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Sample records for based lifestyle modification

  1. Clients' experiences of a community based lifestyle modification program: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ruth S M; Lok, Kris Y W; Sea, Mandy M M; Woo, Jean

    2009-10-01

    There is little information about how clients attending lifestyle modification programs view the outcomes. This qualitative study examined the clients' experience of a community based lifestyle modification program in Hong Kong. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 clients attending the program. Clients perceived the program had positive impacts on their health and nutrition knowledge. They experienced frustration, negative emotion, lack of motivation, and pressure from others during the program. Working environment and lack of healthy food choices in restaurants were the major perceived environmental barriers for lifestyle modification. Clients valued nutritionists' capability of providing professional information and psychological support in the program. Our results suggest that nutritionist's capability of providing quality consultations and patient-centered care are important for empowering clients achieve lifestyle modification.

  2. Clients’ Experiences of a Community Based Lifestyle Modification Program: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Woo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There is little information about how clients attending lifestyle modification programs view the outcomes. This qualitative study examined the clients’ experience of a community based lifestyle modification program in Hong Kong. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 clients attending the program. Clients perceived the program had positive impacts on their health and nutrition knowledge. They experienced frustration, negative emotion, lack of motivation, and pressure from others during the program. Working environment and lack of healthy food choices in restaurants were the major perceived environmental barriers for lifestyle modification. Clients valued nutritionists’ capability of providing professional information and psychological support in the program. Our results suggest that nutritionist’s capability of providing quality consultations and patient-centered care are important for empowering clients achieve lifestyle modification.

  3. Frequency of different lifestyle modification measures among patients with GERD based on monthly income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philumena; Khan, Mahnoor Saeed; Naseem, Sajida

    2017-11-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out at Shifa International Hospital Islamabad over a period of 6 months, to determine the frequency and compare the different lifestyle modifications among patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) of different monthly income groups. Two hundred patients of GERD were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups based on monthly income less than and more than Rs. 30,000 respectively. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Chi-square test was applied keeping p-value modifications to reduce GERD symptoms and stop sole reliance on medications.

  4. Mobile application to induce lifestyle modifications in type 2 diabetic patients: prototype based on international guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jaramillo, M.; Delgado, J. S.; León-Vargas, F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a prototype app to induce lifestyle modifications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. The app design is based on International Diabetes Federation guidelines and recommendations from clinical studies related to diabetes health-care. Two main approaches, lifestyle modification and self-management education are used owing to significant benefits reported. The method used is based on setting goals under medical support related to physical activity, nutritional habits and weight loss, in addition to educational messages. This is specially implemented to address the main challenges that have limited the success of similar mobile applications already validated on diabetic patients. A traffic light is used to show the overall state of the goals compliance. This state could be understood as excellent (green), there are aspects to improve (yellow), or some individual goals are not carrying out (red). An example of how works this method is presented in results. Furthermore, the app provides recommendations to the user in case the overall state was in yellow or red. The recommendations pretend to induce the user to make changes in their eating habits and physical activity. According to international guidelines and clinical studies, a prototype of mobile application to induce a lifestyle modification in order to prevent adverse risk factors related to diabetes was presented. The resulting application is apparently consistent with clinical judgments, but a formal clinical validation is required. The effectiveness of this app is currently under consideration for the Colombian population with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Implementation of Lifestyle Modification Program Focusing on Physical Activity and Dietary Habits in a Large Group, Community-Based Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Falcon, Ashley; Arheart, Kris; Stasi, Selina; Portacio, Francia; Stepanenko, Bryan; Lan, Mary L.; Castruccio-Prince, Catarina; Nackenson, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modification programs improve several health-related behaviors, including physical activity (PA) and nutrition. However, few of these programs have been expanded to impact a large number of individuals in one setting at one time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a PA- and nutrition-based lifestyle…

  6. Assessment of lifestyle modification measures and their effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: life style modification measures are essential in glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. This study compared the effect of lifestyle modification measures on adult type 2 diabetes patients who were on hypoglycemic and lifestyle measures and those on hypoglycemic alone. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study ...

  7. A pilot trial of body weight reduction for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with a home-based lifestyle modification intervention delivered in collaboration with interdisciplinary medical staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oza, Noriko; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Mizuta, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate a 6-month home-based lifestyle modification intervention delivered in collaboration with physicians, hygienists, registered dietitians, and nurses. Outpatients with NAFLD diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography were eligible for this study. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan evaluated liver fat deposition by the liver-spleen ratio (L/S ratio) and visceral fat accumulation as the visceral fat area (VFA; cm 2 ). During the 6-month home-based lifestyle modification intervention, each patient was examined by physicians, nurses, hygienists, and registered dietitians, who provided individualized advice to the patients. Patients recorded their daily weight for self-control of weight with recommended diet and exercise regimens. Sixty-seven NAFLD patients were enrolled in this study and 22 patients (32.8%) completed the 6-month intervention. Nineteen of the 22 patients achieved significant improvements in body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, VFA, L/S ratio, and systolic blood pressure, with improved laboratory data. Overall, 39 patients withdrew from the intervention. The mean age of the patients who withdrew was 50.0±11.0 years, which was significantly younger than that of the patients who were followed up (60.1±10.1 years; P<0.01). The reduction in body weight achieved by NAFLD patients during the 6-month intervention was associated with improved fat deposition and liver function. This intervention offers a practical approach for treating a large number of NAFLD patients with lifestyle modification therapy. (author)

  8. Effectiveness of participatory adolescent strategic health action (PASHA for lifestyle modification among adolescents

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    Asha P Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lifestyle modification is one of the methods to promote healthy lifestyle among adolescents. In this study, the researcher planned to develop, implement and evaluate a need based Participatory Adolescent Strategic Health Action (PASHA for lifestyle modification among selected adolescents. Materials and Methods: An evaluative approach with Quasi experimental one group pretest post test design (time series was adopted. Sample constituted 103 adolescents, aged 12-17 years studying in high schools and pre university colleges of Udupi district selected based on convenient sampling. Data was gathered using reliable and valid tools. Results: The mean combined preventive health lifestyle score among all adolescents increased from 75.65-81.56. Similarly the number of adolescents with healthy lifestyle score also increased from 28.2-53.4% after practicing for 180 days. Analysis of all the components of lifestyle showed that the adolescents had adopted healthy lifestyle practices in all the components of lifestyle. The number of adolescents with combined health status score also showed an increase from 31.1-54.4% after implementing PASHA practice. Analysis of reported outcome among subjects indicated that PASHA was motivating to improve their lifestyle practices. Conclusion: PASHA was found to be effective in lifestyle modification of adolescents. It is reiterated that when lifestyle modification is to be done, a strategy to improve self directedness and self efficacy should be adopted.

  9. Lifestyle modification in the management of the metabolic syndrome: achievements and challenges

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    Marchesini G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Riccardo Dalle Grave1, Simona Calugi1, Elena Centis2, Rebecca Marzocchi2, Marwan El Ghoch1, Giulio Marchesini21Department of Eating & Weight Disorder, Villa Garda Hospital, Garda (VR, Italy; 2Unit of Metabolic Diseases & Clinical Dietetics, Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Lifestyle modification based on behavior therapy is the most important and effective strategy to manage the metabolic syndrome. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioral and cognitive strategies. The intervention may be delivered face-to-face or in groups, or in groups combined with individual sessions. The main challenge of treatment is helping patients maintain healthy behavior changes in the long term. In the last few years, several strategies have been evaluated to improve the long-term effect of lifestyle modification. Promising results have been achieved by combining lifestyle modification with pharmacotherapy, using meals replacement, setting higher physical activity goals, and long-term care. The key role of cognitive processes in the success/failure of weight loss and maintenance suggests that new cognitive procedures and strategies should be included in the traditional lifestyle modification interventions, in order to help patients build a mind-set favoring long-term lifestyle changes. These new strategies raise optimistic expectations for an effective treatment of metabolic syndrome with lifestyle modifications, provided public health programs to change the environment where patients live support them.Keywords: metabolic syndrome, obesity, lifestyle modification, cognitive behavior therapy

  10. Lifestyle modification and progressive renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Eberhard; Schwenger, Vedat

    2005-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that lifestyle factors impact on the risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the risk of progression of CKD. Equally important is the consideration that patients with CKD are more likely to die from cardiovascular disease than to reach the stage of end-stage renal failure. It is advantageous that manoeuvres that interfere with progression at the same time also reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Lifestyle factors that aggravate progression include, among others, smoking, obesity and dietary salt intake. Alcohol consumption, according to some preliminary information, has a bimodal relationship to cardiovascular risk and progression, with moderate consumption being protective.

  11. Lifestyle modification in the management of the metabolic syndrome: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Centis, Elena; Marzocchi, Rebecca; El Ghoch, Marwan; Marchesini, Giulio

    2010-11-02

    Lifestyle modification based on behavior therapy is the most important and effective strategy to manage the metabolic syndrome. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioral and cognitive strategies. The intervention may be delivered face-to-face or in groups, or in groups combined with individual sessions. The main challenge of treatment is helping patients maintain healthy behavior changes in the long term. In the last few years, several strategies have been evaluated to improve the long-term effect of lifestyle modification. Promising results have been achieved by combining lifestyle modification with pharmacotherapy, using meals replacement, setting higher physical activity goals, and long-term care. The key role of cognitive processes in the success/failure of weight loss and maintenance suggests that new cognitive procedures and strategies should be included in the traditional lifestyle modification interventions, in order to help patients build a mind-set favoring long-term lifestyle changes. These new strategies raise optimistic expectations for an effective treatment of metabolic syndrome with lifestyle modifications, provided public health programs to change the environment where patients live support them.

  12. Lifestyle modification in the management of the metabolic syndrome: achievements and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Dalle Grave; Simona Calugi; Elena Centis; et al

    2010-01-01

    Riccardo Dalle Grave1, Simona Calugi1, Elena Centis2, Rebecca Marzocchi2, Marwan El Ghoch1, Giulio Marchesini21Department of Eating & Weight Disorder, Villa Garda Hospital, Garda (VR), Italy; 2Unit of Metabolic Diseases & Clinical Dietetics, Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Lifestyle modification based on behavior therapy is the most important and effective strategy to manage the metabolic syndrome. Modern lifestyle modification t...

  13. Perception and practice of lifestyle modification in the management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension ranks first among the non-communicable diseases in Nigeria and globally. Interventions like lifestyle modifications, with its advantages, are often overlooked. Awareness and practice of these measures will aid in blood pressure control. Aim : To assess the level of awareness and practice of ...

  14. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding lifestyle modification in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry I. Okonta

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Despite the positive attitudes of respondents toward healthy lifestyle modifications, the knowledge and practice regarding lifestyle modifications amongst type 2 diabetes mellitus participants seen at Mamelodi hospital were generally poor.

  15. Metformin and lifestyle modification in polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderpoor, Negar; Shorakae, Soulmaz; de Courten, Barbora; Misso, Marie L; Moran, Lisa J; Teede, Helena J

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder with diverse reproductive and metabolic features. It is underpinned by insulin resistance that is exacerbated by obesity. Lifestyle modification is the first line treatment in PCOS, but it is associated with low adherence and sustainability. In small studies, metformin improves outcomes such as hyperinsulinaemia, ovulation and menstrual cyclicity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of lifestyle modification + metformin with lifestyle modification ± placebo, and of metformin alone with lifestyle modification ± placebo in PCOS on anthropometric, metabolic, reproductive and psychological outcomes. Databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Clinical Trials registry and ANZCTR were searched for RCTs conducted on humans and published in English up to August 2014. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of PCOS based on Rotterdam criteria (inclusive of National Institutes of Health criteria) at any age and with any BMI. Interventions of interest included lifestyle + metformin (with any dose and any duration) or metformin alone compared with lifestyle ± placebo. Of 2372 identified studies, 12 RCTs were included for analysis comprising 608 women with PCOS. Lifestyle + metformin were associated with lower BMI (mean difference (MD) -0.73 kg/m(2), 95% confidence intervals (CI) -1.14, -0.32, P = 0.0005) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (MD -92.49 cm(2), 95% CI -164.14, -20.84, P = 0.01) and increased number of menstrual cycles (MD 1.06, 95% CI 0.30, 1.82, P = 0.006) after 6 months compared with lifestyle ± placebo. There were no differences in other anthropometric, metabolic (surrogate markers of insulin resistance, fasting and area under the curve glucose, lipids and blood pressure), reproductive (clinical and biochemical hyperandrogenism), and psychological (quality of life) outcomes after 6 months between lifestyle + metformin compared with

  16. Efficacy of lifestyle modification for long-term weight control.

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    Wadden, Thomas A; Butryn, Meghan L; Byrne, Kirstin J

    2004-12-01

    A comprehensive program of lifestyle modification induces loss of approximately 10% of initial weight in 16 to 26 weeks, as revealed by a review of recent randomized controlled trials, including the Diabetes Prevention Program. Long-term weight control is facilitated by continued patient-therapist contact, whether provided in person or by telephone, mail, or e-mail. High levels of physical activity and the consumption of low-calorie, portion-controlled meals, including liquid meal replacements, can also help maintain weight loss. Additional studies are needed of the effects of macronutrient content (e.g., low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diets) on long-term changes in weight and health. Research also is needed on effective methods of providing comprehensive weight loss control to the millions of Americans who need it.

  17. Determinants of Health Information Use for Self-Efficacy in Lifestyle Modification for Chronic Disease Patients

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    Ebele N. Anyaoku

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – Various efforts are being made to disseminate lifestyle modification information. What is the role of health information in building patients self-efficacy in lifestyle modification? The research examined level of access to lifestyle modification information for patients with chronic diseases in two Federal Government Teaching Hospitals in South East Nigeria. It explored the relationship between self-efficacy and access to lifestyle modification information and also factors that are associated with self-efficacy when patients have access to lifestyle modification information. Methods – The research is a cross-sectional correlation study that used a questionnaire to collect data. (See Appendix A. Sample was 784 patients with chronic diseases. Questionnaires were distributed to the patients as they attended clinics in the medical and surgical outpatients’ clinics of the hospitals. Results – Findings showed access to lifestyle modification information was significantly and positively correlated with self-efficacy. Multiple Regression analysis suggest that age, type of illness, and length of treatment in the teaching hospitals were associated with self-efficacy when patients have access to lifestyle modification information. Conclusion – It will be pertinent that demographic and disease factors are considered when making lifestyle modification information available to patients for greater self-efficacy.

  18. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding lifestyle modification in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonta, Henry I; Ikombele, John B; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A

    2014-12-09

    The number of persons suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus continues to rise worldwide and causes significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing world. Behaviour change and adoption of healthy lifestyle habits help to prevent or slow down the complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the knowledge and practice of healthy lifestyles in many diabetic patients have been inadequate. This study sought to establish the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding lifestyle modification amongst type 2 diabetic patients. The diabetic clinic of Mamelodi hospital, Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa. A cross-sectional study was done using a structured questionnaire amongst 217 type 2 diabetic patients seen at the diabetic clinic of Mamelodi hospital. Baseline characteristics of the participants were obtained and their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding lifestyle modification were assessed. Of the 217 participants, 154 (71%) were obese and 15 (7%) were morbidly obese. The majority of respondents (92.2%) had poor knowledge of the benefits of exercise, weight loss and a healthy diet. What is interesting is that the majority (97.7%) demonstrated bad practices in relation to lifestyle modifications, although over four-fifths (84.3%) had a positive attitude toward healthy lifestyle modifications. Despite the positive attitudes of respondents toward healthy lifestyle modifications, the knowledge and practice regarding lifestyle modifications amongst type 2 diabetes mellitus participants seen at Mamelodi hospital were generally poor.

  19. Lifestyle modification: A primary prevention approach to colorectal cancer

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    Early detection of cancer through screening is an important step in decreasing both morbidity and mortality. Likewise, specific modifiable lifestyle behaviors are associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Lifestyle practices have also been shown to maximize health after the primary treatmen...

  20. Internet interventions to support lifestyle modification for diabetes management: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Alexander P; Durant, Nefertiti; Agne, April A; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2014-01-01

    The Internet presents a widely accessible, 24-h means to promote chronic disease management. The objective of this review is to identify studies that used Internet based interventions to promote lifestyle modification among adults with type 2 diabetes. We searched PubMed using the terms: [internet, computer, phone, smartphone, mhealth, mobile health, web based, telehealth, social media, text messages] combined with [diabetes management and diabetes control] through January 2013. Studies were included if they described an Internet intervention, targeted adults with type 2 diabetes, focused on lifestyle modification, and included an evaluation component with behavioral outcomes. Of the 2803 papers identified, nine met inclusion criteria. Two studies demonstrated improvements in diet and/or physical activity and two studies demonstrated improvements in glycemic control comparing web-based intervention with control. Successful studies were theory-based, included interactive components with tracking and personalized feedback, and provided opportunities for peer support. Website utilization declined over time in all studies that reported on it. Few studies focused on high risk, underserved populations. Web-based strategies provide a viable option for facilitating diabetes self-management. Future research is needed on the use of web-based interventions in underserved communities and studies examining website utilization patterns and engagement over time. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle modification versus metformin therapy for the prevention of diabetes in Singapore.

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    May Ee Png

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Singapore, as diabetes is an increasingly important public health issue, the cost-effectiveness of pursuing lifestyle modification programs and/or alternative prevention strategies is of critical importance for policymakers. While the US Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP compared weight loss through lifestyle modification with oral treatment of diabetes drug metformin to prevent/delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in pre-diabetic subjects, no data on either the actual or potential cost effectiveness of such a program is available for East or South-east Asian populations. This study estimates the 3-year cost-effectiveness of lifestyle modification and metformin among pre-diabetic subjects from a Singapore health system and societal perspective. METHODOLOGY: Cost effectiveness was analysed from 2010-2012 using a decision-based model to estimate the rates of getting diabetes, healthcare costs and health-related quality of life. Cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY was estimated using costs relevant to the time horizon of the study from Singapore. All costs are expressed in 2012 US dollars. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The total economic cost for non-diabetic subjects from the societal perspective was US$25,867, US$28,108 and US$26,177 for placebo, lifestyle modification and metformin intervention respectively. For diabetic patients, the total economic cost from the societal perspective was US$32,921, US$35,163 and US$33,232 for placebo, lifestyle modification and metformin intervention respectively. Lifestyle modification relative to placebo is likely to be associated with an incremental cost per QALY gained at US$36,663 while that of metformin intervention is likely to be US$6,367 from a societal perspective. CONCLUSION: Based on adaptation of the DPP data to local conditions, both lifestyle modification and metformin intervention are likely to be cost-effective and worth implementing in Singapore to prevent or delay the onset of type 2

  2. Physical activity and lifestyle modification in the reduction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... of cardiovascular disease and decreasing risk factors is to change unhealthy lifestyle habits. Due to the ... diet, blood pressure, hypokinetic disease, physical activity, and stress levels.

  3. The challenge of diet, exercise and lifestyle modification in the management of the obese diabetic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, J P; Poston, W S

    1999-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with many comorbid medical conditions including obesity, neuropathy, microvascular pathology and atherosclerotic arterial disease. Due to its complications and chronicity, reducing risk factors such as obesity and sedentary lifestyle through lifestyle modification is crucial to the long-term health of patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients must learn how to adopt lifelong, low-fat eating habits and regular activity patterns, with formal treatments focusing on weight loss, increased physical activity and low-fat, low-saturated fat diets. In this article we review the efficacy of lifestyle modification programmes for obese diabetic patients. In addition, we discuss barriers to lifestyle changes and methods for improving long-term adherence. Finally, we present information on how this approach has been adapted to a group of Mexican Americans in the USA, a population at high risk for type 2 diabetes, obesity and sedentary lifestyle.

  4. Lifestyle modification intervention among infertile overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Diane

    2014-06-01

    To implement an evidence-based lifestyle modification intervention, guided by motivational interviewing, among a sample of infertile overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome to increase chances of conception while improving overall health. A prospective quantitative design was utilized (n = 12). Infertile overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome at an infertility practice completed questionnaires to assess diet and exercise practices at study onset and completion. Body mass index and weight measurements were obtained on participants at study onset and completion of intervention. Menstrual history was assessed by interview. There was a mean weight loss (p = .005) of 7(±5) pounds although a 5% weight reduction did not occur. Mean daily calorie (p = .005), fat (p = .006), and carbohydrate intake (p = .014) were significantly reduced. Frequency in brisk walking exercise significantly increased (p = .024). Frequency in home or gym exercise increased (p = .050). Menstrual cyclicity improved by 50% among prior amenorrheic subjects. An evidence-based lifestyle modification guideline could prove to be a cost effective intervention for infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who desire pregnancy. This intervention could be integrated into the primary care and reproductive medicine visits as sole therapy or in conjunction with infertility treatment. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  5. Evidence of Lifestyle Modification in the Management of Hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannu, GS; Zaman, MJS; Gupta, A; HU, Rehman; Myint, PK

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The growth of ageing populations in developing countries with progressively urbanized lifestyles are major contributors. The key risk factors for CHD such as hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity are likely to increase in the future. These risk factors are modifiable through lifestyle. Objectives: To review current literature on the potential benefit of cholesterol lowering in CHD risk reduction with a particular focus on the evidence of non-pharmacological/lifestyle management of hypercholesterolemia. Methods: Medline/PubMed systematic search was conducted using a two-tier approach limited to all recent English language papers. Primary search was conducted using key words and phrases and all abstracts were subsequently screened and relevant papers were selected. The next tier of searching was conducted by (1) reviewing the citation lists of the selected papers and (2) by using PubMed weblink for related papers. Over 3600 reports were reviewed. Results: Target cholesterol levels set out in various guidelines could be achieved by lifestyle changes, including diet, weight reduction, and increased physical activity with the goal of reducing total cholesterol to hypercholesterolemia is an important cause of CHD. Non-pharmacological methods provide initial as well as long-term measures to address this issue. PMID:22998604

  6. Prediabetes and Lifestyle Modification: Time to Prevent a Preventable Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuso, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    More than 100 million Americans have prediabetes or diabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which individuals have blood glucose levels higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. People with prediabetes have an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes. An estimated 34% of adults have prediabetes. Prediabetes is now recognized as a reversible condition that increases an individual’s risk for development of diabetes. Lifestyle risk factors for prediabetes include overweight and physical inactivity. Increasing awareness and risk stratification of individuals with prediabetes may help physicians understand potential interventions that may help decrease the percentage of patients in their panels in whom diabetes develops. If untreated, 37% of the individuals with prediabetes may have diabetes in 4 years. Lifestyle intervention may decrease the percentage of prediabetic patients in whom diabetes develops to 20%. Long-term data also suggest that lifestyle intervention may decrease the risk of prediabetes progressing to diabetes for as long as 10 years. To prevent 1 case of diabetes during a 3-year period, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle intervention program. In addition, recent data suggest that the difference in direct and indirect costs to care for a patient with prediabetes vs a patient with diabetes may be as much as $7000 per year. Investment in a diabetes prevention program now may have a substantial return on investment in the future and help prevent a preventable disease. PMID:25102521

  7. Prediabetes and Lifestyle Modification: Time to Prevent a Preventable Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tuso, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    More than 100 million Americans have prediabetes or diabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which individuals have blood glucose levels higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. People with prediabetes have an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes. An estimated 34% of adults have prediabetes. Prediabetes is now recognized as a reversible condition that increases an individual’s risk for development of diabetes. Lifestyle risk factors for prediabetes include overweight a...

  8. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Management: Dietary and Lifestyle Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vi; George, Jacob

    2015-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of abnormalities that can range from bland liver fat (steatosis), to hepatic inflammation and liver injury (steatohepatitis). It is estimated that NAFLD will become the principal cause of liver disease in Western nations and the leading indication for liver transplantation. Advancements in disease recognition and management are therefore paramount. Although the development of new, reliable drug therapies is vital, lifestyle interventions remain the most effective treatment modality. In addition to weight loss as a primary measure of treatment success, there is growing recognition that other endpoints, including the prevention or delay of diabetes onset, reduced cardiovascular events, prevention of cancer, and improved overall mortality, are equally important outcomes that can be independently modified by lifestyle change. Moreover, NAFLD is inextricably part of a complex, systemic disease process that is linked with deeply entrenched maladaptive lifestyle behaviors. Thus, a holistic, multidisciplinary, and individualized approach to disease management will be the key to achieving any realistic population-level change. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Gene expression profiling during intensive cardiovascular lifestyle modification: Relationships with vascular function and weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Blackburn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease and related sequelae are a leading cause of death and healthcare expenditure throughout the world. Although many patients opt for surgical interventions, lifestyle modification programs focusing on nutrition and exercise have shown substantial health benefits and are becoming increasing popular. We conducted a year-long lifestyle modification program to mediate cardiovascular risk through traditional risk factors and to investigate how molecular changes, if present, may contribute to long-term risk reduction. Here we describe the lifestyle intervention, including clinical and molecular data collected, and provide details of the experimental methods and quality control parameters for the gene expression data generated from participants and non-intervention controls. Our findings suggest successful and sustained modulation of gene expression through healthy lifestyle changes may have beneficial effects on vascular health that cannot be discerned from traditional risk factor profiles. The data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus, series GSE46097 and GSE66175.

  10. Rational approaches to the treatment of hypertension: modification of lifestyle measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayarlioglu, Hayriye

    2013-12-01

    Hypertension is an important health problem. Informative counseling is required for patients to completely understand the importance of non-pharmacologic treatments. Lifestyle changes such as restriction of salt intake, exercise, restriction of alcohol intake, diet, and weight loss are included in all hypertension treatment guidelines. However, serious motivation is required from the patient and the physician to succeed in this. Although the decrease in blood pressure may be limited with these measures, lifestyle modifications should be continued.

  11. Non-adherence to life-style modification and its factors among type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shirin Jahan Mumu; Farzana Saleh; Ferdous Ara; Fadia Afnan; Liaquat Ali

    2014-01-01

    Non-adherence to preventive and therapeutic life-style recommendations among patients with diabetes is special challenge in the management of these patients. This study aimed to measure the proportion of non-adherence to life-style modification and factors associated with these among a group of Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients. Under an analytical cross-sectional design 374 type 2 diabetic patients (age >20 years), diagnosed for at least 1 year, were selected from different health care ce...

  12. Lifestyles Based on Health Components in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Lifestyle is a way employed by people, groups and nations and is formed in specific geographical, economic, political, cultural and religious texts. Health depends on lifestyle and is essential to preserve and promote health and improve lifestyle. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate lifestyle based on health-oriented components in Iran. Data Sources The research was conducted through E-banks including scientific information database (SID, Iran medical science databank (Iran Medex, Iran journal databank (Magiran and other databases such as Elsevier, PubMed and google scholar meta search engine regarding the subject from 2000 to 2014. Moreover, Official Iranian statistics and information were applied. The search terms used included lifestyle, health, health promoting behaviors, health-oriented lifestyle and lifestyle in Iran. Study Selection In the primary research, many papers were observed out of which 157 (120 in Farsi and 37 in English were selected. Data Extraction Following the careful study of these papers and excluding the unqualified papers, 19 papers with thorough information and higher relevance with the research purpose were selected. Results After examining articles based on the selected keywords and search strategies, 215 articles (134 in Farsi and 81 in English were obtained. Components of lifestyle and health are increasing in recent years; therefore, 8 (42% and 11 (58% articles were published during 2005 - 2010 and 2011 - 2014, respectively. Among them, there were 3 (16%, 8 (42%, 2 (10.5%, 2 (10.5% and 0 articles on the review of literature, descriptive-analytic, qualitative, analytic and descriptive articles, respectively. Conclusions Due to positive effect of healthy lifestyle on health promotion of individuals, it would be better for the government to provide comprehensive programs and policies in the society to enhance awareness of people about positive effects of health-oriented lifestyle on life and

  13. Pharmacy student self-perception of weight and relationship to counseling patients on lifestyle modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antworth, Allen; Maffeo, Carrie

    2014-03-12

    To assess the accuracy of pharmacy students' self-assessment of body mass index (BMI) and determine the relationship of this to comfort level in counseling patients regarding lifestyle modification. A prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted that included first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students who had previously undergone training in BMI self-assessment. Data on students' weight and height were collected and a survey that contained questions on self-perception of body weight and comfort with lifestyle counseling was conducted. Perceived BMI categories (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese) were then compared to actual calculated BMI to determine the accuracy of the student's self-perception. At baseline, participants' accuracy in self-assessment of BMI was 74%, 73.3%, and 75.6% respectively, for first-, second-, and third-year students (p=0.911). Students accuracy increased but not significantly as they progressed through the curriculum (7.2% and 13.3%, respectively; p=0.470 and p=0.209). Neither accuracy in self-assessment of BMI nor students' actual BMI significantly affected students' comfort level with lifestyle modification counseling within healthy weight, overweight, or obese patient categories. However, as the patients' BMI category increased, comfort level differences were observed among students of normal and overweight categories. Patients' BMI category may be a significant barrier to pharmacy students' comfort level in providing lifestyle modification counseling. This finding suggests the need to implement curriculum changes to better prepare students for lifestyle modification counseling.

  14. Adherence to Hypertension Management Recommendations for Patient Follow-Up Care and Lifestyle Modifications Made by Military Healthcare Providers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe military healthcare providers adherence to nationally recognized hypertensive patient guidelines concerning lifestyle modifications and follow-up instructions...

  15. Identifying molecular targets of lifestyle modifications in colon cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Marie Derry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One in four deaths in the United States is cancer-related, and colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Screening strategies are utilized but have not reduced disease incidence or mortality. In this regard, there is an interest in cancer preventive strategies focusing on lifestyle intervention, where specific etiologic factors involved in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression could be targeted. For example, exposure to dietary carcinogens, such as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influences colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, dietary deficiencies could alter sensitivity to genetic damage and influence carcinogen metabolism contributing to CRC. High alcohol consumption increases the risk of mutations including the fact that acetaldehyde, an ethanol metabolite, is classified as a group 1 carcinogen. Tobacco smoke exposure is also a risk factor for cancer development; ~20% of CRCs are associated with smoking. Additionally, obese patients have a higher risk of cancer development, which is further supported by the fact that physical activity decreases CRC risk by 55%. Similarly, chronic inflammatory conditions also increase the risk of CRC development. Moreover, the circadian clock alters digestion and regulates other biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes that could positively influence CRC. Taken together, colon carcinogenesis involves a number of etiological factors, and therefore, to create effective preventive strategies, molecular targets need to be identified and beleaguered prior to disease progression. With this in mind, the following is a comprehensive review identifying downstream target proteins of the above lifestyle risk factors, which are modulated during colon carcinogenesis and could be targeted for CRC prevention by novel agents including phytochemicals.

  16. Knowledge and Practice on lifestyle modifications among males with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Durai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2004, prevalence of hypertension was 25% in urban and 10% in rural population in India, leads to 57% of all stroke deaths and 42% of cardiovascular deaths.(1,2 Life style modifications control hypertension and prevent complications. Aims and Objectives: To find out the level of knowledge about life style modifications needed for control of blood pressure among males with hypertension and their current life style practice. Materials and methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among males with hypertension in the age group of 30-59 years who attended Hypertension Clinic of Medicine Outpatient Department in Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital, Porur, Chennai in November 2013 using an interview schedule. Result: Among 100 males with hypertension, 34% were in the age group of less than 50 years and 64% had hypertension for less than 5 years. Nearly 84% had knowledge about influence of smoking and alcohol on hypertension and 82% had knowledge about at least 3 dietary factors which control hypertension. About 70% of males were aware that more than 30 minutes of physical activity/day is needed to control hypertension. Currently 89% were physically active for more than 30 minutes/day, 72% did not consume alcohol, 89% were nonsmokers but 25% were adding extra salt in their diet and none of them increased fibre intake. Conclusion: Dietary modification practices were less among hypertensive males.

  17. Effects of controlled school-based multi-component model of nutrition and lifestyle interventions on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian Indian adolescents in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, N; Misra, A; Shah, P; Gulati, S

    2010-04-01

    To study the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention model of nutrition and lifestyle education on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian-Indian adolescents in North India. Two schools matched for student strength and middle socioeconomic strata were randomly allocated to intervention and control group. Changes in nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, lifestyle practices, food frequency and body image of eleventh-grade students (15-17 years) in both schools were tested using a validated questionnaire. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were made using standard methods. Segmental body composition analysis was carried out using an 8-electrode multifrequency bioelectrical impedance method of body fat estimation. At 6 months follow-up, significant improvement in several domains of knowledge was observed in intervention children (n=99; males=60; females=39) as compared with control school children (n=102; males=61; females=41). In the intervention group, significantly lower proportion of children consumed aerated drinks (15.1%; Phabits and lifestyle practices, and resulted in beneficial changes in anthropometric and biochemical profiles of the Asian Indian adolescents. This model should be applied on countrywide basis to prevent obesity and diabetes.

  18. Complementary Medicine, Exercise, Meditation, Diet, and Lifestyle Modification for Anxiety Disorders: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sarris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of complementary medicines and therapies (CAM and modification of lifestyle factors such as physical activity, exercise, and diet are being increasingly considered as potential therapeutic options for anxiety disorders. The objective of this metareview was to examine evidence across a broad range of CAM and lifestyle interventions in the treatment of anxiety disorders. In early 2012 we conducted a literature search of PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library, for key studies, systematic reviews, and metaanalyses in the area. Our paper found that in respect to treatment of generalized anxiety or specific disorders, CAM evidence revealed current support for the herbal medicine Kava. One isolated study shows benefit for naturopathic medicine, whereas acupuncture, yoga, and Tai chi have tentative supportive evidence, which is hampered by overall poor methodology. The breadth of evidence does not support homeopathy for treating anxiety. Strong support exists for lifestyle modifications including adoption of moderate exercise and mindfulness meditation, whereas dietary improvement, avoidance of caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine offer encouraging preliminary data. In conclusion, certain lifestyle modifications and some CAMs may provide a beneficial role in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  19. [Effects of a coaching program on comprehensive lifestyle modification for women with gestational diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jung Mi; Lee, Jong Kyung

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using a Coaching Program on Comprehensive Lifestyle Modification with pregnant women who have gestational diabetes. The research design for this study was a non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental study. Pregnant women with gestational diabetes were recruited from D women's hospital located in Gyeonggi Province from April to October, 2013. Participants in this study were 34 for the control group and 34 for the experimental group. The experimental group participated in the Coaching Program on Comprehensive Lifestyle Modification. The program consisted of education, small group coaching and telephone coaching over 4weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 21.0 program. There were significant improvements in self-care behavior, and decreases in depression, fasting blood sugar and HbA1C in the experimental group compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups for knowledge of gestational diabetes mellitus. The Coaching Program on Comprehensive Lifestyle Modification used in this study was found to be effective in improving self-care behavior and reducing depression, fasting blood sugar and HbA1C, and is recommended for use in clinical practice as an effective nursing intervention for pregnant women with gestational diabetes.

  20. The effect of lifestyle modification on physical fitness and work ability in different workstyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Matsushima, Yasuyuki; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2004-12-01

    It is generally considered that physical fitness is affected by daily life activities including leisure time activity and working time activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different levels of physical activity at work on physical fitness, analyze the effects of 12-week lifestyle modification outside of working hours on physical fitness, work satisfaction and subjective symptoms, and to consider the role of lifestyle modification in occupational health. Lifestyle modification, consisting of aerobic exercise and diet counseling, was conducted for 12 weeks. The data before and after the intervention from 49 male workers were obtained. Physical fitness such as exercise endurance, flexibility, agility, balance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and muscular power was measured before and after the intervention. The subjects were asked to fill out questionnaires about their work activities, subjective complaints, and work satisfaction. Subjects were divided into active work group (n = 14) and sedentary work group (n = 35) for analysis according to their work activities. As for differences in physical fitness due to different levels of physical activity, the active work group had superior exercise endurance and balance compared to the sedentary work group. In addition, the sedentary work group tended to experience greater fatigue than the active work group. In the active work group, flexibility and muscular strength were significantly increased with lifestyle modification and, in the sedentary work group, exercise endurance, flexibility and muscular endurance were significantly improved while balance also showed a tendency to improve. In the sedentary work group, lifestyle modification resulted in reduced fatigue and stiff neck as well as an increased work satisfaction. In the active work group, no change was observed in complaints or work satisfaction, but improved physical fitness led to a reduction in subjective complaints and an

  1. Lifestyle modification programmes for patients with coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, V.; Gucht, V. de; Dusseldorp, E.; Maes, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modification programmes for coronary heart disease patients have been shown to effectively improve risk factors and related health behaviours, quality of life, reincidence, and mortality. However, improvements in routine cardiac care over the recent years may offset the

  2. A randomized open-label comparative clinical study of effect of lifestyle modification and Shatapushpadya Churna on Agnimandya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Saylee; Vyas, Mahesh K; Dwivedi, R R; Vyas, Hitesh A

    2016-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases are expected to kill more people in the 21 st century which are the resultant of deranged lifestyle such as unhealthy dietary habits and wrong behavioral pattern. In Ayurveda, Ahara Vidhi (dietary rules) and Vihara (conducts) are described in detail which can be included under the heading of lifestyle. Agnimandya (indigestion) is considered as the root cause of all diseases like diabetes mellitus, obesity etc., which are few among the top ten lifestyle disorders. The present study is aimed at establishment of relationship between disturbances in lifestyle and Agnimandya and role of lifestyle modification in correcting the state of Agnimandya . The present study was carried out on 33 patients diagnosed with Agnimandya having disturbed lifestyle. Patients were divided into two groups with simple random sampling method. In Group A, lifestyle modification was advised with placebo capsules of wheat flour, while in Group B, patients were treated with 2 g of Shatapushpadya Churna for 2 weeks. Both the groups showed statistically highly significant results on majority of the symptoms of Agnimandya , however, Group A provided better effect than Group B. Lifestyle has definite role in the manifestation and treatment of Agnimandya .

  3. Management of Chronic Daily Headache and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities by Lifestyle Modification: Participatory Action Research Combining New Communication Media

    OpenAIRE

    Faizi, Fakhrudin; Tavallaee, Abbas; Rahimi, Abolfazl; Saghafinia, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Background Lifestyle modification has a significant role in chronic daily headache (CDH) management. Participatory action research (PAR) can play an important role in managing chronic medical conditions. However, it has been scarcely used in CDH management. Objectives This study aimed to empower patients with CDH to modify their lifestyle in order to reduce both their headache and related psychiatric co-morbidities in a multidisciplinary headache clinic at Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran, IR Ir...

  4. Effects of an eight-week supervised, structured lifestyle modification programme on anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Catherine; Gibson, Irene; Cunningham, Katie; Kerins, Claire; Costello, Caroline; Windle, Jane; O Shea, Paula M; Hynes, Mary; McGuire, Brian; Kilkelly, Katriona; Griffin, Helena; O Brien, Tim; Jones, Jenni; Finucane, Francis M

    2015-08-01

    Lifestyle modification is fundamental to obesity treatment, but few studies have described the effects of structured lifestyle programmes specifically in bariatric patients. We sought to describe changes in anthropometric and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of bariatric patients after participation in a nurse-led, structured lifestyle programme. We conducted a retrospective, observational cohort study of adults with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kgm(-2) (or ≥ 35 kgm(-2) with significant co-morbidity) who were attending a regional bariatric service and who completed a single centre, 8-week, nurse-led multidisciplinary lifestyle modification programme. Weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting glucose and lipid profiles as well as functional capacity (Incremental Shuttle Walk Test) and questionnaire-based anxiety and depression scores before and after the programme were compared in per-protocol analyses. Of 183 bariatric patients enrolled, 150 (81.9%) completed the programme. Mean age of completers was 47.9 ± 1.2 years. 34.7% were male. There were statistically significant reductions in weight (129.6 ± 25.9 v 126.9 ± 26.1 kg, p triglyceride levels, with an increase in functional capacity (5.9 ± 1.7 v 6.8 ± 2.1 metabolic equivalents of thermogenesis (METS), p structured lifestyle programme had improved adiposity, fitness, lipid profiles, psychosocial health, blood pressure and glycaemia. Further assessment of this programme in a pragmatic randomised controlled trial seems warranted.

  5. Sex Differences in Energy Metabolism Need to Be Considered with Lifestyle Modifications in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty N. Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Women have a higher proportion of body fat compared to men. However, women consume fewer kilojoules per kilogram lean mass and burn fat more preferentially during exercise compared with men. During gestation, women store even greater amounts of fat that cannot be solely attributed to increased energy intake. These observations suggest that the relationship between kilojoules consumed and kilojoules utilised is different in men and women. The reason for these sex differences in energy metabolism is not known; however, it may relate to sex steroids, differences in insulin resistance, or metabolic effects of other hormones such as leptin. When considering lifestyle modifications, sex differences in energy metabolism should be considered. Moreover, elucidating the regulatory role of hormones in energy homeostasis is important for understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and perhaps in the future may lead to ways to reduce body fat with less energy restriction.

  6. Non-adherence to life-style modification and its factors among type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumu, Shirin Jahan; Saleh, Farzana; Ara, Ferdous; Afnan, Fadia; Ali, Liaquat

    2014-01-01

    Non-adherence to preventive and therapeutic life-style recommendations among patients with diabetes is special challenge in the management of these patients. This study aimed to measure the proportion of non-adherence to life-style modification and factors associated with these among a group of Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients. Under an analytical cross-sectional design 374 type 2 diabetic patients (age >20 years), diagnosed for at least 1 year, were selected from different health care centers operated by the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: Diet (88%), exercise (25%), routine blood glucose testing (32%), foot care (70%), smoking (6%) and betel quid chewing habit (25%). Binary logistic regression suggests that higher education group (P = 0.013), rural area (P = 0.013) and attendance to diabetes education classes (P = 0.043) showed good adherence to diet and non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.014), older age (P = 0.037) are associated to non-adherence to exercise. Unemployed patients showed more non-adherence to blood glucose testing (P = 0.045) than others. Non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.037) and business occupation group (P = 0.039) showed significant association to smoking and betel quid intake habit respectively.

  7. Lifestyle modification and metformin as long-term treatment options for obese adolescents: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Margaret

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a serious health concern affecting over 155 million children in developed countries worldwide. Childhood obesity is associated with significantly increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and psychosocial functioning problems (i.e., depression and decreased quality of life. The two major strategies for management of obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities are lifestyle modification and pharmacologic therapy. This paper will provide the background rationale and methods of the REACH childhood obesity treatment program. Methods/design The REACH study is a 2-year multidisciplinary, family-based, childhood obesity treatment program. Seventy-two obese adolescents (aged 10-16 years and their parents are being recruited to participate in this randomized placebo controlled trial. Participants are randomized to receive either metformin or placebo, and are then randomized to a moderate or a vigorous intensity supervised exercise program for the first 12-weeks. After the 12-week exercise program, participants engage in weekly exercise sessions with an exercise facilitator at a local community center. Participants engage in treatment sessions with a dietitian and social worker monthly for the first year, and then every three months for the second year. The primary outcome measure is change in body mass index and the secondary outcome measures are changes in body composition, risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, changes in diet, physical activity, and psychosocial well-being (e.g., quality of life. It is hypothesized that participants who take metformin and engage in vigorous intensity exercise will show the greatest improvements in body mass index. In addition, it is hypothesized that participants who adhere to the REACH program will show improvements in body composition, physical activity, diet, psychosocial functioning and risk factor profiles for type 2

  8. Effects of an eight-week supervised, structured lifestyle modification programme on anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crowe, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Lifestyle modification is fundamental to obesity treatment, but few studies have described the effects of structured lifestyle programmes specifically in bariatric patients. We sought to describe changes in anthropometric and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of bariatric patients after participation in a nurse-led, structured lifestyle programme.

  9. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Lifestyle Modification on Metabolic Control in Overweight Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Shin-Yu Lien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to determine the effects of lifestyle modification programs on fasting plasma glucose (FPG levels in overweight children. We queried six relevant electronic databases and manually searched for studies published before December 2016. Overweight/obese children who underwent a lifestyle modification for more than 6 months were included. A total of 3923 children from eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. Compared with the control group, the lifestyle modification group had significantly lower FPG levels by 1.3 mg/dL. The mean differences were significantly decreased for both secondary outcomes; BMI z-score decreased by 0.16 units and insulin levels decreased by 2.4 mU/L. The metaregression showed that the follow-up duration was associated with FPG levels and BMI and insulin levels and half year is a suitable follow-up duration for this population. This study showed that lifestyle modification programs may be effective in reducing the FPG levels of overweight/obese children. Further high-quality RCTs with longer follow-up periods are needed to evaluate the long-term effect of this complementary approach for diabetes mellitus prevention on overweight/obese children.

  10. The CEMHaVi program: control, evaluation, and modification of lifestyles in obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Marchand, Frédéric; Fardy, Paul; Zunquin, Gautier; Loeuille, Guy-André; Renaut, Hervé; Mikulovic, Jacques; Hurdiel, Rémy; Béghin, Laurent; Theunynck, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Obesity in children has increased in recent years. Many studies with differing methodologies have been undertaken to treat obesity. The Control, Evaluation, and Modification of Lifestyles in Obese Youth (CEMHaVi) program is a unique 2-year health-wellness program of physical activity and health education for obese youth. Findings of this study represent results at 1-year follow-up. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the CEMHaVi program. Physician-referred subjects (N = 26) participated in the study, 14 girls (13.4 +/- 2.9 years) and 12 boys (12.3 +/- 2.8 years). Measurements included height, weight, body mass index (BMI), academic performance, sleep habits, and health knowledge. The intervention consisted of a unique program of physical activity, including a variety of games specifically selected to be enjoyable, maintain interest, and motivate subjects to adhere. Activity sessions were offered once per week, 2 hours each session, for 12 months. A health education program was offered once every 3 months for 2 hours per session. Health knowledge, academic performance, self-esteem, and sleep were assessed before and after the intervention. Means were calculated at baseline and following intervention and were compared by paired t tests. Findings suggest significant improvements in academic performance (P < .001), quality and quantity of sleep (P < .05), and obesity (P < .05). The program reduced BMI and improved health knowledge, sleep, and academic performance in obese children. The feasibility of a beneficial lifestyle intervention program is encouraging in addressing obesity and related issues in young boys and girls.

  11. Effect of Lifestyle Modification Using a Smartphone Application on Obesity With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Short-term, Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Woo; Wee, Jee Hye; Yoo, Sooyoung; Heo, Eunyoung; Ryu, Borim; Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Joong Seek; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2018-01-30

    To investigate the short-term effects of a lifestyle modification intervention based on a mobile application (app) linked to a hospital electronic medical record (EMR) system on weight reduction and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We prospectively enrolled adults (aged >20 years) with witnessed snoring or sleep apnea from a sleep clinic. The patients were randomized into the app user (n=24) and control (n=23) groups. The mobile app was designed to collect daily lifestyle data by wearing a wrist activity tracker and reporting dietary intake. A summary of the lifestyle data was displayed on the hospital EMR and was reviewed. In the control group, the lifestyle modification was performed as per usual practice. All participants underwent peripheral arterial tonometry (WatchPAT) and body mass index (BMI) measurements at baseline and after 4 weeks of follow-up. Age and BMI did not differ significantly between the two groups. While we observed a significant decrease in the BMI of both groups, the decrease was greater in the app user group (P sleep spent snoring at >45 dB was significantly improved in the app user group alone (P =0.014). In either group, among the participants with successful weight reduction, the apnea-hypopnea index was significantly reduced after 4 weeks (P =0.015). Multiple regression analyses showed that a reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index was significantly associated with BMI. Although a short-term lifestyle modification approach using a mobile app was more effective in achieving weight reduction, improvement in OSA was not so significant. Long-term efficacy of this mobile app should be evaluated in the future studies.

  12. Mortality in Japanese with life-styles similar to Seventh-Day Adventists: strategy for risk reduction by life-style modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, T

    1985-12-01

    Using 16 years of follow-up results of a prospective cohort study for 122,261 men, 95% of the census population, aged 40 years and older in 29 Health Center Districts in Japan as subjects, we compared the age-standardized mortality rates for cancer of each site and other causes of death in Japanese with life-styles similar to those of Seventh-Day Adventists (SDA), i.e., no smoking, no drinking, no meat consumption daily and eating green and yellow vegetables daily, with those of Japanese with opposite life-styles. Compared with the latter Japanese, the risks were one-fifth or less in Japanese with SDA-like life-styles for cancers of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and lung, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Risks were less than one-half for cancers of all sites, stomach, and liver, and for peptic ulcer and heart disease. As a single factor, the addition of daily smoking was observed to elevate the risk most strikingly in Japanese who followed SDA life patterns. Influences of further addition of habits of daily drinking of alcohol and dietary changes were significant for cancers of the esophagus, liver, and bladder and other selected diseases. Strategies for cancer prevention by means of life-style modification, e.g., increased consumption of green and yellow vegetables, were discussed.

  13. Weather, knowledge base and life-style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Why to main-stream curiosity for earth-science topics, thus to appraise these topics as of public interest? Namely, to influence practices how humankind's activities intersect the geosphere. How to main-stream that curiosity for earth-science topics? Namely, by weaving diverse concerns into common threads drawing on a wide range of perspectives: be it beauty or particularity of ordinary or special phenomena, evaluating hazards for or from mundane environments, or connecting the scholarly investigation with concerns of citizens at large; applying for threading traditional or modern media, arts or story-telling. Three examples: First "weather"; weather is a topic of primordial interest for most people: weather impacts on humans lives, be it for settlement, for food, for mobility, for hunting, for fishing, or for battle. It is the single earth-science topic that went "prime-time" since in the early 1950-ties the broadcasting of weather forecasts started and meteorologists present their work to the public, daily. Second "knowledge base"; earth-sciences are a relevant for modern societies' economy and value setting: earth-sciences provide insights into the evolution of live-bearing planets, the functioning of Earth's systems and the impact of humankind's activities on biogeochemical systems on Earth. These insights bear on production of goods, living conditions and individual well-being. Third "life-style"; citizen's urban culture prejudice their experiential connections: earth-sciences related phenomena are witnessed rarely, even most weather phenomena. In the past, traditional rural communities mediated their rich experiences through earth-centric story-telling. In course of the global urbanisation process this culture has given place to society-centric story-telling. Only recently anthropogenic global change triggered discussions on geoengineering, hazard mitigation, demographics, which interwoven with arts, linguistics and cultural histories offer a rich narrative

  14. Translation of lifestyle modification programs focused on physical activity and dietary habits delivered in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Stanzilis, Katie; Falcon, Ashley

    2015-06-01

    Lifestyle modification programs (LMPs) can provide individuals with behavioral skills to sustain long-term changes to their physical activity (PA) levels and dietary habits. Yet, there is much work to be done in the translation of these programs to community settings. This review identified LMPs that focused on changing both PA and dietary behaviors and examined common features and barriers faced in their translation to community settings. A search of multiple online databases was conducted to identify LMPs that included participants over the age of 18 who enrolled in LMPs, offered in community settings, and had the goal of improving both PA and dietary behaviors. Data were extracted on participant demographics, study design characteristics, and study outcome variables including changes in PA, dietary habits, body weight, and clinical outcomes. We identified 27 studies that met inclusion criteria. Despite high levels of retention and adherence to the interventions, varying levels of success were observed in increasing PA levels, improving dietary habits, reducing body weight, and improving clinic outcomes. LMPs addressing issues of PA and dietary habits can be successfully implemented in a community setting. However, inconsistent reporting of key components in the translation of these studies (participant recruitment, utilization of behavioral strategies) may limit their replication and advancement of future programs. Future efforts should better address issues such as identifying barriers to participation and program implementation, utilization of community resources, and evaluating changes across multiple health behaviors.

  15. Contrasting Sleeve Gastrectomy with Lifestyle Modification Therapy in the Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaijing; Jiang, Qixin; Zhi, Yunqing; Zhu, Zhe; Zhou, Zhuqing; Xie, Yanting; Yin, Xiaoqi; Lu, Aiguo

    2015-06-01

    To explore the feasibility of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) as a treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its potential to improve clinical efficacy in PCOS patients with symptoms of oligomenorrhea. Twenty-four obese patients with PCOS underwent laparoscopic SG. Simultaneously, 24 obese patients with PCOS received lifestyle modification therapy (LMT). Follow-ups were conducted at 3-6 months. Weight loss, menstruation, and improvements in hirsutism and metabolic symptoms were compared. In the SG group, 20 patients were restored to normal menstrual cycles and ovulation at 3-6 months after surgery. Their average androgen levels decreased significantly following surgery (P=.012). Conversely, only 6 patients in the LMT group were restored to normal menstrual cycles and ovulation after receiving 3 months of treatment. Their average preoperative and postoperative androgen levels showed a nonstatistically significant decrease (P>.05). Compared with the LMT group, the SG group showed more pronounced improvements in menstruation. Additionally, body mass and body mass index were significantly reduced in patients in the SG group 3 months after the surgeries, with maximum weight loss observed at approximately 6 months after surgery. Patients who received LMT showed a gradual weight reduction such that body mass decreased significantly after 3 months (Pweight loss results (Pweight loss and better improvements in clinical symptoms compared with LMT.

  16. PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT, LIFESTYLE MODIFICATION AND AWARENESS IN CORONARY ARTERY AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Gharipour

    2010-12-01

    -blockers and statins, respectively. Blood pressure had been managed in 94.9% and 93.7% of MI and CeVD patients, respectively. Among MI patients, 85.8% and 83.2% had correct behavior towards blood sugar and cholesterol control and 68% had adequate knowledge of the risk of recurrent events. DISCUSSION: Secondary prevention of vascular diseases should be regarded as a key component of public health strategies to reduce the rising burden of CVD and CeVD in Iran.Keywords • Lifestyle modification • Awareness • Myocardial infarction • CeVD

  17. A Web-Based Lifestyle Medicine Curriculum: Facilitating Education About Lifestyle Medicine, Behavioral Change, and Health Care Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ryan C; Sannidhi, Deepa; McBride, Yasamina; McCargo, Tracie; Stern, Theodore A

    2017-01-01

    Background Lifestyle medicine is the science and application of healthy lifestyles as interventions for the prevention and treatment of disease, and has gained significant momentum as a specialty in recent years. College is a critical time for maintenance and acquisition of healthy habits. Longer-term, more intensive web-based and in-person lifestyle medicine interventions can have a positive effect. Students who are exposed to components of lifestyle medicine in their education have improvements in their health behaviors. A semester-long undergraduate course focused on lifestyle medicine can be a useful intervention to help adopt and sustain healthy habits. Objective To describe a novel, evidence based curriculum for a course teaching the concepts of Lifestyle Medicine based on a web-based course offered at the Harvard Extension School. Methods The course was delivered in a web-based format. The Lifestyle Medicine course used evidence based principles to guide students toward a “coach approach” to behavior change, increasing their self-efficacy regarding various lifestyle-related preventive behaviors. Students are made to understand the cultural trends and national guidelines that have shaped lifestyle medicine recommendations relating to behaviors. They are encouraged to engage in behavior change. Course topics include physical activity, nutrition, addiction, sleep, stress, and lifestyle coaching and counseling. The course addressed all of the American College of Preventive Medicine/American College of Lifestyle Medicine competencies save for the competency of office systems and technologies to support lifestyle medicine counseling. Results The course was well-received, earning a ranking of 4.9/5 at the school. Conclusions A novel, semester-long course on Lifestyle Medicine at the Harvard Extension School is described. Student evaluations suggest the course was well-received. Further research is needed to evaluate whether such a course empowers students to

  18. Quality of life and body mass index in overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome during a lifestyle modification program

    OpenAIRE

    De Frène, Veerle; Verhofstadt, Lesley; Lammertyn, Jan; Stuyver, Isabelle; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate changes in body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including an acne parameter, of overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during a lifestyle modification program. Design: Prospective longitudinal within-patient study. Setting: Department of Reproductive Medicine of the Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). Participants: Thirty-three overweight (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) women with PCOS between age 18 and 43 years. ...

  19. Benefits and costs of intensive lifestyle modification programs for symptomatic coronary disease in Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wu; Stason, William B; Fournier, Stephen; Razavi, Moaven; Ritter, Grant; Strickler, Gail K; Bhalotra, Sarita M; Shepard, Donald S

    2013-05-01

    This study reports outcomes of a Medicare-sponsored demonstration of two intensive lifestyle modification programs (LMPs) in patients with symptomatic coronary heart disease: the Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute (MBMI) and the Dr Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease® (Ornish). This multisite demonstration, conducted between 2000 and 2008, enrolled Medicare beneficiaries who had had an acute myocardial infarction or a cardiac procedure within the preceding 12 months or had stable angina pectoris. Health and economic outcomes are compared with matched controls who had received either traditional or no cardiac rehabilitation following similar cardiac events. Each program included a 1-year active intervention of exercise, diet, small-group support, and stress reduction. Medicare claims were used to examine 3-year outcomes. The analysis includes 461 elderly, fee-for-service, Medicare participants and 1,795 controls. Cardiac and non-cardiac hospitalization rates were lower in participants than controls in each program and were statistically significant in MBMI (P costs of $3,801 and $4,441 per participant for the MBMI and Ornish Programs, respectively, were offset by reduced health care costs yielding non-significant three-year net savings per participant of about $3,500 in MBMI and $1,000 in Ornish. A trend towards lower mortality compared with controls was observed in MBMI participants (P = .07). Intensive, year-long LMPs reduced hospitalization rates and suggest reduced Medicare costs in elderly beneficiaries with symptomatic coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lifestyle Modification through Dietary Intervention: Health Promotion of Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Khoshbaten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is more common worldwide and no certain treatment apart from lifestyle modification has been established yet. Available data consistently show that energy intake is significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than in individuals with no evidence of fatty liver. Changing nutritional behaviors seems to be the primary approach for treatment, simultaneously addressing all the clinical and biochemical defects. This study was aimed to examine the effects of two different composition of low energy diet (diet I vs. diet II on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.Methods: In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, 44 ultrasonography-proven overweight non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients were divided into two groups and received two low-energy diets (-500 kcal less than energy requirement individually inc. diet I (Carbohydrate: Fat: Protein: 55:25:20 and diet II (Carbohydrate: Fat: Protein: 40:40:20 for six weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical measures as well as liver enzymes were assessed after 12 hours fasting.Results: After diet I and diet II, weight decreased significantly (%1.82 and %2.45, respectively. Liver enzymes and echogenicity decreased significantly by both diet I and diet II. Mean of triglyceride concentration decreased (%18.09 after diet II (P=0.023, while there was no significant change after diet I. Significant correlations were found between changes in aspartate aminotransferase with triglyceride and LDL-C diet I.Conclusion: Low energy diets can decrease liver enzymes regardless of their composition, while diet II seems to be more effective than diet I in reduction of weight and triglyceride level.

  1. Genetic Modulation of Lipid Profiles following Lifestyle Modification or Metformin Treatment: The Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Kathleen A.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Taylor, Andrew; McAteer, Jarred; Pan, Qing; Horton, Edward S.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Altshuler, David; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Florez, Jose C.; Bray, George A.; Culbert, Iris W.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Eberhardt, Barbara; Greenway, Frank; Guillory, Fonda G.; Herbert, April A.; Jeffirs, Michael L.; Kennedy, Betty M.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Morris, Laura H.; Melancon, Lee E.; Ryan, Donna; Sanford, Deborah A.; Smith, Kenneth G.; Smith, Lisa L.; Amant, Julia A. St.; Tulley, Richard T.; Vicknair, Paula C.; Williamson, Donald; Zachwieja, Jeffery J.; Polonsky, Kenneth S.; Tobian, Janet; Ehrmann, David; Matulik, Margaret J.; Clark, Bart; Czech, Kirsten; DeSandre, Catherine; Hilbrich, Ruthanne; McNabb, Wylie; Semenske, Ann R.; Caro, Jose F.; Watson, Pamela G.; Goldstein, Barry J.; Smith, Kellie A.; Mendoza, Jewel; Liberoni, Renee; Pepe, Constance; Spandorfer, John; Donahue, Richard P.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Prineas, Ronald; Rowe, Patricia; Calles, Jeanette; Cassanova-Romero, Paul; Florez, Hermes J.; Giannella, Anna; Kirby, Lascelles; Larreal, Carmen; McLymont, Valerie; Mendez, Jadell; Ojito, Juliet; Perry, Arlette; Saab, Patrice; Haffner, Steven M.; Montez, Maria G.; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martinez, Arlene; Hamman, Richard F.; Nash, Patricia V.; Testaverde, Lisa; Anderson, Denise R.; Ballonoff, Larry B.; Bouffard, Alexis; Calonge, B. Ned; Delve, Lynne; Farago, Martha; Hill, James O.; Hoyer, Shelley R.; Jortberg, Bonnie T.; Lenz, Dione; Miller, Marsha; Price, David W.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Seagle, Helen; Smith, Carissa M.; Steinke, Sheila C.; VanDorsten, Brent; Horton, Edward S.; Lawton, Kathleen E.; Arky, Ronald A.; Bryant, Marybeth; Burke, Jacqueline P.; Caballero, Enrique; Callaphan, Karen M.; Ganda, Om P.; Franklin, Therese; Jackson, Sharon D.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Kula, Lyn M.; Kocal, Margaret; Malloy, Maureen A.; Nicosia, Maryanne; Oldmixon, Cathryn F.; Pan, Jocelyn; Quitingon, Marizel; Rubtchinsky, Stacy; Seely, Ellen W.; Schweizer, Dana; Simonson, Donald; Smith, Fannie; Solomon, Caren G.; Warram, James; Kahn, Steven E.; Montgomery, Brenda K.; Fujimoto, Wilfred; Knopp, Robert H.; Lipkin, Edward W.; Marr, Michelle; Trence, Dace; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Murphy, Mary E.; Applegate, William B.; Bryer-Ash, Michael; Frieson, Sandra L.; Imseis, Raed; Lambeth, Helen; Lichtermann, Lynne C.; Oktaei, Hooman; Rutledge, Lily M.K.; Sherman, Amy R.; Smith, Clara M.; Soberman, Judith E.; Williams-Cleaves, Beverly; Metzger, Boyd E.; Johnson, Mariana K.; Behrends, Catherine; Cook, Michelle; Fitzgibbon, Marian; Giles, Mimi M.; Heard, Deloris; Johnson, Cheryl K.H.; Larsen, Diane; Lowe, Anne; Lyman, Megan; McPherson, David; Molitch, Mark E.; Pitts, Thomas; Reinhart, Renee; Roston, Susan; Schinleber, Pamela A.; Nathan, David M.; McKitrick, Charles; Turgeon, Heather; Abbott, Kathy; Anderson, Ellen; Bissett, Laurie; Cagliero, Enrico; Florez, Jose C.; Delahanty, Linda; Goldman, Valerie; Poulos, Alexandra; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Carrion-Petersen, Mary Lou; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Edelman, Steven V.; Henry, Robert R.; Horne, Javiva; Janesch, Simona Szerdi; Leos, Diana; Mudaliar, Sundar; Polonsky, William; Smith, Jean; Vejvoda, Karen; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Lee, Jane E.; Allison, David B.; Aronoff, Nancy J.; Crandall, Jill P.; Foo, Sandra T.; Pal, Carmen; Parkes, Kathy; Pena, Mary Beth; Rooney, Ellen S.; Wye, Gretchen E.H. Van; Viscovich, Kristine A.; Marrero, David G.; Prince, Melvin J.; Kelly, Susie M.; Dotson, Yolanda F.; Fineberg, Edwin S.; Guare, John C; Hadden, Angela M.; Ignaut, James M.; Jackson, Marcia L.; Kirkman, Marion S.; Mather, Kieren J.; Porter, Beverly D.; Roach, Paris J.; Rowland, Nancy D.; Wheeler, Madelyn L.; Ratner, Robert E.; Youssef, Gretchen; Shapiro, Sue; Bavido-Arrage, Catherine; Boggs, Geraldine; Bronsord, Marjorie; Brown, Ernestine; Cheatham, Wayman W.; Cola, Susan; Evans, Cindy; Gibbs, Peggy; Kellum, Tracy; Levatan, Claresa; Nair, Asha K.; Passaro, Maureen; Uwaifo, Gabriel; Saad, Mohammed F.; Budget, Maria; Jinagouda, Sujata; Akbar, Khan; Conzues, Claudia; Magpuri, Perpetua; Ngo, Kathy; Rassam, Amer; Waters, Debra; Xapthalamous, Kathy; Santiago, Julio V.; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; White, Neil H.; Das, Samia; Santiago, Ana; Brown, Angela; Fisher, Edwin; Hurt, Emma; Jones, Tracy; Kerr, Michelle; Ryder, Lucy; Wernimont, Cormarie; Saudek, Christopher D.; Bradley, Vanessa; Sullivan, Emily; Whittington, Tracy; Abbas, Caroline; Brancati, Frederick L.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Charleston, Jeanne B.; Freel, Janice; Horak, Katherine; Jiggetts, Dawn; Johnson, Deloris; Joseph, Hope; Loman, Kimberly; Mosley, Henry; Rubin, Richard R.; Samuels, Alafia; Stewart, Kerry J.; Williamson, Paula; Schade, David S.; Adams, Karwyn S.; Johannes, Carolyn; Atler, Leslie F.; Boyle, Patrick J.; Burge, Mark R.; Canady, Janene L.; Chai, Lisa; Gonzales, Ysela; Hernandez-McGinnis, Doris A.; Katz, Patricia; King, Carolyn; Rassam, Amer; Rubinchik, Sofya; Senter, Willette; Waters, Debra; Shamoon, Harry; Brown, Janet O.; Adorno, Elsie; Cox, Liane; Crandall, Jill; Duffy, Helena; Engel, Samuel; Friedler, Allison; Howard-Century, Crystal J.; Kloiber, Stacey; Longchamp, Nadege; Martinez, Helen; Pompi, Dorothy; Scheindlin, Jonathan; Violino, Elissa; Walker, Elizabeth; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Zimmerman, Elise; Zonszein, Joel; Orchard, Trevor; Wing, Rena R.; Koenning, Gaye; Kramer, M. Kaye; Barr, Susan; Boraz, Miriam; Clifford, Lisa; Culyba, Rebecca; Frazier, Marlene; Gilligan, Ryan; Harrier, Susan; Harris, Louann; Jeffries, Susan; Kriska, Andrea; Manjoo, Qurashia; Mullen, Monica; Noel, Alicia; Otto, Amy; Semler, Linda; Smith, Cheryl F.; Smith, Marie; Venditti, Elizabeth; Weinzierl, Valarie; Williams, Katherine V.; Wilson, Tara; Arakaki, Richard F.; Latimer, Renee W.; Baker-Ladao, Narleen K.; Beddow, Ralph; Dias, Lorna; Inouye, Jillian; Mau, Marjorie K.; Mikami, Kathy; Mohideen, Pharis; Odom, Sharon K.; Perry, Raynette U.; Knowler, William C.; Cooeyate, Norman; Hoskin, Mary A.; Percy, Carol A.; Acton, Kelly J.; Andre, Vickie L.; Barber, Rosalyn; Begay, Shandiin; Bennett, Peter H.; Benson, Mary Beth; Bird, Evelyn C.; Broussard, Brenda A.; Chavez, Marcella; Dacawyma, Tara; Doughty, Matthew S.; Duncan, Roberta; Edgerton, Cyndy; Ghahate, Jacqueline M.; Glass, Justin; Glass, Martia; Gohdes, Dorothy; Grant, Wendy; Hanson, Robert L.; Horse, Ellie; Ingraham, Louise E.; Jackson, Merry; Jay, Priscilla; Kaskalla, Roylen S.; Kessler, David; Kobus, Kathleen M.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Manus, Catherine; Michaels, Sara; Morgan, Tina; Nashboo, Yolanda; Nelson, Julie A.; Poirier, Steven; Polczynski, Evette; Reidy, Mike; Roumain, Jeanine; Rowse, Debra; Sangster, Sandra; Sewenemewa, Janet; Tonemah, Darryl; Wilson, Charlton; Yazzie, Michelle; Bain, Raymond; Fowler, Sarah; Brenneman, Tina; Abebe, Solome; Bamdad, Julie; Callaghan, Jackie; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Gao, Yuping; Grimes, Kristina L.; Grover, Nisha; Haffner, Lori; Jones, Steve; Jones, Tara L.; Katz, Richard; Lachin, John M.; Mucik, Pamela; Orlosky, Robert; Rochon, James; Sapozhnikova, Alla; Sherif, Hanna; Stimpson, Charlotte; Temprosa, Marinella; Walker-Murray, Fredricka; Marcovina, Santica; Strylewicz, Greg; Aldrich, F. Alan; O'Leary, Dan; Stamm, Elizabeth; Rautaharju, Pentti; Prineas, Ronald J.; Alexander, Teresa; Campbell, Charles; Hall, Sharon; Li, Yabing; Mills, Margaret; Pemberton, Nancy; Rautaharju, Farida; Zhang, Zhuming; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Moran, Robert R.; Ganiats, Ted; David, Kristin; Sarkin, Andrew J.; Eastman, R.; Fradkin, Judith; Garfield, Sanford; Gregg, Edward; Zhang, Ping; Herman, William; Florez, Jose C.; Altshuler, David; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Franks, Paul W.; Hanson, Robert L.; Jablonski, Kathleen; Knowler, William C.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Pollin, Toni I.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04–1×10−17). Except for total HDL particles (r = −0.03, P = 0.26), all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07–0.17, P = 5×10−5–1×10−19). The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8×10−5, P interaction = 0.02) in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35) or metformin (β = −0.03, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; P interaction = 0.64) groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE±0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, P interaction = 0.01) but not in the placebo (β = −0.002, SEE±0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74) or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE±0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; P interaction = 0.24) groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss. PMID:22951888

  2. Genetic modulation of lipid profiles following lifestyle modification or metformin treatment: the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni I Pollin

    Full Text Available Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04-1 × 10(-17. Except for total HDL particles (r = -0.03, P = 0.26, all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07-0.17, P = 5 × 10(-5-1 10(-19. The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8 × 10(-5, P(interaction = 0.02 in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35 or metformin (β = -0.03, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; P(interaction = 0.64 groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE ± 0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, P(interaction = 0.01 but not in the placebo (β = -0.002, SEE ± 0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74 or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE ± 0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; P(interaction = 0.24 groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss.

  3. Effectiveness of a Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM Programme among Obese Adults in Workplace: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Noraida Jamal

    Full Text Available There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities over the past decades in Malaysia. Effective intervention for obesity remains limited. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a group based lifestyle modification programme amongst obese individuals with an existing dietary counseling programme.We recruited one hundred and ninety four overweight and obese (BMI>27.5 kg/m2 employees from a local university. They were randomly allocated to either Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM (intervention(n = 97 or dietary counseling (comparison(n = 97. The GSLIM activities included self monitoring, cognitive-behaviour sessions, exercise as well as dietary change advocacy, which were conducted through seminars and group sessions over 24 weeks. The comparison group was given dietary counselling once in 12 weeks. Both groups were followed up for additional 12 weeks to check for intervention effect sustenance. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 weeks; while dietary intake, physical activities, psychological measures and quality of life measured at baseline, 24 and 36 weeks. Data analysis was conducted using ANOVA repeated measures with intention to treat principle.The participants were predominantly women with mean (standard deviation age of 40.5 (9.3 years. A total of 19.6% of the participants in GSLiM achieved 6% weight loss compared to 4.1% in the comparison group (Risk Ratio 4.75; 95% CI: 1.68, 13.45. At 24 weeks, the retention rate was 83.5% for GSLiM and 82.5% for comparison group. GSLiM participants also achieved significant improvement in total weight self-efficacy score, negative emotions and physical discomfort subscales, MDPSS friend subscale and all domains in quality of life. Participants in the comparison group experienced reduction in negative self-thoughts.The GSLiM programme proved to be more effective in achieving targeted weight loss, improving

  4. Effectiveness of a Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM) Programme among Obese Adults in Workplace: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Siti Noraida; Moy, Foong Ming; Azmi Mohamed, Mohd Nahar; Mukhtar, Firdaus

    2016-01-01

    There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities over the past decades in Malaysia. Effective intervention for obesity remains limited. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a group based lifestyle modification programme amongst obese individuals with an existing dietary counseling programme. We recruited one hundred and ninety four overweight and obese (BMI>27.5 kg/m2) employees from a local university. They were randomly allocated to either Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM) (intervention)(n = 97) or dietary counseling (comparison)(n = 97). The GSLIM activities included self monitoring, cognitive-behaviour sessions, exercise as well as dietary change advocacy, which were conducted through seminars and group sessions over 24 weeks. The comparison group was given dietary counselling once in 12 weeks. Both groups were followed up for additional 12 weeks to check for intervention effect sustenance. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 weeks; while dietary intake, physical activities, psychological measures and quality of life measured at baseline, 24 and 36 weeks. Data analysis was conducted using ANOVA repeated measures with intention to treat principle. The participants were predominantly women with mean (standard deviation) age of 40.5 (9.3) years. A total of 19.6% of the participants in GSLiM achieved 6% weight loss compared to 4.1% in the comparison group (Risk Ratio 4.75; 95% CI: 1.68, 13.45). At 24 weeks, the retention rate was 83.5% for GSLiM and 82.5% for comparison group. GSLiM participants also achieved significant improvement in total weight self-efficacy score, negative emotions and physical discomfort subscales, MDPSS friend subscale and all domains in quality of life. Participants in the comparison group experienced reduction in negative self-thoughts. The GSLiM programme proved to be more effective in achieving targeted weight loss, improving weight self

  5. Self-management for obesity and cardio-metabolic fitness: Description and evaluation of the lifestyle modification program of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coates Alison M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustainable lifestyle modification strategies are needed to address obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. Intensive, individualised programs have been successful, but are limited by time and resources. We have formulated a group-based lifestyle education program based upon national diet and physical activity (PA recommendations to manage obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors. This article describes the content and delivery of this program, with information on compliance and acceptability. Methods Overweight/obese adults (n = 153 with metabolic syndrome were recruited from the community and randomly allocated to intervention (INT or control (CON. Written copies of Australian national dietary and PA guidelines were provided to all participants. INT took part in a 16-week lifestyle program which provided a curriculum and practical strategies on 1 dietary and PA information based on national guidelines, 2 behavioural self-management tools, 3 food-label reading, supermarkets tour and cooking, 4 exercise sessions, and 5 peer-group support. Compliance was assessed using attendance records and weekly food/PA logs. Participants' motivations, perceived benefits and goals were assessed through facilitated discussion. Program acceptability feedback was collected through structured focus groups. Results Although completion of weekly food/PA records was poor, attendance at information/education sessions (77% overall and exercise participation (66% overall was high, and compared with CON, multiple markers of body composition and cardio-metabolic health improved in INT. Participants reported that the most useful program components included food-label reading, cooking sessions, and learning new and different physical exercises, including home-based options. Participants also reported finding self-management techniques helpful, namely problem solving and short-term goal setting. The use of a group setting and supportive 'peer' leaders

  6. Management of Chronic Daily Headache and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities by Lifestyle Modification: Participatory Action Research Combining New Communication Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizi, Fakhrudin; Tavallaee, Abbas; Rahimi, Abolfazl; Saghafinia, Masoud

    2017-04-01

    Lifestyle modification has a significant role in chronic daily headache (CDH) management. Participatory action research (PAR) can play an important role in managing chronic medical conditions. However, it has been scarcely used in CDH management. This study aimed to empower patients with CDH to modify their lifestyle in order to reduce both their headache and related psychiatric co-morbidities in a multidisciplinary headache clinic at Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran, IR Iran. In the PAR plan, 37 patients (27 females) diagnosed with CDH were selected using purposeful sampling. Along with face-to-face group sessions, all available communication means such as phone calls, emails, short message system (SMS), and social media (Telegram) were used to facilitate the process. Questionnaires of health promotion lifestyle profile (HPLPІІ), visual analog scale (VAS), and depression-anxiety-stress scale (DASS21) were used to collect data. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Mean age of the patients was 38.33 (± 9.7) years. Both "general pain" and "the worst imaginable pain" reduced (mean of reduction: 2.56 ± 2.7 and 2.3 ± 2.9, respectively, P 50% of pain reduction occurred in "the worst imaginable pain" category (-1.45 ± 2.02, P communication tools helped the CDH patients better handle their lifestyle, reduce their headache, and lower their symptoms. Further studies with better use of currently available communication tools and social media are recommended for action research to be more applicable.

  7. Effects of Different Dietary and Lifestyle Modification Therapies on Metabolic Syndrome in Prediabetic Arab Patients: A 12-Month Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan A. Alfawaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This three-arm, randomized, controlled study aimed to determine the differences in the effects of general advice (GA on lifestyle change, intensive lifestyle modification programme (ILMP and GA + metformin (GA + Met in reducing the prevalence of full metabolic syndrome (MetS in subjects with prediabetes; 294 Saudis with prediabetes (fasting glucose 5.6–6.9 mmol/L were initially randomized, 263 completed 6 months and 237 completed 12 months. They were allocated into three groups: GA group which received a standard lifestyle change education; ILMP which followed a rigorous lifestyle modification support on diet and physical activity; and a GA + Met group. Anthropometric and biochemical estimations were measured. Full MetS (primary endpoint and its components (secondary endpoint were screened at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Full MetS in the ILMP group decreased by 26% (p < 0.001; in GA + Met group by 22.4% (p = 0.01 and in GA group by 8.2% (p = 0.28. The number of MetS components decreased significantly in the ILMP and GA + Met groups (mean change 0.81, p < 0.001 and 0.35, p = 0.05, respectively. Between-group comparison revealed a clinically significant decrease in MetS components in favor of the ILMP group (−0.58 (−0.88–0.28, p < 0.001. This study highlights the clinical potency of ILMP versus other diabetes prevention options in reducing MetS in Saudi adults with elevated fasting glucose.

  8. An Innovative School-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Natalia; Ranucci, Claudia; Buratta, Livia; Foglia, Elena; Fabi, Marta; Novelli, Francesca; Casucci, Simone; Reginato, Elisa; Pippi, Roberto; Aiello, Cristina; Leonardi, Alessia; Romani, Giannermete; De Feo, Pierpaolo; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe an innovative school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles. To evaluate its effects on children's food habits and to highlight the key components which contribute most to the beneficial effects obtained from children's, teachers' and parents' perspectives. Design: An educational tool to improve personal awareness,…

  9. Quality of Life and Body Mass Index in Overweight Adult Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome During a Lifestyle Modification Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Frène, Veerle; Verhofstadt, Lesley; Lammertyn, Jan; Stuyver, Isabelle; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate changes in body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including an acne parameter, of overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during a lifestyle modification program. Prospective longitudinal within-patient study. Department of Reproductive Medicine of the Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). Thirty-three overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m²) women with PCOS between age 18 and 43 years. Participants followed a 24-week lifestyle modification program consisting of a diet, exercise, and psychological subprogram. BMI was assessed at Weeks 0, 8, 16, and 24 of the program. The HRQoL was measured at Week 0, 12, and 24 of the program using the PolyCystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) to evaluate the influence of acne on HRQoL. During a 24-week period no significant decrease in BMI occurred (mean difference = 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-1.38, 4.81]. During that period, there was a significant positive evolution of the total PCOSQ score, F(2, 37.5) = 23.7, the emotions, F(2, 37.9) = 4.2, weight, F(2, 42.1) = 24.8, body hair, F(2, 35.6) = 3.3, and infertility problems domain scores, F(2, 43.1) = 15.64, of the PCOSQ, as well as of the acne VAS score, F(2, 29.3) = 4.2. These effects primarily occurred during the first 12 weeks. In spite of no significant changes in BMI, the HRQoL of overweight adult women with PCOS significantly improved during a 24-week lifestyle modification program. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  10. HYPERTENSION IMPROVEMENT PROJECT (HIP): RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF QUALITY IMPROVEMENT FOR PHYSICIANS AND LIFESTYLE MODIFICATION FOR PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetkey, Laura P.; Pollak, Kathryn I.; Yancy, William S.; Dolor, Rowena J.; Batch, Bryan C.; Samsa, Greg; Matchar, David B.; Lin, Pao-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    Despite widely publicized hypertension treatment guidelines for physicians and lifestyle recommendations for patients, blood pressure control rates remain low. In community-based primary care clinics, we performed a nested, 2×2 randomized, controlled trial of physician intervention vs. control and/or patient intervention vs. control. Physician Intervention included internet-based training, self-monitoring, and quarterly feedback reports. Patient Intervention included 20 weekly group sessions followed by 12 monthly phone counseling contacts, and focused on weight loss, DASH dietary pattern, exercise, and reduced sodium intake. The primary outcome was change in systolic blood pressure at 6 months. Eight primary care practices (32 physicians) were randomized to Physician Intervention or Control. Within those practices, 574 patients were randomized to Patient Intervention or Control. Patients’ mean age was 60 years, 61% female, 37% African American. BP data were available for 91% of patients at 6 months. The main effect of Physician Intervention on systolic blood pressure at 6 months, adjusted for baseline pressure, was 0.3 mmHg (95% CI −1.5 to 2.2; p = 0.72). The main effect of the Patient Intervention was −2.6 mmHg (95% CI −4.4, −0.7; p = 0.01). The interaction of the 2 interventions was significant (p = 0.03); the largest impact was observed with the combination of Physician and Patient Intervention (−9.7 ± 12.7 mmHg). Differences between treatment groups did not persist at 18 months. Combined physician and patient intervention lowers blood pressure; future research should focus on enhancing effectiveness and sustainability of these interventions. PMID:19920081

  11. Two Cases of Successful Type 2 Diabetes Control with Lifestyle Modification in Children and Adolescents

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    Seon Hwa Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and obesity-related disease are becoming serious global issues. The incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes has increased in children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that is difficult to treat, and the accurate assessment of obesity in type 2 diabetes is becoming increasingly important. Obesity is the excessive accumulation of fat that causes insulin resistance, and body composition analyses can help physicians evaluate fat levels. Although previous studies have shown the achievement of complete remission of type 2 diabetes after focused improvement in lifestyle habits, there are few cases of complete remission of type 2 diabetes. Here we report on obese patients with type 2 diabetes who were able to achieve considerable fat loss and partial or complete remission of diabetes through lifestyle changes. This case report emphasizes once again that focused lifestyle intervention effectively treats childhood diabetes.

  12. The concept of lifestyle factors, based on the teaching of avicenna (ibn sina).

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    Choopani, Rasool; Emtiazy, Majid

    2015-01-01

    According to the definition stated in the beginning of the "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb" (the Qanun of Medicine); medicine is a science, from which one learns the states of the human body; health and disease and what causes them, in order to preserve good health when it exists, and restore it when it is lacking. Based on this issue, Avicenna believes that medical science belongs to all human without any limitation, and maintenance of health is one of its prime objectives. He states that many disorders are related to errors in the 6 factors, which are essential for maintaining health and preventing diseases. Avicenna described these six essential factors (lifestyle factors) in his masterpiece, Qanun of Medicine, as "Asbab-e-Settah-e-Zaruriah." Based on the teaching of Avicenna, the first step for maintaining health and approaches to treatment is modification of lifestyle factors, including of nutrition, physical activity, etc.

  13. A Web-Based Lifestyle Medicine Curriculum: Facilitating Education About Lifestyle Medicine, Behavioral Change, and Health Care Outcomes.

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    Frates, Elizabeth Pegg; Xiao, Ryan C; Sannidhi, Deepa; McBride, Yasamina; McCargo, Tracie; Stern, Theodore A

    2017-09-11

    Lifestyle medicine is the science and application of healthy lifestyles as interventions for the prevention and treatment of disease, and has gained significant momentum as a specialty in recent years. College is a critical time for maintenance and acquisition of healthy habits. Longer-term, more intensive web-based and in-person lifestyle medicine interventions can have a positive effect. Students who are exposed to components of lifestyle medicine in their education have improvements in their health behaviors. A semester-long undergraduate course focused on lifestyle medicine can be a useful intervention to help adopt and sustain healthy habits. To describe a novel, evidence based curriculum for a course teaching the concepts of Lifestyle Medicine based on a web-based course offered at the Harvard Extension School. The course was delivered in a web-based format. The Lifestyle Medicine course used evidence based principles to guide students toward a "coach approach" to behavior change, increasing their self-efficacy regarding various lifestyle-related preventive behaviors. Students are made to understand the cultural trends and national guidelines that have shaped lifestyle medicine recommendations relating to behaviors. They are encouraged to engage in behavior change. Course topics include physical activity, nutrition, addiction, sleep, stress, and lifestyle coaching and counseling. The course addressed all of the American College of Preventive Medicine/American College of Lifestyle Medicine competencies save for the competency of office systems and technologies to support lifestyle medicine counseling. The course was well-received, earning a ranking of 4.9/5 at the school. A novel, semester-long course on Lifestyle Medicine at the Harvard Extension School is described. Student evaluations suggest the course was well-received. Further research is needed to evaluate whether such a course empowers students to adopt behavior changes. ©Elizabeth Pegg Frates, Ryan C

  14. Which providers can bridge the health literacy gap in lifestyle risk factor modification education: a systematic review and narrative synthesis

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    Dennis Sarah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with low health literacy may not have the capacity to self-manage their health and prevent the development of chronic disease through lifestyle risk factor modification. The aim of this narrative synthesis is to determine the effectiveness of primary healthcare providers in developing health literacy of patients to make SNAPW (smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and weight lifestyle changes. Methods Studies were identified by searching Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Joanna Briggs Institute, Psychinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, APAIS, Australian Medical Index, Community of Science and Google Scholar from 1 January 1985 to 30 April 2009. Health literacy and related concepts are poorly indexed in the databases so a list of text words were developed and tested for use. Hand searches were also conducted of four key journals. Studies published in English and included males and females aged 18 years and over with at least one SNAPW risk factor for the development of a chronic disease. The interventions had to be implemented within primary health care, with an aim to influence the health literacy of patients to make SNAPW lifestyle changes. The studies had to report an outcome measure associated with health literacy (knowledge, skills, attitudes, self efficacy, stages of change, motivation and patient activation and SNAPW risk factor. The definition of health literacy in terms of functional, communicative and critical health literacy provided the guiding framework for the review. Results 52 papers were included that described interventions to address health literacy and lifestyle risk factor modification provided by different health professionals. Most of the studies (71%, 37/52 demonstrated an improvement in health literacy, in particular interventions of a moderate to high intensity. Non medical health care providers were effective in improving health literacy. However this was confounded by intensity of

  15. Effect of Omega-3 PUFAs Supplementation with Lifestyle Modification on Anthropometric Indices and Vo2 max in Overweight Women.

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    Haghravan, Simin; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Mazaheri, Reza; Alizadeh, Zahra; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Despite the fact that the recommendations of counteracting obesity advocate for changing lifestyle and physical activity habits, the prevalence of obesity continues to rise. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of omega-3 PUFAs supplementation with lifestyle modification on anthropometric indices and Vo2max in overweight women. Fifty overweight women aged between 20 to 45 years were recruited in this interventional study. Women randomly were divided into two experimental groups (n = 25). Group 1 received omega-3 supplement, aerobic exercise program, and a healthy diet education. Group 2 was similar to group 1, except in that patients received placebo instead of omega-3 capsules. Experimental and placebo group subjects were asked to take one supplementary capsule every day, for 8 weeks. Anthropometric indices were measured in the fourth and eighth weeks of the trial. The maximum aerobic capacity (Vo2max) was determined using a gas analysis device. The level of significance for comparing the results before and after the trial was considered at P study (P modification has positive effects on anthropometric indices and Vo2max in overweight women.

  16. Telomerase activity and cellular aging might be positively modified by a yoga-based lifestyle intervention.

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    Kumar, Shiv Basant; Yadav, Rashmi; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Tolahunase, Madhuri; Dada, Rima

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies showed that a brief yoga-based lifestyle intervention was efficacious in reducing levels of oxidative stress and cellular aging in obese men. The objective of this case report was to assess the efficacy of this intervention in reducing the levels of biochemical markers of cellular ageing, oxidative stress, and inflammation at baseline (day 0), at the end of active intervention (day 10), and follow-up at day 90. Single case report from a prospective ongoing study with pre-post design assessing the level of various markers of cellular aging. Integral Health Clinic, an outpatient facility conducting meditation and yoga-based lifestyle intervention programs for management of chronic diseases. A 31-year-old man with class I obesity (body-mass index, 29.5 kg/m(2)) who presented to the medicine outpatient department at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, with a history of fatigue, difficulty losing weight, and lack of motivation. He noted a marked decrease in his energy level, particularly in the afternoon. A pretested intervention program included asanas (postures), pranayama (breathing exercises), stress management, group discussions, lectures, and individualized advice. From baseline (day 0) to day 90, the activity of telomerase and levels of β-endorphins, plasma cortisol, and interleukin-6 increased, and a sustained reduction in oxidative stress markers, such as reactive oxygen species and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine levels. Adopting yoga/meditation-based lifestyle modification causes reversal of markers of aging, mainly oxidative stress, telomerase activity, and oxidative DNA damage. This may not only delay aging and prolong a youthful healthy life but also delay or prevent onset of several lifestyle-related diseases, of which oxidative stress and inflammation are the chief cause. This report suggests this simple lifestyle intervention may be therapeutic for oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress.

  17. The effects of lifestyle modification on symptoms and quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective observational study.

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    Kang, Sun Hyung; Choi, Seong-Woo; Lee, Seung Jun; Chung, Woo Suk; Lee, Hye Ran; Chung, Ki-Young; Lee, Eaum Seok; Moon, Hee Seok; Kim, Seok Hyun; Sung, Jae Kyu; Lee, Byung Seok; Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2011-12-01

    Although notably common, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has no specific cure. Lifestyle modification may be as important as medication; however, few studies support the effectiveness of such modifications. We performed this observational study of IBS patients to explore further the role of lifestyle changes in treatment. This study included 831 men who enlisted in 2010 as armed surgeon cadets and 85 women who concurrently entered the Armed Forces Nursing Academy. Of these 916 participants, 89 were diagnosed with IBS using the Rome III criteria. Subjective changes in bowel habits, quality of life, pain, stress, stool frequency and stool consistency were surveyed before and after 9 weeks of army training. We evaluated the lifestyle risk factors that impacted improvement in IBS symptoms by comparing those who responded to lifestyle modification (the responding group) to those who did not respond (the nonresponding group). More than half of the participants (63%) reported that their symptoms improved after training. The quality of life and levels of pain and stress significantly improved after military training. Initial stress levels before military training and smoking history affected IBS symptom improvement. Lifestyle modification may be effective in managing IBS patients.

  18. Lifestyle behaviours and weight among hospital-based nurses.

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    Zapka, Jane M; Lemon, Stephenie C; Magner, Robert P; Hale, Janet

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to (i) describe the weight, weight-related perceptions and lifestyle behaviours of hospital-based nurses, and (ii) explore the relationship of demographic, health, weight and job characteristics with lifestyle behaviours. The obesity epidemic is widely documented. Worksite initiatives have been advocated. Nurses represent an important part of the hospital workforce and serve as role models when caring for patients. A sample of 194 nurses from six hospitals participated in anthropometric measurements and self-administered surveys. The majority of nurses were overweight and obese, and some were not actively involved in weight management behaviours. Self-reported health, diet and physical activity behaviours were low, although variable by gender, age and shift. Reports of co-worker norms supported low levels of healthy behaviours. Findings reinforce the need to address the hospital environment and culture as well as individual behaviours for obesity control. Nurse managers have an opportunity to consider interventions that promote a climate favourable to improved health habits by facilitating and supporting healthy lifestyle choices (nutrition and physical activity) and environmental changes. Such efforts have the potential to increase productivity and morale and decrease work-related disabilities and improve quality of life.

  19. Outcome Evaluation of a Policy-Mandated Lifestyle and Environmental Modification Program in a National Job Training Center.

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    Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Harris, Amanda; Luna, Donald; Velasquez, Daniel; Slovik, Jonathan; Kong, Alberta

    2017-06-01

    Excess weight gain is common when adolescents become young adults, but there are no obesity prevention or weight management interventions that have been tested for emerging adults who follow non-traditional post-secondary paths, such as enrolling in job training programs. We evaluated Healthy Eating & Active Lifestyles (HEALs), a policy-mandated lifestyle education/environmental modification program, at a job training center for low-income 16-24 year olds. We examined average change in body mass index (BMI) z-score from baseline to 6 months for emerging adults (aged 16-24 years) in pre-HEALs implementation (n = 125) and post-HEALs implementation (n = 126) cohorts living at the job training center, by baseline weight status. In both cohorts, average BMI z-score significantly increased from baseline to 6 months for students with BMI < 25. Average BMI z-score significantly decreased for the overweight (BMI 25 to <30; -0.11, p = .03) and obese (BMI ≥ 30; -0.11, p = .001) students only within the post-HEALs cohort; changes within the pre-HEALs cohort and between cohorts were not significant. HEALs may promote positive weight-related trends for overweight/obese students, but prevention efforts for non-overweight/obese students need to be improved.

  20. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing on lifestyle modification and health outcomes of clients at risk or diagnosed with cardiovascular diseases: A systematic review.

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    Lee, Windy W M; Choi, K C; Yum, Royce W Y; Yu, Doris S F; Chair, S Y

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, there is an increasing trend in using motivational interviewing as a counseling method to help clients with cardiovascular diseases to modify their unhealthy lifestyle in order to decrease the risk of disease occurrence. As motivational interviewing has gained increased attention, research has been conducted to examine its effectiveness. This review attempts to identify the best available evidence related to the effectiveness of motivational interviewing on lifestyle modification, physiological and psychological outcomes for clients at risk of developing or with established cardiovascular diseases. Systematic review of studies incorporating motivational interviewing in modifying lifestyles, improving physiological and psychological outcomes for clients at risk of or diagnosed with cardiovascular diseases. Major English and Chinese electronic databases were searched to identify citations that reported the effectiveness of motivational interviewing. The searched databases included MEDLINE, British Nursing Index, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, CJN, CBM, HyRead, WanFang Data, Digital Dissertation Consortium, and so on. Two reviewers independently assessed the relevance of citations based on the inclusion criteria. Full texts of potential citations were retrieved for more detailed review. Critical appraisal was conducted by using the standardized critical appraisal checklist for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled studies from the Joanna Briggs Institute - Meta Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStaRI). After eligibility screening, 14 articles describing 9 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Only certain outcomes in certain studies were pooled for meta-analysis because of the large variability of the studies included, other findings were presented in narrative form. For lifestyle modification, the review showed that motivational interviewing could be more effective than usual care on

  1. Frequency and predictors of non-adherence to lifestyle modifications and medications after coronary artery bypass grafting: A cross-sectional study

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    Muhammad Armughan Ali

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Non-adherence to lifestyle modifications and medication is an emerging problem worldwide. It is essential for medical health professionals to discuss these predictors and address them individually. Our findings highlight the need for a healthy physician and patient relationship.

  2. Relationship between Risk Factor Control and Compliance with a Lifestyle Modification Program in the Stenting Aggressive Medical Management for Prevention of Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Tanya N; Al Kasab, Sami; Nizam, Azhar; Lynn, Michael J; Harrell, Jamie; Derdeyn, Colin P; Fiorella, David; Janis, L Scott; Lane, Bethany F; Montgomery, Jean; Chimowitz, Marc I

    2018-03-01

    Lifestyle modification programs have improved the achievement of risk factor targets in a variety of clinical settings, including patients who have previously suffered a stroke or transient ischemic attack and those with multiple risk factors. Stenting Aggressive Medical Management for Prevention of Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) was the first vascular disease prevention trial to provide a commercially available lifestyle modification program to enhance risk factor control. We sought to determine the relationship between compliance with this program and risk factor control in SAMMPRIS. SAMMPRIS aggressive medical management included a telephonic lifestyle modification program provided free of charge to all subjects (n = 451) during their participation in the study. Subjects with fewer than 3 expected lifestyle-coaching calls were excluded from these analyses. Compliant subjects (n = 201) had  greater than or equal to 78.5% of calls (median % of completed/expected calls). Noncompliant subjects (n = 200) had less than 78.5% of calls or refused to participate. Mean risk factor values or % in-target for each risk factor was compared between compliant versus noncompliant subjects, using t tests and chi-square tests. Risk factor changes from baseline to follow-up were compared between the groups to account for baseline differences. Compliant subjects had better risk factor control throughout follow-up for low-density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure (SBP), hemoglobin A1c (HgA1c), non-high-density lipoprotein, nonsmoking, and exercise than noncompliant subjects, but there was no difference for body mass index. After adjusting for baseline differences between the groups, compliant subjects had a greater change from baseline than noncompliant subjects for SBP did at 24 months and HgA1c at 6 months. SAMMPRIS subjects who were compliant with the lifestyle modification program had better risk factor control during the study for almost

  3. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis.

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    Pacheco, Sandaly O S; Pacheco, Fabio J; Zapata, Gimena M J; Garcia, Julieta M E; Previale, Carlos A; Cura, Héctor E; Craig, Winston J

    2016-07-09

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p modifications with increased consumption of fish, fruits (including red fruits in prostate cancer), cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis.

  4. PREDIRCAM eHealth platform for individualized telemedical assistance for lifestyle modification in the treatment of obesity, diabetes, and cardiometabolic risk prevention: a pilot study (PREDIRCAM 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Cintia; Herrero, Pau; Cubero, José M; Iniesta, José M; Hernando, M Elena; García-Sáez, Gema; Serrano, Alvaro J; Martinez-Sarriegui, Iñaki; Perez-Gandia, Carmen; Gómez, Enrique J; Rubinat, Esther; Alcantara, Valeria; Brugués, Eulalia; Chico, Ana; Mato, Eugenia; Bell, Olga; Corcoy, Rosa; de Leiva, Alberto

    2013-07-01

    Healthy diet and regular physical activity are powerful tools in reducing diabetes and cardiometabolic risk. Various international scientific and health organizations have advocated the use of new technologies to solve these problems. The PREDIRCAM project explores the contribution that a technological system could offer for the continuous monitoring of lifestyle habits and individualized treatment of obesity as well as cardiometabolic risk prevention. PREDIRCAM is a technological platform for patients and professionals designed to improve the effectiveness of lifestyle behavior modifications through the intensive use of the latest information and communication technologies. The platform consists of a web-based application providing communication interface with monitoring devices of physiological variables, application for monitoring dietary intake, ad hoc electronic medical records, different communication channels, and an intelligent notification system. A 2-week feasibility study was conducted in 15 volunteers to assess the viability of the platform. The website received 244 visits (average time/session: 17 min 45 s). A total of 435 dietary intakes were recorded (average time for each intake registration, 4 min 42 s ± 2 min 30 s), 59 exercises were recorded in 20 heart rate monitor downloads, 43 topics were discussed through a forum, and 11 of the 15 volunteers expressed a favorable opinion toward the platform. Food intake recording was reported as the most laborious task. Ten of the volunteers considered long-term use of the platform to be feasible. The PREDIRCAM platform is technically ready for clinical evaluation. Training is required to use the platform and, in particular, for registration of dietary food intake. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. Role of illness perception and self-efficacy in lifestyle modification among non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Bord, Shiran; Dror-Lavi, Gali; Smith, Matthew Lee; Towne, Samuel D; Buch, Assaf; Webb, Muriel; Yeshua, Hanny; Nimer, Assy; Shibolet, Oren

    2017-03-14

    participants (57.2%) did not feel they fully understood what NAFLD is. Better nutritional habits were positively predicted by the degree of illness understanding (β = 0.26; P = 0.002) and self-efficacy (β = 0.25; P = 0.003). Perceptions of more severe illness consequences were related with higher emotional representation (β = 0.55; P self-efficacy (β = -0.17; P = 0.034). The perception of treatment effectiveness was positively related with self-efficacy (β = 0.32; P self-efficacy and the perceived nutrition habits score, self-efficacy was also correlated with nutrient intake evaluated by the FFQ; negatively with saturated fat (percent of saturated fat calories from total calories) (r = -0.28, P = 0.010) and positively with fiber (r = 0.22, P = 0.047) and vitamin C intake (r = 0.34, P = 0.002). In a sub analysis of the clinical trial participants, objectively measured compliance to physical activity regimen was positively correlated with the self-efficacy level (r = 0.34, P = 0.046). Self-efficacy and illness understanding are major determinants of lifestyle-modification among NAFLD patients. This information can assist clinicians in improving compliance with lifestyle changes among these patients.

  6. MEASUREMENT OF CONTROLLED ATTENUATION PARAMETER: A SURROGATE MARKER OF HEPATIC STEATOSIS IN PATIENTS OF NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE ON LIFESTYLE MODIFICATION - A PROSPECTIVE FOLLOW-UP STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta PAUL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Liver biopsy is a gold standard method for hepatic steatosis assessment. However, liver biopsy is an invasive and painful procedure and can cause severe complications therefore it cannot be frequently used in case of follow-up of patients. Non-invasive assessment of steatosis and fibrosis is of growing relevance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. To evaluate hepatic steatosis, transient elastography with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP measurement is an option now days. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study is to evaluate role of measurement of controlled attenuation parameter, a surrogate marker of hepatic steatosis in patients of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease on lifestyle modification. METHODS: In this study, initially 37 participants were included who were followed up after 6 months with transient elastography, blood biochemical tests and anthropometric measurements. The results were analyzed by Multivariate linear regression analysis and paired samples t-test (Dependent t-test with 95% confidence interval. Correlation is calculated by Pearson correlation coefficients. RESULTS: Mean CAP value for assessing hepatic steatosis during 1st consultation (278.57±49.13 dB/m was significantly improved (P=0.03 after 6 months of lifestyle modification (252.91±62.02 dB/m. Only fasting blood sugar (P=0.008, weight (P=0.000, body mass index (BMI (P=0.000 showed significant positive correlation with CAP. Only BMI (P=0.034 and weight (P=0.035 were the independent predictor of CAP value in NAFLD patients. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle modification improves the hepatic steatosis, and CAP can be used to detect the improvement of hepatic steatosis during follow-up in patients with NAFLD on lifestyle modification. There is no relation between CAP and Fibroscan score in NAFLD patients. Only BMI and weight can predict CAP value independently.

  7. MEASUREMENT OF CONTROLLED ATTENUATION PARAMETER: A SURROGATE MARKER OF HEPATIC STEATOSIS IN PATIENTS OF NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE ON LIFESTYLE MODIFICATION - A PROSPECTIVE FOLLOW-UP STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jayanta; Venugopal, Raj Vigna; Peter, Lorance; Shetty, Kula Naresh Kumar; Shetti, Mohit P

    2018-01-01

    Liver biopsy is a gold standard method for hepatic steatosis assessment. However, liver biopsy is an invasive and painful procedure and can cause severe complications therefore it cannot be frequently used in case of follow-up of patients. Non-invasive assessment of steatosis and fibrosis is of growing relevance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To evaluate hepatic steatosis, transient elastography with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) measurement is an option now days. Aim of this study is to evaluate role of measurement of controlled attenuation parameter, a surrogate marker of hepatic steatosis in patients of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease on lifestyle modification. In this study, initially 37 participants were included who were followed up after 6 months with transient elastography, blood biochemical tests and anthropometric measurements. The results were analyzed by Multivariate linear regression analysis and paired samples t-test (Dependent t-test) with 95% confidence interval. Correlation is calculated by Pearson correlation coefficients. Mean CAP value for assessing hepatic steatosis during 1st consultation (278.57±49.13 dB/m) was significantly improved (P=0.03) after 6 months of lifestyle modification (252.91±62.02 dB/m). Only fasting blood sugar (P=0.008), weight (P=0.000), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.000) showed significant positive correlation with CAP. Only BMI (P=0.034) and weight (P=0.035) were the independent predictor of CAP value in NAFLD patients. Lifestyle modification improves the hepatic steatosis, and CAP can be used to detect the improvement of hepatic steatosis during follow-up in patients with NAFLD on lifestyle modification. There is no relation between CAP and Fibroscan score in NAFLD patients. Only BMI and weight can predict CAP value independently.

  8. A Cost Analysis of School-Based Lifestyle Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhoff, Marije; Bosma, Hans; van Schayck, Onno C P; Joore, Manuela A

    2018-05-31

    A uniform approach for costing school-based lifestyle interventions is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to develop a template for costing primary school-based lifestyle interventions and apply this to the costing of the "Healthy Primary School of the Future" (HPSF) and the "Physical Activity School" (PAS), which aim to improve physical activity and dietary behaviors. Cost-effectiveness studies were reviewed to identify the cost items. Societal costs were reflected by summing up the education, household and leisure, labor and social security, and health perspectives. Cost inputs for HPSF and PAS were obtained for the first year after implementation. In a scenario analysis, the costs were explored for a hypothetical steady state. From a societal perspective, the per child costs were €2.7/$3.3 (HPSF) and €- 0.3/$- 0.4 (PAS) per day during the first year after implementation, and €1.0/$1.2 and €- 1.3/$- 1.6 in a steady state, respectively (2016 prices). The highest costs were incurred by the education perspective (first year: €8.7/$10.6 (HPSF) and €4.0/$4.9 (PAS); steady state: €6.1/$7.4 (HPSF) and €2.1/$2.6 (PAS)), whereas most of the cost offsets were received by the household and leisure perspective (first year: €- 6.0/$- 7.3 (HPSF) and €- 4.4/$- 5.4 (PAS); steady state: €- 5.0/$- 6.1 (HPSF) and €- 3.4/$- 4.1 (PAS)). The template proved helpful for costing HPSF and PAS from various stakeholder perspectives. The costs for the education sector were fully (PAS) and almost fully (HPSF) compensated by the savings within the household sector. Whether the additional costs of HPSF over PAS represent value for money will depend on their relative effectiveness.

  9. Effectiveness of mobile phone messaging in prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle modification in men in India: a prospective, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ambady; Snehalatha, Chamukuttan; Ram, Jagannathan; Selvam, Sundaram; Simon, Mary; Nanditha, Arun; Shetty, Ananth Samith; Godsland, Ian F; Chaturvedi, Nish; Majeed, Azeem; Oliver, Nick; Toumazou, Christofer; Alberti, K George; Johnston, Desmond G

    2013-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes can often be prevented by lifestyle modification; however, successful lifestyle intervention programmes are labour intensive. Mobile phone messaging is an inexpensive alternative way to deliver educational and motivational advice about lifestyle modification. We aimed to assess whether mobile phone messaging that encouraged lifestyle change could reduce incident type 2 diabetes in Indian Asian men with impaired glucose tolerance. We did a prospective, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial between Aug 10, 2009, and Nov 30, 2012, at ten sites in southeast India. Working Indian men (aged 35-55 years) with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned (1:1) with a computer-generated randomisation sequence to a mobile phone messaging intervention or standard care (control group). Participants in the intervention group received frequent mobile phone messages compared with controls who received standard lifestyle modification advice at baseline only. Field staff and participants were, by necessity, not masked to study group assignment, but allocation was concealed from laboratory personnel as well as principal and co-investigators. The primary outcome was incidence of type 2 diabetes, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00819455. We assessed 8741 participants for eligibility. 537 patients were randomly assigned to either the mobile phone messaging intervention (n=271) or standard care (n=266). The cumulative incidence of type 2 diabetes was lower in those who received mobile phone messages than in controls: 50 (18%) participants in the intervention group developed type 2 diabetes compared with 73 (27%) in the control group (hazard ratio 0·64, 95% CI 0·45-0·92; p=0·015). The number needed to treat to prevent one case of type 2 diabetes was 11 (95% CI 6-55). One patient in the control group died suddenly at the end of the first year. We recorded no other serious adverse events. Mobile

  10. A web-based lifestyle intervention for women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Jacinda M; Zera, Chloe A; England, Lucinda J; Rosner, Bernard A; Horton, Edward; Levkoff, Sue E; Seely, Ellen W

    2014-09-01

    To test the feasibility and effectiveness of a Web-based lifestyle intervention based on the Diabetes Prevention Program modified for women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus to reduce postpartum weight retention. We randomly allocated 75 women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus to either a Web-based lifestyle program (Balance after Baby) delivered over the first postpartum year or to a control group. Primary outcomes were change in body weight at 12 months from 1) first postpartum measured weight; and 2) self-reported prepregnancy weight. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between groups including age, body mass index, race, and income status. Women assigned to the Balance after Baby program (n=36, three lost to follow-up) lost a mean of 2.8 kg (95% confidence interval -4.8 to -0.7) from 6 weeks to 12 months postpartum, whereas the control group (n=39, one lost to follow-up) gained a mean of 0.5 kg (-1.4 to +2.4) (P=.022). Women in the intervention were closer to prepregnancy weight at 12 months postpartum (mean change -0.7 kg; -3.5 to +2.2) compared with women in the control arm (+4.0 kg; +1.3 to +6.8) (P=.035). A Web-based lifestyle modification program for women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus decreased postpartum weight retention. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01158131. I.

  11. Behavior change in a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention in Dutch primary care: opportunities for intervention content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, P.W.A.; Milder, I.E.J.; Wielaard, F.; Baan, C.A.; Schelfhout, J.D.M.; Westert, G.P.; van Oers, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the favorable effects of behavior change interventions on diabetes risk, lifestyle modification is a complicated process. In this study we therefore investigated opportunities for refining a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention, based on participant perceptions of

  12. Transforming cardiac rehabilitation into broad-based healthy lifestyle programs to combat noncommunicable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Lavie, Carl J; Cahalin, Lawrence P; Briggs, Paige D; Guizilini, Solange; Daugherty, John; Chan, Wai-Man; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The current incidence and prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is currently a cause for great concern on a global scale; future projections are no less disconcerting. Unhealthy lifestyle patterns are at the core of the NCD crisis; physical inactivity, excess body mass, poor nutrition and tobacco use are the primary lifestyle factors that substantially increase the risk of developing one or more NCDs. We have now come to recognize that healthy lifestyle interventions are a medical necessity that should be prescribed to all individuals. Perhaps the most well-established model for healthy lifestyle interventions in the current healthcare model is cardiac rehabilitation. To have any hope of improving the outlook for NCDs on a global scale, what is currently known as cardiac rehabilitation must transform into broad-based healthy lifestyle programing, with a shifted focus on primordial and primary prevention.

  13. Mapping Base Modifications in DNA by Transverse-Current Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jose R.; Skachkov, Dmitry; Massey, Steven E.; Kalitsov, Alan; Velev, Julian P.

    2018-02-01

    Sequencing DNA modifications and lesions, such as methylation of cytosine and oxidation of guanine, is even more important and challenging than sequencing the genome itself. The traditional methods for detecting DNA modifications are either insensitive to these modifications or require additional processing steps to identify a particular type of modification. Transverse-current sequencing in nanopores can potentially identify the canonical bases and base modifications in the same run. In this work, we demonstrate that the most common DNA epigenetic modifications and lesions can be detected with any predefined accuracy based on their tunneling current signature. Our results are based on simulations of the nanopore tunneling current through DNA molecules, calculated using nonequilibrium electron-transport methodology within an effective multiorbital model derived from first-principles calculations, followed by a base-calling algorithm accounting for neighbor current-current correlations. This methodology can be integrated with existing experimental techniques to improve base-calling fidelity.

  14. Effects of Lifestyle Modification on Telomerase Gene Expression in Hypertensive Patients: A Pilot Trial of Stress Reduction and Health Education Programs in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Duraimani

    Full Text Available African Americans suffer from disproportionately high rates of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Psychosocial stress, lifestyle and telomere dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated effects of stress reduction and lifestyle modification on blood pressure, telomerase gene expression and lifestyle factors in African Americans.Forty-eight African American men and women with stage I hypertension who participated in a larger randomized controlled trial volunteered for this substudy. These subjects participated in either stress reduction with the Transcendental Meditation technique and a basic health education course (SR or an extensive health education program (EHE for 16 weeks. Primary outcomes were telomerase gene expression (hTERT and hTR and clinic blood pressure. Secondary outcomes included lifestyle-related factors. Data were analyzed for within-group and between-group changes.Both groups showed increases in the two measures of telomerase gene expression, hTR mRNA levels (SR: p< 0.001; EHE: p< 0.001 and hTERT mRNA levels (SR: p = 0.055; EHE: p< 0.002. However, no statistically significant between-group changes were observed. Both groups showed reductions in systolic BP. Adjusted changes were SR = -5.7 mm Hg, p< 0.01; EHE = -9.0 mm Hg, p < 0.001 with no statistically significant difference between group difference. There was a significant reduction in diastolic BP in the EHE group (-5.3 mm Hg, p< 0.001 but not in SR (-1.2 mm Hg, p = 0.42; the between-group difference was significant (p = 0.04. The EHE group showed a greater number of changes in lifestyle behaviors.In this pilot trial, both stress reduction (Transcendental Meditation technique plus health education and extensive health education groups demonstrated increased telomerase gene expression and reduced BP. The association between increased telomerase gene expression and reduced BP observed in this high

  15. Sustainable Lifestyle Marketing of Individuals: the Base of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Rakic

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the sustainable lifestyle marketing of an individual (SLMOI. The SLMOI is the activity, a set of institutions and processes for creating, communicating and maintaining the sustainable lifestyle of an individual (SLOI. The SLOI is an individual’s sustainability-oriented pattern of living represented by his or her activities, interests and opinions. The SLOI refers to a sustainable pattern of life (daily activities within the family, a sustainable pattern of consumption, a sustainable pattern of work and production (as employees in organizations and a sustainable pattern of behavior in the society and the environment they live in. The SLOI reflects an individual’s choices with respect to spending time, money and energy in accordance with the sustainable pattern of life. The SLOI stands for sustainable behavioral patterns on the basis of attitudes and values. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the attitudes of the population towards sustainable lifestyles and the SLMOI (performed by different actors and behaviors on the basis of attitudes.Using a face-to-face questionnaire interview, the study was conducted on a sample of 400 citizens of Serbia. There are three key conclusions. First, the SLMOI leads to the SLOI, and the SLOI further leads to sustainability. Second, the creation and maintenance of the SLOI is a long-term process. Third, a holistic approach is needed as well as the engagement of numerous actors in that process of creating and maintaining the SLOI.

  16. Data from the PALS (Pregnancy and Lifestyle Study, a Community-Based Study of Lifestyle on Fertility and Reproductive Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Helen Ford

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the possible effects of lifestyle on fertility and pregnancy outcome, the PALS (Pregnancy and Lifestyle study collected extensive data on a broad range of parameters termed ‘lifestyle’ from couples who were planning a natural (non-assisted pregnancy in the coming months. There was no intervention. Participants were recruited over a six year period from 1988 to 1993 in response to extensive promotion in the local media. Male and female partners were interviewed independently and all interviews were conducted prospectively before the couple attempted to conceive. The result of each month of ‘trying’ was recorded and pregnancies were confirmed by urine tests and by ultrasound. The length of gestation of each pregnancy was recorded and pregnancies at term were classified with respect to weight. Multiple pregnancies and/or babies with congenital abnormalities have been excluded from the dataset. The data is stored as an xls file and each variable has a codename. For each of 582 couples there are 355 variables, the codes for which are described in a separate metadata file. The questionnaire based data includes information about households, occupation, chemical exposures at work and home, diet, smoking, alcohol use, hobbies, exercise and health. Recorded observations include monthly pregnancy tests and pregnancy outcomes.

  17. A systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle modification as primary prevention intervention for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Radl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: diabetes is one of the leading causes of death, and has a huge economic impact on the burden of society. Lifestyle interventions such as diet, physical activity and weight reducing are proven to be effective in the prevention of diabetes. To encourage policy actions, data on the costeffectiveness of such strategies of prevention programmes are needed.Methods: a systematic review of the literature on the cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies focusing on lifestyle interventions for diabetes type 2 patients. A weighted version of Drummond checklist was used to further assess the quality of the included studies.Results: six studies met the inclusion criteria and were therefore considered in this paper. Intensive lifestyle intervention to prevent diabetes type 2 is cost-effective in comparison to other interventions. All studies were judged of medium-to-high quality.Conclusions: policy makers should consider the adoption of a prevention strategy focusing on intensive lifestyle changes because they are proven to be either cost-saving or cost-effective.

  18. Lifestyle-based risk model for fall risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Sannino, Giovanna; De Falco, Ivanoe; De Pietro, Guiseppe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the explicit relationship between life-style and the risk of falling under the form of a mathematical model. Starting from some personal and behavioral information of a subject as, e.g., weight, height, age, data about physical activity habits, and concern about falling, the model would estimate the score of her/his Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems (Mini-BES) test. This score ranges within 0 and 28, and the lower its value the more likely the subj...

  19. Effects of a Lifestyle Modification Program on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Hypertensive Patients with Angioplasty: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Jafari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of knowledge, attitude and practice are some of the barriers of having a healthy lifestyle and controlling high blood pressure. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a lifestyle modification program on knowledge, attitude and practice of hypertensive patients with angioplasty. Methods: This study was a randomizedcontrolledclinical trial conducted from November to April 2014 on 60 hypertensive patients with angioplasty in ShahidChamran hospital of Isfahan, Iran. The samples were randomly assigned to two equal groups. Data collection was performed in three stages by a researcher-made questionnaire. The intervention plan was 6 education sessions and then follow up were done by phone call. The gathered data were analyzed via SPSS (V.20, using t-test, Chi-square, repeated measurement, and post hoc LSD test andANOVA statistics. Results: The mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice in the experimental group immediately after the intervention was 77.8±7.2, 88.3±6.4 and 86.2±6.5, respectively and one month after the intervention was 80.8±7.4, 91.1±3.5 and 92.5±2.2, respectively. But in the control group, the mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice immediately after the intervention (34.90±11.23, 61.11±6.28, and 38.64±7.15 and one month after the intervention was (38.64±7.15, 59.56±6.31 and 37.27±7.26. Conclusion: Lifestyle modification program can be effective in promoting the knowledge, attitude and practice of hypertensive patients with angioplasty. Nurses can use this program in their care provision programs for these patients.

  20. An evaluation of Croí MyAction community lifestyle modification programme compared to standard care to reduce progression to diabetes/pre-diabetes in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infanti, Jennifer J; Dunne, Fidelma P; O'Dea, Angela; Gillespie, Paddy; Gibson, Irene; Glynn, Liam G; Noctor, Eoin; Newell, John; McGuire, Brian E

    2013-05-02

    Universal screening using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria has identified a prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) of 12.4% in women living in Ireland. Women with prior GDM are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. A number of risk factors linked to the development of type 2 diabetes are potentially modifiable through lifestyle and behaviour changes, and medical management. No previous Irish studies have adequately investigated the efficacy of lifestyle intervention programmes in reducing these risk factors in women with prior GDM. Through a two-group, parallel randomised controlled trial (RCT), this study aims to assess the clinical impact, cost-effectiveness and psychological experience of the Croí MyAction intensive lifestyle modification programme for women with prior GDM. A total of 54 women with a history of GDM and persistent post-partum glucose dysfunction (impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG)), are randomly assigned to a control arm (n=27) or to the Croí MyAction intervention group (n=27). The control arm receives usual health care advice--written information on diet and lifestyle changes for reducing diabetes risks and visits with general practitioners as required. The intervention group receives usual health care as per the control group in addition to attending a 12-week intensive lifestyle modification programme known as Croí MyAction. Croí MyAction involves 2.5 hour sessions once per week (for 12 weeks) comprising a group exercise programme, group health promotion or education seminars, and one-to-one meetings with a multidisciplinary health care team to personalise risk factor reductions. Randomisation and allocation to the intervention arms is carried out by an independent researcher, ensuring that the allocation sequence is concealed from study researchers until the interventions are assigned. The primary analysis is based on

  1. Modification of JRR-4 based on safety evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Hironobu; Nakajima, Teruo; Funayama, Yoshiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    Since the first criticality was achieved on January 28, 1965, JRR-4 has been operated safely until on January 12, 1996. The modification of JRR-4 was planned according to the framework of reduced enrichment on research reactor program. The modification was designed based on the several national safety guides. JRR-4 has some modifications of facilities to satisfy the guides and guides criteria. (author)

  2. Changes in serum lipid profile of obese or overweight children and adolescents following a lifestyle modification course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2012-10-01

    measurements, it could change their lipid profile. Moreover, the intervention was more effective on improving lipid profile in children over 10 years of age. Therefore, effective interventional strategies must be invented and implemented on children based on their age group.      Keywords: Children Obesity, Education, Anthropometry, Lipid Profile, Lifestyle.

  3. The design of maternal centered life-style modification program for weight gain management during pregnancy - a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadegan, Ziba; Pozveh, Zahra Amini

    2013-08-01

    Abnormal weight gain during pregnancy increases the adverse health outcomes during the pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period. Most of the pregnant women develop weight gain more than the recommended limits; therefore, interventions to manage such disproportionate weight gain are needed. In this paper, the design of the maternal centered life-style intervention study is described, which focuses on controlling weight gaining during pregnancy for all body mass index (BMI) groups. In our randomized field trial, 160 pregnant women with 6-10 weeks of gestational age who visit one of the participating Isfahan four urban public-health centers and 4 private obstetric offices are included. The maternal centered life-style intervention carried out by trained midwives is standardized in a protocol. All the participants are visited at 6-10, 11-15, 16-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-34, 35-37, 38, 39, and 40 weeks of pregnancy. The women who are randomized in the intervention group receive maternal centered educational package of prenatal care for the pregnant woman and a log book in the first visit. Counselors accompany the pregnant women to maintain or develop a healthy life-style. Data collection will perform monthly measuring body weight, BMI. Because, we don't have structured protocol for weight management during pregnancy especially, in private sectors if the maternal centered life-style intervention proves to be effective, it will be suggested to merge this package to routine care. Therewith by empowering women to manage their weight the public-health burden can be reduced. Beside that private obstetricians also have structured protocol for their client management.

  4. Fault diagnosis based on controller modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Detection and isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop systems will be considered in this paper. A major problem is that a feedback controller will in general reduce the effects from variations in the systems including parametric faults on the controlled output from the system. Parametric...... faults can be detected and isolated using active methods, where an auxiliary input is applied. Using active methods for the diagnosis of parametric faults in closed-loop systems, the amplitude of the applied auxiliary input need to be increased to be able to detect and isolate the faults in a reasonable......-parameterization (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) for the controller, it is possible to modify the feedback controller with a minor effect on the closed-loop performance in the fault-free case and at the same time optimize the detection and isolation in a faulty case. Controller modification in connection...

  5. Perceived exercise barriers are reduced and benefits are improved with lifestyle modification in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Buckley, Jonathan D; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2016-03-09

    This study assessed the perceived benefits and barriers to exercise participation in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and monitored changes in response to a lifestyle intervention. Forty-three overweight/obese PCOS women (Age, 30.3(6.2) yrs; BMI, 36.4(5.6) kg/m(2)) were randomised to one of three 20-week lifestyle programs: diet only (DO, n = 13), diet and aerobic exercise (DA, n = 11) and diet and combined aerobic-resistance exercise (DC, n = 19). Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS), weight, aerobic fitness, depression and PCOS specific health-related quality of life were measured. Barriers score was related to depression (r = 0.45, P = 0.002) and aerobic fitness (r = -0.32, P = 0.04), while benefits score was related to aerobic fitness (r = 0.41, P = 0.007). EBBS, benefits and barriers scores improved overtime (P ≤ 0.001). Benefits subscales psychological outlook and social interaction increased (P ≤ 0.001) and life enhancement and preventative health did not change (P ≥ 0.3). Physical performance increased only in DA (P = 0.009). There were no differences between treatments for any of the other subscales (P ≥ 0.2). Barriers subscales exercise milieu, time expenditure and physical exertion reduced (P ≤ 0.003) and family discouragement did not change (P = 0.6). This study demonstrated that lifestyle modification consisting of an energy-restricted diet with or without exercise training improved the perceived benefits from and barriers to exercise. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12606000198527, registered 26 May 2006.

  6. Role of lifestyle modifications for patients with laryngeal granuloma caused by gastro-esophageal reflux: comparison between conservative treatment and the surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Rika; Tsunoda, Koichi; Ueha, Rumi; Fujimaki, Yoko; Nito, Takaharu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-03-01

    It is considered that a regimen combining pharmacologic management and lifestyle modifications is the most effective treatment for laryngeal granulomas caused by GER. This study compared the results of the combination therapy and surgery to determine the best treatment of laryngeal granuloma caused by gastro-esophageal reflux in 51 patients. Prospective study. In the conservative treatment group, the CR rate was 89.7% and recurrence rate was 2.6%, while the lesions remained in patients (7.7%). This study compared the CR and recurrence rates between conservative treatment and surgery for granuloma. The results showed that the laryngeal granuloma recurrence rate was significantly lower with the conservative treatment regimen compared with surgery (p = .0016).

  7. Benefits of a 12-week lifestyle modification program including diet and combined aerobic and resistance exercise on albuminuria in diabetic and non-diabetic Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Kabasawa, Keiko; Hosojima, Michihiro; Yata, Yusuke; Saito, Mariko; Tanaka, Noriko; Tanaka, Junta; Tanabe, Naohito; Narita, Ichiei; Arakawa, Masaaki; Saito, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Albuminuria is a biomarker for chronic kidney disease and an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. A recent meta-analysis concluded that these risks increase with urinary albumin concentration, even when below the microalbuminuria threshold. Thus, minimizing urinary albumin may be a valuable therapeutic goal regardless of disease status. We investigated the benefits and safety of a 12-week lifestyle modification program including diet and combined aerobic and resistance exercise for reducing albuminuria in 295 normoalbuminuric or microalbuminuric Japanese adults, including 30 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 104 with metabolic syndrome (MS), and 145 with hypertension (HT). In the study population, the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) was reduced significantly (ΔUACR -3.8 ± 16.8 mg/g, P < 0.001) with no change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (ΔeGFR -0.4 ± 7.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.343). The reduction in UACR was associated with decreased fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.05). The UACR was also reduced in the T2DM, MS, and HT groups with no change in eGFR. Reduced UACR was associated with decreased fasting plasma glucose in the MS group and decreased systolic blood pressure in the HT group. The UACR was also reduced in 46 subjects using renin-angiotensin system inhibitors with no change in eGFR. Our 12-week lifestyle modification program reduced UACR, maintained eGFR, and improved multiple fitness findings in Japanese subjects including T2DM, MS, and HT patients.

  8. User experience integrated life-style cloud-based medical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Alexandru; Lupşe, Oana Sorina; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara

    2015-01-01

    Having a modern application capable to automatically collect and process data from users, based on information and lifestyle answers is one of current challenges for researchers and medical science. The purpose of the current study is to integrate user experience design (UXD) in a cloud-based medical application to improve patient safety, quality of care and organizational efficiency. The process consists of collecting traditional and new data from patients and users using online questionnaires. A questionnaire dynamically asks questions about the user's current diet and lifestyle. After the user will introduce the data, the application will formulate a presumptive nutritional plan and will suggest different medical recommendations regarding a healthy lifestyle, and calculates a risk factor for diseases. This software application, by design and usability will be an efficient tool dedicated for fitness, nutrition and health professionals.

  9. Personalized Lifestyle Medicine: Relevance for Nutrition and Lifestyle Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna M. Minich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health recommendations for lifestyle modification, including diet and physical activity, have been widely disseminated for the prevention and treatment of disease. These guidelines are intended for the overall population without significant consideration for the individual with respect to one’s genes and environment. Personalized lifestyle medicine is a newly developed term that refers to an approach to medicine in which an individual’s health metrics from point-of-care diagnostics are used to develop lifestyle medicine-oriented therapeutic strategies for improving individual health outcomes in managing chronic disease. Examples of the application of personalized lifestyle medicine to patient care include the identification of genetic variants through laboratory tests and/or functional biomarkers for the purpose of designing patient-specific prescriptions for diet, exercise, stress, and environment. Personalized lifestyle medicine can provide solutions to chronic health problems by harnessing innovative and evolving technologies based on recent discoveries in genomics, epigenetics, systems biology, life and behavioral sciences, and diagnostics and clinical medicine. A comprehensive, personalized approach to medicine is required to promote the safety of therapeutics and reduce the cost of chronic disease. Personalized lifestyle medicine may provide a novel means of addressing a patient’s health by empowering them with information they need to regain control of their health.

  10. Developing Food-Based Dietary Guidelines to Promote Healthy Diets and Lifestyles in the Eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Janice L.; Samuda, Pauline M.; Molina, Veronika; Regis, Theresa Marietta; Severin, Merlyn; Finlay, Betty; Prevost, Jacqueline Lancaster

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Caribbean countries of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica. To promote healthful diets and lifestyles and encourage behavioral changes, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) were developed for the…

  11. Effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-based multi-component intervention on lifestyle behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, J.; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of morbidity. Mindfulness training could be an effective strategy to optimize lifestyle behaviors related to body weight gain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-based

  12. Does a population-based multifactorial lifestyle intervention increase social inequality in physical activity? The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadahl, M; Smith, L von Huth; Toft, U

    2011-01-01

    Aim To examine the effect of a multifactorial lifestyle intervention on 5-year change in physical activity (PA) and to explore whether length of education had an impact on the effect of the intervention. Methods Two random samples (high intervention group A, n=11 708; low intervention group B, n......-based multifactorial lifestyle intervention did not influence social inequality in PA. Keywords Lifestyle, Exercise, Randomised Intervention Study, Ischemic Heart Disease, Socioeconomic Position....

  13. Evidence and/or Experience-Based Knowledge in Lifestyle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More precisely, it is argued that what will be “effective” therapy for a person diagnosed as obese cannot be reduced ..... they had come to rely on their experience-based know- ledge. ..... knowledge – “tracking down the best evidence to answer.

  14. All-cause mortality of patients with dyslipidemia up to 19 years after a multidisciplinary lifestyle modification programme: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håglin, Lena; Lundström, Sara; Kaati, Gunnar; Bäckman, Lennart; Bygren, Lars Olov

    2011-02-01

    Many studies have shown that individual lifestyle factors are associated with cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Observational studies of comprehensive programmes have reported risk reductions. The objectives were to assess the long-term all-cause mortality by diagnosis in patients referred to a lifestyle modification programme, aimed at combating coronary heart disease and stroke. A randomized trial with 325 patients referred to the centre between 1988 and 1989 for dyslipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease; 239 patients were randomized to the programme, 86 randomized to usual care. Cases were admitted to the centre in groups of 30 for a 4-week residential comprehensive activity, in total 114 full-time hours, focusing on food preferences and selections, and physical exercise. The activities were repeated during a 4-day revisit to the centre 1 year and 5 years after the 4-week intervention. Controls were referred back to their doctors, mainly in primary care, for usual care. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality during 11–12 and 18–19 years after intervention. At follow-up 11–12 years after referral, the relative risk reduction (RRR) was 76% with the intention-to-treat analysis among cases admitted for dyslipidemia (hazards ratio 0.24, confidence interval 0.06–0.89, P = 0.033). After 18–19 years, the RRR was 66% (hazards ratio 0.34, confidence interval 0.13–0.88, P = 0.026). No RRR was found for the other three diagnoses. Patients admitted for dyslipidemia reached a real long-term RRR of all-cause mortality. They had by definition a need for this programme.

  15. Health-Related Lifestyle Factors and Sexual Dysfunction: A Meta-Analysis of Population-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S; Walter, Emma E

    2018-04-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common problem among men and women and is associated with negative individual functioning, relationship difficulties, and lower quality of life. To determine the magnitude of associations between 6 health-related lifestyle factors (cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, diet, caffeine, and cannabis use) and 3 common sexual dysfunctions (erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, and female sexual dysfunction). A comprehensive literature search of 10 electronic databases identified 89 studies that met the inclusion criteria (452 effect sizes; N = 348,865). Pooled mean effects (for univariate, age-adjusted, and multivariable-adjusted estimates) were computed using inverse-variance weighted random-effects meta-analysis and moderation by study and population characteristics were tested using random-effects meta-regression. Mean effect sizes from 92 separate meta-analyses provided evidence that health-related lifestyle factors are important for sexual dysfunction. Cigarette smoking (past and current), alcohol intake, and physical activity had dose-dependent associations with erectile dysfunction. Risk of erectile dysfunction increased with greater cigarette smoking and decreased with greater physical activity. Alcohol had a curvilinear association such that moderate intake was associated with a lower risk of erectile dysfunction. Participation in physical activity was associated with a lower risk of female sexual dysfunction. There was some evidence that a healthy diet was related to a lower risk of erectile dysfunction and female sexual dysfunction, and caffeine intake was unrelated to erectile dysfunction. Publication bias appeared minimal and findings were similar for clinical and non-clinical samples. Modification of lifestyle factors would appear to be a useful low-risk approach to decreasing the risk of erectile dysfunction and female sexual dysfunction. Strengths include the testing of age-adjusted and multivariable

  16. Lifestyle Characteristics and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Population-Based Study in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulzim Çela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We aimed to assess the prevalence and lifestyle correlates of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in the adult population of Albania, a Mediterranean country in Southeast Europe which has experienced major behavioral changes in the past two decades. Methods. A cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, included a population-representative sample of 845 individuals (≥18 years residing in Tirana (345 men, mean age: ; 500 women, mean age: ; response rate: 84.5%. Assessment of GERD was based on Montreal definition. Covariates included socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and body mass index. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle factors with GERD. Results. The overall prevalence of GERD was 11.9%. There were no significant sex differences, but a higher prevalence among the older participants. In fully adjusted models, there was a positive relationship of GERD with smoking, physical inactivity, fried food consumption, and obesity, but not so for alcohol intake and meat consumption. Conclusion. We obtained important evidence on the prevalence and lifestyle correlates of GERD in a Western Balkans' country. Smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity were strong “predictors” of GERD in this population. Findings from this study should be replicated in prospective studies in Albania and other transitional settings.

  17. Cognitive lifestyle in older persons: the population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Michael J; Leon, Irene; Suo, Chao; Piamba, Diana Martinez; Kochan, Nicole; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive lifestyle may be an important modifiable risk factor for dementia but has not yet been comprehensively studied in healthy elderly. To examine gender- and lifespan-related differences in cognitive lifestyle in a population-based cohort. 872 individuals from the second wave of the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (MAS) cohort were invited to complete the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ), a validated measure of cognitive lifestyle. Of 555 questionnaires returned (64%), 253 were excluded due to prior diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, leaving n = 302 cognitively-intact elders (mean age 80.1 years, ±SD 4.7, 40.1% men). Total LEQ was significantly higher in men (97.9 ± 20.0) than women (90.0 ± 24.5), resulting mainly from midlife LEQ differences. Men were more likely to have worked in managerial or professional jobs (73.8% versus 39.5% women), and twice as likely to have supervised large groups of workers. In late life, women were significantly more likely to be living alone (68.1% versus 25.4% men), but otherwise significantly more engaged in specific cognitive activities, including reading novels (72.3% versus 52.0% men) and incorporating volunteer work (31.9% versus 19.7% men) and socializing (59.0% versus 37.0% men) into their typical day. Over the adult lifespan, it was more common for men and women to transition between LEQ tertiles than remain the same. Cognitive lifestyle changes over the adult lifespan and exhibits a range of gender-based differences. While older women are more likely to be living alone they generally lead a more active current cognitive lifestyle.

  18. Oxidative DNA base modifications as factors in carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinski, R.; Jaruga, P.; Zastawny, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species can cause extensive DNA modifications including modified bases. Some of the DNA base damage has been found to possess premutagenic properties. Therefore, if not repaired, it can contribute to carcinogenesis. We have found elevated amounts of modified bases in cancerous and precancerous tissues as compared with normal tissues. Most of the agents used in anticancer therapy are paradoxically responsible for induction of secondary malignancies and some of them may generate free radicals. The results of our experiments provide evidence that exposure of cancer patients to therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation and anticancer drugs cause base modifications in genomic DNA of lymphocytes. Some of these base damages could lead to mutagenesis in critical genes and ultimately to secondary cancers such as leukemias. This may point to an important role of oxidative base damage in cancer initiation. Alternatively, the increased level of the modified base products may contribute to genetic instability and metastatic potential of tumor cells. (author)

  19. The Downstart Program: a hospital-based pediatric healthy lifestyle program for obese and morbidly obese minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Alex; Muzumdar, Hiren; Dinkevich, Eugene; Quintos, Jose Bernardo; Austin-Leon, Galia; Owens, Terrel; Murphy, Cheryl; Dapul, Geraldine; Rao, Madu

    2006-12-01

    Although obesity affects all cultures, ethnic groups and social strata, this disorder affects African Americans, Hispanics and the poor at a disproportionate rate. The Downstart Pediatric Healthy Lifestyle Program was developed to provide a multi-disciplinary behavioral modification program for inner city families in Brooklyn, New York interested in leading a healthier, more active lifestyle. The Downstart Program uses a four-pronged approach of medical evaluation, exercise, nutritional education and lifestyle modification. A psychological evaluation is performed to determine the individual's ability and readiness to participate in group activities. Baseline physical fitness, flexibility and muscle strength are measured, followed by a twice-weekly karate/martial arts/dance program, incorporating principles established by the President's Council on Exercise. Nutritional and behavioral modification aspects of the program consist of weekly education about food groups, portion control, goal setting and appropriate rewards for attaining goals. Our preliminary results indicate that the Downstart Program may be a viable intervention for weight loss. Further study is needed to improve strategies for motivating patients and means and criteria for assessing long-term effects on health and lifestyle.

  20. One-Year Weight Loss with a Telephone-Based Lifestyle Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Holzapfel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Telephone-based weight loss programs are offered as an alternative to face-to-face obesity treatments, but data on the effectiveness regarding weight loss are limited. Therefore, we evaluated a telephone-based lifestyle program in a real-world setting. Methods: The telephone-based intervention consists of regular phone calls providing individualized lifestyle recommendations, and delivery of printed materials. Anthropometric and metabolic data are collected by general practitioners or are self-reported. Results: Baseline data were available from 398 participants (61% men; weight 103.12 ± 14.21 kg; BMI 33.38 ± 2.83 kg/m2 and 1-year data from 258 (65% participants. In the completers, mean weight change was -4.25 ± 5.18 kg (p Conclusions: The telephone-based lifestyle program results in a moderate weight loss after 12 months, which may be comparable to face-to-face interventions. Telephone-based weight loss support is independent of time and location and represents a tool which is also accepted by men.

  1. Consumer Product Perceptions and Salmon Consumption Frequency: The Role of Heterogeneity Based on Food Lifestyle Segments

    OpenAIRE

    Yuko Onozaka; Håvard Hansen; Arne Sørvig

    2014-01-01

    Seafood consumers are vastly heterogeneous in terms of their knowledge, confidence, and perceptions about seafood. This article examines the relationship between consumer perceptions (healthiness, value for money, and convenience) and salmon consumption frequencies while modeling unobserved consumer heterogeneity by segmenting consumers based on their food-related lifestyle. We employ latent class analysis (LCA) that embeds the structural equation modeling (SEM) to ensure the latent nature of...

  2. A lifestyle-based scenario for US buildings: implications for energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, Rick

    2003-01-01

    Can lifestyle-based scenarios provide insight into the nature of energy use in our future buildings? Participants in a design charrette brainstormed ideas about the future of US homes and workplaces. The teams started from several descriptions of daily lifestyles, and developed specific building characteristics as the place settings for these narratives. In addition to characterizing the physical environment, the teams also identified the forces that would be influential in making these changes. Further reflection was made on the possible unintended consequences of these changes. The energy implications of these changes were characterized with respect to magnitude and direction. While acknowledging the speculative nature of the exercise, the rationale was to broaden the discussion on future energy use by looking at future scenarios in the context of everyday life

  3. Lifestyle Factors in Hypertension Drug Research: Systematic Analysis of Articles in a Leading Cochrane Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan E. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Established standards for first-line hypertension management include lifestyle modification and behavior change. The degree to which and how lifestyle modification is systematically integrated into studies of first-line drug management for hypertension is of methodological and clinical relevance. This study systematically reviewed the methodology of articles from a recent Cochrane review that had been designed to inform first-line medical treatment of hypertension and was representative of high quality established clinical trials in the field. Source articles (n=34 were systematically reviewed for lifestyle interventions including smoking cessation, diet, weight loss, physical activity and exercise, stress reduction, and moderate alcohol consumption. 54% of articles did not mention lifestyle modification; 46% contained nonspecific descriptions of interventions. We contend that hypertension management research trials (including drug studies need to elucidate the benefits and risks of drug-lifestyle interaction, to support the priority of lifestyle modification, and that lifestyle modification, rather than drugs, is seen by patients and the public as a priority for health professionals. The inclusion of lifestyle modification strategies in research designs for hypertension drug trials could enhance current research, from trial efficacy to clinical outcome effectiveness, and align hypertension best practices of a range of health professionals with evidence-based knowledge translation.

  4. Modification of species-based differential evolution for multimodal optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Said Iskandar Al; Syahputra, Hermawan; Firdaus, Muliawan

    2015-12-01

    At this time optimization has an important role in various fields as well as between other operational research, industry, finance and management. Optimization problem is the problem of maximizing or minimizing a function of one variable or many variables, which include unimodal and multimodal functions. Differential Evolution (DE), is a random search technique using vectors as an alternative solution in the search for the optimum. To localize all local maximum and minimum on multimodal function, this function can be divided into several domain of fitness using niching method. Species-based niching method is one of method that build sub-populations or species in the domain functions. This paper describes the modification of species-based previously to reduce the computational complexity and run more efficiently. The results of the test functions show species-based modifications able to locate all the local optima in once run the program.

  5. Lifestyle Intervention for Weight Loss: a group-based program for Emiratis in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiya A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amena Sadiya,1,* Sarah Abdi,1,* Salah Abusnana2 1Lifestyle Clinic, 2Research and Education Department, Rashid Center for Diabetes and Research, Ajman, United Arab Emirates *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Lifestyle Intervention for Weight Loss (LIFE-8 is developed as a structured, group-based weight management program for Emiratis with obesity and type 2 diabetes. It is a 3-month program followed by a 1-year follow-up. The results from the first 2 years are presented here to indicate the possibility of its further adaptation and implementation in this region. Methodology: We recruited 45 participants with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The LIFE-8 program was executed by incorporating dietary modification, physical activity, and behavioral therapy, aiming to achieve up to 5% weight loss. The outcomes included body weight, fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and nutritional knowledge at 3 months and 12 months. Results: We observed a reduction of 5.0% in body weight (4.8±2.8 kg; 95% CI 3.7–5.8, fat mass (–7.8%, P<0.01, and waist circumference (Δ=4±4 cm, P<0.01 in the completed participants (n=28. An improvement (P<0.05 in HbA1c (7.1%±1.0% vs 6.6%±0.7% and FBG (8.2±2.0 mmol/L vs 6.8±0.8 mmol/L was observed in participants with obesity and type 2 diabetes after the program. Increase in nutritional knowledge (<0.01 and overall evaluation of the program (9/10 was favorable. On 1-year follow-up, we found that the participants could sustain weight loss (–4.0%, while obese, type 2 diabetic participants sustained HbA1c (6.6%±0.7% vs 6.4%±0.7% and further improved (P<0.05 the level of FBG (6.8±0.8 mmol/L vs 6.7±0.4 mmol/L. Conclusion: LIFE-8 could be an effective, affordable, acceptable, and adaptable lifestyle intervention program for the prevention and management of diabetes in Emiratis. It was successful not

  6. Testing a Dutch web-based tailored lifestyle programme among adults: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Osch Liesbeth ADM

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, high alcohol consumption, unhealthy eating habits and physical inactivity often lead to (chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Tailored online interventions have been proven to be effective in changing health behaviours. The aim of this study is to test and compare the effectiveness of two different tailoring strategies for changing lifestyle compared to a control group using a multiple health behaviour web-based approach. Methods In our Internet-based tailored programme, the five lifestyle behaviours of smoking, alcohol intake, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, and physical activity are addressed. This randomized controlled trial, conducted among Dutch adults, includes two experimental groups (i.e., a sequential behaviour tailoring condition and a simultaneous behaviour tailoring condition and a control group. People in the sequential behaviour tailoring condition obtain feedback on whether their lifestyle behaviours meet the Dutch recommendations. Using a step-by-step approach, they are stimulated to continue with a computer tailored module to change only one unhealthy behaviour first. In the course of the study, they can proceed to change a second behaviour. People in the simultaneous behaviour tailoring condition receive computer tailored feedback about all their unhealthy behaviours during their first visit as a stimulation to change all unhealthy behaviours. The experimental groups can re-visit the website and can then receive ipsative feedback (i.e., current scores are compared to previous scores in order to give feedback about potential changes. The (difference in effectiveness of the different versions of the programme will be tested and compared to a control group, in which respondents only receive a short health risk appraisal. Programme evaluations will assess satisfaction with and appreciation and personal relevance of the intervention among the respondents. Finally

  7. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin; Ryu, Kisang

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies.

  8. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350

  9. Determinants of preferences for lifestyle changes versus medication and beliefs in ability to maintain lifestyle changes. A population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte Ejg Jarbøl

    2017-06-01

    For conclusion we found a pervasive preference for lifestyle changes over medical treatment when individuals were promised the same benefits. Lifestyle risk factors and socioeconomic characteristics were associated with preference for lifestyle changes as well as belief in ability to maintain lifestyle changes. For health professionals risk communication should not only focus on patient preferences but also on patients' beliefs in their own ability to initiate lifestyle changes and possible barriers against maintaining changes.

  10. 42 CFR 412.72 - Modification of base-year costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modification of base-year costs. 412.72 Section 412... Modification of base-year costs. (a) Bases for modification of base-year costs. Base-year costs as determined... before November 16, 1983 has until November 15, 1983 to request its intermediary to reestimate its base...

  11. Epigenetics and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Torres, Jorge Alejandro; Baccarelli, Andrea; Bollati, Valentina

    2011-06-01

    The concept of 'lifestyle' includes different factors such as nutrition, behavior, stress, physical activity, working habits, smoking and alcohol consumption. Increasing evidence shows that environmental and lifestyle factors may influence epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and miRNA expression. It has been identified that several lifestyle factors such as diet, obesity, physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, environmental pollutants, psychological stress and working on night shifts might modify epigenetic patterns. Most of the studies conducted so far have been centered on DNA methylation, whereas only a few investigations have studied lifestyle factors in relation to histone modifications and miRNAs. This article reviews current evidence indicating that lifestyle factors might affect human health via epigenetic mechanisms.

  12. Activity preferences, lifestyle modifications and re-injury fears influence longer-term quality of life in people with knee symptoms following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie R Filbay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Questions: How do people with knee symptoms describe their quality of life and experiences 5 to 20 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR? What factors impact upon the quality of life of these people? Design: Qualitative study. Participants: Seventeen people with knee symptoms 5 to 20 years after ACLR and high (n = 8 or low (n = 9 quality of life scores were recruited from a cross-sectional study. Methods: Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted and transcribed. The data obtained from the interventions underwent inductive coding and thematic analysis. Results: Four consistent themes emerged from the interviews as common determinants of quality of life following ACLR: physical activity preferences; lifestyle modifications; adaptation and acceptance; and fear of re-injury. All participants described the importance of maintaining a physically active lifestyle and the relationship between physical activity and quality of life. Participants who avoided sport or activity reported experiencing reduced quality of life. Participants who suppressed or overcame re-injury fears to continue sport participation described experiencing a satisfactory quality of life while taking part in sport despite knee symptoms. For some participants, resuming competitive sport resulted in subsequent knee trauma, anterior cruciate ligament re-rupture or progressive deterioration of knee function, with negative impacts on quality of life following sport cessation. Participants who enjoyed recreational exercise often adapted their lifestyle early after ACLR, while others described adapting their lifestyle at a later stage to accommodate knee impairments; this was associated with feelings of acceptance and satisfaction, irrespective of knee symptoms. Conclusion: Activity preferences, lifestyle modifications and fear of re-injury influenced quality of life in people with knee symptoms up to 20 years following ACLR. People with a preference

  13. Mindfulness-based lifestyle programs for the self-management of Parkinson's disease in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Brooke E; Advocat, Jenny; Hassed, Craig; Hester, Jennifer; Enticott, Joanne; Russell, Grant

    2018-04-11

    Despite emerging evidence suggesting positive outcomes of mindfulness training for the self-management of other neurodegenerative diseases, limited research has explored its effect on the self-management of Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to characterize the experiences of individuals participating in a facilitated, group mindfulness-based lifestyle program for community living adults with Stage 2 PD and explore how the program influenced beliefs about self-management of their disease. Our longitudinal qualitative study was embedded within a randomized controlled trial exploring the impact of a 6-week mindfulness-based lifestyle program on patient-reported function. The study was set in Melbourne, Australia in 2012-2013. We conducted semi-structured interviews with participants before, immediately after, and 6 months following participation in the program. Sixteen participants were interviewed prior to commencing the program. Of these, 12 were interviewed shortly after its conclusion, and 9 interviewed at 6 months. Prior to the program, participants felt a lack of control over their illness. A desire for control and a need for alternative tools for managing the progression of PD motivated many to engage with the program. Following the program, where participants experienced an increase in mindfulness, many became more accepting of disease progression and reported improved social relationships and self-confidence in managing their disease. Mindfulness-based lifestyle programs have the potential for increasing both participants' sense of control over their reactions to disease symptoms as well as social connectedness. Community-based mindfulness training may provide participants with tools for self-managing a number of the consequences of Stage 2 PD.

  14. Community-based randomized controlled trial of diabetes prevention study for high-risk individuals of type 2 diabetes: lifestyle intervention using web-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seon-Ah; Lim, Sun-Young; Kim, Kook-Rye; Lee, Eun-Young; Kang, Borami; Choi, Yoon-Hee; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Lee, Jin-Hee; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2017-05-05

    The trend of increasing numbers of patients with type 2 diabetes emphasizes the need for active screening of high-risk individuals and intensive lifestyle modification (LSM). The community-based Korean Diabetes Prevention Study (C-KDPS) is a randomized controlled clinical trial to prevent type 2 diabetes by intensive LSM using a web-based program. The two public healthcare centers in Korea are involved, and 420 subjects are being recruited for 6 months and will be followed up for 22 months. The participants are allocated randomly to intensive LSM (18 individual sessions for 24 weeks) and usual care (control group). The major goals of the C-KDPS lifestyle intervention program are: 1) a minimum of 5-7% loss of initial body weight in 6 months and maintenance of this weight loss, 2) increased physical activity (≥ 150 min/week of moderate intensity activity), 3) balanced healthy eating, and 4) quitting smoking and alcohol with stress management. The web-based program includes education contents, video files, visit schedules, and inter-communicable keeping track sites. Primary outcomes are the diagnoses of newly developed diabetes. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test with hemoglobin A1c level determination and cardiovascular risk factor assessment is scheduled at 6, 12, 18, and 22 months. Active screening of high-risk individuals and an effective LSM program are an essential prerequisite for successful diabetes prevention. We hope that our C-KDPS program can reduce the incidence of newly developed type 2 diabetes and be implemented throughout the country, merging community-based public healthcare resources and a web-based system. Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS), Republic of Korea (No. KCT0001981 ). Date of registration; July 28, 2016.

  15. Community-based randomized controlled trial of diabetes prevention study for high-risk individuals of type 2 diabetes: lifestyle intervention using web-based system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Ah Cha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trend of increasing numbers of patients with type 2 diabetes emphasizes the need for active screening of high-risk individuals and intensive lifestyle modification (LSM. Methods/design The community-based Korean Diabetes Prevention Study (C-KDPS is a randomized controlled clinical trial to prevent type 2 diabetes by intensive LSM using a web-based program. The two public healthcare centers in Korea are involved, and 420 subjects are being recruited for 6 months and will be followed up for 22 months. The participants are allocated randomly to intensive LSM (18 individual sessions for 24 weeks and usual care (control group. The major goals of the C-KDPS lifestyle intervention program are: 1 a minimum of 5–7% loss of initial body weight in 6 months and maintenance of this weight loss, 2 increased physical activity (≥ 150 min/week of moderate intensity activity, 3 balanced healthy eating, and 4 quitting smoking and alcohol with stress management. The web-based program includes education contents, video files, visit schedules, and inter-communicable keeping track sites. Primary outcomes are the diagnoses of newly developed diabetes. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test with hemoglobin A1c level determination and cardiovascular risk factor assessment is scheduled at 6, 12, 18, and 22 months. Discussion Active screening of high-risk individuals and an effective LSM program are an essential prerequisite for successful diabetes prevention. We hope that our C-KDPS program can reduce the incidence of newly developed type 2 diabetes and be implemented throughout the country, merging community-based public healthcare resources and a web-based system. Trial registration Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, Republic of Korea (No. KCT0001981 . Date of registration; July 28, 2016.

  16. Technology-Based Innovations to Foster Personalized Healthy Lifestyles and Well-Being: A Targeted Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Silvina; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Marias, Kostas; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Teixeira, António; Janssen, Joris H; de Jong, Henri; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2016-01-01

    Background New community-based arrangements and novel technologies can empower individuals to be active participants in their health maintenance, enabling people to control and self-regulate their health and wellness and make better health- and lifestyle-related decisions. Mobile sensing technology and health systems responsive to individual profiles combined with cloud computing can expand innovation for new types of interoperable services that are consumer-oriented and community-based. This could fuel a paradigm shift in the way health care can be, or should be, provided and received, while lessening the burden on exhausted health and social care systems. Objective Our goal is to identify and discuss the main scientific and engineering challenges that need to be successfully addressed in delivering state-of-the-art, ubiquitous eHealth and mHealth services, including citizen-centered wellness management services, and reposition their role and potential within a broader context of diverse sociotechnical drivers, agents, and stakeholders. Methods We review the state-of-the-art relevant to the development and implementation of eHealth and mHealth services in critical domains. We identify and discuss scientific, engineering, and implementation-related challenges that need to be overcome to move research, development, and the market forward. Results Several important advances have been identified in the fields of systems for personalized health monitoring, such as smartphone platforms and intelligent ubiquitous services. Sensors embedded in smartphones and clothes are making the unobtrusive recognition of physical activity, behavior, and lifestyle possible, and thus the deployment of platforms for health assistance and citizen empowerment. Similarly, significant advances are observed in the domain of infrastructure supporting services. Still, many technical problems remain to be solved, combined with no less challenging issues related to security, privacy, trust, and

  17. Technology-Based Innovations to Foster Personalized Healthy Lifestyles and Well-Being: A Targeted Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakis, Emmanouil G; Santana, Silvina; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Marias, Kostas; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Teixeira, António; Janssen, Joris H; de Jong, Henri; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2016-06-24

    New community-based arrangements and novel technologies can empower individuals to be active participants in their health maintenance, enabling people to control and self-regulate their health and wellness and make better health- and lifestyle-related decisions. Mobile sensing technology and health systems responsive to individual profiles combined with cloud computing can expand innovation for new types of interoperable services that are consumer-oriented and community-based. This could fuel a paradigm shift in the way health care can be, or should be, provided and received, while lessening the burden on exhausted health and social care systems. Our goal is to identify and discuss the main scientific and engineering challenges that need to be successfully addressed in delivering state-of-the-art, ubiquitous eHealth and mHealth services, including citizen-centered wellness management services, and reposition their role and potential within a broader context of diverse sociotechnical drivers, agents, and stakeholders. We review the state-of-the-art relevant to the development and implementation of eHealth and mHealth services in critical domains. We identify and discuss scientific, engineering, and implementation-related challenges that need to be overcome to move research, development, and the market forward. Several important advances have been identified in the fields of systems for personalized health monitoring, such as smartphone platforms and intelligent ubiquitous services. Sensors embedded in smartphones and clothes are making the unobtrusive recognition of physical activity, behavior, and lifestyle possible, and thus the deployment of platforms for health assistance and citizen empowerment. Similarly, significant advances are observed in the domain of infrastructure supporting services. Still, many technical problems remain to be solved, combined with no less challenging issues related to security, privacy, trust, and organizational dynamics. Delivering

  18. A Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention improves memory of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. eChan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the potential benefits of a Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention on enhancing memory in older people with lower memory function. Forty-four aged 60 to 83 adults with various level of memory ability participated in the study. Their memories (including verbal and visual components were assessed before and after a 3-month intervention. The intervention consisted of 12 sessions, with one 90-minute session per week. The intervention involved components of adopting a special vegetarian diet, practicing a type of mind-body exercises and learning self-realization. Elderly with lower memory function at the baseline (i.e., their performance on standardized memory tests was within 25th percentile showed a significant memory improvement after the intervention. Their verbal and visual memory performance has showed 50% and 49% enhancement respectively. In addition, their improvement can be considered as a reliable and clinically significant change as reflected by their significant pre-post differences and reliable change indices. Such robust treatment effect was found to be specific to memory functions, but less influencing on the other cognitive functions. These preliminary encouraging results have shed some light on the potential applicability of the Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention as a method for enhancing memory in the elderly population.

  19. The Associations Between Socioeconomic Status and Lifestyle Factors in European Adolescents: A Population-based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Dario

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES and lifestyle factors. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 3,072 adolescents from two European countries of Lithuania and Serbia. The dependent variable was SES, while independent variables were gender, adherence to a Mediterranean diet, body-mass index, self-rated health, psychological distress, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behaviour. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analysed by using logistic regression analysis. In univariate model, middle/high SES was associated with higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet (ptrend = 0.003, good self-rated health (OR 1.51; 95 % CI 1.12 to 2.05 and meeting recommendations of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (OR 2.09; 95 % CI 1.45 to 3.00, yet inversely associated with psychological distress (OR 0.81; 95 % CI 0.66 to 0.99 and sedentary behaviour (OR 0.80; 95 % CI 0.68 to 0.94. No associations were found between SES and bodymass index and gender. In multivariate model, the same associations occurred between middle/high SES and lifestyle factors. In conclusion, special strategies and policies, based on more affordable nutrition and participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, should be implemented within the system.

  20. Making and maintaining lifestyle changes after participating in group based type 2 diabetes self-management educations: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit B Rise

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease management is crucial in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes self-management education aims to provide the knowledge necessary to make and maintain lifestyle changes. However, few studies have investigated the processes after such courses. The aim of this study was to investigate how participants make and maintain lifestyle changes after participating in group-based type 2 diabetes self-management education. METHODS: Data was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews with 23 patients who attended educational group programs in Central Norway. The participants were asked how they had used the advice given and what they had changed after the course. RESULTS: Knowledge was essential for making lifestyle changes following education. Three factors affected whether lifestyle changes were implemented: obtaining new knowledge, taking responsibility, and receiving confirmation of an already healthy lifestyle. Four factors motivated individuals to maintain changes: support from others, experiencing an effect, fear of complications, and the formation of new habits. CONCLUSION: Knowledge was used to make and maintain changes in diet, medication and physical activity. Knowledge also acted as confirmation of an already adequate lifestyle. Knowledge led to no changes if diabetes appeared "not that scary" or if changes appeared too time consuming. Those involved in diabetes education need to be aware of the challenges in convincing asymptomatic patients about the benefits of adherence to self-management behaviour.

  1. PSA based plant modifications and back-fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of Principal Working Group No. 5 - Risk Assessment states that 'The group should deal with the technology and methods for identifying contributors to risk and assessing their importance, and appropriate exchanges of information on current research'. Since being formulated in 1982, along with this mandate, the group has also endeavored to develop a common understanding of the different approaches taken in risk assessment. The focus of this report is to provide knowledge to experts on the role Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has had in safety decision making. PSA is a powerful tool for improving Nuclear Power Plant safety by identifying weaknesses in design or operation and setting priorities for plant modifications and back-fits. While the use is well recognised, it is also true that any safety decision is generally based on several elements, both probabilistic and deterministic. This document provides a general overview of insights gained from the representative set of examples collected from Member countries (Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States). The report starts with basic types of plant modifications which were carried out (e.g. hardware or software, important or minor, etc.) and the characteristics of the PSAs used in the examples (e.g. level and scope, specific or generic, on-going or terminated, etc.). The insights gained from this small collection are then reviewed. The appendix gives a full text version of the Member country contributions

  2. Association between sucrose intake and acute coronary event risk and effect modification by lifestyle factors: Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, K; Drake, I; Wallström, P; Engström, G; Sonestedt, E

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested that a high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is positively associated with the risk of a coronary event. However, a few studies have examined the association between sucrose (the most common extrinsic sugar in Sweden) and incident coronary events. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between sucrose intake and coronary event risk and to determine whether these associations are specific to certain subgroups of the population (i.e. according to physical activity, obesity status, educational level, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, intake of fat and intake of fruits and vegetables). We performed a prospective analysis on 26 190 individuals (62 % women) free from diabetes and without a history of CVD from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Over an average of 17 years of follow-up (457 131 person-years), 2493 incident cases of coronary events were identified. Sucrose intake was obtained from an interview-based diet history method, including 7-d records of prepared meals and cold beverages and a 168-item diet questionnaire covering other foods. Participants who consumed >15 % of their energy intake (E%) from sucrose showed a 37 (95 % CI 13, 66) % increased risk of a coronary event compared with the lowest sucrose consumers (<5 E%) after adjusting for potential confounders. The association was not modified by the selected lifestyle factors. The results indicated that sucrose consumption higher than 15 E% (5 % of this population) is associated with an increased risk of a coronary event.

  3. The long-term effect of a population-based life-style intervention on smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Toft, Ulla Marie Nørgaard; Aadahl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether improvements in smoking and alcohol consumption throughout the 5-year course of a population-based multi-factorial life-style intervention were sustained 5 years after its discontinuation. DESIGN: Population-based randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Suburbs of Copenhage...

  4. Plasma based Ar+ beam assisted poly(dimethylsiloxane) surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladkova, T.G.; Keranov, I.L.; Dineff, P.D.; Youroukov, S.Y.; Avramova, I.A.; Krasteva, N.; Altankov, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma based Ar + beam performed in RF (13.56 MHz) low-pressure (200 mTorr) glow discharge (at 100 W, 1200 W and 2500 W) with a serial capacitance was employed for surface modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) aimed at improvement of its interactions with living cells. The presence of a serial capacitance ensures arise of an ion-flow inside the plasma volume directed toward the treated sample and the vary of the discharge power ensures varied density of the ion-flow. XPS analysis was performed to study the changes in the surface chemical composition of the modified samples and the corresponding changes in the surface energy were monitored by contact angle measurements. We found that plasma based Ar + beam transforms the initially hydrophobic PDMS surface into a hydrophilic one mainly due to a raising of the polar component of the surface tension, this effect being most probably due to an enrichment of the modified surface layer with permanent dipoles of a [SiO x ]-based network and elimination of the original methyl groups. The initial adhesion of human fibroblast cells was studied on the described above plasma based Ar + beam modified and acrylic acid (AA) grafted or not fibronectin (FN) pre-coated or bare surfaces. The cell response seems to be related with the peculiar structure and wettability of the modified PDMS surface layer after plasma based Ar + beam treatment followed or not by AA grafting

  5. A novel approach to population-based risk stratification, comprising individualized lifestyle intervention in Danish general practice to prevent chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Larsen, Lars; Søndergaard, Jens; Halling, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of patients at risk seems to be effective for reducing the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases. We aim to test the feasibility of a novel intervention for early detection of lifestyle-related chronic diseases based on a population-based stratification using a combinat......Early detection of patients at risk seems to be effective for reducing the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases. We aim to test the feasibility of a novel intervention for early detection of lifestyle-related chronic diseases based on a population-based stratification using...

  6. Consumer segmentation based on food-related lifestyles and analysis of rabbit meat consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Buitrago-Vera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation divides the market into small groups of consumers who share similar characteristics. As all consumers within the same group have a common profile, marketing strategies can be adapted to target a specific type of consumer. Owing to the rapid changes in today’s society, consumer lifestyle has become the ideal criterion for market segmentation. In this study, we employed the food-related lifestyle model, which scholars have shown to be suitable and valid in several countries. Using data from a survey (with 3.53% error, we segmented the Spanish food market based on consumers’ food-related lifestyles. For each segment, we identified the consumer profile and analysed consumers’ consumption of rabbit meat. Factor analysis and cluster analysis yielded 4 segments: (i ‘Unconcerned’ (36.8% of the sample mainly consists of male consumers. Consumers in this segment value neither the freshness nor the price/quality ratio of their food items and consume rabbit meat rarely (39.4% or sporadically (29.3%. (ii ‘Cooks’ (18.4% predominantly consists of middle-aged women. Consumers in this segment are highly demanding and critical of the quality of food products. They like cooking and are regular consumers of rabbit meat (40.6%. (iii ‘Out-of-home consumers and convenience shoppers’ (28.6% mostly consists of consumers aged between 25 and 34 y old and contains a large proportion of upper-class consumers. Consumers in this segment prefer to eat out and consume convenience products. This segment has the second highest percentage of regular consumers of rabbit meat (36.9%. The segment also has the second highest percentage of consumers who rarely or never eat rabbit meat (43.9%. (iv ‘Rational purchaser with little interest in cooking’ (16.2% has the highest proportion of consumers aged 55 to 74 y old. Consumers in this segment have the least interest in cooking, the most interest in the purchasing process, and the lowest

  7. A Hospital-Based Therapeutic Lifestyle Program for Women With Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei-Jen Jou

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: The therapeutic lifestyle program with diet control and regular exercise improves most markers of MetS except for levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Therapeutic lifestyle intervention may be the best way of reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in women with MetS.

  8. Does a population-based multi-factorial lifestyle intervention increase social inequality in dietary habits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Jakobsen, Iris Marie; Aadahl, Mette

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether the effect of an individualised multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on dietary habits differs across socioeconomic groups.......To investigate whether the effect of an individualised multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on dietary habits differs across socioeconomic groups....

  9. Effectiveness of a web-based health risk assessment with individually-tailored feedback on lifestyle behaviour: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laan Eva K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary habits, smoking and high alcohol consumption are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease and cancer. Web-based health risk assessments with tailored feedback seem promising in promoting a healthy lifestyle. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a web-based health risk assessment with individually-tailored feedback on lifestyle behaviour, conducted in a worksite setting. Methods/Design The web-based health risk assessment starts with a questionnaire covering socio-demographic variables, family and personal medical history, lifestyle behaviour and psychological variables. Prognostic models are used to estimate individual cardiovascular risks. In case of high risk further biometric and laboratory evaluation is advised. All participants receive individually-tailored feedback on their responses to the health risk assessment questionnaire. The study uses a quasi-experimental design with a waiting list control group. Data are collected at baseline (T0 and after six months (T1. Within each company, clusters of employees are allocated to either the intervention or the control group. Primary outcome is lifestyle behaviour, expressed as the sum of five indicators namely physical activity, nutrition, smoking behaviour, alcohol consumption, and symptoms of burnout. Multilevel regression analysis will be used to answer the main research question and to correct for clustering effects. Baseline differences between the intervention and control group in the distribution of characteristics with a potential effect on lifestyle change will be taken into account in further analyses using propensity scores. Discussion This study will increase insight into the effectiveness of health risk assessments with tailored feedback and into conditions that may modify the effectiveness. This information can be used to design effective interventions for lifestyle behaviour change among employees. Trial

  10. Social Determinants of Health and Attempt to Change Unhealthy Lifestyle: A Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaei, Mina; Palenik, Charles John; Abdollahifard, Gholamreza; Askarian, Mehrdad

    2017-01-01

    A healthy lifestyle is important because of its long-term benefits; however, there is a paucity of information concerning health choices among Iranians. We evaluated personal health behaviors, attempts to change unhealthy behaviors, and factors affecting attempts at change. The design of this cross-sectional study was to assemble a representative cadre of >18-year-old adults in Shiraz, Iran, using a multistage cluster sampling technique. Validated questionnaires collected participant's demographic information, such as weight, height, cigarette smoking history, physical activity, and attempts at lifestyle changes during the previous year. To determine predictors of attempts to change unhealthy lifestyle and to identify confounders, we applied single and multivariable logistic regression methods, respectively. A confidence interval of 95% was calculated for each odds ratio. The prevalence of attempts to change unhealthy lifestyle was 42%, 64.8%, and 27.8%, respectively, for losing weight, being more physically active, and smoking cessation. Unemployment, low levels of education, and decreased socioeconomic status have important roles in attempts to change lifestyle conditions. Low socioeconomic status was a risk factor for quitting smoking. Occupation (unemployed/homemaker) and low level of education were two significant factors for being more physically active. The prevalence of inadequate physical activity and being overweight or obese was considerable in Shiraz, Iran. Attempts to change unhealthy lifestyle were less than ideal. Social determinants of health factors including unemployment and low levels of education and socioeconomic status play important roles in attempts to change current lifestyles.

  11. Towards measurement of the Healthy Ageing Phenotype in lifestyle-based intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jose; Godfrey, Alan; Evans, Elizabeth; Heaven, Ben; Brown, Laura J E; Barron, Evelyn; Rochester, Lynn; Meyer, Thomas D; Mathers, John C

    2013-10-01

    Given the biological complexity of the ageing process, there is no single, simple and reliable measure of how healthily someone is ageing. Intervention studies need a panel of measures which capture key features of healthy ageing. To help guide our research in this area, we have adopted the concept of the "Healthy Ageing Phenotype" (HAP) and this study aimed to (i) identify the most important features of the HAP and (ii) identify/develop tools for measurement of those features. After a comprehensive assessment of the literature we selected the following domains: physiological and metabolic health, physical capability, cognitive function, social wellbeing, and psychological wellbeing which we hoped would provide a reasonably holistic characterisation of the HAP. We reviewed the literature and identified systematic reviews and/or meta-analysis of cohort studies, and clinical guidelines on outcome measures of these domains relevant to the HAP. Selection criteria for these measures included: frequent use in longitudinal studies of ageing; expected to change with age; evidence for strong association with/prediction of ageing-related phenotypes such as morbidity, mortality and lifespan; whenever possible, focus on studies measuring these outcomes in populations rather than on individuals selected on the basis of a particular disease; (bio)markers that respond to (lifestyle-based) intervention. Proposed markers were exposed to critique in a Workshop held in Newcastle, UK in October 2012. We have selected a tentative panel of (bio)markers of physiological and metabolic health, physical capability, cognitive function, social wellbeing, and psychological wellbeing which we propose may be useful in characterising the HAP and which may have utility as outcome measures in intervention studies. In addition, we have identified a number of tools which could be applied in community-based intervention studies designed to enhance healthy ageing. We have proposed, tentatively, a panel

  12. Implementation Process and Acceptance of a Setting Based Prevention Programme to Promote Healthy Lifestyle in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Birgit; Strauss, Angelika; Mayer, Andrea; Duvinage, Kristin; Mitschek, Christine; Koletzko, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the implementation process of a kindergarten-based intervention ("TigerKids") to promote a healthy lifestyle. Design: Questionnaire survey among kindergarten teachers about programme implementation and acceptance. Setting: Kindergartens in Bavaria, Germany. Methods: Two hundred and fifteen kindergartens were…

  13. Effects of a Community-Based Lifestyle Intervention on Change in Physical Activity among Economically Disadvantaged Adults with Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Laura M.; Hoen, Helena M.; Slaven, James E.; Finch, Emily A.; Marrero, David G.; Saha, Chandan; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Moderate weight loss and physical activity (PA) can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes however there is a need for innovative, effective programs to promote PA in high-risk individuals. Purpose: We examined the effect of a group-based adaption of the DPP lifestyle intervention implemented in partnership with the YMCA (YDPP) on changes in…

  14. Wastewater-based epidemiology, an analytical chemical approach for the investigation of human consumption of lifestyle chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Causanilles Llanes, A.

    2018-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis supports the hypothesis that wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach can be used as an alternative and non-intrusive technique that provides information about a population’s health and lifestyle habits. The focus is in the essential role of analytical

  15. Consumer Segmentation Based on Food-Related Lifestyles and Perception of Chicken Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Ripoll García, Guillermo; Albertí Lasalle, Pere; Panea Doblado, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disseminate knowledge regarding the perceptions of Spanish consumers of chicken breast and their related lifestyles and to classify different consumer groups according to their food-related lifestyles. Nearly all Spanish consumers consume chicken breast once or twice per week. The preference for white or yellow chicken appears to be divided evenly, although the preferred is white chicken. Chicken breast is perceived as a product of convenience. Seventy percent of ...

  16. Modificated ammonium nitrate based on its melt and bentonic clay

    OpenAIRE

    TURDIALIEV UMID MUHTARALIEVICH; NAMAZOV SHAFOAT SATTAROVICH; REYMOV AHMED MAMBETKARIMOVICH; BEGLOV BORIS MIHAYLOVICH; MIRSALIMOVA SAODAT RAHMATJANOVNA

    2016-01-01

    The approaches of nonexplosive ammonium nitrate by mean introduction of different inorganic matter into ammonium nitrate’s composition have been analyzed in the study. The results of thermostable ammonium nitrate obtain using Azkamarsk, Lagonsk, Kattakurgansk, and Navbahorsk bentonite from Uzbekistan as an additive, have been given. Composition and property (granule strength, modification transition temperature, thermal effect of modification transition, dimensions of granule’s micropores and...

  17. Lifestyle modifications in the development of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome in Chinese women who had gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomized interventional trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Noel Wan Man; Ngai, Cora Suk Wai; Lee, Chin Peng; Chan, Jane Yuk Chun; Lao, Terence Tzu Hsi

    2014-02-01

    To study whether lifestyle intervention can reduce the development of type II diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome (MS) among Chinese women who had gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A prospective randomized controlled interventional trial of 450 women who had GDM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) postpartum. Advice on diet and exercise was given to the intervention group and reinforced in each follow-up visit. Women in both arms were followed for 36 months. Blood pressure and anthropometry were measured at each visit and blood tests were repeated. Fewer women in the intervention group developed DM (15 versus 19 %) but this was not statistically significant, and there was a lower incidence of DM among women over 40 years old. No difference was found in fasting glucose, insulin and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and triglyceride level, were lower but the significance was inconsistent among visits. BMI and percentage body fat were also significantly lower in the later visits. There was no difference in waist-hip ratio and basal metabolic rate. Our results demonstrate a trend towards lower incidence of type II DM within 3 years postpartum in GDM women given lifestyle advice, which also potentially offers protection against development of MS, in terms of lower blood pressure and triglyceride level. Women over 40 years old are more likely to benefit. Future studies should address ways to maximize compliance to lifestyle intervention as its potential benefits can be undermined by challenges of motherhood.

  18. Effects of a Multicomponent Life-Style Intervention on Weight, Glycemic Control, Depressive Symptoms, and Renal Function in Low-Income, Minority Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Results of the Community Approach to Lifestyle Modification for Diabetes Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieft, Ashley E; Llabre, Maria M; McCalla, Judith Rey; Gutt, Miriam; Mendez, Armando J; Gellman, Marc D; Goldberg, Ronald B; Schneiderman, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Few interventions have combined life-style and psychosocial approaches in the context of Type 2 diabetes management. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a multicomponent behavioral intervention on weight, glycemic control, renal function, and depressive symptoms in a sample of overweight/obese adults with Type 2 diabetes and marked depressive symptoms. A sample of 111 adults with Type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a 1-year intervention (n = 57) or usual care (n = 54) in a parallel groups design. Primary outcomes included weight, glycosylated hemoglobin, and Beck Depression Inventory II score. Estimated glomerular filtration rate served as a secondary outcome. All measures were assessed at baseline and 6 and 12 months after randomization by assessors blind to randomization. Latent growth modeling was used to examine intervention effects on each outcome. The intervention resulted in decreased weight (mean [M] = 0.322 kg, standard error [SE] = 0.124 kg, p = .010) and glycosylated hemoglobin (M = 0.066%, SE = 0.028%, p = .017), and Beck Depression Inventory II scores (M = 1.009, SE = 0.226, p diabetes. This study is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT01739205.

  19. Multiple lifestyle behaviours and mortality, findings from a large population-based Norwegian cohort study - The HUNT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar Krokstad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle risk behaviours are responsible for a large proportion of disease burden and premature mortality worldwide. Risk behaviours tend to cluster in populations. We developed a new lifestyle risk index by including emerging risk factors (sleep, sitting time, and social participation and examine unique risk combinations and their associations with all-cause and cardio-metabolic mortality. Methods Data are from a large population-based cohort study in a Norway, the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT, with an average follow-up time of 14.1 years. Baseline data from 1995–97 were linked to the Norwegian Causes of Death Registry. The analytic sample comprised 36 911 adults aged 20–69 years. Cox regression models were first fitted for seven risk factors (poor diet, excessive alcohol consumption, current smoking, physical inactivity, excessive sitting, too much/too little sleep, and poor social participation separately and then adjusted for socio-demographic covariates. Based on these results, a lifestyle risk index was developed. Finally, we explored common combinations of the risk factors in relation to all-cause and cardio-metabolic mortality outcomes. Results All single risk factors, except for diet, were significantly associated with both mortality outcomes, and were therefore selected to form a lifestyle risk index. Risk of mortality increased as the index score increased. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality increased from 1.37 (1.15-1.62 to 6.15 (3.56-10.63 as the number of index risk factors increased from one to six respectively. Among the most common risk factor combinations the association with mortality was particularly strong when smoking and/or social participation were included. Conclusions This study adds to previous research on multiple risk behaviours by incorporating emerging risk factors. Findings regarding social participation and prolonged sitting suggest new components of healthy lifestyles and

  20. Information and Risk Modification Trial (INFORM): design of a randomised controlled trial of communicating different types of information about coronary heart disease risk, alongside lifestyle advice, to achieve change in health-related behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silarova, Barbora; Lucas, Joanne; Butterworth, Adam S; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Girling, Christine; Lawrence, Kathryn; Mackintosh, Stuart; Moore, Carmel; Payne, Rupert A; Sharp, Stephen J; Shefer, Guy; Tolkien, Zoe; Usher-Smith, Juliet; Walker, Matthew; Danesh, John; Griffin, Simon

    2015-09-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death globally. Primary prevention of CVD requires cost-effective strategies to identify individuals at high risk in order to help target preventive interventions. An integral part of this approach is the use of CVD risk scores. Limitations in previous studies have prevented reliable inference about the potential advantages and the potential harms of using CVD risk scores as part of preventive strategies. We aim to evaluate short-term effects of providing different types of information about coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, alongside lifestyle advice, on health-related behaviours. In a parallel-group, open randomised trial, we are allocating 932 male and female blood donors with no previous history of CVD aged 40-84 years in England to either no intervention (control group) or to one of three active intervention groups: i) lifestyle advice only; ii) lifestyle advice plus information on estimated 10-year CHD risk based on phenotypic characteristics; and iii) lifestyle advice plus information on estimated 10-year CHD risk based on phenotypic and genetic characteristics. The primary outcome is change in objectively measured physical activity. Secondary outcomes include: objectively measured dietary behaviours; cardiovascular risk factors; current medication and healthcare usage; perceived risk; cognitive evaluation of provision of CHD risk scores; and psychological outcomes. The follow-up assessment takes place 12 weeks after randomisation. The experiences, attitudes and concerns of a subset of participants will be also studied using individual interviews and focus groups. The INFORM study has been designed to provide robust findings about the short-term effects of providing different types of information on estimated 10-year CHD risk and lifestyle advice on health-related behaviours. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN17721237 . Registered 12 January 2015.

  1. An association rule mining-based framework for understanding lifestyle risk behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Park

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence and patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors in Korean adults. METHODS: We utilized data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 14,833 adults (>20 years of age. We used association rule mining to analyze patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors by characterizing non-adherence to public health recommendations related to the Alameda 7 health behaviors. The study variables were current smoking, heavy drinking, physical inactivity, obesity, inadequate sleep, breakfast skipping, and frequent snacking. RESULTS: Approximately 72% of Korean adults exhibited two or more lifestyle risk behaviors. Among women, current smoking, obesity, and breakfast skipping were associated with inadequate sleep. Among men, breakfast skipping with additional risk behaviors such as physical inactivity, obesity, and inadequate sleep was associated with current smoking. Current smoking with additional risk behaviors such as inadequate sleep or breakfast skipping was associated with physical inactivity. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle risk behaviors are intercorrelated in Korea. Information on patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors could assist in planning interventions targeted at multiple behaviors simultaneously.

  2. Investigating the Degree of Paying Attention to the Political Indicators of Lifestyle Based on Islamic-Iranian Model of Development in Training Teachers of Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadfar, Houriyeh; Nasr, Ahmad Reza; Nili, Mohammad Reza; Hassemi, Vahid G.

    2016-01-01

    In the era of development when the needs of a society to its citizens with a political lifestyle based on the development proportional to their native culture seem necessary, updating training and creating changes in citizens' curricula proportional to political indicators of lifestyle is considered as a necessary issue. The objective of the…

  3. Adopting an Evidence-Based Lifestyle Physical Activity Program: Dissemination Study Design and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrea L; Buller, David B; Dearing, James W; Cutter, Gary; Guerra, Michele; Wilcox, Sara; Bettinghaus, Erwin P

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of research studies that have examined academic-commercial partnerships to disseminate evidence-based physical activity programs. Understanding this approach to dissemination is essential because academic-commercial partnerships are increasingly common. Private companies have used dissemination channels and strategies to a degree that academicians have not, and declining resources require academicians to explore these partnerships. PURPOSE: This paper describes a retrospective case-control study design including the methods, demographics, organizational decision-making, implementation rates, and marketing strategy for Active Living Every Day (ALED), an evidence-based lifestyle physical activity program that has been commercially available since 2001. Evidence-based public health promotion programs rely on organizations and targeted sectors to disseminate these programs although relatively little is known about organizational-level and sector-level influences that lead to their adoption and implementation. METHODS: Cases (n=154) were eligible if they had signed an ALED license agreement with Human Kinetics (HK), publisher of the program's textbooks and facilitator manuals, between 2001 and 2008. Two types of controls were matched (2:2:1) and stratified by sector and region. Active controls (Control 1; n=319) were organizations that contacted HK to consider adopting ALED. Passive controls (Control 2; n=328) were organizations that received unsolicited marketing materials and did not initiate contact with HK. We used Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT) constructs as the basis for developing the survey of cases and controls. RESULTS: Using the multi-method strategy recommended by Dillman, a total of n=801 cases and controls were surveyed. Most organizations were from the fitness sector followed by medical, nongovernmental, governmental, educational, worksite and other sectors with significantly higher response rates from government

  4. LPaMI: A Graph-Based Lifestyle Pattern Mining Application Using Personal Image Collections in Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifayat Ullah Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Normally, individuals use smartphones for a variety of purposes like photography, schedule planning, playing games, and so on, apart from benefiting from the core tasks of call-making and short messaging. These services are sources of personal data generation. Therefore, any application that utilises personal data of a user from his/her smartphone is truly a great witness of his/her interests and this information can be used for various personalised services. In this paper, we present Lifestyle Pattern MIning (LPaMI, which is a personalised application for mining the lifestyle patterns of a smartphone user. LPaMI uses the personal photograph collections of a user, which reflect the day-to-day photos taken by a smartphone, to recognise scenes (called objects of interest in our work. These are then mined to discover lifestyle patterns. The uniqueness of LPaMI lies in our graph-based approach to mining the patterns of interest. Modelling of data in the form of graphs is effective in preserving the lifestyle behaviour maintained over the passage of time. Graph-modelled lifestyle data enables us to apply variety of graph mining techniques for pattern discovery. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposal, we have developed a prototype system for LPaMI to implement its end-to-end pipeline. We have also conducted an extensive evaluation for various phases of LPaMI using different real-world datasets. We understand that the output of LPaMI can be utilised for variety of pattern discovery application areas like trip and food recommendations, shopping, and so on.

  5. Comparison of Drospirenone- with Cyproterone Acetate-Containing Oral Contraceptives, Combined with Metformin and Lifestyle Modifications in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Metabolic Disorders: A Prospective Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu-Yi; Song, Yong; Huang, Wei; Xiao, Li; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Feng, Gui-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Background: While combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are commonly used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), comparative data regarding metabolic effects of different progestogens on this patient population are missing. This study aimed to compare the different effects of drospirenone (DRP)-containing COCs with cyproterone acetate (CPA)-containing COCs, combined with metformin and lifestyle modifications in women with PCOS and metabolic disorders. Methods: Ninety-nine women with PCOS and a metabolic disorder between January 2011 and January 2013 were enrolled into this prospective randomized clinical trial. Participants were randomized into two groups such as DRP-containing COCs, and CPA-containing COCs. Participants took COCs cyclically for 6 months, combined with metformin administration (1.5 g/d) and lifestyle modifications (diet and exercise). Clinical measures and biochemical and hormone profiles were compared. Comparisons for continuous variables were evaluated with paired and unpaired Student's t-tests. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used when the data were not normally distributed. Analysis of covariance was used to control for age, body mass index (BMI), and baseline data of each analyzed parameter when compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 68 patients have completed the study. The combination regimen of COCs, metformin, and lifestyle modifications in these patients resulted in a significant decrease in BMI, acne, and hirsutism scores when compared to baseline levels in both groups (P < 0.05). Blood pressure (BP) was significantly different in the CPA group when compared to baseline (75.14 ± 6.77 mmHg vs. 80.70 ± 5.60 mmHg, P < 0.01), and after 6 months of treatment, only the change in systolic BP was significantly different between the two groups (4.00 [–6.00, 13.00] mmHg vs. –3.50 [–13.00, 9.00] mmHg, P = 0.009). Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance decreased significantly

  6. Nanoparticle-Based Surface Modifications for Microtribology Control and Superhydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Kendall Matthew

    2010-11-01

    contact" between two contacting surfaces. The studies found that AuNP thin films produced using the lowest initial concentrations of nanoparticles in solution produced estimated real contact areas of around 1%, reducing the adhesion of oxidized Si (100) surfaces from about 37 mJ/m2 down to 0.02 mJ/m 2. In addition, the reducing in real contact area effectively reduced the coefficient of static friction between silicon-based surfaces due to the extremely high dependence of stiction on friction and wear at the microscale. This work also investigated methods of permanently immobilizing AuNP-based films on the silicon surfaces of microstructures in order to create more mechanically robust coatings. The use of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) functionalized with tail-groups known to bond to metallic surfaces were effective in producing much more durable coatings as opposed to non-immobilized AuNP films. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques were also used to coat rough AuNP films with very thin films of silica (SiO2) to create a robust, rough surface. This method was also very effective in creating a durable coating which is capable of reducing the adhesion energy and friction between two microscale surfaces for extended periods of time. Similar CVD techniques were also used to begin investigating the production of alumina nanoparticle-based superhydrophobic films for use in consumer electronics. Overall, the work presented in this dissertation illustrates that engineered nanoparticle-based surface modifications can be extremely effective in the reduction of the inherent interfacial phenomena that exist on microfabricated systems. This work is can potentially lead us into a new age of the miniaturization of mechanical and electronic devices.

  7. Piezoelectric Accelerometers Modification Based on the Finite Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Bin; Kriegbaum, B.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the modification of piezoelectric accelerometers using a Finite Element (FE) method. Brüel & Kjær Accelerometer Type 8325 is chosen as an example to illustrate the advanced accelerometer development procedure. The deviation between the measurement and FE simulation results...

  8. Efficacy of a virtual assistance-based lifestyle intervention in reducing risk factors for Type 2 diabetes in young employees in the information technology industry in India: LIMIT, a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, T; Kumaran, K; Joglekar, C; Bhat, D; Kulkarni, R; Nanivadekar, A; Yajnik, C

    2017-04-01

    To investigate a virtual assistance-based lifestyle intervention to reduce risk factors for Type 2 diabetes in young employees in the information technology industry in India. LIMIT (Lifestyle Modification in Information Technology) was a parallel-group, partially blinded, randomized controlled trial. Employees in the information technology industry with ≥3 risk factors (family history of cardiometabolic disease, overweight/obesity, high blood pressure, impaired fasting glucose, hypertriglyceridaemia, high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol) from two industries were randomized to a control or an intervention (1:1) group. After initial lifestyle advice, the intervention group additionally received reinforcement through mobile phone messages (three per week) and e-mails (two per week) for 1 year. The primary outcome was change in prevalence of overweight/obesity, analysed by intention to treat. Of 437 employees screened (mean age 36.2 ± 9.3 years; 74.8% men), 265 (61.0%) were eligible and randomized into control (n=132) or intervention (n=133) group. After 1 year, the prevalence of overweight/obesity reduced by 6.0% in the intervention group and increased by 6.8% in the control group (risk difference 11.2%; 95% CI 1.2-21.1; P=0.042). There were also significant improvements in lifestyle measurements, waist circumference, and total and LDL cholesterol in the intervention group. The number-needed-to-treat to prevent one case of overweight/obesity in 1 year was 9 (95% CI 5-82), with an incremental cost of INR10665 (£112.30) per case treated/prevented. A total of 98% of participants found the intervention acceptable. A virtual assistance-based lifestyle intervention was effective, cost-effective and acceptable in reducing risk factors for diabetes in young employees in the information technology industry, and is potentially scalable. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  9. Modificación de conocimientos y estilos de vida en adultos mayores con enfermedad cerebrovascular Modification to knowledge and lifestyles in older adults with cerebrovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidys Proenza Fernández

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio cuasiexperimental de intervención educativa en 26 pacientes mayores de 60 años pertenecientes a los Consultorios Médicos de Familia 5 y 16 de la Policlínica III "René Vallejo Ortiz" de Manzanillo, desde mayo del 2010 hasta igual mes del 2011, a fin de modificar sus conocimientos y estilos de vida sobre los factores de riesgo de la enfermedad cerebrovascular. Se confeccionó un formulario y una encuesta con vistas a determinar las necesidades de aprendizaje sobre el tema y se utilizó la prueba de los signos para la validación estadística de los hallazgos. En la casuística, el factor de riesgo predominante resultó ser la hipertensión arterial. Además, se comprobó que después de la aplicación del programa educativo mejoró el nivel de conocimientos sobre el tema y fue modificado el estilo de vida de estos adultos mayores.A quasi-experimental study of educational intervention was carried out in 26 patients older than 60 years from the Doctor's Offices 5 and 16 belonging to "René Vallejo Ortiz" Polyclinic III in Manzanillo, from May 2010 to May 2011, in order to modify their knowledge and lifestyles about risk factors for cerebrovascular disease. A questionnaire and a survey were made to determine the needs of learning on the subject and the sign test was used for the statistical validation of findings. In the case series the predominant risk factor was found to be hypertension. Furthermore, it was confirmed that after the implementation of the educational program the level of knowledge about the subject improved and the lifestyle of these older adults was modified.

  10. Stage-Based Healthy Lifestyles Program for Non-College Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer; Kattelmann, Kendra; White, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility of implementing a healthy lifestyles intervention to maintain or achieve healthy weight for low-income young adults in vocational education. Design/methodology/approach: Non-randomized, quasi-experimental feasibility test of a ten-week intervention with follow-up assessment designed…

  11. Is a motivational interviewing based lifestyle intervention for obese pregnant women across Europe implemented as planned?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; Simmons, David; Gobat, Nina

    2017-01-01

    mass index ≥29 kg/m(2). The intervention includes guidance on physical activity and/or healthy eating by a lifestyle coach trained in motivational interviewing (MI). The aim of this study was to assess the process elements: reach, dose delivered, fidelity and satisfaction and to investigate whether...

  12. Is a motivational interviewing based lifestyle intervention for obese pregnant women across Europe implemented as planned?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; Simmons, David; Gobat, Nina

    2017-01-01

    mass index ≥29 kg/m2. The intervention includes guidance on physical activity and/or healthy eating by a lifestyle coach trained in motivational interviewing (MI). The aim of this study was to assess the process elements: reach, dose delivered, fidelity and satisfaction and to investigate whether...

  13. Modification of polylactide bioplastic using hyperbranched polymer based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Rahul

    Polylactide (PLA) is the most well known renewable resource based biodegradable polymer. The inherent brittleness and poor processability of PLA pose considerable technical challenges and limit its range of commercial applications. The broad objective of this research was to investigate novel pathways for polylactide modification to enhance its mechanical and rheological properties. The focus of this work was to tailor the architecture of a dendritic hyperbranched polymer (HBP) and study its influence on the mechanical and rheological properties of PLA bioplastic. The hyperbranched polymers under consideration are biodegradable aliphatic hydroxyl-functional hyperbranched polyesters having nanoscale dimensions, unique physical properties and high peripheral functionalities. This work relates to identifying a new and industrially relevant research methodology to develop PLA based nanoblends having outstanding stiffness-toughness balance. In this approach, a hydroxyl functional hyperbranched polymer was crosslinked in-situ with a polyanhydride (PA) in the PLA matrix during melt processing, leading to the generation of new nanoscale hyperbranched polymer based domains in the PLA matrix. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the "sea-island" morphology of PLA-crosslinked HBP blends. The domain size of a large portion of the crosslinked HBP particles in PLA matrix was less than 100 nm. The presence of crosslinked hyperbranched polymers exhibited more than 500% and 800% improvement in the tensile toughness and elongation at break values of PLA, respectively, with a minimal sacrifice of tensile strength and modulus as compared to unmodified PLA. The toughening mechanism of PLA in the presence of crosslinked HBP particles was comprised of shear yielding and crazing. The volume fraction of crosslinked HBP particles and matrix ligament thickness (inter-particle distance) were found to be the critical parameters for the toughening of PLA. The

  14. Genetic modification of lymphocytes by retrovirus-based vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suerth, Julia D; Schambach, Axel; Baum, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    The genetic modification of lymphocytes is an important topic in the emerging field of gene therapy. Many clinical trials targeting immunodeficiency syndromes or cancer have shown therapeutic benefit; further applications address inflammatory and infectious disorders. Retroviral vector development requires a detailed understanding of the interactions with the host. Most researchers have used simple gammaretroviral vectors to modify lymphocytes, either directly or via hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Lentiviral, spumaviral (foamyviral) and alpharetroviral vectors were designed to reduce the necessity for cell stimulation and to utilize potentially safer integration properties. Novel surface modifications (pseudotyping) and transgenes, built using synthetic components, expand the retroviral toolbox, altogether promising increased specificity and potency. Product consistency will be an important criterion for routine clinical use. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Infrared detection based on localized modification of Morpho butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangyu; Shen, Qingchen; Shi, Xindong; Li, Shipu; Wang, Wanlin; Luo, Zhen; He, Gufeng; Zhang, Peng; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Zhang, Wang; Zhang, Di; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-02-01

    Inspired by butterflies an advanced detection and sensing system is developed. The hierarchical nanoarchitecture of Morpho butterfly wings is shown to facilitate the selective modification of such a structure, which results in a sensitive infrared response. These findings offer a new path both for detecting infrared photons and for generating nanostructured bimaterial systems for high-performance sensing platforms. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Examining the psychological pathways to behavior change in a group-based lifestyle program to prevent type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Christine R; Hardie, Elizabeth A; Moore, Susan M

    2012-04-01

    To examine the psychological process of lifestyle change among adults at risk for type 2 diabetes. A randomized control trial in which 307 volunteers (intervention, n = 208; wait control, n = 99) diagnosed with prediabetes completed a six-session group-based intervention to promote healthier living. Participants' motivation to change, diet and exercise self-efficacy, mood, knowledge about diabetes, activity levels, healthy eating, waist circumference, and weight were assessed before and after the program. Participation in the program was associated with significant increases in healthy eating and physical activity, reductions in waist and weight, and improvements in motivation, positive mood, self-efficacy, and knowledge. Examination of the pathways to lifestyle change showed that the educational aspect of the program increased activity levels because it increased diabetes knowledge and improved mood. Eating behavior was not mediated by any of the psychological variables. Improvements in diet and physical activity were, in turn, directly associated with changes in weight and waist circumference. Although the program significantly improved motivation, self-efficacy, and mood, its impact on knowledge uniquely explained the increase in physical activity. Group-based programs that are tailored to lifestyle behaviors may provide a cost-effective method of diabetes prevention, but more research is needed to explain why they improve healthy eating.

  17. Lifestyle Journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Unni; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    for in-depth exploration and contextualisation of this field, with its increasing relevance for 21st century consumer cultures. For the first time, this book presents a wide range of studies which have engaged with the field of lifestyle journalism in order to outline the various political, economic......Lifestyle journalism has experienced enormous growth in the media over the past two decades, but scholars in the fields of journalism and communication studies have so far paid relatively little attention to a field that is still sometimes seen as "not real journalism". There is now an urgent need......, social and cultural tensions within it. Taking a comparative view, the collection includes studies covering four continents, including countries such as Australia, China, Norway, Denmark, Singapore, the UK and the USA. While keeping the broader lifestyle field in mind, the chapters focus on a variety...

  18. Lifestyle Journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Unni; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle journalism has experienced enormous growth in the media over the past two decades, but scholars in the fields of journalism and communication studies have so far paid relatively little attention to a field that is still sometimes seen as "not real journalism". There is now an urgent need...... for in-depth exploration and contextualisation of this field, with its increasing relevance for 21st century consumer cultures. For the first time, this book presents a wide range of studies which have engaged with the field of lifestyle journalism in order to outline the various political, economic...... of sub-fields such as travel, music, food, health, fashion and personal technology journalism. This volume provides a fascinating account of the different facets of lifestyle journalism, and charts the way forward for a more sustained analysis of the field. This book was originally published as a special...

  19. Surface modification by EUV laser beam based on capillary discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, Oleksandr; Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Štraus, Jaroslav; Prukner, Václav; Shukurov, A.

    -, č. 58 (2011), s. 484-487 ISSN 2010-376X. [International Conference on Fusion and Plasma Physics. Bali, Indonésie, 26.10.2011-28.10.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA MŠk LA08024; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : soft x-ray * EUV * laser * radiation * source * capillary * discharge * plasma * ablation * surface modification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.waset.org/journals/waset/v58/v58-99.pdf

  20. Vacuum-based surface modification of organic and metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jessica

    Surface physico-chemical properties play an important role in the development and performance of materials in different applications. Consequently, understanding the chemical and physical processes involved during surface modification strategies is of great scientific and technological importance. This dissertation presents results from the surface modification of polymers, organic films and metallic substrates with reactive species, with the intent of simulating important modification processes and elucidating surface property changes of materials under different environments. The reactions of thermally evaporated copper and titanium with halogenated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are used to contrast the interaction of metals with polymers. Results indicate that reactive metallization is thermodynamically favored when the metal-halogen bond strength is greater than the carbon-halogen bond strength. X-ray post-metallization treatment results in an increase in metal-halide bond formation due to the production of volatile halogen species in the polymer that react with the metallic overlayer. The reactions of atomic oxygen (AO) and atomic chlorine with polyethylene (PE) and self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) films were followed to ascertain the role of radical species during plasma-induced polymer surface modification. The reactions of AO with X-ray modified SAMs are initially the dominated by the incorporation of new oxygen containing functionality at the vacuum/film interface, leading to the production of volatile carbon containing species such as CO2 that erodes the hydrocarbon film. The reaction of atomic chlorine species with hydrocarbon SAMs, reveals that chlorination introduces C-Cl and C-Cl2 functionalities without erosion. A comparison of the reactions of AO and atomic chlorine with PE reveal a maximum incorporation of the corresponding C-O and C-Cl functionalities at the polymer surface. A novel method to prepare phosphorous

  1. Technology-based intervention for healthy lifestyle promotion in Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraticelli, Federica; Marchetti, Daniela; Polcini, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika Anna; Chiarelli, Francesco; Fulcheri, Mario; Vitacolonna, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle promotion programs are essential to prevent metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Adolescents could represent the ideal target population especially using serious web games. To test the improvement of knowledge about healthy nutrition in adolescents and to analyze participants' enjoyment in playing the web game "Gustavo in Gnam's Planet" in comparison with a leisure web game. Sixty-five adolescents were engaged in three supervised group sessions. Measures about healthy food knowledge and games' enjoyment were collected during the three stages of assessment. After playing Gustavo in Gnam's Planet, participants significantly improved their knowledge on a healthy diet, compared to the recreational web games; whereas the level of fun experienced while playing the recreational and the educational games was not significantly different. Gustavo in Gnam's Planet is an important promising tool, with entertainment property, to promote a healthy lifestyle in Italian adolescents.

  2. New insights into the lifestyle of Allosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda based on another specimen with multiple pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Foth

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult large-bodied theropods are often found with numerous pathologies. A large, almost complete, probably adult Allosaurus specimen from the Howe Stephens Quarry, Morrison Formation (Late Kimmeridgian–Early Tithonian, Wyoming, exhibits multiple pathologies. Pathologic bones include the left dentary, two cervical vertebrae, one cervical and several dorsal ribs, the left scapula, the left humerus, the right ischium, and two left pedal phalanges. These pathologies can be classified as follows: the fifth cervical vertebra, the scapula, several ribs and the ischium are probably traumatic, and a callus on the shaft of the left pedal phalanx II-2 is probably traumatic-infectious. Traumatically fractured elements exposed to frequent movement (e.g., the scapula and the ribs show a tendency to develop pseudarthroses instead of a callus. The pathologies in the lower jaw and a reduced extensor tubercle of the left pedal phalanx II-2 are most likely traumatic or developmental in origin. The pathologies on the fourth cervical are most likely developmental in origin or idiopathic, that on the left humerus could be traumatic, developmental, infectious or idiopathic, whereas the left pedal phalanx IV-1 is classified as idiopathic. With exception of the ischium, all as traumatic/traumatic-infectious classified pathologic elements show unambiguous evidences of healing, indicating that the respective pathologies did not cause the death of this individual. Alignment of the scapula and rib pathologies from the left side suggests that all may have been caused by a single traumatic event. The ischial fracture may have been fatal. The occurrence of multiple lesions interpreted as traumatic pathologies again underlines that large-bodied theropods experienced frequent injuries during life, indicating an active predatory lifestyle, and their survival perhaps supports a gregarious behavior for Allosaurus. Alternatively, the frequent survival of traumatic events could be

  3. Factors Associated With Engagement With a Web-Based Lifestyle Intervention Following Provision of Coronary Heart Disease Risk: Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher-Smith, Juliet A; Winther, Laura R; Shefer, Guy S; Silarova, Barbora; Payne, Rupert A; Griffin, Simon J

    2017-10-16

    Web-based interventions provide the opportunity to combine the tailored approach of face-to-face interventions with the scalability and cost-effectiveness of public health interventions. This potential is often limited by low engagement. A number of studies have described the characteristics of individuals who engage more in Web-based interventions but few have explored the reasons for these variations. We aimed to explore individual-level factors associated with different degrees of engagement with a Web-based behavior change intervention following provision of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk information, and the barriers and facilitators to engagement. This study involved the secondary analysis of data from the Information and Risk Modification Trial, a randomized controlled trial of a Web-based lifestyle intervention alone, or alongside information on estimated CHD risk. The intervention consisted of three interactive sessions, each lasting up to 60 minutes, delivered at monthly intervals. Participants were characterized as high engagers if they completed all three sessions. Thematic analysis of qualitative data from interviews with 37 participants was combined with quantitative data on usage of the Web-based intervention using a mixed-methods matrix, and data on the views of the intervention itself were analyzed across all participants. Thirteen participants were characterized as low engagers and 24 as high engagers. There was no difference in age (P=.75), gender (P=.95), or level of risk (P=.65) between the groups. Low engagement was more often associated with: (1) reporting a negative emotional reaction in response to the risk score (P=.029), (2) perceiving that the intervention did not provide any new lifestyle information (P=.011), and (3) being less likely to have reported feeling an obligation to complete the intervention as part of the study (P=.019). The mixed-methods matrix suggested that there was also an association between low engagement and less

  4. Socio-economic status and lifestyle factors are associated with achalasia risk: A population-based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Helen G; Gray, Ronan T; Lau, Kar W; McCaughey, Conall; Coyle, Peter V; Murray, Liam J; Johnston, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between various lifestyle factors and achalasia risk. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Northern Ireland, including n = 151 achalasia cases and n = 117 age- and sex-matched controls. Lifestyle factors were assessed via a face-to-face structured interview. The association between achalasia and lifestyle factors was assessed by unconditional logistic regression, to produce odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Individuals who had low-class occupations were at the highest risk of achalasia (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.02-3.45), inferring that high-class occupation holders have a reduced risk of achalasia. A history of foreign travel, a lifestyle factor linked to upper socio-economic class, was also associated with a reduced risk of achalasia (OR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.35-0.99). Smoking and alcohol consumption carried significantly reduced risks of achalasia, even after adjustment for socio-economic status. The presence of pets in the house was associated with a two-fold increased risk of achalasia (OR = 2.00, 95%CI: 1.17-3.42). No childhood household factors were associated with achalasia risk. CONCLUSION: Achalasia is a disease of inequality, and individuals from low socio-economic backgrounds are at highest risk. This does not appear to be due to corresponding alcohol and smoking behaviours. An observed positive association between pet ownership and achalasia risk suggests an interaction between endotoxin and viral infection exposure in achalasia aetiology. PMID:27099443

  5. A two-year follow-up case of chronic fatigue syndrome: substantial improvement in personality following a yoga-based lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Raj Kumar; Sarvottam, Kumar; Magan, Dipti; Yadav, Rashmi

    2015-04-01

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is characterized by excessive fatigue after minimal physical or mental exertion, muscle and joint pain, poor concentration, dizziness, and sleep disturbances. We report here the effect of a yoga-based lifestyle intervention in a 30-year old male patient with a documented diagnosis of CFS with compromised quality of life (QoL) and altered personality. The patient initially attended a short-term yoga-based lifestyle intervention program that consisted of yoga-postures, breathing exercises (pranayama), meditation, group discussions, and individualized advice on stress management, diet and physical activity besides group support. Thereafter, patient attended 5 more such programs. There was a notable and consistent improvement in his clinical profile, positive aspects of personality and subjective well-being, and reduction in anxiety following this yoga-based lifestyle intervention. Overall, the results suggest that lifestyle intervention may improve clinical condition and personality in patients with CFS.

  6. Treatment plan modification using voxel-based weighting factors/dose prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chuan; Olivera, Gustavo H; Jeraj, Robert; Keller, Harry; Mackie, Thomas R

    2003-01-01

    Under various clinical situations, it is desirable to modify the original treatment plan to better suit the clinical goals. In this work, a method to help physicians modify treatment plans based on their clinical preferences is proposed. The method uses a weighted quadratic dose objective function. The commonly used organ-/ROI-based weighting factors are expanded to a set of voxel-based weighting factors in order to obtain greater flexibility in treatment plan modification. Two different but equivalent modification schemes based on Rustem's quadratic programming algorithms -modification of a weighting matrix and modification of prescribed doses - are presented. Case studies demonstrated the effectiveness of the two methods with regard to their capability to fine-tune treatment plans

  7. Social inequality, lifestyles and health - a non-linear canonical correlation analysis based on the approach of Pierre Bourdieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Frie, Kirstin; Janssen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Based on the theoretical and empirical approach of Pierre Bourdieu, a multivariate non-linear method is introduced as an alternative way to analyse the complex relationships between social determinants and health. The analysis is based on face-to-face interviews with 695 randomly selected respondents aged 30 to 59. Variables regarding socio-economic status, life circumstances, lifestyles, health-related behaviour and health were chosen for the analysis. In order to determine whether the respondents can be differentiated and described based on these variables, a non-linear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS) was performed. The results can be described on three dimensions; Eigenvalues add up to the fit of 1.444, which can be interpreted as approximately 50 % of explained variance. The three-dimensional space illustrates correspondences between variables and provides a framework for interpretation based on latent dimensions, which can be described by age, education, income and gender. Using non-linear canonical correlation analysis, health characteristics can be analysed in conjunction with socio-economic conditions and lifestyles. Based on Bourdieus theoretical approach, the complex correlations between these variables can be more substantially interpreted and presented.

  8. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin; Ryu, Kisang

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' ...

  9. Evidence-based lifestyle interventions in the workplace--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, S; Haupt, J; Pieper, C

    2014-01-01

    Lifestyle-related health issues affect the economic position of organizations and contribute to reduced productivity, increased absenteeism and health care costs. To summarize the effectiveness of different workplace health interventions for promoting healthy lifestyle, preventing diseases and reducing health care costs. We searched MEDLINE via Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, NelH, HighWire Press and Google Scholar in March 2012. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of workplace interventions aimed at promoting physical activity, healthy weight and good nutrition were included. Three authors assessed the quality of the reviews and extracted data on methods, interventions, outcomes, results and effect sizes. We identified 15 publications covering a total of 379 original studies. Three systematic reviews found beneficial effects of workplace nutrition interventions on employees' dietary behaviour. Three reviews found multi-component physical activity interventions to be effective in increasing employees' physical activity and fitness. The other activity promotion interventions were less effective regarding physical activity and weight-related outcomes. In terms of weight management, our findings favour multi-component interventions that focus on both physical activity and nutrition over single dietary programmes. Workplace health promotion interventions may improve physical activity, dietary behaviour and healthy weight. There is no evidence of increased efficacy associated with specific intervention types. Workplace health promotion should focus on either physical activity or weight or nutrition behaviour to maximize effectiveness. Best evidence is available for multi-component interventions.

  10. Exploring Consumer and Patient Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitude Toward Medicinal and Lifestyle Products Purchased From the Internet: A Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Sulaf; Thomas, Jordan; Haffar, Mohamed; Osselton, David

    2016-07-18

    In recent years, lifestyle products have emerged to help improve people's physical and mental performance. The Internet plays a major role in the spread of these products. However, the literature has reported issues regarding the authenticity of medicines purchased from the Internet and the impact of counterfeit medicines on public health. Little or no data are available on the authenticity of lifestyle products and actual toxicity associated with their use and misuse. Our aim was to investigate consumer and patient attitudes toward the purchase of lifestyle products from the Internet, their knowledge of product authenticity and toxicity, and their experiences with counterfeit lifestyle products. A Web-based study was performed between May 2014 and May 2015. Uniform collection of data was performed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Participants were invited worldwide via email, social media, or personal communication to complete the online questionnaire. A total of 320 participants completed the questionnaire. The results of the questionnaire showed that 208 (65.0%) participants purchased lifestyle products from the Internet mainly due to convenience and reduced cost. More than half (55.6%, 178/320) of participants purchased cosmetic products, whereas only a minority purchased medicinal products. Yet, 62.8% (201/320) of participants were aware of the presence of counterfeit lifestyle products from the Internet, and 11.9% (38/320) experienced counterfeit products. In only 0.9% (3/320) of those cases were counterfeit lifestyle products reported to authorities. Moreover, 7.2% (23/320) of the participants experienced adverse effects due to counterfeit lifestyle products. In summary, patients experienced counterfeit lifestyle products that resulted in adverse effects on their health. Although certain adverse effects were reported in this study, counterfeit products were underreported to authorities. Further public awareness campaigns and patient education are

  11. Exploring Consumer and Patient Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitude Toward Medicinal and Lifestyle Products Purchased From the Internet: A Web-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, lifestyle products have emerged to help improve people’s physical and mental performance. The Internet plays a major role in the spread of these products. However, the literature has reported issues regarding the authenticity of medicines purchased from the Internet and the impact of counterfeit medicines on public health. Little or no data are available on the authenticity of lifestyle products and actual toxicity associated with their use and misuse. Objective Our aim was to investigate consumer and patient attitudes toward the purchase of lifestyle products from the Internet, their knowledge of product authenticity and toxicity, and their experiences with counterfeit lifestyle products. Methods A Web-based study was performed between May 2014 and May 2015. Uniform collection of data was performed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Participants were invited worldwide via email, social media, or personal communication to complete the online questionnaire. A total of 320 participants completed the questionnaire. Results The results of the questionnaire showed that 208 (65.0%) participants purchased lifestyle products from the Internet mainly due to convenience and reduced cost. More than half (55.6%, 178/320) of participants purchased cosmetic products, whereas only a minority purchased medicinal products. Yet, 62.8% (201/320) of participants were aware of the presence of counterfeit lifestyle products from the Internet, and 11.9% (38/320) experienced counterfeit products. In only 0.9% (3/320) of those cases were counterfeit lifestyle products reported to authorities. Moreover, 7.2% (23/320) of the participants experienced adverse effects due to counterfeit lifestyle products. Conclusions In summary, patients experienced counterfeit lifestyle products that resulted in adverse effects on their health. Although certain adverse effects were reported in this study, counterfeit products were underreported to authorities. Further

  12. Program completion of a web-based tailored lifestyle intervention for adults: differences between a sequential and a simultaneous approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela N; Schneider, Francine; de Vries, Hein; van Osch, Liesbeth A D M; van Nierop, Peter W M; Kremers, Stef P J

    2012-03-08

    Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors often co-occur and are related to chronic diseases. One effective method to change multiple lifestyle behaviors is web-based computer tailoring. Dropout from Internet interventions, however, is rather high, and it is challenging to retain participants in web-based tailored programs, especially programs targeting multiple behaviors. To date, it is unknown how much information people can handle in one session while taking part in a multiple behavior change intervention, which could be presented either sequentially (one behavior at a time) or simultaneously (all behaviors at once). The first objective was to compare dropout rates of 2 computer-tailored interventions: a sequential and a simultaneous strategy. The second objective was to assess which personal characteristics are associated with completion rates of the 2 interventions. Using an RCT design, demographics, health status, physical activity, vegetable consumption, fruit consumption, alcohol intake, and smoking were self-assessed through web-based questionnaires among 3473 adults, recruited through Regional Health Authorities in the Netherlands in the autumn of 2009. First, a health risk appraisal was offered, indicating whether respondents were meeting the 5 national health guidelines. Second, psychosocial determinants of the lifestyle behaviors were assessed and personal advice was provided, about one or more lifestyle behaviors. Our findings indicate a high non-completion rate for both types of intervention (71.0%; n = 2167), with more incompletes in the simultaneous intervention (77.1%; n = 1169) than in the sequential intervention (65.0%; n = 998). In both conditions, discontinuation was predicted by a lower age (sequential condition: OR = 1.04; P simultaneous condition: OR = 1.04; P sequential condition: OR = 0.86; P = .01; CI = 0.76-0.97; simultaneous condition: OR = 0.49; P sequential intervention, being male (OR = 1.27; P = .04; CI = 1.01-1.59) also predicted dropout

  13. Lifestyle change in Kerala, India: needs assessment and planning for a community-based diabetes prevention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daivadanam Meena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM has become a major public health challenge in India. Factors relevant to the development and implementation of diabetes prevention programmes in resource-constrained countries, such as India, have been under-studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the findings from research aimed at informing the development and evaluation of a Diabetes Prevention Programme in Kerala, India (K-DPP. Methods Data were collected from three main sources: (1 a systematic review of key research literature; (2 a review of relevant policy documents; and (3 focus groups conducted among individuals with a high risk of progressing to diabetes. The key findings were then triangulated and synthesised. Results Prevalence of risk factors for diabetes is very high and increasing in Kerala. This situation is largely attributable to rapid changes in the lifestyle of people living in this state of India. The findings from the systematic review and focus groups identified many environmental and personal determinants of these unhealthy lifestyle changes, including: less than ideal accessibility to and availability of health services; cultural values and norms; optimistic bias and other misconceptions related to risk; and low expectations regarding one’s ability to make lifestyle changes in order to influence health and disease outcomes. On the other hand, there are existing intervention trials conducted in India which suggests that risk reduction is possible. These programmes utilize multi-level strategies including mass media, as well as strategies to enhance community and individual empowerment. India’s national programme for the prevention and control of major non-communicable diseases (NCD also provide a supportive environment for further community-based efforts to prevent diabetes. Conclusion These findings provide strong support for undertaking more research into the conduct of community-based diabetes prevention

  14. Lifestyle change in Kerala, India: needs assessment and planning for a community-based diabetes prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daivadanam, Meena; Absetz, Pilvikki; Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu; Thankappan, K R; Fisher, Edwin B; Philip, Neena Elezebeth; Mathews, Elezebeth; Oldenburg, Brian

    2013-02-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has become a major public health challenge in India. Factors relevant to the development and implementation of diabetes prevention programmes in resource-constrained countries, such as India, have been under-studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the findings from research aimed at informing the development and evaluation of a Diabetes Prevention Programme in Kerala, India (K-DPP). Data were collected from three main sources: (1) a systematic review of key research literature; (2) a review of relevant policy documents; and (3) focus groups conducted among individuals with a high risk of progressing to diabetes. The key findings were then triangulated and synthesised. Prevalence of risk factors for diabetes is very high and increasing in Kerala. This situation is largely attributable to rapid changes in the lifestyle of people living in this state of India. The findings from the systematic review and focus groups identified many environmental and personal determinants of these unhealthy lifestyle changes, including: less than ideal accessibility to and availability of health services; cultural values and norms; optimistic bias and other misconceptions related to risk; and low expectations regarding one's ability to make lifestyle changes in order to influence health and disease outcomes. On the other hand, there are existing intervention trials conducted in India which suggests that risk reduction is possible. These programmes utilize multi-level strategies including mass media, as well as strategies to enhance community and individual empowerment. India's national programme for the prevention and control of major non-communicable diseases (NCD) also provide a supportive environment for further community-based efforts to prevent diabetes. These findings provide strong support for undertaking more research into the conduct of community-based diabetes prevention in the rural areas of Kerala. We aim to develop, implement and

  15. Nurse health and lifestyle modification versus standard care in 40 to 70 year old regional adults: study protocol of the Management to Optimise Diabetes and mEtabolic syndrome Risk reduction via Nurse-led intervention (MODERN) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Melinda J; Zimmet, Paul

    2017-12-06

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), the clustering of multiple leading risk factors, predisposes individuals to increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardio-metabolic disease risk increases with greater remoteness where specialist services are scarce. Nurse-led interventions are effective for the management of chronic disease. The aim of this clinical trial is to determine whether a nurse-implemented health and lifestyle modification program is more beneficial than standard care to reduce cardio-metabolic abnormalities and future risk of CVD and diabetes in individuals with MetS. MODERN is a multi-centre, open, parallel group randomized controlled trial in regional Victoria, Australia. Participants were self-selected and individuals aged 40 to 70 years with MetS who had no evidence of CVD or other chronic disease were recruited. Those attending a screening visit with any 3 or more risk factors of central obesity, dyslipidemia (high triglycerides or low high density lipoprotein cholesterol) elevated blood pressure and dysglycemia were randomized to either nurse-led health and lifestyle modification (intervention) or standard care (control). The intervention included risk factor management, health education, care planning and scheduled follow-up commensurate with level of risk. The primary cardio-metabolic end-point was achievement of risk factor thresholds to eliminate MetS or minimal clinically meaningful changes for at least 3 risk factors that characterise MetS over 2 year follow-up. Pre-specified secondary endpoints to evaluate between group variations in cardio-metabolic risk, general health and lifestyle behaviours and new onset CVD and type 2 diabetes will be evaluated. Key outcomes will be measured at baseline, 12 and 24 months via questionnaires, physical examinations, pathology and other diagnostic tests. Health economic analyses will be undertaken to establish the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. The MODERN

  16. Lifestyle factors, medication use and risk for ischaemic heart disease hospitalisation: a longitudinal population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S Gunnell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors have been implicated in ischaemic heart disease (IHD development however a limited number of longitudinal studies report results stratified by cardio-protective medication use. PURPOSE: This study investigated the influence of self-reported lifestyle factors on hospitalisation for IHD, stratified by blood pressure and/or lipid-lowering therapy. METHODS: A population-based cohort of 14,890 participants aged 45+ years and IHD-free was identified from the Western Australian Health and wellbeing Surveillance System (2004 to 2010 inclusive, and linked with hospital administrative data. Adjusted hazard ratios for future IHD-hospitalisation were estimated using Cox regression. RESULTS: Current smokers remained at higher risk for IHD-hospitalisation (adjusted HR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.22-2.03 after adjustment for medication use, as did those considered overweight (BMI=25-29 kg/m(2; adjusted HR=1.28; 95% CI: 1.04-1.57 or obese (BMI of ≥30 kg/m(2; adjusted HR=1.31; 95% CI: 1.03-1.66. Weekly leisure-time physical activity (LTPA of 150 minutes or more and daily intake of 3 or more fruit/vegetable servings reduced risk by 21% (95% CI: 0.64-0.97 and 26% (95% CI: 0.58-0.96 respectively. Benefits of LTPA appeared greatest in those on blood pressure lowering medication (adjusted HR=0.50; 95% CI: 0.31-0.82 [for LTPA=150 mins]. IHD risk in smokers was most pronounced in those taking neither medication (adjusted HR=2.00; 95% CI: 1.41-2.83. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the contribution of previously reported lifestyle factors towards IHD hospitalisation, even after adjustment for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medication use. Medication stratified results suggest that IHD risks related to LTPA and smoking may differ according to medication use.

  17. Effects of a Community-Based Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Program (Co-HELP) among Adults with Prediabetes in a Developing Country: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Norliza; Ming Moy, Foong; Awalludin, Intan Attikah Nur; Mohd Ali, Zainudin; Ismail, Ikram Shah

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Malaysian adults has increased by more than two folds over the past two decades. Strategies to collaborate with the existing community partners may become a promising channel for wide-scale dissemination of diabetes prevention in the country. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of community-based lifestyle interventions delivered to adults with prediabetes and their health-related quality of life as compared to the usual care group. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two sub-urban communities in Seremban, Malaysia. A total of 268 participants with prediabetes aged between 18 to 65 years old were assigned to either the community-based lifestyle intervention (Co-HELP) (n = 122) or the usual care (n = 146) groups. The Co-HELP program was delivered in partnership with the existing community volunteers to incorporate diet, physical activity, and behaviour modification strategies. Participants in the Co-HELP group received twelve group-based sessions and two individual counselling to reinforce behavioural change. Participants in the usual care group received standard health education from primary health providers in the clinic setting. Primary outcomes were fasting blood glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1C. Secondary outcomes included weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, physical activity, diet, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). An intention-to-treat analysis of between-groups at 12-month (mean difference, 95% CI) revealed that the Co-HELP participants' mean fasting plasma glucose reduced by -0.40 mmol/l (-0.51 to -0.28, p600 METS/min/wk (60.7% vs 32.2%, p<0.001) compared to the usual care group. This study provides evidence that a culturally adapted diabetes prevention program can be implemented in the community setting, with reduction of several diabetes risk factors and

  18. Effects of a Community-Based Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Program (Co-HELP) among Adults with Prediabetes in a Developing Country: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming Moy, Foong; Awalludin, Intan Attikah Nur; Mohd Ali, Zainudin

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Malaysian adults has increased by more than two folds over the past two decades. Strategies to collaborate with the existing community partners may become a promising channel for wide-scale dissemination of diabetes prevention in the country. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of community-based lifestyle interventions delivered to adults with prediabetes and their health-related quality of life as compared to the usual care group. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two sub-urban communities in Seremban, Malaysia. A total of 268 participants with prediabetes aged between 18 to 65 years old were assigned to either the community-based lifestyle intervention (Co-HELP) (n = 122) or the usual care (n = 146) groups. The Co-HELP program was delivered in partnership with the existing community volunteers to incorporate diet, physical activity, and behaviour modification strategies. Participants in the Co-HELP group received twelve group-based sessions and two individual counselling to reinforce behavioural change. Participants in the usual care group received standard health education from primary health providers in the clinic setting. Primary outcomes were fasting blood glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1C. Secondary outcomes included weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, physical activity, diet, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Results An intention-to-treat analysis of between-groups at 12-month (mean difference, 95% CI) revealed that the Co-HELP participants’ mean fasting plasma glucose reduced by -0.40 mmol/l (-0.51 to -0.28, p600 METS/min/wk (60.7% vs 32.2%, p<0.001) compared to the usual care group. Conclusions This study provides evidence that a culturally adapted diabetes prevention program can be implemented in the community setting, with reduction

  19. Effects of a Community-Based Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Program (Co-HELP among Adults with Prediabetes in a Developing Country: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Ibrahim

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Malaysian adults has increased by more than two folds over the past two decades. Strategies to collaborate with the existing community partners may become a promising channel for wide-scale dissemination of diabetes prevention in the country. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of community-based lifestyle interventions delivered to adults with prediabetes and their health-related quality of life as compared to the usual care group.This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two sub-urban communities in Seremban, Malaysia. A total of 268 participants with prediabetes aged between 18 to 65 years old were assigned to either the community-based lifestyle intervention (Co-HELP (n = 122 or the usual care (n = 146 groups. The Co-HELP program was delivered in partnership with the existing community volunteers to incorporate diet, physical activity, and behaviour modification strategies. Participants in the Co-HELP group received twelve group-based sessions and two individual counselling to reinforce behavioural change. Participants in the usual care group received standard health education from primary health providers in the clinic setting. Primary outcomes were fasting blood glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1C. Secondary outcomes included weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, physical activity, diet, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL.An intention-to-treat analysis of between-groups at 12-month (mean difference, 95% CI revealed that the Co-HELP participants' mean fasting plasma glucose reduced by -0.40 mmol/l (-0.51 to -0.28, p600 METS/min/wk (60.7% vs 32.2%, p<0.001 compared to the usual care group.This study provides evidence that a culturally adapted diabetes prevention program can be implemented in the community setting, with reduction of several diabetes risk

  20. A Communicative Model of Mothers’ Lifestyles During Pregnancy with Low Birth Weight Based on Social Determinants of Health: A Path Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Mahmoodi1,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW is one of the major health problems worldwide. It is important to identify the factors that play a role in the incidence of this adverse pregnancy outcome. This study aimed to develop a tool to measure mothers’ lifestyles during pregnancy with a view to the effects of social determinants on health and develop a correlation model of mothers’ lifestyles with LBW. Methods: This study was conducted using methodological and case-control designs in four stages by selecting 750 mothers with infants weighing less than 4000 g using multistage sampling. The questionnaire contained 160 items. Face, content, criterion, and construct validity were used to study the psychometrics of the instrument. Results: After psychometrics, 132 items were approved in six domains. Test results indicated the utility and the high fitness of the model and reasonable relationships adjusted for variables based on conceptual models. Based on the correlation model of lifestyle, occupation (-0.263 and social relationships (0.248 had the greatest overall effect on birth weight. Conclusions: The review of lifestyle dimensions showed that all of the dimensions directly, indirectly, or both affected birth weight. Thus, given the importance and the role of lifestyle as a determinant affecting birth weight, attention, and training interventions are important to promote healthy lifestyles.

  1. Lifestyle causes of male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the potential effects of lifestyle factors on male reproductive health. Evidence of a global decline in human sperm quality over recent decades has been accumulating. Environmental, occupational, and modifiable lifestyle factors may contribute to this decline. This review focuses on key lifestyle factors that are associated with male infertility such as smoking cigarettes, alcohol intake, use of illicit drugs, obesity, psychological stress, advanced paternal age, dietary practices, and coffee consumption. Other factors such as testicular heat stress, intense cycling training, lack of sleep and exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone use are briefly discussed. Materials and method: A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify and synthesise all relevant information, mainly from within the last decade, on the major lifestyle factors associated with male infertility and semen quality. Database searches were limited to reports published in English only. A manual search of bibliographies of the reports retrieved was conducted to identify additional relevant articles. Results: In all, 1012 articles were identified from the database search and after reviewing the titles and abstract of the reports, 104 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 30 reports were excluded as the full-text could not be retrieved and the abstract did not have relevant data. The remaining 74 reports were reviewed for data on association between a particular lifestyle factor and male infertility and were included in the present review. Conclusion: The major lifestyle factors discussed in the present review are amongst the multiple potential risk factors that could impair male fertility. However, their negative impact may well be mostly overcome by behaviour modification and better lifestyle choices. Greater awareness and recognition of the possible impact of these lifestyle factors are important amongst couples seeking

  2. Modification of prostate implants based on postimplant treatment margin assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Amy; Wallner, Kent; Merrick, Gregory; Courveau, Jacques; Sutlief, Steven; Butler, Wayne; Gong, Lixin; Cho, Paul

    2002-12-01

    To quantify the extent of additional source placement needed to perfect an implant after execution by standard techniques, assuming that uniform 5 mm treatment margins (TMs) is the criteria for perfection. Ten consecutive, unselected patients treated with 1-125 brachytherapy were studied. Source placement is planned just inside or outside of the prostatic margin, to achieve a minimum 5 mm TM and a central dose of 150%-200% of the prescription dose. The preimplant prostate volumes ranged from 24 to 85 cc (median: 35 cc). The number of sources implanted ranged from 48 to 102 (median: 63). Axial CT images were acquired within 2 h postoperatively for postimplant dosimetry. After completion of standard dosimetric calculations, the TMs were measured and tabulated at 45 degrees intervals around the prostate periphery at 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 cm planes. Sources were then added to the periphery to bring the TMs to a minimum of 5 mm at each measured TM, resulting in a modified implant. All margin modifications were done manually, without the aid of automated software. Patients' original (unmodified) D90s ranged from 111% to 154%, with a median of 116%. The original V100s ranged from 94% to 99%, with a median of 96%. No patient required placement of additional sources to meet a minimum D90 of 90% or a minimum V100 of 80%. In contrast, patients required from 7 to 17 additional sources (median: 11) to achieve minimum 5 mm TMs around the entire prostatic periphery. Additional sources equaled from 12% to 24% of the initial number of sources placed (median: 17%). By adding sufficient peripheral sources to bring the TMs to a minimum 5 mm, patients' average V100 increased from 96% to 100%, and the average D90 increased from 124% to 160% of prescription dose. In the course of achieving a minimum 5 mm TM, the average treatment margin for all patients combined increased from 5.5 to 9.9 mm. The number of sources needed to bring the TMs to a minimum 5 mm was loosely correlated with the

  3. Modification of prostate implants based on postimplant treatment margin assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Amy; Wallner, Kent; Merrick, Gregory; Couriveau, Jacques; Sutlief, Steven; Butler, Wayne; Gong, Lixin; Cho, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the extent of additional source placement needed to perfect an implant after execution by standard techniques, assuming that uniform 5 mm treatment margins (TMs) is the criteria for perfection. Materials and Methods: Ten consecutive, unselected patients treated with I-125 brachytherapy were studied. Source placement is planned just inside or outside of the prostatic margin, to achieve a minimum 5 mm TM and a central dose of 150%-200% of the prescription dose. The preimplant prostate volumes ranged from 24 to 85 cc (median: 35 cc). The number of sources implanted ranged from 48 to 102 (median: 63). Axial CT images were acquired within 2 h postoperatively for postimplant dosimetry. After completion of standard dosimetric calculations, the TMs were measured and tabulated at 45 deg. intervals around the prostate periphery at 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 cm planes. Sources were then added to the periphery to bring the TMs to a minimum of 5 mm at each measured TM, resulting in a modified implant. All margin modifications were done manually, without the aid of automated software. Results: Patients' original (unmodified) D90s ranged from 111% to 154%, with a median of 116%. The original V100s ranged from 94% to 99%, with a median of 96%. No patient required placement of additional sources to meet a minimum D90 of 90% or a minimum V100 of 80%. In contrast, patients required from 7 to 17 additional sources (median: 11) to achieve minimum 5 mm TMs around the entire prostatic periphery. Additional sources equaled from 12% to 24% of the initial number of sources placed (median: 17%). By adding sufficient peripheral sources to bring the TMs to a minimum 5 mm, patients' average V100 increased from 96% to 100%, and the average D90 increased from 124% to 160% of prescription dose. In the course of achieving a minimum 5 mm TM, the average treatment margin for all patients combined increased from 5.5 to 9.9 mm. The number of sources needed to bring the TMs to a minimum

  4. Mixed field radiation modification of polyurethanes based on castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortley, A.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T.

    2006-01-01

    Polyurethane is among the polymers and polymer-based composite materials being investigated at the Royal Military College of Canada for the fabrication of leak-tight containers for the long-term disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of doses (0.0 - 3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The tensile mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. Increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking and limitations of thermal curing were confirmed by tensile tests and changing 13 C-NMR and FTIR spectra. (author)

  5. Mixed field radiation modification of polyurethanes based on castor oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortley, A.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: aba.mortley@rmc.ca

    2006-07-01

    Polyurethane is among the polymers and polymer-based composite materials being investigated at the Royal Military College of Canada for the fabrication of leak-tight containers for the long-term disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of doses (0.0 - 3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The tensile mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. Increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking and limitations of thermal curing were confirmed by tensile tests and changing {sup 13}C-NMR and FTIR spectra. (author)

  6. The Gene-Lifestyle Interaction on Leptin Sensitivity and Lipid Metabolism in Adults: A Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luglio, Harry Freitag; Sulistyoningrum, Dian Caturini; Huriyati, Emy; Lee, Yi Yi; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan

    2017-07-07

    Obesity has been associated with leptin resistance and this might be caused by genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene-lifestyle interaction between -866G/A UCP2 (uncoupling protein 2) gene polymorphism, dietary intake and leptin in a population based study. This is a cross sectional study conducted in adults living at urban area of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data of adiposity, lifestyle, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, leptin and UCP2 gene polymorphism were obtained in 380 men and female adults. UCP2 gene polymorphism was not significantly associated with adiposity, leptin, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, dietary intake and physical activity (all p > 0.05). Leptin was lower in overweight subjects with AA + GA genotypes than those with GG genotype counterparts ( p = 0.029). In subjects with AA + GA genotypes there was a negative correlation between leptin concentration ( r = -0.324; p correlation was not seen in GG genotype ( r = -0.111; p = 0.188). In summary, we showed how genetic variation in -866G/A UCP2 affected individual response to leptin production. AA + GA genotype had a better leptin sensitivity shown by its response in dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) and this explained the protective effect of A allele to obesity.

  7. The Gene-Lifestyle Interaction on Leptin Sensitivity and Lipid Metabolism in Adults: A Population Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Freitag Luglio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity has been associated with leptin resistance and this might be caused by genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene-lifestyle interaction between −866G/A UCP2 (uncoupling protein 2 gene polymorphism, dietary intake and leptin in a population based study. Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in adults living at urban area of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data of adiposity, lifestyle, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, leptin and UCP2 gene polymorphism were obtained in 380 men and female adults. Results: UCP2 gene polymorphism was not significantly associated with adiposity, leptin, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, dietary intake and physical activity (all p > 0.05. Leptin was lower in overweight subjects with AA + GA genotypes than those with GG genotype counterparts (p = 0.029. In subjects with AA + GA genotypes there was a negative correlation between leptin concentration (r = −0.324; p < 0.0001 and total energy intake and this correlation was not seen in GG genotype (r = −0.111; p = 0.188. Conclusions: In summary, we showed how genetic variation in −866G/A UCP2 affected individual response to leptin production. AA + GA genotype had a better leptin sensitivity shown by its response in dietary intake and body mass index (BMI and this explained the protective effect of A allele to obesity.

  8. Styrene-Based Copolymer for Polymer Membrane Modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Harsha Srivastava; Harshad Lade; Diby Paul; G. Arthanareeswaran; Ji Hyang Kweon

    2016-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) was modified with a styrene-based copolymer. The crystalline behavior, phase, thermal stability, and surface morphology of the modified membranes were analyzed. The membrane surface roughness showed a strong dependence on the styrene-acrylonitrile content and was reduced to 34% for a PVDF/styrene-acrylonitrile blend membrane with a 40/60 ratio. The thermal and crystalline behavior confirmed the blend miscibility of both polymers. It was observed in X-ray diffr...

  9. The effects of adding group-based lifestyle counselling to individual counselling on changes in plasma glucose levels in a randomized controlled trial: The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Vistisen, D.; Toft, U.

    2011-01-01

    AimThis study aimed to assess whether group-based lifestyle counselling offered to a high-risk population subgroup had any effect beyond individual multifactorial interventions on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) changes. MethodsIn a population-based study of 6784......% to low-intensity intervention (group B). All participants went through health examinations, risk assessments and individual lifestyle counselling. Participants in group A were further offered group-based lifestyle counselling. The intervention was repeated after 1 and 3 years. A total of 2738...... participants, 4053 were determined to be at high risk based on a risk estimate of ischaemic heart disease or the presence of risk factors (smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance). Of these subjects, 90% were randomized to high-intensity intervention (group A) and 10...

  10. Mobile Phone-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Reducing Overall Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Guangzhou, China: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiting Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid and widespread adoption of mobile devices, mobile phones offer an opportunity to deliver cardiovascular disease (CVD interventions. This study evaluated the efficacy of a mobile phone-based lifestyle intervention aimed at reducing the overall CVD risk at a health management center in Guangzhou, China. We recruited 589 workers from eight work units. Based on a group-randomized design, work units were randomly assigned either to receive the mobile phone-based lifestyle interventions or usual care. The reduction in 10-year CVD risk at 1-year follow-up for the intervention group was not statistically significant (–1.05%, p = 0.096. However, the mean risk increased significantly by 1.77% (p = 0.047 for the control group. The difference of the changes between treatment arms in CVD risk was –2.83% (p = 0.001. In addition, there were statistically significant changes for the intervention group relative to the controls, from baseline to year 1, in systolic blood pressure (–5.55 vs. 6.89 mmHg; p < 0.001, diastolic blood pressure (–6.61 vs. 5.62 mmHg; p < 0.001, total cholesterol (–0.36 vs. –0.10 mmol/L; p = 0.005, fasting plasma glucose (–0.31 vs. 0.02 mmol/L; p < 0.001, BMI (–0.57 vs. 0.29 kg/m2; p < 0.001, and waist hip ratio (–0.02 vs. 0.01; p < 0.001. Mobile phone-based intervention may therefore be a potential solution for reducing CVD risk in China.

  11. Game-Based Approaches, Pedagogical Principles and Tactical Constraints: Examining Games Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; García-López, Luis M.; Calderón, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of modification strategies based on the pedagogical principles of the Teaching Games for Understanding approach on tactical constraints of four 3v3 soccer small-sided games. The Game performance of 21 U-10 players was analyzed in a game similar to the adult game; one based on keeping-the-ball;…

  12. Effect of Yoga Based Lifestyle Intervention on Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepeshwar, Singh; Tanwar, Monika; Kavuri, Vijaya; Budhi, Rana B.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) intervention in individual with knee Osteoarthritis. Design: Randomized controlled clincial trail. Participants: Sixty-six individual prediagnosed with knee osteoarthritis aged between 30 and 75 years were randomized into two groups, i.e., Yoga (n = 31) and Control (n = 35). Yoga group received IAYT intervention for 1 week at yoga center of S-VYASA whereas Control group maintained their normal lifestyle. Outcome measures: The Falls Efficacy Scale (FES), Handgrip Strength test (left hand LHGS and right hand RHGS), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), Sit-to-Stand (STS), and right & left extension and flexion were measured on day 1 and day 7. Results: There were a significant reduction in TUG (p Yoga group. Conclusion: IAYT practice showed an improvement in TUG, STS, HGS, and Goniometer test, which suggest improved muscular strength, flexibility, and functional mobility. CTRI Registration Number: http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials, identifier CTRI/2017/10/010141. PMID:29867604

  13. Population-based evaluation of the 'LiveLighter' healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B; Niven, P; Dixon, H; Swanson, M; Szybiak, M; Shilton, T; Pratt, I S; Slevin, T; Hill, D; Wakefield, M

    2016-04-01

    The Western Australian (WA) 'LiveLighter' (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ('why' change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier ('how' to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25-49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N= 2012) and following the two media waves (N= 2005 and N= 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The 'why' message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than 'how' messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P stereotypes of overweight individuals did not increase after LL aired. LL was associated with some population-level improvements in proximal and intermediate markers of campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Mixed Field Modification of Thermally Cured Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortley, A.

    2006-01-01

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanatee (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of accumulated doses (0.0-3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing field of the SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of COPU, unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tests. Increased bond formation resulting from radiation-induced crosslinking was confirmed by favorable increases in mechanical properties and by solid-state 13 C -NMR and FTIR spectra

  15. Modification of Foamed Articles Based on Cassava Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, P.

    2006-01-01

    This work reports the influence of radiation, plasticizers and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) on the barrier properties [water vapour permeability (WVP)) and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation; compression resistance and flexibility) of foamed articles based on cassava starch. The starch foam was obtained by thermopressing process. Poly ethylene glycol (PEG, 300) was selected as plasticizer and water was necessary for the preparation of the foams. The foamed articles based on cassava starch were irradiated at low doses of 2 and 5 kGy, commonly used in food irradiation. The mechanical properties of starch foams are influenced by the plasticizer concentration and by irradiation dose. An increase in PEG content showed a considerable increase in elongation percentage and a decrease in the tensile strength of the foams; also increase the permeability of the foams in water. After irradiation, the barrier properties and mechanical properties of the foams were improved due to chemical reactions among polymer molecules. Irradiated starch cassava foams with poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) have good flexibility and low water permeability. WVP can be reduced by low doses of gamma radiation

  16. Efficacy of a short-term yoga-based lifestyle intervention in reducing stress and inflammation: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Raj Kumar; Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Nalin; Sharma, Ratna; Mahapatra, Sushil Chandra

    2012-07-01

    Previously it was shown that a brief yoga-based lifestyle intervention was efficacious in reducing oxidative stress and risk of chronic diseases even in a short duration. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of this intervention in reducing stress and inflammation in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. This study reports preliminary results from a nonrandomized prospective ongoing study with pre-post design. The study was conducted at the Integral Health Clinic, an outpatient facility conducting these yoga-based lifestyle intervention programs for prevention and management of chronic diseases. Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases and overweight/obese subjects were included while physically challenged, and those on other interventions were excluded from the study. A pretested intervention program included asanas (postures), pranayama (breathing exercises), stress management, group discussions, lectures, and individualized advice. There was a reduction in stress (plasma cortisol and β-endorphin) and inflammation (interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) at day 0 versus day 10. Eighty-six (86) patients (44 female, 42 male, 40.07 ± 13.91 years) attended this program. Overall, the mean level of cortisol decreased from baseline to day 10 (149.95 ± 46.07, 129.07 ± 33.30 ng/mL; p=0.001) while β-endorphins increased from baseline to day 10 (3.53 ± 0.88, 4.06 ± 0.79 ng/mL; p=0.024). Also, there was reduction from baseline to day 10 in mean levels of IL-6 (2.16 ± 0.42, 1.94 ± 0.10 pg/mL, p=0.036) and TNF-α (2.85 ± 0.59, 1.95 ± 0.32 pg/mL, p=0.002). This brief yoga-based lifestyle intervention reduced the markers of stress and inflammation as early as 10 days in patients with chronic diseases; however, complete results of this study will confirm whether this program has utility as complementary and alternative therapy.

  17. Development of polylactic acid-based materials through reactive modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlks, Alison Camille

    2009-12-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA)-based systems have shown to be of great potential for the development of materials requiring biobased content, biodegradation, and sufficient properties. The efforts in this study are directed toward addressing the current research need to overcome some of the inherent drawbacks of PLA. To meet this need, reactive extrusion was employed to develop new materials based on PLA by grafting, compounding, and polymer blending. In the first part of this work, maleic anhydride (MA) was grafted onto PLA by reactive extrusion. Two structurally different peroxides were used to initiate grafting and results were reported on the basis of grafting, molecular weight, and thermal behavior. An inverse relationship between degree of grafting and molecular weight was established. It was also found that, regardless of peroxide type, there is an optimum peroxid-to-MA ratio of 0.5:2 that promotes maximum grafting, beyond which degradation reactions become predominant. Overall, it was found that the maleated copolymer (MAPLA) could be used as an interfacial modifier in PLA-based composites. Therefore, MAPLA was incorporated into PLA-talc composites in varying concentrations. The influence of the MAPLA addition on the mechanical and thermal behavior was investigated. When added in an optimum concentration, MAPLA improved the tensile strength and crystallization of the composite. Furthermore, microscopic observation confirmed the compatibilization effect of MAPLA in PLA-talc composites. Vinyltrimethoxysilane was free-radically grafted onto the backbone of PLA and subsequently moisture crosslinked. The effects of monomer, initiator, and catalyst concentration on the degree of crosslinking and the mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The presence of a small amount of catalyst showed to be a major contributor to the crosslinking formation in the time frame investigated, shown by an increase in gel content and decrease in crystallinity. Furthermore

  18. Moderator purification and design modifications based on operation feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S; Chakrabarti, A K; Shirolkar, K M; Sharma, V K [Nuclear Power Corporation, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Heavy water is used as a moderator in the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors using natural uranium as a fissile fuel. The purification system is provided to maintain the purity of moderator heavy water so as to minimise the radiolytic decomposition of heavy water due to nuclear radiation which otherwise would lead to hazardous concentration of deuterium in the moderator cover gas. The presence of dissolved impurity in the moderator increases the radiolysis rate by impeding the reverse reaction and hence these must be removed. The purification system in general controls the chemistry of moderator by minimizing the corrosion of piping in the circuit and along with the liquid poison injection system adjusts the concentration of the poisons in the moderator. This paper describes the evolution of the purification system for the 500 MWe PHWRs based on various operating requirements and feedback from the operating stations. (author). 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Moderator purification and design modifications based on operation feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.; Chakrabarti, A.K.; Shirolkar, K.M.; Sharma, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy water is used as a moderator in the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors using natural uranium as a fissile fuel. The purification system is provided to maintain the purity of moderator heavy water so as to minimise the radiolytic decomposition of heavy water due to nuclear radiation which otherwise would lead to hazardous concentration of deuterium in the moderator cover gas. The presence of dissolved impurity in the moderator increases the radiolysis rate by impeding the reverse reaction and hence these must be removed. The purification system in general controls the chemistry of moderator by minimizing the corrosion of piping in the circuit and along with the liquid poison injection system adjusts the concentration of the poisons in the moderator. This paper describes the evolution of the purification system for the 500 MWe PHWRs based on various operating requirements and feedback from the operating stations. (author)

  20. Microscopic mechanism of amino silicone oil modification and modification effect with different amino group contents based on molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liping; Li, Wenjun; Chen, Dachuan; Yuan, Jianmin; Lu, Gang; Zhou, Dianwu

    2018-05-01

    The microscopic mechanism of amino silicone oil (ASO) modification of natural fiber was investigated for the first time using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation at the atomic and molecular levels. The MD simulation results indicated that the ASO molecular interacted with the cellulose molecular within the natural fiber, mainly by intermolecular forces of Nsbnd Hsbnd O and Osbnd Hsbnd N hydrogen bonds and the molecular chain of ASO absorbed onto the natural fiber in a selective orientation, i.e., the hydrophobic alkyl groups (sbnd CnH2n+1) project outward and the polar amino groups (sbnd NH2) point to the surface of natural fiber. Consequently, the ASO modification changed the surface characteristic of natural fiber from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. Furthermore, the modification effects of the ASO modification layer with different amino group contents (m:n ratio) were also evaluated in this study by calculating the binding energy between the ASO modifier and natural fiber, and the cohesive energy density and free volume of the ASO modification layer. The results showed that the binding energy reached a maximum when the m:n ratio of ASO was of 8:4, suggesting that a good bonding strength was achieved at this m:n ratio. It was also found that the cohesive energy density enhanced with the increase in the amino group content, and the higher the cohesive energy density, the easier the formation of the ASO modification layer. However, the fraction free volume decreased with the increase in the amino group content. This is good for improving the water-proof property of natural fiber. The present work can provide an effective method for predicting the modification effects and designing the optimized m:n ratio of ASO modification.

  1. Economic evaluation of a web-based tailored lifestyle intervention for adults: findings regarding cost-effectiveness and cost-utility from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela N; Smit, Eline S; Stanczyk, Nicola E; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Hein; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2014-03-20

    Different studies have reported the effectiveness of Web-based computer-tailored lifestyle interventions, but economic evaluations of these interventions are scarce. The objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of a sequential and a simultaneous Web-based computer-tailored lifestyle intervention for adults compared to a control group. The economic evaluation, conducted from a societal perspective, was part of a 2-year randomized controlled trial including 3 study groups. All groups received personalized health risk appraisals based on the guidelines for physical activity, fruit intake, vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Additionally, respondents in the sequential condition received personal advice about one lifestyle behavior in the first year and a second behavior in the second year; respondents in the simultaneous condition received personal advice about all unhealthy behaviors in both years. During a period of 24 months, health care use, medication use, absenteeism from work, and quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) were assessed every 3 months using Web-based questionnaires. Demographics were assessed at baseline, and lifestyle behaviors were assessed at both baseline and after 24 months. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses were performed based on the outcome measures lifestyle factor (the number of guidelines respondents adhered to) and quality of life, respectively. We accounted for uncertainty by using bootstrapping techniques and sensitivity analyses. A total of 1733 respondents were included in the analyses. From a willingness to pay of €4594 per additional guideline met, the sequential intervention (n=552) was likely to be the most cost-effective, whereas from a willingness to pay of €10,850, the simultaneous intervention (n=517) was likely to be most cost-effective. The control condition (n=664) appeared to be preferred with regard to quality of life. Both the sequential and the simultaneous lifestyle

  2. Modification of clay-based waste containment materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Whang, J.M.; McDevitt, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Bentonite clays are used extensively for waste containment barriers to help impede the flow of water in the subsurface because of their low permeability characteristics. However, they do little to prevent diffusion of contaminants, which is the major transport mechanism at low water flows. A more effective way of minimizing contaminant migration in the subsurface is to modify the bentonite clay with highly sorptive materials. Batch sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the sorptive capabilities of organo-clays and humic- and iron-based materials. These materials proved to be effective sorbents for the organic contaminants 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, nitrobenzene, and aniline in water, humic acid, and methanol solution media. The sorption capacities were several orders of magnitude greater than that of unmodified bentonite clay. Modeling results indicate that with small amounts of these materials used as additives in clay barriers, contaminant flux through walls could be kept very small for 100 years or more. The cost of such levels of additives can be small compared to overall construction costs

  3. Multifunctional Surface Modification of Nanodiamonds Based on Dopamine Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yun; Liu, Wenyan; Wang, Zheyu; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Wang, Risheng

    2018-04-03

    Surface functionalization of nanodiamonds (NDs), which is of great interest in advanced material and therapeutic applications, requires the immobilization of functional species, such as nucleic acids, bioprobes, drugs, and metal nanoparticles, onto NDs' surfaces to form stable nanoconjugates. However, it is still challenging to modify the surface of NDs due to the complexity of their surface chemistry and the low density of each functional group on the surfaces of NDs. In this work, we demonstrate a general applicable surface functionalization approach for the preparation of ND-based core-shell nanoconjugates using dopamine polymerization. By taking advantage of the universal adhesion and versatile reactivity of polydopamine, we have effectively conjugated DNA and silver nanoparticles onto NDs. Moreover, the catalytic activity of ND-supported silver nanoparticle was characterized by the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, and the addressability of NDs was tested through DNA hybridization that formed satellite ND-gold nanorod conjugation. This simple and robust method we have presented may significantly improve the capability for attaching various functionalities onto NDs and open up new platforms for applications of NDs.

  4. Lifestyle causes of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2018-03-01

    To examine the potential effects of lifestyle factors on male reproductive health. Evidence of a global decline in human sperm quality over recent decades has been accumulating. Environmental, occupational, and modifiable lifestyle factors may contribute to this decline. This review focuses on key lifestyle factors that are associated with male infertility such as smoking cigarettes, alcohol intake, use of illicit drugs, obesity, psychological stress, advanced paternal age, dietary practices, and coffee consumption. Other factors such as testicular heat stress, intense cycling training, lack of sleep and exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone use are briefly discussed. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify and synthesise all relevant information, mainly from within the last decade, on the major lifestyle factors associated with male infertility and semen quality. Database searches were limited to reports published in English only. A manual search of bibliographies of the reports retrieved was conducted to identify additional relevant articles. In all, 1012 articles were identified from the database search and after reviewing the titles and abstract of the reports, 104 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 30 reports were excluded as the full-text could not be retrieved and the abstract did not have relevant data. The remaining 74 reports were reviewed for data on association between a particular lifestyle factor and male infertility and were included in the present review. The major lifestyle factors discussed in the present review are amongst the multiple potential risk factors that could impair male fertility. However, their negative impact may well be mostly overcome by behaviour modification and better lifestyle choices. Greater awareness and recognition of the possible impact of these lifestyle factors are important amongst couples seeking conception.

  5. The effect of communicating the genetic risk of cardiometabolic disorders on motivation and actual engagement in preventative lifestyle modification and clinical outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sherly X; Ye, Zheng; Whelan, Kevin; Truby, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Genetic risk prediction of chronic conditions including obesity, diabetes and CVD currently has limited predictive power but its potential to engage healthy behaviour change has been of immense research interest. We aimed to understand whether the latter is indeed true by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating whether genetic risk communication affects motivation and actual behaviour change towards preventative lifestyle modification. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCT) since 2003 investigating the impact of genetic risk communication on health behaviour to prevent cardiometabolic disease, without restrictions on age, duration of intervention or language. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses for perceived motivation for behaviour change and clinical changes (weight loss) and a narrative analysis for other outcomes. Within the thirteen studies reviewed, five were vignette studies (hypothetical RCT) and seven were clinical RCT. There was no consistent effect of genetic risk on actual motivation for weight loss, perceived motivation for dietary change (control v. genetic risk group standardised mean difference (smd) -0·15; 95 % CI -1·03, 0·73, P=0·74) or actual change in dietary behaviour. Similar results were observed for actual weight loss (control v. high genetic risk SMD 0·29 kg; 95 % CI -0·74, 1·31, P=0·58). This review found no clear or consistent evidence that genetic risk communication alone either raises motivation or translates into actual change in dietary intake or physical activity to reduce the risk of cardiometabolic disorders in adults. Of thirteen studies, eight were at high or unclear risk of bias. Additional larger-scale, high-quality clinical RCT are warranted.

  6. [Scientific foundations for medical treatment based on modifying diet, lifestyle habits, and patient attitudes in chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csendes, Attila; Burdiles, Patricio

    2007-02-01

    In most patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, treatment is medical. Among the main elements involved in treatment are general dietary measures, lifestyle habits, and patients' attitudes to symptom control. The present article summarizes the scientific foundations that support these measures: head elevation during nighttime sleep, smoking cessation, losing weight, avoiding rigorous exercise, and reducing or eliminating alcohol consumption. Dietary therapy is mainly based on avoiding fatty foods, chocolate, coffee, mint, and irritating fizzy drinks. Although each patient's response to these measures is highly individual, the mechanisms through which symptoms are reproduced is gradually becoming clearer: a large percentage of patients with uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux disease will gain considerable relief simply by eliminating some of these habits.

  7. Lifestyle factors among proton pump inhibitor users and nonusers: a cross-sectional study in a population-based setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvid-Jensen, Frederik; Nielsen, Rikke B; Pedersen, Lars; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Larsen, Finn B; Thomsen, Reimar W

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle factors may influence observed associations between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) usage and health outcomes. The aim of the study reported here was to examine characteristics and differences in lifestyle among PPI users and nonusers. This cross-sectional study utilized data from a 2006 population-based health survey of 21,637 persons in the Central Danish Region. All persons using prescribed PPIs were identified through linkage to a population-based prescription database. Biometric measures and prevalence of smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, diet, and physical exercise were analyzed, comparing PPI users with nonusers. Among 10,129 (46.8%) male and 11,508 (53.2%) female survey respondents, 1,356 (13.4%) males and 1,691 (14.7%) females reported ever use of PPIs. PPI users were more obese (16.7%) than nonusers (13.1%), with an age- and sex-standardized prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-1.4). The prevalence of smokers was also higher in the PPI group (26.2% vs 22.3% [PR =1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3]), as was the prevalence of ex-smokers (41.0% vs 32.0% [PR =1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.2]). Unhealthy diet was slightly more common among PPI users than among nonusers (15.4% vs 13.0%), with a PR of 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1-1.3). Physical exercise level and alcohol consumption were similar in the two groups. Hospital-diagnosed comorbidity was observed in 35% of PPI users (a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 1 or more) compared with only 15% among nonusers. PPI users are more obese, smoke more, and have significantly more comorbidities than PPI nonusers. These data are important when evaluating unmeasured confounding in observational studies of PPI effects.

  8. Lifestyle modification for obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneerson, J; Wright, J

    2001-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoeas are due to transient closure of the upper airway during sleep and merge into hypopnoeas in which the airway narrows, but some airflow continues. They are due to the forces compressing the airway overcoming those which stabilise its patency. The commonest association is obesity in which fatty tissue is deposited around the airway. Exercise has been recommended as a method of losing weight, but other techniques which achieve this are also thought to improve symptoms due to sleep apnoeas. Sleep hygiene may alter the sleep structure and the control of the upper airway during sleep and thus promote its patency. The objectives of this review are to determine whether weight loss, sleep hygiene and exercise are effective in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoeas. The Cochrane Airways Group Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and reference lists of review articles have been searched. Randomised, single or double blind placebo controlled, either parallel group or crossover design studies of any of these interventions were to have been included. No completed trials have been identified. No randomised trial data were available for analysis. There is a need for randomised controlled trials of these commonly used treatments in obstructive sleep apnoeas. These should identify which sub groups of patients with sleep apnoeas benefit most from each type of treatment and they should have clear and standardised outcome measures.

  9. Lifestyle Modifications to Prevent and Control Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadian, Fariba; Dalili, Nooshin; Jamalian, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is the most important, modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. High salt intake may predispose children to develop hypertension later. A modest reduction in population salt intake worldwide would result in a major improvement in public health. Regarding smoking as another risk factor, there are various strategies that can be used to promote smoking cessation. Physicians are in an excellent position to help their patients stop smoking. Targeted weight loss interventions in population subgroups might be more effective for the prevention of hypertension than a general-population approach. A diet rich in high-potassium fruit and vegetables is strongly recommended. Fresh products are best; normal potassium content is reduced when foods are canned or frozen. Calcium supplementation reduces blood pressure in hypertensive individuals during chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition and high calcium diet enhances vasorelaxation in nitric oxide-deficient hypertension. Magnesium should be considered by anyone seeking to prevent or treat high blood pressure. The foundation for a healthy blood pressure consists of a healthy diet, adequate exercise, stress reduction, and sufficient amounts of potassium and magnesium, but further investigations are required before making definitive therapeutic recommendations on magnesium use. Alcohol usage is a more frequent contributor to hypertension than is generally appreciated. For hypertensive patients in whom stress appears to be an important issue, stress management should be considered as an intervention. Individualized cognitive behavioral interventions are more likely to be effective than single-component interventions.

  10. A 30-month worksite-based lifestyle program to promote cardiovascular health in middle-aged bank employees: Design of the TANSNIP-PESA randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffeng, Jennifer K; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Castellano, José M; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Ibáñez, Borja; García-Lunar, Inés; van der Beek, Allard J; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Mocoroa, Agustín; García-Leal, Laura; Cárdenas, Evelyn; Rojas, Carolina; Martínez-Castro, María I; Santiago-Sacristán, Silvia; Fernández-Gallardo, Miriam; Mendiguren, José M; Bansilal, Sameer; van Mechelen, Willem; Fuster, Valentín

    2017-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. With atherosclerosis as the underlying cause for many CVD events, prevention or reduction of subclinical atherosclerotic plaque burden (SAPB) through a healthier lifestyle may have substantial public health benefits. The objective was to describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of a 30-month worksite-based lifestyle program aimed to promote cardiovascular health in participants having a high or a low degree of SAPB compared with standard care. We will conduct a randomized controlled trial including middle-aged bank employees from the Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis cohort, stratified by SAPB (high SAPB n=260, low SAPB n=590). Within each stratum, participants will be randomized 1:1 to receive a lifestyle program or standard care. The program consists of 3 elements: (a) 12 personalized lifestyle counseling sessions using Motivational Interviewing over a 30-month period, (b) a wrist-worn physical activity tracker, and (c) a sit-stand workstation. Primary outcome measure is a composite score of blood pressure, physical activity, sedentary time, body weight, diet, and smoking (ie, adapted Fuster-BEWAT score) measured at baseline and at 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-up. The study will provide insights into the effectiveness of a 30-month worksite-based lifestyle program to promote cardiovascular health compared with standard care in participants with a high or low degree of SAPB. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lifestyle integration-gender based stereotypes: a study on Schein‟s career anchors within an ODeL HEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marili Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on research that examined the differences between the aspirations of females and males in the workplace in terms of Schein‟s career anchors and enablers. The stereotype that females only work to ensure enhanced family lifestyles remains evident in the daily life of all (Hoobler, Lemmon & Wyane, 2014, p. 704; Mihail, 2006. Furthermore the stereotype that males‟ focus is much more ambitious in terms of reaching the highest managerial achievement/technical/ functional competence is regarded as a reality within society (Hoobler, Lemmon & Wyane, 2014, p. 704; Mihail, 2006. Insight into the question whether females work to live or live to work was investigated and this article reports on the differences between females and males regarding their work life ambitions. The data resulted from a quantitative research approach and the population consisted of 4 200 employees within an Open Distance electronic Learning (ODeL Higher Education Institution (HEI in South Africa. The focus was on the composition of a structured career conversation framework, using the original Schein career anchors (Schein, 1978; 1990; 1996 and the three-factor career-enabler model, developed by Grobler, Bezuidenhout and Rudolph (2014. Descriptive statistics, chi-square statistics as well as independent t-test analysis was used to identify the differences between genders with regard to career anchors and career enablers in different career stages. The results of the analysis illustrated that females focus more on the autonomy/independence- and lifestyle integration career anchors than males in the first 3 years of employment, thereafter their focus remains more on the lifestyle integration career anchor than males. Males however focus more on the general managerial career anchor in the first 3 years of their careers than women; and after 3 years males‟ focus moves more to the entrepreneurial creativity career anchor. The reported differences between

  12. Effects of Computer-Based Training on Procedural Modifications to Standard Functional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Lauren K.; Sidener, Tina M.; DeBar, Ruth M.; Vladescu, Jason C.; Kahng, SungWoo

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated methods for training decision-making when functional analysis data are undifferentiated. The current study evaluated computer-based training to teach 20 graduate students to arrange functional analysis conditions, analyze functional analysis data, and implement procedural modifications. Participants were exposed to…

  13. Plasma-implantation-based surface modification of metals with single-implantation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X. B.; Cui, J. T.; Yang, S. Q.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2004-12-01

    Plasma ion implantation has proven to be an effective surface modification technique. Its biggest advantage is the capability to treat the objects with irregular shapes without complex manipulation of target holder. Many metal materials such as aluminum, stainless steel, tool steel, titanium, magnesium etc, has been treated using this technique to improve their wear-resistance, corrosion-resistance, fatigue-resistance, oxidation-resistance, bio-compatiblity etc. However in order to achieve thicker modified layers, hybrid processes combining plasma ion implantation with other techniques have been frequently employed. In this paper plasma implantation based surface modification of metals using single-implantation mode is reviewed.

  14. Reliability optimization design of the gear modification coefficient based on the meshing stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianqian; Wang, Hui

    2018-04-01

    Since the time varying meshing stiffness of gear system is the key factor affecting gear vibration, it is important to design the meshing stiffness to reduce vibration. Based on the effect of gear modification coefficient on the meshing stiffness, considering the random parameters, reliability optimization design of the gear modification is researched. The dimension reduction and point estimation method is used to estimate the moment of the limit state function, and the reliability is obtained by the forth moment method. The cooperation of the dynamic amplitude results before and after optimization indicates that the research is useful for the reduction of vibration and noise and the improvement of the reliability.

  15. A controlled, class-based multicomponent intervention to promote healthy lifestyle and to reduce the burden of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centis, E; Marzocchi, R; Di Luzio, R; Moscatiello, S; Salardi, S; Villanova, N; Marchesini, G

    2012-12-01

    Overweight and obesity prevention in childhood and adolescence represent a priority for public health; school is a privileged place for health promotion interventions. The study aimed to test the effectiveness of a multicomponent 5-month intervention on the habits of primary school children, making the families aware of the importance of healthy choices. Two hundred nine children attending the fourth class of primary school, divided into interventional (n = 103) and control arm (n = 106) were included in the study. In the intervention group, parents and teachers received more intense lifestyle counseling, associated with weekly motivational telephone calls to families to motivate further their lifestyle changes. Standard deviation score (SDS) body mass index (BMI) was the primary outcome measure; on open-air games and TV watching were secondary outcomes. At baseline, no differences were observed between groups. At 8-month follow-up, mean SDS BMI had decreased by 0.06 units in the intervention arm and increased by 0.12 in controls (time × treatment anova, P < 0.002). Outdoor activities increased from 6.23 h week(-1) to 9.93 in the intervention group (P < 0.001), not in controls. This change was associated differences in TV watching from baseline (intervention, -0.96 h week(-1); P = 0.037; controls, +1.33 h week(-1); P = 0.031). A multicomponent school-based intervention addressing the needs of children, teachers and families produced a significant and favourable short-term effect on overweight/obese schoolchildren. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  16. Avoidant personality problems--their association with somatic and mental health, lifestyle, and social network. A community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olssøn, Ingrid; Dahl, Alv A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the associations between the presence of avoidant personality problems (APPs) and 5 areas of impairment: demography, somatic issues, mental health, lifestyle, and social issues. Avoidant personality problem was defined by confirmation of the 2 avoidant personality disorder items of the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen and and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) short version (MINI-SPIN) screening assessment for generalized social anxiety disorder sum score of 6 or more. The questionnaires were administered in a Norwegian population survey (the Oslo Health Study-HUBRO). Cases consisted of 280 individuals with APP and 5 randomly selected controls without APP (n = 1400). The APP group more frequently reported living alone, lower level of education, and lower income than controls. Poor self-rated health, presence of somatic disease, muscular pain, frequent use of analgesics, and visits at a general practitioner were significantly more common in the APP group than among controls. The APP group had significantly higher proportion of caseness of mental distress, low general self-efficacy, and insomnia, and this result held up in multivariate analyses. The APP group showed statistically significant higher proportions of physical inactivity, obesity, daily smoking, and alcohol problems compared with controls. As for social impairment, a significantly higher proportion of the APP group reported "not having enough good friends," "high powerlessness," and low community activism, and the 2 former variables held up in multivariate analyses. In this population-based study, we found that high levels of APP, defined closely to avoidant personality disorder, were significantly associated with demographic, somatic, and mental impairment; low general self-efficacy; and insomnia affecting work ability. In addition, APP showed associations with negative lifestyle, alcohol problems, and social impairment reporting lack of good friends and lack of

  17. Lifestyle-oriented non-pharmacological treatments for fibromyalgia: a clinical overview and applications with home-based technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedberg F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fred Friedberg,1 David A Williams,2 William Collinge31Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York; 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 3Collinge and Associates, Kittery, Maine, USAAbstract: Fibromyalgia (FM is a persistent and disabling widespread pain condition often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive problems, sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, and headache. To date, the most thoroughly studied non-pharmacological approaches to managing FM are those with a focus on changing patient activities and beliefs that affect the illness. These interventions are intended to facilitate enduring improvement in pain and functional status. Lifestyle-oriented treatments include patient education, aerobic or other physical exercise, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. These interventions in FM can be delivered in medical or behavioral health care settings by trained professionals, through patient-oriented treatment manuals, or via remote-access technologies. Non-pharmacological treatments, in particular exercise and CBT, have yielded effect sizes and cost–benefit ratios comparable to medications. This paper describes lifestyle-oriented non-pharmacological treatments for FM and highlights selected literature reviews of these interventions. In addition, behavioral and practical issues are addressed that may affect these non-pharmacological treatments, including patient expectations, participant burden, and treatment availability. Recommendations are made to facilitate these interventions and potentially improve outcomes. In particular, the increasing availability of convenient home-based mobile technologies to deliver these non-pharmacological treatments is described.Keywords: cognitive-behavior therapy, exercise, education, mobile technology

  18. Prediction of Risk Behaviors in HIV-infected Patients Based on Family Functioning: The Mediating Roles of Lifestyle and Risky Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Ebrahim Babaei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Risk behaviors are more common in the HIV-positive patients than that in the general population. These behaviors are affected by various factors, such as biological, familial, and social determinants, peer group, media, and lifestyle. Low family functioning is one of the important factors predicting risk behaviors. Regarding this, the present study aimed to investigate the role of family functioning in predicting risk behaviors in the HIV-infected patients based on the mediating roles of risky decision making and lifestyle. Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was conducted on 147 HIV-positive patients selected through convenience sampling technique. The data were collected using the health promoting lifestyle profile-2 (HPLP-2, family adaptability and cohesion scale IV (FACES-IV, balloon analogue risk task (BART, and risk behavior assessment in social situation. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling method in LISREL 8.8 software. Results: According to the results, there was an indirect relationship between family functioning and risk behaviors. Furthermore, family functioning both directly and indirectly affected the risk behaviors through two mediators of lifestyle and risky decision making. Conclusion: As the findings indicated, family functioning directly contributed to risk behaviors. Moreover, this variable indirectly affected risk behaviors through the mediating roles of risky decision making and lifestyle. Consequently, the future studies should focus more deeply on family functioning role in the risk behaviors of the HIV-infected patients.

  19. Place-Based Education in the Architectural Design Studio: Agrarian Landscape as a Resource for Sustainable Urban Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Nikezić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights how “place-based education” can be used to raise awareness about sustainability and potentially influence design process decisions that have environmental and cultural implications. “Place-based education” is a term used to describe an educational worldview based on development of curriculum centered on the local, social, economic, and ecological resources of a community. The study shows results of Masters Students’ research on situating a housing complex in the context of the agrarian landscape of Vojvodina, Serbia, considering it as a resource for a new sustainable urban lifestyle. During the first year of Masters Studies at the Faculty of Architecture, Belgrade University, an architectural design studio with 15 students had the task of exploring the potential of expanding the city of Belgrade across the agrarian landscape, as to affirm the role of place in contemporary everyday life. Students were expected to explore the possibilities and limitations of the relationship between man and agrarian landscape via architecture, re-thinking how various architectural design approaches could balance and harmonize the impact of the built environment on the agrarian landscape. The paper shows that “place-based education” possesses elements necessary for the inclusion of a wider spatial-cultural context in the process of architectural design and prioritization of environmental literacy and responsibility, as one of the main components of sustainable development.

  20. Change in lifestyle behaviors and diabetes risk: evidence from a population-based cohort study with 10 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Adina L; Long, Gráinne H; Johansson, Ingegerd; Weinehall, Lars; Fhärm, Eva; Wennberg, Patrik; Norberg, Margareta; Griffin, Simon J; Rolandsson, Olov

    2017-03-29

    Promoting positive changes in lifestyle behavior in the whole population may be a feasible and effective approach to reducing type 2 diabetes burden, but the impact of population shifts of modifiable risk factors remains unclear. Currently most of the evidence on modifiable lifestyle behavior and type 2 diabetes risk on a population level comes from studies of between-individual differences. The objective of the study was to investigate the association and potential impact on disease burden for within-individual change in lifestyle behavior and diabetes risk. Population-based prospective cohort study of 35,680 participants aged 30-50 at baseline in 1990-2003 in Västerbotten County, Sweden (follow-up until 2013). Five self-reported modifiable lifestyle behaviors (tobacco use, physical activity, alcohol intake, dietary fiber intake and dietary fat intake) were measured at baseline and 10 year follow-up. Lifestyle behaviors were studied separately, and combined in a score. Incident diabetes was detected by oral glucose tolerance tests. Multivariate logistic regression models and population attributable fractions (PAF) were used to analyze the association between change in lifestyle behavior between baseline and 10 year follow-up, and risk of incident diabetes. Incident diabetes was detected in 1,184 (3.3%) participants at 10 year follow-up. There was a reduced diabetes risk associated with increase in dietary fiber intake, odds ratio (OR) 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66, 0.96) for increase of at least one unit standard deviation (3.0 g/1,000 kcal) of the baseline distribution, PAF 16.0% (95% CI 4.2, 26.4%). Increase in the lifestyle behavior score was associated with reduced diabetes risk, OR 0.92 (95% CI 0.85, 0.99) per unit increase of the score. These results support a causal link between lifestyle behavior and type 2 diabetes incidence. A small shift in lifestyle behaviors, in particular intake of dietary fiber, has the potential to reduce diabetes

  1. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study--a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Kristoffersen, Lis; Ladelund, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits....

  2. Moderators of Intervention Dose Effects on Diet Quality and Physical Activity Changes in a Church-Based, Multicomponent, Lifestyle Study: Delta Body and Soul III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, J. L.; Zoellner, J. M.; Tussing-Humphreys, L. M.; Goodman, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Many community-based lifestyle interventions targeting African Americans have reported positive effects on participants' dietary choices and physical activity habits. However, these effects vary and not all participants will have outcome changes. Moderation analysis can help explain differential effects observed, but are not often reported. Hence,…

  3. The impact of a population-based multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on changes in long-term dietary habits The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, U.; Kristoffersen, L.; Ladelund, S.

    2008-01-01

    , Denmark, using a high-risk strategy. Participants in the intervention group (n=6 091) had at baseline a medical health-examination and a face-to-face lifestyle counselling. Individuals at high risk of ischemic heart disease were repeatedly offered both individual and group-based counselling. The control...

  4. The effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine-based lifestyle interventions on biomedical, psychosocial, and behavioral outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingfeng; Chau, Janita P C; Huo, Lanting

    2018-04-01

    Integrative diabetes care, which combines conventional diabetes therapy with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)-based interventions, has gained popularity worldwide. Numerous TCM-based lifestyle modification approaches have been proposed for individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). To synthesize and present the best available evidence on the effectiveness of TCM-based lifestyle interventions in individuals with T2DM. We undertook a systematic review of randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials. Six English and four Chinese electronic databases were searched from their inceptions to December 2016. Trials investigating the effectiveness of various TCM-based lifestyle interventions among adults with T2DM were reviewed. Studies were excluded if TCM-based lifestyle interventions were only part of the intervention regimen. Two reviewers independently selected studies according to pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria and appraised the risk of bias of the included studies. One reviewer extracted details of the included studies and the second reviewer checked the extracted data critically. When feasible, data were statistically pooled for meta-analysis. Otherwise, narrative summaries were used. Twenty-four studies were included. The pooled analysis of the eight studies on tai chi showed tai chi practice for at least 150 min per week was beneficial in lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (mean difference, -1.48%; 95%CI, -2.58% to -0.39%; p < 0.001). Tai chi was effective in reducing fasting blood glucose (mean difference, -1.14 mmol/L; 95%CI, -1.78 to -0.50 mmol/L; p < 0.001) and body mass index (mean difference, -0.62; 95%CI, -1.14 to -0.11; p = 0.02), and improving quality of life. The effects of tai chi on blood pressure and waist circumference were inconclusive due to the limited number of studies. The meta-analysis of the 12 studies on ba duan jin demonstrated beneficial effects on glycosylated hemoglobin (mean difference, -0

  5. Transtheoretical Model-based Nursing Intervention on Lifestyle Change: A Review Focused on Intervention Delivery Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Yun Lee, RN

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: ICT is not yet actively used in the TTM-based nursing interventions. Stage-matched interventions and TTM concepts were shown to be in partial use also in the TTM-based interventions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a variety of ways to use ICT in tailored nursing interventions and to use TTM frameworks and concepts.

  6. Geographic Determinants of Healthy Lifestyle Change in a Community-Based Exercise Prescription Delivered in Family Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Petrella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence is unequivocal that exercise training can improve health outcomes. However, despite this evidence, adoption of healthy lifestyles is poor. The physical environment is one possible determinant of successful adoption of healthy lifestyles that could influence outcomes in community-based intervention strategies. We developed a novel exercise prescription delivered in two different cohorts of older sedentary adults—one delivered by family physicians to patients with identified cardiovascular risk factors (CRF and the other delivered at a community exercise facility to a larger cohort of healthy sedentary adults (HSA. We then determined whether the place of residence and proximity to facilities promoting physical activity and healthy or unhealthy eating could influence clinical changes related to these community-based exercise prescriptions.Methods: Two different cohorts of older patients were administered similar exercise prescriptions. The CRF cohort was a sedentary group of 41 older adults with either high-normal blood pressure (120–139 mmHg/85–89 mmHg or impaired glucose tolerance (fasting glucose 6.1–6.9 mmol/l who were prescribed exercise by their family physicians at baseline and followed over 12 months. The HSA cohort consisted of 159 sedentary older adults who were prescribed a similar exercise prescription and then participated in a chronic training program over 5 years at a community-based training facility. Out- comes of interest were change in fitness (VO2max, resting systolic blood pressure (rSBP and body mass index (BMI. GIS-determined shortest distance to local facilities promoting physical activity and healthy versus unhealthy were compared at baseline and follow up using simple logistic regression.Those subjects in CRF group were further identified as responders (exhibited an above average change in VO2max and were then compared to non-responders according to their patterns of proximity to physical

  7. Evaluation of a web-based lifestyle coach designed to maintain a healthy bodyweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelders, Saskia Marion; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Werkman, Andrea; Seydel, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a web-based intervention, the Healthy Weight Assistant (HWA), which was designed to help people with a healthy bodyweight, or those who are slightly overweight, to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Four evaluation methods were used: (1) pre- and post-test questionnaires; (2) real

  8. Public health impact of community-based nutrition and lifestyle interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Kok, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Community-based interventions have increasingly received attention since researchers and public health professionals have come to acknowledge the importance of an environment that makes the healthy choice the easy choice. All stakeholders including the target community are involved to achieve

  9. Web-based tailored lifestyle programs: exploration of the target group's interests and implications for practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Jans, M.P.; Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2008-01-01

    An important challenge in Web-based health promotion is to increase the reach of the target audience by taking the target groups' desires into consideration. Data from 505 members of a Dutch Internet panel (representative for Dutch Internet users) were used to asses the target group's interests and

  10. Effectiveness of a Group-Based Culturally Tailored Lifestyle Intervention Program on Changes in Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes among Asian Indians in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupal M. Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group repeated measures design to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based culturally appropriate lifestyle intervention program to reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM among Gujarati Asian Indians (AIs in an urban community in the US. Participants included 70 adult AIs in the greater Houston metropolitan area. The primary outcomes were reduction in weight and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and improvement in physical activity. Participants were screened for risk factors and randomly assigned to a 12-week group-based lifestyle intervention program (n=34 or a control group (n=36 that received standard print material on diabetes prevention. Participants also completed clinical measures and self-reported questionnaires about physical activity, social, and lifestyle habits at 0, 3, and 6 months. No significant baseline differences were noted between groups. While a significant decline in weight and increase in physical activity was observed in all participants, the intervention group lowered their HbA1c (p<0.0005 and waist circumference (p=0.04 significantly as compared to the control group. Findings demonstrated that participation in a culturally tailored, lifestyle intervention program in a community setting can effectively reduce weight, waist circumference, and HbA1c among Gujarati AIs living in the US.

  11. Effect of a school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles in 7–11 year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stensel David J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is recognised as a public health concern within children and interventions to increase physical activity are needed. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention on physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, body composition, knowledge, and psychological variables. Method A non-randomised controlled study involving 8 primary schools (4 intervention, 4 control. Participants were 589 children aged 7–11 years. The intervention lasted 10 months and comprised a CD-rom learning and teaching resource for teachers; an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; two highlight physical activity events (1 mile school runs/walks; a local media campaign; and a summer activity wall planner and record. Primary outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers and fruit and vegetable consumption. Secondary outcomes included body mass index, waist circumference, estimated percent body fat, knowledge, psychological variables. Multi-level modelling was employed for the data analysis. Results Relative to children in control schools, those in intervention schools significantly increased their total time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA (by 9 minutes/day vs a decrease of 10 minutes/day, their time in MVPA bouts lasting at least one minute (10 minutes/day increase vs no change and increased daily steps (3059 steps per day increase vs 1527 steps per day increase. A similar pattern of results was seen in a subset of the least active participants at baseline. Older participants in intervention schools showed a significant slowing in the rate of increase in estimated percent body fat, BMI, and waist circumference. There were no differences between groups in fruit and vegetable intake. Extrinsic motivation decreased more in the intervention group. Conclusion The intervention produced positive

  12. Rationale and design of the Baptist Employee Healthy Heart Study: a randomized trial assessing the efficacy of the addition of an interactive, personalized, web-based, lifestyle intervention tool to an existing health information web platform in a high-risk employee population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Janisse M; Ali, Shozab S; Roberson, Lara L; Aneni, Ehimen C; Shaharyar, Sameer; Younus, Adnan; Jamal, Omar; Ahmad, Rameez; Aziz, Muhammad A; Malik, Rehan; Spatz, Erica S; Feldman, Theodore; Fialkow, Jonathan; Veledar, Emir; Cury, Ricardo C; Agatston, Arthur S; Nasir, Khurram

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes confer a high risk for developing subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Persons with MetS constitute 24-34 % of the employee population at Baptist Health South Florida (BHSF), a self-insured healthcare organization. The Baptist Employee Healthy Heart Study (BEHHS) aims to assess the addition of a personalized, interactive, web-based, nutrition-management and lifestyle-management program to the existing health-expertise web platform available to BHSF employees in reducing and/or stabilizing CVD and lifestyle risk factors and markers of subclinical CVD. Subjects with MetS or Type II Diabetes will be recruited from an employee population at BHSF and randomized to either an intervention or a control arm. The intervention arm will be given access to a web-based personalized diet-modification and weight-modification program. The control arm will be reminded to use the standard informational health website available and accessible to all BHSF employees. Subjects will undergo coronary calcium testing, carotid intima-media thickness scans, peripheral arterial tonometry, and advanced lipid panel testing at visit 1, in addition to lifestyle and medical history questionnaires. All tests will be repeated at visits 2 and 4 with the exception of the coronary calcium test, which will only be performed at baseline and visit 4. Visit 3 will capture vitals, anthropometrics, and responses to the questionnaires only. Results of this study will provide information on the effectiveness of personalized, web-based, lifestyle-management tools in reducing healthcare costs, promoting healthy choices, and reducing cardiovascular risk in an employee population. It will also provide information about the natural history of carotid atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction in asymptomatic but high-risk populations. ClinicalTrials.gov registry, NCT01912209 . Registered on 3 July 2013.

  13. "Go Girls!": psychological and behavioral outcomes associated with a group-based healthy lifestyle program for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, A Justine; Chen, Michelle Y; Jung, Mary E; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in adolescent girls' health-enhancing cognitions and behaviors targeted by the Go Girls! group-based mentorship lifestyle program. Three hundred and ten adolescent girls (nested within 40 Go Girls! groups) completed questionnaires that assessed cognitions (attitudes, self-regulatory efficacy, and intentions) and behaviors (physical activity and dietary) at four time points (two pre-program, one at the end of the program, and one at 7-week follow-up). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine changes in the outcome variables among Go Girls! participants (M age = 11.68 years, SD = 0.80). No significant changes occurred in the outcome variables during the baseline comparison period (Time 1-2). When compared to the average of the baseline assessments, 7 weeks after completing the program, girls reported significant improvements in physical activity (M Baseline PAtotal = 3.82, SD = 3.49; M T4 PAtotal = 4.38, SD = 3.75) and healthy eating (M Baseline = 10.71, SD = 1.13; M T4 = 11.35, SD = 1.05) behavior and related cognitions (d values ≥0.65). Findings provide preliminary support for programs that foster belongingness and target health behaviors through mentorship models.

  14. A gender-based approach to developing a healthy lifestyle and healthy weight intervention for diverse Utah women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Sara E; Digre, Kathleen B; Ralls, Brenda; Mukundente, Valentine; Davis, France A; Rickard, Sylvia; Tavake-Pasi, Fahina; Napia, Eru Ed; Aiono, Heather; Chirpich, Meghan; Stark, Louisa A; Sunada, Grant; Keen, Kassy; Johnston, Leanne; Frost, Caren J; Varner, Michael W; Alder, Stephen C

    2015-08-01

    Utah women from some cultural minority groups have higher overweight/obesity rates than the overall population. We utilized a gender-based mixed methods approach to learn about the underlying social, cultural and gender issues that contribute to the increased obesity risk among these women and to inform intervention development. A literature review and analysis of Utah's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data informed the development of a focus group guide. Focus groups were conducted with five groups of women: African immigrants from Burundi and Rwanda, African Americans, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Hispanics/Latinas, and Pacific Islanders. Six common themes emerged: (1) health is multidimensional and interventions must address health in this manner; (2) limited resources and time influence health behaviors; (3) norms about healthy weight vary, with certain communities showing more preference to heavier women; (4) women and men have important but different influences on healthy lifestyle practices within households; (5) women have an influential role on the health of families; and (6) opportunities exist within each group to improve health. Seeking insights from these five groups of women helped to identify common and distinct cultural and gender themes related to obesity, which can be used to help elucidate core obesity determinants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Laser-Based Surface Modification of Microstructure for Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenfeng; Sun, Ting; Cao, Yu; Li, Shaolong; Liu, Chang; Tang, Qingru

    2018-05-01

    Bonding repair is a powerful feature of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP). Based on the theory of interface bonding, the interface adhesion strength and reliability of the CFRP structure will be directly affected by the microscopic features of the CFRP surface, including the microstructure, physical, and chemical characteristics. In this paper, laser-based surface modification was compared to Peel-ply, grinding, and polishing to comparatively evaluate the surface microstructure of CFRP. The surface microstructure, morphology, fiber damage, height and space parameters were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser confocal microscopy (LCM). Relative to the conventional grinding process, laser modification of the CFRP surface can result in more uniform resin removal and better processing control and repeatability. This decreases the adverse impact of surface fiber fractures and secondary damage. The surface properties were significantly optimized, which has been reflected such things as the obvious improvement of surface roughness, microstructure uniformity, and actual area. The improved surface microstructure based on laser modification is more conducive to interface bonding of CFRP structure repair. This can enhance the interfacial adhesion strength and reliability of repair.

  16. Structural modifications under reactive atmosphere of cobalt catalysts; Modifications structurales sous atmospheres reactionnelles de catalyseurs a base de cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducreux, O.

    1999-11-23

    The purpose of this work was to develop in situ methods under reactive dynamic conditions (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) to describe the active phase structure in order to understand Fischer-Tropsch catalyst behaviour and improve the natural gas conversion process performance. Experiments were designed to correlate structural modifications with catalytic results. The effect of ruthenium used as a promoter has also been studied. The impregnation process increases cobalt-support interaction. The presence of ruthenium promoter reduces this effect. Interactions between Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} oxide and support play an important role in the reducibility of cobalt and in the resulting metal structure. This in turn strongly influences the catalytic behaviour. Our results show a close correlation between structure modification and reactivity in the systems studied. Cobalt metal and CO can react to form a carbide Co{sub 2}C under conditions close to those of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. This carbide formation seems to be related to a deactivation process. The presence of interstitial carbon formed by dissociation of CO is proposed as a key to understanding the mechanism of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. A specific catalyst activation treatment was developed to increase the catalytic activity. This work permits correlation of materials structure with their chemical properties and demonstrates the contribution of in situ physico-chemical characterisation methods to describe solids under reactive atmosphere. (author)

  17. The Counseling Older Adults to Control Hypertension (COACH) trial: design and methodology of a group-based lifestyle intervention for hypertensive minority older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Fernandez, Senaida; Fournier, Leanne; Silver, Stephanie A; Kong, Jian; Gallagher, Sara; de la Calle, Franze; Plumhoff, Jordan; Sethi, Sheba; Choudhury, Evelyn; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2013-05-01

    The disproportionately high prevalence of hypertension and its associated mortality and morbidity in minority older adults is a major public health concern in the United States. Despite compelling evidence supporting the beneficial effects of therapeutic lifestyle changes on blood pressure reduction, these approaches remain largely untested among minority elders in community-based settings. The Counseling Older Adults to Control Hypertension trial is a two-arm randomized controlled trial of 250 African-American and Latino seniors, 60 years and older with uncontrolled hypertension, who attend senior centers. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the effect of a therapeutic lifestyle intervention delivered via group classes and individual motivational interviewing sessions versus health education, on blood pressure reduction. The primary outcome is change in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from baseline to 12 months. The secondary outcomes are blood pressure control at 12 months; changes in levels of physical activity; body mass index; and number of daily servings of fruits and vegetables from baseline to 12 months. The intervention group will receive 12 weekly group classes followed by individual motivational interviewing sessions. The health education group will receive an individual counseling session on healthy lifestyle changes and standard hypertension education materials. Findings from this study will provide needed information on the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions delivered in senior centers. Such information is crucial in order to develop implementation strategies for translation of evidence-based lifestyle interventions to senior centers, where many minority elders spend their time, making the centers a salient point of dissemination. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Evaluation of a web-based lifestyle coach designed to maintain a healthy bodyweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelders, Saskia M; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C; Werkman, Andrea; Seydel, Erwin R

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a web-based intervention, the Healthy Weight Assistant (HWA), which was designed to help people with a healthy bodyweight, or those who are slightly overweight, to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Four evaluation methods were used: (1) pre- and post-test questionnaires; (2) real time usability-tests; (3) log-file analysis; (4) qualitative analysis of forum posts, email messages and free-text responses in the questionnaires. A total of 703 respondents received access to the HWA. Six weeks after receiving access, 431 respondents completed a second questionnaire. The enthusiastic responses showed that many people were interested in using an interactive online application to support achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. The preliminary results suggest that improvements with respect to motivation may lead to large effects, yet require only small changes in the design of the HWA. Sending automatic tailored reminders may enhance motivation to keep using the application. Motivation to change behaviour may be enhanced by emphasizing goal setting and visualizing progress.

  19. [Genotoxic modification of nucleic acid bases and biological consequences of it. Review and prospects of experimental and computational investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltev, V. I.; Bruskov, V. I.; Shuliupina, N. V.; Rein, R.; Shibata, M.; Ornstein, R.; Miller, J.

    1993-01-01

    The review is presented of experimental and computational data on the influence of genotoxic modification of bases (deamination, alkylation, oxidation) on the structure and biological functioning of nucleic acids. Pathways are discussed for the influence of modification on coding properties of bases, on possible errors of nucleic acid biosynthesis, and on configurations of nucleotide mispairs. The atomic structure of nucleic acid fragments with modified bases and the role of base damages in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis are considered.

  20. A homology-based pipeline for global prediction of post-translational modification sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Shi, Shao-Ping; Xu, Hao-Dong; Suo, Sheng-Bao; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2016-05-01

    The pathways of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been shown to play particularly important roles for almost any biological process. Identification of PTM substrates along with information on the exact sites is fundamental for fully understanding or controlling biological processes. Alternative computational strategies would help to annotate PTMs in a high-throughput manner. Traditional algorithms are suited for identifying the common organisms and tissues that have a complete PTM atlas or extensive experimental data. While annotation of rare PTMs in most organisms is a clear challenge. In this work, to this end we have developed a novel homology-based pipeline named PTMProber that allows identification of potential modification sites for most of the proteomes lacking PTMs data. Cross-promotion E-value (CPE) as stringent benchmark has been used in our pipeline to evaluate homology to known modification sites. Independent-validation tests show that PTMProber achieves over 58.8% recall with high precision by CPE benchmark. Comparisons with other machine-learning tools show that PTMProber pipeline performs better on general predictions. In addition, we developed a web-based tool to integrate this pipeline at http://bioinfo.ncu.edu.cn/PTMProber/index.aspx. In addition to pre-constructed prediction models of PTM, the website provides an extensional functionality to allow users to customize models.

  1. Structural Modifications for Torsional Vibration Control of Shafting Systems Based on Torsional Receptances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Torsional vibration of shafts is a very important problem in engineering, in particular in ship engines and aeroengines. Due to their high levels of integration and complexity, it is hard to get their accurate structural data or accurate modal data. This lack of data is unhelpful to vibration control in the form of structural modifications. Besides, many parts in shaft systems are not allowed to be modified such as rotary inertia of a pump or an engine, which is designed for achieving certain functions. This paper presents a strategy for torsional vibration control of shaft systems in the form of structural modifications based on receptances, which does not need analytical or modal models of the systems under investigation. It only needs the torsional receptances of the system, which can be obtained by testing simple auxiliary structure attached to relevant locations of the shaft system and using the finite element model (FEM of the simple structure. An optimization problem is constructed to determine the required structural modifications, based on the actual requirements of modal frequencies and mode shapes. A numerical experiment is set up and the influence of several system parameters is analysed. Several scenarios of constraints in practice are considered. The numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method and its feasibility in solving torsional vibration problems in practice.

  2. Modification of fuel performance code to evaluate iron-based alloy behavior under LOCA scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Martins, Marcelo Ramos, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@labrisco.usp.br, E-mail: mrmartin@usp.br [Laboratorio de Analise, Avaliacao e Gerenciamento de Risco (LabRisco/POLI/USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Abe, Alfredo; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e, E-mail: ayabe@ipen.br, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixiera@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) has been studied since the Fukushima Daiichi accident in the research efforts to develop new materials which under accident scenarios could maintain the fuel rod integrity for a longer period compared to the cladding and fuel system usually utilized in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The efforts have been focused on new materials applied as cladding, then iron-base alloys appear as a possible candidate. The aim of this paper is to implement modifications in a fuel performance code to evaluate the behavior of iron based alloys under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario. For this, initially the properties related to the thermal and mechanical behavior of iron-based alloys were obtained from the literature, appropriately adapted and introduced in the fuel performance code subroutines. The adopted approach was step by step modifications, where different versions of the code were created. The assessment of the implemented modification was carried out simulating an experiment available in the open literature (IFA-650.5) related to zirconium-based alloy fuel rods submitted to LOCA conditions. The obtained results for the iron-based alloy were compared to those obtained using the regular version of the fuel performance code for zircaloy-4. The obtained results have shown that the most important properties to be changed are those from the subroutines related to the mechanical properties of the cladding. The results obtained have shown that the burst is observed at a longer time for fuel rods with iron-based alloy, indicating the potentiality of this material to be used as cladding with ATF purposes. (author)

  3. Modification of fuel performance code to evaluate iron-based alloy behavior under LOCA scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Abe, Alfredo; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e

    2017-01-01

    Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) has been studied since the Fukushima Daiichi accident in the research efforts to develop new materials which under accident scenarios could maintain the fuel rod integrity for a longer period compared to the cladding and fuel system usually utilized in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The efforts have been focused on new materials applied as cladding, then iron-base alloys appear as a possible candidate. The aim of this paper is to implement modifications in a fuel performance code to evaluate the behavior of iron based alloys under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario. For this, initially the properties related to the thermal and mechanical behavior of iron-based alloys were obtained from the literature, appropriately adapted and introduced in the fuel performance code subroutines. The adopted approach was step by step modifications, where different versions of the code were created. The assessment of the implemented modification was carried out simulating an experiment available in the open literature (IFA-650.5) related to zirconium-based alloy fuel rods submitted to LOCA conditions. The obtained results for the iron-based alloy were compared to those obtained using the regular version of the fuel performance code for zircaloy-4. The obtained results have shown that the most important properties to be changed are those from the subroutines related to the mechanical properties of the cladding. The results obtained have shown that the burst is observed at a longer time for fuel rods with iron-based alloy, indicating the potentiality of this material to be used as cladding with ATF purposes. (author)

  4. Burnout And Lifestyle Of Principals And Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Lavrenčič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: What kind of lifestyle do the principals and entrepreneurs lead? Does the lifestyle of principals and entrepreneurs influence burnout? Purpose: To find out, based on the results of a questionnaire, what kind of lifestyle both researched groups lead. Does lifestyle have an influence on the occurrence of the phenomenon of burnout. Method: We used the method of data collection by questionnaire. Acquired data were analyzed using SPSS, descriptive and inference statistics. Results: Results showed, that both groups lead a similar lifestyle and that lifestyle influences burnout with principals, as well as entrepreneurs. Organization: School principals and entrepreneurs are the heads of individual organizations or companies, the goal of which is success. To be successful in their work, they must adapt their lifestyle, which can be healthy or unhealthy. If their lifestyle is unhealthy, it can lead to burnout. Society: With results of the questionnaire we would like to answer the question about the lifestyle of both groups and its influence on the occurrence of burnout. Originality: The study of lifestyle and the occurrence of burnout in these two groups is the first study in this area. Limitations/Future Research: In continuation, research groups could be submitted to the research fields of effort physiology and tracking of certain haematological parameters, such as cholesterol, blood sugar and stress hormones - adrenaline, noradrenalin, cortisol. Thus, we could carry out an even more in depth research of the connection between lifestyle and burnout.

  5. Neighborhood social capital is associated with participation in health checks of a general population: a multilevel analysis of a population-based lifestyle intervention- the Inter99 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Anne Mette; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jørgensen, Torben; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2015-07-22

    Participation in population-based preventive health check has declined over the past decades. More research is needed to determine factors enhancing participation. The objective of this study was to examine the association between two measures of neighborhood level social capital on participation in the health check phase of a population-based lifestyle intervention. The study population comprised 12,568 residents of 73 Danish neighborhoods in the intervention group of a large population-based lifestyle intervention study - the Inter99. Two measures of social capital were applied; informal socializing and voting turnout. In a multilevel analysis only adjusting for age and sex, a higher level of neighborhood social capital was associated with higher probability of participating in the health check. Inclusion of both individual socioeconomic position and neighborhood deprivation in the model attenuated the coefficients for informal socializing, while voting turnout became non-significant. Higher level of neighborhood social capital was associated with higher probability of participating in the health check phase of a population-based lifestyle intervention. Most of the association between neighborhood social capital and participation in preventive health checks can be explained by differences in individual socioeconomic position and level of neighborhood deprivation. Nonetheless, there seems to be some residual association between social capital and health check participation, suggesting that activating social relations in the community may be an avenue for boosting participation rates in population-based health checks. ClinicalTrials.gov (registration no. NCT00289237 ).

  6. A mixed methods study of peer-to-peer support in a group-based lifestyle intervention for adults with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Naslund, John A; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-12-01

    There is potential for peer support to enhance healthy lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and fitness for adults with serious mental illness. The purpose of this study was to explore peer-to-peer support among individuals participating in a group lifestyle intervention that included social media to enhance in-person weight management sessions. A mixed methods study design was used to explore participants' perceptions and experiences of support from other group members during a 6-month group lifestyle intervention. Twenty-five individuals with serious mental illness reported their perceptions of the peer group environment and social support during the intervention. Seventeen of these individuals also participated in focus group interviews further exploring their experiences with group members. More than 80% of participants agreed that other group members were trustworthy and dependable, and 92% reported a high level of shared purpose and active participation in the group. Participants described how shared learning and group problem-solving activities fostered friendships and provided essential support for health behavior change. Sharing information, personal successes and challenges, and "being in the same boat" as other group members were key features of peer-to-peer support. Findings from this exploratory study suggest that participants enrolled in a group-based lifestyle intervention for people with serious mental illness experience peer-to-peer support in various ways that promote health behavior change. These findings highlight opportunities to enhance future lifestyle interventions with collaborative learning and social network technologies that foster peer support among participants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Attentional bias modification based on visual probe task: methodological issues, results and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attentional bias, the tendency that a person has to drive or maintain attention to a specific class of stimuli, may play an important role in the etiology and persistence of mental disorders. Attentional bias modification has been studied as a form of additional treatment related to automatic processing. Objectives: This systematic literature review compared and discussed methods, evidence of success and potential clinical applications of studies about attentional bias modification (ABM using a visual probe task. Methods: The Web of Knowledge, PubMed and PsycInfo were searched using the keywords attentional bias modification, attentional bias manipulation and attentional bias training. We selected empirical studies about ABM training using a visual probe task written in English and published between 2002 and 2014. Results: Fifty-seven studies met inclusion criteria. Most (78% succeeded in training attention in the predicted direction, and in 71% results were generalized to other measures correlated with the symptoms. Conclusions: ABM has potential clinical utility, but to standardize methods and maximize applicability, future studies should include clinical samples and be based on findings of studies about its effectiveness.

  8. Comparative studies of biological activity of cadmium-based quantum dots with different surface modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowska, D.; Grabowska-Jadach, I.; Drozd, M.; Pietrzak, M.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a modification of the surface of CdS/ZnS and CdSe x S1-x /ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with 3-mercaptopropionic and 6-mercaptohexanoic acid. The obtained QDs were characterized using TEM, DLS, UV-Vis, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Flow cytometry was applied to evaluate the cytotoxicity of QDs and examine the type of death caused by the tested nanoparticles. In addition, the generation of reactive oxygen species after incubation of the tested cells with CdSe x S1-x /ZnS-MPA and CdSe x S1-x /ZnS-MHA QDs was evaluated. The study was conducted on three cell lines: adherent (A549 and MRC-5) and suspension ones (K562). The conducted research demonstrated that the tested nanoparticles exhibit concentration-dependent toxicity. It was observed that the surface modification influences the toxicity level of the examined QDs, and modification of their surface with the use of the ligand of longer carbon chain (MHA) reduces the toxicity in comparison with QDs-MPA. It was also found that all tested QDs caused the death of cells in the course of necrosis. Based on obtained results, it was concluded that the cytotoxicity of QDs is to a large extent related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.

  9. The Counseling Older Adults to Control Hypertension (COACH) Trial: design and methodology of a group-based lifestyle intervention for hypertensive minority older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Fernandez, Senaida; Luerassi, Leanne; Silver, Stephanie A.; Kong, Jian; Midberry, Sara; de la Calle, Franze; Plumhoff, Jordan; Sethi, Sheba; Choudhury, Evelyn; Teresi, Jeanne A.

    2013-01-01

    The disproportionately high prevalence of hypertension and its associated mortality and morbidity in minority older adults is a major public health concern in the United States. Despite compelling evidence supporting the beneficial effects of therapeutic lifestyle changes on blood pressure reduction, these approaches remain largely untested among minority elders in community-based settings. The Counseling Older Adults to Control Hypertension trial is a two-arm randomized controlled trial of 2...

  10. Design and rationale for a technology-based healthy lifestyle intervention in older adults grieving the loss of a spouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah T. Stahl

    2017-12-01

    Discussion: Several challenges in implementing our lifestyle interventions to older widow(ers who are at risk for common mental disorders have been identified. Direct outreach to hospice organizations is an effective way to identify older adults in the early months following spousal death. Results from study may advance the field of grief support and promote a healthy adaptation to widowhood.

  11. ATHENA: A Personalized Platform to Promote an Active Lifestyle and Wellbeing Based on Physical, Mental and Social Health Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology provides ample opportunities for the acquisition and processing of physical, mental and social health primitives. However, several challenges remain for researchers as how to define the relationship between reported physical activities, mood and social interaction to define an active lifestyle. We are conducting a project, ATHENA(activity-awareness for human-engaged wellness applications to design and integrate the relationship between these basic health primitives to approximate the human lifestyle and real-time recommendations for wellbeing services. Our goal is to develop a system to promote an active lifestyle for individuals and to recommend to them valuable interventions by making comparisons to their past habits. The proposed system processes sensory data through our developed machine learning algorithms inside smart devices and utilizes cloud infrastructure to reduce the cost. We exploit big data infrastructure for massive sensory data storage and fast retrieval for recommendations. Our contributions include the development of a prototype system to promote an active lifestyle and a visual design capable of engaging users in the goal of increasing self-motivation. We believe that our study will impact the design of future ubiquitous wellness applications.

  12. ATHENA: A Personalized Platform to Promote an Active Lifestyle and Wellbeing Based on Physical, Mental and Social Health Primitives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Muhammad; Idris, Muhammad; Ali, Rahman; Nugent, Christopher; Kang, Byeong; Huh, Eui-Nam; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-01-01

    Technology provides ample opportunities for the acquisition and processing of physical, mental and social health primitives. However, several challenges remain for researchers as how to define the relationship between reported physical activities, mood and social interaction to define an active lifestyle. We are conducting a project, ATHENA(activity-awareness for human-engaged wellness applications) to design and integrate the relationship between these basic health primitives to approximate the human lifestyle and real-time recommendations for wellbeing services. Our goal is to develop a system to promote an active lifestyle for individuals and to recommend to them valuable interventions by making comparisons to their past habits. The proposed system processes sensory data through our developed machine learning algorithms inside smart devices and utilizes cloud infrastructure to reduce the cost. We exploit big data infrastructure for massive sensory data storage and fast retrieval for recommendations. Our contributions include the development of a prototype system to promote an active lifestyle and a visual design capable of engaging users in the goal of increasing self-motivation. We believe that our study will impact the design of future ubiquitous wellness applications. PMID:24859031

  13. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Livia, Buratta; Elisa, Reginato; Claudia, Ranucci; Roberto, Pippi; Cristina, Aiello; Emilia, Sbroma Tomaro; Chiara, Perrone; Alberto, Tirimagni; Angelo, Russo; Pierpaolo, De Feo; Claudia, Mazzeschi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle progra...

  14. Technology-based counseling in the management of weight and lifestyles of obese or overweight children and adolescents: A descriptive systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakinen, Pirjo; Kyngäs, Helvi; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2018-03-01

    The number of overweight and obese children and adolescents has increased worldwide. Obese children and adolescents need counseling interventions, including technology-based methods, to help them manage their weight by changing their lifestyles. To describe technology-based counseling interventions in supporting obese or overweight children and adolescents to change their weight/lifestyle. Descriptive systematic literature review. A literature search was conducted using Cinahl, Medline, PsycINFO, and Medic databases in September 2010 and updated in January 2015. Predefined inclusion criteria were used for the search. After a quality assessment, 28 studies were included in the data extraction. No statistically significant difference in BMI was detected between the intervention and control groups. However, in some studies, it was found that BMI decreases and there were statistically significant differences in fruit and vegetable consumption. In two studies, differences in physical activity were detected between the intervention and control groups, but in eight studies, the difference was not significant. Goal setting and feedback on progress support physical activity and changes in diet. This study identifies available technology interventions for obese or overweight children and adolescents. It seems that using technology-based counseling intervention may encourage obese and overweight children and adolescents to pursue a healthier lifestyle.

  15. A short-term, comprehensive, yoga-based lifestyle intervention is efficacious in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the efficacy of a short-term comprehensive yoga-based lifestyle intervention in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality. Materials and Methods: The study is a part of an ongoing larger study at a tertiary care hospital. Participants (n=90 included patients with chronic diseases attending a 10-day, yoga-based lifestyle intervention program for prevention and management of chronic diseases, and healthy controls (n=45 not attending any such intervention. Primary Outcome Measures: Change in state and trait anxiety questionnaire (STAI-Y; 40 items, subjective well-being inventory (SUBI; 40 items, and neuroticism extraversion openness to experience five factor personality inventory revised (NEO-FF PI-R; 60 items at the end of intervention. Results: Following intervention, the STAI-Y scores reduced significantly (P0.01 at Day 10 versus Day 1. Similarly NEO-FF PI-R scores improved significantly (P<0.001 at Day 10 versus Day 1. Control group showed an increase in STAI-Y while SUBI and NEO-FF PI-R scores remained comparable at Day 10 versus Day 1. Conclusions: The observations suggest that a short-term, yoga-based lifestyle intervention may significantly reduce anxiety and improve subjective well-being and personality in patients with chronic diseases.

  16. Lifestyle interventions based on the diabetes prevention program delivered via eHealth: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Kevin L; Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin

    2017-07-01

    The objective was to describe Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)-based lifestyle interventions delivered via electronic, mobile, and certain types of telehealth (eHealth) and estimate the magnitude of the effect on weight loss. A systematic review was conducted. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for studies published between January 2003 and February 2016 that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. An overall estimate of the effect on mean percentage weight loss across all the interventions was initially conducted. A stratified meta-analysis was also conducted to determine estimates of the effect across the interventions classified according to whether behavioral support by counselors post-baseline was not provided, provided remotely with communication technology, or face-to-face. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, in which 26 interventions were evaluated. Samples were primarily white and college educated. Interventions included Web-based applications, mobile phone applications, text messages, DVDs, interactive voice response telephone calls, telehealth video conferencing, and video on-demand programing. Nine interventions were stand-alone, delivered post-baseline exclusively via eHealth. Seventeen interventions included additional behavioral support provided by counselors post-baseline remotely with communication technology or face-to-face. The estimated overall effect on mean percentage weight loss from baseline to up to 15months of follow-up across all the interventions was -3.98%. The subtotal estimate across the stand-alone eHealth interventions (-3.34%) was less than the estimate across interventions with behavioral support given by a counselor remotely (-4.31%), and the estimate across interventions with behavioral support given by a counselor in-person (-4.65%). There is promising evidence of the efficacy of DPP-based eHealth interventions on weight loss. Further studies are needed particularly in racially and ethnically diverse

  17. Elucidating Host-Pathogen Interactions Based on Post-Translational Modifications Using Proteomics Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravikumar, Vaishnavi; Jers, Carsten; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    can be efficiently applied to gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms involved. The measurement of the proteome and post-translationally modified proteome dynamics using mass spectrometry, results in a wide array of information, such as significant changes in protein expression, protein...... display host specificity through a complex network of molecular interactions that aid their survival and propagation. Co-infection states further lead to complications by increasing the microbial burden and risk factors. Quantitative proteomics based approaches and post-translational modification analysis...... pathogen interactions....

  18. Consumer clusters in Denmark based on coarse vegetable intake frequency, explained by hedonics, socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Tove Kjær; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, H.

    2015-01-01

    for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects....... The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle...... ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive...

  19. The effect of lifestyle-based education to women and their husbands on the anxiety and depression during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaati, Fovzieh; Mohammad-Alizadeh Charandabi, Sakineh; Farrokh Eslamlo, Hamidreza; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Alizadeh Sharajabad, Fariba

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lifestyle-based education to women and their husbands on anxiety and depression during pregnancy. This controlled trial was conducted on 189 pregnant women. Participants were allocated into three groups through block randomization. In the first intervention group, both women and their husbands, and in the second one, only women received the lifestyle-based education. In the control group, women received only the routine care. Edinburgh depression and Spielberger anxiety questionnaires were completed at baseline and 8 weeks after it. Compared to the control group, significant reductions were observed in the scores of depression (adjusted difference: -4.7; 95% CI: -5.9 to -3.4), state anxiety (-8.1; -11.3 to -4.9) and trait anxiety (-8.3; -11.9 to -5.0) in the first intervention group, and in the scores of depression (-2.9; -4.1 to -1.6), state anxiety (-4.3; -7.5 to -1.1) and trait anxiety (-5.5; 95% CI: -8.7 to -2.3) in the second intervention group. Comparing the two intervention groups, mean scores of depression and state anxiety were significantly lower in the first group. Results suggested the positive effect of lifestyle education to women and their husbands on depression and anxiety during pregnancy.

  20. Continuous modification of AK11 silumin with multicomponent salt on base of NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pezda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodium belongs to the most effective modifying agents. The sodium can be brought into metal bath in metallic form or in form of chemical compounds comprising sodium, the most often in form of NaF. In the both above mentioned cases action of sodium is of very short duration, (what constitutes its main disadvantage, as lasting for about 15-20 minutes, mainly due to its evaporation from metal bath.Prolongation of modifying agent’s action can be accomplished due to technology of continuous introduction of sodium to metal bath. That technology is based on continuous electrolysis of sodium salt, occurring directly in melting pot with liquid alloy. Application of solid electrolyte – conducting sodium ions (ionic conductance – and simultaneously maintaining solid state of aggregation in melting and superheating temperature of alloy, i.e. 600÷800°C is indispensable for such process. Suitable sodium salt which is placed in retort produced from solid electrolyte shall undergo dissociation, and next electrolysis, in result of applied direct current. Sodium ions arisen during the dissociation of sodium salts and electrolysis are “conveyed” through retort walls made from solid electrolyte. In contact with liquid alloy as cathode, sodium ions pass to atomic state, modifying the alloy. The paper discusses results of initial study concerning process of continuous modification of AK11 silumin with use of multicomponent sodium salt on base of NaCl, shows results of tensile strength Rm and measurement of voltage drop for the alloy in solid state. Values of those parameters have confirmed obtained modification effect of investigated alloys. Assurance of stable run of continuous modification process brings about necessity of a further research aimed at optimization of parameters of the process.

  1. Association of depression with body mass index classification, metabolic disease, and lifestyle: A web-based survey involving 11,876 Japanese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidese, Shinsuke; Asano, Shinya; Saito, Kenji; Sasayama, Daimei; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2018-02-10

    Body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle-related physical illnesses have been implicated in the pathology of depression. We aimed to investigate the association of depression wih BMI classification (i.e., underweight, normal, overweight, and obese), metabolic disease, and lifestyle using a web-based survey in a large cohort. Participants were 1000 individuals who have had depression (mean age: 41.4 ± 12.3 years, 501 men) and 10,876 population-based controls (45.1 ± 13.6 years, 5691 men). The six-item Kessler scale (K6) test was used as a psychological distress scale. Compared to in the controls, obesity and hyperlipidemia were more common and frequency of a snack or night meal consumption was higher, whereas frequencies of breakfast consumption and vigorous and moderate physical activities were lower in the patients. K6 test scores were higher for underweight or obese people compared to normal or overweight people. A logistic regression analysis showed that the K6 test cut-off score was positively associated with being underweight, hyperlipidemia, and the frequency of a snack or night meal consumption, whereas it was negatively associated with the frequency of breakfast consumption in the patients. Logistic regression analyses showed that self-reported depression was positively associated with metabolic diseases and the frequency of a snack or night meal consumption, whereas it was negatively associated with the frequency of breakfast consumption. The observed associations of depression with BMI classification, metabolic disease, and lifestyle suggest that lifestyle and related physical conditions are involved in at least a portion of depressive disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An exploration of beliefs and attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle behaviour in an urban population in The Netherlands: Results from a focus group study in a community-based prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterboer, Sanne M; van den Brekel, Karolien; Rengers, Antonia H; Peek, Niels; de Wit, Niek J

    2015-06-01

    The positive effects of lifestyle intervention programmes might be enhanced when targeted to the health-related behaviour of the users. This study explores the beliefs and attitudes regarding a healthy lifestyle, the influences on lifestyle behavioural change and the needs to support a healthy lifestyle in the local community, during an integrated community-based prevention project in newly developed urban area in the Netherlands. Three focus groups were conducted with urban residents aged 45-70 (n = 28). Thematic qualitative analysis was applied to verbatim transcripts to identify emerging themes. The following themes were identified: beliefs to healthy behaviour, responsibility for health, perceived behavioural control, external influences on behavioural change and needs in the local community. Within these themes, personal responsibility for health and the influence of the social and physical environment emerged to be important for health and lifestyle. The participants expressed the need for clearly organized health and lifestyle facilities, a personalized approach and an easily accessible health risk assessment to support lifestyle behavioural change in the community. In our study, urban residents experienced a strong influence of the social and physical environment to their lifestyle behaviour. This finding supports an integrated approach for preventive health services in this population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. A Modification of the Fuzzy Logic Based DASH Adaptation Scheme for Performance Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jun Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a modification of the fuzzy logic based DASH adaptation scheme (FDASH for seamless media service in time-varying network conditions. The proposed scheme (mFDASH selects a more appropriate bit-rate for the next segment by modification of the Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC and estimates more accurate available bandwidth than FDASH scheme by using History-Based TCP Throughput Estimation. Moreover, mFDASH reduces the number of video bit-rate changes by applying Segment Bit-Rate Filtering Module (SBFM and employs Start Mechanism for clients to provide high-quality videos in the very beginning stage of the streaming service. Lastly, Sleeping Mechanism is applied to avoid any expected buffer overflow. We then use NS-3 Network Simulator to verify the performance of mFDASH. Upon the experimental results, mFDASH shows no buffer overflow within the limited buffer size, which is not guaranteed in FDASH. Also, we confirm that mFDASH provides the highest QoE to DASH clients among the three schemes (mFDASH, FDASH, and SVAA in Point-to-Point networks, Wi-Fi networks, and LTE networks, respectively.

  4. Effects of La and Ce Addition on the Modification of Al-Si Based Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad M. Elgallad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the effects of the addition of rare earth metals (mainly lanthanum and cerium on the eutectic Si characteristics in Al-Si based alloys. Based on the solidification curves and microstructural examination of the corresponding alloys, it was found that addition of La or Ce increases the alloy melting temperature and the Al-Si eutectic temperature, with an Al-Si recalescence of 2-3°C, and the appearance of post-α-Al peaks attributed to precipitation of rare earth intermetallics. Addition of La or Ce to Al-(7–13% Si causes only partial modification of the eutectic Si particles. Lanthanum has a high affinity to react with Sr, which weakens the modification efficiency of the latter. Cerium, however, has a high affinity for Ti, forming a large amount of sludge. Due to the large difference in the length of the eutectic Si particles in the same sample, the normal use of standard deviation in this case is meaningless.

  5. Modification process optimization, characterization and adsorption property of granular fir-based activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Congjin, E-mail: gxdxccj@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Guangxi Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Resource Processing and Process Intensification Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Li, Xin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Tong, Zhangfa [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Guangxi Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Resource Processing and Process Intensification Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Li, Yue [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Li, Mingfei [Beijing Key Laboratory of Lignocellulosic Chemistry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Granular fir-based activated carbon (GFAC) was modified with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • Orthogonal array design method was used to optimize the modification process. • Optimized parameters were: aqueous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration 1.0 mol l{sup −1}, modification temperature and time 30.0 °C and 4.0 h. • Adsorption capacity of the modified GFAC increased by 500.0% (caramel), 59.7% (methylene blue), 32.5% (phenol), and 15.1% (I{sub 2}). • The pore structure parameters and surface oxygen groups changed in the modified GFAC. - Abstract: Granular fir-based activated carbon (GFAC) was modified with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and orthogonal array experimental design method was used to optimize the process. The properties of the original and modified GFAC were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) equation, Barett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) equation, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, etc. When 10.00 g of GFAC with particle size of 0.25–0.85 mm was modified by 150.0 ml of aqueous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution, the optimized conditions were found to be as follows: aqueous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution concentration 1.0 mol·l{sup −1}, modification temperature 30.0 °C, modification time 4.0 h. Modified under the optimized conditions, decolonization of caramel, methylene blue adsorption, phenol adsorption and iodine number of the modified GFAC increased by 500.0%, 59.7%, 32.5%, and 15.1%, respectively. The original and optimally modified GFAC exhibited adsorption isotherms of hybrid Type I–IV isotherms with H4 hysteresis. BET surface area, micropore area, total pore volume, micropore volume, and microporosity of the modified GFAC increased by 7.33%, 11.25%, 3.89%, 14.23%, 9.91%, respectively. Whereas the average pore width decreased by 3.16%. In addition, the amount of surface oxygen groups (such as carbonyl or carboxyl) increased

  6. Modification process optimization, characterization and adsorption property of granular fir-based activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Congjin; Li, Xin; Tong, Zhangfa; Li, Yue; Li, Mingfei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Granular fir-based activated carbon (GFAC) was modified with H 2 O 2 . • Orthogonal array design method was used to optimize the modification process. • Optimized parameters were: aqueous H 2 O 2 concentration 1.0 mol l −1 , modification temperature and time 30.0 °C and 4.0 h. • Adsorption capacity of the modified GFAC increased by 500.0% (caramel), 59.7% (methylene blue), 32.5% (phenol), and 15.1% (I 2 ). • The pore structure parameters and surface oxygen groups changed in the modified GFAC. - Abstract: Granular fir-based activated carbon (GFAC) was modified with H 2 O 2 , and orthogonal array experimental design method was used to optimize the process. The properties of the original and modified GFAC were characterized by N 2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) equation, Barett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) equation, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, etc. When 10.00 g of GFAC with particle size of 0.25–0.85 mm was modified by 150.0 ml of aqueous H 2 O 2 solution, the optimized conditions were found to be as follows: aqueous H 2 O 2 solution concentration 1.0 mol·l −1 , modification temperature 30.0 °C, modification time 4.0 h. Modified under the optimized conditions, decolonization of caramel, methylene blue adsorption, phenol adsorption and iodine number of the modified GFAC increased by 500.0%, 59.7%, 32.5%, and 15.1%, respectively. The original and optimally modified GFAC exhibited adsorption isotherms of hybrid Type I–IV isotherms with H4 hysteresis. BET surface area, micropore area, total pore volume, micropore volume, and microporosity of the modified GFAC increased by 7.33%, 11.25%, 3.89%, 14.23%, 9.91%, respectively. Whereas the average pore width decreased by 3.16%. In addition, the amount of surface oxygen groups (such as carbonyl or carboxyl) increased in the modified GFAC

  7. Hypoxia-induced oxidative base modifications in the VEGF hypoxia-response element are associated with transcriptionally active nucleosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchko, Mykhaylo V; Gorodnya, Olena M; Pastukh, Viktor M; Swiger, Brad M; Middleton, Natavia S; Wilson, Glenn L; Gillespie, Mark N

    2009-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in hypoxic pulmonary artery endothelial cells cause transient oxidative base modifications in the hypoxia-response element (HRE) of the VEGF gene that bear a conspicuous relationship to induction of VEGF mRNA expression (K.A. Ziel et al., FASEB J. 19, 387-394, 2005). If such base modifications are indeed linked to transcriptional regulation, then they should be detected in HRE sequences associated with transcriptionally active nucleosomes. Southern blot analysis of the VEGF HRE associated with nucleosome fractions prepared by micrococcal nuclease digestion indicated that hypoxia redistributed some HRE sequences from multinucleosomes to transcriptionally active mono- and dinucleosome fractions. A simple PCR method revealed that VEGF HRE sequences harboring oxidative base modifications were found exclusively in mononucleosomes. Inhibition of hypoxia-induced ROS generation with myxathiozol prevented formation of oxidative base modifications but not the redistribution of HRE sequences into mono- and dinucleosome fractions. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A caused retention of HRE sequences in compacted nucleosome fractions and prevented formation of oxidative base modifications. These findings suggest that the hypoxia-induced oxidant stress directed at the VEGF HRE requires the sequence to be repositioned into mononucleosomes and support the prospect that oxidative modifications in this sequence are an important step in transcriptional activation.

  8. Sedentary Lifestyle and Hypertension in a Periurban Area of Mbarara, South Western Uganda: A Population Based Cross Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinamasiko, Bruce; Lukenge, Edward; Nabawanga, Stella; Nansalire, Winnie; Kobusingye, Lois; Ruzaaza, Gad; Bajunirwe, Francis

    2018-01-01

    Globally, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes constitute over 50% of the noncommunicable disease (NCD) burden and projections indicate Sub-Saharan Africa will experience a larger burden. Urbanization on the continent is contributing to the change in lifestyle such as diet and physical activity, which may increase the risk for CVDs. There is lack of sufficient data from the African continent on hypertension and its association with sedentary lifestyle. We conducted a cross sectional study in periurban Uganda among adults aged at least 35 years. We administered questions on diet, physical activity, and smoking. We took anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP > = 140 and/or diastolic BP > = 90 and/or history of hypertension medications. Logistic regression was used to determine the crude and adjusted odds ratios for the factors associated with hypertension. We enrolled 310 participants and 50% were female. The prevalence of systolic hypertension was 24.5%, diastolic hypertension was 31%, obesity was 46%, and diabetes was 9%. Of those with hypertension ( n = 76), 53 participants (69.7%) were not aware they had high BP. Sedentary lifestyle was significantly associated with hypertension even after adjusting for age and obesity. There is a high prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes and majority of participants with hypertension are not aware. Participants with a sedentary work style should be targeted for prevention and screening.

  9. Risk of self-reported Chlamydia trachomatis infection by social and lifestyle factors: a study based on survey data from young adults in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deogan, Charlotte; Cnattingius, Sven; Månsdotter, Anna

    2012-12-01

    To analyse the associations between demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle factors, and the risk of self-reported chlamydial infection among young adults (20-29 years old) in Stockholm, Sweden. This study was based on the Stockholm Public Health Survey of 2006 (N = 4278). Demographic factors (gender, age, and country of birth), socio-economic factors (individual and parental educational levels, individual income level, and employment status), and lifestyle factors (body mass index, mental health, alcohol consumption, and partnership status) were taken into account. Possible associations were analysed by logistic regression. The risk of self-reported chlamydial infection decreases with age, is higher among individuals both who personally, and whose parents, were educated to high school level compared to university level education, and is higher among those employed, unemployed or on sick-leave/pre-retired compared to students. The risk of chlamydial infection is also higher among subjects who report greater alcohol consumption, and those who live without a partner. After considering demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle factors, the associations with age, educational level, employment status and alcohol consumption are strong and statistically significant. Indicators of risk-taking behaviours, especially in settings with generally little educational ambition or options, should be incorporated in the design of STI prevention strategies.

  10. Post-modification by γ-radiation of VDF-based polymers: Electrochemical capacitor membrane application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the modification of VDF-based polymer induced by γ-radiation as the polymer may be used in electrochemical super-capacitors. The main objective was to limit the swelling of the fluorinated matrix with a given electrolyte while a good wetting of the polymer by the liquid was also required. As the main basic process involved in polymer radiolysis is the formation of radicals, a part of the work was dedicated to the study of such species by using Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy. A simulation model of ESR spectra was established in order to identify and quantify each radical species. The effect of several parameters such as radiation dose, annealing time or the nature of polymer matrix on the concentration of each species where investigated. A relation with the evolution of the crosslink density of the network formed during the radiolysis was proposed. In addition, one of the key steps of this work was to study the radiation crosslinking ability of VDF-based polymers and find a way to increase the crosslink density. This was achieved by incorporating, prior to the radiation process, a radiation sensitive cross linker: TAIC. Finally, a new strategy based on the modification of surface properties of PVDF was investigated. It consists in the radiation grafting of penta-fluor-styrene onto PVDF surface followed by the chemo-selective functionalization of the grafted segments. As a conclusion, the different approaches used in this thesis allowed us to understand the radiolysis of VDF-based polymers and take advantage of the elementary process involved in this type of chemistry, to build up robust and promising strategies for tuning properties. (author)

  11. No modifying effect of education level on the association between lifestyle behaviors and cardiovascular mortality: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Eri; Iso, Hiroyasu; Honjo, Kaori; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of education level on the association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and cardiovascular mortality in the Japanese population. A total of 42,647 community-based men and women aged 40–79 years were enrolled at baseline (1988–1990), followed through 2009. The components of the healthy lifestyle score included the intake of fruits, fish, and milk; body mass index; exercise; avoidance of smoking; moderate alcohol intake; and moderate sleep duration. During the 19.3 years of follow-up, 8,314 all-cause and 2,377 total cardiovascular mortality cases were noted. Inverse associations were observed between healthy lifestyle scores and total cardiovascular disease (CVD) for both the lower and higher education level groups. Multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for CVD mortality from the highest to the lowest healthy lifestyle scores, and the population attributable fraction (95% CIs) without healthy lifestyle scores of 7–8 were 0.51 (0.33–0.52) and 42% (24–58%), and 0.38 (0.27–0.47) and 55% (36–69%) for the higher and lower education levels, respectively. Our findings suggest that the association between higher CVD mortality and lower education level can be explained by the individuals’ lower adherence to a healthy lifestyle; hence, lifestyle modification would be beneficial for the prevention of cardiovascular mortality, irrespective of the education level. PMID:28057921

  12. Motivations for Healthy Lifestyle in Railroad Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Ostan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the results of a survey of railroad employees’ motivation for a healthy lifestyle. For this purpose a specific questionnaire was developed. The study was performed on 245 Slovene railroad workers (168 of them blue-collar ones. The great majority (66.9% were found to be overweight or obese (BMI 25 or more, with no significant difference between blue- and white-collar workers. The great majority of them were in general aware of having unhealthy nutrition and an unhealthy lifestyle. Most of the employees felt the need to improve (at least in part their nutrition (74.7% and lifestyle (78.0%; the majority (67.8% also declared that they could adopt a healthier lifestyle despite the constraints of everyday life and work conditions; however, 57.6% said that they had been already putting considerable effort into a healthier nutrition and lifestyle. Thus the effort needed to overcome constraints toward a healthier lifestyle seems to be the key problem: the majority (54.3% would rather choose walking than running or other intensive forms of exercise; they are not ready to do it for more than one hour per day (60%, and they are not ready to give up permanently food that they like and that is considered unhealthy. The differences in motivations for a healthy lifestyle between blue- and white-collar workers were not significant at the 0.05 level. Further research in this field is needed; however, it seems that the methods of efficient marginal modifications of lifestyle are required. KEYWORDS human resources management, railroad, blue-collar workers, white-collar workers, healthy lifestyle, motivations

  13. Muc1 based breast cancer vaccines: role of post translational modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, M.; Khurshid, R.; Nagra, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Vaccine development is one of the most promising fields in cancer research. After autologous transplantation, due to low tumour burden, patients are more likely to respond immunologically to a cancer vaccine. MUC1 with its adhesive and anti adhesive functions, immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive activities, is therefore a good candidate for breast cancer vaccine. A structure-based insight into the immunogenicity of natural MUC1 glyco forms, of its sub-domains, motifs and post translational modification like glycosylation and myriostoylation may aid the design of tumour vaccines. Primary sequences of human MUC1 were retrieved from the SWISSPROT data bank. Protein pattern search: The primary sequence of Human MUC1 was searched at PROSITE (a dictionary of protein sites and patterns) database. Our study observes that post-translational modifications play an important role in presenting MUC1 as a candidate for breast cancer vaccine. It is found that the phosphorylation and glycosylation of important functional motifs of MUC1 may take part in the production of cytokines that may provide immunization. (author)

  14. Silane surface modification effects on the electromagnetic properties of phosphatized iron-based SMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liang-Fang; Hsiang, Hsing-I.; Hung, Jia-Jing

    2018-03-01

    It is difficult to achieve homogeneous phosphatized iron powder dispersion in organic resins during the preparation of soft magnetic composites (SMCs). Inhomogeneous iron powder mixing in organic resins generally leads to the formation of micro-structural defects in SMCs and hence causes the magnetic properties to become worse. Phosphatized iron powder dispersion in organic resins can be improved by coating the phosphatized iron powder surfaces with a coupling agent. This study investigated the (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) surface modification effects on the electromagnetic properties of phosphatized iron-based soft magnetic composites (SMCs). The results showed that the phosphatized iron powder surface can be modified using APTES to improve the phosphatized iron powder and epoxy resin compatibility and hence enhance phosphate iron powder epoxy mixing. The tensile strength, initial permeability, rated current under DC-bias superposition and magnetic loss in SMCs prepared using phosphatized iron powders can be effectively improved using APTES surface modification, which provides a promising candidate for power chip inductor applications.

  15. Surface modification of polymeric substrates by plasma-based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuji, S.; Sekiya, M.; Nakabayashi, M.; Endo, H.; Sakudo, N.; Nagai, K.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) as a tool for polymer modification is studied. Polymeric films have good performances for flexible use, such as food packaging or electronic devices. Compared with inorganic rigid materials, polymers generally have large permeability for gases and moisture, which causes packaged contents and devices to degrade. In order to add a barrier function, surface of polymeric films are modified by PBII. One of the advantageous features of this method over deposition is that the modified surface does not have peeling problem. Besides, micro-cracks due to mechanical stress in the modified layer can be decreased. From the standpoint of mass production, conventional ion implantation that needs low-pressure environment of less than 10 -3 Pa is not suitable for continuous large-area processing, while PBII works at rather higher pressure of several Pa. In terms of issues mentioned above, PBII is one of the most expected techniques for modification on flexible substrates. However, the mechanism how the barrier function appears by ion implantation is not well explained so far. In this study, various kinds of polymeric films, including polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), are modified by PBII and their barrier characteristics that depend on the ion dose are evaluated. In order to investigate correlations of the barrier function with implanted ions, modified surface is analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is assumed that the diffusion and sorption coefficients are changed by ion implantation, resulting in higher barrier function

  16. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fiber and its interaction with imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bing; Wang Xiaoshu; Lu Yun

    2006-01-01

    In this work, sized polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers were chemically modified with nitric acid and maleic anhydride (MA) in order to improve the interaction between carbon fiber surface and polyimide matrix. Bismaleimide (BMI) was selected as a model compound of polyimide to react with modified carbon fiber. The surface characteristic changing after modification and surface reaction was investigated by element analysis (EA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The results indicated that the modification of carbon fiber surface with MA might follow the Diels Alder reaction mechanism. In the surface reaction between modified fibers and BMI, among the various surface functional groups, the hydroxyl group provided from phenolic hydroxyl group and bridged structure on carbon fiber may be the most effective group reacted with imide structure. The results may shed some light on the design of the appropriate surface structure, which could react with polyimide, and the manufacture of the carbon fiber-reinforced polyimide matrix composites

  17. Surface modification of coconut shell based activated carbon for the improvement of hydrophobic VOC removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Liu, Suqin; Liu, Junxin

    2011-08-30

    In this study, coconut shell based carbons were chemically treated by ammonia, sodium hydroxide, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, and phosphoric acid to determine suitable modification for improving adsorption ability of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on granular activated carbons (GAC). The saturated adsorption capacities of o-xylene, a hydrophobic volatile organic compound, were measured and adsorption effects of the original and modified activated carbons were compared. Results showed that GAC modified by alkalis had better o-xylene adsorption capacity. Uptake amount was enhanced by 26.5% and reduced by 21.6% after modification by NH(3)H(2)O and H(2)SO(4), respectively. Compared with the original, GAC modified by acid had less adsorption capacity. Both SEM/EDAX and BET were used to identify the structural characteristics of the tested GAC, while IR spectroscopy and Boehm's titration were applied to analysis the surface functional groups. Relationships between physicochemical characteristics of GAC and their adsorption performances demonstrated that o-xylene adsorption capacity was related to surface area, pore volume, and functional groups of the GAC surface. Removing surface oxygen groups, which constitute the source of surface acidity, and reducing hydrophilic carbon surface favors adsorption capacity of hydrophobic VOCs on carbons. The performances of modified GACs were also investigated in the purification of gases containing complex components (o-xylene and steam) in the stream. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. German Risk Study - influences of data base, minimal requirements and system modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.; Linden, J. von

    1987-01-01

    The reliability analyses for Phase B of the German Risk Study taken into account an improved reliability data base, best-estimate minimal requirements for the relevant system functions and the design modifications, which have been carried out after completion of Phase A. These points and their influence on the frequency of core melt accidents are discussed, emphasizing the reliability data. Although the detailed evaluation of operating experience for the estimation of the reliability data does result in an increase of contributions, the best-estimate minimal requirements and the system modifications carried out for the reference plant reduce the core melt frequency due to those initiating events which were dominant in Phase A of the German Risk Study. The detailed investigation of additional initiating events which had already been recognized as important during Phase A leads to additional contributions to the frequency of core melt accidents. Such initiating events are the main steam line break and the steam generator tube rupture and altogether, the evaluated contributions to the frequency of core melt are lower than the values assessed in Phase A. (orig./HP)

  19. Surface modification of polymeric substrates by plasma-based ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuji, S.; Sekiya, M.; Nakabayashi, M.; Endo, H.; Sakudo, N.; Nagai, K.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) as a tool for polymer modification is studied. Polymeric films have good performances for flexible use, such as food packaging or electronic devices. Compared with inorganic rigid materials, polymers generally have large permeability for gases and moisture, which causes packaged contents and devices to degrade. In order to add a barrier function, surface of polymeric films are modified by PBII. One of the advantageous features of this method over deposition is that the modified surface does not have peeling problem. Besides, micro-cracks due to mechanical stress in the modified layer can be decreased. From the standpoint of mass production, conventional ion implantation that needs low-pressure environment of less than 10-3 Pa is not suitable for continuous large-area processing, while PBII works at rather higher pressure of several Pa. In terms of issues mentioned above, PBII is one of the most expected techniques for modification on flexible substrates. However, the mechanism how the barrier function appears by ion implantation is not well explained so far. In this study, various kinds of polymeric films, including polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), are modified by PBII and their barrier characteristics that depend on the ion dose are evaluated. In order to investigate correlations of the barrier function with implanted ions, modified surface is analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is assumed that the diffusion and sorption coefficients are changed by ion implantation, resulting in higher barrier function.

  20. Conductivity enhancement via chemical modification of chitosan based green polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobarak, N.N.; Ahmad, A.; Abdullah, M.P.; Ramli, N.; Rahman, M.Y.A.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of carboxymethyl chitosan as a green polymer electrolyte has been explored. Chitosan produced from partial deacetylation of chitin was reacted with monochloroacetic acid to form carboxymethyl chitosan. A green polymer electrolyte based chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan was prepared by solution-casting technique. The powder and films were characterized by reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The shift of wavenumber that represents hydroxyl and amine stretching confirmed the polymer solvent complex formation. The XRD spectra results show that chemical modification of chitosan has improved amorphous properties of chitosan. The ionic conductivity was found to increase by two magnitudes higher with the chemical modification of chitosan. The highest conductivity achieved was 3.6 × 10 −6 S cm −1 for carboxymethyl chitosan at room temperature and 3.7 × 10 −4 S cm −1 at 60 °C

  1. MEMS-based dynamic cell-to-cell culture platforms using electrochemical surface modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jiyoung; Lin, Liwei; Yoon, Sang-Hee; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2011-01-01

    MEMS-based biological platforms with the capability of both spatial placements and time releases of living cells for cell-to-cell culture experiments have been designed and demonstrated utilizing electrochemical surface modification effects. The spatial placement is accomplished by electrochemical surface modification of substrate surfaces to be either adhesive or non-adhesive for living cells. The time control is achieved by the electrical activation of the selective indium tin oxide co-culture electrode to allow the migration of living cells onto the electrode to start the cell-to-cell culture studies. Prototype devices have a three-electrode design with an electrode size of 50 × 50 µm 2 and the separation gaps of 2 µm between them. An electrical voltage of −1.5 V has been used to activate the electrodes independently and sequentially to demonstrate the dynamic cell-to-cell culture experiments of NIH 3T3 fibroblast and Madin Darby canine kidney cells. As such, this MEMS platform could be a basic yet versatile tool to characterize transient cell-to-cell interactions

  2. Family physician-led, team-based, lifestyle intervention in patients with metabolic syndrome: results of a multicentre feasibility project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed; Dhaliwal, Rupinder; Heyland, Daren K; Leung, Roger; Day, Andrew G; Brauer, Paula; Royall, Dawna; Tremblay, Angelo; Mutch, David M; Pliamm, Lew; Rhéaume, Caroline; Klein, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a medical condition with major complications and health care costs. Previous research has shown that diet and exercise can improve and reverse this condition. The goal of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of implementing the Canadian Health Advanced by Nutrition and Graded Exercise (CHANGE) program into diverse family medicine practices to improve MetS. In this longitudinal before-after study, 305 adult patients with MetS were recruited from 3 diverse family medicine team-based organizations to the CHANGE personalized diet and exercise program. Participants were followed for 12 months. Primary outcomes included feasibility and reversal of MetS. Secondary outcomes included improvement in MetS components, changes in diet quality, aerobic fitness and cardiovascular risk. Participants attended 76% and 90% of the kinesiologist and dietitian visits, respectively. At 12 months, 19% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI] 14%-24%) showed reversal of MetS, VO2max increased by 16% (95% CI 13%-18%), and Healthy Eating Index and Mediterranean Diet Scores improved by 9.6% (95% CI 7.6%-11.6%) and 1.4% (1.1%-1.6%), respectively. In addition, the Prospective Cardiovascular Munster (PROCAM) 10-year risk of acute coronary event decreased by 1.4%, from a baseline of 8.6%. A team-based program led by the family physician that educates patients about the risks of MetS, and with a dietitian and kinesiologist, empowers them to undertake an individualized supervised program of diet modification and exercise, is feasible, improves aerobic capacity and diet quality, reverses MetS and improves MetS components at 12 months.

  3. The effects of adding group-based lifestyle counselling to individual counselling on changes in plasma glucose levels in a randomized controlled trial: the Inter99 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C; Vistisen, D; Toft, U; Tetens, I; Glümer, C; Pedersen, O; Jørgensen, T; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to assess whether group-based lifestyle counselling offered to a high-risk population subgroup had any effect beyond individual multifactorial interventions on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) changes. In a population-based study of 6784 participants, 4053 were determined to be at high risk based on a risk estimate of ischaemic heart disease or the presence of risk factors (smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance). Of these subjects, 90% were randomized to high-intensity intervention (group A) and 10% to low-intensity intervention (group B). All participants went through health examinations, risk assessments and individual lifestyle counselling. Participants in group A were further offered group-based lifestyle counselling. The intervention was repeated after 1 and 3 years. A total of 2738 participants free of diabetes at baseline (1999-2001) and with at least one FPG and/or 2hPG measurement during 5 years of follow-up were included in the analyses. Differences in changes of plasma glucose between groups A and B were analyzed using multilevel linear regression. For FPG, crude 5-year changes were significantly different between the two groups (group A: -0.003 mmol/L vs group B: -0.079 mmol/L; P=0.0427). After adjusting for relevant confounders, no differences in FPG changes were observed (P=0.116). Also, no significant differences in the 5-year changes in 2hPG between the two groups were observed (group A: - 0.127 mmol/L vs group B: -0.201 mmol/L; P=0.546). Offering additional group-based intervention to a high-risk population subgroup had no clinical effects on changes in plasma glucose beyond those of individualized multifactorial interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Virtual coaches for healthy lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Klaassen, Randy; Nijholt, Antinus; Esposito, Anna; Jain, Lakhmi C.

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of the idea of the software interface agent the question recurs whether these agents should be personified and graphically visualized in the interface. In this chapter we look at the use of virtual humans in the interface of healthy lifestyle coaching systems. Based on theory

  5. Lifestyle and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Gorzelak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Admission:  The World Health Organization defines lifestyle as a way of being associated with the interaction of man and the conditions, in which he lives, as well as individual behavior patterns, which have been determined by socio-cultural factors and personal characteristics charakter2. Aim: Aim of the study is to identify the impact of lifestyle on human health in every stage of life. Lifestyle is defined as all the characteristics of the behavior of a particular individual or community. It refers to behavior occurring in everyday life and those routinely repeated. The lifestyle behaviors include inter alia: attitudes to work and use, leisure, nutrition, clothing and relationships. Summary: Healthy lifestyle developed among people of all ages, will transfer into later adult health, their children, and the elderly. A healthy lifestyle improves the quality of life in every stage.

  6. Alpha1-acid glycoprotein post-translational modifications: a comparative two dimensional electrophoresis based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Roncada

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP is an immunomodulatory protein expressed by hepatocytes in response to the systemic reaction that follows tissue damage caused by inflammation, infection or trauma. A proteomic approach based on two dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotting and staining of 2DE gels with dyes specific for post-translational modifications (PTMs such as glycosylation and phosphorylation has been used to evaluate the differential interspecific protein expression of AGP purified from human, bovine and ovine sera. By means of these techniques, several isoforms have been identified in the investigated species: they have been found to change both with regard to the number of isoforms expressed under physiological condition and with regard to the quality of PTMs (i.e. different oligosaccharidic chains, presence/absence of phosphorilations. In particular, it is suggested that bovine serum AGP may have one of the most complex pattern of PTMs among serum proteins of mammals studied so far.

  7. A Total Variation Model Based on the Strictly Convex Modification for Image Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boying Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a strictly convex functional in which the regular term consists of the total variation term and an adaptive logarithm based convex modification term. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the minimizer for the proposed variational problem. The existence, uniqueness, and long-time behavior of the solution of the associated evolution system is also established. Finally, we present experimental results to illustrate the effectiveness of the model in noise reduction, and a comparison is made in relation to the more classical methods of the traditional total variation (TV, the Perona-Malik (PM, and the more recent D-α-PM method. Additional distinction from the other methods is that the parameters, for manual manipulation, in the proposed algorithm are reduced to basically only one.

  8. [Evaluation of the lifestyle of students of physiotherapy and technical & computer science basing on their diet and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrela-Kuder, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of a dietary habits profile and physical activity of Physiotherapy and Technical & Computer Science students. The research involved a group of 174 non-full-time students of higher education institutions in Krakow aged between 22 and 27. 81 students of the surveyed studied Physiotherapy at the University of Physical Education, whereas 93 followed a course in Technical & Computer Science at the Pedagogical University. In this project a diagnostic survey method was used. The study revealed that the lifestyle of university youth left much to be desired. Dietary errors were exemplified by irregular meals intake, low consumption of fish, milk and dairy, snacking between meals on high calorie products with a poor nutrient content. With regard to physical activity, Physiotherapy students were characterised by more positive attitudes than those from Technical & Computer Science. Such physical activity forms as swimming, team sports, cycling and strolling were declared by the surveyed the most frequently. Health-oriented education should be introduced in such a way as to improve the knowledge pertaining to a health-promoting lifestyle as a means of prevention of numerous diseases.

  9. Medication overuse, healthy lifestyle behaviour and stress in chronic headache: Results from a population-based representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Glümer, Charlotte; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations between chronic headache (CH) with and without medication overuse, healthy lifestyle behaviour, and stress. Questionnaires were sent to 129,150 adults. Those with headache ≥15 days per month for three months were classified as having CH then further described as having medication-overuse headache (MOH) or CH without medication overuse. Associations between headache and daily smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, excessive drinking, illicit drug use, and high stress were analysed by logistic regression. CH with and without medication overuse (prevalence 1.8% and 1.6%, respectively) had strong, graded associations with stress. Associations with daily smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity were significant only for MOH. Odds for MOH were highest among people who had all three factors compared to those who had none (OR 2.8 in women and 5.1 in men). High stress plus any of these three factors had synergistic effects in MOH but not clearly in those who had CH without overuse. Associations between CH subtypes and excessive drinking or illicit drug use were not statistically significant. Results suggest strong links between healthy lifestyle behaviour and stress in MOH. Stress reduction and promoting healthy behaviour are highly relevant in MOH management. © International Headache Society 2015.

  10. Watching TV has a distinct sociodemographic and lifestyle profile compared with other sedentary behaviors: A nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andrade-Gómez

    Full Text Available Watching TV has been consistently associated with higher risk of adverse health outcomes, but the effect of other sedentary behaviors (SB is uncertain. Potential explanations are that watching TV is not a marker of a broader sedentary pattern and that each SB reflects different sociodemographic and health characteristics. Data were taken form a survey on 10,199 individuals, representative of the Spanish population aged ≥18 years. SB and other health behaviors were ascertained using validated questionnaires. Watching TV was the predominant SB (45.4% of the total sitting time, followed by sitting at the computer (22.7%. TV watching time showed no correlation with total time on other SB (r: -0.02, p = 0.07. By contrast, time spent at the computer was directly correlated with time spent on commuting (r: 0.07, p<0.01, listening to music (r: 0.10, p<0.01 and reading (r: 0.08, p<0.01. TV watching time was greater in those with older age, lower education, unhealthier lifestyle, and with diabetes or osteomuscular disease. More time spent at the computer or in commuting was linked to younger age, male gender, higher education and having a sedentary job. In conclusion, watching TV is not correlated with other SB and shows a distinct demographic and lifestyle profile.

  11. Watching TV has a distinct sociodemographic and lifestyle profile compared with other sedentary behaviors: A nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Gómez, Elena; García-Esquinas, Esther; Ortolá, Rosario; Martínez-Gómez, David; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Watching TV has been consistently associated with higher risk of adverse health outcomes, but the effect of other sedentary behaviors (SB) is uncertain. Potential explanations are that watching TV is not a marker of a broader sedentary pattern and that each SB reflects different sociodemographic and health characteristics. Data were taken form a survey on 10,199 individuals, representative of the Spanish population aged ≥18 years. SB and other health behaviors were ascertained using validated questionnaires. Watching TV was the predominant SB (45.4% of the total sitting time), followed by sitting at the computer (22.7%). TV watching time showed no correlation with total time on other SB (r: -0.02, p = 0.07). By contrast, time spent at the computer was directly correlated with time spent on commuting (r: 0.07, pmusic (r: 0.10, peducation, unhealthier lifestyle, and with diabetes or osteomuscular disease. More time spent at the computer or in commuting was linked to younger age, male gender, higher education and having a sedentary job. In conclusion, watching TV is not correlated with other SB and shows a distinct demographic and lifestyle profile.

  12. Evaluating self-esteem modifications after a Life Skills Based Education (LSBE) intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangirolami, Francesca; Iemmi, Diego; Vighi, Valentina; Pellai, Alberto

    2016-12-22

    A satisfactory level of self-esteem has been recognized as crucial factor contributing to healthy lifestyle, especially among children and adolescents. We performed an analysis of the impact of Life-Skills Based Education (LSBE) in a cohort of pupils in a Primary School of Sondrio (Northern Italy) and we made a comparison with a control group in a Primary school of the same province where no intervention was performed. Changes in levels of self-esteem were assessed through Italian version of the Multidimensional Self-concept Test of Bruce Bracken - T.M.A. For research purpose we used four of the six scales of the Italian version of the Multidimensional Self-esteem Test - T.M.A. The questionnaire was handed out to a total of 318 pupils: 132 students had received a LSBE intervention and 186 hadn't received any intervention. Median and interquartile range are in the normal range, both for the intervention and control groups. The four subscales showed an improving trend from the beginning (T1) to the end (T2) of the school year, both for the intervention and control groups. Regarding the intervention group, we found statistically significant changes in the subscales of quality of interpersonal relationships (p=0.003) and emotional competencies (p=0.02); regarding the control group, we found statistically significant changes in all the subscales analyzed. Considering the variable "sex", we found a statistically significant improvement only for male students and for the subscale "quality of interpersonal relationships" (p=0.007). The population trend observed suggests an improvement in competencies and levels of self-esteem in the cohort subjected to a LSBE intervention. Data analysis revealed significant differences in the subscales of quality of interpersonal relationships and emotional competencies, suggesting that LSBE interventions have an higher impact on males than on females. A longer follow-up could be useful in order to provide more reliable and significant

  13. Life-Style Habits in a High-Risk Area for Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers: a Population-Based Study from Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Kun; Yao, Shang-Man; Xu, Yi-Ran; Niu, Run-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a burden on humanity and ranks as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in China. Shanxi province has its unique cancer patterns and the burden is increasing. In this study, we aimed to assess the pattern of dietary habits and life-style in Shanxi, a high-risk area for upper gastrointestinal cancers in China and further evaluate the trends in cancer incidence and mortality based on registered data. Data on lifestyle, diet, physical activity were obtained from the household health survey at Zhongyang from 2013 to 2015. Cancer diagnoses were reported to Shanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDCP). Population-based cancer incidence data and mortality data of 2012 were collected from the SCDCP. All incidence and death rates were expressed per 100,000 populations. Univariate analysis was performed using the Chi-squared test or Fisherandapos;s exact test. Overall, deficiencies in fresh fruits and vegetable food, and intake of hot food, salted food, or pickled food are serious problems in Shanxi, especially in rural areas. Upper gastrointestinal cancers were the most commonly diagnosed cancers, and the incidence in rural areas is higher than those in urban areas. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer for females. Moreover, the agespecific incidence exhibited an increased trend before 40 years old. Consistent with the previous literature, our epidemiological investigation results suggest that lifestyle, nutrition deficient, and infections were major risk factors for upper gastrointestinal cancers or cervical cancer in Shanxi. Facing a serious situation, we further explored defensible recommendations for the general public in order to promote changes in environments that support healthful eating and physical activity habits, to reduce cancer risk. Our results present the current cancer trends in Shanxi and its related etiologic risk factors and provide a theoretical basis to guide public health efforts to prevent and control cancers in the

  14. Risk-based inservice testing program modifications at Palo Verde nuclear generating station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauf, S.; Lindenlaub, B.; Linthicum, R.

    1996-12-01

    Arizona Public Service Company (APS) is investigating changes to the Palo Verde Inservice Testing (IST) Program that are intended to result in the reduction of the required test frequency for various valves in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI IST program. The analytical techniques employed to select candidate valves and to demonstrate that these frequency reductions are acceptable are risk based. The results of the Palo Verde probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), updated in June 1994, and the risk significant determination performed as part of the implementation efforts for 10 CFR 50.65 (the maintenance rule) were used to select candidate valves for extended test intervals. Additional component level evaluations were conducted by an `expert panel.` The decision to pursue these changes was facilitated by the ASME Risk-Based Inservice Testing Research Task Force for which Palo Verde is participating as a pilot plant. The NRC`s increasing acceptance of cost beneficial licensing actions and risk-based submittals also provided incentive to seek these changes. Arizona Public Service is pursuing the risk-based IST program modification in order to reduce the unnecessary regulatory burden of the IST program through qualitative and quantitative analysis consistent with maintaining a high level of plant safety. The objectives of this project at Palo Verde are as follows: (1) Apply risk-based technologies to IST components to determine their risk significance (i.e., high or low). (2) Apply a combination of deterministic and risk-based methods to determine appropriate testing requirements for IST components including improvement of testing methods and frequency intervals for high-risk significant components. (3) Apply risk-based technologies to high-risk significant components identified by the {open_quotes}expert panel{close_quotes} and outside of the IST program to determine whether additional testing requirements are appropriate.

  15. Risk-based inservice testing program modifications at Palo Verde nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauf, S.; Lindenlaub, B.; Linthicum, R.

    1996-01-01

    Arizona Public Service Company (APS) is investigating changes to the Palo Verde Inservice Testing (IST) Program that are intended to result in the reduction of the required test frequency for various valves in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI IST program. The analytical techniques employed to select candidate valves and to demonstrate that these frequency reductions are acceptable are risk based. The results of the Palo Verde probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), updated in June 1994, and the risk significant determination performed as part of the implementation efforts for 10 CFR 50.65 (the maintenance rule) were used to select candidate valves for extended test intervals. Additional component level evaluations were conducted by an 'expert panel.' The decision to pursue these changes was facilitated by the ASME Risk-Based Inservice Testing Research Task Force for which Palo Verde is participating as a pilot plant. The NRC's increasing acceptance of cost beneficial licensing actions and risk-based submittals also provided incentive to seek these changes. Arizona Public Service is pursuing the risk-based IST program modification in order to reduce the unnecessary regulatory burden of the IST program through qualitative and quantitative analysis consistent with maintaining a high level of plant safety. The objectives of this project at Palo Verde are as follows: (1) Apply risk-based technologies to IST components to determine their risk significance (i.e., high or low). (2) Apply a combination of deterministic and risk-based methods to determine appropriate testing requirements for IST components including improvement of testing methods and frequency intervals for high-risk significant components. (3) Apply risk-based technologies to high-risk significant components identified by the open-quotes expert panelclose quotes and outside of the IST program to determine whether additional testing requirements are appropriate

  16. Modification process optimization, characterization and adsorption property of granular fir-based activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Congjin; Li, Xin; Tong, Zhangfa; Li, Yue; Li, Mingfei

    2014-10-01

    Granular fir-based activated carbon (GFAC) was modified with H2O2, and orthogonal array experimental design method was used to optimize the process. The properties of the original and modified GFAC were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equation, Barett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) equation, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, etc. When 10.00 g of GFAC with particle size of 0.25-0.85 mm was modified by 150.0 ml of aqueous H2O2 solution, the optimized conditions were found to be as follows: aqueous H2O2 solution concentration 1.0 mol·l-1, modification temperature 30.0 °C, modification time 4.0 h. Modified under the optimized conditions, decolonization of caramel, methylene blue adsorption, phenol adsorption and iodine number of the modified GFAC increased by 500.0%, 59.7%, 32.5%, and 15.1%, respectively. The original and optimally modified GFAC exhibited adsorption isotherms of hybrid Type I-IV isotherms with H4 hysteresis. BET surface area, micropore area, total pore volume, micropore volume, and microporosity of the modified GFAC increased by 7.33%, 11.25%, 3.89%, 14.23%, 9.91%, respectively. Whereas the average pore width decreased by 3.16%. In addition, the amount of surface oxygen groups (such as carbonyl or carboxyl) increased in the modified GFAC.

  17. FEATURES OF SPHEROIDIZING MODIFICATION OF HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON WITH MASTER ALLOYS BASED ON COPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of efficiency of modification process for ductile iron is topically, thereby increasing its mechanical and operational properties. For these purposes, in practice, various magnesium containing alloys are used, including «heavy» ones on the basis of Copper and Nickel. The analysis has shown that the application of bulk inoculating alloys based on copper basis were not effectively due to long dissolution period. From this point of view, the interest is high-speed casting, allowing the production of inoculating alloys in the form of strips – chips that are characterized by a low dissolution time and low piroeffekt. The aim of this work is to study the features of structure formation in nodular cast iron using different spheroidizing alloys based on copper. Studies have shown that the transition from the use of briquetted form alloys based on copper and magnesium to the «chips-inoculating alloys» allowed increasing the efficiency of the spheroidizing process. Further improvement in the quality of ductile iron can be achieved by the use in «chip-inoculating alloys» additives of nanosized yttrium oxide powder. 

  18. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buratta Livia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle program on medical measures and motivational profile for physical activity (PA and healthy nutrition (NUTR. Method. Subjects participated in an intensive multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention at C.U.R.I.A.MO. Before and after the intervention, patients received a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic states and motivation to lifestyle changes. Results. Data showed differences before and after intervention in both medical and motivational measures. Before the intervention patients reported to be ready, open, and determined to change and gave importance to healthy habits. After the intervention patients continued to be determined but increased the actions toward the change showing a higher degree of maintenance and of acquisition of habits especially in the physical domain of the new lifestyle. Conclusion. Data support the notion that the motivation should be followed during all the lifestyle interventions to support the change on both domains of the lifestyle program.

  19. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livia, Buratta; Elisa, Reginato; Claudia, Ranucci; Roberto, Pippi; Cristina, Aiello; Emilia, Sbroma Tomaro; Chiara, Perrone; Alberto, Tirimagni; Angelo, Russo; Pierpaolo, De Feo; Claudia, Mazzeschi

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle program on medical measures and motivational profile for physical activity (PA) and healthy nutrition (NUTR). Subjects participated in an intensive multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention at C.U.R.I.A.MO. Before and after the intervention, patients received a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic states and motivation to lifestyle changes. Data showed differences before and after intervention in both medical and motivational measures. Before the intervention patients reported to be ready, open, and determined to change and gave importance to healthy habits. After the intervention patients continued to be determined but increased the actions toward the change showing a higher degree of maintenance and of acquisition of habits especially in the physical domain of the new lifestyle. Data support the notion that the motivation should be followed during all the lifestyle interventions to support the change on both domains of the lifestyle program.

  20. Healthy lifestyle and Czech consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Kubešová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is focused on healthy lifestyle. It concentrates specifically on impact on human health and which lifestyle lives Czech population. This work summarizes the principles of helathy lifestyle and reveals lifestyles of Czech people with market segmentation and MML-TGI data in the practical part. This can help firms in targeting and addressing people within healthy lifestyle.

  1. The Usability and Effectiveness of Mobile Health Technology–Based Lifestyle and Medical Intervention Apps Supporting Health Care During Pregnancy: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Ageeth N; van Beukering, Monique DM; Kok, Marjolein

    2018-01-01

    Background A growing number of mobile health (mHealth) technology–based apps are being developed for personal lifestyle and medical health care support, of which several apps are related to pregnancy. Evidence on usability and effectiveness is limited but crucial for successful implementation. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the usability, that is, feasibility and acceptability, as well as effectiveness of mHealth lifestyle and medical apps to support health care during pregnancy in high-income countries. Feasibility was defined as the actual use, interest, intention, and continued use; perceived suitability; and ability of users to carry out the activities of the app. Acceptability was assessed by user satisfaction, appreciation, and the recommendation of the app to others. Methods We performed a systematic review searching the following electronic databases for studies on mHealth technology–based apps in maternal health care in developed countries: EMBASE, MEDLINE Epub (Ovid), Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. All included studies were scored on quality, using the ErasmusAGE Quality Score or the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research. Main outcome measures were usability and effectiveness of mHealth lifestyle and medical health care support apps related to pregnancy. All studies were screened by 2 reviewers individually, and the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement were followed. Results Our search identified 4204 titles and abstracts, of which 2487 original studies remained after removing duplicates. We performed full-text screening of 217 studies, of which 29 were included in our study. In total, 19 out of 29 studies reported on mHealth apps to adopt healthy lifestyles and 10 out of 29 studies to support medical care. The lifestyle apps evaluated in 19 studies reported on usability and effectiveness: 10 studies reported positive on acceptability, and 14

  2. Knowledge Base for Strainer Clogging - Modifications performed in different countries since 1992 - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A review has been conducted of modifications performed primarily in the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System) and CSS (Containment Spray System) of nuclear power plants in different countries following the Barsebaeck event in July 1992. The information about these modifications has been gathered through a literature study of internationally published reports, contacts with the regulatory body from the different countries, and in some cases, directly from utility specialists and plant representatives. The information reflects the plants and research status as per December 2001. It covers 15 countries encompassing nine countries with PWRs, seven with BWRs, five with VVERs and one country with CANDU-reactors. The review indicates that: 1. Many countries have carried out very thorough and expeditious actions in response to the Barsebaeck event, often within a noteworthy constructive co-operation climate between the regulatory body and the plant owners. 2. All countries have performed extensive studies. 3. Many countries have performed extensive experiments. 4. Corrective actions have been taken in: most BWRs, a limited number of PWRs and a relatively significant number of VVERs and CANDU reactors (installation of new strainers / material). 5. Experiments and theoretical studies are still on going in some countries, mostly for PWR designs. All countries covered in the report have performed extensive studies to assess the amount of insulation materials that could be dislodged during pipe break events inside the containment. In many countries, the analyses were based on the double cone model of the USNRC. The analyses have also included specific studies of the transport of insulation materials and other debris in the containment, and of strainer pressure drops. The analyses were often conducted in parallel with extensive experiments utilising different insulation materials to assess the physical and time aspects of the clogging of the suction strainers. Many countries also

  3. Consumer clusters in Denmark based on coarse vegetable intake frequency, explained by hedonics, socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle factors. A cross-sectional national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tove K; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kidmose, Ulla

    2015-08-01

    Vegetable intake seems to play a protective role against major lifestyle diseases. Despite this, the Danish population usually eats far less than the recommended daily intake. The present study focused on the intake of 17 coarse vegetables and the potential barriers limiting their intake. The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects, 'beetroot eaters' were characterized as traditional food consumers, and 'high frequency' were individuals with a strong food engagement and high vegetable liking. 'Low frequency' identified more barriers than other consumer clusters and specifically regarded low availability of pre-cut/prepared coarse vegetables on the market as a barrier. Across all clusters a low culinary knowledge was identified as the main barrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lifestyle and metabolic factors in relation to shoulder pain and rotator cuff tendinitis: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jula Antti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is a common health problem. The purpose of this study was to assess the associations of lifestyle factors, metabolic factors and carotid intima-media thickness with shoulder pain and chronic (> 3 months rotator cuff tendinitis. Methods In this cross-sectional study, the target population consisted of subjects aged 30 years or older participating in a national Finnish Health Survey during 2000-2001. Of the 7,977 eligible subjects, 6,237 (78.2% participated in a structured interview and clinical examination. Chronic rotator cuff tendinitis was diagnosed clinically. Weight-related factors, C-reactive protein and carotid intima-media thickness were measured. Results The prevalence of shoulder joint pain during the preceding 30 days was 16% and that of chronic rotator cuff tendinitis 2.8%. Smoking, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were related to an increased prevalence of shoulder pain in both genders. Metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and carotid intima-media thickness were associated with shoulder pain in men, whereas high level of C-reactive protein was associated with shoulder pain in women. Increased waist circumference and type 1 diabetes mellitus were associated with chronic rotator cuff tendinitis in men. Conclusions Our findings showed associations of abdominal obesity, some other metabolic factors and carotid intima-media thickness with shoulder pain. Disturbed glucose metabolism and atherosclerosis may be underlying mechanisms, although not fully supported by the findings of this study. Prospective studies are needed to further investigate the role of lifestyle and metabolic factors in shoulder disorders.

  5. Lifestyle and metabolic factors in relation to shoulder pain and rotator cuff tendinitis: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechardt, Martti; Shiri, Rahman; Karppinen, Jaro; Jula, Antti; Heliövaara, Markku; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2010-07-20

    Shoulder pain is a common health problem. The purpose of this study was to assess the associations of lifestyle factors, metabolic factors and carotid intima-media thickness with shoulder pain and chronic (> 3 months) rotator cuff tendinitis. In this cross-sectional study, the target population consisted of subjects aged 30 years or older participating in a national Finnish Health Survey during 2000-2001. Of the 7,977 eligible subjects, 6,237 (78.2%) participated in a structured interview and clinical examination. Chronic rotator cuff tendinitis was diagnosed clinically. Weight-related factors, C-reactive protein and carotid intima-media thickness were measured. The prevalence of shoulder joint pain during the preceding 30 days was 16% and that of chronic rotator cuff tendinitis 2.8%. Smoking, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were related to an increased prevalence of shoulder pain in both genders. Metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and carotid intima-media thickness were associated with shoulder pain in men, whereas high level of C-reactive protein was associated with shoulder pain in women. Increased waist circumference and type 1 diabetes mellitus were associated with chronic rotator cuff tendinitis in men. Our findings showed associations of abdominal obesity, some other metabolic factors and carotid intima-media thickness with shoulder pain. Disturbed glucose metabolism and atherosclerosis may be underlying mechanisms, although not fully supported by the findings of this study. Prospective studies are needed to further investigate the role of lifestyle and metabolic factors in shoulder disorders.

  6. Modification of hemiplegic compensatory gait pattern by symmetry-based motion controller of HAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Hiroaki; Kadone, Hideki; Sakurai, Takeru; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    As one of several characteristics of hemiplegic patients after stroke, compensatory gait caused by affected limb is often seen. The purpose of this research is to apply a symmetry-based controller of a wearable type lower limb robot, Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL) to hemiplegic patients with compensatory gait, and to investigate improvement of gait symmetry. The controller is designed respectively for swing phase and support phase according to characteristics of hemiplegic gait pattern. The controller during swing phase stores the motion of the unaffected limb and then provides motion support on the affected limb during the subsequent swing using the stored pattern to realize symmetric gait based on spontaneous limb swing. Moreover, the controller during support phase provides motion to extend hip and knee joints to support wearer's body. Clinical tests were conducted in order to assess the modification of gait symmetry. Our case study involved participation of one chronic stroke patient who performs abnormally-compensatory gait for both of the affected and unaffected limbs. As a result, the patient's gait symmetry was improved by providing motion support during the swing phase on the affected side and motion constraint during the support phase on the unaffected side. The study showed promising basis for the effectiveness of the controller for the future clinical study.

  7. In situ TEM Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, F.I., E-mail: fiallen@lbl.gov [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kim, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Andresen, N.C. [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grigoropoulos, C.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Minor, A.M., E-mail: aminor@lbl.gov [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-07-15

    We present a modular assembly that enables both in situ Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing to be performed in a transmission electron microscope. The system comprises a lensed Raman probe mounted inside the microscope column in the specimen plane and a custom specimen holder with a vacuum feedthrough for a tapered optical fiber. The Raman probe incorporates both excitation and collection optics, and localized laser processing is performed using pulsed laser light delivered to the specimen via the tapered optical fiber. Precise positioning of the fiber is achieved using a nanomanipulation stage in combination with simultaneous electron-beam imaging of the tip-to-sample distance. Materials modification is monitored in real time by transmission electron microscopy. First results obtained using the assembly are presented for in situ pulsed laser ablation of MoS{sub 2} combined with Raman spectroscopy, complimented by electron-beam diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing in a TEM are demonstrated. • A lensed Raman probe is mounted in the sample chamber for close approach. • Localized laser processing is achieved using a tapered optical fiber. • Raman spectroscopy and pulsed laser ablation of MoS{sub 2} are performed in situ.

  8. In situ TEM Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, F.I.; Kim, E.; Andresen, N.C.; Grigoropoulos, C.P.; Minor, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a modular assembly that enables both in situ Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing to be performed in a transmission electron microscope. The system comprises a lensed Raman probe mounted inside the microscope column in the specimen plane and a custom specimen holder with a vacuum feedthrough for a tapered optical fiber. The Raman probe incorporates both excitation and collection optics, and localized laser processing is performed using pulsed laser light delivered to the specimen via the tapered optical fiber. Precise positioning of the fiber is achieved using a nanomanipulation stage in combination with simultaneous electron-beam imaging of the tip-to-sample distance. Materials modification is monitored in real time by transmission electron microscopy. First results obtained using the assembly are presented for in situ pulsed laser ablation of MoS_2 combined with Raman spectroscopy, complimented by electron-beam diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing in a TEM are demonstrated. • A lensed Raman probe is mounted in the sample chamber for close approach. • Localized laser processing is achieved using a tapered optical fiber. • Raman spectroscopy and pulsed laser ablation of MoS_2 are performed in situ.

  9. A Limited Structural Modification Results in a Significantly More Efficacious Diazachrysene-Based Filovirus Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha G. Panchal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ebola (EBOV and Marburg (MARV filoviruses are highly infectious pathogens causing deadly hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. Promising vaccine candidates providing immunity against filoviruses have been reported. However, the sporadic nature and swift progression of filovirus disease underlines the need for the development of small molecule therapeutics providing immediate antiviral effects. Herein we describe a brief structural exploration of two previously reported diazachrysene (DAAC-based EBOV inhibitors. Specifically, three analogs were prepared to examine how slight substituent modifications would affect inhibitory efficacy and inhibitor-mediated toxicity during not only EBOV, but also MARV cellular infection. Of the three analogs, one was highly efficacious, providing IC50 values of 0.696 µM ± 0.13 µM and 2.76 µM ± 0.21 µM against EBOV and MARV infection, respectively, with little or no associated cellular toxicity. Overall, the structure-activity and structure-toxicity results from this study provide a framework for the future development of DAAC-based filovirus inhibitors that will be both active and non-toxic in vivo.

  10. Multipeak Mean Based Optimized Histogram Modification Framework Using Swarm Intelligence for Image Contrast Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Babu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach, Multipeak mean based optimized histogram modification framework (MMOHM is introduced for the purpose of enhancing the contrast as well as preserving essential details for any given gray scale and colour images. The basic idea of this technique is the calculation of multiple peaks (local maxima from the original histogram. The mean value of multiple peaks is computed and the input image’s histogram is segmented into two subhistograms based on this multipeak mean (mmean value. Then, a bicriteria optimization problem is formulated and the subhistograms are modified by selecting optimal contrast enhancement parameters. While formulating the enhancement parameters, particle swarm optimization is employed to find optimal values of them. Finally, the union of the modified subhistograms produces a contrast enhanced and details preserved output image. This mechanism enhances the contrast of the input image better than the existing contemporary HE methods. The performance of the proposed method is well supported by the contrast enhancement quantitative metrics such as discrete entropy, natural image quality evaluator, and absolute mean brightness error.

  11. One-dimensional map-based neuron model: A logistic modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesbah, Samineh; Moghtadaei, Motahareh; Hashemi Golpayegani, Mohammad Reza; Towhidkhah, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    A one-dimensional map is proposed for modeling some of the neuronal activities, including different spiking and bursting behaviors. The model is obtained by applying some modifications on the well-known Logistic map and is named the Modified and Confined Logistic (MCL) model. Map-based neuron models are known as phenomenological models and recently, they are widely applied in modeling tasks due to their computational efficacy. Most of discrete map-based models involve two variables representing the slow-fast prototype. There are also some one-dimensional maps, which can replicate some of the neuronal activities. However, the existence of four bifurcation parameters in the MCL model gives rise to reproduction of spiking behavior with control over the frequency of the spikes, and imitation of chaotic and regular bursting responses concurrently. It is also shown that the proposed model has the potential to reproduce more realistic bursting activity by adding a second variable. Moreover the MCL model is able to replicate considerable number of experimentally observed neuronal responses introduced in Izhikevich (2004) [23]. Some analytical and numerical analyses of the MCL model dynamics are presented to explain the emersion of complex dynamics from this one-dimensional map

  12. Influence of hydrophobic modification in alginate-based hydrogels for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Soumitra

    Alginate has been exploited commercially for decades in foods, textiles, paper, pharmaceutical industries, and also as a detoxifier for removing heavy metals. Alginate is also popular in cell encapsulation because of its relatively mild gelation protocol and simple chemistry with which biological active entities can be immobilized. Surface modification of alginate gels has been explored to induce desired cell interactions with the gel matrix. These modifications alter the bulk properties, which strongly determine on how cells feel and response to the three-dimensional microenvironment. However, there is a need to develop strategies to engineer functionalities into bulk alginate hydrogels that not only preserve their inherent qualities but are also less toxic. In this thesis, our main focus was to optimize the mechanical properties of alginate-based hydrogels, and by doing so control the performance of the biomaterials. In the first scheme, we used alginate and hydrophobically modified ethyl hydroxy ethyl cellulose as components in interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) gels. The second network was used to control gelation time and rheological properties. We believe these experiments also may provide insight into the mechanical and structural properties of more complex biopolymer gels and naturally-occurring IPNs. Next, we worked on incorporating a hydrophobic moiety directly into the alginate chain, resulting in materials for extended release of hydrophobic drugs. We successfully synthesized hydrophobically modified alginate (HMA) by attaching octylamine groups onto the alginate backbone by standard carbodiimide based amide coupling reaction. Solubility of several model hydrophobic drugs in dilute HMA solutions was found to be increased by more than an order of magnitude. HMA hydrogels, prepared by crosslinking the alginate chains with calcium ions, were found to exhibit excellent mechanical properties (modulus ˜100 kPa) with release extended upto 5 days. Ability

  13. Fabrication, modification and application of (BiO)_2CO_3-based photocatalysts: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Zilin; Sun, Yanjuan; Zhang, Yuxin; Dong, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The (BiO)_2CO_3 with Aurivillius structure y is an emergent material. • Synthesis of (BiO)_2CO_3 micro/nano structures was reviewed. • The mechanisms of (BiO)_2CO_3 based nanocomposites were discussed. • Doping (BiO)_2CO_3 with nonmetals for enhanced activity was highlighted. • Multi-functional applications of (BiO)_2CO_3 based derivatives was demonstrated. - Abstract: (BiO)_2CO_3 (BOC), a fascinating material, belongs to the Aurivillius-related oxide family with an intergrowth texture in which Bi_2O_2"2"+ layers and CO_3"2"− layers are orthogonal to each other. BOC is a suitable candidate for various fields, such as healthcare, photocatalysis, humidity sensor, nonlinear optical application and supercapacitors. Recently, the photocatalysis properties of (BiO)_2CO_3 have been gained increased attention. BOC has a wide band gap (3.1–3.5 eV), which constrains its visible light absorption and utilization. In order to enhance the visible light driven photocatalytic performance of BOC, many modification strategies have been developed. According to the discrepancies of different coupling mechanisms, six primary systems of BOC-based nanocomposites can be classified and summarized: namely, metal/BOC heterojunction, single metal oxides (metal sulfides)/BOC heterostructure, bismuth-based metallic acid salts (Bi_xMO_y)/BOC, bismuth oxyhalides (BiOX)/BOC, metal-free semiconductor/BOC and the BOC-based complex heterojunction. Doping BOC with nonmetals (C, N and oxygen vacancy) is unique strategy and warrants a separate categorization. In this review, we first give a detailed description of the strategies to fabricate various BOC micro/nano structures. Next, the mechanisms of photocatalytic activity enhancement are elaborated in three parts, including BOC-based nanocomposites, nonmetal doping and formation of oxygen vacancy. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of BOC-based systems can be attributed to the unique interaction of

  14. Elite Dental Students: a Cross-Sectional Study on Different Aspects of Their Life-Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarmand, Abdolhamid; Asvar, Maryam

    2017-12-01

    Lifestyle has a key role in having a life with quality. This is much more critical in academic community. Elite students are the scientific capital of each community; therefore, improvement of their life-style is a very crucial issue and is a way of esteeming them. This study was aimed to scrutinize the life-style of elite dental students to provide a guideline for healthy life-style for their own and for other students, as well. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out on 115 Elite dental students, from a list 175 students, based upon their interest. The HPLP-II questionnaire was used which focuses on 6 behavioral fields: Spiritual Growth, Interpersonal Relations, Nutrition, Physical Activity, Health Responsibility, and Stress Management. The results also compared genders and marital status within the study group. The elite dental students were categorized in 3 age groups as 19≥ yrs (Group I), 20-22 yrs (Group II), and 23≤ yrs. (Group III) for comparison. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey's test. The mean score of the HPLP-II questionnaire was 2.51±0.27 (out of score 4). Spiritual growth (2.85±0.42) and physical activity (2.16±0.58) were the highest and the lowest scores, respectively. Physical activity was the only subscale different between genders ( p = 0.000). Marital status had not effect on life-style of students. Between the age groups, the physical activity was significantly different between group I and II (0.002). Elite dental students' life-style is most prominent in spiritual growth and interpersonal relationships dimensions, but is the weakest in physical activity and health responsibility behavioral attitudes. To improve the talent of all students, interventional workshops/courses aiming at modification and promotion of students' lifestyle is recommendable in the curriculum.

  15. Probability and amounts of yogurt intake are differently affected by sociodemographic, economic, and lifestyle factors in adults and the elderly-results from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possa, Gabriela; de Castro, Michelle Alessandra; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this population-based cross-sectional health survey (N = 532) was to investigate the factors associated with the probability and amounts of yogurt intake in Brazilian adults and the elderly. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on demographics, socioeconomic information, presence of morbidities and lifestyle and anthropometric characteristics. Food intake was evaluated using two nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls and a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Approximately 60% of the subjects were classified as yogurt consumers. In the logistic regression model, yogurt intake was associated with smoking (odds ratio [OR], 1.98), female sex (OR, 2.12), and age 20 to 39 years (OR, 3.11). Per capita family income and being a nonsmoker were factors positively associated with the amount of yogurt consumption (coefficients, 0.61 and 3.73, respectively), whereas the level of education of the head of household was inversely associated (coefficient, 0.61). In this study, probability and amounts of yogurt intake are differently affected by demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors in adults and the elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface defect modification of ZnO quantum dots based on rare earth acetylacetonate and their impacts on optical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lixi, E-mail: wanglixi_njut@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaboration Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Yang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Weimin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaboration Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Jing [China Geol Survey, Nanjing Ctr, Nanjing, 210016, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Qitu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaboration Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Song, Bo; Wong, Chingping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 30332, GA (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Graphical abstract: RE(AcAc){sub 3} (RE = Ce, Dy and Tb) can realize the defects modification of ZnO QDs based on the linkage occurs between the protons of the hydroxyl groups on the surface of ZnO QDs and the π–system of acetylacetone. The color coordinate could be shifted among yellow-green, blue-green, and green region by changing the RE (AcAc){sub 3} ratios. The stable Ce(AcAc){sub 3}/ZnO QDs with average sizes of about 3.0 nm can be obtained. The calculated band gap data also proved the efficient modification of Ce(AcAc){sub 3} for ZnO QDs with the largest variation of band gap energy of 0.039 eV (from 3.583 eV to 3.544 eV). - Highlights: • Defects modification of ZnO QDs based on rare earth acetylacetonate. • Stable Ce(AcAc){sub 3}/ZnO QDs with an average sizes of about 3.0 nm. • The color coordinate could be shifted among yellow-green, blue-green, and green region by changing the RE (AcAc){sub 3} ratios. - Abstract: The surface defect modification has an important effect on the application of ZnO quantum dots, and it has gained much progress in recently years, propelled by the development of additives. Our research efforts are directed toward developing a new surface modification additive RE(AcAc){sub 3} (RE = Ce, Dy, Tb) to achieve fine ZnO QDs and adjust their surface properties. RE(AcAc){sub 3}/ZnO QDs nanostructured materials have been designed and prepared, and particular emphasis has been given to the relation between the surface modification and optical properties. The effects of RE(III) acetylacetonate modification on the FT-IR, TEM images and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were investigated, and the surface defect modification principle and effect were discussed in details. The band gap (E{sub g}) was also calculated to prove the surface modification effect. For the RE(AcAc){sub 3}/ZnO QDs complex materials, stable linkage occurs because of the affinity of −COOH from acetylacetonate anionic ligand to zinc oxide surfaces, with attachment

  17. Evidence-based practice guidelines for prescribing home modifications for clients with bariatric care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Laura; Coyle, Emma; Todd, Helen; Williams, Cylie

    2018-04-01

    Home modifications maintain people's functional independence and safety. No literature exists to guide the prescription of home modifications for clients with bariatric care needs. With Australia's increasing obesity rate, more evidence is needed to support home modification prescribers. This study aimed to map Australian home modification prescribing practices for clients with bariatric care needs and to establish and evaluate a clinical resource for this prescription process. The study included two phases. Phase 1 conducted a cross-sectional survey of therapists practicing in Australia, and Australian industry partners who prescribe or install home modifications for clients with bariatric care needs. Phase 2 included design, implementation and evaluation of a clinical resource. Data were analysed with means and frequencies; multivariable regression analysis was used to explore prescribing habits. Therapists surveyed (n = 347) reported 11 different bariatric weight definitions. Less than 3% constantly or regularly prescribed home modifications for these clients; rails were most commonly prescribed. Many therapists (n = 171, 58%) 'never' or 'rarely' knew rail load capacity. Therapists' knowledge of rail load capacity was associated with previous experience prescribing home modifications (P = 0.009); rail manufacturer's advice (P = 0.016) and not using advice from builders (P = 0.001). Clinical resources were used by 11% (n = 26) of therapists to support their prescription, and industry sporadically relied on therapists to specify modification design requirements (n = 5, 45%). Post-implementation of a clinical resource increased consensus regarding understanding of the term bariatric and increased consultation with builders and manufacturers. There was a lack of consistency in bariatric terminology, uncertainty of rail load capacities and minimal use of clinical practice guidelines. Additional resources will assist with consistency in prescribing

  18. Population-based evaluation of the ‘LiveLighter’ healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) ‘LiveLighter’ (LL) mass media campaign ran during June–August and September–October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual (‘why’ change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier (‘how’ to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25–49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N = 2012) and following the two media waves (N = 2005 and N = 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The ‘why’ message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than ‘how’ messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. PMID:26956039

  19. Modification of DNA bases in mammalian chromatin by radiation-generated free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, E.; Rao, G.; Nackerdien, Z.; Dizdaroglu, M.

    1990-01-01

    Modification of DNA bases in mammalian chromatin in aqueous suspension by ionizing radiation generated free radicals was investigated. Argon, air, N2O, and N2O/O2 were used for saturation of the aqueous system in order to provide different radical environments. Radiation doses ranging from 20 to 200 Gy (J.kg-1) were used. Thirteen products resulting from radical interactions with pyrimidines and purines in chromatin were identified and quantitated by using the technique of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring after acidic hydrolysis and trimethylsilylation of chromatin. The methodology used permitted analysis of the modified bases directly in chromatin without the necessity of isolation of DNA from chromatin first. The results indicate that the radical environment provided by the presence of different gases in the system had a substantial effect on the types of products and their quantities. Some products were produced only in the presence of oxygen, whereas other products were detected only in the absence of oxygen. Products produced under all four gaseous conditions were also observed. Generally, the presence of oxygen in the system increased the yields of the products with the exception of formamidopyrimidines. Superoxide radical formed in the presence of air, and to a lesser extent in the presence of N2O/O2, had no effect on product formation. The presence of oxygen dramatically increased the yields of 8-hydroxypurines, whereas the yields of formamidopyrimidines were not affected by oxygen, although these products result from respective oxidation and reduction of the same hydroxyl-adduct radicals of purines. The yields of the products were much lower than those observed previously with DNA

  20. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study – a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Lisa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits. Methods The study was a randomized controlled intervention study. From a general Danish population, aged 30 to 60 years (n = 61,301, two random sample were drawn (group A, n = 11,708; group B, n = 1,308. Subjects were invited for a health screening program. Participation rate was 52.5%. All participants received individual life-style counselling. Individuals at high risk of ischemic heart disease in group A were furthermore offered group-based life-style counselling. The intervention was repeated for high-risk individuals after one and three years. At five-year follow-up all participants were invited for a health examination. High risk individuals were included in this study (n = 2 356 and changes in dietary intake were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses. Results At one-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio compared to group B and in men a significantly greater decrease in saturated fat intake was found in group A compared to group B (net change: -1.13 E%; P = 0.003. No differences were found between group A and B at three-year follow-up. At five-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio (net change: 0.09; P = 0.01 and the fish intake compared to group B (net change: 5.4 g/day; P = 0.05. Further, in men a non-significant tendency of a greater decrease was found at five year follow-up in group A compared to group B (net change: -0.68 E%; P = 0.10. The intake of fibre and vegetables increased in both groups, however, no significant difference was found between the groups. No differences between groups were found for saturated fat

  1. Adherence to self-monitoring healthy lifestyle behaviours through mobile phone-based ecological momentary assessments and photographic food records over 6 months in mostly ethnic minority mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comulada, W Scott; Swendeman, Dallas; Koussa, Maryann K; Mindry, Deborah; Medich, Melissa; Estrin, Deborah; Mercer, Neil; Ramanathan, Nithya

    2018-03-01

    Mobile phones can replace traditional self-monitoring tools through cell phone-based ecological momentary assessment (CEMA) of lifestyle behaviours and camera phone-based images of meals, i.e. photographic food records (PFR). Adherence to mobile self-monitoring needs to be evaluated in real-world treatment settings. Towards this goal, we examine CEMA and PFR adherence to the use of a mobile app designed to help mothers self-monitor lifestyle behaviours and stress. Design/Setting In 2012, forty-two mothers recorded CEMA of diet quality, exercise, sleep, stress and mood four times daily and PFR during meals over 6 months in Los Angeles, California, USA. A purposive sample of mothers from mixed ethnicities. Adherence to recording CEMA at least once daily was higher compared with recording PFR at least once daily over the study period (74 v. 11 %); adherence to both types of reports decreased over time. Participants who recorded PFR for more than a day (n 31) were more likely to be obese v. normal- to overweight and to have higher blood pressure, on average (all P<0·05). Based on random-effects regression, CEMA and PFR adherence was highest during weekdays (both P<0·01). Additionally, PFR adherence was associated with older age (P=0·04). CEMA adherence was highest in the morning (P<0·01). PFR recordings occurred throughout the day. Variations in population and temporal characteristics should be considered for mobile assessment schedules. Neither CEMA nor PFR alone is ideal over extended periods.

  2. Healthy lifestyle in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Kamran, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    The role of individual healthy behaviors like physical activity, nutrition and stress management on reduction of rate of disease mortality and morbidity is well known. The aim of this study is to determine healthy life style in teachers employed in district No.4 in Isfahan, Iran, in 2010. The participants of this cross-sectional study were 96 teachers in district No. 4, selected via random sampling method. The data collection was performed using a questionnaire including demographic healthy lifestyle questions. Analysis of the data was performed through Software SPSS version 18. The mean age of the subjects was 40.26 ± 6.05 years and, BMI mean was 25.08 ± 3.20. 96.8% of them were married and 3.1% also were single. 1% of the teachers had a weak lifestyle, 13.5%had moderate, 85.4% had a good lifestyle. In terms of nutrition, 2% of the teachers had a weak lifestyle, 23% moderate, 74% good. 76% in terms of physical activity, 29.2% smoking and 21.9% stress had a weak lifestyle. According to the results, planning for teachers in school for receiving information about healthy lifestyle is important.

  3. The impact of an immersive elective on learners' understanding of lifestyle medicine and its role in patients' lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Melissa J; Nemec, Eric C

    2014-10-15

    To design an immersive, active learning, lifestyle medicine (LM) elective and evaluate its impact on a pharmacy learners' ability to understand the challenges of implementing lifestyle changes. A 3-credit elective was developed that incorporated goal setting and immersion into the realm of LM as experienced by both the patient and the practitioner. Learners were assessed via a survey instrument, formal assignments, reflections, and the Presidential Fitness Challenge. Learners reported that their ability to initiate LM as a primary intervention within a care plan significantly increased after taking this course. They also improved their overall health. By identifying and implementing self-identified lifestyle modifications, learners increased confidence in their abilities to produce evidence-based outcomes for patients. Learners were able to understand the challenges of trying to change their daily habits as they undertook their own personal goals.

  4. Effect of a web-based intervention to promote physical activity and improve health among physically inactive adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2012-01-01

    Many people in Western countries do not follow public health physical activity (PA) recommendations. Web-based interventions provide cost- and time-efficient means of delivering individually targeted lifestyle modification at a population level.......Many people in Western countries do not follow public health physical activity (PA) recommendations. Web-based interventions provide cost- and time-efficient means of delivering individually targeted lifestyle modification at a population level....

  5. The effects of a 2-year individualized and family-based lifestyle intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitasalo, Anna; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Venäläinen, Taisa; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Karjalainen, Panu; Peltola, Jaana; Lampinen, Eeva-Kaarina; Haapala, Eero A; Paananen, Jussi; Schwab, Ursula; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of a long-term, individualized and family-based lifestyle intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet quality in children. We carried out a 2-year intervention study in a population sample of 506 children aged 6-8years in Finland in 2007-2012. We allocated the participants at baseline in the intervention and control group. We assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior by questionnaires and diet by food records. Total physical activity (+9min/d in intervention group vs. -5min/d in control group, p=0.001 for time*group interaction), unsupervised physical activity (+7min/d vs. -9min/d, psedentary behavior and enhanced diet quality in children. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01803776. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiolabeled hydroxamate-based matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors: How chemical modifications affect pharmacokinetics and metabolic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugenberg, Verena; Hermann, Sven; Galla, Fabian; Schäfers, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dysregulated MMP expression or activation is associated with several diseases. To study MMP activity in vivo by means of PET a radiolabeled MMP inhibitor (MMPI) functioning as radiotracer has been developed by our group based on the lead structure CGS 25966. Materials and methods: Aiming at the modification of the pharmacokinetics of this lipophilic model tracer a new class of MMPIs has been discovered, consisting of additional fluorinated hydrophilic substructures, such as mini-PEG and/or 1,2,3-triazole units. To identify the best candidate for further clinical applications, radiofluorinated compounds of each subgroup have been (radio) synthesized and evaluated regarding their biodistribution behavior and their metabolic stability. Results: Radiosyntheses of different triazole based MMPIs could be realized using two step “click chemistry” procedures. Compared to lead structure [ 18 F]FEtO-CGS 25966 ([ 18 F]1e, log D(exp) = 2.02, IC 50 = 2–50 nM) all selected candidates showed increased hydrophilicities and inhibition potencies (log D(exp) = 0.23–1.25, IC 50 = 0.006–6 nM). Interestingly, despite different hydrophilicities most triazole based MMPIs showed no significant differences in their in vivo biodistribution behavior and were cleared predominantly via the hepatobiliary excretion route. Biostability and metabolism studies in vitro and in vivo revealed significant higher metabolic stability for the triazole moiety compared to the benzyl ring in the lead structure. Cleavage of ethylene glycol subunits of the mini-PEG chain led to a faster metabolism of mini-PEG containing MMPIs. Conclusion: The introduction of hydrophilic groups such as mini-PEG and 1,2,3-triazole units did not lead to a significant shift of the hepatobiliary elimination towards renal clearance. Particularly the introduction of mini-PEG chains led to an intense metabolic decomposition. Substitution of the benzyl moiety in lead structure 1e by a 1,2,3-trizole ring resulted

  7. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT include aescin, coenzyme Q 10 , glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive.

  8. Do Hypertensive Individuals Who Are Aware of Their Disease Follow Lifestyle Recommendations Better than Those Who Are Not Aware?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuna Kim

    Full Text Available Lifestyle modification is the first step in hypertension management. Our objective was to assess adherence to lifestyle recommendations by individuals who were aware of their hypertension and to identify characteristics associated with non-adherence. Using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2010-2012, we compared the adherence to six lifestyle recommendations of hypertensive subjects aware of the status of their condition with that of those who were not aware, based on survey regression analysis. The characteristics associated with non-adherence were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Of all hypertensive subjects, <20% adhered to a healthy diet and reduced salt intake and about 80% moderated alcohol consumption and did not smoke. Half of all subjects maintained normal body weight and engaged in physical activity. Most lifestyle features of aware hypertensive Koreans did not differ greatly from those of hypertensive individuals who were not aware. Reduction in salt intake was slightly more prevalent among those aware of their hypertensive status. Obesity was more prevalent among the aware hypertensive subjects, and the prevalence of obesity increased with the duration of hypertension. Male gender, younger age, residence in a rural area, low income, and the use of antihypertensive medication were associated with non-adherence to lifestyle recommendations by hypertensive individuals. Many hypertensive Koreans do not comply with lifestyle recommendations for the management of hypertension. The association between the use of antihypertensive medications and non-adherence suggested an over-reliance on medication rather than a commitment to a healthy lifestyle. Our study highlights that efforts encouraging healthy lifestyles, as the first step in hypertension management, need to be increased.

  9. AGAIN ABOUT GENDER BASED VIOLENCE IN ROMANIA LEGISLATIVE MODIFICATIONS PROMULGATED ON MARCH 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MIHAELA VLĂDILĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article continues our last year article, presented in the same conference, on the evolution of the legislation on domestic violence in Spain and in Romania. This new study shall approach only the legislative modifications of the Law No 217/2003 inserted in March 2012 after the shooting at “Perla” Hairdresser in Bucharest, which influenced not only the lives of those involved, but also legislative changes, as an attempt from the Government to offer a better protection for women, who are usually the victims of this type of violence. The present study is dedicated to these new modifications ad their social and legal impact.

  10. Effects of a web-based tailored multiple-lifestyle intervention for adults: a two-year randomized controlled trial comparing sequential and simultaneous delivery modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela N; Kremers, Stef P J; Vandelanotte, Corneel; van Adrichem, Mathieu J G; Schneider, Francine; Candel, Math J J M; de Vries, Hein

    2014-01-27

    Web-based computer-tailored interventions for multiple health behaviors can have a significant public health impact. Yet, few randomized controlled trials have tested this assumption. The objective of this paper was to test the effects of a sequential and simultaneous Web-based tailored intervention on multiple lifestyle behaviors. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 3 tailoring conditions (ie, sequential, simultaneous, and control conditions) in the Netherlands in 2009-2012. Follow-up measurements took place after 12 and 24 months. The intervention content was based on the I-Change model. In a health risk appraisal, all respondents (N=5055) received feedback on their lifestyle behaviors that indicated whether they complied with the Dutch guidelines for physical activity, vegetable consumption, fruit consumption, alcohol intake, and smoking. Participants in the sequential (n=1736) and simultaneous (n=1638) conditions received tailored motivational feedback to change unhealthy behaviors one at a time (sequential) or all at the same time (simultaneous). Mixed model analyses were performed as primary analyses; regression analyses were done as sensitivity analyses. An overall risk score was used as outcome measure, then effects on the 5 individual lifestyle behaviors were assessed and a process evaluation was performed regarding exposure to and appreciation of the intervention. Both tailoring strategies were associated with small self-reported behavioral changes. The sequential condition had the most significant effects compared to the control condition after 12 months (T1, effect size=0.28). After 24 months (T2), the simultaneous condition was most effective (effect size=0.18). All 5 individual lifestyle behaviors changed over time, but few effects differed significantly between the conditions. At both follow-ups, the sequential condition had significant changes in smoking abstinence compared to the simultaneous condition (T1 effect size=0.31; T2 effect

  11. Healthy lifestyles and school life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Circe Sánchez-Rodríguez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Promoting a culture in health not only towards the physical but mental health of the human being is a priority in the training of the professionals of the Preschool Education, evidenced in the diagnosis implemented, that provided the necessary information of the real and desired state in terms of the insufficiencies that present the students of 1st, 2nd and 3rd year of the day course of the Degree in Pre-school Education; in their lifestyles for the formation of coexistence in the university context. It demonstrates the need to develop an educational strategy that contributes to the formation of coexistence based on the promotion of healthy lifestyles, which in the hands of teachers will help to transform the behavioral attitudes of students, which will allow them to interact in a positive way with society and be better people and professionals.

  12. Functional Materials Based on Surface Modification of Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical and Environmental Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mashat, Afnan

    2015-05-01

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), they have gained much interest in many science and engineering fields. The modification of CNTs by introducing different functional groups to their surface is important for CNTs to be tailored to fit the need of specific applications. This dissertation presents several CNT-based systems that can provide biomedical and environmental advantages. In this research, polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used to coat CNTs through hydrogen bonding. The release of doxorubicin (DOX, an anticancer drug) from this system was controlled by temperature. This system represents a promising method for incorporating stimuli triggered polymer-gated CNTs in controlled release applications. To create an acid responsive system CNTs were coated with 1,2-Distearoyl-snglycero- 3-Phosphoethanolamine-N-[Amino(Polyethylene glycol)2000]-(PE-PEG) and Poly(acrylic acid) modified dioleoy lphosphatidyl-ethanolamine (PE-PAA). An acidlabile linker was used to cross-link PAA, forming ALP@CNTs, thus making the system acid sensitive. The release of DOX from ALP@CNTs was found to be higher in an acidic environment. Moreover, near infrared (NIR) light was used to enhance the release of DOX from ALP@CNTs. A CNT-based membrane with controlled diffusion was prepared in the next study. CNTs were used as a component of a cellulose/gel membrane due to their optical property, which allows them to convert NIR light into heat. Poly(Nisopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) was used due to its thermo-sensitivity. The properties of both the CNTs and PNIPAm’s were used to control the diffusion of the cargo from the system, under the influence of NIR. CNTs were also used to fabricate an antibacterial agent, for which they were coated with polydopamine (PDA) and decorated with silver particles (Ag). Galactose (Gal) terminated with thiol groups conjugated with the above system was used to strengthen the bacterial targeting ability. The antibacterial activity of

  13. Maleic anhydride based copolymer dispersions for surface modification of polar substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunbas, I.D.; Wouters, M.E.L.; Hendrix, M.M.R.M.; Benthem, R.A.T.M. van; Koning, C.E.; Noordover, B.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report the modification of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSMA) with monofunctional amine-terminated poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS-NH2) by thermal imidization, followed by the preparation and characterization of a surfactant-free artificial latex thereof and application of

  14. Maleic anhydride based copolymer dispersions for surface modification of polar substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunbas, I.D.; Wouters, M.E.L.; Hendrix, M.M.R.M.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.; Koning, C.E.; Noordover, B.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report the modification of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSMA) with monofunctional amine-terminated poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS–NH2) by thermal imidization, followed by the preparation and characterization of a surfactant-free artificial latex thereof and application of

  15. Listening to Students: Modification of a Reading Program Based on the Sources of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Aydın

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the modifications implemented in a second year foreign language (FL reading program with respect to the problems students experience while reading in FL. This research draws on the sources of FL reading anxiety identified in the first year reading program with a motivation to re-design the second year program to help the students perceive reading positively free from the anxiety. This paper reports on the responses of students to the modifications implemented in the second year reading program. The participants of the study were 50 FL students who were in their second year at a state university in Turkey. All participants had already taken the first year reading course and were enrolled in the second year reading course. It was based on two qualitative research instruments. The first instrument was a semi-structured questionnaire administered to all participants. The second one was a semi-structured interview conducted with half of the participants to obtain more in depth information concerning the modifications that had been introduced. Both instruments revealed that students responded positively to the modifications introduced. The results of the study put forward that obtaining students’ opinions, giving them responsibility and involving them in decision making processes enhance their motivation, confidence and analytical skills while reading in a foreign language.

  16. Effect of self-efficacy on weight loss: a psychosocial analysis of a community-based adaptation of the diabetes prevention program lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Laura M; Finch, Emily A; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G; Ackermann, Ronald T

    2014-11-01

    Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2), ≥ 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110-199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss.

  17. Mental health symptoms in relation to socio-economic conditions and lifestyle factors--a population-based study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molarius, Anu; Berglund, Kenneth; Eriksson, Charli; Eriksson, Hans G; Lindén-Boström, Margareta; Nordström, Eva; Persson, Carina; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Starrin, Bengt; Ydreborg, Berit

    2009-08-20

    Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990 s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18-84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area investigated covers 55 municipalities with about one million inhabitants in central part of Sweden. The study population includes 42,448 respondents. Mental health was measured with self-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression (EQ-5D, 5th question). The association between socio-economic conditions, lifestyle factors and mental health symptoms was investigated using multivariate multinomial logistic regression models. About 40% of women and 30% of men reported that they were moderately or extremely anxious or depressed. Younger subjects reported poorer mental health than older subjects, the best mental health was found at ages 65-74 years. Factors that were strongly and independently related to mental health symptoms were poor social support, experiences of being belittled, employment status (receiving a disability pension and unemployment), economic hardship, critical life events, and functional disability. A strong association was also found between how burdensome domestic work was experienced and anxiety/depression. This was true for both men and women. Educational level was not associated with mental health symptoms. Of lifestyle factors, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol were independently associated with mental health symptoms. Our results support the notion that a ground for good mental health includes balance in social relations, in domestic work and in employment as well as in personal economy both among men and women. In addition, physical inactivity, underweight

  18. Effect of Self-Efficacy on Weight Loss: A Psychosocial Analysis of a Community-Based Adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Emily A.; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G.; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2, ≥ 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110–199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss. PMID:25647049

  19. Impact of a University-Based Program on Obese College Students' Physical Activity Behaviors, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Melinda J.; McMullen, Jennifer; Pflug, Courtney; Westgate, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: More than one third of college students are either overweight or obese, making college campuses an ideal setting to target at risk behaviors while tailoring programs to the evolving lifestyle of college students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a 15-week, campus-based lifestyle modification program on…

  20. A comparison of live counseling with a web-based lifestyle and medication intervention to reduce coronary heart disease risk: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyserling, Thomas C; Sheridan, Stacey L; Draeger, Lindy B; Finkelstein, Eric A; Gizlice, Ziya; Kruger, Eliza; Johnston, Larry F; Sloane, Philip D; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen; Evenson, Kelly R; Gross, Myron D; Donahue, Katrina E; Pignone, Michael P; Vu, Maihan B; Steinbacher, Erika A; Weiner, Bryan J; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-07-01

    Most primary care clinicians lack the skills and resources to offer effective lifestyle and medication (L&M) counseling to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Thus, effective and feasible CHD prevention programs are needed for typical practice settings. To assess the effectiveness, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness of a combined L&M intervention to reduce CHD risk offered in counselor-delivered and web-based formats. A comparative effectiveness trial in 5 diverse family medicine practices in North Carolina. Participants were established patients, aged 35 to 79 years, with no known cardiovascular disease, and at moderate to high risk for CHD (10-year Framingham Risk Score [FRS], ≥10%). Participants were randomized to counselor-delivered or web-based format, each including 4 intensive and 3 maintenance sessions. After randomization, both formats used a web-based decision aid showing potential CHD risk reduction associated with L&M risk-reducing strategies. Participants chose the risk-reducing strategies they wished to follow. The primary outcome was within-group change in FRS at 4-month follow-up. Other measures included standardized assessments of blood pressure, blood lipid levels, lifestyle behaviors, and medication adherence. Acceptability and cost-effectiveness were also assessed. Outcomes were assessed at 4 and 12 months. Of 2274 screened patients, 385 were randomized (192 counselor; 193 web): mean age, 62 years; 24% African American; and mean FRS, 16.9%. Follow-up at 4 and 12 months included 91% and 87% of the randomized participants, respectively. There was a sustained reduction in FRS at both 4 months (primary outcome) and 12 months for both counselor-based (-2.3% [95% CI, -3.0% to -1.6%] and -1.9% [95% CI, -2.8% to -1.1%], respectively) and web-based groups (-1.5% [95% CI, -2.2% to -0.9%] and -1.7% [95% CI, -2.6% to -0.8%] respectively). At 4 months, the adjusted difference in FRS between groups was -1.0% (95% CI, -1.8% to -0.1%) (P = .03

  1. Enhancing phosphate adsorption capacity of SDS-based magnetite by surface modification of citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zhigang; Zhang, Chang; Zheng, Zuhong; Hu, Liang; Li, Xuemei; Yang, Zhongzhu; Ma, Chi; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Citric acid (CA) was used to modify the surface structures of SDS-based magnetite. • Dosage of CA, pH values, ion strength, isotherms and dynamics were analyzed. • High CA dissolved anionic SDS and Fe n+ but increased the stability of magnetite. • 0.05 and 0.1 M CA-modified iron oxide removed about 100% phosphorus. • Precipitation of phosphate and Fe n+ was the main removal mechanism. - Abstract: In this study, citric acid (CA) was employed as a low-molecule organic acid to influence the adsorption performance of phosphorus by as-obtained magnetite. The factors including initial phosphate concentrations, dosage of citric acid, pH value, ion strength, contact time and temperature were examined in detail. Results indicated that the dissolution of anion sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) covering on surface of magnetite, a slight decrease of Fe level and a superior structure of magnetite after CA modification occurred. The pH-dependence of phosphate adsorption was impeded and the surface potential of magnetite positively increased at pH > 5.0 when CA was added. Non-linear regression Langmuir-Freundlich model was fitted well in thermodynamics, and the opposite adsorption process as a function of temperatures with or without CA addition was due to the decrease of active energy and active mobility of phosphate ion. Finally, the declining adsorption efficiency with increasing cycles was observed while phosphate removal was approximately finished and had small change with 0.05 and 0.1 M of CA addition. Those improvements of removal efficiency of phosphorus by modified iron oxide were because of the removal of anionic SDS that increased the surface positive charge, and especially the dissolution of element Fe into solution to form precipitate with phosphorus ions. The enhanced stability of magnetite by CA also promoted the high removal efficiency of phosphorus. These implications of CA on phosphate removal can be extended to the field where phosphate

  2. Enhancing phosphate adsorption capacity of SDS-based magnetite by surface modification of citric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhigang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Chang, E-mail: zhangchang@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zheng, Zuhong [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000, Hubei Province (China); Hu, Liang; Li, Xuemei; Yang, Zhongzhu; Ma, Chi; Zeng, Guangming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Citric acid (CA) was used to modify the surface structures of SDS-based magnetite. • Dosage of CA, pH values, ion strength, isotherms and dynamics were analyzed. • High CA dissolved anionic SDS and Fe{sup n+} but increased the stability of magnetite. • 0.05 and 0.1 M CA-modified iron oxide removed about 100% phosphorus. • Precipitation of phosphate and Fe {sup n+} was the main removal mechanism. - Abstract: In this study, citric acid (CA) was employed as a low-molecule organic acid to influence the adsorption performance of phosphorus by as-obtained magnetite. The factors including initial phosphate concentrations, dosage of citric acid, pH value, ion strength, contact time and temperature were examined in detail. Results indicated that the dissolution of anion sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) covering on surface of magnetite, a slight decrease of Fe level and a superior structure of magnetite after CA modification occurred. The pH-dependence of phosphate adsorption was impeded and the surface potential of magnetite positively increased at pH > 5.0 when CA was added. Non-linear regression Langmuir-Freundlich model was fitted well in thermodynamics, and the opposite adsorption process as a function of temperatures with or without CA addition was due to the decrease of active energy and active mobility of phosphate ion. Finally, the declining adsorption efficiency with increasing cycles was observed while phosphate removal was approximately finished and had small change with 0.05 and 0.1 M of CA addition. Those improvements of removal efficiency of phosphorus by modified iron oxide were because of the removal of anionic SDS that increased the surface positive charge, and especially the dissolution of element Fe into solution to form precipitate with phosphorus ions. The enhanced stability of magnetite by CA also promoted the high removal efficiency of phosphorus. These implications of CA on phosphate removal can be extended to the field where

  3. [Lifestyle interventions at work?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Carel T J

    2013-01-01

    So far many worksite lifestyle or health promotion programmes have shown only moderate evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. However, participation in work is in itself an important determinant of health. For this reason ensuring of fitting work and sustained workability should be an aspect of health policy. Workers' health is not only determined by their working environment but also by health practices and lifestyle factors. Under certain preconditions (e.g. on a voluntary basis, confidentiality, integration with health protection) lifestyle interventions during work time can contribute to a healthier working population. As such programmes may result in financial and social benefits for employers, they should be partly responsible for paying the costs. From a societal perspective, governmental commitment to a preventive policy and the involvement of health and income insurance companies are also required.

  4. Lifestyle Journalism: Blurring boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Unni

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle journalism has experienced enormous growth in the media over the past two decades, but scholars in the fields of journalism and communication studies have so far paid relatively little attention to a field that is still sometimes seen as "not real journalism". There is now an urgent need...... for in-depth exploration and contextualisation of this field, with its increasing relevance for 21st century consumer cultures. For the first time, this book presents a wide range of studies which have engaged with the field of lifestyle journalism in order to outline the various political, economic...... of sub-fields such as travel, music, food, health, fashion and personal technology journalism. This volume provides a fascinating account of the different facets of lifestyle journalism, and charts the way forward for a more sustained analysis of the field. This book was originally published as a special...

  5. A cluster randomised school-based lifestyle intervention programme for the prevention of childhood obesity and related early cardiovascular disease (JuvenTUM 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Bernhard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is not only associated with adult obesity but also with increased risk of adult onset of type 2 diabetes and subsequent coronary heart disease. The potential effects of school-based health intervention programmes on cardiovascular risk and surrogate markers are unclear, as only few studies have attempted to investigate a complete risk profile including a detailed laboratory analysis or micro- and macrovascular function. In this study a comprehensive school-based randomized intervention programme will be investigated in 10-14-year old children addressing the influence of lifestyle intervention on inactivity, cardiometabolic risk factors and early signs of vascular disease. Methods/Design 15 secondary schools in Southern Germany are randomly assigned to intervention or control schools. Children in the fifth grade (10-11 years will be observed over four years. The study combines a school-based with a home-based approach, aiming at children, teachers and parents. The main components are weekly lifestyle-lessons for children, taught by regular classroom teachers to increase physical activity in- and outside of school, to improve eating patterns at school and at home, to reduce media consumption and to amplify well-being. In 4-6 annual meetings, teachers receive information about health-related topics with worksheets for children and supporting equipment, accounting for school-specific needs and strategies. Parents' trainings are provided on a regular basis. All examinations are performed at the beginning and at the end of every school year. Anthropometry includes measurements of BMI, waist and upper arm circumferences, skinfold thickness as well as peripheral blood pressure. Blood sampling includes lipid parameters, insulin, glucose, hsCRP, adiponectin, and IL-6 as well as testosteron and estrogen to determine maturation status. Vascular function is non-invasively assessed by measuring arterial stiffness in large

  6. Eigenvalue based inverse model of beam for structural modification and diagnostics: theoretical formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Majkut

    Full Text Available In the work, the problems of the beam structural modification through coupling the additional mass or elastic support, as well as the problem of diagnostics of the beam cracks, are discussed. The common feature for both problems is that the material parameters in each of the discussed cases change only in one point (additional mass, the support in one point, the crack described by the elastic joint. These systems, after determination of the value of additional element and its localization, should have a given natural vibration frequency. In order to solve the inverse problem, i.e. the problem of finding values of the additional quantities (mass, elasticity, the beam inverse model was proposed. Analysis of this model allows finding such a value of additional mass (elasticity as a function of its localization so that the system has the free vibration frequency, which is desired in the modification problem or measured on the object in the diagnostics.

  7. Modification of transition's factor in the compact surface-potential-based MOSFET model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevkić Tijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modification of an important transition's factor which enables continual behavior of the surface potential in entire useful range of MOSFET operation is presented. The various modifications have been made in order to obtain an accurate and computationally efficient compact MOSFET model. The best results have been achieved by introducing the generalized logistic function (GL in fitting of considered factor. The smoothness and speed of the transition of the surface potential from the depletion to the strong inversion region can be controlled in this way. The results of the explicit model with this GL functional form for transition's factor have been verified extensively with the numerical data. A great agreement was found for a wide range of substrate doping and oxide thickness. Moreover, the proposed approach can be also applied on the case where quantum mechanical effects play important role in inversion mode.

  8. A Systematic Review of Promising Strategies of Faith-Based Cancer Education and Lifestyle Interventions Among Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Su-I; Cao, Xian

    2017-09-13

    Church-based interventions have been used to reach racial/ethnic minorities. In order to develop effective programs, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review of faith-based cancer prevention studies (2005~2016) to examine characteristics and promising strategies. Combination terms "church or faith-based or religion," "intervention or program," and "cancer education or lifestyle" were used in searching the five major databases: CINAHL; ERIC; Health Technology Assessments; MEDLINE; and PsycInfo. A total of 20 studies met study criteria. CDC's Community Guide was used to analyze and review group interventions. Analyses were organized by two racial groups: African American (AA) and Latino/Hispanic American groups. Results showed most studies reviewed focused on breast cancer alone or in combination with other cancers. Studies of Latino/Hispanic groups targeted more on uninsured, Medicare, or Medicaid individuals, whereas AA studies generally did not include specific insurance criteria. The sample sizes of the AA studies were generally larger. The majority of these studies reviewed used pre-post, posttest only with control group, or quasi-experience designs. The Health Belief Model was the most commonly used theory in both groups. Community-based participatory research and empowerment/ecological frameworks were also used frequently in the Latino/Hispanic studies. Small media and group education were the top two most popular intervention strategies in both groups. Although one-on-one strategy was used in some Latino studies, neither group used reducing client out-of-pocket costs strategy. Client reminders could also be used more in both groups as well. Current review showed church-based cancer education programs were effective in changing knowledge, but not always screening utilization. Results show faith-based cancer educational interventions are promising. To maximize intervention impact, future studies might consider using stronger study designs, incorporating a

  9. Mobile phone short message service messaging for behaviour modification in a community-based weight control programme in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Bom-Taeck

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a community-based anti-obesity programme using mobile phone short message service (SMS) messaging. A total of 927 participants were recruited and visited a public health centre for initial assessment. Mobile phones were used to deliver short messages about diet, exercise and behaviour modification once a week. After a 12-week anti-obesity programme they visited the public health centre again. Four hundred and thirty-three subjects (47%) successfully completed their weight control programme. There were mean reductions of weight, waist circumference and body mass index of 1.6 kg (P behaviour modification in weight control and anti-obesity health education programmes when promoted by community health centres.

  10. Prediction of novel families of enzymes involved in oxidative and other complex modifications of bases in nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Tahiliani, Mamta; Rao, Anjana; Aravind, L

    2009-06-01

    Modified bases in nucleic acids present a layer of information that directs biological function over and beyond the coding capacity of the conventional bases. While a large number of modified bases have been identified, many of the enzymes generating them still remain to be discovered. Recently, members of the 2-oxoglutarate- and iron(II)-dependent dioxygenase super-family, which modify diverse substrates from small molecules to biopolymers, were predicted and subsequently confirmed to catalyze oxidative modification of bases in nucleic acids. Of these, two distinct families, namely the AlkB and the kinetoplastid base J binding proteins (JBP) catalyze in situ hydroxylation of bases in nucleic acids. Using sensitive computational analysis of sequences, structures and contextual information from genomic structure and protein domain architectures, we report five distinct families of 2-oxoglutarate- and iron(II)-dependent dioxygenase that we predict to be involved in nucleic acid modifications. Among the DNA-modifying families, we show that the dioxygenase domains of the kinetoplastid base J-binding proteins belong to a larger family that includes the Tet proteins, prototyped by the human oncogene Tet1, and proteins from basidiomycete fungi, chlorophyte algae, heterolobosean amoeboflagellates and bacteriophages. We present evidence that some of these proteins are likely to be involved in oxidative modification of the 5-methyl group of cytosine leading to the formation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. The Tet/JBP homologs from basidiomycete fungi such as Laccaria and Coprinopsis show large lineage-specific expansions and a tight linkage with genes encoding a novel and distinct family of predicted transposases, and a member of the Maelstrom-like HMG family. We propose that these fungal members are part of a mobile transposon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a eukaryotic transposable element that encodes its own DNA-modification enzyme with a

  11. [Lifestyle of elderly patients with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yuki; Yamada, Yuichiro

    2013-11-01

    In elderly people, glucose tolerance is deteriorated and the incidence of diabetes mellitus is increased, due to decreased muscle mass and physical activity, declining pancreatic beta cell function, and other factors. Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for arteriosclerosis development in the elderly. Precise diagnosis and adequate treatment are necessary to prevent cerebrovascular and ischemic heart diseases. Elderly patients with diabetes mellitus are characteristically afflicted with more complications, impaired activities of daily living, cognitive function decline, and family environment problems, as compared with young and middle-aged diabetics. Therefore, tailor-made rather than uniform therapy becomes important. Lifestyle modification is the basis of diabetes treatment. Herein, we describe "prevention and management" of diabetes mellitus, focusing on the lifestyles of elderly diabetics.

  12. Health lifestyles in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerham, William C; Hinote, Brian P; Abbott, Pamela; Haerpfer, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have identified negative health lifestyles as a primary determinant of the mortality crisis in Europe's post-communist states, but little is known about Ukraine. In order to address this gap in the literature, this paper provides data on Ukrainian health lifestyles. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews in the households (N = 2 400) of a random sample of respondents in Ukraine in November, 2001. The sample was selected using multi-stage random sampling with stratification by region and area (urban/rural). Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Male gender was found to be the most powerful single predictor of negative health lifestyles as shown in the results for frequent drinking, heavy vodka use at one occasion, smoking, and diet. Males rated their health status better than females, but over one-third of the males and one-half of the females rated their health status as rather bad or bad. Gender and class differences in health lifestyle practices appear to be key variables, with working-class males showing the most negative practices. The results for health status suggest that the overall level of health in Ukraine is not good.

  13. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most

  14. Nanotechnology and Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    nano & lifestyle, November 2006 12 Bodywarmers etc (Invista, Outlast Technologies, ToastyFeet) • ToastyFeet/Aspen Aerogel : 5% sheets of fiber...submarines and aircraft ) and B/C-warfare agent decontamination (tent materials and tarpaulins). Surfaces Nato lectures, Henne van Heeren, enablingMNT, nano

  15. Youth media lifestyles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kruistum, Claudia; Leseman, Paul Pm; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the concept of "media lifestyles" is adopted in order to develop a comprehensive approach toward youth engagement in communication media. We explore how 503 Dutch eighth grade students with full access to new technology combine a broad range of media by focusing on their engagement

  16. Does a healthy lifestyle behaviour influence the prognosis of low back pain among men and women in a general population? A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Tony; Alfredsson, Lars; Jensen, Irene; Hallqvist, Johan; Vingård, Eva; Skillgate, Eva

    2014-12-30

    To study the influence of healthy lifestyle behaviour on the prognosis of occasional low back pain among men and women in a general population. Cohort study with a 4-year follow-up. General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. The study sample comprised 3938 men and 5056 women aged 18-84 from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort reporting occasional low back pain in the baseline questionnaire 2006. Lifestyle factors and potential confounders were assessed at baseline. The lifestyle factors smoking habits, alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity and consumption of fruit and vegetables were dichotomised using recommendations for a health-enhancing lifestyle and combined to form the exposure variable 'healthy lifestyle behaviour'. The exposure was categorised into five levels according to the number of healthy lifestyle factors met. The follow-up questionnaire in 2010 gave information about the outcome, long duration troublesome low back pain. Crude and adjusted binomial regression models were applied to estimate the association between the exposure and the outcome analysing men and women separately. The risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain decreased with increasing healthy lifestyle behaviour (trend test: p=0.006). 21% (28/131) among women with no healthy lifestyle factor (reference) experienced the outcome compared to 9% (36/420) among women with all four factors. Compared to the reference group, the risk was reduced by 35% (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96) for women with one healthy lifestyle factor and 52% (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77) for women with all four healthy lifestyle factors. There were no clear associations found among men. Healthy lifestyle behaviour seems to decrease the risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain and may be recommended to improve the prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  17. Exploring Consumer and Patient Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitude Toward Medicinal and Lifestyle Products Purchased From the Internet: A Web-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Assi, Sulaf; Thomas, Jordan; Haffar, Mohamed; Osselton, David

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, lifestyle products have emerged to help improve people's physical and mental performance. The Internet plays a major role in the spread of these products. However, the literature has reported issues regarding the authenticity of medicines purchased from the Internet and the impact of counterfeit medicines on public health. Little or no data are available on the authenticity of lifestyle products and actual toxicity associated with their use and misuse. OBJECTIVE: ...

  18. Healthy Children, Strong Families 2: A randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for American Indian families designed using community-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Parker, Tassy; Kim, Kyungmann; Grant, Vernon M; Sheche, Judith N; Adams, Alexandra K

    2017-04-01

    Background/Aims Few obesity prevention trials have focused on young children and their families in the home environment, particularly in underserved communities. Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for American Indian children and their families, a group at very high risk of obesity. The study design resulted from our long-standing engagement with American Indian communities, and few collaborations of this type resulting in the development and implementation of a randomized clinical trial have been described. Methods Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a lifestyle intervention targeting increased fruit and vegetable intake, decreased sugar intake, increased physical activity, decreased TV/screen time, and two less-studied risk factors: stress and sleep. Families with young children from five American Indian communities nationwide were randomly assigned to a healthy lifestyle intervention ( Wellness Journey) augmented with social support (Facebook and text messaging) or a child safety control group ( Safety Journey) for 1 year. After Year 1, families in the Safety Journey receive the Wellness Journey, and families in the Wellness Journey start the Safety Journey with continued wellness-focused social support based on communities' request that all families receive the intervention. Primary (adult body mass index and child body mass index z-score) and secondary (health behaviors) outcomes are assessed after Year 1 with additional analyses planned after Year 2. Results To date, 450 adult/child dyads have been enrolled (100% target enrollment). Statistical analyses await trial completion in 2017. Lessons learned Conducting a community-partnered randomized controlled trial requires significant formative work, relationship building, and ongoing flexibility. At the communities' request, the study involved minimal exclusion criteria, focused on wellness rather than obesity, and included an active

  19. Exercise And Other Lifestyle Habits Of Patients With Type Ii Diabetes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Lifestyle modification including exercise is important in the management of this ... Barriers to exercise found include lack of time, pain/swelling in the ..... prevention and the American college of sports .... smoking in youth with type 1 or type 2.

  20. Influence of lifestyle factors on mammographic density in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Brand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT, little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. METHODS: We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI and HRT was studied. RESULTS: Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07. This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06: increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01 but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82. A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04. No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk.

  1. Nutritional Lifestyles of College Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmon, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    ...., second only to smoking. The purpose of this study is to explore the nutritional lifestyle of college women, and to determine if there are differences in nutritional lifestyle, as well as, perception of health status...

  2. BOUNCE: A community-based mother–daughter healthy lifestyle intervention for low-income Latino families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a family-based exploratory community study titled BOUNCE (Behavior Opportunities Uniting Nutrition, Counseling, and Exercise), to increase physical fitness and activity in low-income Latino mothers and daughters. The BOUNCE study consis...

  3. Double-Layer Surface Modification of Polyamide Denture Base Material by Functionalized Sol-Gel Based Silica for Adhesion Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezeqoran, Ali; Koodaryan, Roodabeh

    2017-09-21

    Limited surface treatments have been proposed to improve the bond strength between autopolymerizing resin and polyamide denture base materials. Still, the bond strength of autopolymerizing resins to nylon polymer is not strong enough to repair the fractured denture effectively. This study aimed to introduce a novel method to improve the adhesion of autopolymerizing resin to polyamide polymer by a double layer deposition of sol-gel silica and N-2-(aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AE-APTMS). The silica sol was synthesized by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as silica precursors. Polyamide specimens were dipped in TEOS-derived sol (TS group, n = 28), and exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light under O 2 flow for 30 minutes. UV-treated specimens were immersed in AE-APTMS solution and left for 24 hours at room temperature. The other specimens were either immersed in AE-APTMS solution (AP group, n = 28) or left untreated (NT group, n = 28). Surface characterization was investigated by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Two autopolymerizing resins (subgroups G and T, n = 14) were bonded to the specimens, thermocycled, and then tested for shear bond strength with a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD (α = 0.05). FTIR spectra of treated surfaces confirmed the chemical modification and appearance of functional groups on the polymer. One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in shear bond strength among the study groups. Tukey's HSD showed that TS T and TS G groups had significantly higher shear bond strength than control groups (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Moreover, bond strength values of AP T were statistically significant compared to controls (p = 0.017). Amino functionalized TEOS-derived silica coating is a simple and cost-effective method for improving the bond strength between the autopolymerizing resin and polyamide

  4. A Diazonium Salt-Based Ionic Liquid for Solvent-FreeModification of Carbon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chengdu [ORNL; Huang, Jing-Fang [ORNL; Li, Zuojiang [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    A novel ionic liquid that consists of p-butylbenzenediazonium ions and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amidates (Tf{sub 2}N{sup -}) has been synthesized as a task-specific ionic liquid for the solvent-free modification of carbon materials. The use of anions Tf{sub 2}N{sup =} is the key to rendering the hydrophobicity, low liquidus temperature, and ionicity to this novel molten salt. This diazonium salt has a melting point of 7.2 C and a moderate electric conductivity of 527 {micro} s/cm at 25 C. The thermal stability of this diazonium ionic liquid has been investigated by high-resolution thermogravimetric analysis (HRTGA). The compound is stable up to about 90 C in nitrogen, which is only 10 C less than its solid tetrafluoroborate counterpart. The modification of carbon materials has been carried out through both thermal and electrochemical activations of diazonium ions to generate free radical intermediates without the use of any solvent. The surface-coverage loadings of 3.38 {micro} mol/m{sup 2} and 6.07 {micro} mol/m{sup 2} for covalently attached organic functionalities have been achieved by the thermally induced functionalization and electrochemically assisted reaction, respectively.

  5. Alkali Metal Modification of Silica Gel-Based Stationary Phase in Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Yehia El-Naggar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of the precipitated silica gel was done by treatment with alkali metal (NaCl before and after calcination. The silica surfaces before and after modification were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy in order to observe the strength and abundance of the acidic surface OH group bands which play an important role in the adsorption properties of polar and nonpolar solutes. The surface-modified silica gels were tested as GC solid stationary phases in terms of the separation efficiency for various groups of non-polar and polar solutes. Also, thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔG, and ΔS were determined using n-hexane as a probe in order to show the adsorbate-adsorbent interaction. It was observed that the non-polar solutes could be separated Independent on the reactivity and porosity of the silica surfaces. The efficiency of the surface-modified silica gels to separate the aromatic hydrocarbons seemed to be strongly influenced by the density of the surface hydroxyls.

  6. Self-Tuning Control Scheme Based on the Robustness σ-Modification Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabiha Touijer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the self-tuning control problem of linear systems described by autoregressive exogenous (ARX mathematical models in the presence of unmodelled dynamics. An explicit scheme of control is described, which we use a recursive algorithm on the basis of the robustness σ-modification approach to estimate the parameters of the system, to solve the problem of regulation tracking of the system. This approach was designed with the assumptions that the norm of the vector of the parameters is well-known. A new quadratic criterion is proposed to develop a modified recursive least squares (M-RLS algorithm with σ-modification. The stability condition of the proposed estimation scheme is proved using the concepts of the small gain theorem. The effectiveness and reliability of the proposed M-RLS algorithm are shown by an illustrative simulation example. The effectiveness of the described explicit self-tuning control scheme is demonstrated by simulation results of the cruise control system for a vehicle.

  7. Surface modification of calcined kaolin with toluene diisocyanate based on high energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yongbing; Chen, Hongling; Lin, Jinbin; Ji, Yan

    2013-01-01

    The surface of calcined kaolin particle was modified with toluene diisocyanate (TDI) by using high energy ball milling. The prepared hybrids were characterized by FT-IR, MAS NMR, thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), static water contact angle (CA), apparent viscosity and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FT-IR and MAS NMR spectra demonstrated that TDI molecules were chemically anchored to kaolin surface after modification. The results of thermal analysis showed that the maximum grafting ratio reached up to 446.61% when the mass ratio of TDI/kaolin was 0.5:1.0, and CA measurements revealed that the resultant hybrids exhibited strong hydrophobicity (148.82°). Apparent viscosity and TEM were employed to examine the dispersion properties of blank and modified kaolin particles in poly (dimenthylsiloxane) matrix. The results illustrated that the dispersion stability depended strongly on the grafting ratio of TDI, neither too low nor too high achieved uniform and stable dispersion, and the favorable grafting ratio was obtained when the mass ratio of TDI/kaolin was 0.2:1.0. Further modification of TDI/kaolin (mass ration of TDI/kaolin, 1.0:1.0) particles with bis(aminopropyl)-terminated-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (APS) was also investigated. TEM evidenced that the dispersion properties of the obtained TDI/APS/kaolin particles were remarkably improved in octamethyl cyclotetrasiloxane compared with the original TDI/kaolin particles.

  8. Surface modification of calcined kaolin with toluene diisocyanate based on high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yongbing; Chen, Hongling, E-mail: hlchen@njut.edu.cn; Lin, Jinbin; Ji, Yan

    2013-11-01

    The surface of calcined kaolin particle was modified with toluene diisocyanate (TDI) by using high energy ball milling. The prepared hybrids were characterized by FT-IR, MAS NMR, thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), static water contact angle (CA), apparent viscosity and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FT-IR and MAS NMR spectra demonstrated that TDI molecules were chemically anchored to kaolin surface after modification. The results of thermal analysis showed that the maximum grafting ratio reached up to 446.61% when the mass ratio of TDI/kaolin was 0.5:1.0, and CA measurements revealed that the resultant hybrids exhibited strong hydrophobicity (148.82°). Apparent viscosity and TEM were employed to examine the dispersion properties of blank and modified kaolin particles in poly (dimenthylsiloxane) matrix. The results illustrated that the dispersion stability depended strongly on the grafting ratio of TDI, neither too low nor too high achieved uniform and stable dispersion, and the favorable grafting ratio was obtained when the mass ratio of TDI/kaolin was 0.2:1.0. Further modification of TDI/kaolin (mass ration of TDI/kaolin, 1.0:1.0) particles with bis(aminopropyl)-terminated-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (APS) was also investigated. TEM evidenced that the dispersion properties of the obtained TDI/APS/kaolin particles were remarkably improved in octamethyl cyclotetrasiloxane compared with the original TDI/kaolin particles.

  9. Application of a Lifestyle-Based Tool to Estimate Premature Cardiovascular Disease Events in Young Adults: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Ning, Hongyan; Gillman, Matthew W; Shay, Christina; Allen, Norrina; Goff, David C; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Chiuve, Stephanie

    2017-09-01

    Few tools exist for assessing the risk for early atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events in young adults. To assess the performance of the Healthy Heart Score (HHS), a lifestyle-based tool that estimates ASCVD events in older adults, for ASCVD events occurring before 55 years of age. This prospective cohort study included 4893 US adults aged 18 to 30 years from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants underwent measurement of lifestyle factors from March 25, 1985, through June 7, 1986, and were followed up for a median of 27.1 years (interquartile range, 26.9-27.2 years). Data for this study were analyzed from February 24 through December 12, 2016. The HHS includes age, smoking status, body mass index, alcohol intake, exercise, and a diet score composed of self-reported daily intake of cereal fiber, fruits and/or vegetables, nuts, sugar-sweetened beverages, and red and/or processed meats. The HHS in the CARDIA study was calculated using sex-specific equations produced by its derivation cohorts. The ability of the HHS to assess the 25-year risk for ASCVD (death from coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and fatal or nonfatal ischemic stroke) in the total sample, in race- and sex-specific subgroups, and in those with and without clinical ASCVD risk factors at baseline. Model discrimination was assessed with the Harrell C statistic; model calibration, with Greenwood-Nam-D'Agostino statistics. The study population of 4893 participants included 2205 men (45.1%) and 2688 women (54.9%) with a mean (SD) age at baseline of 24.8 (3.6) years; 2483 (50.7%) were black; and 427 (8.7%) had at least 1 clinical ASCVD risk factor (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes types 1 and 2). Among these participants, 64 premature ASCVD events occurred in women and 99 in men. The HHS showed moderate discrimination for ASCVD risk assessment in this diverse population of mostly healthy young adults (C statistic, 0

  10. Lifestyle behaviors, obesity, and perceived health among men with and without a diagnosis of prostate cancer: A population-based, cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markwell Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of how prostate cancer survivors differ from men without prostate cancer and whether these potential differences vary across demographic subgroups will help to focus and prioritize future public health interventions for improving the health and well-being of prostate cancer survivors. Therefore, our study aims were to compare lifestyle behaviors, body mass index (BMI, and perceived health in men with and without a diagnosis of prostate cancer in a national, population-based sample and to explore whether these comparisons differ for demographic subgroups. Methods In a cross-sectional study, men aged ≥ 40 were identified from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS 2002 data (n = 63,662. Respondents reporting history of prostate cancer (n = 2,524 were compared with non prostate cancer controls (n = 61,138 with regard to daily fruit and vegetable servings (FVPD, smoking, alcohol, sedentary behavior, BMI, and perceived health. Multivariable logistic regression calculated adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the entire sample and for age, race, education, and urbanicity subgroups. Results Men with prostate cancer did not differ from men without prostate cancer with regard to smoking, alcohol, sedentary behavior, and obesity but were more likely to consume ≥ 5 FVPD (OR, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.09–1.56 and report poor or fair health (OR, 95% CI: 1.62, 1.33–1.97. Subgroup analyses demonstrated attenuation of the higher likelihood of ≥ 5 FVPD among prostate cancer survivors in rural respondents (OR, 95% CI: 0.98, 0.72–1.33. Poorer perceived health was greatest if ≤ 65 years of age (OR, 95% CI: 2.54, 1.79–3.60 and nonsignificant if black (OR, 95% CI: 1.41, 0.70–2.82. Smoking and alcohol which were not significant for the sample as a whole, demonstrated significant associations in certain subgroups. Conclusion Although efforts to enhance perceived health and healthy

  11. A 4-week, lifestyle-integrated, home-based exercise training programme elicits improvements in physical function and lean mass in older men and women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegielski, Jessica; Brook, Matthew S; Quinlan, Jonathan I; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J; Phillips, Bethan E

    2017-01-01

    Developing alternative exercise programmes that can alleviate certain barriers to exercise such as psychological, environmental or socio-economical barriers, but provide similar physiological benefits e.g. increases in muscle mass and strength, is of grave importance. This pilot study aimed to assess the efficacy of an unsupervised, 4-week, whole-body home-based exercise training (HBET) programme, incorporated into daily living activities, on skeletal muscle mass, power and strength. Twelve healthy older volunteers (63±3 years, 7 men: 5 women, BMI: 29±1 kg/m²) carried out the 4-week "lifestyle-integrated" HBET of 8 exercises, 3x12 repetitions each, every day. Before and after HBET, a number of physical function tests were carried out: unilateral leg extension 1-RM (one- repetition maximum), MVC (maximal voluntary contraction) leg extension, lower leg muscle power (via Nottingham Power Rig), handgrip strength and SPPBT (short physical performance battery test). A D 3 -Creatine method was used for assessment of whole-body skeletal muscle mass, and ultrasound was used to measure the quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle thickness. Four weeks HBET elicited significant (p<0.05) improvements in leg muscle power (276.7±38.5 vs. 323.4±43.4 W), maximal voluntary contraction (60°: 154.2±18.4 vs. 168.8±15.2 Nm, 90°: 152.1±10.5 vs. 159.1±11.4 Nm) and quadriceps CSA (57.5±5.4 vs. 59.0±5.3 cm 2 ), with a trend for an increase in leg strength (1-RM: 45.7±5.9 vs. 49.6±6.0 kg, P=0.08). This was despite there being no significant differences in whole-body skeletal muscle mass, as assessed via D 3 -Creatine. This study demonstrates that increases in multiple aspects of muscle function can be achieved in older adults with just 4-weeks of "lifestyle-integrated" HBET, with a cost-effective means. This training mode may prove to be a beneficial alternative for maintaining and/or improving muscle mass and function in older adults.

  12. Mental health symptoms in relation to socio-economic conditions and lifestyle factors – a population-based study in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persson Carina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. Methods The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18–84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area investigated covers 55 municipalities with about one million inhabitants in central part of Sweden. The study population includes 42,448 respondents. Mental health was measured with self-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression (EQ-5D, 5th question. The association between socio-economic conditions, lifestyle factors and mental health symptoms was investigated using multivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Results About 40% of women and 30% of men reported that they were moderately or extremely anxious or depressed. Younger subjects reported poorer mental health than older subjects, the best mental health was found at ages 65–74 years. Factors that were strongly and independently related to mental health symptoms were poor social support, experiences of being belittled, employment status (receiving a disability pension and unemployment, economic hardship, critical life events, and functional disability. A strong association was also found between how burdensome domestic work was experienced and anxiety/depression. This was true for both men and women. Educational level was not associated with mental health symptoms. Of lifestyle factors, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol were independently associated with mental health symptoms. Conclusion Our results support the notion that a ground for good mental health includes balance in social relations, in domestic work and in employment as well as in personal economy both

  13. RNomics and Modomics in the halophilic archaea Haloferax volcanii: identification of RNA modification genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decatur Wayne A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naturally occurring RNAs contain numerous enzymatically altered nucleosides. Differences in RNA populations (RNomics and pattern of RNA modifications (Modomics depends on the organism analyzed and are two of the criteria that distinguish the three kingdoms of life. If the genomic sequences of the RNA molecules can be derived from whole genome sequence information, the modification profile cannot and requires or direct sequencing of the RNAs or predictive methods base on the presence or absence of the modifications genes. Results By employing a comparative genomics approach, we predicted almost all of the genes coding for the t+rRNA modification enzymes in the mesophilic moderate halophile Haloferax volcanii. These encode both guide RNAs and enzymes. Some are orthologous to previously identified genes in Archaea, Bacteria or in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but several are original predictions. Conclusion The number of modifications in t+rRNAs in the halophilic archaeon is surprisingly low when compared with other Archaea or Bacteria, particularly the hyperthermophilic organisms. This may result from the specific lifestyle of halophiles that require high intracellular salt concentration for survival. This salt content could allow RNA to maintain its functional structural integrity with fewer modifications. We predict that the few modifications present must be particularly important for decoding, accuracy of translation or are modifications that cannot be functionally replaced by the electrostatic interactions provided by the surrounding salt-ions. This analysis also guides future experimental validation work aiming to complete the understanding of the function of RNA modifications in Archaeal translation.

  14. Effect of a Home-Based Lifestyle Intervention on Breastfeeding Initiation Among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged African American Women with Overweight or Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowitz, Adam K; López, Julia D; Stein, Richard I; Rhoades, Janine S; Schulz, Rosa C; Woolfolk, Candice L; Macones, George A; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Cahill, Alison G

    2018-06-18

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) African American women with overweight or obesity are less likely to breastfeed. To test whether a home-based lifestyle intervention impacts breastfeeding initiation rates in SED African American women with overweight or obesity. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial from October 2012 to March 2016 at a university-based hospital within the LIFE-Moms consortium. SED African American women with overweight or obesity and singleton gestations were randomized by 16 weeks to Parents as Teachers (PAT)-a home-based parenting support and child development educational intervention-or PAT+, PAT with additional content on breastfeeding. Participants completed a breastfeeding survey. Outcomes included breastfeeding initiation and reasons for not initiating or not continuing breastfeeding. One hundred eighteen women were included: 59 in PAT+; 59 in PAT. Breastfeeding initiation rates were similar in each group (78.00% in PAT+; 74.58% in PAT). On a one to four scale, with four denoting "very important," women in PAT+ and PAT were equally likely to rate their beliefs that formula was better than breast milk or breastfeeding would be too inconvenient as the most important reasons to not initiate breastfeeding. On the same scale, women similarly rated their difficulty latching or concern for low milk supply as the most important reasons for breastfeeding cessation. SED African American women with overweight or obesity who received a home-based educational intervention had higher breastfeeding rates than is reported nationally for black women (59%). However, the intervention with more breastfeeding content did not further increase breastfeeding rates or impact reasons for breastfeeding cessation. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT01768793.

  15. The evaluation of a culturally appropriate, community-based lifestyle intervention program for elderly Chinese immigrants with chronic diseases: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifan; Dipierro, Moneika; Chen, Lingjun; Chin, Richard; Fava, Maurizio; Yeung, Albert

    2014-03-01

    The 'Healthy Habits Program' is a 6-month community-based program, which offers exercise facilities, training and weekly health education group to underserved elderly Chinese Americans with chronic medical diseases in their native languages. This pilot study evaluates the acceptability and the health effects of the 'Healthy Habits Program'. Ninety-nine subjects participated in the 'Healthy Habits Program' in 2011. Before and after the program, the participants were assessed in their physical and mental health using various fitness tests as well as measures of disability and psychological functioning. Participants provided overwhelmingly positive feedback on the program, which was associated with significant improvements in physical and mental health including a significant decrease in body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and increase in stamina. The participants reported lower mean scores on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 item Scale (PHQ-9), indicating improved psychological well-being. These promising pilot study results from this lifestyle intervention program for elderly Chinese American immigrants with chronic diseases inform the design of a more definitive trial using a randomized design and larger sample size.

  16. Lifestyle factors and site-specific risk of hip fracture in community dwelling older women – a 13-year prospective population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Määttä Mikko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several risk factors are associated to hip fractures. It seems that different hip fracture types have different etiologies. In this study, we evaluated the lifestyle-related risk factors for cervical and trochanteric hip fractures in older women over a 13-year follow-up period. Methods The study design was a prospective, population-based study consisting of 1681 women (mean age 72 years. Seventy-three percent (n = 1222 participated in the baseline measurements, including medical history, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and nutrition, along with body anthropometrics and functional mobility. Cox regression was used to identify the independent predictors of cervical and trochanteric hip fractures. Results During the follow-up, 49 cervical and 31 trochanteric fractures were recorded. The women with hip fractures were older, taller, and thinner than the women with no fractures (p  Conclusions Impaired functional mobility, physical inactivity, and low body mass may increase the risk for hip fractures with different effects at the cervical and trochanteric levels.

  17. Community-based physical activity as adjunctive smoking cessation treatment: Rationale, design, and baseline data for the Lifestyle Enhancement Program (LEAP randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Vander Weg

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in behavioral and pharmacological treatment for tobacco use and dependence, quit rates remain suboptimal. Increasing physical activity has shown some promise as a strategy for improving cessation outcomes. However, initial efficacy studies focused on intensive, highly structured exercise programs that may not be applicable to the general population of smokers. We describe the rationale and study design and report baseline participant characteristics from the Lifestyle Enhancement Program (LEAP, a two-group, randomized controlled trial. Adult smokers who engaged in low levels of leisure time physical activity were randomly assigned to treatment conditions consisting of an individualized physical activity intervention delivered by health fitness instructors in community-based exercise facilities or an equal contact wellness control. All participants received standard cognitive behavioral smoking cessation counseling combined with nicotine replacement therapy. The primary outcomes are seven-day point prevalence abstinence at seven weeks, six- and 12 months. Secondary outcomes include self-reported physical activity, dietary intake, body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, and nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Participants consist of 392 sedentary smokers (mean [standard deviation] age = 44.6 [10.2] = years; 62% female; 31% African American. Results reported here provide information regarding experiences recruiting smokers willing to change multiple health behaviors including smoking and physical activity.

  18. The role of community centre-based arts, leisure and social activities in promoting adult well-being and healthy lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mat; Kimberlee, Richard; Deave, Toity; Evans, Simon

    2013-05-10

    Developed countries are experiencing high levels of mental and physical illness associated with long term health conditions, unhealthy lifestyles and an ageing population. Given the limited capacity of the formal health care sector to address these public health issues, attention is turning to the role of agencies active in civil society. This paper sought to evaluate the associations between participation in community centre activities, the psycho-social wellbeing and health related behaviours. This was based on an evaluation of the South West Well-being programme involving ten organisations delivering leisure, exercise, cooking, befriending, arts and crafts activities. The evaluation consisted of a before-and-after study with 687 adults. The results showed positive changes in self-reported general health, mental health, personal and social well-being. Positive changes were associated with diet and physical activity. Some activities were different in their outcomes-especially in cases where group activities were combined with one-to-one support. The results suggest that community centre activities of this nature offer benefits that are generically supportive of health behaviour changes. Such initiatives can perform an important role in supporting the health improvement objectives of formal health care services. For commissioners and partner agencies, accessibility and participation are attractive features that are particularly pertinent to the current public health context.

  19. Lifestyle intervention using an internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders for obese Chinese teens: a randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha A Abraham

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasing public health problem affecting young people. The causes of obesity are multi-factorial among Chinese youth including lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. The use of an internet curriculum and cell phone reminders and texting may be an innovative means of increasing follow up and compliance with obese teens. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of using an adapted internet curriculum and existing nutritional program along with cell phone follow up for obese Chinese teens.This was a randomized controlled study involving obese teens receiving care at a paediatric obesity clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Hong Kong. Forty-eight subjects aged 12 to 18 years were randomized into three groups. The control group received usual care visits with a physician in the obesity clinic every three months. The first intervention (IT group received usual care visits every three months plus a 12-week internet-based curriculum with cell phone calls/texts reminders. The second intervention group received usual care visits every three months plus four nutritional counselling sessions.The use of the internet-based curriculum was shown to be feasible as evidenced by the high recruitment rate, internet log-in rate, compliance with completing the curriculum and responses to phone reminders. No significant differences in weight were found between IT, sLMP and control groups.An internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders as a supplement to usual care of obesity is feasible. Further study is required to determine whether an internet plus text intervention can be both an effective and a cost-effective adjunct to changing weight in obese youth.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002624.

  20. Mental health symptoms in relation to socio-economic conditions and lifestyle factors ? a population-based study in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Molarius, Anu; Berglund, Kenneth; Eriksson, Charli; Eriksson, Hans G; Lind?n-Bostr?m, Margareta; Nordstr?m, Eva; Persson, Carina; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Starrin, Bengt; Ydreborg, Berit

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. Methods The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18–84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area ...

  1. Lifestyle factors in U.S. residential electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Orr, Heather; Shui Bin; Bittner, Alvah C.

    2012-01-01

    A multivariate statistical approach to lifestyle analysis of residential electricity consumption is described and illustrated. Factor analysis of selected variables from the 2005 U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) identified five lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral patterns associated with air conditioning, laundry usage, personal computer usage, climate zone of residence, and TV use. These factors were also estimated for 2001 RECS data. Multiple regression analysis using the lifestyle factors yields solutions accounting for approximately 40% of the variance in electricity consumption for both years. By adding the household and market characteristics of income, local electricity price and access to natural gas, variance accounted for is increased to approximately 54%. Income contributed ∼1% unique variance to the models, indicating that lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral patterns better account for consumption differences than income. Geographic segmentation of factor scores shows distinct clusters of consumption and lifestyle factors, particularly in suburban locations. The implications for tailored policy and planning interventions are discussed in relation to lifestyle issues. - Highlights: ► Illustrates lifestyle analysis of residential electricity consumption. ► Lifestyle factors based on social and behavioral decisions and equipment use. ► Regression models using lifestyle factors account for 40% of consumption variance. ► Lifestyle factors are stable over time when applied to other data sets. ► Energy reduction opportunities are identified by segmentation analysis.

  2. A Lifestyle Medicine Clinic in a Community Pharmacy Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Lenz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases continue to be a significant burden to the health care system. Pharmacists have been able to show that drug therapy for patients with chronic diseases can be improved through medication therapy management (MTM services but have yet to become significantly involved in implementing lifestyle modification programs to further control and prevent chronic conditions. A novel and innovative lifestyle medicine program was started by pharmacists in a community pharmacy in 2008 to more comprehensively prevent and manage chronic conditions. The lifestyle medicine program consists of designing seven personalized programs for patients to address physical activity, nutrition, alcohol consumption, weight control, stress management, sleep success, and tobacco cessation (if needed. The lifestyle medicine program complements existing MTM services for patients with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and/or diabetes. This program is innovative because pharmacists have developed and implemented a method to combine lifestyle medicine with MTM services to not only manage chronic conditions, but prevent the progression of those conditions and others. Several innovative tools have also been developed to enhance the effectiveness of a lifestyle medicine program. This manuscript describes the program's pharmacy setting, pharmacy personnel, participants and program details as well as the tools used to integrate a lifestyle medicine program with MTM services. Type: Clinical Experience

  3. Lifestyle and IVF Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Mark D

    2016-12-01

    Whereas much has been written about the prognostic factors associated with outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) such as female age, diagnosis, and ovarian reserve, relatively little attention has been devoted to patient-oriented lifestyles that may influence IVF outcomes. Patients are particularly interested in this topic because many patients wish to partner with their physicians and want to know specific behaviors to improve their chances of IVF success. This brief review is not intended as an exhaustive literature search of all possible lifestyles that may influence assisted reproductive outcome nor is it intended to be a comprehensive review of individual topics. It does give, however, a brief overview of a number of areas in which patient-specific behaviors may influence outcomes in assisted reproduction. Specifically, this review will look at the effects of smoking, alcohol consumption, caffeine, diet, exercise, and exposure to the reproductive toxin bisphenol A on IVF outcomes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Physicians' health habits are associated with lifestyle counseling for hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Olivia Y; Keenan, Nora L; Fang, Jing

    2013-02-01

    The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VII) recommended lifestyle interventions, either with or without pharmacologic treatment, for all patients with high blood pressure. The objective of this study is to determine the association of physicians' personal habits with their attitudes and behaviors regarding JNC VII lifestyle modification guidelines. One thousand primary care physicians completed DocStyles 2010, a voluntary web-based survey designed to provide insight into physician attitudes and behaviors regarding various health issues. The respondents' average age was 45.3 years, and 68% were male. In regards to physician behavior, 4.0% smoked at least once a week, 38.6% ate ≥5 cups of fruits and/or vegetables ≥5 days/week, and 27.4% exercised ≥5 days/week. When asked about specific types of advice offered to their hypertensive patients, physicians reported recommending that their patients eat a healthy diet (92.2%), or cut down on salt (96.1%), or attain or maintain a healthy weight (94.8%), or limit the use of alcohol (75.4%), or be physically active (94.4%). Collectively, 66.5% made all 5 lifestyle modification recommendations. Nonsmoking physicians were more likely to recommend each lifestyle intervention to their hypertensive patients. Those who exercised at least 1 day per week were more likely to recommend limiting alcohol use. The probability of recommending all 5 JNC VII interventions was greater for physicians who were nonsmoking and who exercised at least 1 day a week.

  5. Economics and changing lifestyles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, R H

    1982-01-01

    The management and consumption of energy resources are undergoing radical change. That change is prompting reevaluation of traditional patterns of economic interaction; the roles of public participation in the political process. This article discusses the roots of the energy dilemma, the impact of energy on the decision-making process, social change, and energy policy formulation. The impact of this reevaluation on lifestyles and attitudes toward energy are also discussed. Efforts towards the search for a solution are presented.

  6. Processes of behavior change and weight loss in a theory-based weight loss intervention program: a test of the process model for lifestyle behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona; Stathi, Afroditi; Reddy, Prasuna; Perry, Rachel; Taylor, Gordon; Bennett, Paul; Dunbar, James; Greaves, Colin

    2015-01-16

    Process evaluation is important for improving theories of behavior change and behavioral intervention methods. The present study reports on the process outcomes of a pilot test of the theoretical model (the Process Model for Lifestyle Behavior Change; PMLBC) underpinning an evidence-informed, theory-driven, group-based intervention designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity for people with high cardiovascular risk. 108 people at high risk of diabetes or heart disease were randomized to a group-based weight management intervention targeting diet and physical activity plus usual care, or to usual care. The intervention comprised nine group based sessions designed to promote motivation, social support, self-regulation and understanding of the behavior change process. Weight loss, diet, physical activity and theoretically defined mediators of change were measured pre-intervention, and after four and 12 months. The intervention resulted in significant improvements in fiber intake (M between-group difference = 5.7 g/day, p behavior change, and the predicted mechanisms of change specified in the PMBLC were largely supported. Improvements in self-efficacy and understanding of the behavior change process were associated with engagement in coping planning and self-monitoring activities, and successful dietary change at four and 12 months. While participants reported improvements in motivational and social support variables, there was no effect of these, or of the intervention overall, on physical activity. The data broadly support the theoretical model for supporting some dietary changes, but not for physical activity. Systematic intervention design allowed us to identify where improvements to the intervention may be implemented to promote change in all proposed mediators. More work is needed to explore effective mechanisms within interventions to promote physical activity behavior.

  7. RF plasma based selective modification of hydrophilic regions on super hydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Hwang, Sangyeon; Cho, Dae-Hyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jungwoo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jennifer H., E-mail: j_shin@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Doyoung, E-mail: dybyun@skku.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Simple and amenable reforming method for a substrate with disparate patterns of hydrophilic dots on super-hydrophobic surfaces is proposed. • Wettability characteristics and modification mechanism for the surfaces are conducted and revealed through SEM, AFM, WSI, and SIMS. • Several representative materials for various applications are successfully deposited. - Abstract: Selective modification and regional alterations of the surface property have gained a great deal of attention to many engineers. In this paper, we present a simple, a cost-effective, and amendable reforming method for disparate patterns of hydrophilic regions on super-hydrophobic surfaces. Uniform super-hydrophobic layer (Contact angle; CA > 150°, root mean square (RMS) roughness ∼0.28 nm) can be formed using the atmospheric radio frequency (RF) plasma on top of the selective hydrophilic (CA ∼ 70°, RMS roughness ∼0.34 nm) patterns imprinted by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing technology with polar alcohols (butyl carbitol or ethanol). The wettability of the modified surface was investigated qualitatively utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wavelength scanning interferometer (WSI). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis showed that the alcohol addiction reaction changed the types of radicals on the super-hydrophobic surface. The wettability was found to depend sensitively on chemical radicals on the surface, not on surface morphology (particle size and surface roughness). Furthermore, three different kinds of representative hydrophilic samples (polystyrene nano-particle aqueous solution, Salmonella bacteria medium, and poly(3,4-ethylenediocythiophene) ink) were tested for uniform deposition onto the desired hydrophilic regions. This simple strategy would have broad applications in various research fields that require selective deposition of target materials.

  8. RF plasma based selective modification of hydrophilic regions on super hydrophobic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Hwang, Sangyeon; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Hong, Jungwoo; Shin, Jennifer H.; Byun, Doyoung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple and amenable reforming method for a substrate with disparate patterns of hydrophilic dots on super-hydrophobic surfaces is proposed. • Wettability characteristics and modification mechanism for the surfaces are conducted and revealed through SEM, AFM, WSI, and SIMS. • Several representative materials for various applications are successfully deposited. - Abstract: Selective modification and regional alterations of the surface property have gained a great deal of attention to many engineers. In this paper, we present a simple, a cost-effective, and amendable reforming method for disparate patterns of hydrophilic regions on super-hydrophobic surfaces. Uniform super-hydrophobic layer (Contact angle; CA > 150°, root mean square (RMS) roughness ∼0.28 nm) can be formed using the atmospheric radio frequency (RF) plasma on top of the selective hydrophilic (CA ∼ 70°, RMS roughness ∼0.34 nm) patterns imprinted by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing technology with polar alcohols (butyl carbitol or ethanol). The wettability of the modified surface was investigated qualitatively utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wavelength scanning interferometer (WSI). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis showed that the alcohol addiction reaction changed the types of radicals on the super-hydrophobic surface. The wettability was found to depend sensitively on chemical radicals on the surface, not on surface morphology (particle size and surface roughness). Furthermore, three different kinds of representative hydrophilic samples (polystyrene nano-particle aqueous solution, Salmonella bacteria medium, and poly(3,4-ethylenediocythiophene) ink) were tested for uniform deposition onto the desired hydrophilic regions. This simple strategy would have broad applications in various research fields that require selective deposition of target materials.

  9. Polyribosomes at the base of dendritic spines of central nervous system neurons - their possible role in synapse construction and modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, O.

    1983-01-01

    The selective localization of polyribosomes at the base of dendritic spines in granule cells of the dentate gyrus was studied. These polyribosomes seem optimally situated to produce proteins for the postsynaptic membrane specialization or the spine and to have their synthetic activity regulated by functional activity over the synapse. The present work will summarize observations on the polyribosome clusters that were found to be ubiquitous in spines throughout the vertebrate CNS. Evidence will be presented that suggests a role for the polyribosomes in synapse construction and modification. 42 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Combined impact of lifestyle-related factors on total and cause-specific mortality among Chinese women: prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Nechuta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol drinking, obesity, and several other well-studied unhealthy lifestyle-related factors each have been linked to the risk of multiple chronic diseases and premature death, little is known about the combined impact on mortality outcomes, in particular among Chinese and other non-Western populations. The objective of this study was to quantify the overall impact of lifestyle-related factors beyond that of active cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Chinese women.We used data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study, an ongoing population-based prospective cohort study in China. Participants included 71,243 women aged 40 to 70 years enrolled during 1996-2000 who never smoked or drank alcohol regularly. A healthy lifestyle score was created on the basis of five lifestyle-related factors shown to be independently associated with mortality outcomes (normal weight, lower waist-hip ratio, daily exercise, never exposed to spouse's smoking, higher daily fruit and vegetable intake. The score ranged from zero (least healthy to five (most healthy points. During an average follow-up of 9 years, 2,860 deaths occurred, including 775 from cardiovascular disease (CVD and 1,351 from cancer. Adjusted hazard ratios for mortality decreased progressively with an increasing number of healthy lifestyle factors. Compared to women with a score of zero, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals for women with four to five factors were 0.57 (0.44-0.74 for total mortality, 0.29 (0.16-0.54 for CVD mortality, and 0.76 (0.54-1.06 for cancer mortality. The inverse association between the healthy lifestyle score and mortality was seen consistently regardless of chronic disease status at baseline. The population attributable risks for not having 4-5 healthy lifestyle factors were 33% for total deaths, 59% for CVD deaths, and 19% for cancer deaths.In this first study, to our knowledge, to

  11. Senior's lifestyle and their store choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesakova Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To attract and retain customers, an understanding of their motives and reasons for selecting particular food and grocery store is needed. This is of particular importance in the growing segment of seniors. The size of the senior's market demands a better understanding of the older consumer. The aim of our study is to identify psychographic characteristics of the elderly consumer, and to indicate the lifestyle groups and the relationship between these groups and retail store attributes. Differences in the motives for patronizing specific food stores are analyzed for lifestyle groups. We use the lifestyle as a segmentation variable in the diverse population of seniors for the reason, that the lifestyle of the elderly provides more valuable information than chronological age alone. This information can be used by retailers to improve marketing strategies in order to appeal to a target group of senior shoppers. Empirical research is based on a self-administrated questionnaire aimed on the identification of the lifestyle characteristics and retail store attributes of the consumers in 65+ age, used for the choice of food purchasing retail stores. Lifestyles characteristics were measured by the respondents activities, interests and opinions (AIO. The results of the research indicate that there are differences among the lifestyle groups with significant differences in attitudes towards quality of products or internal store environment. Our research demonstrates the value of psychographic information over age alone regarding the patronage factors in store selection. Our study is a part of the research project VEGA 1/0612/12 'Determinants of the size, structure and tendences in the individual consumption of seniors'.

  12. PhosphOrtholog: a web-based tool for cross-species mapping of orthologous protein post-translational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Rima; Sadrieh, Arash; Hoffman, Nolan J; Parker, Benjamin L; Humphrey, Sean J; Stöckli, Jacqueline; Hill, Adam P; James, David E; Yang, Jean Yee Hwa

    2015-08-19

    Most biological processes are influenced by protein post-translational modifications (PTMs). Identifying novel PTM sites in different organisms, including humans and model organisms, has expedited our understanding of key signal transduction mechanisms. However, with increasing availability of deep, quantitative datasets in diverse species, there is a growing need for tools to facilitate cross-species comparison of PTM data. This is particularly important because functionally important modification sites are more likely to be evolutionarily conserved; yet cross-species comparison of PTMs is difficult since they often lie in structurally disordered protein domains. Current tools that address this can only map known PTMs between species based on known orthologous phosphosites, and do not enable the cross-species mapping of newly identified modification sites. Here, we addressed this by developing a web-based software tool, PhosphOrtholog ( www.phosphortholog.com ) that accurately maps protein modification sites between different species. This facilitates the comparison of datasets derived from multiple species, and should be a valuable tool for the proteomics community. Here we describe PhosphOrtholog, a web-based application for mapping known and novel orthologous PTM sites from experimental data obtained from different species. PhosphOrtholog is the only generic and automated tool that enables cross-species comparison of large-scale PTM datasets without relying on existing PTM databases. This is achieved through pairwise sequence alignment of orthologous protein residues. To demonstrate its utility we apply it to two sets of human and rat muscle phosphoproteomes generated following insulin and exercise stimulation, respectively, and one publicly available mouse phosphoproteome following cellular stress revealing high mapping and coverage efficiency. Although coverage statistics are dataset dependent, PhosphOrtholog increased the number of cross-species mapped sites

  13. Motives for participating in a web-based nutrition cohort according to sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics: the NutriNet-Santé cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjean, Caroline; Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Julia, Chantal; Andreeva, Valentina A; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-08-07

    In traditional epidemiological studies, participants are likely motivated by perceived benefits, feelings of accomplishment, and belonging. No study has explored motives for participation in a Web-based cohort and the associated participant characteristics, although such information is useful for enhancing recruitment and improving cohort retention. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between motives for participation and sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics of participants in the NutriNet-Santé Web-based cohort, designed to identify nutritional risk or protective factors for chronic diseases. The motives for participation were assessed using a specifically developed questionnaire administered approximately 2 years after baseline. A total of 6352 completed the motives questionnaire (43.34%, 6352/15,000 randomly invited cohort participants). We studied the associations between motives (dependent variables) and individual characteristics with multivariate multinomial logistic regression models providing odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. In total, 46.45% (2951/6352) of participants reported that they would not have enrolled if the study had not been conducted on the Internet, whereas 28.75% (1826/6352) were not sure. Men (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04-1.42), individuals aged 26-35 years (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.20-1.91), and obese participants (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.65) were more inclined to be motivated by the Internet aspect. Compared with younger adults and managerial staff, individuals >55 years (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.48-0.45) and employees/manual workers were less likely motivated by the Internet aspect (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.92). Regarding reasons for participation, 61.37% (3898/6352) reported participating to help advance public health research on chronic disease prevention; 22.24% (1413/6352) to help advance nutrition-focused research; 6.89% (438/6352) in response to the call from the media, after being encouraged by a close friend/associate, or

  14. Associations between breakfast eating habits and health-promoting lifestyle, suboptimal health status in Southern China: a population based, cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jieyu; Cheng, Jingru; Liu, Yanyan; Tang, Yang; Sun, Xiaomin; Wang, Tian; Xiao, Ya; Li, Fei; Xiang, Lei; Jiang, Pingping; Wu, Shengwei; Wu, Liuguo; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2014-12-11

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) is the intermediate health state between health and disease, refers to medically undiagnosed or functional somatic syndromes, and has been a major global public health challenge. However, both the etiology and mechanisms associated with SHS are still unclear. Breakfast eating behavior is a dietary pattern marker and previous studies have presented evidence of associations between failure to consume breakfast and increased diseases. Accordingly, in view of the significance of breakfast eating behaviors with respect to health status, the associations between breakfast eating habits and healthy lifestyle, SHS require further elucidation. A cross-sectional survey was conducted within a clustered sample of 24,159 individuals aged 12-80 years in 2012-13 within the population of Southern China. Breakfast eating habits were categorically defined by consumption frequency ('scarcely, sometimes or always'). Health-promoting lifestyle was assessed via the health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP-II). SHS was evaluated using the medical examination report and Sub-health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0). Of the 24,159 participants, the prevalence rates for the 'health' , 'SHS' , and 'disease' were 18.8%, 46.0%, and 35.2%, respectively. Overall, 19.6% of participants reported 'scarce' breakfast eating habits, with frequent breakfast eaters scoring higher on both HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0. After demographic adjustment, regression analyses revealed a significant association between breakfast eating habits and healthy lifestyle (p eating habits are significantly associated with a healthy lifestyle, and appear to be a useful predictor of a healthy lifestyle. Irregular breakfast eating habits are related to an increased risk of SHS; increased breakfast eating frequency may contribute to lowering the prevalence of SHS in Southern China.

  15. Facile modification of gelatin-based microcarriers with multiporous surface and proliferative growth factors delivery to enhance cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Sha [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang Yijuan [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Deng, Tianzheng [Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Jin Fang [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Liu Shouxin [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang Yongjie [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Feng Feng [Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Department of Dermatology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Jin Yan [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)], E-mail: yanjin@fmmu.edu.cn

    2008-07-28

    The design of microcarriers plays an important role in the success of cell expansion. The present article provides a facile approach to modify the gelatin-based particles and investigates the feasibility of their acting as microcarriers for cell attachment and growth. Gelatin particles (150-320 {mu}m) were modified by cryogenic treatment and lyophilization to develop the surface with the features of multiporous morphology and were incorporated with proliferative growth factors (bFGF) by adsorption during the post-preparation, which enables them to serve as microcarriers for cells amplification, together with the advantages of larger cell-surface contact area and capability of promoting cell propagation. The microstructure and release assay of the modified microcarriers demonstrated that the pores on surface were uniform and bFGF was released in a controlled manner. Through in vitro fibroblast culture, these features resulted in a prominent increase in the cell attachment rate and cell growth rate relative to the conditions without modification. Although the scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy analysis results indicated that cells attached, spread, and proliferated on all the microcarriers, cell growth clearly showed a significant correlation with the multiporous structure of microcarriers, in particular on bFGF combined ones. These results validate our previous assumption that the facile modification could improve cell growth on the gelatin-based microcarriers obviously and the novel microcarriers may be a promising candidate in tissue engineering.

  16. Facile modification of nanodiamonds with hyperbranched polymers based on supramolecular chemistry and their potential for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongye; Liu, Meiying; Jiang, Ruming; Chen, Junyu; Mao, Liucheng; Wen, Yuanqing; Tian, Jianwen; Zhou, Naigen; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2018-03-01

    Due to their excellent chemical stability and remarkable biocompatibility, nanodiamonds (NDs) have received widespread research attention by the biomedical field. The excellent water dispersibility of NDs has significant importance for biomedical applications. Therefore, surface modification of NDs with hydrophilic polymers has been extensively investigated over the past few decades. In this study, we synthesize β-CD containing hyperbranched polymer functionalized ND (ND-β-CD-HPG) composites with high water dispersibility via supramolecular chemistry based on the host-guest interactions between β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) and adamantine (Ad). The hydroxyl groups of NDs first reacted with 1, 1-adamantanecarbonyl chloride to obtain ND-Ad, which was further functionalized with β-CD containing hyperbranched polymers to form the final ND-β-CD-HPG composites. The successful preparation of ND-β-CD-HPG composites was confirmed by several characterization techniques. Furthermore, the loading and release of the anticancer agent doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) on ND-β-CD-HPG composites was also examined to explore its potential in drug delivery. When compared with traditional methods of surface modification of NDs, this method was convenient, fast and efficient. We demonstrated that ND-β-CD-HPG composites have great water dispersibility, low toxicity, high drug-loading capacity and controlled drug-release behavior. Based on these characteristics, ND-β-CD-HPG composites are expected to have high potential for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon using microwave radiation and its effects on the adsorption of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Qingsong; Zheng Tong; Li Nan [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Wang Peng, E-mail: pwang73@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Abulikemu, Gulizhaer [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2010-03-01

    Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon was carried out in a microwave oven under N{sub 2} atmosphere. The virgin and modified activated carbons were characterized by means of low temperature N{sub 2} adsorption, acid-base titration, point of zero charge (pH{sub pzc}) measurement, FTIR and XPS spectra. A gradual decrease in the surface acidic groups was observed during the modification, while the surface basicity was enhanced to some extent, which gave rise to an increase in the pH{sub pzc} value. The species of the functional groups and relative content of various elements and groups were given further analysis using FTIR and XPS spectra. An increase in the micropores was found at the start, and the micropores were then extended into larger ones, resulting in an increase in the pore volume and average pore size. Adsorption studies showed enhanced adsorption of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, caused mainly by the enlargement of the micropores. Adsorption isotherm fittings revealed that Langmuir and Freundlich models were applicable for the virgin and modified activated carbons, respectively. Kinetic studies exhibited faster adsorption rate of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, and the pseudo-second-order model fitted well for all of the activated carbons.

  18. Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon using microwave radiation and its effects on the adsorption of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Song; Zheng, Tong; Li, Nan; Wang, Peng; Abulikemu, Gulizhaer

    2010-03-01

    Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon was carried out in a microwave oven under N 2 atmosphere. The virgin and modified activated carbons were characterized by means of low temperature N 2 adsorption, acid-base titration, point of zero charge (pH pzc) measurement, FTIR and XPS spectra. A gradual decrease in the surface acidic groups was observed during the modification, while the surface basicity was enhanced to some extent, which gave rise to an increase in the pH pzc value. The species of the functional groups and relative content of various elements and groups were given further analysis using FTIR and XPS spectra. An increase in the micropores was found at the start, and the micropores were then extended into larger ones, resulting in an increase in the pore volume and average pore size. Adsorption studies showed enhanced adsorption of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, caused mainly by the enlargement of the micropores. Adsorption isotherm fittings revealed that Langmuir and Freundlich models were applicable for the virgin and modified activated carbons, respectively. Kinetic studies exhibited faster adsorption rate of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, and the pseudo-second-order model fitted well for all of the activated carbons.

  19. Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon using microwave radiation and its effects on the adsorption of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingsong; Zheng Tong; Li Nan; Wang Peng; Abulikemu, Gulizhaer

    2010-01-01

    Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon was carried out in a microwave oven under N 2 atmosphere. The virgin and modified activated carbons were characterized by means of low temperature N 2 adsorption, acid-base titration, point of zero charge (pH pzc ) measurement, FTIR and XPS spectra. A gradual decrease in the surface acidic groups was observed during the modification, while the surface basicity was enhanced to some extent, which gave rise to an increase in the pH pzc value. The species of the functional groups and relative content of various elements and groups were given further analysis using FTIR and XPS spectra. An increase in the micropores was found at the start, and the micropores were then extended into larger ones, resulting in an increase in the pore volume and average pore size. Adsorption studies showed enhanced adsorption of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, caused mainly by the enlargement of the micropores. Adsorption isotherm fittings revealed that Langmuir and Freundlich models were applicable for the virgin and modified activated carbons, respectively. Kinetic studies exhibited faster adsorption rate of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, and the pseudo-second-order model fitted well for all of the activated carbons.

  20. Facile modification of gelatin-based microcarriers with multiporous surface and proliferative growth factors delivery to enhance cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Sha; Wang Yijuan; Deng, Tianzheng; Jin Fang; Liu Shouxin; Zhang Yongjie; Feng Feng; Jin Yan

    2008-01-01

    The design of microcarriers plays an important role in the success of cell expansion. The present article provides a facile approach to modify the gelatin-based particles and investigates the feasibility of their acting as microcarriers for cell attachment and growth. Gelatin particles (150-320 μm) were modified by cryogenic treatment and lyophilization to develop the surface with the features of multiporous morphology and were incorporated with proliferative growth factors (bFGF) by adsorption during the post-preparation, which enables them to serve as microcarriers for cells amplification, together with the advantages of larger cell-surface contact area and capability of promoting cell propagation. The microstructure and release assay of the modified microcarriers demonstrated that the pores on surface were uniform and bFGF was released in a controlled manner. Through in vitro fibroblast culture, these features resulted in a prominent increase in the cell attachment rate and cell growth rate relative to the conditions without modification. Although the scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy analysis results indicated that cells attached, spread, and proliferated on all the microcarriers, cell growth clearly showed a significant correlation with the multiporous structure of microcarriers, in particular on bFGF combined ones. These results validate our previous assumption that the facile modification could improve cell growth on the gelatin-based microcarriers obviously and the novel microcarriers may be a promising candidate in tissue engineering

  1. Internet-based cognitive bias modification for obsessive compulsive disorder : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Alishia D; Pajak, Rosanna; O'Moore, Kathleen; Andrews, Gavin; Grisham, Jessica R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive bias modification (CBM) interventions have demonstrated efficacy in augmenting core biases implicated in psychopathology. The current randomized controlled trial (RCT) will evaluate the efficacy of an internet-delivered positive imagery cognitive bias modification intervention

  2. Progress in the electrochemical modification of graphene-based materials and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, M.H.; Low, C.T.J.; Brandon, N.P.; Yufit, V.; Hashim, M.A.; Irfan, M.F.; Akhtar, J.; Ruiz-Trejo, E.; Hussain, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Six means of functionalizing graphene electrochemically is reviewed. • Electrochemical functionalization is relatively new to other standard methods. • The technique is expected to improve graphene's application range considerably. -- Abstract: Graphene is a 2D allotrope of carbon with exciting properties such as extremely high electronic conductivity and superior mechanical strength. It has considerable potential for applications in fields such as bio-sensors, electrochemical energy storage and electronics. In most cases, graphene has been functionalized and modified with other materials to prepare composites. This work reviews the electrochemical modification of graphene. Commencing with a brief history, a summary of several different means of modifying graphene to effect diverse applications is provided. This is followed by a discussion on different composite materials that have been prepared with reduced graphene oxide prior to moving onto a detailed consideration of six different methods of electrochemically modifying graphene to prepare composite materials. These methods involve cathodic reduction of graphene oxide, electrophoretic deposition, electro-deposition techniques, electrospinning, electrochemical doping and electrochemical polymerization. Finally a consideration on the applications of electrochemically modified graphene composite materials in various fields is presented prior to discussing some prospects in enhancing the electrochemical process to realize excellent and economic composite materials in bulk

  3. Fabrication and surface properties of hydrophobic barium sulfate aggregates based on sodium cocoate modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Linna; Wang, Guangxiu; Cao, Rong; Yang, Chun; Chen, Xi

    2014-10-01

    Hydrophobic barium sulfate aggregates were fabricated by the direction of cocoate anions. At 30 °C, when the weight ratio of sodium cocoate to BaSO4 particles was 2.0 wt.%, the active ratio of the product reached 99.43% and the contact angle was greater than 120°. This method could not only simplify the complex modification process, but reduce energy consumption. The surface morphology, chemical structure and composition of BaSO4 aggregates were characterized by SEM, XRD, and FTIR. The results indicated that the as-synthesized BaSO4 particles were almond-liked and were composed of many interconnected nanoballs and that their surfaces were affected by cocoate anions. The adsorption of cocoate anions reversed the charge and weakened the surface polarity of BaSO4 particles, driving the formation of aggregates. And cocoate anions induced a change of the BaSO4 particles surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic by a self-assembly and transformation process. Due to the self-assembled structure and the surface hydrophobicity, when adding the hydrophobic BaSO4 into PVC, the mechanical properties of PVC composite materials were significantly improved.

  4. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being.

  5. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-01-16

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it-a gap filled by the present study. The study's web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies) showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being.

  6. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies) showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being. PMID:26784216

  7. Determination of the level of DNA modification with cisplatin by catalytic hydrogen evolution at mercury-based electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horáková, Petra; Tesnohlídková, Lucie; Havran, Ludek; Vidláková, Pavlína; Pivonková, Hana; Fojta, Miroslav

    2010-04-01

    Electrochemical methods proved useful as simple and inexpensive tools for the analysis of natural as well as chemically modified nucleic acids. In particular, covalently attached metal-containing groups usually render the DNA well-pronounced electrochemical activity related to redox processes of the metal moieties, which can in some cases be coupled to catalytic hydrogen evolution at mercury or some types of amalgam electrodes. In this paper we used voltammetry at the mercury-based electrodes for the monitoring of DNA modification with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin), a representative of metallodrugs used in the treatment of various types of cancer or being developed for such purpose. In cyclic voltammetry at the mercury electrode, the cisplatin-modified DNA yielded catalytic currents the intensity of which reflected DNA modification extent. In square-wave voltammetry, during anodic polarization after prereduction of the cisplatinated DNA, a well-developed, symmetrical signal (peak P) was obtained. Intensity of the peak P linearly responded to the extent of DNA modification at levels relevant for biochemical studies (rb = 0.01-0.10, where rb is the number of platinum atoms bound per DNA nucleotide). We demonstrate a correlation between the peak P intensity and a loss of sequence-specific DNA binding by tumor suppressor protein p53, as well as blockage of DNA digestion by a restriction endonuclease Msp I (both caused by the DNA cisplatination). Application of the electrochemical technique in studies of DNA reactivity with various anticancer platinum compounds, as well as for an easy determination of the extent of DNA platination in studies of its biochemical effects, is discussed.

  8. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing, E-mail: shisq@nwu.edu.cn; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Biomimetic surface modification of PP was successfully conducted by integrating mussel-inspired technology, thiol chemistry and cell outer membranes-like structures. • The resultant biomimetic surface exhibits good interface and surface stability. • The obvious suppression of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is also achieved. • The residue thoil groups on the surface could be further functionalized. - Abstract: Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH{sub 2}) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such

  9. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomimetic surface modification of PP was successfully conducted by integrating mussel-inspired technology, thiol chemistry and cell outer membranes-like structures. • The resultant biomimetic surface exhibits good interface and surface stability. • The obvious suppression of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is also achieved. • The residue thoil groups on the surface could be further functionalized. - Abstract: Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH 2 ) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such

  10. Perception and practice of lifestyle modification in the management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-07-26

    Jul 26, 2014 ... 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Family Medicine, Federal Medical Center. Umuahia, Abia State ... pressure control among the studied cohort is poor. Concerted ... Hypertension is the largest risk factor for.

  11. Lifestyle factors and site-specific risk of hip fracture in community dwelling older women – a 13-year prospective population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated to hip fractures. It seems that different hip fracture types have different etiologies. In this study, we evaluated the lifestyle-related risk factors for cervical and trochanteric hip fractures in older women over a 13-year follow-up period. Methods The study design was a prospective, population-based study consisting of 1681 women (mean age 72 years). Seventy-three percent (n = 1222) participated in the baseline measurements, including medical history, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and nutrition, along with body anthropometrics and functional mobility. Cox regression was used to identify the independent predictors of cervical and trochanteric hip fractures. Results During the follow-up, 49 cervical and 31 trochanteric fractures were recorded. The women with hip fractures were older, taller, and thinner than the women with no fractures (p trochanteric fractures (HR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.8-6.6, and HR = 5.3, 95% CI 2.5-11.4, respectively). Low baseline physical activity was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture, especially in the cervical region (HR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.9). A decrease in cervical fracture risk (p = 0.002) was observed with physically active individuals compared to their less active peers (categories: very low or low, moderate, and high). Moderate coffee consumption and hypertension decreased the risk of cervical fractures (HR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8, for both), while smoking was a predisposing factor for trochanteric fractures (HR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.1-9.3). Conclusions Impaired functional mobility, physical inactivity, and low body mass may increase the risk for hip fractures with different effects at the cervical and trochanteric levels. PMID:22978821

  12. Community-based obesity prevention in Australia: Background, methods and recruitment outcomes for the evaluation of the effectiveness of OPAL (Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Leslie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL intervention program targets families and communities to improve children’s eating and physical activity patterns. We outline the quantitative evaluation design and recruitment results for baseline data collection. Methods: A longitudinal quasi-experimental design, with baseline data collection and five-year follow-up. Participants targeted are children, parents, and school principals/directors from primary, secondary/R-12 schools, pre-schools, childcare and out-of-school-hours-care (OSHC centers in 20 selected communities across South Australia (SA, and one in the Northern Territory (NT. A total of 277 (262 SA, 15 NT schools participated; 4860 9-11 year olds and 1164 12-16 year olds completed a questionnaire. Anthropometric measures were taken from 5531 students; 6552 parents, 276 pre/school/childcare directors, 139 OSHC directors and 237 principals completed questionnaires. Data include measurements of child participants’ weight/height/waist circumference; paper-based/online surveys of informants in early childhood, primary/secondary school and community settings; and secondary growth check data for 4-5 year old children. Serial cross-sectional analyses will compare intervention to matched comparison communities. Results: Overall school response rate was 50%. Student response rates were 20-22% and 11-13% (questionnaires and measurements respectively; 14-21% of parents, 49-55% of directors, and 26-44% of principals completed and returned questionnaires. Changes to child weight status; eating practices; sleep, physical activity/sedentary behaviors; physical environments; community capacity; and economic evaluation (Quality Adjusted Life year gain will examine program effectiveness. Conclusions: As the most significant program of its kind in Australia, OPAL will contribute to obesity prevention efforts on an international scale.

  13. Evidence based herbal drug standardization approach in coping with challenges of holistic management of diabetes: a dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Raman; Thakur, Pallavi; Chowdhry, Ayush; Jaiswal, Sarita; Sharma, Anamika; Goel, Rajeev; Sharma, Jyoti; Priyadarshi, Smruti Sagar; Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Arora, Rajesh

    2013-07-04

    Plants by virtue of its composition of containing multiple constituents developed during its growth under various environmental stresses providing a plethora of chemical families with medicinal utility. Researchers are exploring this wealth and trying to decode its utility for enhancing health standards of human beings. Diabetes is dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century caused due to lack of insulin production or insulin physiological unresponsiveness. The chronic impact of untreated diabetes significantly affects vital organs. The allopathic medicines have five classes of drugs, or otherwise insulin in Type I diabetes, targeting insulin secretion, decreasing effect of glucagon, sensitization of receptors for enhanced glucose uptake etc. In addition, diet management, increased food fiber intake, Resistant Starch intake and routine exercise aid in managing such dangerous metabolic disorder. One of the key factors that limit commercial utility of herbal drugs is standardization. Standardization poses numerous challenges related to marker identification, active principle(s), lack of defined regulations, non-availability of universally acceptable technical standards for testing and implementation of quality control/safety standard (toxicological testing). The present study proposed an integrated herbal drug development & standardization model which is an amalgamation of Classical Approach of Ayurvedic Therapeutics, Reverse Pharmacological Approach based on Observational Therapeutics, Technical Standards for complete product cycle, Chemi-informatics, Herbal Qualitative Structure Activity Relationship and Pharmacophore modeling and, Post-Launch Market Analysis. Further studies are warranted to ensure that an effective herbal drug standardization methodology will be developed, backed by a regulatory standard guide the future research endeavors in more focused manner.

  14. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Teris Cheung; Paul S.F. Yip

    2016-01-01

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it?a gap filled by the present study. The study?s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to mea...

  15. 75 FR 30689 - Modification of Class C Airspace; Beale Air Force Base, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Base, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies the legal description of the Beale Air Force Base (AFB), CA, Class C airspace area by allowing the...

  16. In vitro base modification of Escherichia coli glutamate 2 transfer-RNA and phenylalanine transfer-RNA gene transcripts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahan, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    Plasmids were constructed that contain an E. Coli tRNA 2 Glu or tRNA Phe gene in a system transcribable by T7 or SP6 RNA polymerase. Selectively 32 P-labeled transcripts of these plasmids were used to study tRNA base modification in vitro in crude extracts by nearest neighbor analysis. The synthesis of 5-methyl-aminomethyl-2-thiouridine (mnm 5 s 2 U) was studied. Complete synthesis of mnm 5 s 2 2U is not observed. Instead, 2-thiouridine (s 2 U) is synthesized. Synthesis requires ATP, cysteine, Mg + , and monovalent cation concentrations below 50 mM. The reaction has a pH optimum above 7.0. Sulfide ion will substitute for cysteine in the reaction but sulfate, sulfite, methionine, homocysteine, and β-mercaptopyruvate will not. Extracts from E. coli strains carrying either the asuE or asuF mutations have reduced s 2 U synthetic activity which supports in vivo evidence that the wild type genes are involved in 2-thiolation of uridine. The enzyme is shown to be unstable both upon storage at -80 degree C and during the modification reaction. A method was developed to study the synthesis of any one of four pseudouridines ψ found at different positions of the tRNA cloverleaf. Synthesis of ψ is observed at three of the four positions-positions 32, 39, and 55. The asuC mutation is shown to affect ψ synthesis only at position 39 confirming that it is an allele of hisT and that the hisT mutations do not affect ψ synthesis at position 32 in E. coli. Synthesis of ψ32, ψ39, and ψ55 does not require any prior modification. Synthesis of dihydrouridine, 7-methylguanosine, and 3(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)uridine is also observed. Synthesis of 2-methyladenosine and ψ 13 is not seen. Removal of part of the aminoacyl stem reduces synthesis of all modifications examined by 3' fold or more

  17. Social Relationships in Religious Institutions and Healthy Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Shaw, Benjamin; Liang, Jersey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if encouragement from fellow church members helps older people develop and maintain healthy lifestyles. The findings indicate that informal church-based support is associated with healthy lifestyles among older African Americans but not older Whites. In addition, the influence of support from fellow church…

  18. The Impact of Two Workplace-Based Health Risk Appraisal Interventions on Employee Lifestyle Parameters, Mental Health and Work Ability: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addley, K.; Boyd, S.; Kerr, R.; McQuillan, P.; Houdmont, J.; McCrory, M.

    2014-01-01

    Health risk appraisals (HRA) are a common type of workplace health promotion programme offered by American employers. In the United Kingdom, evidence of their effectiveness for promoting health behaviour change remains inconclusive. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of two HRA interventions on lifestyle parameters, mental…

  19. Lifestyle hotels: New paradigm of modern hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of modern hotel industry introduced to professional community the term 'lifestyle' hotel. The paper deals with the essential meaning of this term. This raises the question of the difference between the lifestyle and boutique hotels which are in practice often identified. The paper aims to resolve the basic dilemma - whether lifestyle hotel can be treated as a special type of hotel, or all types of hotels under certain conditions can fit into a group called 'lifestyle'. Closer defining of the term 'lifestyle' is a starting point for further discussion. This paper makes an attempt to overcome the uncritical use of the term 'lifestyle' in tourism and hospitality practice. Providing a clearer definition is necessary to establish standards for the typology of lifestyle hotels. These standards are primarily based on the criteria of market segmentation. Among them, psychographic criteria occupy a special place. To make lifestyle hotel more than a promotional slogan, it is necessary to confirm its market position. This means identifying specific target groups differentiated according to the main features of the lifestyle.

  20. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepłońska, Beata; Burdelak, Weronika; Krysicka, Jolanta; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Sobala, Wojciech; Klimecka-Muszyńska, Dorota; Rybacki, Marcin

    2014-10-01

    Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more) - 434 individuals currently working night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity) was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22) among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029). This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  1. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pepłońska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. Material and Methods: The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more - 434 individuals currently wor­king night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Results: Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22 among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029. Conclusions: This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  2. Associations between lifestyle patterns and body mass index in a sample of Greek children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontogianni, Meropi D; Farmaki, Anastasia-Eleni; Vidra, Nikoletta; Sofrona, Stavroula; Magkanari, Flora; Yannakoulia, Mary

    BACKGROUND: Although eating and physical activity behaviors have been previously individually investigated with regard to overweight in children, multidimensional lifestyle patterns, based on these behaviors, have not been explored. OBJECTIVE: To assess lifestyle patterns in relation to body mass

  3. Environmental Epigenetics: Crossroad between Public Health, Lifestyle, and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Massimo; Pistillo, Maria Pia; Banelli, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics provides the key to transform the genetic information into phenotype and because of its reversibility it is considered an ideal target for therapeutic interventions. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms of epigenetic control: DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and ncRNA expression and their role in disease development. We describe also the influence of the environment, lifestyle, nutritional habits, and the psychological influence on epigenetic marks and how these factors are related to cancer and other diseases development. Finally we discuss the potential use of natural epigenetic modifiers in the chemoprevention of cancer to link together public health, environment, and lifestyle. PMID:26339624

  4. Lifestyle Knowledge and Preferences in Preschool Children: Evaluation of the "Get up and Grow" Healthy Lifestyle Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Nicola; Harris, Neil; Lee, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Early childhood is considered a window of opportunity for lifestyle interventions, as this is a critical life-stage at which children accumulate knowledge and skills around behaviours such as eating and physical activity. This study examined how exposure to a settings-based healthy lifestyle programme influences knowledge and preference…

  5. Preparation and surface modification of hierarchical nanosheets-based ZnO microstructures for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Yongming; Lin, Yu, E-mail: linyuyrr@163.com; Lin, Yibing; Yang, Jiyuan

    2014-02-15

    This paper reports a simple one-step hydrothermal route for the preparation of hierarchical nanosheets-based ZnO microstructures and their application to dye-sensitized solar cells. The morphologies of the products were controlled by the dosage of the reactants. Their physical characteristics were detected by X-ray diffraction, a field-emission scanning electron microscope and a surface analyzer. It is proved that the sample of ZnO microspheres with larger surface area and stronger light-trapping capacity since the superiority of their entirely spherical structures exhibits better photoelectrochemical properties than the mixtures of ZnO microspheres and ZnO microflowers. A dye-sensitized solar cell assembled by the ZnO microspheres as photoanode shows an energy conversion efficiency of 2.94% after surface modification by tetrabutyl titanate solution at 90 {sup °}C. This result is over 1.6 times higher than the non-modified cell fabricated by the ZnO microspheres on the basis of the external improvement and the stability enhancement for the dye-sensitized ZnO photoanode. - Graphical abstract: Influences on energy conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells assembled by decorating hierarchical nanosheets-based ZnO microstructures with tetrabutyl titanate solution at different temperatures. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Hierarchical nanosheets-based ZnO microstructures were controllably synthesized. • The ZnO microspheres show good optical and electrochemical properties. • The ZnO microspheres were modified by C{sub 16}H{sub 36}O{sub 4}Ti solution. • Remarkable increase of conversion efficiency is observed after surface modification.

  6. Structural Components of Lifestyle and Beyond: The Case of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Keller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question of when and how lifestyle and its components are important in social stratification. There is considerable consensus among scholars about the structure of the society being a consequence of hierarchical dimensions like occupation, income, or wealth. Some thirty years ago, largely based on Bourdieu’s “Distinction”, a new paradigm emerged highlighting the lifestyle components and the value-oriented cultural and material consumption in stratifi cation. The idea refl ects the empirical fi nding that inequality between social classes has largely decreased, giving priority to horizontal lifestyle differentiation instead of vertical inequality dimensions. From a theoretical viewpoint, a challenge in the approach is finding out to what extent lifestyle typology is of a non-vertical character in reality. This social determination of lifestyle is investigated for Hungary when comparing an occupation-based typology with a consumption-based one. On the one hand, results reveal that the effects of structural components on social status are stronger than those of lifestyle. On the other hand, lifestyle turns out to be less independent of social position and the top and bottom levels of the lifestyle typology are particularly predictable by structural measures.

  7. Linking lifestyle factors and insulin resistance, based on fasting plasma insulin and HOMA-IR in middle-aged Japanese men: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Toshie; Fukumoto, Jin; Abe, Masao; Takemura, Shigeki; Mihn, Pham Ngoc; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kiyohara, Chikako

    2014-09-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is regarded as one of the earliest features of many metabolic diseases, and major efforts are aimed at improving insulin function to confront this issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, green tea and coffee consumption to IR. We performed a cross-sectional study of 1542 male self defense officials. IR was defined as the highest quartile of the fasting plasma insulin (≥ 50 pmol/L) or the homeostasis model assessment-estimated IR (HOMA-IR ≥ 1.81). An unconditional logistic model was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between IR and influential factors. Stratified analysis by obesity status (BMI IR was significantly positively related to BMI and glucose tolerance, negatively related to alcohol use. Independent of obesity status, significant trends were observed between IR and alcohol use. Drinking 30 mL or more of ethanol per day reduced IR by less than 40%. Strong physical activity was associated with decreased risk of IR based on fasting plasma insulin only in the obese. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with the risk of IR based on HOMA-IR in the non-obese group. Higher coffee consumption may be protective against IR among only the non-obese. Further studies are warranted to examine the effect modification of the obesity status on the coffee-IR association.

  8. A randomised controlled trial of a community-based healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese adolescents: the Loozit® study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Smita

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to develop sustainable and clinically effective weight management interventions that are suitable for delivery in community settings where the vast majority of overweight and obese adolescents should be treated. This study aims to evaluate the effect of additional therapeutic contact as an adjunct to the Loozit® group program – a community-based, lifestyle intervention for overweight and lower grade obesity in adolescents. The additional therapeutic contact is provided via telephone coaching and either mobile phone Short Message Service or electronic mail, or both. Methods and design The study design is a two-arm randomised controlled trial that aims to recruit 168 overweight and obese 13–16 year olds (Body Mass Index z-score 1.0 to 2.5 in Sydney, Australia. Adolescents with secondary causes of obesity or significant medical illness are excluded. Participants are recruited via schools, media coverage, health professionals and several community organisations. Study arm one receives the Loozit® group weight management program (G. Study arm two receives the same Loozit® group weight management program plus additional therapeutic contact (G+ATC. The 'G' intervention consists of two phases. Phase 1 involves seven weekly group sessions held separately for adolescents and their parents. This is followed by phase 2 that involves a further seven group sessions held regularly, for adolescents only, until two years follow-up. Additional therapeutic contact is provided to adolescents in the 'G+ATC' study arm approximately once per fortnight during phase 2 only. Outcome measurements are assessed at 2, 12 and 24 months post-baseline and include: BMI z-score, waist z-score, metabolic profile indicators, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, eating patterns, and psychosocial well-being. Discussion The Loozit® study is the first randomised controlled trial of a community-based adolescent weight management

  9. Waste the waist: a pilot randomised controlled trial of a primary care based intervention to support lifestyle change in people with high cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Colin; Gillison, Fiona; Stathi, Afroditi; Bennett, Paul; Reddy, Prasuna; Dunbar, James; Perry, Rachel; Messom, Daniel; Chandler, Roger; Francis, Margaret; Davis, Mark; Green, Colin; Evans, Philip; Taylor, Gordon

    2015-01-16

    In the UK, thousands of people with high cardiovascular risk are being identified by a national risk-assessment programme (NHS Health Checks). Waste the Waist is an evidence-informed, theory-driven (modified Health Action Process Approach), group-based intervention designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity for people with high cardiovascular risk. This pilot randomised controlled trial aimed to assess the feasibility of delivering the Waste the Waist intervention in UK primary care and of conducting a full-scale randomised controlled trial. We also conducted exploratory analyses of changes in weight. Patients aged 40-74 with a Body Mass Index of 28 or more and high cardiovascular risk were identified from risk-assessment data or from practice database searches. Participants were randomised, using an online computerised randomisation algorithm, to receive usual care and standardised information on cardiovascular risk and lifestyle (Controls) or nine sessions of the Waste the Waist programme (Intervention). Group allocation was concealed until the point of randomisation. Thereafter, the statistician, but not participants or data collectors were blinded to group allocation. Weight, physical activity (accelerometry) and cardiovascular risk markers (blood tests) were measured at 0, 4 and 12 months. 108 participants (22% of those approached) were recruited (55 intervention, 53 controls) from 6 practices and 89% provided data at both 4 and 12 months. Participants had a mean age of 65 and 70% were male. Intervention participants attended 72% of group sessions. Based on last observations carried forward, the intervention group did not lose significantly more weight than controls at 12 months, although the difference was significant when co-interventions and co-morbidities that could affect weight were taken into account (Mean Diff 2.6Kg. 95%CI: -4.8 to -0.3, p = 0.025). No significant differences were found in physical activity. The Waste the Waist

  10. Knowledge and Lifestyle-Associated Prevalence of Obesity among Newly Diagnosed Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Diabetic Clinic at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaa Obirikorang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the knowledge and prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics. This cross-sectional study was conducted among diagnosed type 2 diabetics. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood sugar levels were also assessed. Participants had adequate knowledge about the general concept of obesity (72.0% and method of weight measurement (98.6% but were less knowledgeable of ideal body weight (4.2%. The commonly known cause, complication, and management of obesity were poor diet (76.9%, hypertension (81.8%, and diet modification (86.7%, respectively. The anthropometric measures were higher among females compared to males. Prevalence of obesity was 61.3% according to WHR classification, 40.8% according to WHtR classification, 26.1% according to WC, and 14.8% according to BMI classification. Being female was significantly associated with high prevalence of obesity irrespective of the anthropometric measure used (p<0.05. Taking of snacks in meals, eating meals late at night, physical inactivity, excessive fast food intake, and alcoholic beverage intake were associated with increased prevalence of obesity (p<0.05. Prevalence of obesity is high among diabetic patient and thus increasing effort towards developing and making education programs by focusing on adjusting to lifestyle modifications is required.

  11. Food Patterns, Lifestyle, and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Arjmand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High blood pressure (BP is considered as a strong predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD Environmental and genetic factors may have a role in high blood pressures. Nutrition has a potential role in the prevention of hypertension and its sequelae. Effect of lowering blood pressure by modification of complex dietary patterns may be the result of synergism between the various components of certain foods or food combinations rather than of the specific effect of a particular nutrient. Vegetarian Diet, Mediterranean Diet, and Dash Diet are three food patterns which have been associated with lowering BP. Vegetarian Diet are characterized by high intake of legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits. A relatively high polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio will make by this kind of diet. Low fat content and high potassium, magnesium, and fiber content of this diet, all factors possibly cooperating to the reduction of blood pressure. Mediterranean Diet has low animal and dairy products as well as saturated fatty acids and cholesterol; it is rich in plant food, legumes, fiber, and antioxidant vitamins with olive oil as the main source of fat. The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH is a success process in control of hypertension, which emphasizes vegetables and fruits and dairy foods with low-fat, it also includes more nuts, poultry, fish, and, whole grains and lower amounts of red meat, fats, sweets, and sugar-containing beverages. DASH diet is poorer in total and saturated fat and cholesterol and richer in potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber in comparison to the habitual Western diet. In conclusion, although multiple dietary factors can influence on BP and each factor has a modest effect; the combined effects of those factors can be substantial. In the current study, we review food patterns, lifestyle, and their relationship with hypertension and the possible mechanisms involved.

  12. The effectiveness of theory- and model-based lifestyle interventions on HbA1c among patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshmangir, P; Jahangiry, L; Farhangi, M A; Doshmangir, L; Faraji, L

    2018-02-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising rapidly around the world. A number of systematic reviews have provided evidence for the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on diabetic patients. The effectiveness of theory- and model-based education-lifestyle interventions for diabetic patients are unclear. The systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate and quantify the impact of theory-based lifestyle interventions on type 2 diabetes. A literature search of authentic electronic resources including PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane collaboration was performed to identify published papers between January 2002 and July 2016. The PICOs (participants, intervention, comparison, and outcomes) elements were used for the selection of studies to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Mean differences and standard deviations of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c [mmol/mol]) level in baseline and follow-up measures of studies in intervention and control groups were considered for data synthesis. A random-effects model was used for estimating pooled effect sizes. To investigate the source of heterogeneity, predefined subgroup analyses were performed using trial duration, baseline HbA1c (mmol/mol) level, and the age of participants. Meta-regression was performed to examine the contribution of trial duration, baseline HbA1c (mmol/mol) level, the age of participants, and mean differences of HbA1c (mmol/mol) level. The significant level was considered P HbA1c (mmol/mol) -5.35% (95% confidence interval = -6.3, -4.40; P HbA1c (mmol/mol) indices in patients with type 2 diabetes. Health education theories have been applied as a useful tool for lifestyle change among people with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lifestyle Medicine: Lifestyle Profile of Resident Doctors in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lifestyle behavours of Physicians are becoming increasingly important because of the dual benefits of safeguarding the physicians' health and promotion of good patient health outcome. Resident doctors at tertiary institutions provide the bulk of service to patients hence the need to identify their lifestyle behaviours and ...

  14. Engineering the mobility increment in pentacene-based field-effect transistors by fast cooling of polymeric modification layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Haifeng; Zhang, Chenxi; Chen, Yan; Shao, Yaqing; Li, Wen; Li, Huanqun; Chen, Xudong; Yi, Mingdong; Xie, Linghai; Huang, Wei

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we investigate the effect of the cooling rate of polymeric modification layers (PMLs) on the mobility improvement of pentacene-based organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). In contrast to slow cooling (SC), the OFETs fabricated through fast cooling (FC) with PMLs containing side chain-phenyl rings, such as polystyrene (PS) and poly (4-vinylphenol) (PVP), show an obvious mobility incensement compared with that of π-group free polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images and x-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations have showed that fast-cooled PMLs could effectively enhance the crystallinity of pentacene, which might be related to the optimized homogeneity of surface energy on the surface of polymeric dielectrics. Our work has demonstrated that FC treatment could be a potential strategy for performance modulation of OFETs.

  15. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Multip