aguilar, Patricia Bailao; Nadalin, Wladimir

    1996-01-01

    Patients with advanced lung cancers have bad prognosis and, many times, are submitted to prolonged and not always efficient treatments. We present a study where 51 patients were treated with hypo fractionated radiotherapy, based on two distinct schemes, according to the performance status and social conditions of each patient: continuous treatment: 30 Gy, 10 fractions of 3 Gy, 5 days/week (37 cases); weekly treatment: 30 Gy, 6 fractions of 5 Gy, once a week (14 cases). Symptoms relief and impact in survival were evaluated. In both groups, we observed improvement of symptoms in about 70% of the occurrences with a medium survival of three months. We conclude that hypo fractionation is an effective palliative treatment for lung cancers, in patients with short life-expectancy and must be considered as a option in advanced cases, in patients with short life-expectancy that deserve some kind of treatment. (author). 37 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Incidence of non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer by amount of emphysema and airway wall thickness: a community-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamli Gagnat, Ane; Gjerdevik, Miriam; Gallefoss, Frode; Coxson, Harvey O; Gulsvik, Amund; Bakke, Per

    2017-05-01

    There is limited knowledge about the prognostic value of quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness in cancer.The aim of this study was to investigate if using CT to quantitatively assess the amount of emphysema and airway wall thickness independently predicts the subsequent incidence of non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer.In the GenKOLS study of 2003-2005, 947 ever-smokers performed spirometry and underwent CT examination. The main predictors were the amount of emphysema measured by the percentage of low attenuation areas (%LAA) on CT and standardised measures of airway wall thickness (AWT-PI10). Cancer data from 2003-2013 were obtained from the Norwegian Cancer Register. The hazard ratio associated with emphysema and airway wall thickness was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression for cancer diagnoses.During 10 years of follow-up, non-pulmonary cancer was diagnosed in 11% of the subjects with LAA pulmonary cancer and lung cancer. Airway wall thickness did not predict cancer independently.This study offers a strong argument that emphysema is an independent risk factor for both non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  11. Novel nanoparticulate systems for lung cancer therapy: an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madni, Asadullah; Batool, Amna; Noreen, Sobia; Maqbool, Irsah; Rehman, Faizza; Kashif, Prince Muhammad; Tahir, Nayab; Raza, Ahmad

    2017-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Conventional therapy for lung cancer is associated with lack of specificity and access to the normal cells resulting in cytotoxicity, reduced cellular uptake, drug resistance and rapid drug clearance from the body. The emergence of nanotechnology has revolutionized the treatment of lung cancer. The focus of nanotechnology is to target tumor cells with improved bioavailability and reduced toxicity. In the recent years, nanoparticulate systems have extensively been exploited in order to overcome the obstacles in treatment of lung cancer. Nanoparticulate systems have shown much potential for lung cancer therapy by gaining selective access to the tumor cells due to surface modifiability and smaller size. In this review, various novel nanoparticles (NPs) based formulations have been discussed in the treatment of lung cancer. Nanotechnology is expected to grow fast in future, and it will provide new avenues for the improved treatment of lung cancer. This review article also highlights the characteristics, recent advances in the designing of NPs and therapeutic outcomes.

  12. Development of Proteomic Patterns for Detecting Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyuan Xiao

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is at present the number one cause of cancer death and no biomarker is available to detect early lung cancer in serum samples so far. The objective of this study is to find specific biomarkers for detection of lung cancer using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI technology. In this study, serum samples from 30 lung cancer patients and 51 age-and sex-matched healthy were analyzed by SELDI based ProteinChip reader, PBSII-C. The spectra were generated on WCX2 chips and protein peaks clustering and classification analyses were performed utilizing Biomarker Wizard and Biomarker Patterns software packages, respectively. Three protein peaks were automatically chosen for the system training and the development of a decision classification tree. The constructed model was then used to test an independent set of masked serum samples from 15 lung cancer patients and 31 healthy individuals. The analysis yielded a sensitivity of 93.3%, and a specificity of 96.7%. These results suggest that the serum is a capable resource for detection of specific lung cancer biomarkers. SELDI technique combined with an artificial intelligence classification algorithm can both facilitate the discovery of better biomarkers for lung cancer and provide a useful tool for molecular diagnosis in future.

  13. African American health disparities in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Pauline M; Guerrier-Adams, Suzy; Okunji, Priscilla O; Schiavone, Deborah; Smith, Joann E

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and globally. African Americans experience significant differences in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Smoking is the single greatest risk for lung cancer, making smoking cessation programs a potentially fruitful approach for reducing the risk of lung cancer. Despite clinical practice guidelines that prompt nurses to advise patients to quit smoking, only a small percentage of nurses do so. Minority patients are less likely than Whites to receive smoking cessation advice. This article discusses recent findings on the pathophysiology and risks for lung cancer. The literature on smoking cessation research is examined to determine the features of successful cessation interventions. Recommendations are offered for enhancing tobacco cessation efforts in nursing practice, education, and research.

  14. Lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, L.S.; Husen, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Lung cancer has been a rare disease among the Indians of the southwestern United States. However, the advent of uranium mining in the area has been associated with an increased incidence of lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners. This study centers on Navajo men with lung cancer who were admitted to the hospital from February 1965 to May 1979. Of a total of 17 patients with lung cancer, 16 were uranium miners, and one was a nonminer. The mean value of cumulative radon exposure for this group was 1139.5 working level months (WLMs). The predominant cancer type was the small cell undifferentiated category (62.5 percent). The low frequency of cigarette smoking in this group supports the view that radiation is the primary cause of lung cancer among uranium miners and that cigarette smoking acts as a promoting agent

  15. 30-day mortality after systemic anticancer treatment for breast and lung cancer in England: a population-based, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Michael; Saxon, Emma B; Bomb, Martine; Smittenaar, Rebecca; Wickenden, Matthew; McPhail, Sean; Rashbass, Jem; Chao, David; Dewar, John; Talbot, Denis; Peake, Michael; Perren, Timothy; Wilson, Charles; Dodwell, David

    2016-09-01

    30-day mortality might be a useful indicator of avoidable harm to patients from systemic anticancer treatments, but data for this indicator are limited. The Systemic Anti-Cancer Therapy (SACT) dataset collated by Public Health England allows the assessment of factors affecting 30-day mortality in a national patient population. The aim of this first study based on the SACT dataset was to establish national 30-day mortality benchmarks for breast and lung cancer patients receiving SACT in England, and to start to identify where patient care could be improved. In this population-based study, we included all women with breast cancer and all men and women with lung cancer residing in England, who were 24 years or older and who started a cycle of SACT in 2014 irrespective of the number of previous treatment cycles or programmes, and irrespective of their position within the disease trajectory. We calculated 30-day mortality after the most recent cycle of SACT for those patients. We did logistic regression analyses, adjusting for relevant factors, to examine whether patient, tumour, or treatment-related factors were associated with the risk of 30-day mortality. For each cancer type and intent, we calculated 30-day mortality rates and patient volume at the hospital trust level, and contrasted these in a funnel plot. Between Jan 1, and Dec, 31, 2014, we included 23 228 patients with breast cancer and 9634 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in our regression and trust-level analyses. 30-day mortality increased with age for both patients with breast cancer and patients with NSCLC treated with curative intent, and decreased with age for patients receiving palliative SACT (breast curative: odds ratio [OR] 1·085, 99% CI 1·040-1·132; p<0·0001; NSCLC curative: 1·045, 1·013-1·079; p=0·00033; breast palliative: 0·987, 0·977-0·996; p=0·00034; NSCLC palliative: 0·987, 0·976-0·998; p=0·0015). 30-day mortality was also significantly higher for patients

  16. Radiologic diagnosis of abestos-ralated lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeung Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Asbestos was previously widely used due to its many favorable characteristics, such as durability, flexibility, and inexpensiveness. Asbestos has been prohibited in Korea since 2009, however, asbestos-related diseases remain an important public health issue because of its long latency time. Lung cancer is one of the most harmful asbestos-related diseases and patients with asbestos-related lung cancer receive compensation by law. The diagnosis of asbestos-related diseases is based on a detailed interview regarding the asbestos exposure, in addition to clinical, radiological, pathological, and laboratory data. This review provides a radiologic diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer.

  17. Radiologic diagnosis of abestos-ralated lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kim, Yoo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos was previously widely used due to its many favorable characteristics, such as durability, flexibility, and inexpensiveness. Asbestos has been prohibited in Korea since 2009, however, asbestos-related diseases remain an important public health issue because of its long latency time. Lung cancer is one of the most harmful asbestos-related diseases and patients with asbestos-related lung cancer receive compensation by law. The diagnosis of asbestos-related diseases is based on a detailed interview regarding the asbestos exposure, in addition to clinical, radiological, pathological, and laboratory data. This review provides a radiologic diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer

  18. Lung Cancer Clinical Trials: Advances in Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    New treatments for lung cancer and aspects of joining a clinical trial are discussed in this 30-minute Facebook Live event, hosted by NCI’s Dr. Shakun Malik, head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, and Janet Freeman-Daily, lung cancer patient activist and founding member of #LCSM.

  19. Transesophageal Ultrasonography for Lung Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Annema, Jouke; Vilmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Accurate mediastinal nodal staging is essential for patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer and is achieved by combined endobronchial ultrasound and transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Training requirements for EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for lung cancer staging...

  20. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chansky, Kari; Detterbeck, Frank C; Nicholson, Andrew G

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Revisions to the TNM stage classifications for lung cancer, informed by the international database (N = 94,708) of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee, need external validation. The objective was to externally v...

  1. Impact of physiotherapy on patients with advanced lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozalevli, Sevgi

    2013-01-01

    Patients with lung cancer have high mortality and high morbidity. Lung cancer-related symptoms and problems such as dyspnea, fatigue, pain, and cachexia that begin in the early phase later result in poor physical functioning, psychosocial, and quality of life status. In addition, advancing age is associated with significant comorbidity. These patients may benefit from multidisciplinary therapy to reduce the perceived severity of dyspnea and fatigue and increase physical functioning and quality of life. Based on management of symptoms and problems such as dyspnea, physical inactivity, cancer-related fatigue, respiratory secretions, pain, and anxiety-depression of these patients, it is thought that physiotherapy techniques can be used on advanced lung cancer patients following a comprehensive evaluation. However, well-designed, prospective, and randomized-controlled trials are needed to prove the efficacy of physiotherapy and pulmonary rehabilitation in general for patients with advanced lung cancer.

  2. European position statement on lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Devaraj, Anand; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT can save lives. This European Union (EU) position statement presents the available evidence and the major issues that need to be addressed to ensure the successful implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening in Europe. This statement identified...... specific actions required by the European lung cancer screening community to adopt before the implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. This position statement recommends the following actions: a risk stratification approach should be used for future lung cancer low-dose CT programmes...... 200 mm3, should be managed in multidisciplinary teams according to this EU position statement recommendations to ensure that patients receive the most appropriate treatment; and planning for implementation of low-dose CT screening should start throughout Europe as soon as possible. European countries...

  3. Early diagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Debeljak

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the detection of premalignant changes of bronchial mucosa and early stages of lung cancer frequent chest X-ray, spiral low dose computed tomography, fluorescence bronchoscopy, sputum cytology (also with automated systems with genetic and molecular changes in the sputum cells and bronchial mucosa were used. These screening methods of the high-risk groups for lung cancer achieved: earlier diagnosis of lung cancer in lower stage, higher operability, longer 5-year survival, but without mortality reduction.Conclusions: In the clinical practice we can examine higher risk groups for lung cancer in randomised control trials with multimodality approach: frequent chest low-dose fast spiral computed tomography, sputum cytology with genetic and molecular examinations and fluorescence bronchoscopy. Smoking cessation remains the best means to achieve mortality reduction from lung cancer.

  4. [Combined-modality therapy for lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Satoru; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2010-06-01

    Lung cancer is treated with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy according to histology and clinical stage. Advanced stage lung cancer patients cannot be cured, but early and locally-advanced stage patients can be cured by intensive combined-modality therapy. Combined-modality therapy with surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy is standard for resectable IB-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and stage I small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients. Chemoradiotherapy is standard for unresectable locally-advanced NSCLC and limited-stage SCLC patients. Recently, several new drugs, molecular targeted drugs, have become available for clinical use and trials. We reviewed standard and new strategy of combined-modality therapy for early and locally-advanced lung cancer patients.

  5. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer: a re-assessment based on the recent cross-Canada radon survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Moir, D.; Whyte, J.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to indoor radon has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer was assessed in 2005 with the radon distribution characteristics determined from a radon survey carried out in the late 1970s in 19 cities. In that survey, a grab sampling method was used to measure radon levels. The observed radon concentration in 14 000 Canadian homes surveyed followed a log–normal distribution with a geometric mean (GM) of 11.2 Bq m–3 and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.9. Based on the information from that survey, it was estimated that ∼10 % of lung cancers in Canada resulted from indoor radon exposure. To gain a better understanding of radon concentrations in homes across the country, a national residential radon survey was launched in April 2009. In the recent survey, long-term (3 month or longer) indoor radon measurements were made in roughly 14 000 homes in 121 health regions across Canada. The observed radon concentrations follow, as expected, a log–normal distribution with a GM of 41.9 Bq m–3 and a GSD of 2.8. Based on the more accurate radon distribution characteristics obtained from the recent cross-Canada radon survey, a re-assessment of Canadian population risk for radon induced lung cancer was undertaken. The theoretical estimates show that 16 % of lung cancer deaths among Canadians are attributable to indoor radon exposure. These results strongly suggest the ongoing need for the Canadian National Radon Program. In particular, there is a need for a focus on education and awareness by all levels of government, and in partnership with key stakeholders, to encourage Canadians to take action to reduce the risk from indoor radon exposure. PMID:22874897

  6. Ligand-conjugated mesoporous silica nanorattles based on enzyme targeted prodrug delivery system for effective lung cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundarraj, Shenbagamoorthy, E-mail: sundarrajbu09@gmail.com [Proteomics and Molecular Cell Physiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, TN (India); Thangam, Ramar [Proteomics and Molecular Cell Physiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, TN (India); Department of Virology, King Institute of Preventive Medicine and Research, Guindy, Chennai 600 032, TN (India); Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Vimala, Karuppaiya [Proteomics and Molecular Cell Physiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, TN (India); Kannan, Soundarapandian, E-mail: skperiyaruniv@gmail.com [Proteomics and Molecular Cell Physiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, TN (India); Department of Zoology, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, TN (India)

    2014-03-15

    Epidermal growth factor receptor antibody (EGFRAb) conjugated silica nanorattles (SNs) were synthesized and used to develop receptor mediated endocytosis for targeted drug delivery strategies for cancer therapy. The present study determined that the rate of internalization of silica nanorattles was found to be high in lung cancer cells when compared with the normal lung cells. EGFRAb can specifically bind to EGFR, a receptor that is highly expressed in lung cancer cells, but is expressed at low levels in other normal cells. Furthermore, in vitro studies clearly substantiated that the cPLA{sub 2}α activity, arachidonic acid release and cell proliferation were considerably reduced by pyrrolidine-2 loaded EGFRAb-SN in H460 cells. The cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were significantly induced by the treatment of pyrrolidine-2 loaded EGFRAb-SN when compared with free pyrrolidine-2 and pyrrolidine-2 loaded SNs in human non-small cell lung cancer cells. An in vivo toxicity assessment showed that silica nanorattles and EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2 exhibited low systemic toxicity in healthy Balb/c mice. The EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2 showed a much better antitumor activity (38%) with enhanced tumor inhibition rate than the pyrrolidine-2 on the non-small cell lung carcinoma subcutaneous model. Thus, the present findings validated the low toxicity and high therapeutic potentials of EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2, which may provide a convincing evidence of the silica nanorattles as new potential carriers for targeted drug delivery systems. - Highlights: • EGFRAb-SN developed for receptor-mediated Drug delivery system (DDS). • EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2 targeted DDS for cPLA2α inhibition in NSLC. • Study indicates EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2 as an efficient in target dug delivery carrier. • Study explains entire efficiency of EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2 in vitro and in vivo models.

  7. Ligand-conjugated mesoporous silica nanorattles based on enzyme targeted prodrug delivery system for effective lung cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundarraj, Shenbagamoorthy; Thangam, Ramar; Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Vimala, Karuppaiya; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor antibody (EGFRAb) conjugated silica nanorattles (SNs) were synthesized and used to develop receptor mediated endocytosis for targeted drug delivery strategies for cancer therapy. The present study determined that the rate of internalization of silica nanorattles was found to be high in lung cancer cells when compared with the normal lung cells. EGFRAb can specifically bind to EGFR, a receptor that is highly expressed in lung cancer cells, but is expressed at low levels in other normal cells. Furthermore, in vitro studies clearly substantiated that the cPLA 2 α activity, arachidonic acid release and cell proliferation were considerably reduced by pyrrolidine-2 loaded EGFRAb-SN in H460 cells. The cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were significantly induced by the treatment of pyrrolidine-2 loaded EGFRAb-SN when compared with free pyrrolidine-2 and pyrrolidine-2 loaded SNs in human non-small cell lung cancer cells. An in vivo toxicity assessment showed that silica nanorattles and EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2 exhibited low systemic toxicity in healthy Balb/c mice. The EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2 showed a much better antitumor activity (38%) with enhanced tumor inhibition rate than the pyrrolidine-2 on the non-small cell lung carcinoma subcutaneous model. Thus, the present findings validated the low toxicity and high therapeutic potentials of EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2, which may provide a convincing evidence of the silica nanorattles as new potential carriers for targeted drug delivery systems. - Highlights: • EGFRAb-SN developed for receptor-mediated Drug delivery system (DDS). • EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2 targeted DDS for cPLA2α inhibition in NSLC. • Study indicates EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2 as an efficient in target dug delivery carrier. • Study explains entire efficiency of EGFRAb-SN-pyrrolidine-2 in vitro and in vivo models

  8. Development of lung cancer CT screening operating support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Rikuta; Hanai, Kozou; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, lung cancer death ranks first among men and third among women. Lung cancer death is increasing yearly, thus early detection and treatment are needed. For this reason, CT screening for lung cancer has been introduced. The CT screening services are roughly divided into three sections: office, radiology and diagnosis sections. These operations have been performed through paper-based or a combination of paper-based and an existing electronic health recording system. This paper describes an operating support system for lung cancer CT screening in order to make the screening services efficient. This operating support system is developed on the basis of 1) analysis of operating processes, 2) digitalization of operating information, and 3) visualization of operating information. The utilization of the system is evaluated through an actual application and users' survey questionnaire obtained from CT screening centers.

  9. Exercise and relaxation intervention for patients with advanced lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Stage, M; Laursen, J

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer patients experience loss of physical capacity, dyspnea, pain, reduced energy and psychological distress. The aim of this study was to explore feasibility, health benefits and barriers of exercise in former sedentary patients with advanced stage lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer...... (NSCLC) (III-IV) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (ED), undergoing chemotherapy. The intervention consisted of a hospital-based, supervised, group exercise and relaxation program comprising resistance-, cardiovascular- and relaxation training 4 h weekly, 6 weeks, and a concurrent unsupervised home......-based exercise program. An explorative study using individual semi-structured interviews (n=15) and one focus group interview (n=8) was conducted among the participants. Throughout the intervention the patients experienced increased muscle strength, improvement in wellbeing, breathlessness and energy. The group...

  10. Residence in Proximity of a Coal-Oil-Fired Thermal Power Plant and Risk of Lung and Bladder Cancer in North-Eastern Italy. A Population-Based Study: 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collarile, Paolo; Bidoli, Ettore; Barbone, Fabio; Zanier, Loris; Del Zotto, Stefania; Fuser, Simonetta; Stel, Fulvio; Panato, Chiara; Gallai, Irene; Serraino, Diego

    2017-07-31

    This study investigated the risk of lung and bladder cancers in people residing in proximity of a coal-oil-fired thermal power plant in an area of north-eastern Italy, covered by a population-based cancer registry. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) by sex, age, and histology were computed according to tertiles of residential exposure to benzene, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particular matter, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) among 1076 incident cases of lung and 650 cases of bladder cancers. In men of all ages and in women under 75 years of age, no significant associations were observed. Conversely, in women aged ≥75 years significantly increased risks of lung and bladder cancers were related to high exposure to benzene (IRR for highest vs. lowest tertile: 2.00 for lung cancer and 1.94 for bladder cancer) and NO2 (IRR: 1.72 for lung cancer; and 1.94 for bladder cancer). In these women, a 1.71-fold higher risk of lung cancer was also related to a high exposure to SO2. Acknowledging the limitations of our study, in particular that we did not have information regarding cigarette smoking habits, the findings of this study indicate that air pollution exposure may have had a role with regard to the risk of lung and bladder cancers limited to women aged ≥75 years. Such increased risk warrants further analytical investigations.

  11. Evaluation of Irinotecan as a Third- or Fourth-line Treatment for Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Keener, James

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. There are two major types of lung cancer: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which comprises approximately 85% of all lung cancers, and small cell lung cancer. Currently, the most prevalent third- and fourth- line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer is cisplatin-based therapy. This form of therapy has been long established as the chief treatment for advanced NSCLC; however, cisplatin-based therapy also impai...

  12. Expanding the Playing Field: Immune-Based Therapy Shows Potential for Lung, Other Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from two early-phase clinical trials presented at the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting provide further evidence that priming the immune system to attack tumors has potential as a treatment for certain cancers.

  13. Long-term Survival of Personalized Surgical Treatment of Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Based on Molecular Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua ZHOU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Approximately 35%-40% of patients with newly diagnosed non-small cell Lung cancer have locally advanced disease. The average survival time of these patients only have 6-8 months with chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to explore and summarize the probability of detection of micrometastasis in peripheral blood for molecular staging, and for selection of indication of surgical treatment, and beneficiary of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative adjuvant therapy in locally advanced lung cancer; to summarize the long-time survival result of personalized surgical treatment of 516 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer based on molecular staging methods. Methods CK19 mRNA expression of peripheral blood samples was detected in 516 lung cancer patients by RT-PCR before operation for molecular diagnosis of micrometastasis, personalized molecular staging, and for selection of indication of surgical treatment and the beneficiary of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative adjuvant therapy in patients with locally advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer invaded heart, great vessels or both. The long-term survival result of personalized surgical treatment was retrospectively analyzed in 516 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer based on molecular staging methods. Results There were 322 patients with squamous cell carcinoma and 194 cases with adenocarcinoma in the series of 516 patients with locally advanced lung cancer involved heart, great vessels or both. There were 112 patients with IIIA disease and 404 cases with IIIB disease according to P-TNM staging. There were 97 patients with M-IIIA disease, 278 cases with M-IIIB disease and 141 cases with III disease according to our personalized molecular staging. Of the 516 patients, bronchoplastic procedures and pulmonary artery reconstruction was carried out in 256 cases; lobectomy combined with resection and reconstruction of partial left

  14. Lung Cancer Prognosis in Elderly Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigel, Keith; Veluswamy, Rajwanth; Krauskopf, Katherine; Mehrotra, Anita; Mhango, Grace; Sigel, Carlie; Wisnivesky, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Treatment-related immunosuppression in organ transplant recipients has been linked to increased incidence and risk of progression for several malignancies. Using a population-based cancer cohort, we evaluated whether organ transplantation was associated with worse prognosis in elderly patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry linked to Medicare claims, we identified 597 patients aged 65 years or older with NSCLC who had received organ transplants (kidney, liver, heart, or lung) before cancer diagnosis. These cases were compared to 114,410 untransplanted NSCLC patients. We compared overall survival (OS) by transplant status using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression. To account for an increased risk of non-lung cancer death (competing risks) in transplant recipients, we used conditional probability function (CPF) analyses. Multiple CPF regression was used to evaluate lung cancer prognosis in organ transplant recipients while adjusting for confounders. Transplant recipients presented with earlier stage lung cancer (P = 0.002) and were more likely to have squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.02). Cox regression analyses showed that having received a non-lung organ transplant was associated with poorer OS (P transplantation was associated with no difference in prognosis. After accounting for competing risks of death using CPF regression, no differences in cancer-specific survival were noted between non-lung transplant recipients and nontransplant patients. Non-lung solid organ transplant recipients who developed NSCLC had worse OS than nontransplant recipients due to competing risks of death. Lung cancer-specific survival analyses suggest that NSCLC tumor behavior may be similar in these 2 groups.

  15. Breast cancer lung metastasis: molecular biology and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liting; Han, Bingchen; Siegel, Emily; Cui, Yukun; Giuliano, Armando; Cui, Xiaojiang

    2018-03-26

    Distant metastasis accounts for the vast majority of deaths in patients with cancer. Breast cancer exhibits a distinct metastatic pattern commonly involving bone, liver, lung, and brain. Breast cancer can be divided into different subtypes based on gene expression profiles, and different breast cancer subtypes show preference to distinct organ sites of metastasis. Luminal breast tumors tend to metastasize to bone while basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) displays a lung tropism of metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying this organ-specific pattern of metastasis still remain to be elucidated. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances regarding the molecular signaling pathways as well as the therapeutic strategies for treating breast cancer lung metastasis.

  16. A Population-Based Comparative Effectiveness Study of Radiation Therapy Techniques in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jeremy P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Murphy, James D. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Science, University of California– San Diego, Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, California (United States); Hanlon, Alexandra L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Concerns have been raised about the potential for worse treatment outcomes because of dosimetric inaccuracies related to tumor motion and increased toxicity caused by the spread of low-dose radiation to normal tissues in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We therefore performed a population-based comparative effectiveness analysis of IMRT, conventional 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), and 2-dimensional radiation therapy (2D-RT) in stage III NSCLC. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database to identify a cohort of patients diagnosed with stage III NSCLC from 2002 to 2009 treated with IMRT, 3D-CRT, or 2D-RT. Using Cox regression and propensity score matching, we compared survival and toxicities of these treatments. Results: The proportion of patients treated with IMRT increased from 2% in 2002 to 25% in 2009, and the use of 2D-RT decreased from 32% to 3%. In univariate analysis, IMRT was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.90, P=.02) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR 0.89, P=.02). After controlling for confounders, IMRT was associated with similar OS (HR 0.94, P=.23) and CSS (HR 0.94, P=.28) compared with 3D-CRT. Both techniques had superior OS compared with 2D-RT. IMRT was associated with similar toxicity risks on multivariate analysis compared with 3D-CRT. Propensity score matched model results were similar to those from adjusted models. Conclusions: In this population-based analysis, IMRT for stage III NSCLC was associated with similar OS and CSS and maintained similar toxicity risks compared with 3D-CRT.

  17. Early Prediction of Disease Progression in Small Cell Lung Cancer: Toward Model-Based Personalized Medicine in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil-Bruna, Núria; Sahota, Tarjinder; López-Picazo, José-María; Moreno-Jiménez, Marta; Martín-Algarra, Salvador; Ribba, Benjamin; Trocóniz, Iñaki F

    2015-06-15

    Predictive biomarkers can play a key role in individualized disease monitoring. Unfortunately, the use of biomarkers in clinical settings has thus far been limited. We have previously shown that mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling enables integration of nonvalidated biomarker data to provide predictive model-based biomarkers for response classification. The biomarker model we developed incorporates an underlying latent variable (disease) representing (unobserved) tumor size dynamics, which is assumed to drive biomarker production and to be influenced by exposure to treatment. Here, we show that by integrating CT scan data, the population model can be expanded to include patient outcome. Moreover, we show that in conjunction with routine medical monitoring data, the population model can support accurate individual predictions of outcome. Our combined model predicts that a change in disease of 29.2% (relative standard error 20%) between two consecutive CT scans (i.e., 6-8 weeks) gives a probability of disease progression of 50%. We apply this framework to an external dataset containing biomarker data from 22 small cell lung cancer patients (four patients progressing during follow-up). Using only data up until the end of treatment (a total of 137 lactate dehydrogenase and 77 neuron-specific enolase observations), the statistical framework prospectively identified 75% of the individuals as having a predictable outcome in follow-up visits. This included two of the four patients who eventually progressed. In all identified individuals, the model-predicted outcomes matched the observed outcomes. This framework allows at risk patients to be identified early and therapeutic intervention/monitoring to be adjusted individually, which may improve overall patient survival. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. A Cohort Study on Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Yunnan Tin Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong JIANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. Studies of lung cancer among miners have shown that occupational exposure also played an important role. The aim of this study is to investigate radon, cigarette use and other risk factors of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational lung cancer. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among Yunnan tin miners, the associations between potential risk factors for lung cancer were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Effects of age at first radon exposure and radon exposure rate on lung cancer risk were analyzed. The relationship between cumulative working level month and lung cancer was analyzed according to smoking status. The joint effect of tobacco use and cumulative radon exposure was analyzed based on additive and multiplicative models. Results Increased risk of lung cancer was associated with age at enrollment, tobacco use, prior bronchitis, and cumulative arsenic and radon exposure, while higher education level was associated with decreased lung cancer risk. An inverse effect of radon exposure rate was observed. There was no significant association between lung cancer risk and first radon exposure age. There was a significant additive interaction between tobacco use and radon exposure on lung cancer risk. Conclusion Several risk factors may contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners. Further studies are warranted to evaluate joint effect of different risk factors.

  19. The Schneeberg lung cancer cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalthoff, J.

    1982-01-01

    47 cases of ''Schneeberg lung cancer'' are reported which received financial compensation in West Germany after 1945 after being officially acknowledged as occupational disease. With two exceptions, all patients had been occupied in the Saxonian and Bohemian uranium mines (or their extensions after World War II). The geotechnical fundamentals, industrial hygiene measures taken, the radiobiological situation and its effects are presented. Most patients had small-cell carcinomas or epitheliomas. Accompanying silicosis, usually in a mild form, was found in 35 cases. The mean exposure time was 10.3 years (in 11 cases, less than five years), the mean latency time 22 years (minimum: 8 years). The mean age at the time of death was 58.2 years, i.e. 10 years less than in a normal control group. (orig.) [de

  20. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  1. Flavonoids as Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Agents Against Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Cabrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present review is to study the relationship between flavonoids and lung cancer, proposing that their regular consumption in Western diets could be beneficial for protecting patients against lung cancer. An extensive search of the scientific literature was performed in the following electronic specialized databases (PubMed central (PMC-NBCI, Elsevier Journal, SciELO Spain, Scirus, Science Direct, including studies in animals, cells, and humans, in order to establish the effect of flavonoids in the prevention and development of lung cancer. Although in vitro and animal studies show the potential ability of flavonoids to act against different types of cancers, especially against lung cancers, the diverse results reported within epidemiological studies, together with the lack of experiments in humans, are the major factors in limiting making dietary recommendations based on scientific evidence for the management of patients with lung cancer. Therefore, the authors of the present study recommend following the dietary health practice guidelines which promotes the consumption of food enriched in flavonoids and reflects the current state of knowledge of an effective and appropriate diet in lung cancer patients.Erratum in: Rev Esp Nutr Hum Diet. 2013;17(2:91-92Link: http://www.renhyd.org/index.php/renhyd/article/view/6/17

  2. Improving the Diagnostic Specificity of CT for Early Detection of Lung Cancer: 4D CT-Based Pulmonary Nodule Elastometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    interventions in lung cancer have improved the odds of survival, clinical stage at diagnosis remains the major determinant of survival after therapy [1...first. Ultimately, the methodology may also serve as a guide to radiation therapy dose painting or adaptive boost design by identifying the...conclude that DIR compares favorably to manual contouring within inter-observer differences. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this

  3. Lung cancer during pregnancy: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Mitrou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths in males for decades, has recently become one of commonest causes for women too. As women delay the start of their family, the co-existence of cancer and pregnancy is increasingly observed. Nevertheless, lung cancer during pregnancy remains a rather uncommon condition with less than 70 cases published in recent years. Non-small cell lung carcinoma is the commonest type accounting for about 85% of all cases. Overall survival rates are low. Chemotherapy and/or targeted treatment have been used with poor outcomes. The disease has been also found to affect the products of conception with no short- or long-term consequences for the neonate. This article is referring to a narrative review of lung cancers diagnosed in pregnant women around the world.

  4. Advances in combination therapy of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Lan; Leng, Donglei; Cun, Dongmei

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is a complex disease caused by a multitude of genetic and environmental factors. The progression of lung cancer involves dynamic changes in the genome and a complex network of interactions between cancer cells with multiple, distinct cell types that form tumors. Combination therapy......, including small molecule drugs and biopharmaceuticals, which make the optimization of dosing and administration schedule challenging. This article reviews the recent advances in the design and development of combinations of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of lung cancer. Focus is primarily on rationales...... for the selection of specific combination therapies for lung cancer treatment, and state of the art of delivery technologies and dosage regimens for the combinations, tested in preclinical and clinical trials....

  5. Evolution of surface-based deformable image registration for adaptive radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Anne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the performance of surface-based deformable image registration (DR for adaptive radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods Based on 13 patients with locally advanced NSCLC, CT images acquired at treatment planning, midway and the end of the radio- (n = 1 or radiochemotherapy (n = 12 course were used for evaluation of DR. All CT images were manually [gross tumor volume (GTV] and automatically [organs-at-risk (OAR lung, spinal cord, vertebral spine, trachea, aorta, outline] segmented. Contours were transformed into 3D meshes using the Pinnacle treatment planning system and corresponding mesh points defined control points for DR with interpolation within the structures. Using these deformation maps, follow-up CT images were transformed into the planning images and compared with the original planning CT images. Results A progressive tumor shrinkage was observed with median GTV volumes of 170 cm3 (range 42 cm3 - 353 cm3, 124 cm3 (19 cm3 - 325 cm3 and 100 cm3 (10 cm3 - 270 cm3 at treatment planning, mid-way and at the end of treatment. Without DR, correlation coefficients (CC were 0.76 ± 0.11 and 0.74 ± 0.10 for comparison of the planning CT and the CT images acquired mid-way and at the end of treatment, respectively; DR significantly improved the CC to 0.88 ± 0.03 and 0.86 ± 0.05 (p = 0.001, respectively. With manual landmark registration as reference, DR reduced uncertainties on the GTV surface from 11.8 mm ± 5.1 mm to 2.9 mm ± 1.2 mm. Regarding the carina and intrapulmonary vessel bifurcations, DR reduced uncertainties by about 40% with residual errors of 4 mm to 6 mm on average. Severe deformation artefacts were observed in patients with resolving atelectasis and pleural effusion, in one patient, where the tumor was located around large bronchi and separate segmentation of the GTV and OARs was not possible, and in one patient, where no clear shrinkage but more a decay of the tumor was observed

  6. Vasculature surrounding a nodule: A novel lung cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Leader, Joseph K; Wang, Renwei; Wilson, David; Herman, James; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pu, Jiantao

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether the vessels surrounding a nodule depicted on non-contrast, low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can discriminate benign and malignant screen detected nodules. We collected a dataset consisting of LDCT scans acquired on 100 subjects from the Pittsburgh Lung Screening study (PLuSS). Fifty subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer and 50 subjects had suspicious nodules later proven benign. For the lung cancer cases, the location of the malignant nodule in the LDCT scans was known; while for the benign cases, the largest nodule in the LDCT scan was used in the analysis. A computer algorithm was developed to identify surrounding vessels and quantify the number and volume of vessels that were connected or near the nodule. A nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed based on a single nodule per subject to assess the discriminability of the surrounding vessels to provide a lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR) were computed to determine the probability of a nodule being lung cancer based on the vessel features. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for vessel count and vessel volume were 0.722 (95% CI=0.616-0.811, plung cancer group 9.7 (±9.6) compared to the non-lung cancer group 4.0 (±4.3) CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results showed that malignant nodules are often surrounded by more vessels compared to benign nodules, suggesting that the surrounding vessel characteristics could serve as lung cancer biomarker for indeterminate nodules detected during LDCT lung cancer screening using only the information collected during the initial visit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of conformal radiotherapy technique on survival after chemoradiotherapy for patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer in the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, David J; Koshy, Matthew; Liptay, Michael J; Fidler, Mary Jo

    2014-07-01

    Definitive chemoradiotherapy is a core treatment modality for patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although radiotherapy (RT) technologies have advanced dramatically, to the authors' knowledge relatively little is known regarding the importance of irradiation technique on outcome, particularly given the competing risk of distant metastasis. The National Cancer Data Base was used to determine predictors of overall survival (OS) in patients with AJCC stage III NSCLC who were treated with chemoradiotherapy, focusing on the importance of conformal RT (CRT). Patients with stage III NSCLC who were treated with chemoradiotherapy between 2003 and 2005 in the National Cancer Data Base were included. RT technique was defined as conventional, 3-dimensional-conformal, or intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), the latter 2 combined as CRT. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed for univariable and multivariable analyses of OS. The median, 3-year, and 5-year survival outcomes for the 13,292 patients were 12.9 months, 19%, and 11%, respectively. The 3-year and 5-year survival probabilities of patients receiving CRT versus no CRT were 22% versus 19% and 14% versus 11%, respectively (P < .0001). On multivariable analysis, CRT was found to be significantly associated with improved OS (hazards ratio, 0.89). This effect was confirmed on sensitivity analyses, including restricting the cohort to minimum 6-month survivors, young patients with stage IIIA disease, and propensity score-matching. Institutional academic status and patient volume were not found to be associated with OS. CRT was found to be independently associated with a survival advantage. These results reflect the importance of optimal locoregional therapy in patients with stage III NSCLC and provide motivation for further study of advanced RT technologies in patients with NSCLC. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  8. Clonazepam use for prevention of acute and delayed vomiting induced by Cisplatin-based chemotherapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masahiko; Takao, Yusuke; Hata, Chihiro; Teramachi, Hitomi; Tsuchiya, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of clonazepam as an antiemetic in cisplatin-based chemotherapy for lung cancer. Seven patients experienced cisplatin-induced vomiting despite antiemetic therapy including 5-hydroxytryptamine(3) (5-HT(3)) antagonist and dexamethasone. Therefore, the antiemetic therapy including clonazepam, 5-HT(3) antagonist and dexamethasone was subsequently explored in the next course for the same seven patients. We administered clonazepam (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg) once a day orally for 5 d from day one prior to chemotherapy. The grade of delayed vomiting, evaluated according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0, in the courses of therapy with clonazepam was significantly lower than without clonazepam (p=0.013). The patients whose serum clonazepam concentrations were below the lower limit of detection (3.0 ng/ml) experienced vomiting in three of three courses, whereas the patients whose serum clonazepam concentrations were higher than 4.3 ng/ml experienced no vomiting in six of seven courses. We observed that the symptom of cisplatin-induced delayed vomiting is controlled with serum clonazepam levels in the order of 10.0 ng/ml.

  9. Other cancers in lung cancer families are overwhelmingly smoking-related cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyao Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Familial risks of lung cancer are well-established, but whether lung cancer clusters with other discordant cancers is less certain, particularly beyond smoking-related sites, which may provide evidence on genetic contributions to lung cancer aetiology. We used a novel approach to search for familial associations in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. This involved assessment of familial relative risk for cancer X in families with increasing numbers of lung cancer patients and, conversely, relative risks for lung cancer in families with increasing numbers of patients with cancers X. However, we lacked information on smoking. The total number of lung cancers in the database was 125 563. We applied stringent statistical criteria and found that seven discordant cancers were associated with lung cancer among family members, and six of these were known to be connected with smoking: oesophageal, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, cervical, kidney and urinary bladder cancers. A further novel finding was that cancer of unknown primary also associated with lung cancer. We also factored in histological evidence and found that anal and connective tissue cancers could be associated with lung cancer for reasons other than smoking. For endometrial and prostate cancers, suggestive negative associations with lung cancer were found. Although we lacked information on smoking it is prudent to conclude that practically all observed discordant associations of lung cancer were with cancers for which smoking is a risk factor.

  10. Lung Cancer in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozicic Mirela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although the incidence of malignancy has increased after solid organ transplantation, data on lung cancer in this group of patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients who developed lung cancer after renal transplantation. Methods. Among a cohort of 1658 patients who received a transplant at our institution and were followedup between 1973 and 2014, five patients developed lung cancer. We analyzed risk factors, transplantation characteristics, treatment options and survival. Results. Lung cancer was diagnosed in 5 patients (0.3%. Time to diagnosis after the transplant procedure ranged from 26 to 156 months (mean 115 months. All of them had a smoking history. Tumors were classified as IIB (20%, IIIA (40%, and IV (40%. Histological types included adenocarcinoma (80% and there was one case of sarcomatoid carcinoma (20%. One patient had concomitant thyroid papillary carcinoma. Radiotherapy was applied in 2 patients, 2 underwent chemotherapy (erlotinib and combination of carboplatinum and etopozide in one patient each, and 2 died within one month after the diagnosis from disseminated malignant disease. Patients with stage IIIA survived 14 and 24 months after the diagnosis. The patient with sarcomatoid cancer underwent thoracotomy with a complete resection, lost his graft function and died 7 months after the diagnosis. Conclusion. Lung cancer is relatively rare malignancy in renal transplant recipients, but associated with high mortality. Smoking is a significant risk factor, thus smoking cessation should be promoted among renal transplant recipients, as well as regular screening for lung cancer.

  11. Basic and technical research on lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    2004-01-01

    In association with clinical study of carbon beam therapy for lung cancer, the basic research for lung cancer and the patients with this disease has been carried out for the past 10 years. With regard to lung damage by the carbon beams, firstly pulmonary function was measured and analyzed for the patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Force expiratory volume in 1 second (FVE 1.0) and TLC (total lung capacity) was found to be reduced significantly at 6 and 12 months after therapy but the reduction rate was a little, which can support the safety of this treatment modality. Secondly, the regional lung damage by the beams was investigated by using correct fusion of CT images with carbon beam dose distribution, diagnostic follow-up CT images and blood flow and ventilation spect images. It demonstrated the graded decrease blood flow by dose and the compensatory increase of blood flow in the adjacent lobe of lung unexposed to irradiation. On the other hand, the biological study of carbon beam effects on lung cancer cells and tumors line was conducted. Firstly, by using 7 or 4 human lung cancer cell line, the radiosensitivity of carbon beams was compared with that of photons by different histological patterns. It was found that there was no essential difference in the sensitivity pattern for lung cancer histology between the carbon beams and photons though the former doubled the later in power. Secondly, by using IA cell lines among them, the dynamic of clonogenic cells (clonogen) in a nude tumor and the changes in its morphology following irradiation was investigated, clarifying that the clonogen proliferating under anoxic or hypoxic conditions played a pivotal role for tumor regrowth and stemmed from the different clone which had been genetically selected and developed under these conditions. The finding of clonogen becomes one of the evidence supporting the superiority of a single-dose radiotherapy to fractionated radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Impact of Home Hospice Care on Patients with Advanced Lung Cancer: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jui-Kun; Kao, Yee-Hsin

    2016-04-01

    The effectiveness of home hospice care was helping patients to die at home, and reducing symptom burden. The study objective was to explore the impact of home hospice care on death at home, end-of-life (EOL) care, and health care costs among patients with advanced lung cancer in their last month of life. Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Claims Database, we analyzed factors associated with home hospice care using logistic regression analysis. We enrolled 568 patients with advanced lung cancer under hospice care who died during 1997-2011, of which 238 (41.9%) received home hospice care. Compared with the inpatient hospice (IH) group, the home hospice (HH) group had a larger portion die at home (55.5% versus 22.1%, p care cost was less in the HH group than in the IH group (US $1,385.00 ± $1,370.00 and US $2,155.00 ± $1,739.00 [p hospice care duration (p = 0.003) were predictors of receiving home hospice care in advanced lung patients. Home hospice care enables patients with advanced lung cancer to increase the 33.4% chance of dying at home, to spend an average of eight-days less in hospital stay, and to save 35.7% health care costs in the last month of life, compared with their counterparts with only inpatient hospice care. Female patients' decreased hospital stay and longer hospice care duration were the predictors of receiving home hospice care.

  13. Endobronchial Tuberculosis Simulating Lung Cancer and Healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endobroncheal tuberculosis is defined as tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbial and histopathological evidence. The disease is usually mistaken for other lung diseases including lung cancer. Bronchial stenosis is a common complication of this type of tuberculosis despite the use of effective ...

  14. Surgery for nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Lang-Lazdunski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surgery remains the best curative option in patients with early stage lung cancer (stage I and II. Developments in minimally invasive techniques now allow surgeons to perform lung resections on elderly patients, patients with poor pulmonary function or significant cardiopulmonary comorbidities. New techniques, such as stereotactic radiotherapy and ablative procedures, are being evaluated in early-stage lung cancer and may represent an alternative to surgery in patients unfit for lung resection. Perioperative mortality rates have dropped significantly at most institutions in the past two decades and complications are managed more efficiently. Progress in imaging and staging techniques have helped cut futile thoracotomy rates and offer patients the most adequate treatment options. Large randomised trials have helped clarify the role of neoadjuvant, induction and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as radiotherapy. Surgery remains an essential step in the multimodality therapy of selected patients with advanced-stage lung cancer (stage III and IV. Interventional and endoscopic techniques have reduced the role of surgery in the diagnosis and staging of nonsmall cell lung cancer, but surgery remains an important tool in the palliation of advanced-stage lung cancer. Large national/international surgical databases have been developed and predictive risk-models for surgical mortality/morbidity published by learned surgical societies. Nonetheless, lung cancer overall survival rates remain deceptively low and it is hoped that early detection/screening, better understanding of tumour biology and development of biomarkers, and development of efficient targeted therapies will help improve the prognosis of lung cancer patients in the next decade.

  15. Residential segregation and lung cancer mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayanga, Awori J; Zeliadt, Steve B; Backhus, Leah M

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between race and lung cancer mortality and the effect of residential segregation in the United States. A retrospective, population-based study using data obtained from the 2009 Area Resource File and Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program. Each county in the United States. Black and white populations per US county. A generalized linear model with a Poisson distribution and log link was used to examine the association between residential segregation and lung cancer mortality from 2003 to 2007 for black and white populations. Our primary independent variable was the racial index of dissimilarity. The index is a demographic measure that assesses the evenness with which whites and blacks are distributed across census tracts within each county. The score ranges from 0 to 100 in increasing degrees of residential segregation. RESULTS The overall lung cancer mortality rate was higher for blacks than whites (58.9% vs 52.4% per 100 000 population). Each additional level of segregation was associated with a 0.5% increase in lung cancer mortality for blacks (P segregation) and the highest levels of segregation (≥60% segregation), respectively. In contrast, the adjusted lung cancer mortality rates for whites decreased with increasing levels of segregation. Lung cancer mortality is higher in blacks and highest in blacks living in the most segregated counties, regardless of socioeconomic status.

  16. Platinum based doublet cross over therapy for advanced stage non small cell lung cancer? A better survival option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum based doublet chemotherapy namely the cisplatin/carboplatin based etopiside or gemcitabine therapy forms the therapy of choice, for patients with advanced non small cell carcinoma of the lung. Here we report two cases were unusual cross over was done from gemcitabine-to cisplatin-doublet chemotherapy resulting in unexpectedly better clinical and radiological response.

  17. Lung cancer: diagnosis, treatment principles, and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Kelly M; Mott, Timothy F

    2015-02-15

    Lung cancer is classified histologically into small cell and non-small cell lung cancers. The most common symptoms of lung cancer are cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and systemic symptoms such as weight loss and anorexia. High-risk patients who present with symptoms should undergo chest radiography. If a likely alternative diagnosis is not identified, computed tomography and possibly positron emission tomography should be performed. If suspicion for lung cancer is high, a diagnostic evaluation is warranted. The diagnostic evaluation has three simultaneous steps (tissue diagnosis, staging, and functional evaluation), all of which affect treatment planning and determination of prognosis. The least invasive method possible should be used. The diagnostic evaluation and treatment of a patient with lung cancer require a team of specialists, including a pulmonologist, medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, pathologist, radiologist, and thoracic surgeon. Non-small cell lung cancer specimens are tested for various mutations, which, if present, can be treated with new targeted molecular therapies. The family physician should remain involved in the patient's care to ensure that the values and wishes of the patient and family are considered and, if necessary, to coordinate end-of-life care. Early palliative care improves quality of life and may prolong survival. Family physicians should concentrate on early recognition of lung cancer, as well as prevention by encouraging tobacco cessation at every visit. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography in high-risk patients. However, the American Academy of Family Physicians concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against screening. Whether to screen high-risk patients should be a shared decision between the physician and patient.

  18. Predicting death from surgery for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Dowd, Emma L; Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Baldwin, David R

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Current British guidelines advocate the use of risk prediction scores such as Thoracoscore to estimate mortality prior to radical surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A recent publication used the National Lung Cancer Audit (NLCA) to produce a score to predict 90day mortali...... of our summary tables that provide the real-life range of mortality for lobectomy and pneumonectomy....

  19. The eighth TNM classification system for lung cancer: A consideration based on the degree of pleural invasion and involved neighboring structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, Noriaki; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Arimura, Takaaki; Yatabe, Yasushi; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Sakao, Yukinori

    2018-04-01

    The eighth tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification system for lung cancer has been used since January 2017 and must be applied to an individual institution's database. We analyzed pathological stage data of 2756 patients who underwent resection of non-small-cell lung cancer, particularly in terms of the degree of visceral pleural invasion and involved neighboring structures. Few patients had stage IIA disease (103, 4%); stratification between stages IB and IIA was insufficient (p = 0.129). When T2a tumors were divided into PL1 and PL2 subgroups based on the degree of pleural invasion, there was a significant prognostic difference between the subgroups (p consideration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Using cancer case identification algorithms in medico-administrative databases: Literature review and first results from the REDSIAM Tumors group based on breast, colon, and lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, P-J; Caillet, P; Coeuret-Pellicer, M; Goulard, H; Kudjawu, Y C; Le Bihan, C; Lecuyer, A I; Séguret, F

    2017-10-01

    The development and use of healthcare databases accentuates the need for dedicated tools, including validated selection algorithms of cancer diseased patients. As part of the development of the French National Health Insurance System data network REDSIAM, the tumor taskforce established an inventory of national and internal published algorithms in the field of cancer. This work aims to facilitate the choice of a best-suited algorithm. A non-systematic literature search was conducted for various cancers. Results are presented for lung, breast, colon, and rectum. Medline, Scopus, the French Database in Public Health, Google Scholar, and the summaries of the main French journals in oncology and public health were searched for publications until August 2016. An extraction grid adapted to oncology was constructed and used for the extraction process. A total of 18 publications were selected for lung cancer, 18 for breast cancer, and 12 for colorectal cancer. Validation studies of algorithms are scarce. When information is available, the performance and choice of an algorithm are dependent on the context, purpose, and location of the planned study. Accounting for cancer disease specificity, the proposed extraction chart is more detailed than the generic chart developed for other REDSIAM taskforces, but remains easily usable in practice. This study illustrates the complexity of cancer detection through sole reliance on healthcare databases and the lack of validated algorithms specifically designed for this purpose. Studies that standardize and facilitate validation of these algorithms should be developed and promoted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Investigation of the international comparability of population-based routine hospital data set derived comorbidity scores for patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Morris, Eva J A; Tataru, Daniela; Coupland, Victoria H; Smith, Andrew; Milne, Roger L; Te Marvelde, Luc; Baker, Deborah; Young, Jane; Turner, Donna; Nishri, Diane; Earle, Craig; Shack, Lorraine; Gavin, Anna; Fitzpatrick, Deirdre; Donnelly, Conan; Lin, Yulan; Møller, Bjørn; Brewster, David H; Deas, Andrew; Huws, Dyfed W; White, Ceri; Warlow, Janet; Rashbass, Jem; Peake, Michael D

    2018-04-01

    The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP) identified significant international differences in lung cancer survival. Differing levels of comorbid disease across ICBP countries has been suggested as a potential explanation of this variation but, to date, no studies have quantified its impact. This study investigated whether comparable, robust comorbidity scores can be derived from the different routine population-based cancer data sets available in the ICBP jurisdictions and, if so, use them to quantify international variation in comorbidity and determine its influence on outcome. Linked population-based lung cancer registry and hospital discharge data sets were acquired from nine ICBP jurisdictions in Australia, Canada, Norway and the UK providing a study population of 233 981 individuals. For each person in this cohort Charlson, Elixhauser and inpatient bed day Comorbidity Scores were derived relating to the 4-36 months prior to their lung cancer diagnosis. The scores were then compared to assess their validity and feasibility of use in international survival comparisons. It was feasible to generate the three comorbidity scores for each jurisdiction, which were found to have good content, face and concurrent validity. Predictive validity was limited and there was evidence that the reliability was questionable. The results presented here indicate that interjurisdictional comparability of recorded comorbidity was limited due to probable differences in coding and hospital admission practices in each area. Before the contribution of comorbidity on international differences in cancer survival can be investigated an internationally harmonised comorbidity index is required. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Can the response to a platinum-based therapy be predicted by the DNA repair status in non-small cell lung cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macerelli, Marianna; Ganzinelli, Monica; Gouedard, Cedric; Broggini, Massimo; Garassino, Marina Chiara; Linardou, Helena; Damia, Giovanna; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Preclinical evidence has been accumulating on the impact of the DNA repair status on the sensitivity/resistance to anticancer agents in different tumor types, including lung cancer. The possibility to predict the response to therapy, and specifically to platinum agents, based on tumor specific DNA repair functionality would enable to tailor its use only in those patients with maximum chances to respond, avoiding the burden of toxicity in those ones with lesser chances. We here reviewed the clinical evidence on the prognostic role of DNA repair markers and/or functional assays in predicting the response to a platinum-based chemotherapy in lung cancer patients. Consequently, we focused on those proteins involved in pathways repairing platinum induced DNA inter-strand and intra-strand crosslinks. Most promising clinical trials targeting the nucleotide repair protein ERCC1 in non-small cell lung cancer later on suffered from serious drawbacks. Nevertheless, these results spurred a variety of preclinical studies on a multitude of alternative DNA repair markers. However so far, no one of the analyzed DNA repair markers can be considered a reliable and mature biomarker for selecting patients. We discuss the reasons for such failure which discloses novel strategies for the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Current state of immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Jyoti; Jabbour, Salma K.; Aisner, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for more than 85% of all lung cancers. Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is the standard first-line treatment for metastatic NSCLC when genomic testing reveals no targetable alteration such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) or ROS1 translocation/re-arrangements. But, chemotherapy produces response rates ranging only between 15–30%. For pat...

  4. Epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and screening of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2006-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. Smoking causes about 90 % of all lung cancer cases. Passive, i.e. involuntary smoking has been confirmed to enhance the risk of lung cancer in exposed people. Individual susceptibility is one of important factors in lung cancer formation. New knowledge in epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer gives new possibilities in diagnostic and screening of this disease. Results of large randomised trials aimed at new technologies in lung cancer screening will be available in a few years. (author)

  5. Evidence for a genetical contribution to non-smoking-related lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Shamus R; Akerley, Wallace; Hashibe, Mia; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    The majority of lung cancers are smoking-related, with environmental and genetical factors contributing. The interplay between environmental and genetical contributions in non-smoking-related lung cancers is less clear. We analysed a population-based computerised genealogy resource linked to a state-wide cancer registry of lung cancer cases (n=5544) for evidence of a genetical contribution to lung cancer predisposition in smoking (n=1747) and non-smoking cases (n=784). Statistical methods were used to test for significant excess relatedness of cases and estimate relative risk (RR) in close and distant relatives of lung cancer cases. Significant excess relatedness was observed for all lung cancer cases (psmoking-related (psmoking-related (prelationships were considered. Only the non-smoking-related subset of cases showed significant excess relatedness when close relationships were ignored (p=0.020). First-degree, second-degree, and fourth-degree relatives of non-smoking-related lung cancer cases had significantly elevated RR. An even higher elevated RR was observed for first-degree, second-degree, third-degree and fourth-degree relatives of smoking-related lung cancer cases. Non-smoking-related lung cancer cases show significant excess relatedness for close and distant relationships, providing strong evidence for a genetical contribution as well as an environmental contribution. Significant excess relatedness for only close family relationships in all lung cancer cases and in only smoking-related lung cancer cases implies environmental contribution. Additionally, the highest RR for lung cancer was observed in the relatives of smoking-related lung cancer, suggesting predisposition gene carriers who smoke are at highest risk for lung cancer. Screening and gene identification should focus on high-risk pedigrees. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort Model of Lung Cancer Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhikhari P. Tharu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The objective of this study was to analyze the time trend for lung cancer mortality in the population of the USA by 5 years based on most recent available data namely to 2010. The knowledge of the mortality rates in the temporal trends is necessary to understand cancer burden.Methods Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort model was fitted using Poisson regression with histogram smoothing prior to decompose mortality rates based on age at death, period at death, and birth-cohort.Results Mortality rates from lung cancer increased more rapidly from age 52 years. It ended up to 325 deaths annually for 82 years on average. The mortality of younger cohorts was lower than older cohorts. The risk of lung cancer was lowered from period 1993 to recent periods.Conclusions The fitted Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort model with histogram smoothing prior is capable of explaining mortality rate of lung cancer. The reduction in carcinogens in cigarettes and increase in smoking cessation from around 1960 might led to decreasing trend of lung cancer mortality after calendar period 1993.

  7. Polymeric Nanoparticle-Mediated Gene Delivery for Lung Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amreddy, Narsireddy; Babu, Anish; Muralidharan, Ranganayaki; Munshi, Anupama; Ramesh, Rajagopal

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, researchers have focused on targeted gene therapy for lung cancer, using nanoparticle carriers to overcome the limitations of conventional treatment methods. The main goal of targeted gene therapy is to develop more efficient therapeutic strategies by improving the bioavailability, stability, and target specificity of gene therapeutics and to reduce off-target effects. Polymer-based nanoparticles, an alternative to lipid and inorganic nanoparticles, efficiently carry nucleic acid therapeutics and are stable in vivo. Receptor-targeted delivery is a promising approach that can limit non-specific gene delivery and can be achieved by modifying the polymer nanoparticle surface with specific receptor ligands or antibodies. This review highlights the recent developments in gene delivery using synthetic and natural polymer-based nucleic acid carriers for lung cancer treatment. Various nanoparticle systems based on polymers and polymer combinations are discussed. Further, examples of targeting ligands or moieties used in targeted, polymer-based gene delivery to lung cancer are reviewed.

  8. Screening for lung cancer: Does MRI have a role?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederer, Juergen, E-mail: Juergen.biederer@uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung ResearchCenter (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiologie Darmstadt, Gross-Gerau County Hospital, 64521 Gross-Gerau (Germany); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Centre, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Schiebler, Mark L. [Department of Radiology, UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Beek, Edwin J.R. van [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Vogel-Claussen, Jens [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Hannover (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung ResearchCenter (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    with multi-center, multi-vendor and multi-platform implementation of this technology. All of the required prerequisites have now been achieved to allow for a dedicated prospective large scale MRI based lung cancer screening trial to investigate the outcomes from using MRI rather than CT for lung cancer screening. This is driven by the hypothesis that MRI would reach a similarly high sensitivity for the detection of early lung cancer with fewer false positive exams (better specificity) than LDCT. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the potential role of lung MRI for the early detection of lung cancer from a technical point of view and to discuss a few of the possible scenarios for lung cancer screening implementation using this imaging modality. There is little doubt that MRI could play a significant role in lung cancer screening, but how and when will depend on the threshold needed for positive screens (e.g. lesion volume and required diagnostic accuracy), cost-effectiveness and improved patient outcomes from a reduction in the need to follow up benign nodules. Potential applications range from lung MRI as the first choice screening modality to the role of an ad hoc on site test for the detailed evaluation of a subgroup of positive screening results.

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a complex comorbidity of lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Grose, Derek; Milroy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major burden throughout the world. It is associated with a significantly increased incidence of lung cancer and may influence treatment options and outcome. Impaired lung function confirming COPD is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. Oxidative stress and inflammation may be a key link between COPD and lung cancer, with numerous molecular markers being analysed to attempt to understand the pathway of lung cancer development. COPD negat...

  10. Different histological subtypes of peripheral lung cancer based on emphysema distribution in patients with both airflow limitation and CT-determined emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Beomsu; Shin, Sumin; Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Hyun; Koh, Won-Jung; Kim, Hojoong; Park, Hye Yun

    2017-02-01

    The histological subtypes by peripheral tumor location remain uncharacterized in COPD patients with emphysema. We investigated histologic subtypes of peripheral lung cancers based on the context of heterogeneous emphysema distribution in patients with airflow limitation and CT-determined emphysema. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 754 patients with airflow limitation and newly-diagnosed primary lung cancers from February 2013 to February 2015. Of these, 230 patients had emphysema, as determined by computed tomography software designed to quantify emphysema. Among the 230 patients, the most common subtype in central lesions (n=84) was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n=64/84, 76%). Adenocarcinoma (ADC) was more frequently observed in peripheral lesions (n=146) than central lesions (58/146 [40%] vs. 4/84 [5%], pemphysema than emphysema areas (43/74 [58%] vs. 15/72 [21%], pemphysema areas than areas without emphysema (44/72 [61%] vs. 13/74 [18%], pemphysema, the main histological subtype of peripheral lung cancer was SCC in emphysema areas and ADC in areas without emphysema. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. TU-H-CAMPUS-JeP2-02: Interobserver Variability of CT, PET-CT and MRI Based Primary Tumor Delineation for Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karki, K; Hugo, G; Saraiya, S; Jan, N; Schuster, J; Schutzer, M; Fahrner, L; Groves, R; Ford, J; Weiss, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Target delineation in lung cancer radiotherapy has, in general, large variability. MRI has so far not been investigated in detail for lung cancer delineation variability. The purpose of this study is to investigate delineation variability for lung tumors using MRI and compare it to CT alone and PET-CT based delineations. Methods: Seven physicians delineated the primary tumor volumes of nine patients for the following scenarios: (1) CT only; (2) post-contrast T1-weighted MRI registered with diffusion-weighted MRI; and (3) PET-CT fusion images. To compute interobserver variability, the median surface was generated from all observers’ contours and used as the reference surface. A single physician labeled the interface types (tumor to lung, atelectasis (collapsed lung), hilum, mediastinum, or chest-wall) on the median surface. Volume variation (normalized to PET-CT volume), minimum distance (MD), and bidirectional local distance (BLD) between individual observers’ contours and the reference contour were measured. Results: CT- and MRI-based normalized volumes were 1.61±0.76 (mean±SD) and 1.38±0.44, respectively, both significantly larger than PET-CT (p<0.05, paired t-test). The overall uncertainty (root mean square of SD values over all points) of both BLD and MD measures of the observers for the interfaces were not significantly different (p>0.05, two-samples t-test) for all imaging modalities except between tumor-mediastinum and tumor-atelectasis in PET-CT. The largest mean overall uncertainty was observed for tumor-atelectasis interface, the smallest for tumor-mediastinum and tumor-lung interfaces for all modalities. The whole tumor uncertainties for both BLD and MD were not significantly different between any two modalities (p>0.05, paired t-test). Overall uncertainties for the interfaces using BLD were similar to using MD. Conclusion: Large volume variations were observed between the three imaging modalities. Contouring variability appeared to

  12. TU-H-CAMPUS-JeP2-02: Interobserver Variability of CT, PET-CT and MRI Based Primary Tumor Delineation for Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, K; Hugo, G; Saraiya, S; Jan, N; Schuster, J; Schutzer, M; Fahrner, L; Groves, R; Ford, J; Weiss, E [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Target delineation in lung cancer radiotherapy has, in general, large variability. MRI has so far not been investigated in detail for lung cancer delineation variability. The purpose of this study is to investigate delineation variability for lung tumors using MRI and compare it to CT alone and PET-CT based delineations. Methods: Seven physicians delineated the primary tumor volumes of nine patients for the following scenarios: (1) CT only; (2) post-contrast T1-weighted MRI registered with diffusion-weighted MRI; and (3) PET-CT fusion images. To compute interobserver variability, the median surface was generated from all observers’ contours and used as the reference surface. A single physician labeled the interface types (tumor to lung, atelectasis (collapsed lung), hilum, mediastinum, or chest-wall) on the median surface. Volume variation (normalized to PET-CT volume), minimum distance (MD), and bidirectional local distance (BLD) between individual observers’ contours and the reference contour were measured. Results: CT- and MRI-based normalized volumes were 1.61±0.76 (mean±SD) and 1.38±0.44, respectively, both significantly larger than PET-CT (p<0.05, paired t-test). The overall uncertainty (root mean square of SD values over all points) of both BLD and MD measures of the observers for the interfaces were not significantly different (p>0.05, two-samples t-test) for all imaging modalities except between tumor-mediastinum and tumor-atelectasis in PET-CT. The largest mean overall uncertainty was observed for tumor-atelectasis interface, the smallest for tumor-mediastinum and tumor-lung interfaces for all modalities. The whole tumor uncertainties for both BLD and MD were not significantly different between any two modalities (p>0.05, paired t-test). Overall uncertainties for the interfaces using BLD were similar to using MD. Conclusion: Large volume variations were observed between the three imaging modalities. Contouring variability appeared to

  13. Cancer genes in lung cancer: racial disparities: are there any?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Telbany, Ahmed; Ma, Patrick C

    2012-07-01

    Cancer is now known as a disease of genomic alterations. Mutational analysis and genomics profiling in recent years have advanced the field of lung cancer genetics/genomics significantly. It is becoming more accepted now that the identification of genomic alterations in lung cancer can impact therapeutics, especially when the alterations represent "oncogenic drivers" in the processes of tumorigenesis and progression. In this review, we will highlight the key driver oncogenic gene mutations and fusions identified in lung cancer. The review will summarize and report the available demographic and clinicopathological data as well as molecular details behind various lung cancer gene alterations in the context of race. We hope to shed some light into the disparities in the incidence of various genetic mutations among lung cancer patients of different racial backgrounds. As molecularly targeted therapy continues to advance in lung cancer, racial differences in specific genetic/genomic alterations can have an important impact in the choices of therapeutics and in our understanding of the drug sensitivity/resistance profile. The most relevant genes in lung cancer described in this review include the following: EGFR, KRAS, MET, LKB1, BRAF, PIK3CA, ALK, RET, and ROS1. Commonly identified genetic/genomic alterations such as missense or nonsense mutations, small insertions or deletions, alternative splicing, and chromosomal fusion rearrangements were discussed. Relevance in current targeted therapeutic drugs was mentioned when appropriate. We also highlighted various targeted therapeutics that are currently under clinical development, such as the MET inhibitors and antibodies. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the landscape of genomic alterations in lung cancer is expected to be much transformed and detailed in upcoming years. These genomic landscape differences in the context of racial disparities should be emphasized both in tumorigenesis and in drug sensitivity

  14. Lung cancer prevalence associated with radon exposure in Norwegian homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassfjell, Christina Søyland; Grimsrud, Tom Kristian; Standring, William J F; Tretli, Steinar

    2017-08-22

    Radioactive radon gas is generated from uranium and thorium in underlying rocks and seeps into buildings. The gas and its decay products emit carcinogenic radiation and are regarded as the second most important risk factor for lung cancer after active tobacco smoking. The average radon concentration in Norwegian homes is higher than in most other Western countries. From a health and cost perspective, it is important to be able to quantify the risk of lung cancer posed by radon exposure. We estimated the radon-related risk of lung cancer in Norway based on risk estimates from the largest pooled analysis of European case-control studies, combined with the hitherto largest set of data on radon concentration measurements in Norwegian homes. Based on these estimates, we calculate that radon is a contributory factor in 12 % of all cases of lung cancer annually, assuming an average radon concentration of 88 Bq/m3 in Norwegian homes. For 2015, this accounted for 373 cases of lung cancer, with an approximate 95 % confidence interval of 145 – 682. Radon most likely contributes to a considerable number of cases of lung cancer. Since most cases of radon-associated lung cancer involve smokers or former smokers, a reduction of the radon concentration in homes could be a key measure to reduce the risk, especially for persons who are unable to quit smoking. The uncertainty in the estimated number of radon-associated cases can be reduced through a new national radon mapping study with an improved design.

  15. A Universal Platform for Identification of Novel Lung Cancer Biomarkers Based on Exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    animal tumor models and for point-of-care EV-based clinical testing from fingerprick quantities (10–100 µL) of blood . 15. SUBJECT TERMS- 16. SECURITY...EV-based clinical testing from fingerprick quantities (10− 100 µL) of blood . Specific objectives addressed: Our team has worked on the design...other small fragments are flushed out (Figure 1b) and concentrated EVs are collected from the filter membrane using a standard pipette. The EVs are

  16. Lung cancer and occupation in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchen, M L; Wiggins, C L; Samet, J M

    1987-10-01

    The association between occupation and lung cancer risk was examined in a population-based, case-control study of 506 patients (333 males and 173 females) and 771 control (499 males and 272 females) subjects in New Mexico. A personal interview was used to obtain lifetime occupational and smoking histories and self-reported history of exposures to specific agents. High-risk jobs were identified in advance of data analysis and linked with industrial and occupational codes for hypothesis testing. For females, lung cancer risk was not associated with employment history, but power was limited. For males, elevated risks were found for the uranium mining industry [odds ratio (OR) = 1.9; 95% confidence internal (CI) = 0.8-4.9], underground miners (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.1-3.7), painters (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 0.8-8.9), and welders (OR = 3.2; 95% CI = 1.4-7.4). For self-reported exposure to any of 18 agents, only the OR for exposure to "other metals" was elevated. The population attributable risk in males was estimated as 14% for employment in any high-risk industry or occupation with an OR above 1 in this study.

  17. Checkpoint Blockade in Lung Cancer and Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievense, Lysanne A; Sterman, Daniel H; Cornelissen, Robin; Aerts, Joachim G

    2017-08-01

    In the last decade, immunotherapy has emerged as a new treatment modality in cancer. The most success has been achieved with the class of checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs), antibodies that unleash the antitumor immune response. After the success in melanoma, numerous clinical trials are being conducted investigating CPIs in lung cancer and mesothelioma. The programmed death protein (PD) 1-PD ligand 1/2 pathway and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 are currently the most studied immunotherapeutic targets in these malignancies. In non-small cell lung cancer, anti-PD-1 antibodies have become part of the approved treatment arsenal. In small cell lung cancer and mesothelioma, the efficacy of checkpoint inhibition has not yet been proven. In this Concise Clinical Review, an overview of the landmark clinical trials investigating checkpoint blockade in lung cancer and mesothelioma is provided. Because response rates are around 20% in the majority of clinical trials, there is much room for improvement. Predictive biomarkers are therefore essential to fully develop the potential of CPIs. To increase efficacy, multiple clinical trials investigating the combination of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 inhibitors and PD-1/PD ligand 1 blockade in lung cancer and mesothelioma are being conducted. Given the potential benefit of immunotherapy, implementation of current and new knowledge in trial designs and interpretation of results is essential for moving forward.

  18. [Lung cancer among asbestos-cement workers in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffn, E; Villadsen, E; Engholm, G; Lynge, E

    1998-02-09

    A cohort of 7887 men and 576 women employed between 1928 and 1984 at a Danish asbestos cement factory Dansk Eternit Fabrik A/S was followed up for deaths, immigrations, and incident cancer cases during 1943-90. The observed number of lung cancer cases was compared with the expected number based on incidence rates for the Danish population. Internal comparison was made with Poisson modelling. A total of 226 lung cancer cases was observed; 223 cases among men and three among women. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for all lung cancer cases for men was 1.7; for adenocarcinoma 2.6, squamous cell carcinoma 1.7, and anaplastic carcinoma 1.5. Among the 93 excess lung cancer cases, 36 were squamous cell carcinomas, 32 adenocarcinomas and 17 anaplastic carcinomas. During the first 25 years after the start of employment the excess risk was shared almost equally between the different histological types of lung cancer, but the risk of adenocarcinomas was clearly higher after this point.

  19. Ambient air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COHEN AARON J

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years have observed that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the by- products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is associated with small relative increases in lung cancer. The evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30-50% increases in the risk of lung cancer in relation to approximately a doubling of respirable particle exposure. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the US continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the US, based largely on the results of animal experimentation, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution in the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer related to air pollution.

  20. Cancer stem cells in lung cancer: Evidence and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALAMGEER, Muhammad; PEACOCK, Craig D.; MATSUI, William; GANJU, Vinod; WATKINS, D. Neil

    2014-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model is based on a myriad of experimental and clinical observations suggesting that the malignant phenotype is sustained by a subset of cells characterized by the capacity for self-renewal, differentiation and innate resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. CSC may be responsible for disease recurrence after definitive therapy and may therefore be functionally synonymous with minimal residual disease. Similar to other solid tumours, several putative surface markers for lung CSC have been identified, including CD133 and CD44. In addition, expression and/or activity of the cytoplasmic enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH and capacity of cells to exclude membrane permeable dyes (known as the ‘side population’) correlate with stem-like function in vitro and in vivo. Embryonic stem cell pathways such as Hedgehog, Notch and WNT may also be active in lung cancers stem cells and therefore may be therapeutically targetable for maintenance therapy in patients achieving a complete response to surgery, radiotherapy or chemo-therapy. This paper will review the evidence regarding the existence and function of lung CSC in the context of the experimental and clinical evidence and discuss some ongoing controversies regarding this model. PMID:23586700

  1. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  2. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical...

  3. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  4. Mindfulness-based stress reduction added to care as usual for lung cancer patients and/or their partners: A multicentre randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, M P J; van den Hurk, D G M; Prins, J B; Donders, A R T; Molema, J; Dekhuijzen, R; van der Drift, M A; Speckens, A E M

    2017-12-01

    Lung cancer patients report among the highest distress rates of all cancer patients. Partners report similar distress rates. The present study examined the effectiveness of additional mindfulness-based stress reduction (care as usual [CAU] + MBSR) versus solely CAU to reduce psychological distress in lung cancer patients and/or their partners. We performed a multicentre, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Mindfulness-based stress reduction is an 8-week group-based intervention, including mindfulness practice and teachings on stress. Care as usual included anticancer treatment, medical consultations, and supportive care. The primary outcome was psychological distress. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, caregiver burden, relationship satisfaction, mindfulness skills, self-compassion, rumination, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Linear mixed modeling was conducted on an intention-to-treat sample. Moderation (gender, disease stage, baseline distress, participation with/without partner) and mediation analyses were performed. A total of 31 patients and 21 partners were randomized to CAU + MBSR and 32 patients and 23 partners to CAU. After CAU + MBSR patients reported significantly less psychological distress (p = .008, d = .69) than after CAU. Baseline distress moderated outcome: those with more distress benefitted most from MBSR. Additionally, after CAU + MBSR patients showed more improvements in quality of life, mindfulness skills, self-compassion, and rumination than after CAU. In partners, no differences were found between groups. Our findings suggest that psychological distress in lung cancer patients can be effectively treated with MBSR. No effect was found in partners, possibly because they were more focused on patients' well-being rather than their own. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Christina S., E-mail: cbaik2@u.washington.edu; Eaton, Keith D. [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2012-09-25

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in U.S. and represents a major public health burden. Epidemiologic data have suggested that lung cancer in women may possess different biological characteristics compared to men, as evidenced by a higher proportion of never-smokers among women with lung cancer. Emerging data indicate that female hormones such as estrogen and progesterone play a significant role in lung carcinogenesis. It has been reported that estrogen and progesterone receptors are expressed in lung cancer cell lines as well as in patient-derived tumors. Hormone related risk factors such as hormone replacement therapy have been implicated in lung carcinogenesis and several preclinical studies show activity of anti-estrogen therapy in lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging evidence for the role of reproductive hormones in lung cancer and implications for lung cancer therapy.

  6. Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith D. Eaton

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in U.S. and represents a major public health burden. Epidemiologic data have suggested that lung cancer in women may possess different biological characteristics compared to men, as evidenced by a higher proportion of never-smokers among women with lung cancer. Emerging data indicate that female hormones such as estrogen and progesterone play a significant role in lung carcinogenesis. It has been reported that estrogen and progesterone receptors are expressed in lung cancer cell lines as well as in patient-derived tumors. Hormone related risk factors such as hormone replacement therapy have been implicated in lung carcinogenesis and several preclinical studies show activity of anti-estrogen therapy in lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging evidence for the role of reproductive hormones in lung cancer and implications for lung cancer therapy.

  7. Biomarker Identification and Pathway Analysis by Serum Metabolomics of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingrong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death, for which no validated tumor biomarker is sufficiently accurate to be useful for diagnosis. Additionally, the metabolic alterations associated with the disease are unclear. In this study, we investigated the construction, interaction, and pathways of potential lung cancer biomarkers using metabolomics pathway analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database and the Human Metabolome Database to identify the top altered pathways for analysis and visualization. We constructed a diagnostic model using potential serum biomarkers from patients with lung cancer. We assessed their specificity and sensitivity according to the area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves, which could be used to distinguish patients with lung cancer from normal subjects. The pathway analysis indicated that sphingolipid metabolism was the top altered pathway in lung cancer. ROC curve analysis indicated that glycerophospho-N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (GpAEA and sphingosine were potential sensitive and specific biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Compared with the traditional lung cancer diagnostic biomarkers carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratin 19 fragment, GpAEA and sphingosine were as good or more appropriate for detecting lung cancer. We report our identification of potential metabolic diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of lung cancer and clarify the metabolic alterations in lung cancer.

  8. Role of lymphangiogenesis in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Jankowska

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer represents one of the most frequent causes of death due to neoplastic disease in Poland and around the world. The high mortality which accompany neoplastic diseases used to be ascribed mainly to dissemination of cancerous cells. Studies on animal models suggest that tumour lymphangiogenesis represents the principal factor in the process of metastases formation. Lymphangiogenesis involves a process of formation of new lymphatic vessels from already existing lymphatic capillaries. Lymphangiogenesis is stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF and other, recently reported factors, such as, e.g., cyclooxygenase 2, fibroblast growth factor 2, angiopoetin-1 and the insulin-resembling growth factor. In lymphangiogenesis a key role is played by neutropilin 2 or podoplanin and this promoted development of studies on lymphangiogenesis. Activation of VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGFR-3 axis increases motility and invasiveness of neoplastic cells, promotes development of metastases in several types of tumours such as, e.g., lung cancer, mammary carcinoma, cancers of the neck, prostate and large intestine. In recent years lymphangiogenesis provided topic of many studies. A positive correlation was detected between expressions of VEGF-C/D and VEGFR-3 in non-small cell lung cancer. In patients with lung cancer with high expression of VEGF-C a markedly abbreviated survival was noted. Positive correlation was detected between expression of VEGF-C and VEGF-D on one hand and expression of LYVE-1 on the other in sentinel lymph nodes with metastases of neoplastic cells in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Also, high density of lymphatic vessels and high density of intraneoplastic microvessels proved to be independent poor prognostic indices in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Extensive hope is linked to studies on inhibitors of lymphangiogenesis, which may improve results of treatment also in tumour patients.

  9. Interest in internet lung cancer support among rural cardiothoracic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin, Jacquelyn; Stams, Victor; Phelps, Beth; Boley, Theresa; Hazelrigg, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    The Internet may provide an alternative option for rural lung cancer patients who lack access to on-site cancer support; however, Internet access and use among rural patients is unknown. An anonymous waiting-room survey was administered to all outpatient cardiothoracic surgery patients over 3 mo. Survey questions included age, gender, and diagnosis, possession of a home computer and Internet service, estimated Internet use, and use of the Internet for health information. Patients with known or suspected lung cancer were asked to indicate their interest in on-site and Internet cancer support. There were 597 returned surveys (response rate 96%). The mean age was 64.6 y (SE 0.55), and 58% were men. Diagnoses included known or possible lung cancer (15.4%), lung disease (9.5%), heart disease (30.4%), other diagnoses (13.9%), and undetermined (30.6%). There were 343 patients (57.4%) with a home computer and 299 (50.1%) with home Internet service. Average Internet use was 8.5 h per wk (n = 298), and 225 patients used the Internet for health information. Of the 92 patients with lung cancer, 10 indicated interest in on-site support services while 37 expressed interest in Internet-based support. Based on survey results, a slight majority of rural patients have a home computer and Internet access. Internet use for health information appears relatively common. Overall interest for support services among lung cancer patients appears modest with a greater interest in Internet-based services compared with on-site support. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanomedicine as an emerging platform for metastatic lung cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landesman-Milo, Dalit; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Peer, Dan

    2015-06-01

    Metastatic lung cancer is one of the most common cancers leading to mortality worldwide. Current treatment includes chemo- and pathway-dependent therapy aiming at blocking the spread and proliferation of these metastatic lesions. Nanomedicine is an emerging multidisciplinary field that offers unprecedented access to living cells and promises the state of the art in cancer detection and treatment. Development of nanomedicines as drug carriers (nanocarriers) that target cancer for therapy draws upon principles in the fields of chemistry, medicine, physics, biology, and engineering. Given the zealous activity in the field as demonstrated by more than 30 nanocarriers already approved for clinical use and given the promise of recent clinical results in various studies, nanocarrier-based strategies are anticipated to soon have a profound impact on cancer medicine and human health. Herein, we will detail the latest innovations in therapeutic nanomedicine with examples from lipid-based nanoparticles and polymer-based approaches, which are engineered to deliver anticancer drugs to metastatic lung cells. Emphasis will be placed on the latest and most attractive delivery platforms, which are developed specifically to target lung metastatic tumors. These novel nanomedicines may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention carrying new class of drugs such as RNAi and mRNA and the ability to edit the genome using the CRISPER/Cas9 system. Ultimately, these strategies might become a new therapeutic modality for advanced-stage lung cancer.

  11. [Landscape of Lung Cancer with Oligometastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yasushi; Sato, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer with a few to several metastases is so-called oligometastatic disease. Patient with recurrence only to limited site is also known as oligo-recurrence, and may be included as oligometastatic disease. From biological aspect, any existence of metastases is a sign of systemic disease. Due to the reports of long survival with only local treatment and without systemic disease in oligometastatic lung cancer, word of oligometastasis is used with fascinating expectation of cure to advanced lung cancer. Most of the previous reports are retrospective and no comprehensive data exists for selecting patient for local treatment to oligometastasis. Recent positive result of randomize phase II study is followed up with phase III study. Progress in treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer with targeted therapy to oncogenic-driver(EGFR, ALK, ROS1 and others) and immune-checkpoint inhibitor(PD-1 pathway inhibitors)makes it difficult to define the appropriate indication of local treatment to oligometastatic lung cancer.

  12. Implementation of lung cancer CT screening in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Sørensen, Jens Benn; Saghir, Zaigham

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We review the current knowledge of CT screening for lung cancer and present an expert-based, joint protocol for the proper implementation of screening in the Nordic countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experts representing all the Nordic countries performed literature review and concen......INTRODUCTION: We review the current knowledge of CT screening for lung cancer and present an expert-based, joint protocol for the proper implementation of screening in the Nordic countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experts representing all the Nordic countries performed literature review...... and concensus for a joint protocol for lung cancer screening. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Areas of concern and caution are presented and discussed. We suggest to perform CT screening pilot studies in the Nordic countries in order to gain experience and develop specific and safe protocols for the implementation...

  13. The Case for Lung Cancer Screening: What Nurses Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrie, Kerrin; Cates, Lisa; Hill, Alethea

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose helical computed tomography (LDCT) can improve high-risk individuals' chances of being diagnosed at an earlier stage and increase survival. The aims of this article are to present the risk factors associated with the development of lung cancer, identify patients at high risk for lung cancer qualifying for LDCT screening, and understand the importance of early lung cancer detection through the use of LDCT screening. PubMed and CINAHL® databases were searched with key words lung cancer screening to identify full-text academic articles from 2004-2014. This resulted in 529 articles from PubMed and 195 from CINAHL. PubMed offered suggestions for additional relevant journal articles. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines also provided substantial evidence-based information. Nurses need to provide support, education, and resources for patients undergoing lung cancer screening.

  14. Isolating and Testing Circulating Tumor DNA and Soluble Immune Markers During the Course of Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-08

    Lung Cancer; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Non-small-cell Lung; Adenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  15. Early prediction of tumor recurrence based on CT texture changes after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattonen, Sarah A.; Palma, David A.; Haasbeek, Cornelis J. A.; Senan, Suresh; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Benign computed tomography (CT) changes due to radiation induced lung injury (RILI) are common following stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) and can be difficult to differentiate from tumor recurrence. The authors measured the ability of CT image texture analysis, compared to more traditional measures of response, to predict eventual cancer recurrence based on CT images acquired within 5 months of treatment. Methods: A total of 24 lesions from 22 patients treated with SABR were selected for this study: 13 with moderate to severe benign RILI, and 11 with recurrence. Three-dimensional (3D) consolidative and ground-glass opacity (GGO) changes were manually delineated on all follow-up CT scans. Two size measures of the consolidation regions (longest axial diameter and 3D volume) and nine appearance features of the GGO were calculated: 2 first-order features [mean density and standard deviation of density (first-order texture)], and 7 second-order texture features [energy, entropy, correlation, inverse difference moment (IDM), inertia, cluster shade, and cluster prominence]. For comparison, the corresponding response evaluation criteria in solid tumors measures were also taken for the consolidation regions. Prediction accuracy was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and two-fold cross validation (CV). Results: For this analysis, 46 diagnostic CT scans scheduled for approximately 3 and 6 months post-treatment were binned based on their recorded scan dates into 2–5 month and 5–8 month follow-up time ranges. At 2–5 months post-treatment, first-order texture, energy, and entropy provided AUCs of 0.79–0.81 using a linear classifier. On two-fold CV, first-order texture yielded 73% accuracy versus 76%–77% with the second-order features. The size measures of the consolidative region, longest axial diameter and 3D volume, gave two-fold CV accuracies of 60% and 57%, and AUCs of 0.72 and 0.65, respectively

  16. Do Lung Cancer Eligibility Criteria Align with Risk among Blacks and Hispanics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fiscella

    Full Text Available Black patients have higher lung cancer risk despite lower pack years of smoking. We assessed lung cancer risk by race, ethnicity, and sex among a nationally representative population eligible for lung cancer screening based on Medicare criteria.We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012 to assess lung cancer risk by sex, race and ethnicity among persons satisfying Medicare age and pack-year smoking eligibility criteria for lung cancer screening. We assessed Medicare eligibility based on age (55-77 years and pack-years (≥ 30. We assessed 6-year lung cancer risk using a risk prediction model from Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening trial that was modified in 2012 (PLCOm2012. We compared the proportions of eligible persons by sex, race and ethnicity using Medicare criteria with a risk cut-point that was adjusted to achieve comparable total number of persons eligible for screening.Among the 29.7 million persons aged 55-77 years who ever smoked, we found that 7.3 million (24.5% were eligible for lung cancer screening under Medicare criteria. Among those eligible, Blacks had statistically significant higher (4.4% and Hispanics lower lung cancer risk (1.2% than non-Hispanic Whites (3.2%. At a cut-point of 2.12% risk for lung screening eligibility, the percentage of Blacks and Hispanics showed statistically significant changes. Blacks eligible rose by 48% and Hispanics eligible declined by 63%. Black men and Hispanic women were affected the most. There was little change in eligibility among Whites.Medicare eligibility criteria for lung cancer screening do not align with estimated risk for lung cancer among Blacks and Hispanics. Data are urgently needed to determine whether use of risk-based eligibility screening improves lung cancer outcomes among minority patients.

  17. Pulmonary toxicity in radiotherapy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikaura, Sachiko (Kansai Medical School, Kyoto (Japan). Rakusei New-Town Hospital); Harima, Keizo; Murata, Takashi; Kawa, Sokichi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Shikata, Nobuaki

    1994-01-01

    Among 158 lung cancer patients at our hospital during past six years, 9 patients developed pulmonary toxicity. Elderly patients, patients with high dose radiation, or inclusion of the hilar mediastinum in the radiation field were more likely develop pulmonary toxicity. There were no significant differences in baseline pulmonary function tests between the pulmonary toxicity group and the control group. On histological examination, lung specimens outside the radiation field demonstrated interstitial pneumonitis or fibrosis. (author).

  18. Cancer stem cells in small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codony-Servat, Jordi; Verlicchi, Alberto; Rosell, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the most aggressive lung tumors, with poor survival rates. Although patients may initially respond to treatment, this is followed by rapid development of drug resistance and disease progression. SCLC patients often present with metastasis at time of diagnosis, ruling out surgery as a treatment option. Currently, treatment options for this disease remain limited and platinum-based chemotherapy is the treatment of choice. A better understanding of the biology of SCLC could allow us to identify new therapeutic targets. Cancer stem cell (CSC) theory is currently crucial in cancer research and could provide a viable explanation for the heterogeneity, drug resistance, recurrence and metastasis of several types of tumors. Some characteristics of SCLC, such as aggressiveness, suggest that this kind of tumor could be enriched in CSCs, and drug resistance in SCLC could be attributable to the existence of a CSC subpopulation in SCLC. Herein we summarize current understanding of CSC in SCLC, including the evidence for CSC markers and signaling pathways involved in stemness. We also discuss potential ongoing strategies and areas of active research in SCLC, such as immunotherapy, that focus on inhibition of signaling pathways and targeting molecules driving stemness. Understanding of signaling pathways and the discovery of new therapeutic markers specific to CSCs will lead to new advances in therapy and improvements in prognosis of SCLC patients. Therefore, evaluation of these CSC-specific molecules and pathways may become a routine part of SCLC diagnosis and therapy.

  19. A non-randomized confirmatory trial of segmentectomy for clinical T1N0 lung cancer with dominant ground glass opacity based on thin-section computed tomography (JCOG1211).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aokage, Keiju; Saji, Hisashi; Suzuki, Kenji; Mizutani, Tomonori; Katayama, Hiroshi; Shibata, Taro; Watanabe, Syunichi; Asamura, Hisao

    2017-05-01

    Lobectomy has been the standard surgery for even stage I lung cancer since the validity of limited resection for stage I lung cancer was denied by the randomized study reported in 1995. The aim of this non-randomized confirmatory going on since September 2013 is to confirm the efficacy of a segmentectomy for clinical T1N0 lung cancer with dominant ground glass opacity based on thin-slice computed tomography. A total of 390 patients from 42 Japanese institutions are recruited within 4 years. The primary endpoint of this study is a 5-year relapse-free survival in all of the patients who undergo a segmentectomy for a lung nodule. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, annual relapse-free survival, disease-free survival, proportion of local relapse, postoperative pulmonary function, proportion of segmentectomy completion, proportion of R0 resection completion by segmentectomy, adverse events, and serious adverse events. This trial has been registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000011819 ( http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ ). Patient's accrual has been already finished in November, 2015 and the primary analysis will be performed in 2021. This study is one of the pivotal trial of lung segmentectomy for early lung cancer. The result will provide a clear evidence for our daily clinics and will be possible contribution to preserving pulmonary function for lung cancer patients.

  20. Development, optimization and evaluation of surfactant-based pulmonary nanolipid carrier system of paclitaxel for the management of drug resistance lung cancer using Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Prabhjot; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Murthy, R S Rayasa; Goyal, Amit K

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) along with various surfactants loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) were prepared by an emulsification technique using a Box-Behnken design. The Box-Behnken design indicated that the most effective factors on the size and PDI were at high surfactant concentration (1.5%), low lipids ratio (6:4) and medium homogenization speed (6000 rpm). Among all the formulations, Tween 20-loaded NLCs show least particle size compared to Tween 80 and Tween 60. Entrapment efficiency of Tween 20, Tween 80 and Tween 60-loaded formulations were 82.40, 85.60 and 79.78%, respectively. Drug release of Tween 80, Tween 20 and Tween 60-loaded NLCs is 64.9, 62.3 and 59.7%, respectively (within 72 h). Maximum cellular uptake was observed with Tween 20 formulation on Caco-2 cell lines. Furthermore, spray drying of resultant NLCs was showed good flow properties and was selected for drug delivery to deeper airways. In-vivo studies demonstrated the better localization of drug within the lungs using different surfactant-based pulmonary delivery systems. From this study, we have concluded that delivering drugs through pulmonary route is advantageous for local action in lungs as maximum amount of drug concentration was observed in lungs. The surfactants could prove to be beneficial in treating drug resistance lung cancer by inhibiting P-gp efflux in the form of nano lipidic carriers.

  1. Non-cancer-related mortality after cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: a study-level meta-analysis of 16 randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Fausto; Barni, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with increased overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but is associated with high-grade toxicity. The effect of cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy on non-lung cancer-related mortality is not well investigated. We conducted a systematic review and a study-level meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in order to determine the overall risk of non-lung cancer-related mortality associated with adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy in NSCLC. PubMed was searched to identify relevant studies. Eligible publications included prospective RCTs in which cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy plus local therapy was compared with local therapy alone in NSCLC. Summary incidence rates, relative risks (RRs), and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. Primary endpoint was non-lung cancer-related mortality risk (due to cardiovascular, respiratory or second malignancy deaths for example), and secondary endpoints were chemotherapy-related, second primary tumor-related, cardiovascular-related, and unknown cause mortalities. A total of 6,430 patients with NSCLC from 16 RCTs were included in the analysis. Compared with no chemotherapy, the use of cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with an increased risk of non-lung cancer-related death, with an RR of 1.30 (95 % CI 1.1-1.53; P = 0.002; incidence, 9.3 vs. 7.2 %; absolute difference 2 %). Cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy was also associated with a greater risk of chemotherapy-related mortality (RR 2.16, 95 % CI 1.15-4.06; P = 0.02). Second primary tumor-related mortality and cardiovascular-related mortality were similar. In this meta-analysis of RCTs in NSCLC, cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a 30 % increase in non-lung cancer-related mortality compared with local therapy alone.

  2. New genes linked to lung cancer susceptibility in Asian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international group of scientists has identified three genes that predispose Asian women who have never smoked to lung cancer. The discovery of specific genetic variations, which have not previously been associated with lung cancer risk in other popul

  3. Nuclear medicine procedures in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiti, A.; Crippa, F.; Bombardieri, E.; Schreiner, F.A.G.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1999-01-01

    Although radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are still the methods of choice for the study of lung cancer, they have certain limitations in the determination of the nature of suspicious lung nodules, the evaluation of mediastinal involvement, the assessment of the viability of previously treated lesions and the diagnosis of tumour relapse. There is a wide range of current oncological requirements related to lung cancer: detection of malignant lesions at the earliest stage and in the most effective way; the definition of the biological characteristics of a lesion (proliferation, aggressiveness, differentiation, etc.); the need to define the operability of the patient (function of residual lung and staging); and the need to evaluate the behaviour of the tumour (response to therapy, early detection of recurrences, metastatic spread). Most of the efforts of the nuclear medicine community have been focussed on diagnosis, staging, restaging and therapy monitoring of lung cancer. Many radiopharmaceuticals have been employed for this, including gallium, monoclonal antibodies, somatostatin analogues, lipophilic cations and positron emission tracers. There is ample evidence that nuclear medicine techniques may provide complementary information with respect to anatomical imaging, for example in the assessment of preoperative function by means of ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy, or in tumour localisation by means of specific tumour-seeking agents. However, clinical data suggest that, when properly used, nuclear medicine procedures in some cases may be not only complementary to radiology but essential for the clinical management of lung cancer. An example of such a procedure is fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) the introduction of which has greatly contributed to confirmation of the clinical value of nuclear medicine in this field. FDG PET has proved of great help in lung cancer management and its cost-effectiveness in

  4. [Adenocarcinoma of lung cancer with solitary metastasis to the stomach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Sung Ae; Lee, Kyung Hee

    2014-09-25

    Although hematogenous metastasis of cancer to the gastrointestinal track is rare, it sometime has been reported in patients with malignant melanoma and breast cancer. However, it is extremely rare for lung cancer to metastasize to the stomach, not to mention solitary gastric metastasis. Herein, the authors report a case of a 69-year-old man who was initially diagnosed with lung cancer with synchronous primary gastric cancer which proved to be lung cancer with solitary gastric metastasis after the operation.

  5. Inhalable magnetic nanoparticles for targeted hyperthermia in lung cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Wiedmann, Timothy S; Panyam, Jayanth

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer (specifically, non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Poor response rates and survival with current treatments clearly indicate the urgent need for developing an effective means to treat NSCLC. Magnetic hyperthermia is a non-invasive approach for tumor ablation, and is based on heat generation by magnetic materials, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, when subjected to an alternating magnetic field. However, inadequate delivery of magnetic nanoparticles to tumor cells can result in sub-lethal temperature change and induce resistance while non-targeted delivery of these particles to the healthy tissues can result in toxicity. In our studies, we evaluated the effectiveness of tumor-targeted SPIO nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia of lung cancer. EGFR-targeted, inhalable SPIO nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized for targeting lung tumor cells as well as for magnetic hyperthermia-mediated antitumor efficacy in a mouse orthotopic model of NSCLC. Our results show that EGFR targeting enhances tumor retention of SPIO nanoparticles. Further, magnetic hyperthermia treatment using targeted SPIO nanoparticles resulted in significant inhibition of in vivo lung tumor growth. Overall, this work demonstrates the potential for developing an effective anticancer treatment modality for the treatment of NSCLC based on targeted magnetic hyperthermia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Attitudes towards Lung Cancer Screening in an Australian High-Risk Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E. Flynn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine whether persons at high risk of lung cancer would participate in lung cancer screening test if available in Australia and to elicit general attitudes towards cancer screening and factors that might affect participation in a screening program. Methods. We developed a 20-item written questionnaire, based on two published telephone interview scripts, addressing attitudes towards cancer screening, perceived risk of lung cancer, and willingness to be screened for lung cancer and to undertake surgery if lung cancer were detected. The questionnaire was given to 102 current and former smokers attending the respiratory clinic and pulmonary rehabilitation programmes. Results. We gained 90 eligible responses (M:F, 69:21. Mean [SD] age was 63 [11] and smoking history was 32 [21] pack years. 95% of subjects would participate in a lung cancer screening test, and 91% of these would consider surgery if lung cancer was detected. 44% of subjects considered that they were at risk of lung cancer. This was lower in ex-smokers than in current smokers. Conclusions. There is high willingness for lung cancer screening and surgical treatment. There is underrecognition of risk among ex-smokers. This misperception could be a barrier to a successful screening or case-finding programme in Australia.

  7. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor marker in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mie Grunnet; Sorensen, J B

    2012-01-01

    The use of CEA as a prognostic and predictive marker in patients with lung cancer is widely debated. The aim of this review was to evaluate the results from studies made on this subject. Using the search words "CEA", "tumor markers in lung cancer", "prognostic significance", "diagnostic...... significance" and "predictive significance", a search was carried out on PubMed. Exclusion criteria was articles never published in English, articles before 1981 and articles evaluating tumor markers in lung cancer not involving CEA. Initially 217 articles were found, and 34 were left after selecting those....... Interestingly, an overweight of low stage (stage I-II) disease and adenocarcinoma (AC) patients were observed in this group. The remaining 7 studies (6 serum, 1 plasma) contained an overweight of patients with squamous carcinoma (SQ). One study found evidence for that a tumor marker index (TMI), based...

  8. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M

    2011-01-01

    , the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas as follows: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to be addressed through......The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference...

  9. MRI in lung cancer: a pictorial essay

    OpenAIRE

    Hochhegger, B; Marchiori, E; Sedlaczek, O; Irion, K; Heussel, C P; Ley, S; Ley-Zaporozhan, J; Soares Souza, A; Kauczor, H-U

    2011-01-01

    Imaging studies play a critical role in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. CT and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT (PET/CT) are widely and routinely used for staging and assessment of treatment response. Many radiologists still use MRI only for the assessment of superior sulcus tumours, and in cases where invasion of the spinal cord canal is suspected. MRI can detect and stage lung cancer, and this method could be an excellent alternative to CT or PET/CT in the inv...

  10. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and lung cancer by histological type: a pooled analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; McNallan, Sheila R; Cote, Michele L; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chang, Shen-Chih; Kim, Jin Hee; Ugolini, Donatella; Chen, Ying; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Andrew, Angeline S; Onega, Tracy; Duell, Eric J; Field, John K; Lazarus, Philip; Le Marchand, Loic; Neri, Monica; Vineis, Paolo; Kiyohara, Chikako; Hong, Yun-Chul; Morgenstern, Hal; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Christiani, David C; McLaughlin, John R; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Rudnai, Peter; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mukeria, Anush; Zaridze, David; Seow, Adeline; Schwartz, Ann G; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-10-15

    While the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer risk is well established, few studies with sufficient power have examined the association by histological type. In this study, we evaluated the secondhand smoke-lung cancer relationship by histological type based on pooled data from 18 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), including 2,504 cases and 7,276 control who were never smokers and 10,184 cases and 7,176 controls who were ever smokers. We used multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and study. Among never smokers, the odds ratios (OR) comparing those ever exposed to secondhand smoke with those never exposed were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.17-1.45) for all histological types combined, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.10-1.44) for adenocarcinoma, 1.41 (95% CI: 0.99-1.99) for squamous cell carcinoma, 1.48 (95% CI: 0.89-2.45) for large cell lung cancer, and 3.09 (95% CI: 1.62-5.89) for small cell lung cancer. The estimated association with secondhand smoke exposure was greater for small cell lung cancer than for nonsmall cell lung cancers (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.11-4.04). This analysis is the largest to date investigating the relation between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer. Our study provides more precise estimates of the impact of secondhand smoke on the major histological types of lung cancer, indicates the association with secondhand smoke is stronger for small cell lung cancer than for the other histological types, and suggests the importance of intervention against exposure to secondhand smoke in lung cancer prevention. © 2014 UICC.

  11. Lung cancer, genetic predisposition and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob; Korhonen, Tellervo; Holst, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to disentangle genetic and environmental causes in lung cancer while considering smoking status. Methods: Four Nordic twin cohorts (43 512 monozygotic (MZ) and 71 895 same sex dizygotic (DZ) twin individuals) had smoking data before cancer diagnosis. We used time......-to-event analyses accounting for censoring and competing risk of death to estimate incidence, concordance risk and heritability of liability to develop lung cancer by smoking status. Results: During a median of 28.5 years of follow-up, we recorded 1508 incident lung cancers. Of the 30 MZ and 28 DZ pairs concordant...... compared with the cumulative incidence for both MZ and DZ pairs. This ratio, the relative recurrence risk, significantly decreased by age for MZ but was constant for DZ pairs. Heritability of lung cancer was 0.41 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.56) for currently smoking and 0.37 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.49) for ever smoking...

  12. Benefits of home-based multidisciplinary exercise and supportive care in inoperable non-small cell lung cancer - protocol for a phase II randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edbrooke, Lara; Aranda, Sanchia; Granger, Catherine L; McDonald, Christine F; Krishnasamy, Mei; Mileshkin, Linda; Irving, Louis; Braat, Sabine; Clark, Ross A; Gordon, Ian; Denehy, Linda

    2017-09-29

    Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers, and is a leading cause of cancer mortality world-wide. Due to lack of early specific symptoms, the majority of patients present with advanced, inoperable disease and five-year relative survival across all stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is 14%. People with lung cancer also report higher levels of symptom distress than those with other forms of cancer. Several benefits for survival and patient reported outcomes are reported from physical activity and exercise in other tumour groups. We report the protocol for a study investigating the benefits of exercise, behaviour change and symptom self-management for patients with recently diagnosed, inoperable, NSCLC. This multi-site, parallel-group, assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial, powered for superiority, aims to assess functional and patient-reported outcomes of a multi-disciplinary, home-based exercise and supportive care program for people commencing treatment. Ninety-two participants are being recruited from three tertiary-care hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Following baseline testing, participants are randomised using concealed allocation, to receive either: a) 8 weeks of home-based exercise (comprising an individualised endurance and resistance exercise program and behaviour change coaching) and nurse-delivered symptom self-management intervention or b) usual care. The primary outcome is the between-group difference in the change in functional exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance) from baseline to post-program assessment. Secondary outcomes include: objective and self-reported physical activity levels, physical activity self-efficacy, behavioural regulation of motivation to exercise and resilience, muscle strength (quadriceps and grip), health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression and symptom interference. There is a lack of evidence regarding the benefit of exercise intervention for people with NSCLC, particularly

  13. Cloud-Based NoSQL Open Database of Pulmonary Nodules for Computer-Aided Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Reproducible Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Junior, José Raniery; Oliveira, Marcelo Costa; de Azevedo-Marques, Paulo Mazzoncini

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world, and its main manifestation is pulmonary nodules. Detection and classification of pulmonary nodules are challenging tasks that must be done by qualified specialists, but image interpretation errors make those tasks difficult. In order to aid radiologists on those hard tasks, it is important to integrate the computer-based tools with the lesion detection, pathology diagnosis, and image interpretation processes. However, computer-aided diagnosis research faces the problem of not having enough shared medical reference data for the development, testing, and evaluation of computational methods for diagnosis. In order to minimize this problem, this paper presents a public nonrelational document-oriented cloud-based database of pulmonary nodules characterized by 3D texture attributes, identified by experienced radiologists and classified in nine different subjective characteristics by the same specialists. Our goal with the development of this database is to improve computer-aided lung cancer diagnosis and pulmonary nodule detection and classification research through the deployment of this database in a cloud Database as a Service framework. Pulmonary nodule data was provided by the Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI), image descriptors were acquired by a volumetric texture analysis, and database schema was developed using a document-oriented Not only Structured Query Language (NoSQL) approach. The proposed database is now with 379 exams, 838 nodules, and 8237 images, 4029 of them are CT scans and 4208 manually segmented nodules, and it is allocated in a MongoDB instance on a cloud infrastructure.

  14. Cancer Stem Cells and the Ontogeny of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Craig D.; Watkins, D. Neil

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the world today and is poised to claim approximately 1 billion lives during the 21st century. A major challenge in treating this and other cancers is the intrinsic resistance to conventional therapies demonstrated by the stem/progenitor cell that is responsible for the sustained growth, survival, and invasion of the tumor. Identifying these stem cells in lung cancer and defining the biologic processes necessary for their existence is paramount in developing new clinical approaches with the goal of preventing disease recurrence. This review summarizes our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms operating within the putative cancer-initiating cell at the core of lung neoplasia. PMID:18539968

  15. Study of small-cell lung cancer cell-based sensor and its applications in chemotherapy effects rapid evaluation for anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guohua, Hui; Hongyang, Lu; Zhiming, Jiang; Danhua, Zhu; Haifang, Wan

    2017-11-15

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a smoking-related cancer disease. Despite improvement in clinical survival, SCLC outcome remains extremely poor. Cisplatin (DDP) is the first-line chemotherapy drug for SCLC, but the choice of second-line chemotherapy drugs is not clear. In this paper, a SCLC cell-based sensor was proposed, and its applications in chemotherapy effects rapid evaluation for anticancer drugs were investigated. SCLC cell lines lung adenocarcinoma cell (LTEP-P) and DDP-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cell (LTEP-P/DDP-1.0) are cultured on carbon screen-printed electrode (CSPE) to fabricate integrated cell-based sensor. Several chemotherapy anticancer drugs, including cisplatin, ifosmamide, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, docetaxel, vinorelbine, etoposide, camptothecin, and topotecan, are selected as experimental chemicals. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) tests are conducted to evaluate chemotherapy drug effects on LTEP-P and LTEP-P/DDP-1.0 cell lines. Electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) responses to anti-tumor chemicals are measured and processed by double-layered cascaded stochastic resonance (DCSR). Cisplatin solutions in different concentrations measurement results demonstrate that LTEP-P cell-based sensor presents quantitative analysis abilities for cisplatin and topotecan. Cisplatin and its mixtures can also be discriminated. Results demonstrate that LTEP-P cell-based sensor sensitively evaluates chemotherapy drugs' apoptosis function to SCLC cells. LTEP-P/DDP-1.0 cell-based sensor responses demonstrate that gemcitabine, vinorelbine, and camptothecin are ideal second-line drugs for clinical post-cisplatin therapy than other drugs according to MTT test results. This work provides a novel way for SCLC second-line clinical chemotherapy drug screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiation Therapy, Chemotherapy, and Soy Isoflavones in Treating Patients With Stage IIIA-IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  17. Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-29

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  18. Radon potential, geologic formations, and lung cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen J. Hahn

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Radon potential maps that account for geologic factors and observed radon values may be superior to using observed radon values only. Knowing radon-prone areas could help target population-based lung cancer prevention interventions given the inequities that exist related to radon.

  19. Cellular radiosensitivity of small-cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, M; Poulsen, H S; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the radiobiological characteristics of a panel of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines by use of a clonogenic assay. In addition, we tested whether comparable results could be obtained by employing a growth extrapolation method based...

  20. Prevalence of Neurological Manifestations of Lung Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective: is to study the prevalence of neurological manifestations among adults Sudanese patients with lung cancer seen in the Radiation and Isotope Centre in Khartoum. Methods: This is a prospective cross sectional hospital based study, conducted at Radiation and Isotope Centre in Khartoum. Sample of 52 adults ...

  1. Adjustment to Life with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerw, Aleksandra I; Religioni, Urszula; Deptała, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, lung cancer is the most common type of cancer in males (20% of all cases) and third most common type of cancer in females (9% of all cases), right behind breast and colorectal cancers. Recently, 28,000 new cases of lung cancer per year were reported in both genders. The objective of the study was to asses coping strategies, pain management, acceptance of illness and adjustment to cancer in patients diagnosed with pulmonary carcinoma and the effect of socioeconomic variables on the abovementioned issues. The study included 243 patients diagnosed with lung cancer during outpatient chemotherapy (classical chemotherapy and molecularly targeted therapies) at the Center of Oncology, Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute in Warszawa. We applied the Paper and Pencil Interview (PAPI) technique. The questionnaire interview was composed of demographic questions and the following four psychometric tests: BPCQ measuring the influence of factors affecting pain management in patients, CSQ designed to evaluate pain coping strategies, AIS questionnaire, measuring disease acceptance, and the mini-Mac scale, assessing psychological adjustment to disease. The highest mean score recorded in the BPCQ was recorded in the powerful doctors subscale (16.79) and the lowest in the internal factors section (15.64). Education, professional status and income were the variables which differentiated the scores. We recorded the top average score in CSQ in the coping self statements subscale (mean = 19.64), and the lowest score in the reinterpreting pain sensations subscale (mean score = 10.32). The results of the test were differentiated by education and income. Patients had the highest Mini-MAC scale scores in the fighting spirit section (21.91). In the case of patients affected with lung cancer, education and professional status affect the way patients treat doctors in the disease process. These variables are also critical in patients' approach to disease and methods of coping with it.

  2. Lung cancer following therapy for Hodgkin's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Oliphant, Lawrie; McFadden, Robin G.

    1985-01-01

    We describe a patient in whom lung cancer developed several years after he had received combined-modality therapy for Hodgkin's disease. The literature concerning second malignant diseases, particularly thoracic tumours, that occur following combined-modality therapy for cancer is reviewed. It is important to recognize these entities, because chest symptoms or findings on x-ray films may be misinterpreted as representing late recrudescence of the first neo-plastic disease.

  3. Spatiotemporal air pollution exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hystad Perry

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few epidemiological studies of air pollution have used residential histories to develop long-term retrospective exposure estimates for multiple ambient air pollutants and vehicle and industrial emissions. We present such an exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study of 8353 individuals using self-reported residential histories from 1975 to 1994. We also examine the implications of disregarding and/or improperly accounting for residential mobility in long-term exposure assessments. Methods National spatial surfaces of ambient air pollution were compiled from recent satellite-based estimates (for PM2.5 and NO2 and a chemical transport model (for O3. The surfaces were adjusted with historical annual air pollution monitoring data, using either spatiotemporal interpolation or linear regression. Model evaluation was conducted using an independent ten percent subset of monitoring data per year. Proximity to major roads, incorporating a temporal weighting factor based on Canadian mobile-source emission estimates, was used to estimate exposure to vehicle emissions. A comprehensive inventory of geocoded industries was used to estimate proximity to major and minor industrial emissions. Results Calibration of the national PM2.5 surface using annual spatiotemporal interpolation predicted historical PM2.5 measurement data best (R2 = 0.51, while linear regression incorporating the national surfaces, a time-trend and population density best predicted historical concentrations of NO2 (R2 = 0.38 and O3 (R2 = 0.56. Applying the models to study participants residential histories between 1975 and 1994 resulted in mean PM2.5, NO2 and O3 exposures of 11.3 μg/m3 (SD = 2.6, 17.7 ppb (4.1, and 26.4 ppb (3.4 respectively. On average, individuals lived within 300 m of a highway for 2.9 years (15% of exposure-years and within 3 km of a major industrial emitter for 6.4 years (32% of exposure-years. Approximately 50

  4. Resveratrol in lung cancer- a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; Zhou, Jihing; Jiang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol, a phytochemical known for its anti- oxidative properties has been explored worldwide for anticancer potential. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis in order to register the efficacy of resveratrol against lung carcinogenesis. We searched PubMed for preclinical studies reporting efficacy of resveratrol alone or in combination with drugs like curcumin, cisplatin etc. against lung carcinogenesis. The primary outcome of eligible studies included change in overall tumor incidence as well as tumor size. In all of the above studies involving either animal models or in vitro cancer cell experiments a statistically significant reduction in tumor incidence emerged as compared with the control groups, yielding a relative risk reduction of 0.64 (p=0.002). This meta- analysis confirmed the potential of resveratrol against lung carcinogenesis. It can be concluded that resveratrol holds a good potential for future use as a highly efficient therapeutic agent to deal with deadly lung carcinogenesis.

  5. CT imaging of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Yan; Xie Ruming; Zhou Xinhua; Zhou Zhen; Xu Jinping; He Wei; Guo Lifang; Ning Fenggang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT characteristics of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer. Methods: One hundred and four patients of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer proved by histology, cytology or clinical underwent CT examination. All patients were divided into two groups, group Ⅰ were the patients with the lung cancer after tuberculosis or both found simultaneously (group Ⅰ a with peripheral lung cancer and group Ⅰ b with central lung cancer), group Ⅱ with tuberculosis during lung cancer chemotherapy (group Ⅱ a with peripheral lung cancer and group Ⅱ b with central lung cancer). Imaging characteristics of tuberculosis and lung cancer were compared. χ 2 test and t test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Of 104 patients, there were 92 patients (88.5%) in group Ⅰ and 12 patients (11.5%) in group Ⅱ. Seventy patients (76.1%) of lung cancer and tuberculosis were located in the same lobe and 22 patients (23.9%) in the different lobes in group Ⅰ. There was no significant difference in distribution of tuberculosis between group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ (χ 2 = 4.302, P = 0.507). The fibrous stripes, nodules of calcification and pleural adhesion of tuberculosis were statistically significant between the two groups (χ 2 = 22.737, 15.193, 27.792, P < 0.05). There were 33 central lung cancers and 71 peripheral lung cancers. In group Ⅰ a (64 patients of peripheral lung cancers), 39 patients (60.9%) had typical manifestations and most of the lesions were ≥ 3 cm (n = 49, 76.6%), solid lesions showed variable enhancement. Conclusions: Secondary tuberculosis during lung cancer chemotherapy has the same CT characteristics with the common active tuberculosis. The morphology, enhancement pattern of lesion and follow-up are helpful for the diagnosis of lung cancer after tuberculosis. (authors)

  6. Implementation and organization of lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer is now being implemented in the US and China on a widespread national scale but not in Europe so far. The review gives a status for the implementation process and the hurdles to overcome in the future. It also describes the guidelines and requirements for the structure...

  7. Tumor-Induced CD8+ T-Cell Dysfunction in Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Prado-Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and one of the most common types of cancers. The limited success of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimes have highlighted the need to develop new therapies like antitumor immunotherapy. CD8+ T-cells represent a major arm of the cell-mediated anti-tumor response and a promising target for developing T-cell-based immunotherapies against lung cancer. Lung tumors, however, have been considered to possess poor immunogenicity; even so, lung tumor-specific CD8+ T-cell clones can be established that possess cytotoxicity against autologous tumor cells. This paper will focus on the alterations induced in CD8+ T-cells by lung cancer. Although memory CD8+ T-cells infiltrate lung tumors, in both tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs and malignant pleural effusions, these cells are dysfunctional and the effector subset is reduced. We propose that chronic presence of lung tumors induces dysfunctions in CD8+ T-cells and sensitizes them to activation-induced cell death, which may be associated with the poor clinical responses observed in immunotherapeutic trials. Getting a deeper knowledge of the evasion mechanisms lung cancer induce in CD8+ T-cells should lead to further understanding of lung cancer biology, overcome tumor evasion mechanisms, and design improved immunotherapeutic treatments for lung cancer.

  8. Dosimetric Comparison of Real-Time MRI-Guided Tri-Cobalt-60 Versus Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Lung Cancer Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszynski, Andrzej P; Hill, Patrick M; Rosenberg, Stephen A; Hullett, Craig R; Labby, Zacariah E; Paliwal, Bhudatt; Geurts, Mark W; Bayliss, R Adam; Bayouth, John E; Harari, Paul M; Bassetti, Michael F; Baschnagel, Andrew M

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging-guided radiation therapy has entered clinical practice at several major treatment centers. Treatment of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer with stereotactic body radiation therapy is one potential application of this modality, as some form of respiratory motion management is important to address. We hypothesize that magnetic resonance imaging-guided tri-cobalt-60 radiation therapy can be used to generate clinically acceptable stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment plans. Here, we report on a dosimetric comparison between magnetic resonance imaging-guided radiation therapy plans and internal target volume-based plans utilizing volumetric-modulated arc therapy. Ten patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer who underwent radiation therapy planning and treatment were studied. Following 4-dimensional computed tomography, patient images were used to generate clinically deliverable plans. For volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans, the planning tumor volume was defined as an internal target volume + 0.5 cm. For magnetic resonance imaging-guided plans, a single mid-inspiratory cycle was used to define a gross tumor volume, then expanded 0.3 cm to the planning tumor volume. Treatment plan parameters were compared. Planning tumor volumes trended larger for volumetric-modulated arc therapy-based plans, with a mean planning tumor volume of 47.4 mL versus 24.8 mL for magnetic resonance imaging-guided plans ( P = .08). Clinically acceptable plans were achievable via both methods, with bilateral lung V20, 3.9% versus 4.8% ( P = .62). The volume of chest wall receiving greater than 30 Gy was also similar, 22.1 versus 19.8 mL ( P = .78), as were all other parameters commonly used for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy. The ratio of the 50% isodose volume to planning tumor volume was lower in volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans, 4.19 versus 10.0 ( P guided tri-cobalt-60 radiation therapy is capable of delivering lung high

  9. Calculation of Lung Cancer Volume of Target Based on Thorax Computed Tomography Images using Active Contour Segmentation Method for Treatment Planning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra Yosandha, Fiet; Adi, Kusworo; Edi Widodo, Catur

    2017-06-01

    In this research, calculation process of the lung cancer volume of target based on computed tomography (CT) thorax images was done. Volume of the target calculation was done in purpose to treatment planning system in radiotherapy. The calculation of the target volume consists of gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR). The calculation of the target volume was done by adding the target area on each slices and then multiply the result with the slice thickness. Calculations of area using of digital image processing techniques with active contour segmentation method. This segmentation for contouring to obtain the target volume. The calculation of volume produced on each of the targets is 577.2 cm3 for GTV, 769.9 cm3 for CTV, 877.8 cm3 for PTV, 618.7 cm3 for OAR 1, 1,162 cm3 for OAR 2 right, and 1,597 cm3 for OAR 2 left. These values indicate that the image processing techniques developed can be implemented to calculate the lung cancer target volume based on CT thorax images. This research expected to help doctors and medical physicists in determining and contouring the target volume quickly and precisely.

  10. [Lung cancer and COPD - growing clinical problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyl, Michal; Domagała-Kulawik, Joanna

    2017-07-21

    A spread of the addiction of tobacco smoking is valued on near 1 billion of people in the world, that involves growing number of morbidity and mortality by the reason of smoke related diseases. Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the most serious and incurable diseases which are leading to a permanent disability as well as to premature death. There are factors that naturally increase the vulnerability of an individual on the coincidence of above disorders, such as pathophysiological conditions, systemic inflammation, bronchitis, emphysema, respiratory obstructive disease and precise genetic predispositions for COPD and lung cancer. The harmful substances of the tobacco smoke are the causes of the development of diseases outside the group of respiratory disorders which affects the greater scope of comorbidity among this patient group in comparison to the normal population. The similarity of the clinical picture of lung cancer and COPD may cause numerous problems for a proper and prompt diagnosis and the implementation of the appropriate treatment. On the other hand, it is evident that the patients with COPD are carefully examined and often diagnosed with cancer while those who already suffer from cancer and undertake additional function testing are in 40-50% diagnosed with COPD. The coexistance of these two diseases influences the therapeutic procedure: COPD limits the possibilities of a radical lung cancer treatment which is determined by the general health condition and the respiratory system insufficiency as far as COPD patients are concerned. The knowledge of common pathogenesis both of cancer and COPD and the mutual relations between them shall positively affect the diagnostic and therapeutic process in the high-risk patient groups.

  11. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stackelberg, Oyunbileg von; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Gaga, Mina; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Peled, Nir; Prokop, Mathias; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low-dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low-dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and a quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including a biobank and an image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. (orig.)

  12. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stackelberg, Oyunbileg von [University Hospital Heidelberg, Dept of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Member of the German Lung Research Center, Translational Lung Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Bonomo, Lorenzo [A. Gemelli University Hospital, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Gaga, Mina [Athens Chest Hospital, 7th Resp. Med. Dept and Asthma Center, Athens (Greece); Nackaerts, Kristiaan [KU Leuven-University of Leuven, University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Respiratory Diseases/Respiratory Oncology Unit, Leuven (Belgium); Peled, Nir [Tel Aviv University, Davidoff Cancer Center, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Remy-Jardin, Martine [Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), CHRU et Universite de Lille, Lille (France); Sculier, Jean-Paul [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Thoracic oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Collaboration: on behalf of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low-dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low-dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and a quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including a biobank and an image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. (orig.)

  13. What is the minimum number of patients for quality control of lung cancer management in Norway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaug, Knut; Eide, Geir E; Gulsvik, Amund

    2016-11-01

    There are few data available on the optimal number of lung cancer patients needed to generate and compare estimates of quality between units managing lung cancer. The number of lung cancer patients per management unit varies considerably in Norway, where there are 42 hospitals that treated between 1 and 454 lung cancer patients in 2011. To estimate the differences in quality indicators that are of sufficient importance to change a pulmonary physician's lung cancer management program, and to estimate the size of the patient samples necessary to detect such differences. Twenty-six physicians were asked about the relative differences from a national average of quality indicators that would change their own lung cancer management program. Sample sizes were calculated to give valid estimates of quality of a management unit based on prevalence of quality indicators and minimally important differences (MID). The average MID in quality indicators that would cause a change in management varied from 18% to 24% among 26 chest physicians, depending on the indicator. To generate precise estimates for quality control of lung cancer care in Norway, the number of management units must be reduced. Given the present willingness of chest physicians to change their procedures for management of lung cancer according to the results of quality control indicators, we recommend a maximum of 10 units with a minimum of 200 incident lung cancer patients per year for each management center. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial comparing Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction with treatment as usual in reducing psychological distress in patients with lung cancer and their partners: the MILON study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Melanie P J; van den Hurk, Desiree G M; Prins, Judith B; Molema, Johan; Donders, A Rogier T; Woertman, Willem H; van der Drift, Miep A; Speckens, Anne E M

    2014-01-03

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and characterized by a poor prognosis. It has a major impact on the psychological wellbeing of patients and their partners. Recently, it has been shown that Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is effective in reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms in cancer patients. The generalization of these results is limited since most participants were female patients with breast cancer. Moreover, only one study examined the effectiveness of MBSR in partners of cancer patients. Therefore, in the present trial we study the effectiveness of MBSR versus treatment as usual (TAU) in patients with lung cancer and their partners. A parallel group, randomized controlled trial is conducted to compare MBSR with TAU. Lung cancer patients who have received or are still under treatment, and their partners are recruited. Assessments will take place at baseline, post intervention and at three-month follow-up. The primary outcome is psychological distress (i.e. anxiety and depressive symptoms). Secondary outcomes are quality of life (only for patients), caregiver appraisal (only for partners), relationship quality and spirituality. In addition, cost-effectiveness ratio (only in patients) and several process variables are assessed. This trial will provide information about the clinical and cost-effectiveness of MBSR compared to TAU in patients with lung cancer and their partners.

  15. [Lung cancer in a female non-smoker with occupational exposure to asbestos: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Lucia; Murer, B; Quintavalle, Sonia; Zeni, Elena; Miotto, Deborah; Mapp, Cristina Elisabetta; De Rosa, E; Boschetto, Piera

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, asbestos was widely used in a variety of industrial processes. Workers exposed to asbestos may develop lung and pleural diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer, benign pleural effusion, pleural plaques and mesothelioma. To describe a clinical case of lung cancer in a female non-smoker with occupational exposure to asbestos. The clinical and occupational history was based on the information kindly provided by the Occupational Unit of the National Health Service and on the case history of a hospital admittance in 2001, when the patient underwent surgery for lung cancer. The patient worked for 6 years in an asbestos manufacturing industry where she was exposed to high concentrations of asbestos, and then worked for 14 years in a sugar refinery only during the summer. She had benign pleural effusion, pleural plaques, asbestosis and lung cancer. We concluded that a six-year exposure to high doses of asbestos may induce lung cancer and asbestosis in a female non-smoker.

  16. γδ T-cell immunotherapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yukihiro; Nakajima, Jun; Wada, Hiromi; Kakimi, Kazuhiro

    2011-05-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, yet there are still no satisfactory protocols available for treating this disease, emphasizing the urgency for more effective therapies. Recent clinical trials have provided encouraging evidence of the benefits of certain forms of immunotherapy. Here, we summarize recent developments in the area of γδ T-cell therapy for lung cancer in our center. γδ T cells constitute 2%-10% of T lymphocytes in human blood and play a role in immune surveillance against microbial pathogens and, possibly, cancer. These T cells recognize phosphoantigens via polymorphic γδ T-cell antigen receptors (TCR), as well as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related molecules, A and B (MICA and MICB), via nonpolymorphic NKG2D receptors in an MHC-unrestricted manner. This implies that γδ T cells could retain antitumor effects despite reduced expression of MHC and tumor antigens on cancer cells. Thus, clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of γδ T-cell-based immunotherapies for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and solid tumors. This review focuses on the current status of γδ T-cell-based immunotherapy for lung cancer.

  17. A heat conduction simulator to estimate lung temperature distribution during percutaneous transthoracic cryoablation for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futami, Hikaru; Arai, Tsunenori; Yashiro, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Seishi; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Izumi, Youtaro; Tsukada, Norimasa; Kawamura, Masafumi

    2006-01-01

    To develop an evaluation method for the curative field when using X-ray CT imaging during percutaneous transthoracic cryoablation for lung cancer, we constructed a finite-element heat conduction simulator to estimate temperature distribution in the lung during cryo-treatment. We calculated temperature distribution using a simple two-dimensional finite element model, although the actual temperature distribution spreads in three dimensions. Temperature time-histories were measured within 10 minutes using experimental ex vivo and in vivo lung cryoablation conditions. We adjusted specific heat and thermal conductivity in the heat conduction calculation and compared them with measured temperature time-histories ex vivo. Adjusted lung specific heat was 3.7 J/ (g·deg C) for unfrozen lung and 1.8 J/ (g·deg C) for frozen lung. Adjusted lung thermal conductivity in our finite element model fitted proportionally to the exponential function of lung density. We considered the heat input by blood flow circulation and metabolic heat when we calculated the temperature time-histories during in vivo cryoablation of the lung. We assumed that the blood flow varies in inverse proportion to the change in blood viscosity up to the maximum blood flow predicted from cardiac output. Metabolic heat was set as heat generation in the calculation. The measured temperature time-histories of in vivo cryoablation were then estimated with an accuracy of ±3 deg C when calculated based on this assumption. Therefore, we successfully constructed a two-dimensional heat conduction simulator that is capable of estimating temperature distribution in the lung at the time of first freezing during cryoablation. (author)

  18. Pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer risks in relation to occupational history and asbestos lung burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilham, Clare; Rake, Christine; Burdett, Garry; Nicholson, Andrew G; Davison, Leslie; Franchini, Angelo; Carpenter, James; Hodgson, John; Darnton, Andrew; Peto, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Background We have conducted a population-based study of pleural mesothelioma patients with occupational histories and measured asbestos lung burdens in occupationally exposed workers and in the general population. The relationship between lung burden and risk, particularly at environmental exposure levels, will enable future mesothelioma rates in people born after 1965 who never installed asbestos to be predicted from their asbestos lung burdens. Methods Following personal interview asbestos fibres longer than 5 µm were counted by transmission electron microscopy in lung samples obtained from 133 patients with mesothelioma and 262 patients with lung cancer. ORs for mesothelioma were converted to lifetime risks. Results Lifetime mesothelioma risk is approximately 0.02% per 1000 amphibole fibres per gram of dry lung tissue over a more than 100-fold range, from 1 to 4 in the most heavily exposed building workers to less than 1 in 500 in most of the population. The asbestos fibres counted were amosite (75%), crocidolite (18%), other amphiboles (5%) and chrysotile (2%). Conclusions The approximate linearity of the dose–response together with lung burden measurements in younger people will provide reasonably reliable predictions of future mesothelioma rates in those born since 1965 whose risks cannot yet be seen in national rates. Burdens in those born more recently will indicate the continuing occupational and environmental hazards under current asbestos control regulations. Our results confirm the major contribution of amosite to UK mesothelioma incidence and the substantial contribution of non-occupational exposure, particularly in women. PMID:26715106

  19. Factors influencing the decline in lung density in a Danish lung cancer screening cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B.; Dirksen, Asger; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer screening trials provide an opportunity to study the natural history of emphysema by using CT lung density as a surrogate parameter.In the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 2,052 participants were included. At screening rounds, smoking habits were recorded and spirometry was performed...

  20. The Azygous Lobe of the Lung: in the Case of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlong, L M; Ram, Dharma; Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Iqbal, Sayed Assif; Nagar, Anand; Hazarika, Dibyamohan

    2017-06-01

    The azygous lobe of the lung is an uncommon developmental anomaly. Its surgical importance is hardly being described in literature. Here, we are presenting a case of lung cancer with incidental azygous lobe, with its surgical relevance during lung cancer surgery.

  1. New procedures. Comprehensive staging of lung cancer by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintze, C.; Dinkel, J.; Biederer, J.; Heussel, C.P.; Puderbach, M.

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer staging according to the TNM system is based on morphological assessment of the primary cancer, lymph nodes and metastases. All aspects of this important oncological classification are measurable with MRI. Pulmonary nodules can be detected at the clinically relevant size of 4-5 mm in diameter. The extent of mediastinal, hilar and supraclavicular lymph node affection can be assessed at the same time. The predominant metastatic spread to the adrenal glands and spine can be detected in coronal orientation during dedicated MRI of the lungs. Search focused whole body MRI completes the staging. Various additional MR imaging techniques provide further functional and clinically relevant information during a single examination. In the oncological context the most important techniques are imaging of perfusion and tumor motion. Functional MRI of the lungs complements the pure staging and improves surgical approaches and radiotherapy planning. (orig.) [de

  2. MHC class II expression in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yayi; Rozeboom, Leslie; Rivard, Christopher J; Ellison, Kim; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Caicun; Hirsch, Fred R

    2017-10-01

    Immunotherapy is an exciting development in lung cancer research. In this study we described major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II protein expression in lung cancer cell lines and patient tissues. We studied MHC Class II (DP, DQ, DR) (CR3/43, Abcam) protein expression in 55 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, 42 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and 278 lung cancer patient tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven (12.7%) NSCLC cell lines were positive for MHC Class II. No SCLC cell lines were found to be MHC Class II positive. We assessed 139 lung cancer samples available in the Hirsch Lab for MHC Class II. There was no positive MHC Class II staining on SCLC tumor cells. MHC Class II expression on TILs in SCLC was significantly lower than that on TILs in NSCLC (P<0.001). MHC Class II was also assessed in an additional 139 NSCLC tumor tissues from Medical University of Gdansk, Poland. Patients with positive staining of MHC Class II on TILs had longer regression-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those whose TILs were MHC Class II negative (2.980 years, 95% CI 1.628-4.332 vs. 1.050 years, 95% CI 0.556-1.554, P=0.028) (3.230 years, 95% CI 2.617-3.843 vs. 1.390 years, 95% CI 0.629-2.151, P=0.014). MHC Class II was expressed both in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. However, MHC Class II was not detected in SCLC cell lines or tissue tumor cells. MHC Class II expression was lower on SCLC TILs than on NSCLC TILs. Loss of expression of MHC Class II on SCLC tumor cells and reduced expression on SCLC TILs may be a means of escaping anti-cancer immunity. Higher MHC Class II expression on TILs was correlated with better prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Metabolomics provide new insights on lung cancer staging and discrimination from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deja, Stanislaw; Porebska, Irena; Kowal, Aneta; Zabek, Adam; Barg, Wojciech; Pawelczyk, Konrad; Stanimirova, Ivana; Daszykowski, Michal; Korzeniewska, Anna; Jankowska, Renata; Mlynarz, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are widespread lung diseases. Cigarette smoking is a high risk factor for both the diseases. COPD may increase the risk of developing lung cancer. Thus, it is crucial to be able to distinguish between these two pathological states, especially considering the early stages of lung cancer. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools are required to properly determine lung cancer progression because this information directly impacts the type of the treatment prescribed. In this study, serum samples collected from 22 COPD and 77 lung cancer (TNM stages I, II, III, and IV) patients were analyzed. Then, a collection of NMR metabolic fingerprints was modeled using discriminant orthogonal partial least squares regression (OPLS-DA) and further interpreted by univariate statistics. The constructed discriminant models helped to successfully distinguish between the metabolic fingerprints of COPD and lung cancer patients (AUC training=0.972, AUC test=0.993), COPD and early lung cancer patients (AUC training=1.000, AUC test=1.000), and COPD and advanced lung cancer patients (AUC training=0.983, AUC test=1.000). Decreased acetate, citrate, and methanol levels together with the increased N-acetylated glycoproteins, leucine, lysine, mannose, choline, and lipid (CH3-(CH2)n-) levels were observed in all lung cancer patients compared with the COPD group. The evaluation of lung cancer progression was also successful using OPLS-DA (AUC training=0.811, AUC test=0.904). Based on the results, the following metabolite biomarkers may prove useful in distinguishing lung cancer states: isoleucine, acetoacetate, and creatine as well as the two NMR signals of N-acetylated glycoproteins and glycerol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence Rates by Histological Type in 1975-2008: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Fukuaki Lee; Ito, Yuri; Nakayama, Tomio

    2016-11-05

    Monitoring trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality is important for the evaluation of cancer control activities. We investigated recent trends in age-standardized incidence rates by histological type of lung cancer in Osaka, Japan. Cancer incidence data for 1975-2008 were obtained from the Osaka Cancer Registry. Lung cancer mortality data with population data in Osaka during 1975-2012 were obtained from vital statistics. We examined trends in age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for all histological types and age-standardized incidence rates by histological type and age group using a joinpoint regression model. The age-standardized incidence rate of lung cancer levelled off or slightly increased from 1975-2008, with an annual percentage change of 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%-0.4%) for males and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.9%-1.3%) for females, and the mortality rate decreased by 0.9% (95% CI, 1.2%-0.7%) for males and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.8%-0.3%) for females. The incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) and small cell carcinoma (SMC) significantly decreased for both genders, whereas that of adenocarcinoma (ADC) significantly increased among almost all age groups in both genders. The incidence rates of SQC and SMC decreased with the decline in smoking prevalence, which probably explains the change in trends in the incidence rates of lung cancer from the mid-1980s. However, the reason for the increase in ADC remains unclear. Therefore, trends in incidence rates of lung cancer should be carefully monitored, especially for ADC, and the associations between ADC and its possible risk factors should be studied.

  5. Diagnostic yield of preoperative computed tomography imaging and the importance of a clinical decision for lung cancer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shuichi; Koike, Teruaki; Yamato, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of preoperative computed tomography (CT) imaging and the validity of surgical intervention based on the clinical decision to perform surgery for lung cancer or suspected lung cancer. We retrospectively evaluated 1755 patients who had undergone pulmonary resection for lung cancer or suspected lung cancer. CT scans were performed on all patients. Surgical intervention to diagnose and treat was based on a medical staff conference evaluation for the suspected lung cancer patients who were pathologically undiagnosed. We evaluated the relation between resected specimens and preoperative CT imaging in detail. A total of 1289 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer by preoperative pathology examination; another 466 were not pathologically diagnosed preoperatively. Among the 1289 patients preoperatively diagnosed with lung cancer, the diagnoses were confirmed postoperatively in 1282. Among the 466 patients preoperatively undiagnosed, 435 were definitively diagnosed with lung cancer, and there were 383 p-stage I disease patients. There were 38 noncancerous patients who underwent surgery with a diagnosis of confirmed or suspected lung cancer. Among the 1755 patients who underwent surgery, 1717 were pathologically confirmed with lung cancer, and the diagnostic yield of preoperative CT imaging was 97.8%. Among the 466 patients who were preoperatively undiagnosed, 435 were compatible with the predicted findings of lung cancer. Diagnostic yields of preoperative CT imaging based on clinical evaluation are sufficiently reliable. Diagnostic surgical intervention was acceptable when the clinical probability of malignancy was high and the malignancy was pathologically undiagnosed. (author)

  6. Disseminated lung cancer presenting as a rectal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Mia M; Stamp, Inger M H; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, and approximately 50% had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. A rectal mass and unintended weight loss are common manifestations of rectal cancer. Our case presented with a rectal mass, but workup revealed...... a metastatic lesion from lung cancer. Lung cancer metastases to the lower gastrointestinal tract imply reduced survival compared with the already poor mean survival of stage IV lung cancer. Despite relevant therapy, the patient died 5 months after referral....

  7. Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) in platinum-based treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with special emphasis on carboplatin: a review of current literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.; Sorensen, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with advanced non-small cell lung cancer have a dismal prognosis and are often relative resistant to chemotherapy. A need for markers has emerged based on tumour biology in order to predict which patients will respond to treatment. Excision repair cross-complementat......BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with advanced non-small cell lung cancer have a dismal prognosis and are often relative resistant to chemotherapy. A need for markers has emerged based on tumour biology in order to predict which patients will respond to treatment. Excision repair cross...

  8. PPARGC1A is upregulated and facilitates lung cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Dong; Feng, Qing-Chuan; Qi, Yu; Cui, Guanghui; Zhao, Song

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with metastatic progression remaining the single largest cause of lung cancer mortality. Hence it is imperative to determine reliable biomarkers for lung cancer prognosis. We performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis to explore epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducers that regulate EMT process in three patients with advanced lung cancer disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARGC1A) was uniformly the topmost overexpressed gene in all three human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient samples. Further evaluation in human normal lung and metastatic lung cancer cell lines revealed that the expression of PPARGC1A was upregulated in metastatic lung cancer cell lines. Metagenomic analysis revealed direct correlation among PPARGC1A, zinc-finger transcription factor snail homolog 1 (SNAI1), and metastatic lung disease. Upregulation of PPARGC1A transcript expression was independent of a differential upregulation of the upstream AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activation or steady state expression of the silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1). Xenograft tail vein colonization assays proved that the high expression of PPARGC1A was a prerequisite for metastatic progression of lung cancer to brain. Our results indicate that PPARGC1A might be a potential biomarker for lung cancer prognosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Desired Turbulence? Gut-Lung Axis, Immunity, and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rea Bingula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota includes different microorganisms consisting of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa distributed over many human body surfaces including the skin, vagina, gut, and airways, with the highest density found in the intestine. The gut microbiota strongly influences our metabolic, endocrine, and immune systems, as well as both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Recently, a dialogue between the gut and lung microbiota has been discovered, suggesting that changes in one compartment could impact the other compartment, whether in relation to microbial composition or function. Further, this bidirectional axis is evidenced in an, either beneficial or malignant, altered immune response in one compartment following changes in the other compartment. Stimulation of the immune system arises from the microbial cells themselves, but also from their metabolites. It can be either direct or mediated by stimulated immune cells in one site impacting the other site. Additionally, this interaction may lead to immunological boost, assisting the innate immune system in its antitumour response. Thus, this review offers an insight into the composition of these sites, the gut and the lung, their role in shaping the immune system, and, finally, their role in the response to lung cancer.

  10. Inflammation in the development of lung cancer: epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A

    2008-04-01

    The lung is a site for repeated or chronic inflammatory insults. Epidemiologic research has provided evidence to support the hypothesis that tissue damage caused by inflammation can initiate or promote the development of lung cancer, possibly in conjunction with tobacco use. For example, some studies suggest an increased risk of lung cancer among persons with lung infections, such as tuberculosis, bacterial pneumonia, or inflammatory lung diseases. Elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein, an inflammation marker, are associated with heightened lung cancer risk. Recent studies also demonstrate increased lung cancer risk among immunosuppressed individuals infected with HIV. Other research indicates an association between genetic polymorphisms in the inflammation pathway, which might modulate the inflammatory response and lung cancer risk.

  11. Uncovering growth-suppressive MicroRNAs in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Galimberti, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles improve classification, diagnosis, and prognostic information of malignancies, including lung cancer. This study uncovered unique growth-suppressive miRNAs in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA arrays were done on normal lung tissues...... and adenocarcinomas from wild-type and proteasome degradation-resistant cyclin E transgenic mice to reveal repressed miRNAs in lung cancer. Real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays validated these findings. Lung cancer cell lines were derived from each......-malignant human lung tissue bank. RESULTS: miR-34c, miR-145, and miR-142-5p were repressed in transgenic lung cancers. Findings were confirmed by real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays. Similar miRNA profiles occurred in human normal versus malignant lung...

  12. A lymphocyte spatial distribution graph-based method for automated classification of recurrence risk on lung cancer images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garciá-Arteaga, Juan D.; Corredor, Germán.; Wang, Xiangxue; Velcheti, Vamsidhar; Madabhushi, Anant; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes occurs when various classes of white blood cells migrate from the blood stream towards the tumor, infiltrating it. The presence of TIL is predictive of the response of the patient to therapy. In this paper, we show how the automatic detection of lymphocytes in digital H and E histopathological images and the quantitative evaluation of the global lymphocyte configuration, evaluated through global features extracted from non-parametric graphs, constructed from the lymphocytes' detected positions, can be correlated to the patient's outcome in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The method was assessed on a tissue microarray cohort composed of 63 NSCLC cases. From the evaluated graphs, minimum spanning trees and K-nn showed the highest predictive ability, yielding F1 Scores of 0.75 and 0.72 and accuracies of 0.67 and 0.69, respectively. The predictive power of the proposed methodology indicates that graphs may be used to develop objective measures of the infiltration grade of tumors, which can, in turn, be used by pathologists to improve the decision making and treatment planning processes.

  13. Combined radio- and chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: systematic review of landmark studies based on acquired citations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten eNieder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The important role of combined chemoradiation for several groups of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is reflected by the large number of scientific articles published during the last 30 years. Different measures of impact and clinical relevance of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this review, article citation rate was chosen. Highly cited articles were identified through systematic search of the citation database Scopus. Among the 100 most often cited articles, meta-analyses (n=5 achieved a median of 203 citations, guidelines (n=7 97, phase III trials (n=29 168, phase II trials (n=21 135, phase I trials (n=7 88, and others combined 115.5 (p=0.001. Numerous national and international cooperative groups and several single institutions were actively involved in performing often cited, high-impact trials, reflecting the fact that NSCLC is a world-wide challenge that requires research collaboration. Platinum-containing combinations have evolved into a standard of care, typically administered concurrently. The issue of radiotherapy fractionation and total dose has also been studied extensively, yet with less conclusive results. Differences in target volume definition have been addressed. However, it was not possible to test all theoretically possible combinations of radiotherapy regimens, drugs and drug doses (lower radiosensitizing doses compared to higher systemically active doses. That is why current guidelines offer physicians a choice of different, presumably equivalent treatment alternatives. This review identifies open questions and strategies for further research.

  14. Prevention and management of lung cancer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qun-Ying; Wu, Guo-Ming; Qian, Gui-Sheng; Hu, Cheng-Ping; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Chen, Liang-An; Li, Wei-Min; Li, Shi-Yue; Wang, Kai; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Ju; Li, Jing; Gong, Xin; Bai, Chun-Xue

    2015-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In China, the incidence of lung cancer has grown rapidly, resulting in a large social and economic burden. Several researchers have devoted their studies to lung cancer and have demonstrated that there are many risk factors for lung cancer in China, including tobacco use, environmental pollution, food, genetics, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the lung cancer incidence is still growing rapidly in China, and there is an even higher incidence among the younger generation. One explanation may be the triple-neglect situation, in which medical policies that neglect prevention, diagnosis, and supportive care have increased patients' mortality and reduced their quality of life. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the efficiency of prevention and early diagnosis not only by focusing more attention on treatment but also by drawing more attention to supportive care for patients with lung cancer. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  15. The Role of Web-Based Health Information in Help-Seeking Behavior Prior to a Diagnosis of Lung Cancer: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia; Jay, Caroline; Harper, Simon; Todd, Chris

    2017-06-08

    Delays to diagnosis in lung cancer can lead to reduced chance of survival, and patients often wait for several months before presenting symptoms. The time between first symptom recognition until diagnosis has been theorized into three intervals: symptom appraisal, help-seeking, and diagnostic interval (here: "pathway to diagnosis"). Interventions are needed to reduce delays to diagnosis in lung cancer. The Web has become an important lay health information source and could potentially play a role in this pathway to diagnosis. Our overall aim was to gain a preliminary insight into whether Web-based information plays a role in the pathway to diagnosis in lung cancer in order to assess whether it may be possible to leverage this information source to reduce delays to diagnosis. Patients diagnosed with lung cancer in the 6 months before study entry completed a survey about whether (and how, if yes) they had used the Web to appraise their condition prior to diagnosis. Based on survey responses, we purposively sampled patients and their next-of-kin for semistructured interviews (24 interviews; 33 participants). Interview data were analyzed qualitatively using Framework Analysis in the context of the pathway to diagnosis model. A total of 113 patients completed the survey (age: mean 67.0, SD 8.8 years). In all, 20.4% (23/113) reported they or next-of-kin had researched their condition online before the diagnosis. The majority of searches (20/23, 87.0%) were conducted by or with the help of next-of-kin. Interview results suggest that patients and next-of-kin perceived an impact of the information found online on all three intervals in the time to diagnosis. In the appraisal interval, participants used online information to evaluate symptoms and possible causes. In the help-seeking interval, the Web was used to inform the decision of whether to present to health services. In the diagnostic interval, it was used to evaluate health care professionals' advice, to support

  16. Uranium miner lung cancer study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1986-06-01

    This study on uranium miners was started in 1957 and extended through June 30, 1986. It consisted of the routine screening of sputum from uranium miners of the Colorado Plateau, and collection of surgical and autopsy material from uranium miners who developed lung cancer. The projects resulted in: (1) Proof, for the first time, that cancer takes from 10 to 15 years to develop from the maximum accumulated carcinogenic insult and can be demonstrated through progressive cellular changes of the bronchial tree; (2) Development of a method for preserving, concentrating, and processing sputum samples. This is known as the Saccomanno Technique, and is used worldwide in diagnosing lung cancer; (3) Publication of the 1st and 2nd editions of a full-color textbook entitled ''Diagnostic Pulmonary Cytology;'' (4) Presentation of conclusive data on the effects of cigarette smoking and alpha progeny radiation on uranium miners, and information on safe radiation exposure levels; (5) Development of a brush-wash tube for collecting, concentrating, and preparing bronchial brushings and washings; (6) Development of cytological criteria which has improved sensitivity from 30% to about 60%; (7) Development of criteria for cytologic identification of carcinoma in situ, making it possible to diagnose lung cancer before it can be detected on chest x-ray

  17. Interleukin-6 blockade attenuates lung cancer tissue construction integrated by cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Koyanagi-Aoi, Michiyo; Otani, Kyoko; Zen, Yoh; Maniwa, Yoshimasa; Aoi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we successfully generated lung cancer stem cell (CSC)-like cells by introducing a small set of transcription factors into a lung cancer cell line. In addition to properties that are conventionally referred to as CSC properties, the lung induced CSCs exhibited the ability to form lung cancer-like tissues in vitro with vascular cells and mesenchymal stem cells, which showed structures and immunohistological patterns that were similar to human lung cancer tissues. We named ...

  18. High affective risk perception is associated with more lung cancer-specific distress in CT screening for lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunge, Eveline M.; van den Bergh, Karien A. M.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Klaveren, Rob J.; de Koning, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    Screening for cancer can cause distress. People who perceive their risk of cancer as high may be more vulnerable to distress. This study evaluated whether participants of a lung cancer Computed Tomography (CT) screening trial with a high affective risk perception of developing lung cancer had a

  19. Lung cancer risks in the vicinity of uranium tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.; Sandquist, G.M.

    1982-04-01

    Lung cancer mortality data have been assembled for many counties of interest to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP). The counties generally either contain UMTRAP tailings sites or are adjacent to them. The lung cancer rates of nearly all counties are less than the US average rate. In addition, some of the many factors associated with lung cancer are identified as are cancer risk estimators for radon daughters. 17 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  20. Erlotinib Resistance in Lung Cancer: Current Progress and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Joy; Salama, Rasha; Gadgeel, Shirish M.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Ahmad, Aamir

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Despite modern advancements in surgeries, chemotherapies, and radiotherapies over the past few years, lung cancer still remains a very difficult disease to treat. This has left the death rate from lung cancer victims largely unchanged throughout the past few decades. A key cause for the high mortality rate is the drug resistance that builds up for patients being currently treated with the chemotherapeutic agents. Although certain chemotherap...

  1. Welding, a risk factor of lung cancer: the ICARE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrat, Mireille; Guida, Florence; Mattei, Francesca; Cénée, Sylvie; Cyr, Diane; Févotte, Joëlle; Sanchez, Marie; Menvielle, Gwenn; Radoï, Loredana; Schmaus, Annie; Woronoff, Anne-Sophie; Luce, Danièle; Stücker, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between lung cancer and occupational exposure to welding activity in ICARE, a population-based case-control study. Analyses were restricted to men (2276 cases, 2780 controls). Welding exposure was assessed through detailed questionnaires, including lifelong occupational history. ORs were computed using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for lifelong cigarette smoking and occupational exposure to asbestos. Among the regular welders, welding was associated with a risk of lung cancer (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5), which increased with the duration (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.9 when duration >10 years), and was maximum 10-20 years since last welding. The risk was more pronounced in case of gas welding (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.3), when the workpiece was covered by paint, grease, or other substances (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.4) and when it was cleaned with chemical substances before welding. No statistically significant increase in lung cancer risk was observed among occasional welders. Although these results should be confirmed, we showed that type of welding and mode of workpiece preparation are important determinants of the lung cancer risk in regular welders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Socioeconomic status and patterns of care in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, A.; Vinod, S.K.; Jalaludin, B.; Yuile, P.; Delaney, G.P.; Barton, M.

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to explore any associations between socioeconomic factors and lung cancer management and outcome in the Australian setting. The study population consisted of patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer in 1996 who were living in the Northern Sydney Area Health Service (NSAHS) or South Western Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS). These two Area Health Services differ in socioeconomic profiles based on socioeconomic indexes for areas (SEIFA), median income, education level and unemployment rate. Data on patient demographics, tumour characteristics, management details, recurrence and survival were collected, and the patterns of care were analysed. Socioeconomic status indicators of the two Area Health Services were imputed from the Australian Bureau of Statistics data. There were 270 and 256 new cases of lung cancer identified in NSAHS and SWSAHS respectively. Patients in NSAHS were slightly older (median age 73 versus 68 years) and there was less male predominance. The stage distributions and performance status of the two cohorts were similar. There were no significant differences in the utilisation rates of different treatment modalities between the two areas: radiotherapy (54% in NSAHS and 55% in SWSAHS), chemotherapy (34% and 25%), surgery (26% and 21%) and no treatment (22% and 25%). The 5-year overall survival was slightly in favour of NSAHS (10.5% and 7.4%), but did not reach statistical significance. Despite differences in socioeconomic profiles between the two area health services, patients with lung cancer had similar patterns of care and survival

  3. [The association of lung cancer and atheromatous arterial disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamour, A; Azorin, J; Tchandjou Ngoko, L E; Valeyre, D; Morère, F; Destable, M D; de Saint-Florent, G

    1989-01-01

    This work is based on the retrospective study of the case history of 26 patients who were treated between September 1979 and January 1987 in the department of thoracic and vascular surgery at the Avicenne Hospital--and who were all suffering from both lung cancer and atheromatous arterial disease. It is now well established by all the epidemiologic research that the link between lung cancer and atheromatous arterial disease is smoking tobacco. The risks involved in the misunderstanding of such an association are not without danger for the patient, particularly the risk of severe complication of possible coronary or carotid lesions, threatening survival; from this derives the necessity to decide automatically for a minimum of pre-surgery vascular investigations in the case of patients suffering from lung cancer. The therapeutic strategy in this association must be thorough, considering that there are three priorities in the vascular field which must absolutely be treated before the lung itself: --the coronary and carotid lesions which are likely to be complicated cancer after surgery and any state of emergency in the other vascular territories. The fight against tobacco smoking must also be considered as a priority aim.

  4. Role of lung perfusion scintigraphy in predicting post-operative lung function in lung cancer patients undergoing pneumonectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Sujith; Shah, S.; Purandare, N.C.; Pramesh, C.S.; George, K.; Rangarajan, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Surgery has been the mainstay of treatment for patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer. There is an increased risk of postoperative complications, especially in patients with poor respiratory reserve, with pneumonectomy resulting in an unacceptable quality of life. The high risk of morbidity and mortality makes it mandatory to triage patients with anatomically resectable disease as suitable candidates for surgery. Aim: 1. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the role of lung perfusion scan in predicting postoperative lung function in lung cancer patients undergoing pneumonectomy based on the pre-operative Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1). 2. The predicted post-operative FEV1 will be compared with the patient's lung function clinically based on a) number of days patient was on ventilation post-operatively, b) post-op respiratory complications/lung collapse. Materials and Methods: Imaging was done on Infinia Hawkeye (GE) dual headed gamma camera on 30 patients of lung cancer undergoing Pneumonectomy. Patients were injected 5 mCi of 99m Tc-MAA and planar and tomographic images were obtained. A predicted postoperative value of FEV1 was calculated by the formula: postop predicted FEV1 = preop FEV1 - (FEV1 % contribution by affected lung/100). Patient's post-operative FEV1 was calculated for pneumonectomy. Patient was observed post-operatively and the following parameters were noted 1) Number of days patient was on ventilation post-operatively 2) Post-operative respiratory complications/lung collapse Pre-operative PFT's and 99m Tc-MAA lung perfusion scan was done on 30 patients (mean age 45 yrs, range 18-64 yrs) and lung function in 1st week post-pneumonectomy based on their number of days on ventilation post-operatively and respiratory complications/lung collapse was noted. Result: 1) 20 patients underwent left pneumonectomy, 10 patients underwent right Pneumonectomy. 2) Predicted FEV1 for pneumonectomy patients was (mean ± SD 1.49

  5. Sex and smoking sensitive model of radon induced lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukovsky, M.; Yarmoshenko, I.

    2006-01-01

    Radon and radon progeny inhalation exposure are recognized to cause lung cancer. Only strong evidence of radon exposure health effects was results of epidemiological studies among underground miners. Any single epidemiological study among population failed to find reliable lung cancer risk due to indoor radon exposure. Indoor radon induced lung cancer risk models were developed exclusively basing on extrapolation of miners data. Meta analyses of indoor radon and lung cancer case control studies allowed only little improvements in approaches to radon induced lung cancer risk projections. Valuable data on characteristics of indoor radon health effects could be obtained after systematic analysis of pooled data from single residential radon studies. Two such analyses are recently published. Available new and previous data of epidemiological studies of workers and general population exposed to radon and other sources of ionizing radiation allow filling gaps in knowledge of lung cancer association with indoor radon exposure. The model of lung cancer induced by indoor radon exposure is suggested. The key point of this model is the assumption that excess relative risk depends on both sex and smoking habits of individual. This assumption based on data on occupational exposure by radon and plutonium and also on the data on external radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the data on external exposure in Mayak nuclear facility. For non-corrected data of pooled European and North American studies the increased sensitivity of females to radon exposure is observed. The mean value of ks for non-corrected data obtained from independent source is in very good agreement with the L.S.S. study and Mayak plutonium workers data. Analysis of corrected data of pooled studies showed little influence of sex on E.R.R. value. The most probable cause of such effect is the change of men/women and smokers/nonsmokers ratios in corrected data sets in North American study. More correct

  6. Analysis of breath samples for lung cancer survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmekel, Birgitta; Winquist, Fredrik; Vikström, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Predictions of survival days for lung cancer patients. - Highlights: • Analyses of exhaled air offer a large diagnostic potential. • Patientswith diagnosed lung cancer were studied using an electronic nose. • Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day were obtained. • Consecutive measurements were very important. - Abstract: Analyses of exhaled air by means of electronic noses offer a large diagnostic potential. Such analyses are non-invasive; samples can also be easily obtained from severely ill patients and repeated within short intervals. Lung cancer is the most deadly malignant tumor worldwide, and monitoring of lung cancer progression is of great importance and may help to decide best therapy. In this report, twenty-two patients with diagnosed lung cancer and ten healthy volunteers were studied using breath samples collected several times at certain intervals and analysed by an electronic nose. The samples were divided into three sub-groups; group d for survivor less than one year, group s for survivor more than a year and group h for the healthy volunteers. Prediction models based on partial least square and artificial neural nets could not classify the collected groups d, s and h, but separated well group d from group h. Using artificial neural net, group d could be separated from group s. Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day for group d were obtained, both based on partial least square and artificial neural nets, with correlation coefficients 0.981 and 0.985, respectively. Finally, the importance of consecutive measurements was shown

  7. Analysis of breath samples for lung cancer survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmekel, Birgitta [Division of of Clinical Physiology, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping (Sweden); Clinical Physiology, Department of Medicine and Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping (Sweden); Winquist, Fredrik, E-mail: frw@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 83 (Sweden); Vikström, Anders [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University hospital of Linköping, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-08-20

    Graphical abstract: Predictions of survival days for lung cancer patients. - Highlights: • Analyses of exhaled air offer a large diagnostic potential. • Patientswith diagnosed lung cancer were studied using an electronic nose. • Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day were obtained. • Consecutive measurements were very important. - Abstract: Analyses of exhaled air by means of electronic noses offer a large diagnostic potential. Such analyses are non-invasive; samples can also be easily obtained from severely ill patients and repeated within short intervals. Lung cancer is the most deadly malignant tumor worldwide, and monitoring of lung cancer progression is of great importance and may help to decide best therapy. In this report, twenty-two patients with diagnosed lung cancer and ten healthy volunteers were studied using breath samples collected several times at certain intervals and analysed by an electronic nose. The samples were divided into three sub-groups; group d for survivor less than one year, group s for survivor more than a year and group h for the healthy volunteers. Prediction models based on partial least square and artificial neural nets could not classify the collected groups d, s and h, but separated well group d from group h. Using artificial neural net, group d could be separated from group s. Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day for group d were obtained, both based on partial least square and artificial neural nets, with correlation coefficients 0.981 and 0.985, respectively. Finally, the importance of consecutive measurements was shown.

  8. Lung cancer: atypical brain metastases mimicking neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Patrícia Caetano; Reis, Carina; Pires, Nuno Filipe; Sousa, Graça; Chamadoira, Clara; Guimarães, Marcos; Castro, Lígia; Marques, Margarida; Gomes, Isabel

    2011-12-01

    The authors describe a case of a 47-year-old male smoker with a 3-month history of hearing loss, tinnitus and dizziness. Physical examination revealed neurosensory hearing loss. Small rounded hypodensities without mass effect were evident in a computed tomography scan of the head, confirmed by brain magnetic resonance imaging as multiple cystic lesions in both cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, without perilesional edema or gadolinium enhancement, suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Extraparenchymal involvement was also noted. Albendazole and dexamethasone were started. As a chest radiograph showed a bilateral reticulonodular pattern, a bronchoscopy was performed showing normal results. However, transbronchial biopsy revealed lung adenocarcinoma. Thoracoabdominopelvic computed tomography scan showed secondary lung and bone lesions. Since brain lesions were not suggestive of secondary tumor lesions, a brain biopsy was performed confirming metastatic disease. This case illustrates some peculiar imagiological features of brain metastases in lung cancer, indicating that sometimes invasive procedures are required to establish a definitive diagnosis.

  9. FEN1 promotes tumor progression and confers cisplatin resistance in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingfeng; Luo, Libo; Zhu, Hong; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Yilan; Wu, Huan; Sun, Hongfang; Jiang, Feng; Kathera, Chandra S; Liu, Lingjie; Zhuang, Ziheng; Chen, Haoyan; Pan, Feiyan; Hu, Zhigang; Zhang, Jing; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality worldwide. The therapeutic effect of chemotherapy is limited due to the resistance of cancer cells, which remains a challenge in cancer therapeutics. In this work, we found that flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is overexpressed in lung cancer cells. FEN1 is a major component of the base excision repair pathway for DNA repair systems and plays important roles in maintaining genomic stability through DNA replication and repair. We showed that FEN1 is critical for the rapid proliferation of lung cancer cells. Suppression of FEN1 resulted in decreased DNA replication and accumulation of DNA damage, which subsequently induced apoptosis. Manipulating the amount of FEN1 altered the response of lung cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. A small-molecule inhibitor (C20) was used to target FEN1 and this enhanced the therapeutic effect of cisplatin. The FEN1 inhibitor significantly suppressed cell proliferation and induced DNA damage in lung cancer cells. In mouse models, the FEN1 inhibitor sensitized lung cancer cells to a DNA damage-inducing agent and efficiently suppressed cancer progression in combination with cisplatin treatment. Our study suggests that targeting FEN1 may be a novel and efficient strategy for a tumor-targeting therapy for lung cancer. © 2017 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An individualized radiation dose escalation trial in non-small cell lung cancer based on FDG-PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanet, Marie; Goossens, Samuel; Lee, John Aldo; Janssens, Guillaume; Bol, Anne; Geets, Xavier [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Center of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology (MIRO), Institut de Recherche Experimentale et Clinique, Brussels (Belgium); Delor, Antoine [Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Department of Radiation Oncology, Brussels (Belgium); Hanin, Francois-Xavier [Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Ghaye, Benoit [Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Maanen, Aline van [Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Statistical Support Unit, Cancer Centre, Brussels (Belgium); Remouchamps, Vincent; Clermont, Christian [Clinique et Maternite Sainte Elisabeth, Department of Radiation Oncology, CHU UCL Namur (Belgium)

    2017-10-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of an individualized 18F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)-guided dose escalation boost in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and to assess its impact on local tumor control and toxicity. A total of 13 patients with stage II-III NSCLC were enrolled to receive a dose of 62.5 Gy in 25 fractions to the CT-based planning target volume (PTV; primary tumor and affected lymph nodes). The fraction dose was increased within the individual PET-based PTV (PTV{sub PET}) using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) until the predefined organ-at-risk (OAR) threshold was reached. Tumor response was assessed during follow-up by means of repeat FDG-PET/computed tomography. Acute and late toxicity were recorded and classified according to the CTCAE criteria (Version 4.0). Local progression-free survival was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. The average dose to PTV{sub PET} reached 89.17 Gy for peripheral and 75 Gy for central tumors. After a median follow-up period of 29 months, seven patients were still alive, while six had died (four due to distant progression, two due to grade 5 toxicity). Local progression was seen in two patients in association with further recurrences. One and 2-year local progression free survival rates were 76.9% and 52.8%, respectively. Three cases of acute grade 3 esophagitis were seen. Two patients with central tumors developed late toxicity and died due to severe hemoptysis. These results suggest that a non-uniform and individualized dose escalation based on FDG-PET in IMRT delivery is feasible. The doses reached were higher in patients with peripheral compared to central tumors. This strategy enables good local control to be achieved at acceptable toxicity rates. However, dose escalation in centrally located tumors with direct invasion of mediastinal organs must be performed with great caution in order to avoid severe

  11. Factors influencing the decline in lung density in a Danish lung cancer screening cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Shaker, Saher; Dirksen, Asger; Lo, Pechin; Skovgaard, Lene; Bruijne, Marleen; Pedersen, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer screening trials provide an opportunity to study the natural history of emphysema by using computed tomography (CT) lung density as a surrogate parameter. In the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 2,052 participants were included. At screening rounds, smoking habits were recorded and spirometry was performed. CT lung density was measured as the volume-adjusted 15th percentile density (PD15). A mixed effects model was used with former smoking males with,30 pack-yrs and...

  12. Lung cancer in Hodgkin's disease: association with previous radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    List, A.F.; Doll, D.C.; Greco, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Seven cases of lung cancer were observed in patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) since 1970. The risk ratio for the development of lung cancer among HD patients was 5.6 times that expected in the general population. The pertinent clinical data from these patients are described and compared to 28 additional patients reported from other institutions. Small-cell lung cancer represented the predominant histologic type of lung cancer encountered in both smoking and nonsmoking patients with HD, accounting for 42% of cases overall and greater than 55% of cases reported in reviews of second malignancies. Tobacco use was noted in only 53% of patients. Twenty-eight (94%) of 30 patients developing metachronous lung cancer received supradiaphragmatic irradiation as primary therapy for HD. Nineteen (68%) of these patients received subsequent chemotherapy salvage. The median age at diagnosis of HD and lung cancer was 39 and 45 years, respectively. The interval between diagnosis of HD and metachronous lung cancer averaged seven years but appeared to vary inversely with age. HD patients treated with supradiaphragmatic irradiation or combined modality therapy may be at increased risk for developing lung cancer. The high frequency of in-field malignancies that the authors observed and the prevalence of small-cell lung cancer in both smoking and nonsmoking patients suggests that chest irradiation may influence the development of metachronous lung cancer in these patients. The finding of a mean latent interval in excess of seven years emphasizes the need for close long-term observation

  13. [Determination of volatile organic compounds in lung cancer cell lines and lung cancer tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan-jie; Qiu, Yuan-hua; Chen, En-guo; Ying, Ke-jing; Yu, Jin; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    To identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in lung cancer tissue and lung cancer cell lines. The lung cancer tissue samples from 18 patients were cultured and 4 lung cell lines (A549, NCI-H446, SK-MES-1, BEAS-2B) were also included in the study. Air samples in the headspace of culture flasks were analyzed for VOCs with solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique (SPME-GC/MS). Two kinds of VOCs 2-pentadecanone and nonadecane were detected in lung cancer cell lines A549, NCI-H446 and SK-MES-1. The concentration of 2-pentadecanone were (1.382 + or -0.171) X 10(-5)mg/L, (1.681 + or - 0.190) X 10(-4)mg/L and (2.835 + or - 0.401) X 10(-6)mg/L, respectively; the concentrations of nonadecane were (8.382 + or - 0.606 ) X 10(-6)mg/L, (1.845 + or - 0.130) X 10(-5)mg/L and (6.220 + or - 0.362) X 10(-6)mg/L), respectively. The eicosane was detected in A549 and NCI-H446 with the concentration of (8.313 + or - 1.130) X 10(-6)mg/L and (1.020 + or - 0.141) X 10(-5)mg/L), respectively. All the 3 VOCs were not detected in cell line BEAS-2B. The concentrations of 12 VOCs including decane, 2- pentadecanone, nonadecane and eicosane were high in 18 lung cancer tissue samples; the concentrations of 2-pentadecanone were 5.421 X 10(-6)mg/L-3.621 X 10(-5)mg/L,those of nonadecane were 5.805 X 10(-6)mg/L-1.830 X 10(-5)mg/L, those of eicosane were 2.730 X 10(-6)mg/L-2.343 X 10(-5)mg/L. There were no differences of VOCs levels among patients with different cancer differentiation (P>0.05). The concentration of eicosane in the non-squamous carcinoma was higher than that in squamous carcinoma, the same results were confirmed in the lung cancer cell lines. This study has identified VOCs produced by lung cancer tissue, which may support to use breath test as a complementary noninvasive diagnostic method for lung cancer.

  14. Lung cancer-a fractal viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Frances E; Cianci, Gianguido C; Cipriani, Nicole A; Hensing, Thomas A; Zhang, Hannah J; Chen, Chin-Tu; Murgu, Septimiu D; Vokes, Everett E; Vannier, Michael W; Salgia, Ravi

    2015-11-01

    Fractals are mathematical constructs that show self-similarity over a range of scales and non-integer (fractal) dimensions. Owing to these properties, fractal geometry can be used to efficiently estimate the geometrical complexity, and the irregularity of shapes and patterns observed in lung tumour growth (over space or time), whereas the use of traditional Euclidean geometry in such calculations is more challenging. The application of fractal analysis in biomedical imaging and time series has shown considerable promise for measuring processes as varied as heart and respiratory rates, neuronal cell characterization, and vascular development. Despite the advantages of fractal mathematics and numerous studies demonstrating its applicability to lung cancer research, many researchers and clinicians remain unaware of its potential. Therefore, this Review aims to introduce the fundamental basis of fractals and to illustrate how analysis of fractal dimension (FD) and associated measurements, such as lacunarity (texture) can be performed. We describe the fractal nature of the lung and explain why this organ is particularly suited to fractal analysis. Studies that have used fractal analyses to quantify changes in nuclear and chromatin FD in primary and metastatic tumour cells, and clinical imaging studies that correlated changes in the FD of tumours on CT and/or PET images with tumour growth and treatment responses are reviewed. Moreover, the potential use of these techniques in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of lung cancer are discussed.

  15. Danshen improves survival of patients with advanced lung cancer and targeting the relationship between macrophages and lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Yuan; Cherng, Jong-Yuh; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lin, Chun-Liang; Kuan, Feng-Che; Lin, Yin-Yin; Lin, Yu-Shih; Shu, Li-Hsin; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Liu, Hung Te; Lu, Ming-Chu; Lung, Jthau; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lin, Hui Kuan; Lee, Kuan-Der; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2017-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (danshen) is widely used in the treatment of numerous cancers. However, its clinical effort and mechanism in the treatment of advanced lung cancer are unclear. In our study, the in vivo protective effort of danshen in patients with advanced lung cancer were validated using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We observed in vitro that dihydroisotanshinone I (DT), a bioactive compound in danshen, exerts anticancer effects through many pathways. First, 10 μM DT substantially inhibited the migration ability of lung cancer cells in both macrophage and macrophage/lung cancer direct mixed coculture media. Second, 10 μM DT repressed the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), the protein expression of S-phase kinase associated protein-2 (Skp2), and the mRNA levels of STAT3-related genes, including chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2). In addition, 10 μM DT suppressed the macrophage recruitment ability of lung cancer cells by reducing CCL2 secretion from both macrophages and lung cancer cells. Third, 20 μM DT induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, DT treatment significantly inhibited the final tumor volume in a xenograft nude mouse model. In conclusion, danshen exerts protective efforts in patients with advanced lung cancer. These effects can be attributed to DT-mediated interruption of the cross talk between lung cancer cells and macrophages and blocking of lung cancer cell proliferation. PMID:29207614

  16. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... has to do with participation in screening alone and not dependent on the CT scan. Participants in both CT and control arm in randomized screening trials had higher smoking abstinence rate compared to that of the general population. A positive screening test seems to further promote smoking cessation...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...

  17. Chapter 7: Description of miscan-lung, the erasmus mc lung cancer microsimulation model for evaluating cancer control interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W. Schultz (Frank); R. Boer (Rob); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe MISCAN-lung model was designed to simulate population trends in lung cancer (LC) for comprehensive surveillance of the disease, to relate past exposure to risk factors to (observed) LC incidence and mortality, and to estimate the impact of cancer-control interventions. MISCAN-lung

  18. Liquid Biopsy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Vila, Miguel A; Mayo-de-Las-Casas, Clara; Giménez-Capitán, Ana; Jordana-Ariza, Núria; Garzón, Mónica; Balada, Ariadna; Villatoro, Sergi; Teixidó, Cristina; García-Peláez, Beatriz; Aguado, Cristina; Catalán, María José; Campos, Raquel; Pérez-Rosado, Ana; Bertran-Alamillo, Jordi; Martínez-Bueno, Alejandro; Gil, María-de-Los-Llanos; González-Cao, María; González, Xavier; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Viteri, Santiago; Karachaliou, Niki; Rosell, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Liquid biopsy analyses are already incorporated in the routine clinical practice in many hospitals and oncology departments worldwide, improving the selection of treatments and monitoring of lung cancer patients. Although they have not yet reached its full potential, liquid biopsy-based tests will soon be as widespread as "standard" biopsies and imaging techniques, offering invaluable diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive information. This review summarizes the techniques available for the isolation and analysis of circulating free DNA and RNA, exosomes, tumor-educated platelets, and circulating tumor cells from the blood of cancer patients, presents the methodological challenges associated with each of these materials, and discusses the clinical applications of liquid biopsy testing in lung cancer.

  19. SU-E-J-244: Development and Validation of a Knowledge Based Planning Model for External Beam Radiation Therapy of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z; Kennedy, A [Sarah Cannon, Nashville, TN (United States); Larsen, E; Hayes, C; Grow, A [North Florida Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Bahamondes, S.; Zheng, Y; Wu, X [JFK Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Lake Worth, FL (United States); Choi, M; Pai, S [Good Samaritan Hospital, Los Gatos, CA (United States); Li, J [Doctors Hospital of Augusta, Augusta, GA (United States); Cranford, K [Trident Medical Center, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The study aims to develop and validate a knowledge based planning (KBP) model for external beam radiation therapy of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Methods: RapidPlan™ technology was used to develop a lung KBP model. Plans from 65 patients with LA-NSCLC were used to train the model. 25 patients were treated with VMAT, and the other patients were treated with IMRT. Organs-at-risk (OARs) included right lung, left lung, heart, esophagus, and spinal cord. DVH and geometric distribution DVH were extracted from the treated plans. The model was trained using principal component analysis and step-wise multiple regression. Box plot and regression plot tools were used to identify geometric outliers and dosimetry outliers and help fine-tune the model. The validation was performed by (a) comparing predicted DVH boundaries to actual DVHs of 63 patients and (b) using an independent set of treatment planning data. Results: 63 out of 65 plans were included in the final KBP model with PTV volume ranging from 102.5cc to 1450.2cc. Total treatment dose prescription varied from 50Gy to 70Gy based on institutional guidelines. One patient was excluded due to geometric outlier where 2.18cc of spinal cord was included in PTV. The other patient was excluded due to dosimetric outlier where the dose sparing to spinal cord was heavily enforced in the clinical plan. Target volume, OAR volume, OAR overlap volume percentage to target, and OAR out-of-field volume were included in the trained model. Lungs and heart had two principal component scores of GEDVH, whereas spinal cord and esophagus had three in the final model. Predicted DVH band (mean ±1 standard deviation) represented 66.2±3.6% of all DVHs. Conclusion: A KBP model was developed and validated for radiotherapy of LA-NSCLC in a commercial treatment planning system. The clinical implementation may improve the consistency of IMRT/VMAT planning.

  20. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  1. [Lung Cancer as an Occupational Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Woitowitz, H-J

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequently encountered cancer types. According to the latest WHO data, about 10 % of this disease are due to occupational exposure to cancerogens. Asbestos is still the number one carcinogen. Further frequent causes include quarz and ionizing radiation (uranium mining). Probable causes of the disease can be identified only with the help of detailed occupational history taken by a medical specialist and qualified exposure assessment. Without clarifying the cause of the disease, there is neither a correct insurance procedure nor compensation for the victim, and furthermore, required preventive measures cannot be initiated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Czech studies of lung cancer and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2002-01-01

    According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, there is a significant evidence to classify radon as a carcinogen. Using extrapolations from occupational studies, it can be shown that for some countries environmental exposure to radon is the second most important cause of lung cancer in the general population after cigarette smoking. Czech studies among uranium miners, established in 1970 by Josef Sevc, and in the general population aim to contribute to knowledge on the risk from radon, particularly by evaluating temporal factors and interaction of radon exposure and smoking

  3. Bullous lung diseases as a risk factor for lung cancer: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagorni-Obradović Ljudmila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A possible association between lung cancer and bullous lung disease has been suggested and recently supported by the results of genetic studies. Case report. A previously healthy 43-year-old man, smoker, was diagnosed with bullous lung disease at the age of 31 years. He was followed up for 12 years when lung cancer (adenocarcinoma was found at the site. In the meantime, he was treated for recurrent respiratory infections. Conclusion. There is the need for active approach in following up the patients with pulmonary bulla for potential development of lung cancer.

  4. Efficient approach for determining four-dimensional computed tomography-based internal target volume in stereotactic radiotherapy of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Seung Gu; Kim, Eun Seog

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate efficient approaches for determining internal target volume (ITV) from four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) images used in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 4D CT images were analyzed for 15 patients who received SBRT for stage I NSCLC. Three different ITVs were determined as follows: combining clinical target volume (CTV) from all 10 respiratory phases (ITV 10Phases ); combining CTV from four respiratory phases, including two extreme phases (0% and 50%) plus two intermediate phases (20% and 70%) (ITV 4Phases ); and combining CTV from two extreme phases (ITV 2Phases ). The matching index (MI) of ITV 4Phases and ITV 2Phases was defined as the ratio of ITV 4Phases and ITV 2Phases , respectively, to the ITV 10Phases . The tumor motion index (TMI) was defined as the ratio of ITV 10Phases to CTV mean , which was the mean of 10 CTVs delineated on 10 respiratory phases. The ITVs were significantly different in the order of ITV 10Phases , ITV 4Phases , and ITV 2Phases (all p 4Phases was significantly higher than that of ITV 2Phases (p 4Phases was inversely related to TMI (r = -0.569, p = 0.034). In a subgroup with low TMI (n = 7), ITV 4Phases was not statistically different from ITV 10Phases (p = 0.192) and its MI was significantly higher than that of ITV 2Phases (p = 0.016). The ITV 4Phases may be an efficient approach alternative to optimal ITV 10Phases in SBRT for early-stage NSCLC with less tumor motion.

  5. [Right lung cancer with right aortic arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Noriyuki, T; Kuroda, Y; Kuranishi, F; Nakahara, M; Fukuda, T; Ishizaki, Y; Hotta, R; Akimoto, E; Mori, H

    2008-02-01

    An abnormal shadow was detected on chest X-ray mass screening in an asymptomatic 63-year-old man. The further examinations revealed the shadow to be primary lung cancer (Rt. S6. adenocarcinoma, cT2N0M0, c-stage IB) with right aortic arch. We used 3 dimentional-computed tomography (3D-CT) to assess an anatomical feature of vessels in detail. The right lower lobectomy and the dissection of medi astinal lymph nodes was performed. We confirmed no abnormal anatomy of pulmonary artery and vein at surgery, and it was possible to perform right lower lobectomy with the common procedure. Since lymph node was found by intraopetrative pathological examination, since no metastasis from interlobar to subcarinal lymph node was found, we did not perform dissection of upper mediastinal dissection, which was equivalent to ND2a lymph nodes dissection of the left lung cancer in General Rule for Clinical and Pathological Record of Lung Cancer. The patient with right aortic arch is known to have variant anatomy of other intrathoracic vessels occasionally. 3D-CT was quite useful in assessing anatomical feature, and enabled us to perform safe operation.

  6. CT screening for lung cancer. Update 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschke, C.I.; Yip, R.; Yankelevitz, D.F.

    2009-01-01

    Screening for a cancer should be considered when the cancer is significant in terms of incidence and mortality, treatment of early stage disease is better than treatment of late stage disease, and there is a screening regimen that provides for earlier diagnosis rather than later, symptom-prompted diagnosis. Lung cancer qualifies as it kills more people than any other cancer worldwide. In the United States it kills more people than colon, breast, and prostate cancer combined and more women than breast cancer. The fundamental concepts of screening are presented. Screening for a cancer is a repetitive process, starting with the baseline round followed by repeat rounds of screening at set intervals. The regimen of screening defines the initial diagnostic test and the sequence of tests to be performed leading to a rule-in diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen should provide lead time of the diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen for the first, baseline round may be different from the regimen for the repeat rounds as the former is inherently different from the subsequent repeat rounds. Baseline screening identifies a greater proportion of cancers with a longer latent (asymptomatic) phase than repeat screening, called length bias. Length bias exists for any screening program, regardless of the design of the study or the cancer. Repeat rounds of screening identify the same proportion of cancer diagnoses found in absence of screening for people having the same risk of the cancer and these repeat rounds of screening can be pooled. It is also a consequence of length bias that cancers found in repeat rounds are earlier in their latent phase than those of the baseline round, a less frequently mentioned consequence. Overdiagnosis bias, another bias of screening, can occur in two ways: a cancer' detected by the screening, pathologically proven, that is not life-threatening even when not resected and a genuine life-threatening cancer that is diagnosed and treated but the person dies

  7. Elevated serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor predict a poor prognosis of platinum-based chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zang JL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jialan Zang,1–3,* Yong Hu,1,2,* Xiaoyue Xu,1,2 Jie Ni,1,2 Dali Yan,1,2 Siwen Liu,4 Jieyu He,5 Jing Xue,4 Jianzhong Wu,4 Jifeng Feng2 1The Fourth Clinical School of Nanjing Medical University, 2Department of Chemotherapy, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Cancer Hospital, Nanjing, 3Department of Oncology, The First Hospital of Harbin City, Harbin, 4Center of Clinical Laboratory, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Cancer Hospital, 5Department of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: This study was designed to investigate the predictive and prognostic values of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF level in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods: Patients’ peripheral blood samples were collected prior to chemotherapy and after 1 week of the third cycle of combination chemotherapy. Serum VEGF levels were evaluated through Luminex multiplex technique. Between September 2011 and August 2015, a total of 135 consecutive advanced or recurrent histologically verified NSCLC patients were enrolled in the study. Moreover, all the patients received platinum-based combination chemotherapy as a first-line treatment. Results: No significant associations were found between pretreatment serum VEGF levels and clinical characteristics, such as sex (P=0.0975, age (P=0.2522, stage (P=0.1407, lymph node metastasis (P=0.6409, tumor location (P=0.3520, differentiated degree (P=0.5608, pathological (histological type (P=0.4885, and response to treatment (P=0.9859. The VEGF load per platelet (VEGFPLT levels were not correlated with sex, age, primary tumor site, and pathological type in NSCLC patients (all P>0.05. The median survival time of progression-free survival (PFS was 6.407 and 5.29 months in the low and high groups, respectively, when using 280 pg/mL VEGF level as the cutoff point (P=0.024. Conclusion

  8. Auramine O, an incense smoke ingredient, promotes lung cancer malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Jia-Chen; Huang, Wei-Chien; Yang, Juan-Cheng; Chen, Guan-Yu; Fan, Chi-Chen; Chien, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Pei-Shan; Candice Lung, Shih-Chun; Chang, Wei-Chao

    2017-11-01

    Burning incense to worship deities is a popular religious ritual in large parts of Asia, and is a popular custom affecting more than 1.5 billion adherents. Due to incomplete combustion, burning incense has been well recognized to generate airborne hazards to human health. However, the correlation between burning incense and lung cancer in epidemiological studies remains controversy. Therefore, we speculated that some unknown materials in incense smoke are involved in the initiation or progression of lung cancer. Based on this hypothesis, we identified a major compound auramine O (AuO) from the water-soluble fraction of incense burned condensate using mass spectrometry. AuO is commonly used in incense manufacture as a colorant. Due to thermostable, AuO released from burned incenses becomes an unexpected air pollutant. AuO is classified as a Group 2B chemical by the International Agency of Research on Cancer (IARC), however, the damage of AuO to the respiratory system remains elusive. Our study revealed that AuO has no apparent effect on malignant transformation; but, it dramatically promotes lung cancer malignancy. AuO accumulates in the nucleus and induces the autophagy activity in lung tumor cells. AuO significantly enhances migration and invasive abilities and the in vitro and in vivo stemness features of lung tumor cells through activating the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A1 (ALDH1A1), and ALDH1A1 knockdown attenuates AuO-induced autophagy activity and blocks AuO-induced lung tumor malignancy. In conclusion, we found that AuO, an ingredient of incense smoke, significantly increases the metastatic abilities and stemness characters of lung tumor cells through the activation of ALDH1A1, which is known to be associated with poor outcome and progression of lung cancer. For public health, reducing or avoiding the use of AuO in incense is recommended. © 2017 The Authors Environmental Toxicology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0323 TITLE: Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...increasing its sensitivity and specificity through nanotechnology . Hypothesis: Detection of DNA methylation from individuals with cancer can be used to

  10. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  11. Optimization of nodule management in CT lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein Anne

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cancer-related cause of death. Through computed tomography (CT) screening, cancer can be detected at the earliest stage, with a much greater probability of cure. After the positive outcome of the US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), screening with low-dose CT in heavy

  12. Variation in lung cancer resources and workload: results from the first national lung cancer organisational audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusworth, K; O'Dowd, E; Hubbard, R; Beckett, P; Peake, M D; Woolhouse, I

    2015-10-01

    We report the findings of the first national lung cancer organisational audit. The results demonstrate marked variation in service provision and workload of some lung cancer specialists. For example, over half of the clinical nurse specialists report case volumes over recommended numbers. Some trusts have no access to key treatments such as video assisted thoracoscopy (VAT) lobectomy and stereotactic radiotherapy. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated an association between higher surgical resection rates and the on-site availability of advanced staging and therapeutic modalities, for example, PET scan and VAT lobectomy. We conclude by making a number of recommendations to address the variation in lung cancer care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Biological Bases for Radiation Adaptive Responses in the Lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Bobby R. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lin, Yong [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilder, Julie [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belinsky, Steven [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Our main research objective was to determine the biological bases for low-dose, radiation-induced adaptive responses in the lung, and use the knowledge gained to produce an improved risk model for radiation-induced lung cancer that accounts for activated natural protection, genetic influences, and the role of epigenetic regulation (epiregulation). Currently, low-dose radiation risk assessment is based on the linear-no-threshold hypothesis, which now is known to be unsupported by a large volume of data.

  14. Nutrition habits, physical activity, and lung cancer: an authoritative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsokera, Alexandra; Kiagia, Maria; Saif, Muhammad W; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Syrigos, Kostas N

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Because of high incidence rates and low survival rates, it is important to study the risk factors that may help prevent the disease from developing. It has been well established that cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Nonetheless it is likely that there are other modifiable risk factors that would assist in the prevention of lung cancer. Research on factors such as nutrition and physical activity and their influence on lung cancer has been carried out for nearly 3 decades. A systematic review in the MEDLINE database of published studies was conducted, focusing on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and large prospective studies. The association between physical activity and lung cancer has been conflicting. Among the researched studies, 10 showed an inverse association, whereas 11 reported no association. A meta-analysis that was conducted from 1996 to October 2003 showed that leisure physical activity (LPA) prevents lung cancer. Data from 11 cohort and case-control studies showed an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer. Evidence from case-control studies suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer, although several more recent studies have presented doubts about these findings. The possible association of physical activity, nutrition, and the risk of lung cancer development remains controversial. Further prospective studies should be conducted to determine the potential influence of these 2 risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The preparation and characterization of peptide's lung cancer imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfeng; Chu Liping; Wang Yan; Wang Yueying; Liu Jinjian; Wu Hongying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To screen in vivo lung cancer specific binding seven peptides by T7 phage display peptide library, so as to prepare peptide's lung cancer early diagnostic agent. Methods: Use phage display in vivo technology, the 7-peptide phage that binding the lung cancer specifically was obtained, then the DNA sequence was measured and the seven peptide was synthesized. After labeled by 125 I, the seven peptide was injected into mice via vein and the distribution was observed. Results: One peptide was obtained by four rounds screening, and the peptide can bind lung cancer tissue specifically. Two hours after injection get the best imaging of lung cancer, metabolism of peptide in mice is fast, the distribution in vivo is decrease six hours and almost disappear 20 hours after injection. Conclusion: The peptide can image and diagnose lung cancer better. (authors)

  16. Surgical management of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamousa Ahmed

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgery plays a major role in the management of patients with lung cancer. Surgery is not only the main curative treatment modality in patients with early-stage lung cancer but it also has a significant role in the initial workup for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. This article describes the surgical management of patients with lung cancer. Surgical resection for lung cancer is still regarded as the most effective method for controlling the primary tumor, provided it is resectable for cure and the risks of the procedure are low. The 5-year survival rare following complete resection (R0 of a lung cancer is stage dependent [Table 1]. [1-3] Incomplete resection (R1, R2 rarely, if ever, cures the patient.

  17. The European initiative for quality management in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Torsten G; Rich, Anna; Baldwin, David

    2014-01-01

    . The Task Force undertook four projects: 1) a narrative literature search on quality management of lung cancer; 2) a survey of national and local infrastructure for lung cancer care in Europe; 3) a benchmarking project on the quality of (inter)national lung cancer guidelines in Europe; and 4) a feasibility...... study of prospective data collection in a pan-European setting. There is little peer-reviewed literature on quality management in lung cancer care. The survey revealed important differences in the infrastructure of lung cancer care in Europe. The European guidelines that were assessed displayed wide...... variation in content and scope, as well as methodological quality but at the same time there was relevant duplication. The feasibility study demonstrated that it is, in principle, feasible to collect prospective demographic and clinical data on patients with lung cancer. Legal obligations vary among...

  18. Rearranged EML4-ALK fusion transcripts sequester in circulating blood platelets and enable blood-based crizotinib response monitoring in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, R. Jonas A.; Karachaliou, Niki; Berenguer, Jordi; Gimenez-Capitan, Ana; Schellen, Pepijn; Teixido, Cristina; Tannous, Jihane; Kuiper, Justine L.; Drees, Esther; Grabowska, Magda; van Keulen, Marte; Heideman, Danielle A.M.; Thunnissen, Erik; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.; Viteri, Santiago; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Drozdowskyj, Ana; Rosell, Rafael; Smit, Egbert F.; Wurdinger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Non-small-cell lung cancers harboring EML4-ALK rearrangements are sensitive to crizotinib. However, despite initial response, most patients will eventually relapse, and monitoring EML4-ALK rearrangements over the course of treatment may help identify these patients. However, challenges associated with serial tumor biopsies have highlighted the need for blood-based assays for the monitoring of biomarkers. Platelets can sequester RNA released by tumor cells and are thus an attractive source for the non-invasive assessment of biomarkers. Methods: EML4-ALK rearrangements were analyzed by RT-PCR in platelets and plasma isolated from blood obtained from 77 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, 38 of whom had EML4-ALK-rearranged tumors. In a subset of 29 patients with EML4-ALK-rearranged tumors who were treated with crizotinib, EML4-ALK rearrangements in platelets were correlated with progression-free and overall survival. Results: RT-PCR demonstrated 65% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the detection of EML4-ALK rearrangements in platelets. In the subset of 29 patients treated with crizotinib, progression-free survival was 3.7 months for patients with EML4-ALK+ platelets and 16 months for those with EML4-ALK− platelets (hazard ratio, 3.5; P = 0.02). Monitoring of EML4-ALK rearrangements in the platelets of one patient over a period of 30 months revealed crizotinib resistance two months prior to radiographic disease progression. Conclusions: Platelets are a valuable source for the non-invasive detection of EML4-ALK rearrangements and may prove useful for predicting and monitoring outcome to crizotinib, thereby improving clinical decisions based on radiographic imaging alone. PMID:26544515

  19. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, H M; Zhang, Q F

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and its correlation with occupational lung cancer in nickel-exposed workers is reviewed. Epidemiological investigations provide reliable data indicating the close relation between nickel exposure and high lung cancer risk, especially in nickel refineries. The nickel species-specific effects and the dose-response relationship between nickel exposure and lung cancer are among the main questions that are explored extensively. It is als...

  20. Snail acetylation by histone acetyltransferase p300 in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Rui; Zhang, Yinjie; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Background Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex and dynamic molecular event in lung cancer metastasis that has not yet been thoroughly investigated. EMT transcriptional factors, such as Snail, play a central role in regulation of the EMT process. In this study, we sought to identify an association between p300 and Snail in lung cancer, as well as the engagement of p300 in Snail acetylation. Methods We transfected p300 small interfering RNA into lung cancer cells to detect S...

  1. A theranostic approach based on the use of a dual boron/Gd agent to improve the efficacy of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the lung cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Diego; Protti, Nicoletta; Toppino, Antonio; Deagostino, Annamaria; Lanzardo, Stefania; Bortolussi, Silva; Altieri, Saverio; Voena, Claudia; Chiarle, Roberto; Geninatti Crich, Simonetta; Aime, Silvio

    2015-04-01

    This study aims at developing an innovative theranostic approach for lung tumor and metastases treatment, based on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It relies on to the use of low density lipoproteins (LDL) as carriers able to maximize the selective uptake of boron atoms in tumor cells and, at the same time, to quantify the in vivo boron distribution by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Tumor cells uptake was initially assessed by ICP-MS and MRI on four types of tumor (TUBO, B16-F10, MCF-7, A549) and one healthy (N-MUG) cell lines. Lung metastases were generated by intravenous injection of a Her2+ breast cancer cell line (i.e. TUBO) in BALB/c mice and transgenic EML4-ALK mice were used as primary tumor model. After neutron irradiation, tumor growth was followed for 30-40 days by MRI. Tumor masses of boron treated mice increased markedly slowly than the control group. From the clinical editor: In this article, the authors described an improvement to existing boron neutron capture therapy. The dual MRI/BNCT agent, carried by LDLs, was able to maximize the selective uptake of boron in tumor cells, and, at the same time, quantify boron distribution in tumor and in other tissues using MRI. Subsequent in vitro and in vivo experiments showed tumor cell killing after neutron irradiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Raw Garlic Consumption and Lung Cancer in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ajay A; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of anticancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiologic data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted ORs (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Compared with no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 624-33. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. [The Argument and Consensus of Lymphadenectomy on Lung Cancer Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lanjun

    2018-03-20

    Lymph node metastasis is an important route of metastasis of lung cancer. Lymphadenectomy has become the standard surgical procedure for lung cancer. The way of intraoperative lymph node assessment also affects the prognosis and treatment strategy of lung cancer. In clinical practice, the way of intraoperative lymph node assessment ranges from selected lymph node biopsy to extended lymph node dissection. The advantages and disadvantages of different lymph node assessment are still controversial. In this article, the argument and consensus of lymphadenectomy on lung cancer operation are summarized.

  4. Invasive thymoma associated with lung cancer: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, T; Terashima, H; Shimizu, T; Hirayama, K

    2001-01-01

    We report herein a case of invasive thymoma simultaneously associated with lung cancer. A 64-year-old man presented with a cough and anterior chest pain, and preoperative examinations revealed an anterior mediastinal tumor as well as lung cancer. The patient underwent a total thymectomy, partial resection of the right lung, left lower lobectomy, and mediastinal lymph node dissection, followed by radiotherapy. Although it is well known that thymomas may be accompanied by nonthymic cancers, invasive thymomas occurring coincidentally with lung cancer are rarely reported in Japan. This case is very interesting in its relation to the oncogenesis of thymomas.

  5. Lung cancer during pregnancy: an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, I; Mota, P C; Hespanhol, V P

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of pregnancy-associated cancer is relatively low, complicating only 0.02-0.1% of all pregnancies. The authors describe a case of a 36-year-old woman, a light smoker, who was admitted to the hospital at 27 weeks of pregnancy, with respiratory symptoms since second trimester. Chest-X ray showed total left lung opacity with contralateral mediastinal deviation, suggestive of pleural effusion, and the pleural biopsy revealed invasion by lung adenocarcinoma. EGFR mutation test was negative. After a multidisciplinary meeting, it was decided to start fetal lung maturation and cesarean section at 29 weeks gestation. The patient received two lines of chemotherapy and bone metastasis radiotherapy, but there was progression of the disease. An EML4-ALK translocation was identified in an additional genetic test. Crizotinib 250mg BID was started. The patient showed a progression-free survival of 9 months and died 19 months after lung adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular pathways and therapeutic targets in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtivelman, Emma; Hensing, Thomas; Simon, George R.; Dennis, Phillip A.; Otterson, Gregory A.; Bueno, Raphael; Salgia, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Both histologically and molecularly lung cancer is heterogeneous. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the pathways involved in the various types of lung cancer with an emphasis on the clinical implications of the increasing number of actionable molecular targets. It describes the major pathways and molecular alterations implicated in the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (adenocarcinoma and squamous cancer), and of small cell carcinoma, emphasizing the molecular alterations comprising the specific blueprints in each group. The approved and investigational targeted therapies as well as the immune therapies, and clinical trials exploring the variety of targeted approaches to treatment of lung cancer are the main focus of this review. PMID:24722523

  7. Identification of a Novel Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 Inhibitor in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer by Structure-Based Virtual Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5 is able to regulate gene transcription by catalyzing the symmetrical dimethylation of arginine residue of histone, which plays a key role in tumorigenesis. Many efforts have been taken in discovering small-molecular inhibitors against PRMT5, but very few were reported and most of them were SAM-competitive. EPZ015666 is a recently reported PRMT5 inhibitor with a new binding site, which is different from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM-binding pocket. This new binding site provides a new clue for the design and discovery of potent and specific PRMT5 inhibitors. In this study, the structure-based virtual screening targeting this site was firstly performed to identify potential PRMT5 inhibitors. Then, the bioactivity of the candidate compound was studied. MTT results showed that compound T1551 decreased cell viability of A549 and H460 non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. By inhibiting the methyltransferase activity of PRMT5, T1551 reduced the global level of H4R3 symmetric dimethylation (H4R3me2s. T1551 also downregulated the expression of oncogene FGFR3 and eIF4E, and disturbed the activation of related PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK signaling in A549 cell. Finally, we investigated the conformational spaces and identified collective motions important for description of T1551/PRMT5 complex by using molecular dynamics simulation and normal mode analysis methods. This study provides a novel non-SAM-competitive hit compound for developing small molecules targeting PRMT5 in non-small cell lung cancer.

  8. Identification of a Novel Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 Inhibitor in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer by Structure-Based Virtual Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianqian; Xu, Jiahui; Li, Ying; Huang, Jumin; Jiang, Zebo; Wang, Yuwei; Liu, Liang; Leung, Elaine Lai Han; Yao, Xiaojun

    2018-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is able to regulate gene transcription by catalyzing the symmetrical dimethylation of arginine residue of histone, which plays a key role in tumorigenesis. Many efforts have been taken in discovering small-molecular inhibitors against PRMT5, but very few were reported and most of them were SAM-competitive. EPZ015666 is a recently reported PRMT5 inhibitor with a new binding site, which is different from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-binding pocket. This new binding site provides a new clue for the design and discovery of potent and specific PRMT5 inhibitors. In this study, the structure-based virtual screening targeting this site was firstly performed to identify potential PRMT5 inhibitors. Then, the bioactivity of the candidate compound was studied. MTT results showed that compound T1551 decreased cell viability of A549 and H460 non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. By inhibiting the methyltransferase activity of PRMT5, T1551 reduced the global level of H4R3 symmetric dimethylation (H4R3me2s). T1551 also downregulated the expression of oncogene FGFR3 and eIF4E, and disturbed the activation of related PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK signaling in A549 cell. Finally, we investigated the conformational spaces and identified collective motions important for description of T1551/PRMT5 complex by using molecular dynamics simulation and normal mode analysis methods. This study provides a novel non-SAM-competitive hit compound for developing small molecules targeting PRMT5 in non-small cell lung cancer.

  9. Population-based estimates of survival benefit associated with combined modality therapy in elderly patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Amy J; Gardner, James F; Seal, Brian; Edelman, Martin J

    2011-05-01

    Combined modality therapy (CMT; radiation and chemotherapy) is indicated for fit, elderly patients with inoperable, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. We used population level data to examine effects of CMT on survival. Medicare patients who are 66 years or older with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (stages IIIA and IIIB without pleural effusion) from 1997 to 2002 were identified in Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare. Detailed insurance claims were used to characterize treatment modality (none, chemotherapy only, radiotherapy only [XRT-ONLY], or CMT). CMT was further categorized as sequential (CMT-SEQ), or concurrent chemoradiation alone (CMT-ONLY), with induction (CMT-IND), or with consolidation chemotherapy (CMT-CON). Nonparametric models estimated survival effects of treatment regimens, controlling for patient characteristics, including claims-based indicators of performance status. Propensity score analysis adjusted for treatment selection. Of the 6325 patients, 66% received therapy, with 41% (N = 1745) receiving XRT-ONLY and 45% (N = 1909) receiving CMT (12.5% CMT-SEQ, 35.3% CMT-ONLY, 11.3% CMT-IND, and 20.3% with CMT-CON). CMT had a survival benefit relative to XRT-ONLY (hazard ratio: 0.782, 95% confidence interval: 0.750-0.816; additional 4.4 months median survival; adjusted 10.7% increase in 1-year survival). Relative to CMT-SEQ, concurrent CMT-ONLY was associated with an increased mortality risk, whereas CMT-IND regimens provided a survival benefit (hazard ratio: 0.731, 95% confidence interval: 0.600-0.891; additional 3.8 months; and adjusted 14.4% increase in 1-year survival). Survival benefits associated with CMT in clinical trials can extend to the elderly in routine care settings. CMT-ONLY is associated with the greatest mortality risk, suggesting that more gradual strategies (CMT-IND) may be more appropriate for the elderly population.

  10. SU-E-J-87: Ventilation Weighting Effect On Mean Doses of Both Side Lungs for Patients with Advanced Stage Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H; Xia, P; Yu, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study ventilation weighting effect on radiation doses to both side lungs for patients with advanced stage lung cancer. Methods: Fourteen patients with advanced stage lung cancer were included in this retrospective study. Proprietary software was developed to calculate the lung ventilation map based on 4DCT images acquired for radiation therapy. Two phases of inhale (0%) and exhale (50%) were used for the lung ventilation calculations. For each patient, the CT images were resampled to the same dose calculation resolution of 3mmx3mmx3mm. The ventilation distribution was then normalized by the mean value of the ventilation. The ventilation weighted dose was calculated by applying linearly weighted ventilation to the dose of each pixel. The lung contours were automatically delineated from patient CT image with lung window, excluding the tumor and high density tissues. For contralateral and ipsilateral lungs, the mean lung doses from the original plan and ventilation weighted mean lung doses were compared using two tail t-Test. Results: The average of mean dose was 6.1 ±3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs, and 26.2 ± 14.0Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The average of ventilation weighted dose was 6.3± 3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs and 24.6 ± 13.1Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The statistics analysis shows the significance of the mean dose increase (p<0.015) for the contralateral lungs and decrease (p<0.005) for the ipsilateral lungs. Conclusion: Ventilation weighted doses were greater than the un-weighted doses for contralateral lungs and smaller for ipsilateral lungs. This Result may be helpful to understand the radiation dosimetric effect on the lung function and provide planning guidance for patients with advance stage lung cancer

  11. Does chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus influence the risk of lung cancer? Result from a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Chun Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. There are some evidence that people with diabetes are at a risk of developing many forms of cancer, but inconclusive with regard to lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether COPD with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM influences the risk of developing lung cancer. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study consisting of 20,730 subjects newly diagnosed with COPD ("cases". Their data was collected from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan from 1998 to 2010. Among these patients, 5,820 patients had T2DM and 14,910 patients did not have T2DM. The retrospective matched control group consisted of 20,729 subjects without either COPD or T2DM. The control group was matched with the cases for sex, age, and index year (the year that the patient was diagnosed with COPD. The subjects were followed until the end of 2011. RESULTS: The findings of our study showed that the risk of lung cancer was higher in the COPD group than in the non-COPD group, with adjusted hazard ratio (HR of 5.02 [95% confidence interval (CI = 4.23-5.94] among total case group, adjusted HR was 5.38 (95% CI = 4.52-6.40 in the cohort without T2DM and adjusted HR was 4.05 (95% CI = 3.26-5.03 in the cohort with T2DM. We observed a significantly protective effect from lung cancer (adjusted HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.63-0.90 of diabetic cohort than non-diabetic cohort among patients with COPD. CONCLUSION: Patients with COPD had a significantly higher risk of developing lung cancer than healthy people. However, there was a protective effect of T2DM for lung cancer among patients with COPD. Further investigation may be needed to corroborate the mechanism or bring up reliable reasons.

  12. The effects of pulmonary diseases on histologic types of lung cancer in both sexes: a population-based study in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jing-Yang; Jian, Zhi-Hong; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Ku, Wen-Yuan; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Lung, Chia-Chi; Ho, Chien-Chang; Pan, Hui-Hsien; Huang, Chieh-Ying; Liang, Yu-Chiu; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2015-01-01

    The associations between pulmonary diseases (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], and tuberculosis [TB]) and subsequent lung cancer risk have been reported, but few studies have investigated the association with different histologic types of lung cancer. Patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer from 2004 to 2008 were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Histologic types of lung cancer were further confirmed using the Taiwan Cancer Registry Database. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of asthma, COPD, and TB and to estimate the risk of specific types of lung cancer. During the study period, 32,759 cases of lung cancer were identified from 15,219,024 insurants aged 20 years and older. In men and women, the adjusted HR estimates of squamous cell carcinoma were respectively 1.37 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.21–1.54) and 2.10 (95 % CI, 1.36–3.23) for TB, 1.52 (95 % CI, 1.42–1.64) and 1.50 (95 % CI, 1.21–1.85) for asthma, and 1.66 (95 % CI, 1.56–1.76) and 1.44 (95 % CI, 1.19–1.74) for COPD. Similarly, the adjusted HR estimates of adenocarcinoma were respectively 1.33 (95 % CI, 1.19–1.50) and 1.86 (95 % CI, 1.57–2.19) for TB, 1.13 (95 % CI, 1.05–1.21) and 1.18 (95 % CI, 1.09–1.28) for asthma, and 1.50 (95 % CI, 1.42–1.59) and 1.33 (95 % CI, 1.25–1.42) for COPD. The HRs of small cell carcinoma were respectively 1.24 (95 % CI, 1.01–1.52) and 2.23 (95 % CI, 1.17–4.25) for TB, 1.51 (95 % CI, 1.35–1.69) and 1.63 (95 % CI, 1.16–2.27) for asthma, and 1.39 (95 % CI, 1.26–1.53) and 1.78 (95 % CI, 1.33–2.39) for COPD. Asthma, COPD, and TB were associated with an increased risk of all major subtypes of lung cancer. The risk was the highest among women with TB

  13. A case control study on the lung cancer risk factors in north of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Laleh; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoon; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Moslemi, Dariush; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Safari, Farid

    2011-01-01

    In this case control study, the risk factors of lung cancer was assessed in the north of Iran. Two groups were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years). Data were collected from 40 cases and 40 controls attending to hospitals. A public information questionnaire was used for data collection. Incidence odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results showed that in adjusted odd ratio positive family history of cancer (OR = 0/19, 95% CI: 0/04-0/8) was associated with a reduction, and consumption of baked bread in traditional oven (OR = 22/6, 95% CI: 1/9-270), was associated with increase in lung cancer risk. Based on the results, smoking was not correlated with lung cancer. In conclusion, the data offers consumption of traditional oven-baked bread may enhance the risk of lung cancer but positive family history of cancer may reduce it.

  14. MET and Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gelsomino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC is one of the most aggressive lung tumors. The majority of patients with SCLC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. This tumor type is highly sensitive to chemo-radiation treatment, with very high response rates, but invariably relapses. At this time, treatment options are still limited and the prognosis of these patients is poor. A better knowledge of the molecular biology of SCLC allowed us to identify potential druggable targets. Among these, the MET/HGF axis seems to be one of the most aberrant signaling pathways involved in SCLC invasiveness and progression. In this review, we describe briefly all recent literature on the different molecular profiling in SCLC; in particular, we discuss the specific alterations involving c-MET gene and their implications as a potential target in SCLC.

  15. MET and Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelsomino, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.gelsomino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Medical Oncology Unit 1, Medical Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via G. Venezian 1, 20133 Milano (Italy); Rossi, Giulio [Operative Unit of Pathology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico, Via del Pozzo 71, 41124 Modena (Italy); Tiseo, Marcello [Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Viale A. Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma (Italy)

    2014-10-13

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the most aggressive lung tumors. The majority of patients with SCLC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. This tumor type is highly sensitive to chemo-radiation treatment, with very high response rates, but invariably relapses. At this time, treatment options are still limited and the prognosis of these patients is poor. A better knowledge of the molecular biology of SCLC allowed us to identify potential druggable targets. Among these, the MET/HGF axis seems to be one of the most aberrant signaling pathways involved in SCLC invasiveness and progression. In this review, we describe briefly all recent literature on the different molecular profiling in SCLC; in particular, we discuss the specific alterations involving c-MET gene and their implications as a potential target in SCLC.

  16. Nuclear grade based on transbronchial cytology is an independent prognostic factor in patients with advanced, unresectable non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Miyai, Yumi; Katsuki, Naomi; Kushida, Yoshio; Matsunaga, Toru; Okuda, Masaya; Yokomise, Hiroyasu; Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Bandoh, Shuji; Haba, Reiji

    2016-09-01

    In patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the prognostic value of nuclear grade has been demonstrated. However, among patients with advanced, unresectable NSCLC, the prognostic usefulness of cytological nuclear grade to the authors' knowledge remains unknown. In the current study, the authors used transbronchial cytology to investigate whether nuclear morphometry correlated with clinical outcomes in patients with advanced NSCLC. The authors reviewed patients with advanced, unresectable NSCLC who were diagnosed on transbronchial cytology and were treated at the study institution from 2007 through 2015 (97 patients). Nuclear morphometry (including major diameter) was assessed by an image analysis system and small lymphocytes were used as a reference. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. In the multivariate analysis, according to the nuclear major diameter as assessed by an image analysis system, a nuclear major diameter >15 μm was an independent prognostic factor of worse OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.05; P = .003) and PFS (HR, 1.04; P = 0.011). According to the nuclear major diameter as assessed by small lymphocytes, a major diameter of >5 small lymphocytes was an independent prognostic factor of worse OS (HR, 1.32; P<.001) and PFS (HR, 1.20; P = 0.001). A moderately significant correlation between nuclear diameter measurements by an image analysis system and small lymphocytes was observed (P<.001; correlation coefficient, 0.662). Nuclear grade based on nuclear diameter was found to be independently associated with prognosis in patients with advanced, unresectable NSCLC. Cancer Cytopathol 2016;124:630-40. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  17. Development and Validation of Risk Models to Select Ever-Smokers for CT Lung Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katki, Hormuzd A; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Berg, Christine D; Cheung, Li C; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2016-06-07

    The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends computed tomography (CT) lung cancer screening for ever-smokers aged 55 to 80 years who have smoked at least 30 pack-years with no more than 15 years since quitting. However, selecting ever-smokers for screening using individualized lung cancer risk calculations may be more effective and efficient than current USPSTF recommendations. Comparison of modeled outcomes from risk-based CT lung-screening strategies vs USPSTF recommendations. Empirical risk models for lung cancer incidence and death in the absence of CT screening using data on ever-smokers from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO; 1993-2009) control group. Covariates included age; education; sex; race; smoking intensity, duration, and quit-years; body mass index; family history of lung cancer; and self-reported emphysema. Model validation in the chest radiography groups of the PLCO and the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST; 2002-2009), with additional validation of the death model in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS; 1997-2001), a representative sample of the United States. Models were applied to US ever-smokers aged 50 to 80 years (NHIS 2010-2012) to estimate outcomes of risk-based selection for CT lung screening, assuming screening for all ever-smokers, yield the percent changes in lung cancer detection and death observed in the NLST. Annual CT lung screening for 3 years beginning at age 50 years. For model validity: calibration (number of model-predicted cases divided by number of observed cases [estimated/observed]) and discrimination (area under curve [AUC]). For modeled screening outcomes: estimated number of screen-avertable lung cancer deaths and estimated screening effectiveness (number needed to screen [NNS] to prevent 1 lung cancer death). Lung cancer incidence and death risk models were well calibrated in PLCO and NLST. The lung cancer death model calibrated and discriminated well for US

  18. A national survey of lung cancer specialists' views on low-dose CT screening for lung cancer in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Shin

    Full Text Available Lung cancer specialists play an important role in designing and implementing lung cancer screening. We aimed to describe their 1 attitudes toward low-dose lung computed tomography (LDCT screening, 2 current practices and experiences of LDCT screening and 3 attitudes and opinions towards national lung cancer screening program (NLCSP. We conducted a national web-based survey of pulmonologists, thoracic surgeons, medical oncologists, and radiological oncologists who are members of Korean Association for Lung Cancer (N = 183. Almost all respondents agreed that LDCT screening increases early detection (100%, improves survival (95.1%, and gives a good smoking cessation counseling opportunity (88.6%. Most were concerned about its high false positive results (79.8% and the subsequent negative effects. Less than half were concerned about radiation hazard (37.2%. Overall, most (89.1% believed that the benefits outweigh the risks and harms. Most (79.2% stated that they proactively recommend LDCT screening to those who are eligible for the current guidelines, but the screening propensity varied considerably. The majority (77.6% agreed with the idea of NLCSP and its beneficial effect, but had concerns about the quality control of CT devices (74.9%, quality assurance of radiologic interpretation (63.3%, poor access to LDCT (56.3%, and difficulties in selecting eligible population using self-report history (66.7%. Most (79.2% thought that program need to be funded by a specialized fund rather than by the National Health Insurance. The opinions on the level of copayment for screening varied. Our findings would be an important source for health policy decision when considering for NLCSP in Korea.

  19. Pneumonia-like form of bronchioloalveolar lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinner, M.G.; Mazur, G.I.; Tregubov, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors managed to observe 53 patients with this form of lung cancer, of them in 19 patients a pneumonia-like form was diagnosed. Clinical signs were not defined and were frequently expressed in the form of increasing dyspnea and coughing. The authors revealed 2 main variants of roentgenologic changes that would require differential diagnosis with central cancer complicated by obstructive pneumonitis, with bacterial pneumonia and infiltrative tuberculosis. Distinctive recognition was based on the progression of the clinicoroentgenological signs of the disease in spite of antiinflammatory therapy, on maintaining the bronchial permeability and on the absence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum and ronchial washing liquid

  20. Primary non-small cell lung cancer in a transplanted lung treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskan, F.; University Hospital of Saarland, Homburg; Ganswindt, U.; Belka, C.; Manapov, F.

    2014-01-01

    The first case of primary lung cancer in a transplanted lung was described in 2001. Since then, only 5 cases of lung cancer in donated lung have been reported. We present one more patient with non-small cell cancer in the transplanted lung treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy. In most cases of primary lung cancer in transplanted lung, rapid progression of the cancer was reported. Occurrence of the locoregional failure in our case could be explained by factors related to the treatment protocol and also to underlying immunosuppression.

  1. Cannabis Use, Lung Cancer, and Related Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Emily; Jett, James; Warren, Graham; Cummings, K Michael

    2018-01-24

    The cannabis plant and its derivatives have been exploited for centuries for recreational and medicinal purposes with millions of regular users around the world. The recreational use of cannabis is reflective of its neuropsychiatric effects such as anxiolysis and euphoria. However, cannabis appears to have an emerging therapeutic role, especially in chronic disease and as an adjunct to cancer treatment. Increasing evidence supports cannabis in the management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting and for pain management, but studies are limited particularly by difficulties associated with standardized dosing estimates and inability to accurately assess biologic activities of compounds in cannabis and derivative products. Smoking cannabis has not been proven to be a risk factor in the development of lung cancer but the data are limited by small studies, misclassification due to self-reporting of usage, small numbers of heavy cannabis smoking and confounding of risk associated with known causative agents for lung cancer such as parallel chronic tobacco use. Cannabis and its biologically effective derivatives warrant additional research, ideally controlled trials where the CBD and the THC strength and usage are controlled and documented. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Tumor Suppressors and Cell-Cycle Proteins in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Baldi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cell cycle is the cascade of events that allows a growing cell to duplicate all its components and split into two daughter cells. Cell cycle progression is mediated by the activation of a highly conserved family of protein kinases, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs. CDKs are also regulated by related proteins called cdk inhibitors grouped into two families: the INK4 inhibitors (p16, p15, p19, and p18 and the Cip/Kip inhibitors (p21, p27, and p53. Several studies report the importance of cell-cycle proteins in the pathogenesis and the prognosis of lung cancer. This paper will review the most recent data from the literature about the regulation of cell cycle. Finally, based essentially on the data generated in our laboratory, the expression, the diagnostic, and prognostic significance of cell-cycle molecules in lung cancer will be examined.

  3. Rapid diagnosis and intraoperative margin assessment of human lung cancer with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyan Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A method of rapidly differentiating lung tumor from healthy tissue is extraordinarily needed for both the diagnosis and the intraoperative margin assessment. We assessed the ability of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM for differentiating human lung cancer and normal tissues with the autofluorescence, and also elucidated the mechanism in tissue studies and cell studies. A 15-patient testing group was used to compare FLIM results with traditional histopathology diagnosis. Based on the endogenous fluorescence lifetimes of the testing group, a criterion line was proposed to distinguish normal and cancerous tissues. Then by blinded examined 41 sections from the validation group of other 16 patients, the sensitivity and specificity of FLIM were determined. The cellular metabolism was studied with specific perturbations of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in cell studies. The fluorescence lifetime of cancerous lung tissues is consistently lower than normal tissues, and this is due to the both decrease of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD lifetimes. A criterion line of lifetime at 1920 ps can be given for differentiating human lung cancer and normal tissues.The sensitivity and specificity of FLIM for lung cancer diagnosis were determined as 92.9% and 92.3%. These findings suggest that NADH and FAD can be used to rapidly diagnose lung cancer. FLIM is a rapid, accurate and highly sensitive technique in the judgment during lung cancer surgery and it can be potential in earlier cancer detection.

  4. Type of wine and risk of lung cancer: a case-control study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, A; Figueiras, A; Barros-Dios, J M

    2004-11-01

    Few epidemiological studies have examined the effect of wine on the risk of lung cancer. A study was therefore undertaken to estimate the effect of wine consumption, both overall and by type of wine, on the risk of developing lung cancer. A hospital based case-control study was conducted on 319 subjects (132 cases, 187 controls) in 1999-2000. All subjects were interviewed about their lifestyles with particular reference to alcohol consumption and tobacco use. The results were analysed using non-parametric logistic regression. The main outcome measure was the risk of lung cancer associated with consumption of wine and its individual types. A very slight but significant association was observed between the risk of lung cancer and white wine consumption (odds ratio (OR) 1.20 for each daily glass). Red wine consumption, on the other hand, had an OR of 0.43 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.96), with each daily glass of red wine having an inverse association with the development of lung cancer (OR 0.87 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.99)). There was no apparent association between lung cancer and consumption of beer or spirits. These results suggest that the consumption of red wine is negatively associated with the development of lung cancer. Further studies are needed to test this finding in cancer induced laboratory animals.

  5. Lymphopenia after mediastinal irradiation in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Park, Hee Chul; Lee, Seung Il; Ryu, So Yeon; Kee, Keun Hong; Jeon, Ho Jong; Ha, Chul Soo

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to retrospectively evaluate white blood cell kinetics, especially lymphocyte depression after different treatment, and to find the correlation between immunosuppression and large blood volume and dynamic blood flow within the mediastinal radiotherapy (RT) field in lung cancer. Thirty-four patients with lung cancer were retrospectively evaluated: 10 patients had only radiotherapy (RT group), 8 had chemotherapy (CT group) and 16 had chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT/CT group). The mean follow-up periods of the RT-including groups (RT group and RT/CT group) and the RT-excluding group (CT group) were 6 and 8 months, respectively. Complete blood cell count including lymphocyte percentage (%) were checked weekly during RT but less frequently during CT and after RT. Changes in total white blood cell counts were not significantly different among the three groups. The lymphocyte count and lymphocyte % were much lower in the RT-including groups than in the RT-excluding group. The difference between pre-treatment and final lymphocyte count and the difference between pre-treatment and final lymphocyte % were significant (ρ = 0.044 and ρ = 0.037) between the RT-including groups and the RT-excluding group. Lymphopenia was more marked after treatment containing RT than CT only. Lymphopenia may be one cause of a compromised immune system after mediastinal irradiation in lung cancer. We suggest cautiously that previous studies showing evidence of lymphocyte apoptosis after low-dose irradiation and large blood volume and dynamic blood flow within the RT fields could be somewhat related to lymphopenia after mediastinal irradiation

  6. Public Preferences for Lung Cancer Screening Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Henk; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G M; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Groen, Harry; IJzerman, Maarten J

    Because early detection of lung cancer can substantially improve survival, there is increasing attention for lung cancer screening. To estimate public preferences for lung cancer screening and to identify subgroups in preferences. Seven important attributes were selected using the literature, interviews, and a panel session. Preferences were elicited using a swing weighting questionnaire. The resulting attribute weights indicate the relative importance of swings from the worst to the best level between attributes. Hierarchical clustering was used to identify subgroups with different attribute weights. One thousand thirty-four respondents from a representative Dutch panel aged between 40 and 80 years were included. The identified attributes were location of screening (weight = 0.18 ± 0.16), mode of screening (weight = 0.17 ± 0.14), sensitivity (weight = 0.16 ± 0.13) and specificity (weight = 0.13 ± 0.12) of the screening modality, waiting time until results (weight = 0.13 ± 0.12), radiation burden (weight = 0.13 ± 0.12), and duration of screening procedure (weight = 0.10 ± 0.09). Most respondents preferred breath analysis (45%) to giving blood samples (31%) or going through a scanner (24%) as screening modality; 59% preferred screening at the general practitioner's office instead of at the hospital. There was a significant difference in education between the five identified preference subgroups (P screening. Different screening policies and implementation strategies may be appropriate for particular preference subgroups. Our results indicate that people prefer breath analysis and that they are more likely to attend screening modalities that can be used at a primary care facility. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bayesian networks for clinical decision support in lung cancer care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Berkan Sesen

    Full Text Available Survival prediction and treatment selection in lung cancer care are characterised by high levels of uncertainty. Bayesian Networks (BNs, which naturally reason with uncertain domain knowledge, can be applied to aid lung cancer experts by providing personalised survival estimates and treatment selection recommendations. Based on the English Lung Cancer Database (LUCADA, we evaluate the feasibility of BNs for these two tasks, while comparing the performances of various causal discovery approaches to uncover the most feasible network structure from expert knowledge and data. We show first that the BN structure elicited from clinicians achieves a disappointing area under the ROC curve of 0.75 (± 0.03, whereas a structure learned by the CAMML hybrid causal discovery algorithm, which adheres with the temporal restrictions, achieves 0.81 (± 0.03. Second, our causal intervention results reveal that BN treatment recommendations, based on prescribing the treatment plan that maximises survival, can only predict the recorded treatment plan 29% of the time. However, this percentage rises to 76% when partial matches are included.

  8. Cost and effectiveness of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Hsiao, Fei-Yuan; Huang, Hsu-Chih; Lin, Yu-Sen; Chen, Chih-Yi; Shieh, Shwn-Huey; Chen, Pin-Ru; Chen, Chein-Kuang; Chien, Chun-Ru

    2014-12-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is a minimally invasive alternative to conventional surgery (CS). We aimed to estimate the short-term cost-effectiveness of VATS vs. CS for clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC-c-stage-I) patients from the payer's perspective (National Health Insurance). We identified NSCLC-c-stage-I patients diagnosed and received surgery within 2007-2009 through a comprehensive population-based database containing cancer and death registries, and reimbursement data. The duration of interest was 1 year. We included potential confounding covariables through literature searching and our own experience, and used a propensity score to construct a 1:1 population for adjustment. Our study population constituted 966 patients. The mean hospital stay [days, standard deviation (SD)] were 14.4 [7] and 16.1 (7.7) for VATS and CS respectively (P=0.002). The mean cost (2013 USD) and survival (year) was $22,316 vs. $21,976 and 0.98 vs. 0.974 for VATS vs. CS. The probability for VATS to be cost-effective (i.e., positive net benefit) was 0.49 & 0.56 at willingness-to-pay (WTP) 50,000 & 100,000 USD/life-year, respectively. We provide the first empirical evidence that when compared to CS, VATS was potentially cost-effective in the short term (1 year) within the common WTP levels in Taiwan.

  9. Association of DNA repair gene XRCC1 and lung cancer susceptibility among nonsmoking Chinese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, J.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Ma, Y.

    2009-01-01

    predisposition to cancer risk. To address this question in more detail, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study consisting of 55 lung cancer cases and 74 cancer-free controls matched on age and ethnicity among nonsmoking Chinese women. We analyzed five coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the XRCC1...

  10. Risk of Lung Cancer and Indoor Radon Exposure in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysson, H.; Tirmarche, M.; Tymen, G.; Ducloy, F.; Laurier, D.

    2004-01-01

    It is well established that radon exposure increases risks of lung cancer among underground miners. to estimate the lung cancer risk linked to indoor radon exposure, a hospital based case-control study was carried out in France, With a focus on precise reconstruction of past indoor radon exposure over the 30 years preceding the lung cancer diagnosis. The investigation rook place from 1992 to 1998 in four regions of France: Auvergne, Brittany, Languedoc and Limousin. During face-to-face interviews a standardized questionnaire was used to ascertain demographic characteristics, information on active and passive smoking, occupational exposure, medical history as well as extensive details on residential history. Radon concentrations were measured in the dwellings where subjects had lived at least one year during the 5-30 year period before interview. Measurements of radon concentrations were performed during a 6-month period, using two Kodalpha LR 115 detectors, one in the living room and one in the bedroom. The time-weighted average (TWA) radon concentration for a subject during the 5-30 year period before interview was based on radon concentrations over all addresses occupied by the subject weighted by the number of years spent at each address. For the time intervals without available measurements, we imputed the region-specific arithmetic average of radon concentrations for measured addresses of control subjects. Lung cancer risk was examined in relation to indoor radon exposure after adjustment for age, sex, region, cigarette smoking and occupational exposure. The estimated relative a risk per 100 Bq/m''3 was 1.04, at the borderline of statistical significance (95 percent Confidence Interval: 0.99, 1..1). These results are in agreement with results from other indoor radon case-control studies and with extrapolations from underground miners studies. (Author) 31 refs

  11. Genetic Variation in GSTP1, Lung Function, Risk of Lung Cancer, and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Marianne S.; Dahl, Morten; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    66,069 individuals from the white general population for two common functional variants in the glutathione S-transferase pi 1 gene (GSTP1)—amino acid isoleucine 105 changed to a valine (Ile105Val) and amino acid alanine 114 changed to a valine (Ala114Val)—and recorded lung function, lung cancer......, tobacco-related cancer, and death as outcomes. Results Lung function was increased stepwise with the Ile105Val genotype overall (p smokers separately (p

  12. Linking the generation of DNA adducts to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppi, Marcello; Munnia, Armelle; Cellai, Filippo; Bruzzone, Marco; Peluso, Marco E M

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. DNA adducts are considered a reliable biomarker that reflects carcinogen exposure to tobacco smoke, but the central question is what is the relationship of DNA adducts and cancer? Therefore, we investigated this relationship by a meta-analysis of twenty-two studies with bronchial adducts for a total of 1091 subjects, 887 lung cancer cases and 204 apparently healthy individuals with no evidence of lung cancer. Our study shows that these adducts are significantly associated to increase lung cancer risk. The value of Mean Ratio lung-cancer (MR) of bronchial adducts resulting from the random effects model was 2.64, 95% C.I. 2.00-3.50, in overall lung cancer cases as compared to controls. The significant difference, with lung cancer patients having significant higher levels of bronchial adducts than controls, persisted after stratification for smoking habits. The MR lung-cancer value between lung cancer patients and controls for smokers was 2.03, 95% C.I. 1.42-2.91, for ex-smokers 3.27, 95% C.I. 1.49-7.18, and for non-smokers was 3.81, 95% C.I. 1.85-7.85. Next, we found that the generation of bronchial adducts is significantly related to inhalation exposure to tobacco smoke carcinogens confirming its association with volatile carcinogens. The MR smoking estimate of bronchial adducts resulting from meta-regression was 2.28, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) 1.10-4.73, in overall smokers in respect to non-smokers. The present work provides strengthening of the hypothesis that bronchial adducts are not simply relate to exposure, but are a cause of chemical-induced lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Challenges scoring radiation pneumonitis in patients irradiated for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirmibesoglu, Eda; Higginson, Daniel S; Fayda, Merdan; Rivera, M Patricia; Halle, Jan; Rosenman, Julian; Xie, Liyi; Marks, Lawrence B

    2012-06-01

    To quantify uncertainties in scoring radiation pneumonitis. Records of 434 patients irradiated for lung cancer from 2000 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed; IRB-approved study. From these, 121 received ≥ 60 Gy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with ≥ 6 months follow-up. Patients where the physicians were uncertain of the diagnosis due to confounding factors were deemed "hard to score". Subgroups were defined based on lung dosimetric parameters, and frequencies in different subgroups were compared via Fisher's exact test. 21/121 of patients were considered to have pneumonitis; median follow 17 months. Of these, 10/21 were "hard to score"; reasons including acute COPD exacerbation, infection, and tumor progression. "Hard to score" pneumonitis was slightly more common in patients with a COPD history (15%) vs. without COPD (4%) (p=0.05); and with a pre-RT FEV1pneumonitis trended to be non-significantly slightly higher in patients higher mean lung doses, V5, and V30. Radiation pneumonitis occurred in 17% of patients undergoing RT for NSCLC; with diagnostic uncertainty in 48% of these. Poor pre-RT pulmonary function increases the rate of "hard to score" pneumonitis. Dosimetric parameters are slightly better related to "unambiguous" than "hard to score" pneumonitis, as expected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Classification of normal and abnormal images of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Divyesh; Tiwari, Amit Kumar; Vijayarajan, V.; Krishnamoorthy, A.

    2017-11-01

    To find the exact symptoms of lung cancer is difficult, because of the formation of the most cancers tissues, wherein large structure of tissues is intersect in a different way. This problem can be evaluated with the help of digital images. In this strategy images will be examined with basic operation of PCA Algorithm. In this paper, GLCM method is used for pre-processing of the snap shots and function extraction system and to test the level of diseases of a patient in its premature stage get to know it is regular or unusual. With the help of result stage of cancer will be evaluated. With the help of dataset and result survival rate of cancer patient can be estimated. Result is based totally on the precise and wrong arrangement of the patterns of tissues.

  15. Perioperative physiotherapy in patients undergoing lung cancer resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Larrad, Ana; Lascurain-Aguirrebena, Ion; Abecia-Inchaurregui, Luis Carlos; Seco, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Physiotherapy is considered an important component of the perioperative period of lung resection surgery. A systematic review was conducted to assess evidence for the effectiveness of different physiotherapy interventions in patients undergoing lung cancer resection surgery. Online literature databases [Medline, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, SCOPUS, PEDro and CINAHL] were searched up until June 2013. Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials, compared 2 or more perioperative physiotherapy interventions or compared one intervention with no intervention, included only patients undergoing pulmonary resection for lung cancer and assessed at least 2 or more of the following variables: functional capacity parameters, postoperative pulmonary complications or length of hospital stay. Reviews and meta-analyses were excluded. Eight studies were selected for inclusion in this review. They included a total of 599 patients. Seven of the studies were identified as having a low risk of bias. Two studies assessed preoperative interventions, 4 postoperative interventions and the remaining 2 investigated the efficacy of interventions that were started preoperatively and then continued after surgery. The substantial heterogeneity in the interventions across the studies meant that it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis. The most important finding of this systematic review is that presurgical interventions based on moderate-intense aerobic exercise in patients undergoing lung resection for lung cancer improve functional capacity and reduce postoperative morbidity, whereas interventions performed only during the postoperative period do not seem to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications or length of hospital stay. Nevertheless, no firm conclusions can be drawn because of the heterogeneity of the studies included. Further research into the efficacy and effectiveness of perioperative respiratory physiotherapy in

  16. Shenfu Injection Adjunct with Platinum-Based Chemotherapy for the Treatment of Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailing Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum-based chemotherapy is one of the standard treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC, while its high toxicity and limited clinical effects raise big concerns. Shenfu injection (SFI has been commonly used as an adjutant chemotherapy drug for NSCLC in China. We ascertained the beneficial and adverse effects of SFI in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC by using meta-analysis methods. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs involving advanced NSCLC treatment with SFI plus platinum-based chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone were searched on 6 medical databases up to February 2017. Cochrane handbook 5.1.0 was applied to assess the quality of included trials and RevMan 5.3 software was employed for data analysis. 23 RCTs including 1574 patients met our inclusion criteria. We evaluated the following outcome measures: objective tumor response (ORR, disease control rate (DCR, Karnofsky performance score (KPS, adverse effects, and indicators of cellular immune function. The meta-analysis indicated that SFI plus platinum-based chemotherapy may benefit the patients with NSCLC on attenuated synergies of chemotherapy. These findings need to be confirmed by further rigorously designed high-quality and large-scale RCTs.

  17. Molecular Markers of Lung Cancer in MAYAK Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Belinsky, PhD

    2007-02-15

    The molecular mechanisms that result in the elevated risk for lung cancer associated with exposure to radiation have not been well characterized. Workers from the MAYAK nuclear enterprise are an ideal cohort in which to study the molecular epidemiology of cancer associated with radiation exposure and to identify the genes targeted for inactivation that in turn affect individual risk for radiation-induced lung cancer. Epidemiology studies of the MAYAK cohort indicate a significantly higher frequency for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in workers than in a control population and a strong correlation between these tumor types and plutonium exposure. Two hypotheses will be evaluated through the proposed studies. First, radiation exposure targets specific genes for inactivation by promoter methylation. This hypothesis is supported by our recent studies with the MAYAK population that demonstrated the targeting of the p16 gene for inactivation by promoter methylation in adenocarcinomas from workers (1). Second, genes inactivated in tumors can serve as biomarkers for lung cancer risk in a cancer-free population of workers exposed to plutonium. Support for this hypothesis is based on exciting preliminary results of our nested, case-control study of persons from the Colorado cohort. In that study, a panel of methylation markers for predicting lung cancer risk is being evaluated in sputum samples from incident lung cancer cases and controls. The first hypothesis will be tested by determining the prevalence for promoter hypermethylation of a panel of genes shown to play a critical role in the development of either adenocarcinoma and/or SCC associated with tobacco. Our initial studies on adenocarcinoma in MAYAK workers will be extended to evaluate methylation of the PAX5 {alpha}, PAX5 {beta}, H-cadherin, GATA5, and bone morphogenesis 3B (BMP3B) genes in the original sample set described under Preliminary studies. In addition, studies will be initiated in SCC

  18. Evaluating the impacts of screening and smoking cessation programmes on lung cancer in a high-burden region of the USA: a simulation modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    Tramontano, Angela C; Sheehan, Deirdre F; McMahon, Pamela M; Dowling, Emily C; Holford, Theodore R; Ryczak, Karen; Lesko, Samuel M; Levy, David T; Kong, Chung Yin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: While the US Preventive Services Task Force has issued recommendations for lung cancer screening, its effectiveness at reducing lung cancer burden may vary at local levels due to regional variations in smoking behaviour. Our objective was to use an existing model to determine the impacts of lung cancer screening alone or in addition to increased smoking cessation in a US region with a relatively high smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence. Setting: Computer-based simulation m...

  19. Lung cancer patients frequently visit the emergency room for cancer-related and -unrelated issues

    OpenAIRE

    KOTAJIMA, FUTOSHI; KOBAYASHI, KUNIHIKO; SAKAGUCHI, HIROZO; NEMOTO, MANABU

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer patients visit the emergency room (ER) for cancer-related and -unrelated reasons more often compared to patients with other types of cancer. This results in increased admissions and deaths in the ER. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the characteristics of lung cancer patients visiting the ER in order to optimize the utilization of emergency medical services and improve the patients’ quality of life. Lung cancer patients visiting the ER of a single institution over a 2-ye...

  20. Subtyping of nonsmall cell lung cancer on cytology specimens: Reproducibility of cytopathologic diagnoses on sparse material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haukali, O. S.; Henrik, H.; Olsen, Karen Ege

    2014-01-01

    Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspiration (material is increasingly used in diagnosing lung cancer. High interobserver agreement in distinguishing small-cell lung cancer from nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) on cytologic material has been demonstrated. Because of new treatment......, cytoscrape (CS) can convert cytologic material into tissue fragments useful for IHC. The purpose of this study was to test the reproducibility of pulmonary malignant diagnoses, in particular distinction between subgroups of NSCLC, based on smeared material and IHC on CS. A consecutive series of May...

  1. Socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in 16 European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heyden, J. H. A.; Schaap, M. M.; Kunst, A. E.; Esnaola, S.; Borrell, C.; Cox, B.; Leinsalu, M.; Stirbu, I.; Kalediene, R.; Deboosere, P.; Mackenbach, J. P.; van Oyen, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to describe socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in Europe and to get further insight into socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in different European populations by relating these to socioeconomic inequalities in overall mortality and smoking

  2. aetiopathology and management challenges of lung cancer in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-01

    Apr 1, 2011 ... Background: There are newer diagnostic and therapeutic armamentaria for primary lung cancer. Application of molecular genetics in lung cancer management is evolving rapidly. However, the traditional knowledge and practices that were applicable before the 1980s still hold sway in most developing ...

  3. Coincidence of lung cancer and silicosis in Czechoslovak uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, S.; Urbanova, S.

    1988-01-01

    27 patients with established coincidence of lung cancer and silicosis from a group of 1607 cases of lung cancer from radioactive compounds, and 166 cases of pneumoconiosis were reported by the Occupational Diseases Ward of the works Institute of National Health in Uranium Industry in the 1962 to 1986 years. Lung cancer was found in 16% of reported silicosis patients, in 81% it was simple silicosis, in 50% of cases in was an epidermoid type of cancer. In two cases the malignant process originated in the silicotic node, in one case from a tuberculoma. Lung cancer occurred most frequently in the right lower lung region. The mean age of the silicosis group was 48.6 years and 56.0 years for the lung cancer group. No difference was thus seen from the mean age of patients with lung cancer from radioactive compounds diagnosed in the years 1976 to 1980 but it was significantly lower that the reported average age of patients with coincidence of lung cancer and pneumoconiosis in the population not exposed to ionizing radiation. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  4. Occupational lung cancer risk among men in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.; Balder, H.F.; Tielemans, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess male lung cancer risks for industrial sectors in the Netherlands and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer attributed to working in specific industrial sectors. Methods: Associations were studied among men aged 55-69 years (n = 58 279) from the prospective Netherlands

  5. Choroidal metastases as the initial presentation of lung cancer: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical reports of symptomatic intraocular metastasis as the initial presentation of lung cancer are rare. We report the case of a 49-year-old female patient who presented with loss of vision due to choroidal metastases as the initial manifestation of her disseminated lung cancer. This particular patient was referred to us from ...

  6. Aetiopathology and Management Challenges of Lung Cancer in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There are newer diagnostic and therapeutic armamentaria for primary lung cancer. Application of molecular genetics in lung cancer management is evolving rapidly. However, the traditional knowledge and practices that were applicable before the 1980s still hold sway in most developing countries. Objective: ...

  7. Queensland Lung Cancer Screening Study: rationale, design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, H M; Bowman, R V; Crossin, J; Lau, M A; Slaughter, R E; Passmore, L H; McCaul, E M; Courtney, D A; Windsor, M N; Yang, I A; Smith, I R; Keir, B J; Hayes, T J; Redmond, S J; Zimmerman, P V; Fong, K M

    2013-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Australia. Screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can reduce lung cancer mortality. The feasibility of screening in Australia is unknown. This paper describes the rationale, design and methods of the Queensland Lung Cancer Screening Study. The aim of the study is to describe the methodology for a feasibility study of lung cancer screening by LDCT in Australia. The Queensland Lung Cancer Screening Study is an ongoing, prospective observational study of screening by LDCT at a single tertiary institution. Healthy volunteers at high risk of lung cancer (age 60-74 years; smoking history ≥30 pack years, current or quit within 15 years; forced expiratory volume in 1s ≥50% predicted) are recruited from the general public through newspaper advertisement and press release. Participants receive a LDCT scan of the chest at baseline, year 1 and year 2 using a multidetector helical computed tomography scanner and are followed up for a total of 5 years. Feasibility of screening will be assessed by cancer detection rates, lung nodule prevalence, optimal management strategies for lung nodules, economic costs, healthcare utilisation and participant quality of life. Studying LDCT screening in the Australian setting will help us understand how differences in populations, background diseases and healthcare structures modulate screening effectiveness. This information, together with results from overseas randomised studies, will inform and facilitate local policymaking. © 2012 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  8. On Academician Behounek's paper ''Lung cancer induced by ionizing radiation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.

    1979-01-01

    The significance and scientific contribution are discussed of the paper ''Lung Cancer Induced by Ionizing Radiation'' submitted by Academician Frantisek Behounek to the nation-wide workshop of the Czechoslovak Society of Pneumology and Oncology in Prague, October 3 and 4, 1952 and published in the Proceedings in 1953. The paper discussed the problem which still remains topical, ie., lung exposure to radon daughters, which Academician Behounek considered to be the true cause of lung cancer in Jachymov miners. (B.S.)

  9. Automated interpretation of PET/CT images in patients with lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte, Henrik; Jakobsson, David; Olofsson, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    standard' image interpretation. The training group was used in the development of the automated method. The image processing techniques included algorithms for segmentation of the lungs based on the CT images and detection of lesions in the PET images. Lung boundaries from the CT images were used...... cancer. METHODS: A total of 87 patients who underwent PET/CT examinations due to suspected lung cancer comprised the training group. The test group consisted of PET/CT images from 49 patients suspected with lung cancer. The consensus interpretations by two experienced physicians were used as the 'gold......PURPOSE: To develop a completely automated method based on image processing techniques and artificial neural networks for the interpretation of combined [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) images for the diagnosis and staging of lung...

  10. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  11. Relational coordination and healthcare management in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, José Antonio Vinagre; Señarís, Juan Del Llano; Heredero, Carmen De Pablos; Nuijten, Mark

    2014-12-16

    In the current socio-economic scenario characterized by a growing shortage of resources and progressive budget constraints, the need to better coordinate processes in health institutions appears as a relevant aspect to ensure the future sustainability of system. In this sense, Relational Coordination (RC) provides a valuable opportunity for the reconfiguration of clinical guidelines concerning isolated single-level considerations. In this research the RC model has been applied to explain best results in the process of diagnosing and offering clinical treatments for lung cancer. Lung cancer presents the higher rates of tumor's mortality worldwide. Through unstructured and informal interviews with clinicians at both levels (Primary/Specialist Care), a diagnosis of the situation in relation to joint management of lung cancer is provided. Solutions of continuity in terms of coordination are explained due to the observation of lack of effective knowledge transfer between the two levels. It is this disconnection which justifies the introduction of a modified model of RC for the study and implementation of transfer relations between the knowledge holders, in order to structure consolidated and cooperative evidence-based models that lead to a substantial shortening in the response times with a marked outcomes improvement. To our knowledge, the application of this model to a Public Health problem bringing together both levels of care, hasn't been made till now.

  12. Targeted drugs in small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Daffinà, Maria Grazia; Karachaliou, Niki; González-Cao, Maria; Lazzari, Chiara; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Rosell, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), few advances have been made in systemic treatment of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) in recent years. Most patients are diagnosed with extensive stage disease and are commonly treated with platinum-based chemotherapy which, although attaining high initial objective responses, has a limited impact on survival. Due to the dismal prognosis of SCLC, novel and more effective treatment strategies are urgently needed. A deeper characterization of the genomic landscape of SCLC has led to the development of rational and promising targeted agents. However, despite a large number of clinical trials, results have been disappointing and there are still no approved targeted drugs for SCLC. Recent comprehensive genomic studies suggest SCLC is a heterogeneous disease, characterized by genomic alterations targeting a broad variety of genes, including those involved in transcription regulation and chromatin modification which seem to be a hallmark of this specific lung cancer subtype. Current research efforts are focusing on further understanding of the cellular and molecular abnormalities underlying SCLC development, progression and resistance to chemotherapy. Unraveling the genomic complexity of SCLC could be the key to optimize existing treatments, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and for identifying those patients most likely to benefit from selected targeted therapeutic approaches.

  13. Definitive radiation therapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: Executive summary of an American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) evidence-based clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, George; Choy, Hak; Bradley, Jeffrey; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Bogart, Jeffrey; Curran, Walter J; Gore, Elizabeth; Langer, Corey; Louie, Alexander V; Lutz, Stephen; Machtay, Mitchell; Puri, Varun; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Videtic, Gregory M M

    2015-01-01

    To provide guidance to physicians and patients with regard to the use of definitive external beam radiation therapy (RT) in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA NSCLC) based on available medical evidence complemented by consensus-based expert opinion. A panel authorized by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Board of Directors and Guidelines Subcommittee conducted 3 systematic reviews on the following topics: (1) ideal radical RT dose fractionation for RT alone; (2) ideal radical RT dose fractionation for chemoradiation; and (3) ideal timing of radical radiation therapy with systemic chemotherapy. Practice guideline recommendations were approved using an a priori-defined consensus-building methodology supported by ASTRO and approved tools for the grading of evidence quality and the strength of guideline recommendations. For patients managed by RT alone, a minimum dose of 60 Gy of RT is recommended. Dose escalation beyond 60 Gy in the context of combined modality concurrent chemoradiation has not been found to be associated with any clinical benefits. In the context of combined modality therapy, chemotherapy and radiation should ideally be given concurrently to maximize survival, local control, and disease response rate. A consensus and evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the definitive radiotherapeutic management of LA NSCLC has been created that addresses 3 important questions. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adjuvant radiation therapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: Executive summary of an American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) evidence-based clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, George; Choy, Hak; Bradley, Jeffrey; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Bogart, Jeffrey; Curran, Walter J; Gore, Elizabeth; Langer, Corey; Louie, Alexander V; Lutz, Stephen; Machtay, Mitchell; Puri, Varun; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Videtic, Gregory M M

    2015-01-01

    To provide guidance to physicians and patients with regard to the use of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (RT) in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA NSCLC) based on available medical evidence complemented by consensus-based expert opinion. A panel authorized by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Board of Directors and Guidelines Subcommittee conducted 2 systematic reviews on the following topics: (1) indications for postoperative adjuvant RT and (2) indications for preoperative neoadjuvant RT. Practice guideline recommendations were approved using an a priori-defined consensus-building methodology supported by ASTRO and approved tools for the grading of evidence quality and the strength of guideline recommendations. For patients who have undergone surgical resection, high-level evidence suggests that use of postoperative RT does not influence survival, but optimizes local control for patients with N2 involvement, and its use in the setting of positive margins or gross primary/nodal residual disease is recommended. No high-level evidence exists for the routine use of preoperative induction chemoradiation therapy; however, modern surgical series and a post-hoc Intergroup 0139 clinical trial analysis suggest that a survival benefit may exist if patients are properly selected and surgical techniques/postoperative care is optimized. A consensus and evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the adjuvant radiotherapeutic management of LA NSCLC has been created addressing 2 important questions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving the quality of lung cancer care in Ontario: the lung cancer disease pathway initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William K; Ung, Yee C; Assouad, Nathalie; Chyjek, Anna; Sawka, Carol

    2013-07-01

    Before 2008, Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) undertook provincial cancer control quality-improvement initiatives on a programmatic basis. CCO has now added Disease Pathway Management (DPM) to its quality improvement strategy, with the intent of achieving high-quality care, processes, and patient experience across the patient pathway for specific cancers. The three goals of DPM are: to describe and share evidence-based best practice along the cancer continuum for specific cancers; identify quality-improvement priorities for specific cancers and catalyze action; monitor performance against best practice for specific cancers. The objective of this article is to describe the process by which the CCO lung cancer (LC) DPM was initiated and some of its early successes. In 2009, LC DPM began with a draft LC disease pathway map and the establishment of five multidisciplinary working groups, each focused on a phase of the LC patient journey: prevention, screening, and early detection; diagnosis; treatment; palliative care, end-of-life care, and survivorship; and patient experience. The working groups held 25 meetings of 2-hour duration and developed concepts for 17 quality-improvement projects across the patient journey. Eight were selected for detailed discussion at a provincial consensus conference, which provided input on priorities for action. A report on the priorities for action was prepared and widely circulated, and regional roadshows were held in all 14 regions of the province of Ontario. Region-specific data on incidence, stage, treatment compliance, and wait times among other issues relevant to LC, were shared with the regional care providers at these roadshows. Funding was provided by CCO to address opportunities for regional improvement based on the data and the priorities identified. The LC disease pathways were refined through substantial multidisciplinary discussion, and the diagnostic pathway was posted on CCO's Web site in February 2012. The treatment pathways

  16. Integrative genome analyses identify key somatic driver mutations of small-cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peifer, Martin; Fernandez-Cuesta, Lynnette; Sos, Martin L.; George, Julie; Seidel, Danila; Kasper, Lawryn H.; Plenker, Dennis; Leenders, Frauke; Sun, Ruping; Zander, Thomas; Menon, Roopika; Koker, Mirjam; Dahmen, Ilona; Mueller, Christian; Di Cerbo, Vincenzo; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Altmueller, Janine; Baessmann, Ingelore; Becker, Christian; de Wilde, Bram; Vandesompele, Jo; Boehm, Diana; Ansen, Sascha; Gabler, Franziska; Wilkening, Ines; Heynck, Stefanie; Heuckmann, Johannes M.; Lu, Xin; Carter, Scott L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Banerji, Shantanu; Getz, Gad; Park, Kwon-Sik; Rauh, Daniel; Gruetter, Christian; Fischer, Matthias; Pasqualucci, Laura; Wright, Gavin; Wainer, Zoe; Russell, Prudence; Petersen, Iver; Chen, Yuan; Stoelben, Erich; Ludwig, Corinna; Schnabel, Philipp; Hoffmann, Hans; Muley, Thomas; Brockmann, Michael; Engel-Riedel, Walburga; Muscarella, Lucia A.; Fazio, Vito M.; Groen, Harry; Timens, Wim; Sietsma, Hannie; Thunnissen, Erik; Smit, Egbert; Heideman, Danielle A. M.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Cappuzzo, Federico; Ligorio, Claudia; Damiani, Stefania; Field, John; Solberg, Steinar; Brustugun, Odd Terje; Lund-Iversen, Marius; Saenger, Joerg; Clement, Joachim H.; Soltermann, Alex; Moch, Holger; Weder, Walter; Solomon, Benjamin; Soria, Jean-Charles; Validire, Pierre; Besse, Benjamin; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Brambilla, Christian; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Lorimier, Philippe; Schneider, Peter M.; Hallek, Michael; Pao, William; Meyerson, Matthew; Sage, Julien; Shendure, Jay; Schneider, Robert; Buettner, Reinhard; Wolf, Juergen; Nuernberg, Peter; Perner, Sven; Heukamp, Lukas C.; Brindle, Paul K.; Haas, Stefan; Thomas, Roman K.

    2012-01-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive lung tumor subtype with poor prognosis(1-3). We sequenced 29 SCLC exomes, 2 genomes and 15 transcriptomes and found an extremely high mutation rate of 7.4 +/- 1 protein-changing mutations per million base pairs. Therefore, we conducted integrated

  17. Uranium mining and lung cancer among Navajo men in New Mexico and Arizona, 1969 to 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, F D; Hunt, W C; Pardilla, M; Key, C R

    2000-03-01

    Navajo men who were underground miners have excess risk of lung cancer. To further characterize the long-term consequences of uranium mining in this high-risk population, we examined lung cancer incidence among Navajo men residing in New Mexico and Arizona from 1969 to 1993 and conducted a population-based case-control study to estimate the risk of lung cancer for Navajo uranium miners. Uranium mining contributed substantially to lung cancer among Navajo men over the 25-year period following the end of mining for the Navajo Nation. Sixty-three (67%) of the 94-incident lung cancers among Navajo men occurred in former uranium miners. The relative risk for a history of mining was 28.6 (95% confidence interval, 13.2-61.7). Smoking did not account for the strong relationship between lung cancer and uranium mining. The Navajo experience with uranium mining is a unique example of exposure in a single occupation accounting for the majority of lung cancers in an entire population.

  18. Adsorption Properties of Typical Lung Cancer Breath Gases on Ni-SWCNTs through Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of useful information is contained in the human breath gases, which makes it an effective way to diagnose diseases by detecting the typical breath gases. This work investigated the adsorption of typical lung cancer breath gases: benzene, styrene, isoprene, and 1-hexene onto the surface of intrinsic and Ni-doped single wall carbon nanotubes through density functional theory. Calculation results show that the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorb on intrinsic single wall carbon nanotubes surface by weak physisorption. Besides, the density of states changes little before and after typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption. Compared with single wall carbon nanotubes adsorption, single Ni atom doping significantly improves its adsorption properties to typical lung cancer breath gases by decreasing adsorption distance and increasing adsorption energy and charge transfer. The density of states presents different degrees of variation during the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption, resulting in the specific change of conductivity of gas sensing material. Based on the different adsorption properties of Ni-SWCNTs to typical lung cancer breath gases, it provides an effective way to build a portable noninvasive portable device used to evaluate and diagnose lung cancer at early stage in time.

  19. Women and lung cancer: a comparison of active and passive smokers with nonexposed nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G H; Golish, J A; Cox, C E; Chacko, D C

    1994-01-01

    Prior to the 1920s, lung cancer was a rare disease. However, the current increase in lung cancer appears to parallel the increase in smoking for both men and women with a 30- to 50-year delay. National lung cancer deaths continue to rise, with over 168,000 total deaths estimated in 1992. Women are now showing higher percentage increases in lung cancer than men from active smoking. The data from the Erie County Study on Smoking and Health (ECSSH), a population study, were used to measure the effects of both active and passive smoking on women's lung cancer mortality. The three major categories of exposure (no known or minimal exposure, passive smoking exposed, and active smoking) were used in the analyses. The results from the population data in Erie County, PA, were based on 528 nonexposed nonsmoking women, 3138 exposed nonsmoking women, and 1747 smoking women. Deaths due to lung cancer as a percentage of total deaths excluding traumatic deaths were 0.2% for the nonexposed nonsmoking women, 0.9% for the exposed nonsmoking women, and 8.0% for women who smoked. The data showed that women smokers died of lung cancer at a rate 9 times greater than exposed nonsmokers and 42 times greater than nonexposed nonsmokers.

  20. A new biomarker panel in bronchoalveolar lavage for an improved lung cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribarri, María; Hormaeche, Itsaso; Zalacain, Rafael; Lopez-Vivanco, Guillermo; Martinez, Antonio; Nagore, Daniel; Ruiz-Argüello, M Begoña

    2014-10-01

    The enormous biological complexity and high mortality rate of lung cancer highlights the need for new global approaches for the discovery of reliable early diagnostic biomarkers. The study of bronchoalveolar lavage samples by proteomic techniques could identify new lung cancer biomarkers and may provide promising noninvasive diagnostic tools able to enhance the sensitivity of current methods. First, an observational prospective study was designed to assess protein expression differences in bronchoalveolar lavages from patients with (n = 139) and without (n = 49) lung cancer, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and subsequent protein identification by mass spectrometry. Second, validation of candidate biomarkers was performed by bead-based immunoassays with a different patient cohort (204 patients, 48 controls). Thirty-two differentially expressed proteins were identified in bronchoalveolar lavages, 10 of which were confirmed by immunoassays. The expression levels of APOA1, CO4A, CRP, GSTP1, and SAMP led to a lung cancer diagnostic panel that reached 95% sensitivity and 81% specificity, and the quantification of STMN1 and GSTP1 proteins allowed the two main lung cancer subtypes to be discriminated with 90% sensitivity and 57% specificity. Bronchoalveolar lavage represents a promising noninvasive source of lung cancer specific protein biomarkers with high diagnostic accuracy. Measurement of APOA1, CO4A, CRP, GSTP1, SAMP, and STMN1 in this fluid may be a useful tool for lung cancer diagnosis, although a further validation in a larger clinical set is required for early stages.

  1. Lung cancer in never smokers: disease characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallis, Athanasios G; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2013-12-01

    It is estimated that approximately 25% of all lung cancer cases are observed in never-smokers and its incidence is expected to increase due to smoking prevention programs. Risk factors for the development of lung cancer described include second-hand smoking, radon exposure, occupational exposure to carcinogens and to cooking oil fumes and indoor coal burning. Other factors reported are infections (HPV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis), hormonal and diatery factors and diabetes mellitus. Having an affected relative also increases the risk for lung cancer while recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with increased risk for lung cancer development in never smokers. Distinct clinical, pathology and molecular characteristics are observed in lung cancer in never smokers; more frequently is observed in females and adenocarcinoma is the predominant histology while it has a different pattern of molecular alterations. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Graphic Evolution Witness the Development of Lung Cancer Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer treatment has altered from conventional chemotherapy to targeted treatment, which now has been turned to the immunotherapy. Translational research has played an irreplaceable role during this progression which graphic evolution has witnessed. The evolution has gone through forest plot, KM-curve, waterfall plot, spider plot and timeline-area, showing us the refining concept and gradual process of lung cancer treatment undergoing from community towards individual. Even though the latest immunotherapy is getting increasingly hot, the result isn’t quite expected. Meanwhile, the limitations of conventional treatment still exist which require further research. This article will primarily illustrate the development of translational research of lung cancer via the aspect of curve evolution and analysis some abortive clinical trials in lung cancer surgery for inspiring the next graphic style and lung cancer treatment.

  3. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denzel Woode

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  4. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woode, Denzel; Shiomi, Takayuki; D’Armiento, Jeanine, E-mail: jmd12@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10033 (United States)

    2015-02-05

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  5. The analysis of volatile organic compounds biomarkers for lung cancer in exhaled breath, tissues and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishan; Hu, Yanjie; Wang, Di; Yu, Kai; Wang, Ling; Zou, Yingchang; Zhao, Cong; Zhang, Xuanlang; Wang, Ping; Ying, Kejing

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) biomarkers in breath provide a novel, noninvasive and quick approach to diagnosis lung cancer. The aim of the proposed study was to investigate the VOCs biomarkers in exhaled breath for lung cancer. The VOCs in exhaled breath of 88 lung cancer patients, 70 lung benign disease and 85 healthy people were analyzed by Solid Phase Micro Extraction - Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GCMS). Three types of lung cancer cells and 18 lung cancer patients' tissues were cultured in vitro. The VOCs in the headspace of these cultivations were analyzed as an evidence of production mechanism of the VOCs in breath. Three lung cancer diagnosis models were constructed respectively in exhaled breath samples using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Leave one out cross validation was employed to evaluate these models. 23 VOCs, whose areas under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) > 0.60 and p < 0.01, were confirmed as the VOCs biomarkers for lung cancer. Three diagnostic models based on 23 VOCs could easily discriminate lung cancer patients from controls with 96.47% sensitivity and 97.47% specificity. However, the discrimination between early stage and later stage lung cancer was not very obvious.

  6. Emerging roles of RAC1 in treating lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, T; Mao, X; Yin, J; Li, X; Chen, J; Zhu, T; Li, Q; Zhou, H; Liu, Z

    2017-04-01

    The Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1), a member of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases, is critical for many cellular activities, such as phagocytosis, adhesion, migration, motility, cell proliferation, and axonal growth. In addition, RAC1 plays an important role in cancer angiogenesis, invasion, and migration, and it has been reported to be related to most cancers, such as breast cancer, gastric cancer, testicular germ cell cancer, and lung cancer. Recently, the therapeutic target of RAC1 in cancer has been investigated. In addition, some investigations have shown that inhibition of RAC1 can reverse drug-resistance in non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding the role of RAC1 in lung cancer and the underlying mechanisms and discuss its value in clinical therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Differences in chemosensitivity between primary and paired metastatic lung cancer tissues: In vitro analysis based on the collagen gel droplet embedded culture drug test (CD-DST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Masahiko; Okami, Jiro; Maeda, Jun; Tokunaga, Toshiteru; Fujiwara, Ayako; Kodama, Ken; Imamura, Fumio; Kobayashi, Hisayuki

    2012-02-01

    To elucidate the differences in chemosensitivity to anticancer drugs between primary and metastatic lesions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, we examined the in vitro chemosensitivities of surgically resected NSCLC tissues. A total of 32 specimens were enrolled: 26 specimens of primary lesions paired with metastases in the lymph node, 3 specimens of primary lesions paired with metastases in the adrenal gland, and 3 specimens of primary lesions paired with metastases in the lung. The collagen gel droplet embedded culture drug test (CD-DST) was applied to examine the sensitivity of the tissues to anticancer drugs, including cisplatin, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, docetaxel and 5-fluorouracil. The degree of in vitro sensitivity to each anticancer drug varied between the primary and metastatic lesions. The sensitivity of the paired metastatic lesions was significantly lower than that of the primary lesions only for gemcitabine (P=0.029), vinorelbine (P=0.012), and docetaxel (P=0.009). The incidence of cases diagnosed as CD-DST-sensitive among the paired metastatic lesions was significantly lower than that for the primary lesions for vinorelbine (P=0.035) or docetaxel (P=0.022). The difference in the sensitivity to gemcitabine between the primary and paired non-lymphatic metastases was clearer than that between the primary lesion and paired lymph node metastases. The sensitivities of the paired metastatic lesions to some anticancer drugs were significantly lower than those of the primary lesions. When performing chemotherapy based on CD-DST data using primary tumors from patients with postoperative recurrence, an appropriate regimen can be selected by carefully considering these differences.

  8. Immune and Inflammatory Cell Composition of Human Lung Cancer Stroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G-Andre Banat

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the abnormal microenvironment of tumors may play a critical role in carcinogenesis, including lung cancer. We comprehensively assessed the number of stromal cells, especially immune/inflammatory cells, in lung cancer and evaluated their infiltration in cancers of different stages, types and metastatic characteristics potential. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung cancer tissue arrays containing normal and lung cancer sections was performed. This analysis was combined with cyto-/histomorphological assessment and quantification of cells to classify/subclassify tumors accurately and to perform a high throughput analysis of stromal cell composition in different types of lung cancer. In human lung cancer sections we observed a significant elevation/infiltration of total-T lymphocytes (CD3+, cytotoxic-T cells (CD8+, T-helper cells (CD4+, B cells (CD20+, macrophages (CD68+, mast cells (CD117+, mononuclear cells (CD11c+, plasma cells, activated-T cells (MUM1+, B cells, myeloid cells (PD1+ and neutrophilic granulocytes (myeloperoxidase+ compared with healthy donor specimens. We observed all of these immune cell markers in different types of lung cancers including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The numbers of all tumor-associated immune cells (except MUM1+ cells in stage III cancer specimens was significantly greater than those in stage I samples. We observed substantial stage-dependent immune cell infiltration in human lung tumors suggesting that the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role during lung carcinogenesis. Strategies for therapeutic interference with lung cancer microenvironment should consider the complexity of its immune cell composition.

  9. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  10. Computer Aided Diagnosis System for Early Lung Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Taher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer continues to rank as the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. One of the most promising techniques for early detection of cancerous cells relies on sputum cell analysis. This was the motivation behind the design and the development of a new computer aided diagnosis (CAD system for early detection of lung cancer based on the analysis of sputum color images. The proposed CAD system encompasses four main processing steps. First is the preprocessing step which utilizes a Bayesian classification method using histogram analysis. Then, in the second step, mean shift segmentation is applied to segment the nuclei from the cytoplasm. The third step is the feature analysis. In this step, geometric and chromatic features are extracted from the nucleus region. These features are used in the diagnostic process of the sputum images. Finally, the diagnosis is completed using an artificial neural network and support vector machine (SVM for classifying the cells into benign or malignant. The performance of the system was analyzed based on different criteria such as sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The evaluation was carried out using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the SVM classifier over other classifiers, with 97% sensitivity and accuracy as well as a significant reduction in the number of false positive and false negative rates.

  11. Relationship between nodule count and lung cancer probability in baseline CT lung cancer screening : The NELSON study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; Walter, Joan E.; Peters, Robin B.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; van der Aalst, Carlijn M.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; de Koning, Harry J.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the relationship between nodule count and lung cancer probability in baseline low-dose CT lung cancer screening. Materials and Methods: Included were participants from the NELSON trial with at least one baseline nodule (3392 participants [45% of screen-group], 7258 nodules).

  12. TP53 Mutations in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

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    Akira Mogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is frequently mutated in human cancers. Abnormality of the TP53 gene is one of the most significant events in lung cancers and plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of lung epithelial cells. Human lung cancers are classified into two major types, small cell lung cancer (SCLC and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The latter accounts for approximately 80% of all primary lung cancers, and the incidence of NSCLC is increasing yearly. Most clinical studies suggest that NSCLC with TP53 alterations carries a worse prognosis and may be relatively more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. A deep understanding of the role of TP53 in lung carcinogenesis may lead to a more reasonably targeted clinical approach, which should be exploited to enhance the survival rates of patients with lung cancer. This paper will focus on the role of TP53 in the molecular pathogenesis, epidemiology, and therapeutic strategies of TP53 mutation in NSCLC.

  13. Lung cancer radiosensitization by CMNa in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xia; Ouyang Xienong; Ji Hongbing; Chen Zhonghua; Yang Rujun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To probe into the radiosensitization effect of CMNa on lung tumor cell lines after γ-irradiation combined with γ-knife to treat patients suffering from lung cancer. Methods: 1. Cells of small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H446 and non-small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H596 irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays combined with or without CMNa were counted using trypan blue exclusion methods, and cell survival rate curves were depicted. 2. Patients suffering from lung cancer at different clinical stages were treated using γ-knife combined with or without CMNa, and the curative effect was evaluated 6 weeks after one cycle of treatment. Results: CMNa could significantly increase the sensitivity of lung cancer cell lines to γ-irradiation. Curative effect increased significantly by γ-knife treatment combined with CMNa i. e., the CR+PR rates for these two groups were 47.22% and 37.67% separately (P 0.05). Conclusion: CMNa could significantly increase the radiation sensitivity of lung cancer cell line cells in vitro and tumors in vivo, therefore, it could be used as a radiosensitization agent in clinical treatment of lung cancer. (authors)

  14. Guidelines for the treatment of lung cancer using radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Michael J.; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo; Gadia, Rafael; Motta, Rodrigo [Sociedade Brasileira de Radioterapia (SBR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this guideline is to evaluate the most appropriate radiotherapy technique to treat patients with lung cancer. Description of evidence collection method Through the elaboration of four relevant clinical questions related to the proposed theme, we sought to present the main evidences regarding safety, toxicity and effectiveness of the presented radiotherapy techniques. The study population consisted of male and female patients of all ages with lung cancer, regardless of histological type, staging or presence of comorbidities. For this, a systematic review of the literature was carried out in primary scientific databases (Medline – PubMed; Embase – Elsevier; Lilacs – Bireme; Cochrane Library – Record of Controlled Trials). All articles available through April 31, 2015 were considered. The search terms used in the research were: ((lung cancer) OR (lung carcinoma)) and (IMRT OR intensity modulation OR intensity modulated) and (conventional OR 2D OR two dimensional OR bidimensional OR standard OR conformal OR 3D OR tridimensional OR CRT OR three dimensional). The articles were selected based on critical evaluation using the instruments (scores) proposed by Jadad and Oxford. The references with greater degree of evidence were used. The recommendations were elaborated from discussions held with a drafting group composed of four members of the Brazilian Society of Radiotherapy. The guideline was reviewed by an independent group, which specializes in evidence-based clinical guidelines. After completion, the guideline was released for public consultation for 15 days, and the suggestions obtained were forwarded to the authors for evaluation and possible insertion in the final text. (author)

  15. Chinese Herbal Decoction Based on Syndrome Differentiation as Maintenance Therapy in Patients with Extensive-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer: An Exploratory and Small Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the treatment effect and treatment length of Chinese herbal decoction (CHD as maintenance therapy on patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC and to reflect the real syndrome differentiation (Bian Zheng practices of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Patients and Methods. Different CHDs were prescribed for each patient based on syndrome differentiation. The length of CHD treatment was divided into two phases for analyzing progression-free survival (PFS and postprogression survival (PPS. Results. Three hundred and fifty-seven CHDs were prescribed based on syndrome differentiation during the study period. Median PFS was significantly longer in patients who received CHD >3 months than patients who received CHD ≤3 months in the first phase (8.7 months versus 4.5 months; hazard ratio (HR, 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.41–0.99; P=0.0009. Median PPS was significantly longer in patients who received CHD >7 months than patients who received CHD ≤7 months in the second phase (11.7 months versus 5.1 months; HR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.90–2.74; P=0.002. Conclusion. CHD could improve PFS and PPS, which are closely related to treatment time and deepness of response of first-line therapy. In addition, CHD could improve body function and keep patients in a relatively stable state.

  16. Network-Based Logistic Classification with an Enhanced L1/2 Solver Reveals Biomarker and Subnetwork Signatures for Diagnosing Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Hui Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying biomarker and signaling pathway is a critical step in genomic studies, in which the regularization method is a widely used feature extraction approach. However, most of the regularizers are based on L1-norm and their results are not good enough for sparsity and interpretation and are asymptotically biased, especially in genomic research. Recently, we gained a large amount of molecular interaction information about the disease-related biological processes and gathered them through various databases, which focused on many aspects of biological systems. In this paper, we use an enhanced L1/2 penalized solver to penalize network-constrained logistic regression model called an enhanced L1/2 net, where the predictors are based on gene-expression data with biologic network knowledge. Extensive simulation studies showed that our proposed approach outperforms L1 regularization, the old L1/2 penalized solver, and the Elastic net approaches in terms of classification accuracy and stability. Furthermore, we applied our method for lung cancer data analysis and found that our method achieves higher predictive accuracy than L1 regularization, the old L1/2 penalized solver, and the Elastic net approaches, while fewer but informative biomarkers and pathways are selected.

  17. Application of serum SELDI proteomic patterns in diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shuan-ying; Xiao, Xue-yuan; Zhang, Wang-gang; Zhang, Li-juan; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Guoan; He, Da-cheng

    2005-01-01

    Currently, no satisfactory biomarkers are available to screen for lung cancer. Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/ionization Time-of- Flight Mass Spectrometry ProteinChip system (SELDI-TOF-MS) is one of the currently used techniques to identify biomarkers for cancers. The aim of this study is to explore the application of serum SELDI proteomic patterns to distinguish lung cancer patients from healthy individuals. A total of 208 serum samples, including 158 lung cancer patients and 50 healthy individuals, were randomly divided into a training set (including 11 sera from patients with stages I/II lung cancer, 63 from patients with stages III/IV lung cancer and 20 from healthy controls) and a blinded test set (including 43 sera from patients with stages I/II lung cancer, 41 from patients with stages III/IV lung cancer and 30 from healthy controls). All samples were analyzed by SELDI technology. The spectra were generated on weak cation exchange (WCX2) chips, and protein peaks clustering and classification analyses were made using Ciphergen Biomarker Wizard and Biomarker Pattern software, respectively. We additionally determined Cyfra21-1 and NSE in the 208 serum samples included in this study using an electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. Five protein peaks at 11493, 6429, 8245, 5335 and 2538 Da were automatically chosen as a biomarker pattern in the training set. When the SELDI marker pattern was tested with the blinded test set, it yielded a sensitivity of 86.9%, a specificity of 80.0% and a positive predictive value of 92.4%. The sensitivities provided by Cyfra21-1 and NSE used individually or in combination were significantly lower than that of the SELDI marker pattern (P < 0.005 or 0.05, respectively). Based on the results of the test set, we found that the SELDI marker pattern showed a sensitivity of 91.4% in the detection of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), which was significantly higher than that in the detection of small cell lung cancers (P < 0.05); The

  18. Lung Cancer and Multiple Neoplasms: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaszko, A; Świetlik, E; Doboszyńska, A; Szpruch, P; Luks, J

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years there has been an increase in the survival of cancer patients resulting from the advances in cancer management and improved detection of cancer in its early stages. The aim of the study was to analyze the frequency of multiple malignancies in a sample of hospitalized patients in Poland. We analyzed retrospectively the records of 1112 cancer patients hospitalized in the period of January 2013 - August 2014. The criterion for inclusion into the group of multiple malignancy patients was the presence of at least two different malignancies. We found 52 cases in which lung cancer accompanied different malignancies and 4 cases where the multiple malignancy was not associated with the respiratory system. Lung cancer was chronologically the first malignancy unravelled in 11 patients, the second in 39, and the third in 2. Other malignancies chronologically being the first to be unravelled in patients included the following: colorectal cancer in 8 patients, prostatic cancer in 6, renal cell carcinoma 4, and the subsequent: prostate cancer 4, bladder cancer 3, hematopoietic malignancies 3, and breast cancer 2. We conclude that patients with multiple malignancy account for 5.0 % of lung cancer patients. Lung cancer is more frequent as a second malignancy developing in patients with multiple malignancy. Synchronous cancers become apparent at older age than metachronous cancers.

  19. Societal savings in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer receiving bevacizumab-based versus non-bevacizumab-based treatments in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lister J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Johanna Lister,1 Sanja Stanisic,1 Klaus Kaier,2 Christian Hagist,2 Dmitry Gultyaev,1 Stefan Walzer31Analytica LA-SER International Inc, Lörrach, Germany; 2Research Centre for Generational Contracts, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 3F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Pharmaceuticals Division, Basel, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the savings accrued using bevacizumab-based treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer from the societal perspective, taking only public costs into account, in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.Methods: Societal costs were estimated by collecting and analyzing labor costs, carer costs, sickness benefits, disability benefits, and home care benefits. Cost inputs were derived from publicly available databases or from the published literature. Expert opinion was only used if no other source was available. Efficacy data from two randomized clinical trials were used. The time horizon in the health economic model was lifetime. Efficacy and costs were discounted by 3.5%. All main model parameters were tested in deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.Results: Mean incremental savings to society per patient ranged from €2277 in Italy to €4461 in Germany. The results were most sensitive to the change in proportion of patients working full-time and the proportion of patients who were able to return to work.Conclusion: This analysis shows that bevacizumab-based treatment in non-small-cell lung cancer is associated with more savings to society compared to standard chemotherapy in terms of increased productivity and decreased social benefits paid to patients who are able to work in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer, bevacizumab, chemotherapy, economic model, France, Germany, Italy, Spain

  20. Gemcitabine for the treatment of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer

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    Luca Toschi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Luca Toschi1, Federico Cappuzzo21Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Medical Oncology, Boston, MA, USA; 2Istituto Clinico Humanitas IRCCS, Department of Onco-Hematology, Rozzano, ItalyAbstract: Gemcitabine is a pyrimidine nucleoside antimetabolite agent which is active in several human malignancies, including nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Because of its acceptable toxicity profile, with myelosuppression being the most common adverse event, gemcitabine can be safely combined with a number of cytotoxic agents, including platinum derivatives and new-generation anticancer compounds. In fact, the combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin is a first-line treatment for patients with advanced NSCLC, pharmacoeconomic data indicating that it represents the most cost-effective regimen among platinum-based combinations with thirdgeneration cytotoxic drugs. The drug has been investigated in the context of nonplatinum-based regimens in a number of prospective clinical trials, and might provide a suitable alternative for patients with contraindications to platinum. Recently, gemcitabine-based doublets have been successfully tested in association with novel targeted agents with encouraging results, providing further evidence for the role of the drug in the treatment of NSCLC. In the last few years several attempts have been pursued in order to identify molecular predictors of gemcitabine activity, and recent data support the feasibility of genomic-based approaches to customize treatment with the ultimate goal of improving patient outcome.Keywords: gemcitabine, chemotherapy, pharmacoeconomics, nonsmall cell lung cancer

  1. Interleukin-6 blockade attenuates lung cancer tissue construction integrated by cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Koyanagi-Aoi, Michiyo; Otani, Kyoko; Zen, Yoh; Maniwa, Yoshimasa; Aoi, Takashi

    2017-09-26

    In the present study, we successfully generated lung cancer stem cell (CSC)-like cells by introducing a small set of transcription factors into a lung cancer cell line. In addition to properties that are conventionally referred to as CSC properties, the lung induced CSCs exhibited the ability to form lung cancer-like tissues in vitro with vascular cells and mesenchymal stem cells, which showed structures and immunohistological patterns that were similar to human lung cancer tissues. We named them "lung cancer organoids". We found that interleukin-6 (IL-6), which was expressed in the lung induced CSCs, facilitates the formation of lung cancer organoids via the conversion of mesenchymal stem cells into alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA)-positive cells. Interestingly, the combination of anti-IL-6 antibody and cisplatin could destroy the lung cancer organoids, while cisplatin alone could not. Furthermore, IL-6 mRNA-positive cancer cells were found in clinical lung cancer samples. These results suggest that IL-6 could be a novel therapeutic target in lung cancer.

  2. Antitumor Effects of Laminaria Extract Fucoxanthin on Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, ChengHan; Zhou, ShunChang; Zhu, Lin; Ming, JiaXiong; Zeng, FanDian; Xu, Rong

    2017-02-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type. Marine plants provide rich resources for anticancer drug discovery. Fucoxanthin (FX), a Laminaria japonica extract, has attracted great research interest for its antitumor activities. Accumulating evidence suggests anti-proliferative effects of FX on many cancer cell lines including NSCLCs, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we confirmed molecular mechanisms and in vivo anti-lung cancer effect of FX at the first time. Flow cytometry, real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that FX arrested cell cycle and induced apoptosis by modulating expression of p53, p21, Fas, PUMA, Bcl-2 and caspase-3/8. These results show that FX is a potent marine drug for human non-small-cell lung cancer treatment.

  3. Antitumor Effects of Laminaria Extract Fucoxanthin on Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChengHan Mei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is the most common type. Marine plants provide rich resources for anticancer drug discovery. Fucoxanthin (FX, a Laminaria japonica extract, has attracted great research interest for its antitumor activities. Accumulating evidence suggests anti-proliferative effects of FX on many cancer cell lines including NSCLCs, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we confirmed molecular mechanisms and in vivo anti-lung cancer effect of FX at the first time. Flow cytometry, real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that FX arrested cell cycle and induced apoptosis by modulating expression of p53, p21, Fas, PUMA, Bcl-2 and caspase-3/8. These results show that FX is a potent marine drug for human non-small-cell lung cancer treatment.

  4. Lung cancer epidemiology and risk factors in Asia and Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, W.K.; White, N.W.; Chan-Yeung, M.M. [University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2004-07-01

    In Industrialized Countries, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer among males and it is growing among females. For both sexes, rates reflect smoking behaviours. The pattern appears to be different in Asia, particularly in China, where lung cancer rates in men reflect high smoking rates but high rates among non-smoking women appear to be related to other factors. The incidence of lung cancer is low in most African countries, but it is increasing. In addition to tobacco smoking, a number of aetiological factors have been identified for lung cancer: indoor exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, cooking oil vapour, coal burning or radon, outdoor air pollution and occupational exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens. Recent studies have shown that dietary factors may be important, with high consumption of vegetables and fruits being protective, while preserved foods and fatty foods are harmful, and certain infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, human papillomavirus and Microsporum canis are associated with a high risk of lung cancer. Among non-smokers, the probable role of genetic predisposition in lung cancer by increasing the individual's susceptibility to environmental carcinogens is currently being studied actively. As the single most important cause for lung cancer is tobacco smoke and, with increased sales, a major epidemic is predicted for both Asia and Africa, all health care professionals, government health authorities and national and international health organizations must join in a concerted effort against tobacco. 135 refs.

  5. Lung cancer and angiogenesis imaging using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoxia; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X; Sun Jianqi; Gu Xiang; Liu Ping; Xiao Tiqiao

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer is the key to a cure, but a difficult task using conventional x-ray imaging. In the present study, synchrotron radiation in-line phase-contrast imaging was used to study lung cancer. Lewis lung cancer and 4T1 breast tumor metastasis in the lung were imaged, and the differences were clearly shown in comparison to normal lung tissue. The effect of the object-detector distance and the energy level on the phase-contrast difference was investigated and found to be in good agreement with the theory of in-line phase-contrast imaging. Moreover, 3D image reconstruction of lung tumor angiogenesis was obtained for the first time using a contrast agent, demonstrating the feasibility of micro-angiography with synchrotron radiation for imaging tumor angiogenesis deep inside the body.

  6. Prognostic classifications of lymph node involvement in lung cancer and current International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer descriptive classification in zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquet, Marc; Arame, Alex; Foucault, Christophe; Le Pimpec Barthes, Françoise

    2010-09-01

    The lymphatic drainage of solid organ tumors crosses through the lymph nodes (LNs) whose tumoral involvement may still be considered as local disease. Concerning lung cancer, LN involvement may be intrapulmonary (N1), and mediastinal and/or extra-thoracic. More than 30 years ago, mediastinal involved LNs were all considered as N2, and outside the scope of surgery. In 1978, Naruke presented an original article entitled 'Lymph node mapping and curability at various levels of metastasis in resected lung cancer', demonstrating that N2 was not a contraindication to surgery in all patients. The map permitted to localize the favorable N2 on the lung cancer ipsilateral side of the mediastinum. Several maps ensued aiming to discriminate between right and left involvement (1983), and to distinguish N2 (ipsilateral) and N3 (contralateral) mediastinal LN involvement (1983, 1986). The last map (1997 regional LN classification) was recently replaced by a descriptive classification in anatomical zones. This new LN map of the TNM classification for lung cancer is a step toward using anatomical view points which might be the best way to better understand lung cancer lymphatic spread. Nowadays, the LNs are easily identified by current radiological imaging, and their resectability may be anticipated. Each LN chain may be removed by en-bloc lymphadenectomy performed during radical lung resection, a safe procedure which seems to be more oncological based than sampling, and which avoids the source of discrepancies pointed out during the labeling of LN stations by surgeons.

  7. Lung Cancer Mortality in Tuscany from 1971 to 2010 and Its Connections with Silicosis: A Space-Cohort Analysis Based on Shared Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Dreassi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung c