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Sample records for based lifestyle modification

  1. Mobile application to induce lifestyle modifications in type 2 diabetic patients: prototype based on international guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jaramillo, M.; Delgado, J. S.; León-Vargas, F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a prototype app to induce lifestyle modifications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. The app design is based on International Diabetes Federation guidelines and recommendations from clinical studies related to diabetes health-care. Two main approaches, lifestyle modification and self-management education are used owing to significant benefits reported. The method used is based on setting goals under medical support related to physical activity, nutritional habits and weight loss, in addition to educational messages. This is specially implemented to address the main challenges that have limited the success of similar mobile applications already validated on diabetic patients. A traffic light is used to show the overall state of the goals compliance. This state could be understood as excellent (green), there are aspects to improve (yellow), or some individual goals are not carrying out (red). An example of how works this method is presented in results. Furthermore, the app provides recommendations to the user in case the overall state was in yellow or red. The recommendations pretend to induce the user to make changes in their eating habits and physical activity. According to international guidelines and clinical studies, a prototype of mobile application to induce a lifestyle modification in order to prevent adverse risk factors related to diabetes was presented. The resulting application is apparently consistent with clinical judgments, but a formal clinical validation is required. The effectiveness of this app is currently under consideration for the Colombian population with type 2 diabetes.

  2. Implementation of Lifestyle Modification Program Focusing on Physical Activity and Dietary Habits in a Large Group, Community-Based Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Falcon, Ashley; Arheart, Kris; Stasi, Selina; Portacio, Francia; Stepanenko, Bryan; Lan, Mary L.; Castruccio-Prince, Catarina; Nackenson, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modification programs improve several health-related behaviors, including physical activity (PA) and nutrition. However, few of these programs have been expanded to impact a large number of individuals in one setting at one time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a PA- and nutrition-based lifestyle…

  3. Effectiveness of participatory adolescent strategic health action (PASHA for lifestyle modification among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha P Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lifestyle modification is one of the methods to promote healthy lifestyle among adolescents. In this study, the researcher planned to develop, implement and evaluate a need based Participatory Adolescent Strategic Health Action (PASHA for lifestyle modification among selected adolescents. Materials and Methods: An evaluative approach with Quasi experimental one group pretest post test design (time series was adopted. Sample constituted 103 adolescents, aged 12-17 years studying in high schools and pre university colleges of Udupi district selected based on convenient sampling. Data was gathered using reliable and valid tools. Results: The mean combined preventive health lifestyle score among all adolescents increased from 75.65-81.56. Similarly the number of adolescents with healthy lifestyle score also increased from 28.2-53.4% after practicing for 180 days. Analysis of all the components of lifestyle showed that the adolescents had adopted healthy lifestyle practices in all the components of lifestyle. The number of adolescents with combined health status score also showed an increase from 31.1-54.4% after implementing PASHA practice. Analysis of reported outcome among subjects indicated that PASHA was motivating to improve their lifestyle practices. Conclusion: PASHA was found to be effective in lifestyle modification of adolescents. It is reiterated that when lifestyle modification is to be done, a strategy to improve self directedness and self efficacy should be adopted.

  4. Optimizing natural fertility: the role of lifestyle modification.

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    McLean, Mamie; Wellons, Melissa F

    2012-12-01

    Preconception counseling provides an opportunity for health care providers to promote maternal and neonatal health, and to make recommendations regarding the optimization of natural fertility. While educating patients on the negative impact of maternal obesity on fertility and maternal and neonatal health; many health care providers recommend weight loss to reduce these negative outcomes. The recommendations start with lifestyle modifications, including diet and exercise. This article focuses on the available evidence regarding lifestyle modifications and fertility, and on the type of lifestyle modifications that health care providers should recommend to patients seeking to optimize their natural fertility. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Lifestyle modification in the management of the metabolic syndrome: achievements and challenges

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    Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Riccardo Dalle Grave1, Simona Calugi1, Elena Centis2, Rebecca Marzocchi2, Marwan El Ghoch1, Giulio Marchesini21Department of Eating & Weight Disorder, Villa Garda Hospital, Garda (VR, Italy; 2Unit of Metabolic Diseases & Clinical Dietetics, Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Lifestyle modification based on behavior therapy is the most important and effective strategy to manage the metabolic syndrome. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioral and cognitive strategies. The intervention may be delivered face-to-face or in groups, or in groups combined with individual sessions. The main challenge of treatment is helping patients maintain healthy behavior changes in the long term. In the last few years, several strategies have been evaluated to improve the long-term effect of lifestyle modification. Promising results have been achieved by combining lifestyle modification with pharmacotherapy, using meals replacement, setting higher physical activity goals, and long-term care. The key role of cognitive processes in the success/failure of weight loss and maintenance suggests that new cognitive procedures and strategies should be included in the traditional lifestyle modification interventions, in order to help patients build a mind-set favoring long-term lifestyle changes. These new strategies raise optimistic expectations for an effective treatment of metabolic syndrome with lifestyle modifications, provided public health programs to change the environment where patients live support them.Keywords: metabolic syndrome, obesity, lifestyle modification, cognitive behavior therapy

  6. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

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    Starla Hairston Blanks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW. Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW- led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW.

  7. Assessment of lifestyle modification measures and their effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the perception and practice of lifestyle modification measures among type 2 diabetics in DASH. 2. To determine the level of blood glucose reduction ... Every participant in the intervention group was counseled and advice on diet and exercise using a structured format. The control group was advised on diet and ...

  8. The effect of structured counselling on lifestyle modification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The study was undertaken to determine the effect of structured counseling on lifestyle modification measures among adult hypertensive patients. Methods: The study was a randomized controlled trial involving hypertensive adults aged 20 years and above presenting in GOPC of JUTH. Participants were consecutively ...

  9. Perception and practice of lifestyle modification in the management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension ranks first among the non-communicable diseases in Nigeria and globally. Interventions like lifestyle modifications, with its advantages, are often overlooked. Awareness and practice of these measures will aid in blood pressure control. Aim : To assess the level of awareness and practice of ...

  10. Effects of telephone-based motivational interviewing in lifestyle modification program on reducing metabolic risks in middle-aged and older women with metabolic syndrome: A randomized controlled trial.

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    Lin, Chia-Huei; Chiang, Shang-Lin; Heitkemper, Margaret McLean; Hung, Yi-Jen; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2016-08-01

    Lifestyle modification is often difficult for middle-aged and older women living in the community who are at high risk of physical inactivity and metabolic syndrome. To examine the effects of telephone-based motivational interviewing in a 12-week lifestyle modification program on physical activity, MetS, metabolic risks (fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and central obesity), and the number of metabolic risks in community-living middle-aged and older women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. Recruited were 328 middle-aged and older women from a community health center in Taiwan. Eligible women medically diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (n=115) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: The experimental group received an individualized telephone delivered lifestyle modification program that included motivational interviewing delivered by an experienced nurse. The brief group received a single brief lifestyle modification counseling session with a brochure. The usual care group received standard care. Physical activity was assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and metabolic risks were determined by serum markers and anthropometric measures at pre- and post-intervention. One hundred women completed the study and an intention-to-treat analysis was performed. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the intervention effects. Women in the experimental group increased physical activity from 1609 to 1892 MET-min/week (β=846, p=.01), reduced the percentage of diagnosed with metabolic syndrome to 81.6% (β=-0.17, p=.003), and decreased the number of metabolic risks from 4.0 to 3.6 (β=-0.50, pMotivational interviewing as a component of an individualized physical activity and lifestyle modification program has positive benefit in reducing metabolic risks in middle-aged and older women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Lifestyle Modification on Diabetic Kidney Disease

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    Onyenwenyi, Chijoke

    2016-01-01

    Kidney disease is common in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with adverse health outcomes, including progression to end-stage renal disease. In the general population, adherence to a healthy lifestyle is known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and death. Among individuals with diabetic kidney disease, modifications in lifestyle factors, including diet, physical activity, smoking habits and body mass index, represent a promising cost-effective therapeutic adjunct to pharmacologic treatment of kidney disease incidence and progression. PMID:26194155

  12. Lifestyle modifications and erectile dysfunction: what can be expected?

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    Maria Ida Maiorino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is a common medical disorder whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. Modifiable risk factors for ED include smoking, lack of physical activity, wrong diets, overweight or obesity, metabolic syndrome, and excessive alcohol consumption. Quite interestingly, all these metabolic conditions are strongly associated with a pro-inflammatory state that results in endothelial dysfunction by decreasing the availability of nitric oxide (NO, which is the driving force of the blood genital flow. Lifestyle and nutrition have been recognized as central factors influencing both vascular NO production, testosterone levels, and erectile function. Moreover, it has also been suggested that lifestyle habits that decrease low-grade clinical inflammation may have a role in the improvement of erectile function. In clinical trials, lifestyle modifications were effective in ameliorating ED or restoring absent ED in people with obesity or metabolic syndrome. Therefore, promotion of healthful lifestyles would yield great benefits in reducing the burden of sexual dysfunction. Efforts, in order to implement educative strategies for healthy lifestyle, should be addressed.

  13. The efficacy of a comprehensive lifestyle modification programme based on yoga in the management of bronchial asthma: a randomized controlled trial

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    Bijlani Ramesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a substantial body of evidence on the efficacy of yoga in the management of bronchial asthma. Many studies have reported, as the effects of yoga on bronchial asthma, significant improvements in pulmonary functions, quality of life and reduction in airway hyper-reactivity, frequency of attacks and medication use. In addition, a few studies have attempted to understand the effects of yoga on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB or exercise tolerance capacity. However, none of these studies has investigated any immunological mechanisms by which yoga improves these variables in bronchial asthma. Methods The present randomized controlled trial (RCT was conducted on 57 adult subjects with mild or moderate bronchial asthma who were allocated randomly to either the yoga (intervention group (n = 29 or the wait-listed control group (n = 28. The control group received only conventional care and the yoga group received an intervention based on yoga, in addition to the conventional care. The intervention consisted of 2-wk supervised training in lifestyle modification and stress management based on yoga followed by closely monitored continuation of the practices at home for 6-wk. The outcome measures were assessed in both the groups at 0 wk (baseline, 2, 4 and 8 wk by using Generalized Linear Model (GLM repeated measures followed by post-hoc analysis. Results In the yoga group, there was a steady and progressive improvement in pulmonary function, the change being statistically significant in case of the first second of forced expiratory volume (FEV1 at 8 wk, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR at 2, 4 and 8 wk as compared to the corresponding baseline values. There was a significant reduction in EIB in the yoga group. However, there was no corresponding reduction in the urinary prostaglandin D2 metabolite (11β prostaglandin F2α levels in response to the exercise challenge. There was also no significant change in serum

  14. Metformin and lifestyle modification in polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderpoor, Negar; Shorakae, Soulmaz; de Courten, Barbora; Misso, Marie L; Moran, Lisa J; Teede, Helena J

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder with diverse reproductive and metabolic features. It is underpinned by insulin resistance that is exacerbated by obesity. Lifestyle modification is the first line treatment in PCOS, but it is associated with low adherence and sustainability. In small studies, metformin improves outcomes such as hyperinsulinaemia, ovulation and menstrual cyclicity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of lifestyle modification + metformin with lifestyle modification ± placebo, and of metformin alone with lifestyle modification ± placebo in PCOS on anthropometric, metabolic, reproductive and psychological outcomes. Databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Clinical Trials registry and ANZCTR were searched for RCTs conducted on humans and published in English up to August 2014. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of PCOS based on Rotterdam criteria (inclusive of National Institutes of Health criteria) at any age and with any BMI. Interventions of interest included lifestyle + metformin (with any dose and any duration) or metformin alone compared with lifestyle ± placebo. Of 2372 identified studies, 12 RCTs were included for analysis comprising 608 women with PCOS. Lifestyle + metformin were associated with lower BMI (mean difference (MD) -0.73 kg/m(2), 95% confidence intervals (CI) -1.14, -0.32, P = 0.0005) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (MD -92.49 cm(2), 95% CI -164.14, -20.84, P = 0.01) and increased number of menstrual cycles (MD 1.06, 95% CI 0.30, 1.82, P = 0.006) after 6 months compared with lifestyle ± placebo. There were no differences in other anthropometric, metabolic (surrogate markers of insulin resistance, fasting and area under the curve glucose, lipids and blood pressure), reproductive (clinical and biochemical hyperandrogenism), and psychological (quality of life) outcomes after 6 months between lifestyle + metformin compared with

  15. 'Red Ruby': an interactive web-based intervention for lifestyle modification on metabolic syndrome: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiry, Leila; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Najafi, Mahdi; Mohammad, Kazem; Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh; Montazeri, Ali

    2014-07-24

    Although effectiveness of web-based interventions on lifestyle changes are recognized, the potential of such programs on metabolic syndrome has not been explored. We describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial that aims to determine the feasibility, acceptability, usability, and effectiveness of interactive technology on lifestyle intervention in a population with metabolic syndrome. This is a two-arm randomized controlled trial. The study includes 160 participants (n = 80 per arm) who will be recruited via online registration on the study website. The inclusion criteria are that they should have metabolic syndrome and have access to the Internet. All participants will receive information on dietary intake and physical activity through the study website. The intervention group will receive additional resources via the study website including interactive Healthy Heart Profile and calorie restricted diet tailored to the participants. The primary outcomes are feasibility, acceptability, usability, and the change in metabolic syndrome components. The secondary outcomes are comparing quality of life, physical activity and food intake among the study arms. The participants will be followed up to 6 months with data collection scheduled at baseline, 3 and 6 months. There is a need for developing and evaluating web-based interventions that target people with high risk for cardiovascular diseases. This study will therefore make an important contribution to this novel field of research and practice. IRCT201111198132N1.

  16. [Prevention of dementia on the basis of modification of lifestyle and management of lifestyle-related diseases: a review].

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    Iwamoto, Toshihike

    2014-04-01

    Recent observational longitudinal studies have indicated the association of cognition with lifestyle and lifestyle-related diseases, which can affect timely through the life as protective or risk factors. In particular, inappropriate lifestyle including diet and exercise induces lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, cigarette smoking which promote cognitive decline and the occurrence of dementia as vascular risk factors. On the other hand, education during early life, occupational exposure during mid-life, and diet with green leafy vegetables and fish oil, and leisure activities including hobbies, social activities, and physical activities during later life could maintain or accelerate the cognitive reserve function. On the basis of modification of lifestyle and management of lifestyle-related diseases, therefore, we should prevent cognitive decline and the occurrence of dementia to achieve healthy aging society.

  17. Determinants of Health Information Use for Self-Efficacy in Lifestyle Modification for Chronic Disease Patients

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    Ebele N. Anyaoku

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – Various efforts are being made to disseminate lifestyle modification information. What is the role of health information in building patients self-efficacy in lifestyle modification? The research examined level of access to lifestyle modification information for patients with chronic diseases in two Federal Government Teaching Hospitals in South East Nigeria. It explored the relationship between self-efficacy and access to lifestyle modification information and also factors that are associated with self-efficacy when patients have access to lifestyle modification information. Methods – The research is a cross-sectional correlation study that used a questionnaire to collect data. (See Appendix A. Sample was 784 patients with chronic diseases. Questionnaires were distributed to the patients as they attended clinics in the medical and surgical outpatients’ clinics of the hospitals. Results – Findings showed access to lifestyle modification information was significantly and positively correlated with self-efficacy. Multiple Regression analysis suggest that age, type of illness, and length of treatment in the teaching hospitals were associated with self-efficacy when patients have access to lifestyle modification information. Conclusion – It will be pertinent that demographic and disease factors are considered when making lifestyle modification information available to patients for greater self-efficacy.

  18. Acupuncture and Lifestyle Modification Treatment for Obesity: A Meta-Analysis.

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    Fang, Sijia; Wang, Miao; Zheng, Yiyuan; Zhou, Shigao; Ji, Guang

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is an epidemic health hazard associated with many medical conditions. Lifestyle interventions are foundational to the successful management of obesity. However, the body's adaptive biological responses counteract patients' desire to restrict food and energy intake, leading to weight regain. As a complementary and alternative medical approach, acupuncture therapy is widely used for weight control. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of acupuncture treatment alone and in combination with lifestyle modification. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and Chinese Biomedical Literature Databases for relevant publications available as of 24 October 2015 without language restriction. Eligible studies consisted of randomized controlled trials for acupuncture with comparative controls. A total of 23 studies were included with 1808 individuals. We performed meta-analyses of weighted mean differences based on a random effect model. Acupuncture exhibited a mean difference of body mass index reduction of 1.742[Formula: see text]kg/m 2 (95% confidence interval [Formula: see text]) and 1.904[Formula: see text]kg/m 2 (95% confidence interval [Formula: see text]) when compared with untreated or placebo control groups and when lifestyle interventions including basic therapy of both treatment and control groups. Adverse events reported were mild, and no patients withdrew because of adverse effects. Overall, our results indicate that acupuncture is an effective treatment for obesity both alone and together with lifestyle modification.

  19. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding lifestyle modification in type 2 diabetic patients

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    Henry I. Okonta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of persons suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus continues to rise worldwide and causes significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing world. Behaviour change and adoption of healthy lifestyle habits help to prevent or slow down the complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the knowledge and practice of healthy lifestyles in many diabetic patients have been inadequate. Aim: This study sought to establish the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding lifestyle modification amongst type 2 diabetic patients. Setting: The diabetic clinic of Mamelodi hospital, Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done using a structured questionnaire amongst 217 type 2 diabetic patients seen at the diabetic clinic of Mamelodi hospital. Baseline characteristics of the participants were obtained and their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding lifestyle modification were assessed. Results: Of the 217 participants, 154 (71% were obese and 15 (7% were morbidly obese. The majority of respondents (92.2% had poor knowledge of the benefits of exercise, weight loss and a healthy diet. What is interesting is that the majority (97.7% demonstrated bad practices in relation to lifestyle modifications, although over four-fifths (84.3% had a positive attitude toward healthy lifestyle modifications. Conclusion: Despite the positive attitudes of respondents toward healthy lifestyle modifications, the knowledge and practice regarding lifestyle modifications amongst type 2 diabetes mellitus participants seen at Mamelodi hospital were generally poor.

  20. Internet interventions to support lifestyle modification for diabetes management: a systematic review of the evidence.

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    Cotter, Alexander P; Durant, Nefertiti; Agne, April A; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2014-01-01

    The Internet presents a widely accessible, 24-h means to promote chronic disease management. The objective of this review is to identify studies that used Internet based interventions to promote lifestyle modification among adults with type 2 diabetes. We searched PubMed using the terms: [internet, computer, phone, smartphone, mhealth, mobile health, web based, telehealth, social media, text messages] combined with [diabetes management and diabetes control] through January 2013. Studies were included if they described an Internet intervention, targeted adults with type 2 diabetes, focused on lifestyle modification, and included an evaluation component with behavioral outcomes. Of the 2803 papers identified, nine met inclusion criteria. Two studies demonstrated improvements in diet and/or physical activity and two studies demonstrated improvements in glycemic control comparing web-based intervention with control. Successful studies were theory-based, included interactive components with tracking and personalized feedback, and provided opportunities for peer support. Website utilization declined over time in all studies that reported on it. Few studies focused on high risk, underserved populations. Web-based strategies provide a viable option for facilitating diabetes self-management. Future research is needed on the use of web-based interventions in underserved communities and studies examining website utilization patterns and engagement over time. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle modification versus metformin therapy for the prevention of diabetes in Singapore.

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    May Ee Png

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Singapore, as diabetes is an increasingly important public health issue, the cost-effectiveness of pursuing lifestyle modification programs and/or alternative prevention strategies is of critical importance for policymakers. While the US Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP compared weight loss through lifestyle modification with oral treatment of diabetes drug metformin to prevent/delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in pre-diabetic subjects, no data on either the actual or potential cost effectiveness of such a program is available for East or South-east Asian populations. This study estimates the 3-year cost-effectiveness of lifestyle modification and metformin among pre-diabetic subjects from a Singapore health system and societal perspective. METHODOLOGY: Cost effectiveness was analysed from 2010-2012 using a decision-based model to estimate the rates of getting diabetes, healthcare costs and health-related quality of life. Cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY was estimated using costs relevant to the time horizon of the study from Singapore. All costs are expressed in 2012 US dollars. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The total economic cost for non-diabetic subjects from the societal perspective was US$25,867, US$28,108 and US$26,177 for placebo, lifestyle modification and metformin intervention respectively. For diabetic patients, the total economic cost from the societal perspective was US$32,921, US$35,163 and US$33,232 for placebo, lifestyle modification and metformin intervention respectively. Lifestyle modification relative to placebo is likely to be associated with an incremental cost per QALY gained at US$36,663 while that of metformin intervention is likely to be US$6,367 from a societal perspective. CONCLUSION: Based on adaptation of the DPP data to local conditions, both lifestyle modification and metformin intervention are likely to be cost-effective and worth implementing in Singapore to prevent or delay the onset of type 2

  2. Lifestyle modification intervention among infertile overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Diane

    2014-06-01

    To implement an evidence-based lifestyle modification intervention, guided by motivational interviewing, among a sample of infertile overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome to increase chances of conception while improving overall health. A prospective quantitative design was utilized (n = 12). Infertile overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome at an infertility practice completed questionnaires to assess diet and exercise practices at study onset and completion. Body mass index and weight measurements were obtained on participants at study onset and completion of intervention. Menstrual history was assessed by interview. There was a mean weight loss (p = .005) of 7(±5) pounds although a 5% weight reduction did not occur. Mean daily calorie (p = .005), fat (p = .006), and carbohydrate intake (p = .014) were significantly reduced. Frequency in brisk walking exercise significantly increased (p = .024). Frequency in home or gym exercise increased (p = .050). Menstrual cyclicity improved by 50% among prior amenorrheic subjects. An evidence-based lifestyle modification guideline could prove to be a cost effective intervention for infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who desire pregnancy. This intervention could be integrated into the primary care and reproductive medicine visits as sole therapy or in conjunction with infertility treatment. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  3. Physical activity and lifestyle modification in the reduction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conservative approach in reducing the progression of cardiovascular disease and decreasing risk factors is to change unhealthy lifestyle habits. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of cardiac rehabilitation, it is the supreme setting in which to promote necessary behaviour changes. This longitudinal and experimental ...

  4. Evidence of Lifestyle Modification in the Management of Hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannu, GS; Zaman, MJS; Gupta, A; HU, Rehman; Myint, PK

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The growth of ageing populations in developing countries with progressively urbanized lifestyles are major contributors. The key risk factors for CHD such as hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity are likely to increase in the future. These risk factors are modifiable through lifestyle. Objectives: To review current literature on the potential benefit of cholesterol lowering in CHD risk reduction with a particular focus on the evidence of non-pharmacological/lifestyle management of hypercholesterolemia. Methods: Medline/PubMed systematic search was conducted using a two-tier approach limited to all recent English language papers. Primary search was conducted using key words and phrases and all abstracts were subsequently screened and relevant papers were selected. The next tier of searching was conducted by (1) reviewing the citation lists of the selected papers and (2) by using PubMed weblink for related papers. Over 3600 reports were reviewed. Results: Target cholesterol levels set out in various guidelines could be achieved by lifestyle changes, including diet, weight reduction, and increased physical activity with the goal of reducing total cholesterol to hypercholesterolemia is an important cause of CHD. Non-pharmacological methods provide initial as well as long-term measures to address this issue. PMID:22998604

  5. Complementary Medicine, Exercise, Meditation, Diet, and Lifestyle Modification for Anxiety Disorders: A Review of Current Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sarris, J.; Moylan, S.; Camfield, D. A.; Pase, M. P.; Mischoulon, D.; Berk, M.; Jacka, F. N.; Schweitzer, I.

    2012-01-01

    Use of complementary medicines and therapies (CAM) and modification of lifestyle factors such as physical activity, exercise, and diet are being increasingly considered as potential therapeutic options for anxiety disorders. The objective of this metareview was to examine evidence across a broad range of CAM and lifestyle interventions in the treatment of anxiety disorders. In early 2012 we conducted a literature search of PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Lib...

  6. Lifestyles Based on Health Components in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Lifestyle is a way employed by people, groups and nations and is formed in specific geographical, economic, political, cultural and religious texts. Health depends on lifestyle and is essential to preserve and promote health and improve lifestyle. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate lifestyle based on health-oriented components in Iran. Data Sources The research was conducted through E-banks including scientific information database (SID, Iran medical science databank (Iran Medex, Iran journal databank (Magiran and other databases such as Elsevier, PubMed and google scholar meta search engine regarding the subject from 2000 to 2014. Moreover, Official Iranian statistics and information were applied. The search terms used included lifestyle, health, health promoting behaviors, health-oriented lifestyle and lifestyle in Iran. Study Selection In the primary research, many papers were observed out of which 157 (120 in Farsi and 37 in English were selected. Data Extraction Following the careful study of these papers and excluding the unqualified papers, 19 papers with thorough information and higher relevance with the research purpose were selected. Results After examining articles based on the selected keywords and search strategies, 215 articles (134 in Farsi and 81 in English were obtained. Components of lifestyle and health are increasing in recent years; therefore, 8 (42% and 11 (58% articles were published during 2005 - 2010 and 2011 - 2014, respectively. Among them, there were 3 (16%, 8 (42%, 2 (10.5%, 2 (10.5% and 0 articles on the review of literature, descriptive-analytic, qualitative, analytic and descriptive articles, respectively. Conclusions Due to positive effect of healthy lifestyle on health promotion of individuals, it would be better for the government to provide comprehensive programs and policies in the society to enhance awareness of people about positive effects of health-oriented lifestyle on life and

  7. Pharmacy student self-perception of weight and relationship to counseling patients on lifestyle modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antworth, Allen; Maffeo, Carrie

    2014-03-12

    To assess the accuracy of pharmacy students' self-assessment of body mass index (BMI) and determine the relationship of this to comfort level in counseling patients regarding lifestyle modification. A prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted that included first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students who had previously undergone training in BMI self-assessment. Data on students' weight and height were collected and a survey that contained questions on self-perception of body weight and comfort with lifestyle counseling was conducted. Perceived BMI categories (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese) were then compared to actual calculated BMI to determine the accuracy of the student's self-perception. At baseline, participants' accuracy in self-assessment of BMI was 74%, 73.3%, and 75.6% respectively, for first-, second-, and third-year students (p=0.911). Students accuracy increased but not significantly as they progressed through the curriculum (7.2% and 13.3%, respectively; p=0.470 and p=0.209). Neither accuracy in self-assessment of BMI nor students' actual BMI significantly affected students' comfort level with lifestyle modification counseling within healthy weight, overweight, or obese patient categories. However, as the patients' BMI category increased, comfort level differences were observed among students of normal and overweight categories. Patients' BMI category may be a significant barrier to pharmacy students' comfort level in providing lifestyle modification counseling. This finding suggests the need to implement curriculum changes to better prepare students for lifestyle modification counseling.

  8. Adherence to Hypertension Management Recommendations for Patient Follow-Up Care and Lifestyle Modifications Made by Military Healthcare Providers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe military healthcare providers adherence to nationally recognized hypertensive patient guidelines concerning lifestyle modifications and follow-up instructions...

  9. An assessment of lifestyle modification versus medical treatment with clomiphene citrate, metformin, and clomiphene citrate-metformin in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Javedani, Mojgan

    2010-06-01

    To compare the effect of clomiphene citrate, metformin, and lifestyle modification on treatment of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Prospective randomized double-blind study. University-based infertility clinic and research center. Three hundred forty-three overweight infertile women with PCOS. The participating women were assigned to four groups: clomiphene (n = 90), metformin (n = 90), clomiphene + metformin (n = 88), and lifestyle modification (n = 75). The patients in each group received standardized dietary and exercise advice from a dietitian. The primary outcome variables were change in menstrual cycle, waist circumference measurements, endocrine parameters, and lipid profile. The main secondary outcome variable was clinical pregnancy rate. The clinical pregnancy rate was 12.2% in clomiphene group, 14.4% in metformin group, 14.8% in clomiphene + metformin group, and 20% in lifestyle modification group. Lifestyle modification group achieved a significant reduction in waist circumference, total androgen, and lipid profile. Lifestyle modification improves the lipid profile in PCOS patients. Therefore, lifestyle modification may be used as the first line of ovulation induction in PCOS patients. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lifestyle modification increases serum testosterone level and decrease central blood pressure in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Yoshikawa, Toru; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Maeda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions and is associated with multiple comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease. A novel predictor of cardiovascular disease is elevated central systolic blood pressure. In fact, lifestyle modifications have been shown to decrease the central systolic blood pressure in overweight and obese men. The mechanism underlying these changes has yet to be fully elucidated. Interestingly, testosterone has been found to have cardioprotective effects. Moreover, serum testosterone levels are lower in obese men than in normal weight men. However, it is still unclear whether testosterone participates in the decrease of central blood pressure in overweight and obese men following lifestyle modifications. So, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of testosterone on central systolic blood pressure in overweight and obese men before and after the 12-week lifestyle modification program. Forty-four overweight and obese men completed a 12-week lifestyle modification program (aerobic exercise training and dietary modifications). For all participants, central systolic blood pressure and serum testosterone levels were measured before and after the program. After the program, central systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased while serum total testosterone levels were significantly increased in overweight and obese men. Moreover, we also found a significant negative relationship between the change in serum testosterone levels and that in central systolic blood pressure. The present study suggests that increased serum testosterone levels likely contribute to a decrease in central blood pressure in overweight and obese men.

  11. Identifying molecular targets of lifestyle modifications in colon cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Marie Derry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One in four deaths in the United States is cancer-related, and colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Screening strategies are utilized but have not reduced disease incidence or mortality. In this regard, there is an interest in cancer preventive strategies focusing on lifestyle intervention, where specific etiologic factors involved in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression could be targeted. For example, exposure to dietary carcinogens, such as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influences colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, dietary deficiencies could alter sensitivity to genetic damage and influence carcinogen metabolism contributing to CRC. High alcohol consumption increases the risk of mutations including the fact that acetaldehyde, an ethanol metabolite, is classified as a group 1 carcinogen. Tobacco smoke exposure is also a risk factor for cancer development; ~20% of CRCs are associated with smoking. Additionally, obese patients have a higher risk of cancer development, which is further supported by the fact that physical activity decreases CRC risk by 55%. Similarly, chronic inflammatory conditions also increase the risk of CRC development. Moreover, the circadian clock alters digestion and regulates other biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes that could positively influence CRC. Taken together, colon carcinogenesis involves a number of etiological factors, and therefore, to create effective preventive strategies, molecular targets need to be identified and beleaguered prior to disease progression. With this in mind, the following is a comprehensive review identifying downstream target proteins of the above lifestyle risk factors, which are modulated during colon carcinogenesis and could be targeted for CRC prevention by novel agents including phytochemicals.

  12. Effects of controlled school-based multi-component model of nutrition and lifestyle interventions on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian Indian adolescents in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, N; Misra, A; Shah, P; Gulati, S

    2010-04-01

    To study the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention model of nutrition and lifestyle education on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian-Indian adolescents in North India. Two schools matched for student strength and middle socioeconomic strata were randomly allocated to intervention and control group. Changes in nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, lifestyle practices, food frequency and body image of eleventh-grade students (15-17 years) in both schools were tested using a validated questionnaire. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were made using standard methods. Segmental body composition analysis was carried out using an 8-electrode multifrequency bioelectrical impedance method of body fat estimation. At 6 months follow-up, significant improvement in several domains of knowledge was observed in intervention children (n=99; males=60; females=39) as compared with control school children (n=102; males=61; females=41). In the intervention group, significantly lower proportion of children consumed aerated drinks (15.1%; Peating habits and lifestyle practices, and resulted in beneficial changes in anthropometric and biochemical profiles of the Asian Indian adolescents. This model should be applied on countrywide basis to prevent obesity and diabetes.

  13. A study of the knowledge and practice of lifestyle modification in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the knowledge and practice of lifestyle modification in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Middelburg sub-district of Mpumalangai. ... A statistically significant finding was that 79.63% of participants who did not adhere to exercise recommendations had poor glycaemic control. Only 40.48% of participants who ...

  14. Complementary Medicine, Exercise, Meditation, Diet, and Lifestyle Modification for Anxiety Disorders: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sarris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of complementary medicines and therapies (CAM and modification of lifestyle factors such as physical activity, exercise, and diet are being increasingly considered as potential therapeutic options for anxiety disorders. The objective of this metareview was to examine evidence across a broad range of CAM and lifestyle interventions in the treatment of anxiety disorders. In early 2012 we conducted a literature search of PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library, for key studies, systematic reviews, and metaanalyses in the area. Our paper found that in respect to treatment of generalized anxiety or specific disorders, CAM evidence revealed current support for the herbal medicine Kava. One isolated study shows benefit for naturopathic medicine, whereas acupuncture, yoga, and Tai chi have tentative supportive evidence, which is hampered by overall poor methodology. The breadth of evidence does not support homeopathy for treating anxiety. Strong support exists for lifestyle modifications including adoption of moderate exercise and mindfulness meditation, whereas dietary improvement, avoidance of caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine offer encouraging preliminary data. In conclusion, certain lifestyle modifications and some CAMs may provide a beneficial role in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  15. Effects of PREMIER lifestyle modifications on participants with and without the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Lillian F; Brown, Ann J; Ard, Jamy D; Loria, Catherine; Erlinger, Thomas P; Feldstein, Adrianne C; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Champagne, Catherine M; King, Abby C; McGuire, Heather L; Stevens, Victor J; Brantley, Phillip J; Harsha, David W; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Appel, Lawrence J; Svetkey, Laura P

    2007-10-01

    Lifestyle modification can reduce blood pressure and lower cardiovascular risk. Established recommendations include weight loss, sodium reduction, and increased physical activity. PREMIER studied the effects of lifestyle interventions based on established recommendations alone and with the addition of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern. This analysis aimed to assess the interventions' impact on cardiometabolic variables in participants with, compared with those without, metabolic syndrome. The primary outcome was 6-month change in systolic blood pressure. Participants with prehypertension or stage-1 hypertension were randomly assigned to an advice only control group, a 6-month intensive behavioral intervention group of established recommendations (EST), or an established recommendations plus DASH group (EST+DASH). Metabolic syndrome was defined per National Cholesterol and Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. We used general linear models to test intervention effects on change in blood pressure, lipids, and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment), in subgroups defined by the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome. Of 796 participants, 399 had metabolic syndrome. Both EST and EST+DASH reduced the primary outcome variable, systolic blood pressure. Within the EST+DASH group, those with and without metabolic syndrome responded similarly (P=0.231). However, within EST, those with metabolic syndrome had a poorer response, with a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 8.4 mm Hg versus 12.0 mm Hg in those without metabolic syndrome (P=0.002). Thus, metabolic syndrome attenuated the systolic blood pressure reduction of EST, but this attenuation was overcome in EST+DASH. Finally, diastolic blood pressure, lipids, and homeostasis model assessment responded similarly to both interventions regardless of metabolic syndrome status. Our data suggest that strategies for lowering BP in individuals with metabolic syndrome may be

  16. Effect of Continuous Care model on lifestyle modification in patients with hypertension: Randomized clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Shahrani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most important modifiable cardiovascular disease. One of the main factors affecting the risk of hypertension is people’s lifestyle, for which appropriate changes in lifestyle-related factors creating cardiovascular risks need to be developed through new and effective approaches in long-term. Follow-up is an important tool for active participation in treatment and behavior changes; therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of continuous care model on the lifestyle of patients with hypertension. In this two-stage clinical trial, two groups of 64 patients with hypertension at the Isfahan Hypertension Center were selected through simple sampling, who hold the study criteria. The samples were randomly divided into two groups of 32 people as the experimental and control groups. The continuous care in the test group was carried out in the form of a four-stage program including orientation, sensitization, control and evaluation for 3 months. The control patients received usual care. Two questionnaires were employed to collect demographic data and lifestyle inventory data for hypertension used in two stages of pre- and post-intervention. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical tests such as chisquare, Mann-Whitney, independent and paired t-test and analysis of covariance by SPSS version 20. Statistical tests showed no significant differences between the mean scores of two groups in life style dimensions before the intervention. After the intervention, however, the mean scores of lifestyle and its dimensions were significantly higher in the test group than those in the control group (p <0.001 According to the results, it can be concluded that applying continuous care model has significantly been effective in lifestyle modification of patients with high blood pressure. Training the patients and strengthening by repetition, monitoring and management of nurses can be important factors in promoting

  17. Lifestyle modification programmes for patients with coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, V.; Gucht, V. de; Dusseldorp, E.; Maes, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modification programmes for coronary heart disease patients have been shown to effectively improve risk factors and related health behaviours, quality of life, reincidence, and mortality. However, improvements in routine cardiac care over the recent years may offset the

  18. Lifestyle modification programmes for patients with coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Veronica; De Gucht, Véronique; Dusseldorp, Elise; Maes, Stan

    2013-08-01

    Lifestyle modification programmes for coronary heart disease patients have been shown to effectively improve risk factors and related health behaviours, quality of life, reincidence, and mortality. However, improvements in routine cardiac care over the recent years may offset the incremental benefit associated with older programmes. To determine the efficacy of lifestyle modification programmes for coronary heart disease patients developed over the last decade (1999-2009) by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis. The study included 23 trials (involving 11,085 randomized patients). Lifestyle modification programmes were associated with reduced all-cause mortality (summary OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.10-1.64), cardiac mortality (summary OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.17-1.88), and cardiac readmissions and non-fatal reinfarctions (summary OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.17-1.55). Furthermore, lifestyle modification programmes positively affected risk factors and related lifestyle behaviours at posttreatment (M = 10.2 months), and some of these benefits were maintained at long-term follow up (M = 33.7 months). Improvements in dietary and exercise behaviour were greater for programmes incorporating all four self-regulation techniques (i.e. goal setting, self-monitoring, planning, and feedback techniques) compared to interventions that included none of these techniques. The evidence summarized in this meta-analysis confirms the benefits of lifestyle modification programmes - over and above benefits achieved by routine clinical care alone.

  19. Cost analysis of PET and comprehensive lifestyle modification for the reversal of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Rigoberto I; Swint, J Michael; Lairson, David R; Johnson, Nils P; Gould, K Lance; Sdringola, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We present a preliminary cost analysis of a combination intervention using PET and comprehensive lifestyle modification to reverse atherosclerosis. With a sensitivity of 92%-95% and specificity of 85%-95%, PET is an essential tool for high-precision diagnosis of coronary artery disease, accurately guiding optimal treatment for both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. PET imaging provides a powerful visual and educational aid for helping patients identify and adopt appropriate treatments. However, little is known about the operational cost of using the technology for this purpose. The analysis was done in the context of the Century Health Study for Cardiovascular Medicine (Century Trial), a 1,300-patient, randomized study combining PET imaging with lifestyle changes. Our methodology included a microcosting and time study focusing on estimating average direct and indirect costs. The total cost of the Century Trial in present-value terms is $9.2 million, which is equal to $7,058 per patient. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the present value of total costs is likely to range between $8.8 and $9.7 million, which is equivalent to $6,655-$7,606 per patient. The clinical relevance of the Century Trial is significant since it is, to our knowledge, the first randomized controlled trial to combine high-precision imaging with lifestyle strategies. The Century Trial is in its second year of a 5-y protocol, and we present preliminary findings. The results of this cost study, however, provide policy makers with an early estimate of the costs of implementing, at large scale, a combined intervention such as the Century Trial. Further, we believe that imaging-guided lifestyle management may have considerable potential for improving outcomes and reducing health-care costs by eliminating unnecessary invasive procedures.

  20. Management of Chronic Daily Headache and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities by Lifestyle Modification: Participatory Action Research Combining New Communication Media

    OpenAIRE

    Faizi, Fakhrudin; Tavallaee, Abbas; Rahimi, Abolfazl; Saghafinia, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Background Lifestyle modification has a significant role in chronic daily headache (CDH) management. Participatory action research (PAR) can play an important role in managing chronic medical conditions. However, it has been scarcely used in CDH management. Objectives This study aimed to empower patients with CDH to modify their lifestyle in order to reduce both their headache and related psychiatric co-morbidities in a multidisciplinary headache clinic at Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran, IR Ir...

  1. Adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications and factors associated for hypertensive patients attending chronic follow-up units of selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibebu A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abel Tibebu,1 Daniel Mengistu,2 Lemma Negesa1 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, Haramaya University College of Health and Medical Sciences, Harar, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: One of the most prevalent noncommunicable diseases is hypertension (HTN. The availability of effective antihypertensive medications does not result in the expected outcomes in terms of controlling blood pressure. The rationale for these and other findings of uncontrolled HTN points toward poor adherence. The most neglected causes of uncontrolled HTN are unhealthy lifestyles. Few studies have been conducted to show the gap and magnitude of self-management adherence.Objective: This study aimed to assess adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications of hypertensive patients undergoing follow-up at chronic follow-up units of public health hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2016.Methods: Institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four public health hospitals which were selected by drawing lots. Systematic random sampling was used to select study subjects. The results of the descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages and frequencies. Associations between lifestyle modification and independent variables were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The study was conducted from February 15, 2016 to April 15, 2016.Results: The study included 404 respondents with a 97% response rate; 210 (52% were male and the mean age was 54.00±10.77 years. The respondents’ adherence to lifestyle modifications was 23%. The lifestyle adherence was found to be better in females, patients who had comorbidities, and had been knowledgeable about the disease and was poor among young adult respondents.Conclusion: The rates of adherence to lifestyle changes were generally found to be low. Educational sessions that especially focus on lifestyle

  2. Sex Differences in Energy Metabolism Need to Be Considered with Lifestyle Modifications in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty N. Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Women have a higher proportion of body fat compared to men. However, women consume fewer kilojoules per kilogram lean mass and burn fat more preferentially during exercise compared with men. During gestation, women store even greater amounts of fat that cannot be solely attributed to increased energy intake. These observations suggest that the relationship between kilojoules consumed and kilojoules utilised is different in men and women. The reason for these sex differences in energy metabolism is not known; however, it may relate to sex steroids, differences in insulin resistance, or metabolic effects of other hormones such as leptin. When considering lifestyle modifications, sex differences in energy metabolism should be considered. Moreover, elucidating the regulatory role of hormones in energy homeostasis is important for understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and perhaps in the future may lead to ways to reduce body fat with less energy restriction.

  3. Non-adherence to life-style modification and its factors among type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumu, Shirin Jahan; Saleh, Farzana; Ara, Ferdous; Afnan, Fadia; Ali, Liaquat

    2014-01-01

    Non-adherence to preventive and therapeutic life-style recommendations among patients with diabetes is special challenge in the management of these patients. This study aimed to measure the proportion of non-adherence to life-style modification and factors associated with these among a group of Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients. Under an analytical cross-sectional design 374 type 2 diabetic patients (age >20 years), diagnosed for at least 1 year, were selected from different health care centers operated by the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: Diet (88%), exercise (25%), routine blood glucose testing (32%), foot care (70%), smoking (6%) and betel quid chewing habit (25%). Binary logistic regression suggests that higher education group (P = 0.013), rural area (P = 0.013) and attendance to diabetes education classes (P = 0.043) showed good adherence to diet and non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.014), older age (P = 0.037) are associated to non-adherence to exercise. Unemployed patients showed more non-adherence to blood glucose testing (P = 0.045) than others. Non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.037) and business occupation group (P = 0.039) showed significant association to smoking and betel quid intake habit respectively.

  4. The CEMHaVi program: control, evaluation, and modification of lifestyles in obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Marchand, Frédéric; Fardy, Paul; Zunquin, Gautier; Loeuille, Guy-André; Renaut, Hervé; Mikulovic, Jacques; Hurdiel, Rémy; Béghin, Laurent; Theunynck, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Obesity in children has increased in recent years. Many studies with differing methodologies have been undertaken to treat obesity. The Control, Evaluation, and Modification of Lifestyles in Obese Youth (CEMHaVi) program is a unique 2-year health-wellness program of physical activity and health education for obese youth. Findings of this study represent results at 1-year follow-up. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the CEMHaVi program. Physician-referred subjects (N = 26) participated in the study, 14 girls (13.4 +/- 2.9 years) and 12 boys (12.3 +/- 2.8 years). Measurements included height, weight, body mass index (BMI), academic performance, sleep habits, and health knowledge. The intervention consisted of a unique program of physical activity, including a variety of games specifically selected to be enjoyable, maintain interest, and motivate subjects to adhere. Activity sessions were offered once per week, 2 hours each session, for 12 months. A health education program was offered once every 3 months for 2 hours per session. Health knowledge, academic performance, self-esteem, and sleep were assessed before and after the intervention. Means were calculated at baseline and following intervention and were compared by paired t tests. Findings suggest significant improvements in academic performance (P quality and quantity of sleep (P sleep, and academic performance in obese children. The feasibility of a beneficial lifestyle intervention program is encouraging in addressing obesity and related issues in young boys and girls.

  5. Effects of an eight-week supervised, structured lifestyle modification programme on anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crowe, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Lifestyle modification is fundamental to obesity treatment, but few studies have described the effects of structured lifestyle programmes specifically in bariatric patients. We sought to describe changes in anthropometric and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of bariatric patients after participation in a nurse-led, structured lifestyle programme.

  6. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Lifestyle Modification on Metabolic Control in Overweight Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Shin-Yu Lien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to determine the effects of lifestyle modification programs on fasting plasma glucose (FPG levels in overweight children. We queried six relevant electronic databases and manually searched for studies published before December 2016. Overweight/obese children who underwent a lifestyle modification for more than 6 months were included. A total of 3923 children from eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. Compared with the control group, the lifestyle modification group had significantly lower FPG levels by 1.3 mg/dL. The mean differences were significantly decreased for both secondary outcomes; BMI z-score decreased by 0.16 units and insulin levels decreased by 2.4 mU/L. The metaregression showed that the follow-up duration was associated with FPG levels and BMI and insulin levels and half year is a suitable follow-up duration for this population. This study showed that lifestyle modification programs may be effective in reducing the FPG levels of overweight/obese children. Further high-quality RCTs with longer follow-up periods are needed to evaluate the long-term effect of this complementary approach for diabetes mellitus prevention on overweight/obese children.

  7. Weather, knowledge base and life-style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Why to main-stream curiosity for earth-science topics, thus to appraise these topics as of public interest? Namely, to influence practices how humankind's activities intersect the geosphere. How to main-stream that curiosity for earth-science topics? Namely, by weaving diverse concerns into common threads drawing on a wide range of perspectives: be it beauty or particularity of ordinary or special phenomena, evaluating hazards for or from mundane environments, or connecting the scholarly investigation with concerns of citizens at large; applying for threading traditional or modern media, arts or story-telling. Three examples: First "weather"; weather is a topic of primordial interest for most people: weather impacts on humans lives, be it for settlement, for food, for mobility, for hunting, for fishing, or for battle. It is the single earth-science topic that went "prime-time" since in the early 1950-ties the broadcasting of weather forecasts started and meteorologists present their work to the public, daily. Second "knowledge base"; earth-sciences are a relevant for modern societies' economy and value setting: earth-sciences provide insights into the evolution of live-bearing planets, the functioning of Earth's systems and the impact of humankind's activities on biogeochemical systems on Earth. These insights bear on production of goods, living conditions and individual well-being. Third "life-style"; citizen's urban culture prejudice their experiential connections: earth-sciences related phenomena are witnessed rarely, even most weather phenomena. In the past, traditional rural communities mediated their rich experiences through earth-centric story-telling. In course of the global urbanisation process this culture has given place to society-centric story-telling. Only recently anthropogenic global change triggered discussions on geoengineering, hazard mitigation, demographics, which interwoven with arts, linguistics and cultural histories offer a rich narrative

  8. Patient confidence regarding secondary lifestyle modification and knowledge of ‘heart attack’ symptoms following percutaneous revascularisation in Japan: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitakata, Hiroki; Kohno, Takashi; Kohsaka, Shun; Fujino, Junko; Nakano, Naomi; Fukuoka, Ryoma; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Maekawa, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2018-01-01

    Objective To assess patient perspectives on secondary lifestyle modification and knowledge of ‘heart attack’ after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary artery disease (CAD). Design Observational cross-sectional study. Setting A single university-based hospital centre in Japan. Participants In total, 236 consecutive patients with CAD who underwent PCI completed a questionnaire (age, 67.4±10.1 years; women, 14.8%; elective PCI, 75.4%). The survey questionnaire included questions related to confidence levels about (1) lifestyle modification at the time of discharge and (2) appropriate recognition of heart attack symptoms and reactions to these symptoms on a four-point Likert scale (1=not confident to 4=completely confident). Primary outcome measure The primary outcome assessed was the patients’ confidence level regarding lifestyle modification and the recognition of heart attack symptoms. Results Overall, patients had a high level of confidence (confident or completely confident,>75%) about smoking cessation, alcohol restriction and medication adherence. However, they had a relatively low level of confidence (heart attack, almost all respondents answered ‘yes’ to the item ‘I should go to the hospital as soon as possible when I have a heart attack’; however, only 28% of the responders were confident in their ability to distinguish between heart attack symptoms and other conditions. Conclusions There were substantial disparities in the confidence levels associated with lifestyle modification and recognition/response to heart attack. These gaps need to be studied further and disseminated to improve cardiovascular care. PMID:29549203

  9. Patient confidence regarding secondary lifestyle modification and knowledge of 'heart attack' symptoms following percutaneous revascularisation in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitakata, Hiroki; Kohno, Takashi; Kohsaka, Shun; Fujino, Junko; Nakano, Naomi; Fukuoka, Ryoma; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Maekawa, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2018-03-16

    To assess patient perspectives on secondary lifestyle modification and knowledge of 'heart attack' after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary artery disease (CAD). Observational cross-sectional study. A single university-based hospital centre in Japan. In total, 236 consecutive patients with CAD who underwent PCI completed a questionnaire (age, 67.4±10.1 years; women, 14.8%; elective PCI, 75.4%). The survey questionnaire included questions related to confidence levels about (1) lifestyle modification at the time of discharge and (2) appropriate recognition of heart attack symptoms and reactions to these symptoms on a four-point Likert scale (1=not confident to 4=completely confident). The primary outcome assessed was the patients' confidence level regarding lifestyle modification and the recognition of heart attack symptoms. Overall, patients had a high level of confidence (confident or completely confident,>75%) about smoking cessation, alcohol restriction and medication adherence. However, they had a relatively low level of confidence (heart attack, almost all respondents answered 'yes' to the item 'I should go to the hospital as soon as possible when I have a heart attack'; however, only 28% of the responders were confident in their ability to distinguish between heart attack symptoms and other conditions. There were substantial disparities in the confidence levels associated with lifestyle modification and recognition/response to heart attack. These gaps need to be studied further and disseminated to improve cardiovascular care. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. [Effectiveness of a program for treatment of overweight and nonmorbid obesity in primary healthcare and its influence lifestyle modification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrebola Vivas, E; Gómez-Candela, C; Fernández Fernández, C; Bermejo López, L; Loria Kohen, V

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle intervention is fundamental for obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a program focused on diet, exercise and psychological support on Lifestyle Modification in overweight and obese patients treated in Primary Health Care setting. 60 patients with grade II overweight and non-morbid grade I-II obesity were included in this pilot clinical trial. Ages ranged from 18 to 50 years. They were provided with a program combining nutritional education, physical activity and psychological support. Subjects attended group sessions every 2 weeks. The main outcome measures at baseline and 6 months were body composition parameters (BMI, body fat percentage, waist circumference) and lifestyle intervention using the Questionnaire for the assessment of overweight and obesity related lifestyles at baseline and six months. This questionnaire yields an five dimensions: diet caloric intake (CC), healthy eating (AS), physical activity (EF), searching for psychological well-being eating (BP) and alcohol intake (CA). The higher score indicates better lifestyles for CC, AS, EF and worse for BP y CA. At the end of the intervention the program achieved improvements in Questionnaire related lifestyles subscales: CC (2,60 ± 0,5 vs. 3,49 ± 0,7, pobese patients treated in a primary healthcare center. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. A Web-Based Lifestyle Medicine Curriculum: Facilitating Education About Lifestyle Medicine, Behavioral Change, and Health Care Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ryan C; Sannidhi, Deepa; McBride, Yasamina; McCargo, Tracie; Stern, Theodore A

    2017-01-01

    Background Lifestyle medicine is the science and application of healthy lifestyles as interventions for the prevention and treatment of disease, and has gained significant momentum as a specialty in recent years. College is a critical time for maintenance and acquisition of healthy habits. Longer-term, more intensive web-based and in-person lifestyle medicine interventions can have a positive effect. Students who are exposed to components of lifestyle medicine in their education have improvements in their health behaviors. A semester-long undergraduate course focused on lifestyle medicine can be a useful intervention to help adopt and sustain healthy habits. Objective To describe a novel, evidence based curriculum for a course teaching the concepts of Lifestyle Medicine based on a web-based course offered at the Harvard Extension School. Methods The course was delivered in a web-based format. The Lifestyle Medicine course used evidence based principles to guide students toward a “coach approach” to behavior change, increasing their self-efficacy regarding various lifestyle-related preventive behaviors. Students are made to understand the cultural trends and national guidelines that have shaped lifestyle medicine recommendations relating to behaviors. They are encouraged to engage in behavior change. Course topics include physical activity, nutrition, addiction, sleep, stress, and lifestyle coaching and counseling. The course addressed all of the American College of Preventive Medicine/American College of Lifestyle Medicine competencies save for the competency of office systems and technologies to support lifestyle medicine counseling. Results The course was well-received, earning a ranking of 4.9/5 at the school. Conclusions A novel, semester-long course on Lifestyle Medicine at the Harvard Extension School is described. Student evaluations suggest the course was well-received. Further research is needed to evaluate whether such a course empowers students to

  12. Changes in depression and quality of life in obese individuals with binge eating disorder: bariatric surgery versus lifestyle modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulconbridge, Lucy F; Wadden, Thomas A; Thomas, John G; Jones-Corneille, LaShanda R; Sarwer, David B; Fabricatore, Anthony N

    2013-01-01

    Obese individuals with binge eating disorder frequently experience impairments in mood and quality of life, which improve with surgical or behavioral weight loss interventions. It is unclear whether these improvements are due to weight loss itself or to additional aspects of treatment, such as group support, or acquisition of cognitive-behavioral skills provided in behavioral interventions. The objective of the study was to compare changes in weight, symptoms of depression, and quality of life in extremely obese individuals with binge eating disorder undergoing bariatric surgery or a lifestyle modification intervention. The study setting was University Hospital. Symptoms of depression and quality of life were assessed at baseline and 2, 6, and 12 months in participants undergoing bariatric surgery but no lifestyle intervention (n = 36) and in nonsurgery participants receiving a comprehensive program of lifestyle modification (n = 49). Surgery participants lost significantly more weight than lifestyle participants at 2, 6, and 12 months (PDepression Inventory-II [BDI-II]) and quality of life (as measured by the Short Form-36) were observed in both groups across the year, but there were no differences between the groups at month 12 (even when controlling for reductions in binge eating). A positive correlation was observed between the magnitude of weight loss and change in BDI-II score when collapsing across groups. Moreover, weight loss at one time point predicted BDI-II score at the next time point, but BDI-II score did not predict subsequent weight loss. We conclude that similar improvements in mood and quality of life can be expected from either bariatric surgery or lifestyle modification treatments for periods up to 1 year. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Benefits and costs of intensive lifestyle modification programs for symptomatic coronary disease in Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wu; Stason, William B; Fournier, Stephen; Razavi, Moaven; Ritter, Grant; Strickler, Gail K; Bhalotra, Sarita M; Shepard, Donald S

    2013-05-01

    This study reports outcomes of a Medicare-sponsored demonstration of two intensive lifestyle modification programs (LMPs) in patients with symptomatic coronary heart disease: the Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute (MBMI) and the Dr Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease® (Ornish). This multisite demonstration, conducted between 2000 and 2008, enrolled Medicare beneficiaries who had had an acute myocardial infarction or a cardiac procedure within the preceding 12 months or had stable angina pectoris. Health and economic outcomes are compared with matched controls who had received either traditional or no cardiac rehabilitation following similar cardiac events. Each program included a 1-year active intervention of exercise, diet, small-group support, and stress reduction. Medicare claims were used to examine 3-year outcomes. The analysis includes 461 elderly, fee-for-service, Medicare participants and 1,795 controls. Cardiac and non-cardiac hospitalization rates were lower in participants than controls in each program and were statistically significant in MBMI (P costs of $3,801 and $4,441 per participant for the MBMI and Ornish Programs, respectively, were offset by reduced health care costs yielding non-significant three-year net savings per participant of about $3,500 in MBMI and $1,000 in Ornish. A trend towards lower mortality compared with controls was observed in MBMI participants (P = .07). Intensive, year-long LMPs reduced hospitalization rates and suggest reduced Medicare costs in elderly beneficiaries with symptomatic coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lifestyle Modification through Dietary Intervention: Health Promotion of Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Khoshbaten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is more common worldwide and no certain treatment apart from lifestyle modification has been established yet. Available data consistently show that energy intake is significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than in individuals with no evidence of fatty liver. Changing nutritional behaviors seems to be the primary approach for treatment, simultaneously addressing all the clinical and biochemical defects. This study was aimed to examine the effects of two different composition of low energy diet (diet I vs. diet II on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.Methods: In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, 44 ultrasonography-proven overweight non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients were divided into two groups and received two low-energy diets (-500 kcal less than energy requirement individually inc. diet I (Carbohydrate: Fat: Protein: 55:25:20 and diet II (Carbohydrate: Fat: Protein: 40:40:20 for six weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical measures as well as liver enzymes were assessed after 12 hours fasting.Results: After diet I and diet II, weight decreased significantly (%1.82 and %2.45, respectively. Liver enzymes and echogenicity decreased significantly by both diet I and diet II. Mean of triglyceride concentration decreased (%18.09 after diet II (P=0.023, while there was no significant change after diet I. Significant correlations were found between changes in aspartate aminotransferase with triglyceride and LDL-C diet I.Conclusion: Low energy diets can decrease liver enzymes regardless of their composition, while diet II seems to be more effective than diet I in reduction of weight and triglyceride level.

  15. Genetic modulation of lipid profiles following lifestyle modification or metformin treatment: the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollin, Toni I; Isakova, Tamara; Jablonski, Kathleen A; de Bakker, Paul I W; Taylor, Andrew; McAteer, Jarred; Pan, Qing; Horton, Edward S; Delahanty, Linda M; Altshuler, David; Shuldiner, Alan R; Goldberg, Ronald B; Florez, Jose C; Franks, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04-1 × 10(-17)). Except for total HDL particles (r = -0.03, P = 0.26), all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07-0.17, P = 5 × 10(-5)-1 10(-19)). The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8 × 10(-5), P(interaction) = 0.02) in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35) or metformin (β = -0.03, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; P(interaction) = 0.64) groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE ± 0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, P(interaction) = 0.01) but not in the placebo (β = -0.002, SEE ± 0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74) or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE ± 0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; P(interaction) = 0.24) groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss.

  16. Genetic Modulation of Lipid Profiles following Lifestyle Modification or Metformin Treatment: The Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Kathleen A.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Taylor, Andrew; McAteer, Jarred; Pan, Qing; Horton, Edward S.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Altshuler, David; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Florez, Jose C.; Bray, George A.; Culbert, Iris W.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Eberhardt, Barbara; Greenway, Frank; Guillory, Fonda G.; Herbert, April A.; Jeffirs, Michael L.; Kennedy, Betty M.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Morris, Laura H.; Melancon, Lee E.; Ryan, Donna; Sanford, Deborah A.; Smith, Kenneth G.; Smith, Lisa L.; Amant, Julia A. St.; Tulley, Richard T.; Vicknair, Paula C.; Williamson, Donald; Zachwieja, Jeffery J.; Polonsky, Kenneth S.; Tobian, Janet; Ehrmann, David; Matulik, Margaret J.; Clark, Bart; Czech, Kirsten; DeSandre, Catherine; Hilbrich, Ruthanne; McNabb, Wylie; Semenske, Ann R.; Caro, Jose F.; Watson, Pamela G.; Goldstein, Barry J.; Smith, Kellie A.; Mendoza, Jewel; Liberoni, Renee; Pepe, Constance; Spandorfer, John; Donahue, Richard P.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Prineas, Ronald; Rowe, Patricia; Calles, Jeanette; Cassanova-Romero, Paul; Florez, Hermes J.; Giannella, Anna; Kirby, Lascelles; Larreal, Carmen; McLymont, Valerie; Mendez, Jadell; Ojito, Juliet; Perry, Arlette; Saab, Patrice; Haffner, Steven M.; Montez, Maria G.; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martinez, Arlene; Hamman, Richard F.; Nash, Patricia V.; Testaverde, Lisa; Anderson, Denise R.; Ballonoff, Larry B.; Bouffard, Alexis; Calonge, B. Ned; Delve, Lynne; Farago, Martha; Hill, James O.; Hoyer, Shelley R.; Jortberg, Bonnie T.; Lenz, Dione; Miller, Marsha; Price, David W.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Seagle, Helen; Smith, Carissa M.; Steinke, Sheila C.; VanDorsten, Brent; Horton, Edward S.; Lawton, Kathleen E.; Arky, Ronald A.; Bryant, Marybeth; Burke, Jacqueline P.; Caballero, Enrique; Callaphan, Karen M.; Ganda, Om P.; Franklin, Therese; Jackson, Sharon D.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Kula, Lyn M.; Kocal, Margaret; Malloy, Maureen A.; Nicosia, Maryanne; Oldmixon, Cathryn F.; Pan, Jocelyn; Quitingon, Marizel; Rubtchinsky, Stacy; Seely, Ellen W.; Schweizer, Dana; Simonson, Donald; Smith, Fannie; Solomon, Caren G.; Warram, James; Kahn, Steven E.; Montgomery, Brenda K.; Fujimoto, Wilfred; Knopp, Robert H.; Lipkin, Edward W.; Marr, Michelle; Trence, Dace; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Murphy, Mary E.; Applegate, William B.; Bryer-Ash, Michael; Frieson, Sandra L.; Imseis, Raed; Lambeth, Helen; Lichtermann, Lynne C.; Oktaei, Hooman; Rutledge, Lily M.K.; Sherman, Amy R.; Smith, Clara M.; Soberman, Judith E.; Williams-Cleaves, Beverly; Metzger, Boyd E.; Johnson, Mariana K.; Behrends, Catherine; Cook, Michelle; Fitzgibbon, Marian; Giles, Mimi M.; Heard, Deloris; Johnson, Cheryl K.H.; Larsen, Diane; Lowe, Anne; Lyman, Megan; McPherson, David; Molitch, Mark E.; Pitts, Thomas; Reinhart, Renee; Roston, Susan; Schinleber, Pamela A.; Nathan, David M.; McKitrick, Charles; Turgeon, Heather; Abbott, Kathy; Anderson, Ellen; Bissett, Laurie; Cagliero, Enrico; Florez, Jose C.; Delahanty, Linda; Goldman, Valerie; Poulos, Alexandra; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Carrion-Petersen, Mary Lou; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Edelman, Steven V.; Henry, Robert R.; Horne, Javiva; Janesch, Simona Szerdi; Leos, Diana; Mudaliar, Sundar; Polonsky, William; Smith, Jean; Vejvoda, Karen; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Lee, Jane E.; Allison, David B.; Aronoff, Nancy J.; Crandall, Jill P.; Foo, Sandra T.; Pal, Carmen; Parkes, Kathy; Pena, Mary Beth; Rooney, Ellen S.; Wye, Gretchen E.H. Van; Viscovich, Kristine A.; Marrero, David G.; Prince, Melvin J.; Kelly, Susie M.; Dotson, Yolanda F.; Fineberg, Edwin S.; Guare, John C; Hadden, Angela M.; Ignaut, James M.; Jackson, Marcia L.; Kirkman, Marion S.; Mather, Kieren J.; Porter, Beverly D.; Roach, Paris J.; Rowland, Nancy D.; Wheeler, Madelyn L.; Ratner, Robert E.; Youssef, Gretchen; Shapiro, Sue; Bavido-Arrage, Catherine; Boggs, Geraldine; Bronsord, Marjorie; Brown, Ernestine; Cheatham, Wayman W.; Cola, Susan; Evans, Cindy; Gibbs, Peggy; Kellum, Tracy; Levatan, Claresa; Nair, Asha K.; Passaro, Maureen; Uwaifo, Gabriel; Saad, Mohammed F.; Budget, Maria; Jinagouda, Sujata; Akbar, Khan; Conzues, Claudia; Magpuri, Perpetua; Ngo, Kathy; Rassam, Amer; Waters, Debra; Xapthalamous, Kathy; Santiago, Julio V.; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; White, Neil H.; Das, Samia; Santiago, Ana; Brown, Angela; Fisher, Edwin; Hurt, Emma; Jones, Tracy; Kerr, Michelle; Ryder, Lucy; Wernimont, Cormarie; Saudek, Christopher D.; Bradley, Vanessa; Sullivan, Emily; Whittington, Tracy; Abbas, Caroline; Brancati, Frederick L.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Charleston, Jeanne B.; Freel, Janice; Horak, Katherine; Jiggetts, Dawn; Johnson, Deloris; Joseph, Hope; Loman, Kimberly; Mosley, Henry; Rubin, Richard R.; Samuels, Alafia; Stewart, Kerry J.; Williamson, Paula; Schade, David S.; Adams, Karwyn S.; Johannes, Carolyn; Atler, Leslie F.; Boyle, Patrick J.; Burge, Mark R.; Canady, Janene L.; Chai, Lisa; Gonzales, Ysela; Hernandez-McGinnis, Doris A.; Katz, Patricia; King, Carolyn; Rassam, Amer; Rubinchik, Sofya; Senter, Willette; Waters, Debra; Shamoon, Harry; Brown, Janet O.; Adorno, Elsie; Cox, Liane; Crandall, Jill; Duffy, Helena; Engel, Samuel; Friedler, Allison; Howard-Century, Crystal J.; Kloiber, Stacey; Longchamp, Nadege; Martinez, Helen; Pompi, Dorothy; Scheindlin, Jonathan; Violino, Elissa; Walker, Elizabeth; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Zimmerman, Elise; Zonszein, Joel; Orchard, Trevor; Wing, Rena R.; Koenning, Gaye; Kramer, M. Kaye; Barr, Susan; Boraz, Miriam; Clifford, Lisa; Culyba, Rebecca; Frazier, Marlene; Gilligan, Ryan; Harrier, Susan; Harris, Louann; Jeffries, Susan; Kriska, Andrea; Manjoo, Qurashia; Mullen, Monica; Noel, Alicia; Otto, Amy; Semler, Linda; Smith, Cheryl F.; Smith, Marie; Venditti, Elizabeth; Weinzierl, Valarie; Williams, Katherine V.; Wilson, Tara; Arakaki, Richard F.; Latimer, Renee W.; Baker-Ladao, Narleen K.; Beddow, Ralph; Dias, Lorna; Inouye, Jillian; Mau, Marjorie K.; Mikami, Kathy; Mohideen, Pharis; Odom, Sharon K.; Perry, Raynette U.; Knowler, William C.; Cooeyate, Norman; Hoskin, Mary A.; Percy, Carol A.; Acton, Kelly J.; Andre, Vickie L.; Barber, Rosalyn; Begay, Shandiin; Bennett, Peter H.; Benson, Mary Beth; Bird, Evelyn C.; Broussard, Brenda A.; Chavez, Marcella; Dacawyma, Tara; Doughty, Matthew S.; Duncan, Roberta; Edgerton, Cyndy; Ghahate, Jacqueline M.; Glass, Justin; Glass, Martia; Gohdes, Dorothy; Grant, Wendy; Hanson, Robert L.; Horse, Ellie; Ingraham, Louise E.; Jackson, Merry; Jay, Priscilla; Kaskalla, Roylen S.; Kessler, David; Kobus, Kathleen M.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Manus, Catherine; Michaels, Sara; Morgan, Tina; Nashboo, Yolanda; Nelson, Julie A.; Poirier, Steven; Polczynski, Evette; Reidy, Mike; Roumain, Jeanine; Rowse, Debra; Sangster, Sandra; Sewenemewa, Janet; Tonemah, Darryl; Wilson, Charlton; Yazzie, Michelle; Bain, Raymond; Fowler, Sarah; Brenneman, Tina; Abebe, Solome; Bamdad, Julie; Callaghan, Jackie; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Gao, Yuping; Grimes, Kristina L.; Grover, Nisha; Haffner, Lori; Jones, Steve; Jones, Tara L.; Katz, Richard; Lachin, John M.; Mucik, Pamela; Orlosky, Robert; Rochon, James; Sapozhnikova, Alla; Sherif, Hanna; Stimpson, Charlotte; Temprosa, Marinella; Walker-Murray, Fredricka; Marcovina, Santica; Strylewicz, Greg; Aldrich, F. Alan; O'Leary, Dan; Stamm, Elizabeth; Rautaharju, Pentti; Prineas, Ronald J.; Alexander, Teresa; Campbell, Charles; Hall, Sharon; Li, Yabing; Mills, Margaret; Pemberton, Nancy; Rautaharju, Farida; Zhang, Zhuming; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Moran, Robert R.; Ganiats, Ted; David, Kristin; Sarkin, Andrew J.; Eastman, R.; Fradkin, Judith; Garfield, Sanford; Gregg, Edward; Zhang, Ping; Herman, William; Florez, Jose C.; Altshuler, David; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Franks, Paul W.; Hanson, Robert L.; Jablonski, Kathleen; Knowler, William C.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Pollin, Toni I.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04–1×10−17). Except for total HDL particles (r = −0.03, P = 0.26), all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07–0.17, P = 5×10−5–1×10−19). The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8×10−5, P interaction = 0.02) in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35) or metformin (β = −0.03, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; P interaction = 0.64) groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE±0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, P interaction = 0.01) but not in the placebo (β = −0.002, SEE±0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74) or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE±0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; P interaction = 0.24) groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss. PMID:22951888

  17. Genetic modulation of lipid profiles following lifestyle modification or metformin treatment: the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni I Pollin

    Full Text Available Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04-1 × 10(-17. Except for total HDL particles (r = -0.03, P = 0.26, all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07-0.17, P = 5 × 10(-5-1 10(-19. The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8 × 10(-5, P(interaction = 0.02 in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35 or metformin (β = -0.03, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; P(interaction = 0.64 groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE ± 0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, P(interaction = 0.01 but not in the placebo (β = -0.002, SEE ± 0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74 or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE ± 0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; P(interaction = 0.24 groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss.

  18. Effectiveness of a Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM) Programme among Obese Adults in Workplace: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi Mohamed, Mohd Nahar; Mukhtar, Firdaus

    2016-01-01

    Background There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities over the past decades in Malaysia. Effective intervention for obesity remains limited. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a group based lifestyle modification programme amongst obese individuals with an existing dietary counseling programme. Methods We recruited one hundred and ninety four overweight and obese (BMI>27.5 kg/m2) employees from a local university. They were randomly allocated to either Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM) (intervention)(n = 97) or dietary counseling (comparison)(n = 97). The GSLIM activities included self monitoring, cognitive-behaviour sessions, exercise as well as dietary change advocacy, which were conducted through seminars and group sessions over 24 weeks. The comparison group was given dietary counselling once in 12 weeks. Both groups were followed up for additional 12 weeks to check for intervention effect sustenance. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 weeks; while dietary intake, physical activities, psychological measures and quality of life measured at baseline, 24 and 36 weeks. Data analysis was conducted using ANOVA repeated measures with intention to treat principle. Results The participants were predominantly women with mean (standard deviation) age of 40.5 (9.3) years. A total of 19.6% of the participants in GSLiM achieved 6% weight loss compared to 4.1% in the comparison group (Risk Ratio 4.75; 95% CI: 1.68, 13.45). At 24 weeks, the retention rate was 83.5% for GSLiM and 82.5% for comparison group. GSLiM participants also achieved significant improvement in total weight self-efficacy score, negative emotions and physical discomfort subscales, MDPSS friend subscale and all domains in quality of life. Participants in the comparison group experienced reduction in negative self-thoughts. Conclusion The GSLiM programme proved to be more effective in achieving

  19. Effectiveness of a Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM Programme among Obese Adults in Workplace: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Noraida Jamal

    Full Text Available There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities over the past decades in Malaysia. Effective intervention for obesity remains limited. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a group based lifestyle modification programme amongst obese individuals with an existing dietary counseling programme.We recruited one hundred and ninety four overweight and obese (BMI>27.5 kg/m2 employees from a local university. They were randomly allocated to either Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM (intervention(n = 97 or dietary counseling (comparison(n = 97. The GSLIM activities included self monitoring, cognitive-behaviour sessions, exercise as well as dietary change advocacy, which were conducted through seminars and group sessions over 24 weeks. The comparison group was given dietary counselling once in 12 weeks. Both groups were followed up for additional 12 weeks to check for intervention effect sustenance. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 weeks; while dietary intake, physical activities, psychological measures and quality of life measured at baseline, 24 and 36 weeks. Data analysis was conducted using ANOVA repeated measures with intention to treat principle.The participants were predominantly women with mean (standard deviation age of 40.5 (9.3 years. A total of 19.6% of the participants in GSLiM achieved 6% weight loss compared to 4.1% in the comparison group (Risk Ratio 4.75; 95% CI: 1.68, 13.45. At 24 weeks, the retention rate was 83.5% for GSLiM and 82.5% for comparison group. GSLiM participants also achieved significant improvement in total weight self-efficacy score, negative emotions and physical discomfort subscales, MDPSS friend subscale and all domains in quality of life. Participants in the comparison group experienced reduction in negative self-thoughts.The GSLiM programme proved to be more effective in achieving targeted weight loss, improving

  20. Self-management for obesity and cardio-metabolic fitness: Description and evaluation of the lifestyle modification program of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coates Alison M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustainable lifestyle modification strategies are needed to address obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. Intensive, individualised programs have been successful, but are limited by time and resources. We have formulated a group-based lifestyle education program based upon national diet and physical activity (PA recommendations to manage obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors. This article describes the content and delivery of this program, with information on compliance and acceptability. Methods Overweight/obese adults (n = 153 with metabolic syndrome were recruited from the community and randomly allocated to intervention (INT or control (CON. Written copies of Australian national dietary and PA guidelines were provided to all participants. INT took part in a 16-week lifestyle program which provided a curriculum and practical strategies on 1 dietary and PA information based on national guidelines, 2 behavioural self-management tools, 3 food-label reading, supermarkets tour and cooking, 4 exercise sessions, and 5 peer-group support. Compliance was assessed using attendance records and weekly food/PA logs. Participants' motivations, perceived benefits and goals were assessed through facilitated discussion. Program acceptability feedback was collected through structured focus groups. Results Although completion of weekly food/PA records was poor, attendance at information/education sessions (77% overall and exercise participation (66% overall was high, and compared with CON, multiple markers of body composition and cardio-metabolic health improved in INT. Participants reported that the most useful program components included food-label reading, cooking sessions, and learning new and different physical exercises, including home-based options. Participants also reported finding self-management techniques helpful, namely problem solving and short-term goal setting. The use of a group setting and supportive 'peer' leaders

  1. Self-management for obesity and cardio-metabolic fitness: Description and evaluation of the lifestyle modification program of a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettman, Tahna L; Misan, Gary MH; Owen, Katherine; Warren, Kate; Coates, Alison M; Buckley, Jonathan D; Howe, Peter RC

    2008-01-01

    Background Sustainable lifestyle modification strategies are needed to address obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. Intensive, individualised programs have been successful, but are limited by time and resources. We have formulated a group-based lifestyle education program based upon national diet and physical activity (PA) recommendations to manage obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors. This article describes the content and delivery of this program, with information on compliance and acceptability. Methods Overweight/obese adults (n = 153) with metabolic syndrome were recruited from the community and randomly allocated to intervention (INT) or control (CON). Written copies of Australian national dietary and PA guidelines were provided to all participants. INT took part in a 16-week lifestyle program which provided a curriculum and practical strategies on 1) dietary and PA information based on national guidelines, 2) behavioural self-management tools, 3) food-label reading, supermarkets tour and cooking, 4) exercise sessions, and 5) peer-group support. Compliance was assessed using attendance records and weekly food/PA logs. Participants' motivations, perceived benefits and goals were assessed through facilitated discussion. Program acceptability feedback was collected through structured focus groups. Results Although completion of weekly food/PA records was poor, attendance at information/education sessions (77% overall) and exercise participation (66% overall) was high, and compared with CON, multiple markers of body composition and cardio-metabolic health improved in INT. Participants reported that the most useful program components included food-label reading, cooking sessions, and learning new and different physical exercises, including home-based options. Participants also reported finding self-management techniques helpful, namely problem solving and short-term goal setting. The use of a group setting and supportive 'peer' leaders were found to be

  2. Management of Chronic Daily Headache and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities by Lifestyle Modification: Participatory Action Research Combining New Communication Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizi, Fakhrudin; Tavallaee, Abbas; Rahimi, Abolfazl; Saghafinia, Masoud

    2017-04-01

    Lifestyle modification has a significant role in chronic daily headache (CDH) management. Participatory action research (PAR) can play an important role in managing chronic medical conditions. However, it has been scarcely used in CDH management. This study aimed to empower patients with CDH to modify their lifestyle in order to reduce both their headache and related psychiatric co-morbidities in a multidisciplinary headache clinic at Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran, IR Iran. In the PAR plan, 37 patients (27 females) diagnosed with CDH were selected using purposeful sampling. Along with face-to-face group sessions, all available communication means such as phone calls, emails, short message system (SMS), and social media (Telegram) were used to facilitate the process. Questionnaires of health promotion lifestyle profile (HPLPІІ), visual analog scale (VAS), and depression-anxiety-stress scale (DASS21) were used to collect data. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Mean age of the patients was 38.33 (± 9.7) years. Both "general pain" and "the worst imaginable pain" reduced (mean of reduction: 2.56 ± 2.7 and 2.3 ± 2.9, respectively, P 50% of pain reduction occurred in "the worst imaginable pain" category (-1.45 ± 2.02, P CDH patients better handle their lifestyle, reduce their headache, and lower their symptoms. Further studies with better use of currently available communication tools and social media are recommended for action research to be more applicable.

  3. An Innovative School-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Natalia; Ranucci, Claudia; Buratta, Livia; Foglia, Elena; Fabi, Marta; Novelli, Francesca; Casucci, Simone; Reginato, Elisa; Pippi, Roberto; Aiello, Cristina; Leonardi, Alessia; Romani, Giannermete; De Feo, Pierpaolo; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe an innovative school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles. To evaluate its effects on children's food habits and to highlight the key components which contribute most to the beneficial effects obtained from children's, teachers' and parents' perspectives. Design: An educational tool to improve personal awareness,…

  4. Effects of Different Dietary and Lifestyle Modification Therapies on Metabolic Syndrome in Prediabetic Arab Patients: A 12-Month Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan A. Alfawaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This three-arm, randomized, controlled study aimed to determine the differences in the effects of general advice (GA on lifestyle change, intensive lifestyle modification programme (ILMP and GA + metformin (GA + Met in reducing the prevalence of full metabolic syndrome (MetS in subjects with prediabetes; 294 Saudis with prediabetes (fasting glucose 5.6–6.9 mmol/L were initially randomized, 263 completed 6 months and 237 completed 12 months. They were allocated into three groups: GA group which received a standard lifestyle change education; ILMP which followed a rigorous lifestyle modification support on diet and physical activity; and a GA + Met group. Anthropometric and biochemical estimations were measured. Full MetS (primary endpoint and its components (secondary endpoint were screened at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Full MetS in the ILMP group decreased by 26% (p < 0.001; in GA + Met group by 22.4% (p = 0.01 and in GA group by 8.2% (p = 0.28. The number of MetS components decreased significantly in the ILMP and GA + Met groups (mean change 0.81, p < 0.001 and 0.35, p = 0.05, respectively. Between-group comparison revealed a clinically significant decrease in MetS components in favor of the ILMP group (−0.58 (−0.88–0.28, p < 0.001. This study highlights the clinical potency of ILMP versus other diabetes prevention options in reducing MetS in Saudi adults with elevated fasting glucose.

  5. The concept of lifestyle factors, based on the teaching of avicenna (ibn sina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choopani, Rasool; Emtiazy, Majid

    2015-01-01

    According to the definition stated in the beginning of the "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb" (the Qanun of Medicine); medicine is a science, from which one learns the states of the human body; health and disease and what causes them, in order to preserve good health when it exists, and restore it when it is lacking. Based on this issue, Avicenna believes that medical science belongs to all human without any limitation, and maintenance of health is one of its prime objectives. He states that many disorders are related to errors in the 6 factors, which are essential for maintaining health and preventing diseases. Avicenna described these six essential factors (lifestyle factors) in his masterpiece, Qanun of Medicine, as "Asbab-e-Settah-e-Zaruriah." Based on the teaching of Avicenna, the first step for maintaining health and approaches to treatment is modification of lifestyle factors, including of nutrition, physical activity, etc.

  6. Which providers can bridge the health literacy gap in lifestyle risk factor modification education: a systematic review and narrative synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Sarah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with low health literacy may not have the capacity to self-manage their health and prevent the development of chronic disease through lifestyle risk factor modification. The aim of this narrative synthesis is to determine the effectiveness of primary healthcare providers in developing health literacy of patients to make SNAPW (smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and weight lifestyle changes. Methods Studies were identified by searching Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Joanna Briggs Institute, Psychinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, APAIS, Australian Medical Index, Community of Science and Google Scholar from 1 January 1985 to 30 April 2009. Health literacy and related concepts are poorly indexed in the databases so a list of text words were developed and tested for use. Hand searches were also conducted of four key journals. Studies published in English and included males and females aged 18 years and over with at least one SNAPW risk factor for the development of a chronic disease. The interventions had to be implemented within primary health care, with an aim to influence the health literacy of patients to make SNAPW lifestyle changes. The studies had to report an outcome measure associated with health literacy (knowledge, skills, attitudes, self efficacy, stages of change, motivation and patient activation and SNAPW risk factor. The definition of health literacy in terms of functional, communicative and critical health literacy provided the guiding framework for the review. Results 52 papers were included that described interventions to address health literacy and lifestyle risk factor modification provided by different health professionals. Most of the studies (71%, 37/52 demonstrated an improvement in health literacy, in particular interventions of a moderate to high intensity. Non medical health care providers were effective in improving health literacy. However this was confounded by intensity of

  7. Which providers can bridge the health literacy gap in lifestyle risk factor modification education: a systematic review and narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Sarah; Williams, Anna; Taggart, Jane; Newall, Anthony; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Zwar, Nicholas; Shortus, Tim; Harris, Mark F

    2012-05-28

    People with low health literacy may not have the capacity to self-manage their health and prevent the development of chronic disease through lifestyle risk factor modification. The aim of this narrative synthesis is to determine the effectiveness of primary healthcare providers in developing health literacy of patients to make SNAPW (smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and weight) lifestyle changes. Studies were identified by searching Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Joanna Briggs Institute, Psychinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, APAIS, Australian Medical Index, Community of Science and Google Scholar from 1 January 1985 to 30 April 2009. Health literacy and related concepts are poorly indexed in the databases so a list of text words were developed and tested for use. Hand searches were also conducted of four key journals. Studies published in English and included males and females aged 18 years and over with at least one SNAPW risk factor for the development of a chronic disease. The interventions had to be implemented within primary health care, with an aim to influence the health literacy of patients to make SNAPW lifestyle changes. The studies had to report an outcome measure associated with health literacy (knowledge, skills, attitudes, self efficacy, stages of change, motivation and patient activation) and SNAPW risk factor.The definition of health literacy in terms of functional, communicative and critical health literacy provided the guiding framework for the review. 52 papers were included that described interventions to address health literacy and lifestyle risk factor modification provided by different health professionals. Most of the studies (71%, 37/52) demonstrated an improvement in health literacy, in particular interventions of a moderate to high intensity.Non medical health care providers were effective in improving health literacy. However this was confounded by intensity of intervention. Provider barriers impacted on their

  8. Telomerase activity and cellular aging might be positively modified by a yoga-based lifestyle intervention.

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    Kumar, Shiv Basant; Yadav, Rashmi; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Tolahunase, Madhuri; Dada, Rima

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies showed that a brief yoga-based lifestyle intervention was efficacious in reducing levels of oxidative stress and cellular aging in obese men. The objective of this case report was to assess the efficacy of this intervention in reducing the levels of biochemical markers of cellular ageing, oxidative stress, and inflammation at baseline (day 0), at the end of active intervention (day 10), and follow-up at day 90. Single case report from a prospective ongoing study with pre-post design assessing the level of various markers of cellular aging. Integral Health Clinic, an outpatient facility conducting meditation and yoga-based lifestyle intervention programs for management of chronic diseases. A 31-year-old man with class I obesity (body-mass index, 29.5 kg/m(2)) who presented to the medicine outpatient department at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, with a history of fatigue, difficulty losing weight, and lack of motivation. He noted a marked decrease in his energy level, particularly in the afternoon. A pretested intervention program included asanas (postures), pranayama (breathing exercises), stress management, group discussions, lectures, and individualized advice. From baseline (day 0) to day 90, the activity of telomerase and levels of β-endorphins, plasma cortisol, and interleukin-6 increased, and a sustained reduction in oxidative stress markers, such as reactive oxygen species and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine levels. Adopting yoga/meditation-based lifestyle modification causes reversal of markers of aging, mainly oxidative stress, telomerase activity, and oxidative DNA damage. This may not only delay aging and prolong a youthful healthy life but also delay or prevent onset of several lifestyle-related diseases, of which oxidative stress and inflammation are the chief cause. This report suggests this simple lifestyle intervention may be therapeutic for oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress.

  9. Does parental and adolescent participation in an e-health lifestyle modification intervention improve weight outcomes?

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    Andrew W. Tu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated the effect of adherence to a lifestyle intervention on adolescent health outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine whether adolescent and parental adherence to components of an e-health intervention resulted in change in adolescent body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC z-scores in a sample of overweight/obese adolescents. Methods In total, 159 overweight/obese adolescents and their parents participated in an 8-month e-health lifestyle intervention. Each week, adolescents and their parents were asked to login to their respective website and to monitor their dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours. We examined participation (percentage of webpages viewed [adolescents]; number of weeks logged in [parents] and self-monitoring (number of weeks behaviors were tracked rates. Linear mixed models and multiple regressions were used to examine change in adolescent BMI and WC z-scores and predictors of adolescent participation and self-monitoring, respectively. Results Adolescents and parents completed 28% and 23%, respectively, of the online component of the intervention. Higher adolescent participation rate was associated with a decrease in the slope of BMI z-score but not with change in WC z-score. No association was found between self-monitoring rate and change in adolescent BMI or WC z-scores. Parent participation was not found to moderate the relationship between adolescent participation and weight outcomes. Conclusions Developing strategies for engaging and promoting supportive interactions between adolescents and parents are needed in the e-health context. Findings demonstrate that improving adolescents’ adherence to e-health lifestyle intervention can effectively alter the weight trajectory of overweight/obese adolescents.

  10. Long-Term Effects of Metformin and Lifestyle Modification on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Obese Adolescents

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    Lian Tock

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the long-term effects of metformin in combination with lifestyle intervention and its association between insulin levels and the degree of steatosis at ultrasonography (US in obese adolescents. Methods. Thirty-five postpubertal obese boys were randomized into two groups: one receiving metformin in combination with a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention versus a placebo group, which also received the same intervention. The visceral, subcutaneous fat and degree of steatosis were measured by ultrasonography. Fasting blood samples were collected to analyze glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and aminotransferases. Repeated ANOVA measures were used to compare changes over time and between groups, and Spearman's correlations were used to identify an association between insulin and the degree of steatosis at US. Results. There was a positive correlation between the degree of steatosis at US with insulin concentrations and HOMA-IR. Long-term therapy plus metformin significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, insulin, HOMA-IR, and visceral fat. Conclusions. Metformin was more effective than the placebo in improving clinical parameters associated with obesity and steatosis.

  11. Outcome Evaluation of a Policy-Mandated Lifestyle and Environmental Modification Program in a National Job Training Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Harris, Amanda; Luna, Donald; Velasquez, Daniel; Slovik, Jonathan; Kong, Alberta

    2017-06-01

    Excess weight gain is common when adolescents become young adults, but there are no obesity prevention or weight management interventions that have been tested for emerging adults who follow non-traditional post-secondary paths, such as enrolling in job training programs. We evaluated Healthy Eating & Active Lifestyles (HEALs), a policy-mandated lifestyle education/environmental modification program, at a job training center for low-income 16-24 year olds. We examined average change in body mass index (BMI) z-score from baseline to 6 months for emerging adults (aged 16-24 years) in pre-HEALs implementation (n = 125) and post-HEALs implementation (n = 126) cohorts living at the job training center, by baseline weight status. In both cohorts, average BMI z-score significantly increased from baseline to 6 months for students with BMI < 25. Average BMI z-score significantly decreased for the overweight (BMI 25 to <30; -0.11, p = .03) and obese (BMI ≥ 30; -0.11, p = .001) students only within the post-HEALs cohort; changes within the pre-HEALs cohort and between cohorts were not significant. HEALs may promote positive weight-related trends for overweight/obese students, but prevention efforts for non-overweight/obese students need to be improved.

  12. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing on lifestyle modification and health outcomes of clients at risk or diagnosed with cardiovascular diseases: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Windy W M; Choi, K C; Yum, Royce W Y; Yu, Doris S F; Chair, S Y

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, there is an increasing trend in using motivational interviewing as a counseling method to help clients with cardiovascular diseases to modify their unhealthy lifestyle in order to decrease the risk of disease occurrence. As motivational interviewing has gained increased attention, research has been conducted to examine its effectiveness. This review attempts to identify the best available evidence related to the effectiveness of motivational interviewing on lifestyle modification, physiological and psychological outcomes for clients at risk of developing or with established cardiovascular diseases. Systematic review of studies incorporating motivational interviewing in modifying lifestyles, improving physiological and psychological outcomes for clients at risk of or diagnosed with cardiovascular diseases. Major English and Chinese electronic databases were searched to identify citations that reported the effectiveness of motivational interviewing. The searched databases included MEDLINE, British Nursing Index, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, CJN, CBM, HyRead, WanFang Data, Digital Dissertation Consortium, and so on. Two reviewers independently assessed the relevance of citations based on the inclusion criteria. Full texts of potential citations were retrieved for more detailed review. Critical appraisal was conducted by using the standardized critical appraisal checklist for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled studies from the Joanna Briggs Institute - Meta Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStaRI). After eligibility screening, 14 articles describing 9 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Only certain outcomes in certain studies were pooled for meta-analysis because of the large variability of the studies included, other findings were presented in narrative form. For lifestyle modification, the review showed that motivational interviewing could be more effective than usual care on

  13. Lifestyle modifications supported by regional health nurses lowered insulin resistance, oxidative stress and central blood pressure in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoichi; Miyazaki, Takashi; Sato, Makiko; Araki, Ryuichiro; Takahashi, Sachiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Shibazaki, Satomi

    2015-01-01

    This study was attempted to investigate whether lifestyle modifications supported by regional health nurses should improve cardio-metabolic factors--including adipocytokines, oxidative stress, and arterial stiffness--in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-six subjects with metabolic syndrome were enrolled, 28 of whom completed the 6-month lifestyle modifications (male:female=19:9). Blood and urine test results were examined in relation to metabolic factors before and after 6-month nutritional and physical activity modifications. In addition, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed and arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and radial augmentation index before and after them. Six-month lifestyle modifications significantly reduced body weight, homeostasis model assessment index, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). They significantly attenuated oxidative stress measured by the urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine/creatinine ratio. They also lowered brachial and central systolic blood pressure. They tended to decrease waist circumferences and the levels of C-reactive protein. However they did not significantly change the levels of adipocytokines, including tumour necrosis factor, soluble tumour necrosis factor receptors, and interleukin 6, or arterial stiffness measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and radial augmentation index. Six-month lifestyle modifications supported by regional health nurses lowered body weight, insulin resistance, LDL-C, oxidative stress, and peripheral and central blood pressure in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Awareness of lifestyle modification in females diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome in India: explorative study

    OpenAIRE

    Pothiraj Pitchai; S. R. Sreeraj; Parmar Reema Anil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) adversely affect women at varying stages of their life and imperative to emphasis on prevention strategies since incidence of PCOS is on the rise. Study aims to explore perception on PCOS, awareness on life style modification, emotional attributes, concern regarding PCOS and utilization of physiotherapy services. Methods: The study was conducted in Mumbai and Navi Mumbai, India. Self-made validated questionnaire was administered. Descriptive a...

  15. Lifestyle medicine for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; O'Neil, Adrienne; Coulson, Carolyn E; Schweitzer, Isaac; Berk, Michael

    2014-04-10

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated

  16. Frequency and predictors of non-adherence to lifestyle modifications and medications after coronary artery bypass grafting: A cross-sectional study

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    Muhammad Armughan Ali

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Non-adherence to lifestyle modifications and medication is an emerging problem worldwide. It is essential for medical health professionals to discuss these predictors and address them individually. Our findings highlight the need for a healthy physician and patient relationship.

  17. Acceptability of dietary and physical activity lifestyle modification for men following radiotherapy or radical prostatectomy for localised prostate cancer: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Sutton, Eileen; Persad, Raj; Aning, Jonathan; Bahl, Amit; Koupparis, Anthony; Millett, Chris; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2017-10-10

    The experience and acceptability of lifestyle interventions for men with localised prostate cancer are not well understood, yet lifestyle interventions are increasingly promoted for cancer survivors. We explored the opinions, experiences and perceived acceptability of taking part in nutritional and physical activity interventions amongst men with prostate cancer and their partners; with the ultimate plan to use such information to inform the development of nutritional and physical activity interventions for men with prostate cancer. Semi-structured interviews with 16 men, and seven partners, undergoing curative surgery or radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Interviews explored experiences of lifestyle interventions, acceptable changes participants would make and perceived barriers and facilitators to change. Interviews were thematically analysed using the framework approach. Men were frequently open to lifestyle modification and family support was considered vital to facilitate change. Health beneficial, clinician endorsed, understandable, enjoyable interventions were perceived as attractive. Barriers included 'modern' digital technology, poor weather, competing commitments or physical limitations, most notably incontinence following radical prostatectomy. Men were keen to participate in research, with few negative aspects identified. Men are willing to change behaviour but this needs to be supported by clinicians and health professionals facilitating lifestyle change. An 'intention-behaviour gap', when an intended behaviour does not materialise, may exist. Digital technology for data collection and lifestyle measurement may not be suitable for all, and post-surgery urinary incontinence is a barrier to physical activity. These novel findings should be incorporated into lifestyle intervention development, and implemented clinically.

  18. Evidence-based lifestyle interventions for obesity and Type 2 diabetes: The Look AHEAD intensive lifestyle intervention as exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Delia Smith; Coulon, Sandra M; Monroe, Courtney M; Wilson, Dawn K

    2016-10-01

    The majority of individuals with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are overweight or obese, and this excess adiposity negatively impacts cardiovascular risk and contributes to challenges in disease management. Treatment of obesity by behavioral lifestyle intervention, within the context of diabetes, produces broad and clinically meaningful health improvements, and recent studies demonstrate long-term sustained weight management success with behavioral lifestyle interventions. Details of the Look AHEAD intensive lifestyle intervention are provided as an exemplar approach to the secondary prevention of T2D and obesity. The presence of behavior change expertise in the development and delivery of evidence-based behavioral weight control is discussed, and issues of adaptation and dissemination are raised, with a model to guide these important steps provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Influence of ALA54THR polymorphism of fatty acid binding protein 2 on lifestyle modification response in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Sagrado, M Gonzalez; Conde, R

    2006-01-01

    It has been found that the expression of fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) mRNA is under dietary control. A G-to-A transition at codon 54 of FABP2 results in an amino acid substitution (from Ala 54 to Thr 54). This polymorphism was associated with high insulin resistance and high fasting insulin concentrations. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Thr54 polymorphism in the FABP2 protein on the response to a lifestyle modification (Mediterranean hypocaloric diet and exercise) in obese patients. A population of 69 obese (body mass index > 30) nondiabetic outpatients was analyzed in a prospective way. Before and after 3 months of the lifestyle modification program, indirect calorimetry, tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance measurement, blood pressure recording, serial assessment of the nutritional intake (3 days of written food records), and biochemical analysis were performed. The lifestyle modification program consisted of a hypocaloric diet (1,520 kcal; 52% carbohydrates, 25% lipids, and 23% proteins). The exercise program consisted of aerobic exercise for at least three times/week (60 min each). Statistical analysis was performed for combined Ala54/Thr54 and Thr54/Thr54 as a mutant group and wild-type Ala54/Ala54 as second group. The mean age was 45.5 +/- 16.7 years, the mean body mass index was 34.1 +/- 5.1, and there were 14 males (20.3%) and 55 females (79.7%) with a weight loss of 3.17 +/- 3.5 kg (3.5%). Thirty-seven patients (53.6%) had the genotype Ala54/Ala54 (wild-type group) and 32 (46.4%) patients either the genotype Ala54/Thr54 (26 patients, 30.2%) or the genotype Thr54/Thr54 (6 patients, 16.2%). The percentage of responders (weight loss) was similar in both groups (89.2 vs. 90.6%). In the wild-type group, body mass index, weight, fat mass, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and waist circumference decreased, whereas the VO2 (oxygen consumption) increased. In the mutant group, glucose, body mass index, weight, waist

  20. Relationship between Risk Factor Control and Compliance with a Lifestyle Modification Program in the Stenting Aggressive Medical Management for Prevention of Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Tanya N; Al Kasab, Sami; Nizam, Azhar; Lynn, Michael J; Harrell, Jamie; Derdeyn, Colin P; Fiorella, David; Janis, L Scott; Lane, Bethany F; Montgomery, Jean; Chimowitz, Marc I

    2018-03-01

    Lifestyle modification programs have improved the achievement of risk factor targets in a variety of clinical settings, including patients who have previously suffered a stroke or transient ischemic attack and those with multiple risk factors. Stenting Aggressive Medical Management for Prevention of Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) was the first vascular disease prevention trial to provide a commercially available lifestyle modification program to enhance risk factor control. We sought to determine the relationship between compliance with this program and risk factor control in SAMMPRIS. SAMMPRIS aggressive medical management included a telephonic lifestyle modification program provided free of charge to all subjects (n = 451) during their participation in the study. Subjects with fewer than 3 expected lifestyle-coaching calls were excluded from these analyses. Compliant subjects (n = 201) had  greater than or equal to 78.5% of calls (median % of completed/expected calls). Noncompliant subjects (n = 200) had less than 78.5% of calls or refused to participate. Mean risk factor values or % in-target for each risk factor was compared between compliant versus noncompliant subjects, using t tests and chi-square tests. Risk factor changes from baseline to follow-up were compared between the groups to account for baseline differences. Compliant subjects had better risk factor control throughout follow-up for low-density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure (SBP), hemoglobin A1c (HgA1c), non-high-density lipoprotein, nonsmoking, and exercise than noncompliant subjects, but there was no difference for body mass index. After adjusting for baseline differences between the groups, compliant subjects had a greater change from baseline than noncompliant subjects for SBP did at 24 months and HgA1c at 6 months. SAMMPRIS subjects who were compliant with the lifestyle modification program had better risk factor control during the study for almost

  1. The effect of lifestyle modification on severity of constipation and quality of life of elders in nursing homes at Ismailia city, Egypt

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    Hebatallah Nour-Eldein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constipation has a significant impact on the quality of life (QOL. Lifestyle modification is widely accepted and recommended by experts as first-line therapy. Aim: This study aimed at using education on lifestyle modification to improve the QOL of the elderly in nursing homes suffering from functional constipation (FC. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in nursing homes in Ismailia city, Egypt. It involved 23 elderly patients suffering from FC, who were randomly selected according to the sample equation. They fulfilled the inclusion criteria of being ≥60 years age and according to Rome II criteria. Participants completed personal characteristics and lifestyle questionnaire, the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptom questionnaire (PAC-SYM to assess the severity of symptoms, and the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAC-QOL to assess pre- and post-intervention. The intervention was conducted in three sessions, of 30 min each, 2 weeks apart using group discussions to educate the sample about dietary pattern, fluid intake, regular physical activity, and the use of laxatives. Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed using a statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 20. Results: The lifestyle modification education on constipation significantly reduced the severity of symptoms as measured by PAC-SYM, including its total score and subscores (P < 0.001. It also improved the QOL of elderly suffering from constipation as measured by PAC-QOL and reduced total scores of dissatisfaction (P = 0.001 with the exception of the psychosocial subscale. It also significantly increased the satisfaction subscale of PAC-SYM (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Education on lifestyle modification leads to an improvement in the severity of the symptoms of constipation and the QOL of the elderly in nursing homes.

  2. PREDIRCAM eHealth platform for individualized telemedical assistance for lifestyle modification in the treatment of obesity, diabetes, and cardiometabolic risk prevention: a pilot study (PREDIRCAM 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Cintia; Herrero, Pau; Cubero, José M; Iniesta, José M; Hernando, M Elena; García-Sáez, Gema; Serrano, Alvaro J; Martinez-Sarriegui, Iñaki; Perez-Gandia, Carmen; Gómez, Enrique J; Rubinat, Esther; Alcantara, Valeria; Brugués, Eulalia; Chico, Ana; Mato, Eugenia; Bell, Olga; Corcoy, Rosa; de Leiva, Alberto

    2013-07-01

    Healthy diet and regular physical activity are powerful tools in reducing diabetes and cardiometabolic risk. Various international scientific and health organizations have advocated the use of new technologies to solve these problems. The PREDIRCAM project explores the contribution that a technological system could offer for the continuous monitoring of lifestyle habits and individualized treatment of obesity as well as cardiometabolic risk prevention. PREDIRCAM is a technological platform for patients and professionals designed to improve the effectiveness of lifestyle behavior modifications through the intensive use of the latest information and communication technologies. The platform consists of a web-based application providing communication interface with monitoring devices of physiological variables, application for monitoring dietary intake, ad hoc electronic medical records, different communication channels, and an intelligent notification system. A 2-week feasibility study was conducted in 15 volunteers to assess the viability of the platform. The website received 244 visits (average time/session: 17 min 45 s). A total of 435 dietary intakes were recorded (average time for each intake registration, 4 min 42 s ± 2 min 30 s), 59 exercises were recorded in 20 heart rate monitor downloads, 43 topics were discussed through a forum, and 11 of the 15 volunteers expressed a favorable opinion toward the platform. Food intake recording was reported as the most laborious task. Ten of the volunteers considered long-term use of the platform to be feasible. The PREDIRCAM platform is technically ready for clinical evaluation. Training is required to use the platform and, in particular, for registration of dietary food intake. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  3. Role of illness perception and self-efficacy in lifestyle modification among non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Bord, Shiran; Dror-Lavi, Gali; Smith, Matthew Lee; Towne, Samuel D; Buch, Assaf; Webb, Muriel; Yeshua, Hanny; Nimer, Assy; Shibolet, Oren

    2017-03-14

    participants (57.2%) did not feel they fully understood what NAFLD is. Better nutritional habits were positively predicted by the degree of illness understanding (β = 0.26; P = 0.002) and self-efficacy (β = 0.25; P = 0.003). Perceptions of more severe illness consequences were related with higher emotional representation (β = 0.55; P < 0.001), which was related with lower self-efficacy (β = -0.17; P = 0.034). The perception of treatment effectiveness was positively related with self-efficacy (β = 0.32; P < 0.001). In accordance with the correlation between self-efficacy and the perceived nutrition habits score, self-efficacy was also correlated with nutrient intake evaluated by the FFQ; negatively with saturated fat (percent of saturated fat calories from total calories) (r = -0.28, P = 0.010) and positively with fiber (r = 0.22, P = 0.047) and vitamin C intake (r = 0.34, P = 0.002). In a sub analysis of the clinical trial participants, objectively measured compliance to physical activity regimen was positively correlated with the self-efficacy level (r = 0.34, P = 0.046). Self-efficacy and illness understanding are major determinants of lifestyle-modification among NAFLD patients. This information can assist clinicians in improving compliance with lifestyle changes among these patients.

  4. Effectiveness of mobile phone messaging in prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle modification in men in India: a prospective, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ambady; Snehalatha, Chamukuttan; Ram, Jagannathan; Selvam, Sundaram; Simon, Mary; Nanditha, Arun; Shetty, Ananth Samith; Godsland, Ian F; Chaturvedi, Nish; Majeed, Azeem; Oliver, Nick; Toumazou, Christofer; Alberti, K George; Johnston, Desmond G

    2013-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes can often be prevented by lifestyle modification; however, successful lifestyle intervention programmes are labour intensive. Mobile phone messaging is an inexpensive alternative way to deliver educational and motivational advice about lifestyle modification. We aimed to assess whether mobile phone messaging that encouraged lifestyle change could reduce incident type 2 diabetes in Indian Asian men with impaired glucose tolerance. We did a prospective, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial between Aug 10, 2009, and Nov 30, 2012, at ten sites in southeast India. Working Indian men (aged 35-55 years) with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned (1:1) with a computer-generated randomisation sequence to a mobile phone messaging intervention or standard care (control group). Participants in the intervention group received frequent mobile phone messages compared with controls who received standard lifestyle modification advice at baseline only. Field staff and participants were, by necessity, not masked to study group assignment, but allocation was concealed from laboratory personnel as well as principal and co-investigators. The primary outcome was incidence of type 2 diabetes, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00819455. We assessed 8741 participants for eligibility. 537 patients were randomly assigned to either the mobile phone messaging intervention (n=271) or standard care (n=266). The cumulative incidence of type 2 diabetes was lower in those who received mobile phone messages than in controls: 50 (18%) participants in the intervention group developed type 2 diabetes compared with 73 (27%) in the control group (hazard ratio 0·64, 95% CI 0·45-0·92; p=0·015). The number needed to treat to prevent one case of type 2 diabetes was 11 (95% CI 6-55). One patient in the control group died suddenly at the end of the first year. We recorded no other serious adverse events. Mobile

  5. Behavior change in a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention in Dutch primary care: opportunities for intervention content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, P.W.A.; Milder, I.E.J.; Wielaard, F.; Baan, C.A.; Schelfhout, J.D.M.; Westert, G.P.; van Oers, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the favorable effects of behavior change interventions on diabetes risk, lifestyle modification is a complicated process. In this study we therefore investigated opportunities for refining a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention, based on participant perceptions of

  6. Transforming cardiac rehabilitation into broad-based healthy lifestyle programs to combat noncommunicable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Lavie, Carl J; Cahalin, Lawrence P; Briggs, Paige D; Guizilini, Solange; Daugherty, John; Chan, Wai-Man; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The current incidence and prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is currently a cause for great concern on a global scale; future projections are no less disconcerting. Unhealthy lifestyle patterns are at the core of the NCD crisis; physical inactivity, excess body mass, poor nutrition and tobacco use are the primary lifestyle factors that substantially increase the risk of developing one or more NCDs. We have now come to recognize that healthy lifestyle interventions are a medical necessity that should be prescribed to all individuals. Perhaps the most well-established model for healthy lifestyle interventions in the current healthcare model is cardiac rehabilitation. To have any hope of improving the outlook for NCDs on a global scale, what is currently known as cardiac rehabilitation must transform into broad-based healthy lifestyle programing, with a shifted focus on primordial and primary prevention.

  7. Mapping Base Modifications in DNA by Transverse-Current Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jose R.; Skachkov, Dmitry; Massey, Steven E.; Kalitsov, Alan; Velev, Julian P.

    2018-02-01

    Sequencing DNA modifications and lesions, such as methylation of cytosine and oxidation of guanine, is even more important and challenging than sequencing the genome itself. The traditional methods for detecting DNA modifications are either insensitive to these modifications or require additional processing steps to identify a particular type of modification. Transverse-current sequencing in nanopores can potentially identify the canonical bases and base modifications in the same run. In this work, we demonstrate that the most common DNA epigenetic modifications and lesions can be detected with any predefined accuracy based on their tunneling current signature. Our results are based on simulations of the nanopore tunneling current through DNA molecules, calculated using nonequilibrium electron-transport methodology within an effective multiorbital model derived from first-principles calculations, followed by a base-calling algorithm accounting for neighbor current-current correlations. This methodology can be integrated with existing experimental techniques to improve base-calling fidelity.

  8. The Impact of a Web-Based App (eBalance) in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Safran Naimark, Jenny; Madar, Zecharia; R Shahar, Danit

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of Web-based apps to promote a healthy lifestyle is increasing, although most of these programs were not assessed using suitable epidemiological methods. We evaluated the effectiveness of a newly developed Web-based app in promoting a healthy lifestyle and educating adults on such lifestyles. We also analyzed predictors for success in acquiring and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Objective Our aim was to compare people receiving a new Web-based app with people who got an i...

  9. Sustainable Lifestyle Marketing of Individuals: the Base of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Rakic

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the sustainable lifestyle marketing of an individual (SLMOI. The SLMOI is the activity, a set of institutions and processes for creating, communicating and maintaining the sustainable lifestyle of an individual (SLOI. The SLOI is an individual’s sustainability-oriented pattern of living represented by his or her activities, interests and opinions. The SLOI refers to a sustainable pattern of life (daily activities within the family, a sustainable pattern of consumption, a sustainable pattern of work and production (as employees in organizations and a sustainable pattern of behavior in the society and the environment they live in. The SLOI reflects an individual’s choices with respect to spending time, money and energy in accordance with the sustainable pattern of life. The SLOI stands for sustainable behavioral patterns on the basis of attitudes and values. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the attitudes of the population towards sustainable lifestyles and the SLMOI (performed by different actors and behaviors on the basis of attitudes.Using a face-to-face questionnaire interview, the study was conducted on a sample of 400 citizens of Serbia. There are three key conclusions. First, the SLMOI leads to the SLOI, and the SLOI further leads to sustainability. Second, the creation and maintenance of the SLOI is a long-term process. Third, a holistic approach is needed as well as the engagement of numerous actors in that process of creating and maintaining the SLOI.

  10. Data from the PALS (Pregnancy and Lifestyle Study, a Community-Based Study of Lifestyle on Fertility and Reproductive Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Helen Ford

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the possible effects of lifestyle on fertility and pregnancy outcome, the PALS (Pregnancy and Lifestyle study collected extensive data on a broad range of parameters termed ‘lifestyle’ from couples who were planning a natural (non-assisted pregnancy in the coming months. There was no intervention. Participants were recruited over a six year period from 1988 to 1993 in response to extensive promotion in the local media. Male and female partners were interviewed independently and all interviews were conducted prospectively before the couple attempted to conceive. The result of each month of ‘trying’ was recorded and pregnancies were confirmed by urine tests and by ultrasound. The length of gestation of each pregnancy was recorded and pregnancies at term were classified with respect to weight. Multiple pregnancies and/or babies with congenital abnormalities have been excluded from the dataset. The data is stored as an xls file and each variable has a codename. For each of 582 couples there are 355 variables, the codes for which are described in a separate metadata file. The questionnaire based data includes information about households, occupation, chemical exposures at work and home, diet, smoking, alcohol use, hobbies, exercise and health. Recorded observations include monthly pregnancy tests and pregnancy outcomes.

  11. Lifestyle-based risk model for fall risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Sannino, Giovanna; De Falco, Ivanoe; De Pietro, Guiseppe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the explicit relationship between life-style and the risk of falling under the form of a mathematical model. Starting from some personal and behavioral information of a subject as, e.g., weight, height, age, data about physical activity habits, and concern about falling, the model would estimate the score of her/his Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems (Mini-BES) test. This score ranges within 0 and 28, and the lower its value the more likely the subj...

  12. Influence of Kidney Function on Blood Pressure Response to Lifestyle Modifications: Secondary Analysis From the Exercise and Nutritional Interventions for Cardiovascular Health (ENCORE) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Crystal C; Smith, Patrick J; Sherwood, Andrew; Mabe, Stephanie; Hinderliter, Alan L; Blumenthal, James A

    2016-12-01

    The kidney is an important regulator of blood pressure (BP). To determine whether BP response to lifestyle modification varies across normal ranges of kidney function, the authors examined the moderating role of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on clinic and ambulatory systolic BP (SBP) response in overweight and obese adults with unmedicated high BP. Among 144 participants of the Exercise and Nutritional Interventions for Cardiovascular Health (ENCORE) trial, mean age was 52.0±9.6 years and median eGFR was 89.1 (53-146) mL/min/1.73m 2 . After multivariable regression, the interaction between eGFR and weight loss was significant for clinic (P=.023) and ambulatory SBP (P=.041). Similarly, the interaction between eGFR and improved fitness was significant for clinic (P=.041) and ambulatory SBP (P=.044). The relationship between reduced dietary sodium and SBP was not moderated by eGFR. SBP findings were inconsistent for adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. These findings suggest that the effects of lifestyle modifications on SBP may be influenced by eGFR, even when kidney function is preserved. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Influence of the 48867A>C (Asp358Ala) IL6R polymorphism on response to a lifestyle modification intervention in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, V R A; Bonatto, S L; Macagnan, F E; Feoli, A M P; Alho, C S; Santos, N D V; Schmitt, V M

    2013-02-28

    We evaluated the response of individuals with metabolic syndrome to lifestyle modification intervention and examined the influence of the 48867A>C (Asp358Ala) IL6R (rs2228145) polymorphism on this response. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: NI, nutritional intervention; NIE, nutritional intervention and exercise practice. Intervention lasted three months and participants completed a comprehensive evaluation and had blood collected for biochemical measurements. Eighty-two sedentary individuals with at least three criteria for metabolic syndrome were included. Comparing metabolic syndrome parameters before and after intervention, a reduction of waist circumference was observed, although significant only for AA and AC genotypes. Also, a decrease in triglyceride levels was observed (significant for AA genotype individuals; for the AC genotype, only in the NIE group). Significant reduction of fasting glucose level was observed in all AA genotype individuals; for the AC genotype, only in the NI group. Systolic blood pressure showed significant reduction in AA and AC genotype individuals. After three months of lifestyle modification intervention, improvement in some of the metabolic syndrome parameters was observed, some associated with the IL6R genotype. At enrollment, participants with genotypes AA and AC showed more severe conditions regarding metabolic syndrome inclusion criteria, supporting previous reports that the A allele is a genetic risk factor. These individuals, however, had a better response to intervention compared to individuals with the CC genotype, suggesting that nutritional control and exercise practice could prevent risks associated with metabolic syndrome more efficiently in individuals bearing the A allele.

  14. Modification of JRR-4 based on safety evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Hironobu; Nakajima, Teruo; Funayama, Yoshiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    Since the first criticality was achieved on January 28, 1965, JRR-4 has been operated safely until on January 12, 1996. The modification of JRR-4 was planned according to the framework of reduced enrichment on research reactor program. The modification was designed based on the several national safety guides. JRR-4 has some modifications of facilities to satisfy the guides and guides criteria. (author)

  15. Effects of a Lifestyle Modification Program on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Hypertensive Patients with Angioplasty: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Jafari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of knowledge, attitude and practice are some of the barriers of having a healthy lifestyle and controlling high blood pressure. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a lifestyle modification program on knowledge, attitude and practice of hypertensive patients with angioplasty. Methods: This study was a randomizedcontrolledclinical trial conducted from November to April 2014 on 60 hypertensive patients with angioplasty in ShahidChamran hospital of Isfahan, Iran. The samples were randomly assigned to two equal groups. Data collection was performed in three stages by a researcher-made questionnaire. The intervention plan was 6 education sessions and then follow up were done by phone call. The gathered data were analyzed via SPSS (V.20, using t-test, Chi-square, repeated measurement, and post hoc LSD test andANOVA statistics. Results: The mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice in the experimental group immediately after the intervention was 77.8±7.2, 88.3±6.4 and 86.2±6.5, respectively and one month after the intervention was 80.8±7.4, 91.1±3.5 and 92.5±2.2, respectively. But in the control group, the mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice immediately after the intervention (34.90±11.23, 61.11±6.28, and 38.64±7.15 and one month after the intervention was (38.64±7.15, 59.56±6.31 and 37.27±7.26. Conclusion: Lifestyle modification program can be effective in promoting the knowledge, attitude and practice of hypertensive patients with angioplasty. Nurses can use this program in their care provision programs for these patients.

  16. Self-reported facilitators of, and impediments to maintenance of healthy lifestyle behaviours following a supervised research-based lifestyle intervention programme in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycherley, T P; Mohr, P; Noakes, M; Clifton, P M; Brinkworth, G D

    2012-05-01

    Sustainability of healthy lifestyle behaviours following participation in a research-based supervised lifestyle intervention programme is often poor. This study aimed to document factors reported by overweight and obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes as enhancing or impeding sustainability of lifestyle behaviours following participation in such a programme. Thirty patients who completed a 16-week research-based supervised lifestyle intervention programme, incorporating a structured energy restricted diet with or without supervised resistance-exercise training underwent a semi-structured qualitative interview about their experiences in maintaining programme components after 1 year. Participants maintained 8.8 ± 8.9 kg of the 13.9 ± 6.6 kg weight loss achieved with the research-based supervised lifestyle intervention programme. Only 23% of participants indicated continuation of the complete diet programme. Desire for 'variety' (33%) and increased portion size (27%) were the most commonly reported reasons for discontinuation. Participants who undertook supervised exercise training during the programme indicated access to appropriate programmes/facilities (38%), more affordable gym membership (21%) and having a personal trainer/motivator (17%) would have facilitated exercise continuation. In overweight and obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes, success of the research-based supervised lifestyle intervention programme was perceived as being primarily due to high levels of professional support and supervision, the discontinuation of which subsequently presented difficulties. The interview data provide insight into what people experience following the completion of a research-based intensive lifestyle intervention programme and suggest that programmes assembled for research purposes with the emphasis on compliance may not necessarily promote sustainable change. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  17. Influence of the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta 3 adrenoreceptor gene on insulin resistance, adipocytokine response, and weight loss secondary to lifestyle modification in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Gonzalez Sagrado, M; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Conde, R

    2007-12-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta 3 adrenoreceptor gene on adipocytokine response, insulin resistance, and weight loss secondary to lifestyle modification (Mediterranean hypocaloric diet and exercise) in obese patients. A population of 65 obese (BMI >30) non-diabetic outpatients was analyzed in a prospective way. Before and after 3 months of a lifestyle modification program, indirect calorimetry, bioimpedance, blood pressure, serial assessment of nutritional intake for 3 days via written food records, and biochemical analysis were performed. The lifestyle modification program consisted of a hypocaloric diet (1520 kcal, 52% carbohydrates, 25% lipids, and 23% proteins). The exercise program consisted of an aerobic exercise at least three times a week (60 min each). The statistical analysis was performed for Trp64/Arg64 and Arg64/Arg64 combined as a mutant group and for type Trp64/Trp64 as a wild group. The mean age of the study participants was 45.8+/-16.8 years and the mean BMI was 34.4+/-4.6 kg. There were 18 males (27.7%) and 47 females (72.3%). Fifty-five patients (84.6%; 15 males/40 females) had the Trp64/Trp64 genotype (wild group) and ten patients (15.4%; 3 males/7 females) had Trp64/Arg64 (mutant group). In the wild group, BMI, weight, fat mass, systolic blood pressure and waist circumference decreased. In this group, resting metabolic rate (RMR), RMR corrected by fat free mass, and VO(2) increased. In the mutant group, BMI, weight, fat mass, and waist circumference decreased. A significant increase was detected in RMR and VO(2) as well. No differences were detected between baseline values in the two groups. CRP levels were higher in the mutant group than in the wild variants. No differences were detected in other parameters. Only leptin levels decreased significantly in both the wild group (10.1%; pweight reduction by a low caloric diet and exercise program is the greatest in subjects with a normal

  18. Ontology-based Medical Decision Support System to Enhance Chronic Patients' Lifestyle within E-care Telemonitoring Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmimoune, Lamine; Hajjam, Amir; Ghodous, Parisa; Andres, Emmanuel; Talha, Samy; Hajjam, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe an original approach which consists of designing ontology based Medical Decision Support System (MDSS) to enhance the patients' lifestyle. This system is composed of two main parts: data collector which collects relevant lifestyle-related patent data by prompting the only significant questions in connection with the patient's medical background, and advices provider which provides personalized lifestyle advices to the patients regarding their lifestyle changes. The proposed MDSS is integrated within E-care home health monitoring platform in order to: (i) improve the patient's healthy lifestyle; (ii) educate the patients towards their disease; (iii) increase the early detection of risky situation.

  19. Fault diagnosis based on controller modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Detection and isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop systems will be considered in this paper. A major problem is that a feedback controller will in general reduce the effects from variations in the systems including parametric faults on the controlled output from the system. Parametric...... faults can be detected and isolated using active methods, where an auxiliary input is applied. Using active methods for the diagnosis of parametric faults in closed-loop systems, the amplitude of the applied auxiliary input need to be increased to be able to detect and isolate the faults in a reasonable......-parameterization (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) for the controller, it is possible to modify the feedback controller with a minor effect on the closed-loop performance in the fault-free case and at the same time optimize the detection and isolation in a faulty case. Controller modification in connection...

  20. Perceived exercise barriers are reduced and benefits are improved with lifestyle modification in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Buckley, Jonathan D; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2016-03-09

    This study assessed the perceived benefits and barriers to exercise participation in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and monitored changes in response to a lifestyle intervention. Forty-three overweight/obese PCOS women (Age, 30.3(6.2) yrs; BMI, 36.4(5.6) kg/m(2)) were randomised to one of three 20-week lifestyle programs: diet only (DO, n = 13), diet and aerobic exercise (DA, n = 11) and diet and combined aerobic-resistance exercise (DC, n = 19). Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS), weight, aerobic fitness, depression and PCOS specific health-related quality of life were measured. Barriers score was related to depression (r = 0.45, P = 0.002) and aerobic fitness (r = -0.32, P = 0.04), while benefits score was related to aerobic fitness (r = 0.41, P = 0.007). EBBS, benefits and barriers scores improved overtime (P ≤ 0.001). Benefits subscales psychological outlook and social interaction increased (P ≤ 0.001) and life enhancement and preventative health did not change (P ≥ 0.3). Physical performance increased only in DA (P = 0.009). There were no differences between treatments for any of the other subscales (P ≥ 0.2). Barriers subscales exercise milieu, time expenditure and physical exertion reduced (P ≤ 0.003) and family discouragement did not change (P = 0.6). This study demonstrated that lifestyle modification consisting of an energy-restricted diet with or without exercise training improved the perceived benefits from and barriers to exercise. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12606000198527, registered 26 May 2006.

  1. Effect of Training Based on Choice Theory on Health-Promoting Lifestyle Behaviors among Menopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Ensan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Menopause is considered as a stage of life that is often encountered by all women with symptoms as hot flashes, sweating, palpitations, sleep disorders, and urinary tract problems. The improvement of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors is one of the effective measures to moderate these symptoms by facilitating the women to enhance their lifestyle behaviors through making proper choices. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of training based on choice theory on health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in menopausal women. Methods: This two-group pretest-posttest design was conducted on 40 menopausal women within the age range of 45-55 years, referring to healthcare centers in Mashhad, Iran, in 2016. The subjects were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups using simple random sampling method. The data collection instruments included a demographic questionnaire, a menopause knowledge/attitude questionnaire, as well as Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLPII, which consisted of six dimensions of nutrition, physical activity, responsibility for health, stress management, interpersonal relationships, and spiritual growth. The intervention group received training in seven 90-minute sessions based on choice theory. The data were analyzed in SPSS software using descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test, independent t-test, paired sample t-test, and Friedman test. Results: According to the results, after the intervention, the mean scores of total health-promoting lifestyle behaviors (P

  2. User experience integrated life-style cloud-based medical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Alexandru; Lupşe, Oana Sorina; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara

    2015-01-01

    Having a modern application capable to automatically collect and process data from users, based on information and lifestyle answers is one of current challenges for researchers and medical science. The purpose of the current study is to integrate user experience design (UXD) in a cloud-based medical application to improve patient safety, quality of care and organizational efficiency. The process consists of collecting traditional and new data from patients and users using online questionnaires. A questionnaire dynamically asks questions about the user's current diet and lifestyle. After the user will introduce the data, the application will formulate a presumptive nutritional plan and will suggest different medical recommendations regarding a healthy lifestyle, and calculates a risk factor for diseases. This software application, by design and usability will be an efficient tool dedicated for fitness, nutrition and health professionals.

  3. Benefits of a 12-week lifestyle modification program including diet and combined aerobic and resistance exercise on albuminuria in diabetic and non-diabetic Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Kabasawa, Keiko; Hosojima, Michihiro; Yata, Yusuke; Saito, Mariko; Tanaka, Noriko; Tanaka, Junta; Tanabe, Naohito; Narita, Ichiei; Arakawa, Masaaki; Saito, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Albuminuria is a biomarker for chronic kidney disease and an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. A recent meta-analysis concluded that these risks increase with urinary albumin concentration, even when below the microalbuminuria threshold. Thus, minimizing urinary albumin may be a valuable therapeutic goal regardless of disease status. We investigated the benefits and safety of a 12-week lifestyle modification program including diet and combined aerobic and resistance exercise for reducing albuminuria in 295 normoalbuminuric or microalbuminuric Japanese adults, including 30 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 104 with metabolic syndrome (MS), and 145 with hypertension (HT). In the study population, the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) was reduced significantly (ΔUACR -3.8 ± 16.8 mg/g, P < 0.001) with no change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (ΔeGFR -0.4 ± 7.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.343). The reduction in UACR was associated with decreased fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.05). The UACR was also reduced in the T2DM, MS, and HT groups with no change in eGFR. Reduced UACR was associated with decreased fasting plasma glucose in the MS group and decreased systolic blood pressure in the HT group. The UACR was also reduced in 46 subjects using renin-angiotensin system inhibitors with no change in eGFR. Our 12-week lifestyle modification program reduced UACR, maintained eGFR, and improved multiple fitness findings in Japanese subjects including T2DM, MS, and HT patients.

  4. Effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-based multi-component intervention on lifestyle behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, J.; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of morbidity. Mindfulness training could be an effective strategy to optimize lifestyle behaviors related to body weight gain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-based

  5. Evidence and/or Experience-Based Knowledge in Lifestyle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    experience-based knowledge acquires significance in their encounters with patients diagnosed as obese. Presenting the ... More precisely, it is argued that what will be “effective” therapy for a person diagnosed as obese cannot be reduced to external ..... outside their house, and will only leave their house when they have a ...

  6. Translating an evidence-based lifestyle intervention program into primary care: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonstein, Andrea C; Yank, Veronica; Stafford, Randall S; Wilson, Sandra R; Rosas, Lisa Goldman; Ma, Jun

    2013-07-01

    The E-LITE (Evaluation of Lifestyle Interventions to Treat Elevated Cardiometabolic Risk in Primary Care) trial evaluated the feasibility and potential effectiveness of translating an evidence-based lifestyle intervention for the management of obesity and related risk factors in a primary care setting. Delivered by allied health care providers, the intervention promoted at least 7% weight loss and at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity through gradual, sustainable lifestyle changes. Activities included interactive group lessons, food tasting, guided physical activity, and technology-mediated self-monitoring and behavioral counseling. This article discusses insights and potential areas for improvement to strengthen program implementation for dissemination of the E-LITE program to other primary care settings. We focus on (a) the role of allied health professionals in program delivery, (b) strengthening program integration within a primary care clinic, and (c) the use of information technology to extend the reach and impact of the program. Our experience shows the feasibility of implementing an evidence-based lifestyle intervention program combining group-delivered nutrition and behavioral counseling, physical activity training, and technology-mediated follow-up in a primary care setting. Challenges remain, and we offer possible solutions to overcome them.

  7. All-cause mortality of patients with dyslipidemia up to 19 years after a multidisciplinary lifestyle modification programme: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håglin, Lena; Lundström, Sara; Kaati, Gunnar; Bäckman, Lennart; Bygren, Lars Olov

    2011-02-01

    Many studies have shown that individual lifestyle factors are associated with cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Observational studies of comprehensive programmes have reported risk reductions. The objectives were to assess the long-term all-cause mortality by diagnosis in patients referred to a lifestyle modification programme, aimed at combating coronary heart disease and stroke. A randomized trial with 325 patients referred to the centre between 1988 and 1989 for dyslipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease; 239 patients were randomized to the programme, 86 randomized to usual care. Cases were admitted to the centre in groups of 30 for a 4-week residential comprehensive activity, in total 114 full-time hours, focusing on food preferences and selections, and physical exercise. The activities were repeated during a 4-day revisit to the centre 1 year and 5 years after the 4-week intervention. Controls were referred back to their doctors, mainly in primary care, for usual care. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality during 11–12 and 18–19 years after intervention. At follow-up 11–12 years after referral, the relative risk reduction (RRR) was 76% with the intention-to-treat analysis among cases admitted for dyslipidemia (hazards ratio 0.24, confidence interval 0.06–0.89, P = 0.033). After 18–19 years, the RRR was 66% (hazards ratio 0.34, confidence interval 0.13–0.88, P = 0.026). No RRR was found for the other three diagnoses. Patients admitted for dyslipidemia reached a real long-term RRR of all-cause mortality. They had by definition a need for this programme.

  8. Evaluation of a lifestyle modification program for treatment of overweight and nonmorbid obesity in primary healthcare and its influence on health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrebola, E; Gómez-Candela, C; Fernández-Fernández, C; Loria, V; Muñoz-Pérez, E; Bermejo, L M

    2011-06-01

    The impact of overweight and nonmorbid obesity on health-related quality of life (HRQL) has not been widely researched. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a lifestyle modification program (LMP) focused on diet, exercise, and psychological support on HRQL in overweight and nonmorbidly obese patients treated in a primary healthcare setting. Sixty patients with grade II overweight and nonmorbid grade I-II obesity were included in this open pilot clinical trial; subjects' ages ranged from 18 to 50 years. They were provided with an LMP combining nutrition education, physical activity, and psychological support. Subjects attended group sessions every 2 weeks. The main outcome measures at baseline and 6 months were body composition parameters (body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist circumference) and HRQL using the 1.4 Spanish version of the SF-36 questionnaire. The questionnaire yields an 8-scale profile of physical functioning (PF), role--physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), vitality (VT), social functioning (SF), role--emotional (RE), mental health (MH), and general health (GH) factors. The LMP achieved improvements in SF-36 subscales at the end of the intervention: PF (80.37 ± 18.90 vs 89.40 ± 13.95, P obese patients treated in a primary healthcare center.

  9. Consumer Product Perceptions and Salmon Consumption Frequency: The Role of Heterogeneity Based on Food Lifestyle Segments

    OpenAIRE

    Yuko Onozaka; Håvard Hansen; Arne Sørvig

    2014-01-01

    Seafood consumers are vastly heterogeneous in terms of their knowledge, confidence, and perceptions about seafood. This article examines the relationship between consumer perceptions (healthiness, value for money, and convenience) and salmon consumption frequencies while modeling unobserved consumer heterogeneity by segmenting consumers based on their food-related lifestyle. We employ latent class analysis (LCA) that embeds the structural equation modeling (SEM) to ensure the latent nature of...

  10. Lifestyle Intervention for Weight Loss: a group-based program for Emiratis in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiya A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amena Sadiya,1,* Sarah Abdi,1,* Salah Abusnana2 1Lifestyle Clinic, 2Research and Education Department, Rashid Center for Diabetes and Research, Ajman, United Arab Emirates *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Lifestyle Intervention for Weight Loss (LIFE-8 is developed as a structured, group-based weight management program for Emiratis with obesity and type 2 diabetes. It is a 3-month program followed by a 1-year follow-up. The results from the first 2 years are presented here to indicate the possibility of its further adaptation and implementation in this region. Methodology: We recruited 45 participants with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The LIFE-8 program was executed by incorporating dietary modification, physical activity, and behavioral therapy, aiming to achieve up to 5% weight loss. The outcomes included body weight, fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and nutritional knowledge at 3 months and 12 months. Results: We observed a reduction of 5.0% in body weight (4.8±2.8 kg; 95% CI 3.7–5.8, fat mass (–7.8%, P<0.01, and waist circumference (Δ=4±4 cm, P<0.01 in the completed participants (n=28. An improvement (P<0.05 in HbA1c (7.1%±1.0% vs 6.6%±0.7% and FBG (8.2±2.0 mmol/L vs 6.8±0.8 mmol/L was observed in participants with obesity and type 2 diabetes after the program. Increase in nutritional knowledge (<0.01 and overall evaluation of the program (9/10 was favorable. On 1-year follow-up, we found that the participants could sustain weight loss (–4.0%, while obese, type 2 diabetic participants sustained HbA1c (6.6%±0.7% vs 6.4%±0.7% and further improved (P<0.05 the level of FBG (6.8±0.8 mmol/L vs 6.7±0.4 mmol/L. Conclusion: LIFE-8 could be an effective, affordable, acceptable, and adaptable lifestyle intervention program for the prevention and management of diabetes in Emiratis. It was successful not

  11. Modification of species-based differential evolution for multimodal optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Said Iskandar Al; Syahputra, Hermawan; Firdaus, Muliawan

    2015-12-01

    At this time optimization has an important role in various fields as well as between other operational research, industry, finance and management. Optimization problem is the problem of maximizing or minimizing a function of one variable or many variables, which include unimodal and multimodal functions. Differential Evolution (DE), is a random search technique using vectors as an alternative solution in the search for the optimum. To localize all local maximum and minimum on multimodal function, this function can be divided into several domain of fitness using niching method. Species-based niching method is one of method that build sub-populations or species in the domain functions. This paper describes the modification of species-based previously to reduce the computational complexity and run more efficiently. The results of the test functions show species-based modifications able to locate all the local optima in once run the program.

  12. Maternal diabetes or hypertension and lifestyle factors may be associated with metabolic syndrome: A population-based study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hua Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early detection and interventions for metabolic syndrome (MetS are the most cost-effective methods for preventing many chronic diseases. There have been discordant findings in various countries due to different genetics and lifestyles. The goal of this study was to investigate the association of MetS with parental diseases, a Chinese-style diet, and rural-urban regional differences with a large-scale epidemiological survey in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Taiwanese Survey on Hypertension, Hyperglycemia, and Hyperlipidemia (TwSHHH, a cross-sectional population-based study with multistage stratified random sampling conducted by the Taiwan Bureau of Health Promotion in 2002. Public health nurses visited homes to conduct the survey, including blood drawing and an interview. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used for exploring the factors associated with MetS. A total of 6591 people completed data for analysis. Our results revealed that older age, male sex, and maternal diabetes or hypertension, were significantly associated with MetS. Eating poultry with skin and fat and eating a bean-free diet may be associated with a higher risk of MetS. People who exercised regularly and the residents of the Taipei metropolitan area had a lower prevalence of MetS. As a result, people with maternal diabetes or hypertension should pay attention to their cardiovascular health and prevention of MetS. We suggest that eating skinless and low-fat poultry, eating more beans, and exercising regularly, may decrease the risk of MetS. We should make an effort to advocate for health promotion, including lifestyle modification, especially among the high-risk population and among residents in rural areas with limited medical resources.

  13. Testing a Dutch web-based tailored lifestyle programme among adults: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Osch Liesbeth ADM

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, high alcohol consumption, unhealthy eating habits and physical inactivity often lead to (chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Tailored online interventions have been proven to be effective in changing health behaviours. The aim of this study is to test and compare the effectiveness of two different tailoring strategies for changing lifestyle compared to a control group using a multiple health behaviour web-based approach. Methods In our Internet-based tailored programme, the five lifestyle behaviours of smoking, alcohol intake, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, and physical activity are addressed. This randomized controlled trial, conducted among Dutch adults, includes two experimental groups (i.e., a sequential behaviour tailoring condition and a simultaneous behaviour tailoring condition and a control group. People in the sequential behaviour tailoring condition obtain feedback on whether their lifestyle behaviours meet the Dutch recommendations. Using a step-by-step approach, they are stimulated to continue with a computer tailored module to change only one unhealthy behaviour first. In the course of the study, they can proceed to change a second behaviour. People in the simultaneous behaviour tailoring condition receive computer tailored feedback about all their unhealthy behaviours during their first visit as a stimulation to change all unhealthy behaviours. The experimental groups can re-visit the website and can then receive ipsative feedback (i.e., current scores are compared to previous scores in order to give feedback about potential changes. The (difference in effectiveness of the different versions of the programme will be tested and compared to a control group, in which respondents only receive a short health risk appraisal. Programme evaluations will assess satisfaction with and appreciation and personal relevance of the intervention among the respondents. Finally

  14. Lifestyle Factors in Hypertension Drug Research: Systematic Analysis of Articles in a Leading Cochrane Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan E. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Established standards for first-line hypertension management include lifestyle modification and behavior change. The degree to which and how lifestyle modification is systematically integrated into studies of first-line drug management for hypertension is of methodological and clinical relevance. This study systematically reviewed the methodology of articles from a recent Cochrane review that had been designed to inform first-line medical treatment of hypertension and was representative of high quality established clinical trials in the field. Source articles (n=34 were systematically reviewed for lifestyle interventions including smoking cessation, diet, weight loss, physical activity and exercise, stress reduction, and moderate alcohol consumption. 54% of articles did not mention lifestyle modification; 46% contained nonspecific descriptions of interventions. We contend that hypertension management research trials (including drug studies need to elucidate the benefits and risks of drug-lifestyle interaction, to support the priority of lifestyle modification, and that lifestyle modification, rather than drugs, is seen by patients and the public as a priority for health professionals. The inclusion of lifestyle modification strategies in research designs for hypertension drug trials could enhance current research, from trial efficacy to clinical outcome effectiveness, and align hypertension best practices of a range of health professionals with evidence-based knowledge translation.

  15. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin; Ryu, Kisang

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies.

  16. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350

  17. Effectiveness of a web-based health risk assessment with individually-tailored feedback on lifestyle behaviour: study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Eva K.; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A.; Peek, Niels; Busschers, Wim B.; Deutekom, Marije; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary habits, smoking and high alcohol consumption are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease and cancer. Web-based health risk assessments with tailored feedback seem promising in promoting a healthy lifestyle. This study evaluates the

  18. Determinants of preferences for lifestyle changes versus medication and beliefs in ability to maintain lifestyle changes. A population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte Ejg Jarbøl

    2017-06-01

    For conclusion we found a pervasive preference for lifestyle changes over medical treatment when individuals were promised the same benefits. Lifestyle risk factors and socioeconomic characteristics were associated with preference for lifestyle changes as well as belief in ability to maintain lifestyle changes. For health professionals risk communication should not only focus on patient preferences but also on patients' beliefs in their own ability to initiate lifestyle changes and possible barriers against maintaining changes.

  19. A 13-week low glycemic load diet and lifestyle modification program combining low glycemic load protein shakes and targeted nutraceuticals improved weight loss and cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Babish, John G; Lamb, Joseph J; Eliason, Sarah; Brabazon, Holly; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Tripp, Matthew L

    2017-12-01

    An open-label, randomized, exploratory study of 44 healthy overweight subjects with cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) risk factors was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of a proprietary lifestyle modification program without (DIET) and with (PROG) targeted nutraceutical supplementation, including phytosterols, antioxidants, probiotics, fish oil, berberine, and soy, pea, and whey proteins over 13 weeks. Key metrics were recorded at baseline and weeks 9 and 13. For the DIET and PROG groups, compliance was 85% and 86%, respectively, with no adverse events related to the diet or supplements. Twelve subjects discontinued participation before week 9 for reasons unrelated to the study. PROG subjects experienced greater decreases (p < 0.05) than DIET in body mass, fat mass, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, TG, cholesterol / HDL ratio, TG/HDL ratio, apolipoprotein B / apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and hs-CRP. The Framingham 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score decreased by 40% (p < 0.01) in the PROG arm versus no change for the DIET arm. As a pilot study, it was not possible to state whether the observed effects were the result of nutraceutical supplementation alone or the result of additive or synergistic interactions among diet, lifestyle modifications, and nutraceutical supplementation. Moreover, individuals with CMS risk factors following a lifestyle modification program received additional health benefits from targeted nutraceutical supplementation.

  20. Community-based randomized controlled trial of diabetes prevention study for high-risk individuals of type 2 diabetes: lifestyle intervention using web-based system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Ah Cha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trend of increasing numbers of patients with type 2 diabetes emphasizes the need for active screening of high-risk individuals and intensive lifestyle modification (LSM. Methods/design The community-based Korean Diabetes Prevention Study (C-KDPS is a randomized controlled clinical trial to prevent type 2 diabetes by intensive LSM using a web-based program. The two public healthcare centers in Korea are involved, and 420 subjects are being recruited for 6 months and will be followed up for 22 months. The participants are allocated randomly to intensive LSM (18 individual sessions for 24 weeks and usual care (control group. The major goals of the C-KDPS lifestyle intervention program are: 1 a minimum of 5–7% loss of initial body weight in 6 months and maintenance of this weight loss, 2 increased physical activity (≥ 150 min/week of moderate intensity activity, 3 balanced healthy eating, and 4 quitting smoking and alcohol with stress management. The web-based program includes education contents, video files, visit schedules, and inter-communicable keeping track sites. Primary outcomes are the diagnoses of newly developed diabetes. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test with hemoglobin A1c level determination and cardiovascular risk factor assessment is scheduled at 6, 12, 18, and 22 months. Discussion Active screening of high-risk individuals and an effective LSM program are an essential prerequisite for successful diabetes prevention. We hope that our C-KDPS program can reduce the incidence of newly developed type 2 diabetes and be implemented throughout the country, merging community-based public healthcare resources and a web-based system. Trial registration Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, Republic of Korea (No. KCT0001981 . Date of registration; July 28, 2016.

  1. Technology-Based Innovations to Foster Personalized Healthy Lifestyles and Well-Being: A Targeted Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Silvina; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Marias, Kostas; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Teixeira, António; Janssen, Joris H; de Jong, Henri; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2016-01-01

    Background New community-based arrangements and novel technologies can empower individuals to be active participants in their health maintenance, enabling people to control and self-regulate their health and wellness and make better health- and lifestyle-related decisions. Mobile sensing technology and health systems responsive to individual profiles combined with cloud computing can expand innovation for new types of interoperable services that are consumer-oriented and community-based. This could fuel a paradigm shift in the way health care can be, or should be, provided and received, while lessening the burden on exhausted health and social care systems. Objective Our goal is to identify and discuss the main scientific and engineering challenges that need to be successfully addressed in delivering state-of-the-art, ubiquitous eHealth and mHealth services, including citizen-centered wellness management services, and reposition their role and potential within a broader context of diverse sociotechnical drivers, agents, and stakeholders. Methods We review the state-of-the-art relevant to the development and implementation of eHealth and mHealth services in critical domains. We identify and discuss scientific, engineering, and implementation-related challenges that need to be overcome to move research, development, and the market forward. Results Several important advances have been identified in the fields of systems for personalized health monitoring, such as smartphone platforms and intelligent ubiquitous services. Sensors embedded in smartphones and clothes are making the unobtrusive recognition of physical activity, behavior, and lifestyle possible, and thus the deployment of platforms for health assistance and citizen empowerment. Similarly, significant advances are observed in the domain of infrastructure supporting services. Still, many technical problems remain to be solved, combined with no less challenging issues related to security, privacy, trust, and

  2. Technology-Based Innovations to Foster Personalized Healthy Lifestyles and Well-Being: A Targeted Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakis, Emmanouil G; Santana, Silvina; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Marias, Kostas; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Teixeira, António; Janssen, Joris H; de Jong, Henri; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2016-06-24

    New community-based arrangements and novel technologies can empower individuals to be active participants in their health maintenance, enabling people to control and self-regulate their health and wellness and make better health- and lifestyle-related decisions. Mobile sensing technology and health systems responsive to individual profiles combined with cloud computing can expand innovation for new types of interoperable services that are consumer-oriented and community-based. This could fuel a paradigm shift in the way health care can be, or should be, provided and received, while lessening the burden on exhausted health and social care systems. Our goal is to identify and discuss the main scientific and engineering challenges that need to be successfully addressed in delivering state-of-the-art, ubiquitous eHealth and mHealth services, including citizen-centered wellness management services, and reposition their role and potential within a broader context of diverse sociotechnical drivers, agents, and stakeholders. We review the state-of-the-art relevant to the development and implementation of eHealth and mHealth services in critical domains. We identify and discuss scientific, engineering, and implementation-related challenges that need to be overcome to move research, development, and the market forward. Several important advances have been identified in the fields of systems for personalized health monitoring, such as smartphone platforms and intelligent ubiquitous services. Sensors embedded in smartphones and clothes are making the unobtrusive recognition of physical activity, behavior, and lifestyle possible, and thus the deployment of platforms for health assistance and citizen empowerment. Similarly, significant advances are observed in the domain of infrastructure supporting services. Still, many technical problems remain to be solved, combined with no less challenging issues related to security, privacy, trust, and organizational dynamics. Delivering

  3. Electronic screening for lifestyle issues and mental health in youth: a community-based participatory research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Corter, Arden; Suh, Hannah

    2016-11-08

    We previously developed YouthCHAT, a youth programme for electronic screening and intervention for lifestyle risk factors and mental health issues. Our aim was to tailor the YouthCHAT package for use in a clinic catering for disadvantaged youth, assess its acceptability and utility, and develop a framework to scale-up its implementation. We used a community-based participatory research approach to implement YouthCHAT in a rural clinic in New Zealand. Modifications to the programme were developed using an iterative process involving clinicians and patients. Electronic YouthCHAT data were collated and descriptive statistics produced. Quantitative data from post-consultation youth surveys were analysed, with thematic analyses undertaken of free text responses and staff interviews. A generic implementation framework was developed with modifiable components. Thirty youth, predominantly female Māori, completed electronic screening then attended their clinician. Consultations included discussion of YouthCHAT responses, with joint problem-solving and decision-making regarding intervention. Twenty-seven (90 %) screened positive for at least one domain. Nineteen (67 %) had one to three issues. Sixteen (53 %) wanted help with at least one issue, either immediately or later. Patients gave YouthCHAT high acceptability ratings (M = 8.29/10), indicating it was easy to use, helped them think about and identify problems, talk with their doctor, and assisted their doctor to be aware of these issues. They liked that YouthCHAT kept them busy in the waiting room and gave them time to reflect on their responses, and what to discuss with their clinician. Clinicians felt that YouthCHAT was acceptable to their young patients because it was electronic and reinforced their privacy. They indicated YouthCHAT identified problems that would have not been identified in a normal consult, and improved consultations by making them faster. The clinic continues to use YouthCHAT post-study. A

  4. Impact of a Community-Based Healthy Lifestyle Program on Individuals With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Simon; Reynolds, Megan; Woolsey, Anne; Callender, Librada; Prajapati, Purvi K; Bennett, Monica; Kramer, Kaye

    2018-01-30

    To examine adherence with and effect of an evidence-based healthy lifestyle intervention modified for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Pre-/postintervention without control. Community. Eighteen individuals with TBI: primarily male (61%), white (67%), with private insurance (50%). Mean age was 45.6 ± 12.3 years, weight 210 ± 42.6 lb, and body mass index 31.8 ± 4.6 (obese category) at baseline. The primary goal of the Diabetes Prevention Program Group Lifestyle Balance program is 5% to 7% weight loss through increased physical activity and improved dietary behaviors. Adherence (ie, session attendance and self-monitoring of dietary behaviors), physiologic changes (ie, weight loss, blood pressure; waist and arm circumference; and lipid profile), and quality of life (ie, self-reported health, quality of life, and step count). Average participant attendance (85% over 12 months) and self-monitoring (90% over 6 months) were high. Significant decreases were observed in diastolic blood pressure and waist and arm circumference from baseline through 12 months and from baseline to 3 months only for weight and total cholesterol. No significant changes were observed in self-reported health, quality of life, or step count. Participants demonstrated high adherence with the program, suggesting that individuals with TBI are able to successfully engage in the program and achieve significant weight loss and changes in key physiologic outcomes.

  5. Making and maintaining lifestyle changes after participating in group based type 2 diabetes self-management educations: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit B Rise

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease management is crucial in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes self-management education aims to provide the knowledge necessary to make and maintain lifestyle changes. However, few studies have investigated the processes after such courses. The aim of this study was to investigate how participants make and maintain lifestyle changes after participating in group-based type 2 diabetes self-management education. METHODS: Data was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews with 23 patients who attended educational group programs in Central Norway. The participants were asked how they had used the advice given and what they had changed after the course. RESULTS: Knowledge was essential for making lifestyle changes following education. Three factors affected whether lifestyle changes were implemented: obtaining new knowledge, taking responsibility, and receiving confirmation of an already healthy lifestyle. Four factors motivated individuals to maintain changes: support from others, experiencing an effect, fear of complications, and the formation of new habits. CONCLUSION: Knowledge was used to make and maintain changes in diet, medication and physical activity. Knowledge also acted as confirmation of an already adequate lifestyle. Knowledge led to no changes if diabetes appeared "not that scary" or if changes appeared too time consuming. Those involved in diabetes education need to be aware of the challenges in convincing asymptomatic patients about the benefits of adherence to self-management behaviour.

  6. A Systematic and Integrated Review of Mobile-Based Technology to Promote Active Lifestyles in People With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kathryn Anne; Kirk, Alison; Hewitt, Allan; MacRury, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    The aim was to review studies examining the effectiveness, acceptability, and feasibility of mobile-based technology for promoting active lifestyles in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Benefits of leading an active lifestyle following a diagnosis of T2D, including improved glycemic control, have been reported. Studies examining the specific use of mobile-based technologies to promote an active lifestyle in T2D have not previously been reviewed. Research studies examining effectiveness, feasibility or acceptability of mobile-based technology for active lifestyle promotion for T2D management were included (n = 9). The databases searched included PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect, and ACM Digital Library (January 2005 to October 2015). Studies were categorized as (1) informing, (2) monitoring, (3) provoking, or (4) sustaining behavior change. Technologies used included smartphone or tablet apps, diabetes personal digital assistant, continuous glucose monitor and accelerometer, pedometer, and a website delivered by a smartphone. No articles examined the effectiveness of mobile-based technology in monitoring health behaviors and behavior change. Four of the studies found mobile-based technology to be motivational and supportive for behavior change. The visual reinforcement was identified as motivational. The feasibility and acceptability of using mobile-based technology to provide sustained lifestyle change and the effectiveness of mobile-based technology in monitoring health behaviors and behavior change have not been investigated. No studies examined all 3 of the outcomes or focused decreasing the participants' sedentary behavior. Limited research has examined the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of mobile-based technology to promote active lifestyles and subsequently good diabetes management in people with T2D.

  7. PSA based plant modifications and back-fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of Principal Working Group No. 5 - Risk Assessment states that 'The group should deal with the technology and methods for identifying contributors to risk and assessing their importance, and appropriate exchanges of information on current research'. Since being formulated in 1982, along with this mandate, the group has also endeavored to develop a common understanding of the different approaches taken in risk assessment. The focus of this report is to provide knowledge to experts on the role Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has had in safety decision making. PSA is a powerful tool for improving Nuclear Power Plant safety by identifying weaknesses in design or operation and setting priorities for plant modifications and back-fits. While the use is well recognised, it is also true that any safety decision is generally based on several elements, both probabilistic and deterministic. This document provides a general overview of insights gained from the representative set of examples collected from Member countries (Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States). The report starts with basic types of plant modifications which were carried out (e.g. hardware or software, important or minor, etc.) and the characteristics of the PSAs used in the examples (e.g. level and scope, specific or generic, on-going or terminated, etc.). The insights gained from this small collection are then reviewed. The appendix gives a full text version of the Member country contributions

  8. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Sandaly O S; Pacheco, Fabio J; Zapata, Gimena M J; Garcia, Julieta M E; Previale, Carlos A; Cura, Héctor E; Craig, Winston J

    2016-07-09

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis.

  9. The long-term effect of a population-based life-style intervention on smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Toft, Ulla Marie Nørgaard; Aadahl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether improvements in smoking and alcohol consumption throughout the 5-year course of a population-based multi-factorial life-style intervention were sustained 5 years after its discontinuation. DESIGN: Population-based randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Suburbs of Copenhage...

  10. Plasma based Ar+ beam assisted poly(dimethylsiloxane) surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladkova, T.G.; Keranov, I.L.; Dineff, P.D.; Youroukov, S.Y.; Avramova, I.A.; Krasteva, N.; Altankov, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma based Ar + beam performed in RF (13.56 MHz) low-pressure (200 mTorr) glow discharge (at 100 W, 1200 W and 2500 W) with a serial capacitance was employed for surface modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) aimed at improvement of its interactions with living cells. The presence of a serial capacitance ensures arise of an ion-flow inside the plasma volume directed toward the treated sample and the vary of the discharge power ensures varied density of the ion-flow. XPS analysis was performed to study the changes in the surface chemical composition of the modified samples and the corresponding changes in the surface energy were monitored by contact angle measurements. We found that plasma based Ar + beam transforms the initially hydrophobic PDMS surface into a hydrophilic one mainly due to a raising of the polar component of the surface tension, this effect being most probably due to an enrichment of the modified surface layer with permanent dipoles of a [SiO x ]-based network and elimination of the original methyl groups. The initial adhesion of human fibroblast cells was studied on the described above plasma based Ar + beam modified and acrylic acid (AA) grafted or not fibronectin (FN) pre-coated or bare surfaces. The cell response seems to be related with the peculiar structure and wettability of the modified PDMS surface layer after plasma based Ar + beam treatment followed or not by AA grafting

  11. Consumer segmentation based on food-related lifestyles and analysis of rabbit meat consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Buitrago-Vera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation divides the market into small groups of consumers who share similar characteristics. As all consumers within the same group have a common profile, marketing strategies can be adapted to target a specific type of consumer. Owing to the rapid changes in today’s society, consumer lifestyle has become the ideal criterion for market segmentation. In this study, we employed the food-related lifestyle model, which scholars have shown to be suitable and valid in several countries. Using data from a survey (with 3.53% error, we segmented the Spanish food market based on consumers’ food-related lifestyles. For each segment, we identified the consumer profile and analysed consumers’ consumption of rabbit meat. Factor analysis and cluster analysis yielded 4 segments: (i ‘Unconcerned’ (36.8% of the sample mainly consists of male consumers. Consumers in this segment value neither the freshness nor the price/quality ratio of their food items and consume rabbit meat rarely (39.4% or sporadically (29.3%. (ii ‘Cooks’ (18.4% predominantly consists of middle-aged women. Consumers in this segment are highly demanding and critical of the quality of food products. They like cooking and are regular consumers of rabbit meat (40.6%. (iii ‘Out-of-home consumers and convenience shoppers’ (28.6% mostly consists of consumers aged between 25 and 34 y old and contains a large proportion of upper-class consumers. Consumers in this segment prefer to eat out and consume convenience products. This segment has the second highest percentage of regular consumers of rabbit meat (36.9%. The segment also has the second highest percentage of consumers who rarely or never eat rabbit meat (43.9%. (iv ‘Rational purchaser with little interest in cooking’ (16.2% has the highest proportion of consumers aged 55 to 74 y old. Consumers in this segment have the least interest in cooking, the most interest in the purchasing process, and the lowest

  12. Does a population-based multi-factorial lifestyle intervention increase social inequality in dietary habits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Jakobsen, Iris Marie; Aadahl, Mette

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether the effect of an individualised multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on dietary habits differs across socioeconomic groups.......To investigate whether the effect of an individualised multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on dietary habits differs across socioeconomic groups....

  13. A Hospital-Based Therapeutic Lifestyle Program for Women With Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei-Jen Jou

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: The therapeutic lifestyle program with diet control and regular exercise improves most markers of MetS except for levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Therapeutic lifestyle intervention may be the best way of reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in women with MetS.

  14. Effectiveness of a web-based health risk assessment with individually-tailored feedback on lifestyle behaviour: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laan Eva K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary habits, smoking and high alcohol consumption are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease and cancer. Web-based health risk assessments with tailored feedback seem promising in promoting a healthy lifestyle. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a web-based health risk assessment with individually-tailored feedback on lifestyle behaviour, conducted in a worksite setting. Methods/Design The web-based health risk assessment starts with a questionnaire covering socio-demographic variables, family and personal medical history, lifestyle behaviour and psychological variables. Prognostic models are used to estimate individual cardiovascular risks. In case of high risk further biometric and laboratory evaluation is advised. All participants receive individually-tailored feedback on their responses to the health risk assessment questionnaire. The study uses a quasi-experimental design with a waiting list control group. Data are collected at baseline (T0 and after six months (T1. Within each company, clusters of employees are allocated to either the intervention or the control group. Primary outcome is lifestyle behaviour, expressed as the sum of five indicators namely physical activity, nutrition, smoking behaviour, alcohol consumption, and symptoms of burnout. Multilevel regression analysis will be used to answer the main research question and to correct for clustering effects. Baseline differences between the intervention and control group in the distribution of characteristics with a potential effect on lifestyle change will be taken into account in further analyses using propensity scores. Discussion This study will increase insight into the effectiveness of health risk assessments with tailored feedback and into conditions that may modify the effectiveness. This information can be used to design effective interventions for lifestyle behaviour change among employees. Trial

  15. Towards measurement of the Healthy Ageing Phenotype in lifestyle-based intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jose; Godfrey, Alan; Evans, Elizabeth; Heaven, Ben; Brown, Laura J E; Barron, Evelyn; Rochester, Lynn; Meyer, Thomas D; Mathers, John C

    2013-10-01

    Given the biological complexity of the ageing process, there is no single, simple and reliable measure of how healthily someone is ageing. Intervention studies need a panel of measures which capture key features of healthy ageing. To help guide our research in this area, we have adopted the concept of the "Healthy Ageing Phenotype" (HAP) and this study aimed to (i) identify the most important features of the HAP and (ii) identify/develop tools for measurement of those features. After a comprehensive assessment of the literature we selected the following domains: physiological and metabolic health, physical capability, cognitive function, social wellbeing, and psychological wellbeing which we hoped would provide a reasonably holistic characterisation of the HAP. We reviewed the literature and identified systematic reviews and/or meta-analysis of cohort studies, and clinical guidelines on outcome measures of these domains relevant to the HAP. Selection criteria for these measures included: frequent use in longitudinal studies of ageing; expected to change with age; evidence for strong association with/prediction of ageing-related phenotypes such as morbidity, mortality and lifespan; whenever possible, focus on studies measuring these outcomes in populations rather than on individuals selected on the basis of a particular disease; (bio)markers that respond to (lifestyle-based) intervention. Proposed markers were exposed to critique in a Workshop held in Newcastle, UK in October 2012. We have selected a tentative panel of (bio)markers of physiological and metabolic health, physical capability, cognitive function, social wellbeing, and psychological wellbeing which we propose may be useful in characterising the HAP and which may have utility as outcome measures in intervention studies. In addition, we have identified a number of tools which could be applied in community-based intervention studies designed to enhance healthy ageing. We have proposed, tentatively, a panel

  16. Social determinants of health and attempt to change unhealthy lifestyle: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Danaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A healthy lifestyle is important because of its long-term benefits; however, there is a paucity of information concerning health choices among Iranians. We evaluated personal health behaviors, attempts to change unhealthy behaviors, and factors affecting attempts at change. Methods: The design of this cross-sectional study was to assemble a representative cadre of> 18-year-old adults in Shiraz, Iran, using a multistage cluster sampling technique. Validated questionnaires collected participant's demographic information, such as weight, height, cigarette smoking history, physical activity, and attempts at lifestyle changes during the previous year. To determine predictors of attempts to change unhealthy lifestyle and to identify confounders, we applied single and multivariable logistic regression methods, respectively. A confidence interval of 95% was calculated for each odds ratio. Results: The prevalence of attempts to change unhealthy lifestyle was 42%, 64.8%, and 27.8%, respectively, for losing weight, being more physically active, and smoking cessation. Unemployment, low levels of education, and decreased socioeconomic status have important roles in attempts to change lifestyle conditions. Low socioeconomic status was a risk factor for quitting smoking. Occupation (unemployed/homemaker and low level of education were two significant factors for being more physically active. Conclusions: The prevalence of inadequate physical activity and being overweight or obese was considerable in Shiraz, Iran. Attempts to change unhealthy lifestyle were less than ideal. Social determinants of health factors including unemployment and low levels of education and socioeconomic status play important roles in attempts to change current lifestyles.

  17. Interrelationships between changes in anthropometric variables and computed tomography indices of abdominal fat distribution in response to a 1-year physical activity-healthy eating lifestyle modification program in abdominally obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Nicole; Pelletier-Beaumont, Emilie; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Lemieux, Isabelle; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The objectives were to (i) measure the effects of a 1-year lifestyle modification program on body fat distribution/anthropometric variables; (ii) determine the interrelationships between changes in all these variables; and (iii) investigate whether there is a selective reduction in deep (DSAT) vs. superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) at the abdominal level following a 1-year lifestyle modification program. Anthropometric variables, body composition and abdominal and midthigh fat distribution were assessed at baseline and after 1 year in 109 sedentary, dyslipidemic and abdominally obese men. Reductions in anthropometric variables, skinfold thicknesses (except the trunk/extremity ratio) and fat mass as well as an increase in fat-free mass were observed after 1 year (p abdominal adipose tissue volumes were also noted (-23%, -26%, -18%, -19%, -17%, p muscle area and an increase (+1%, p muscle area were also observed. There was a positive relationship between changes in visceral adipose tissue and changes in DSAT (r = 0.65, p muscle quality in abdominally obese men.

  18. Effects of a Community-Based Lifestyle Intervention on Change in Physical Activity among Economically Disadvantaged Adults with Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Laura M.; Hoen, Helena M.; Slaven, James E.; Finch, Emily A.; Marrero, David G.; Saha, Chandan; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Moderate weight loss and physical activity (PA) can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes however there is a need for innovative, effective programs to promote PA in high-risk individuals. Purpose: We examined the effect of a group-based adaption of the DPP lifestyle intervention implemented in partnership with the YMCA (YDPP) on changes in…

  19. Implementation Process and Acceptance of a Setting Based Prevention Programme to Promote Healthy Lifestyle in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Birgit; Strauss, Angelika; Mayer, Andrea; Duvinage, Kristin; Mitschek, Christine; Koletzko, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the implementation process of a kindergarten-based intervention ("TigerKids") to promote a healthy lifestyle. Design: Questionnaire survey among kindergarten teachers about programme implementation and acceptance. Setting: Kindergartens in Bavaria, Germany. Methods: Two hundred and fifteen kindergartens were…

  20. Staff Perspectives on the Use of a Computer-Based Concept for Lifestyle Intervention Implemented in Primary Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlfjord, Siw; Johansson, Kjell; Bendtsen, Preben; Nilsen, Per; Andersson, Agneta

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate staff experiences of the use of a computer-based concept for lifestyle testing and tailored advice implemented in routine primary health care (PHC). Design: The design of the study was a cross-sectional, retrospective survey. Setting: The study population consisted of staff at nine PHC units in the…

  1. Exploratory analysis of associations between individual lifestyles and heart rate variability -based recovery during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietila, Julia; Helander, Elina; Myllymaki, Tero; Korhonen, Ilkka; Jimison, Holly; Pavel, Misha

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is the most important period for recovering from daily stress and load. Assessment of the stress recovery during sleep is therefore, an important metric for care and quality of life. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a non-invasive marker of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, and HRV-based methods can be used to assess physiological recovery, characterized by parasympathetic domination of the ANS. HRV is affected by multiple factors of which some are unmodifiable (such as age and gender) but many are related to daily lifestyle choices (e.g. alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleeping times). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of these aforementioned factors on HRV-based recovery during sleep on a large sample. Variable importance measures yielded by random forest were used for identifying the most relevant predictors of sleep-time recovery. The results emphasize the disturbing effects of alcohol consumption on sleep-time recovery. Good physical fitness is associated to good recovery, but acute physical activity seems to challenge or delay the recovery process for the next night. Longer sleeping time enables more recovery minutes, but the proportion of recovery (i.e. recovery efficiency) seems to peak around 7.0-7.25 hours of sleep.

  2. Is a motivational interviewing based lifestyle intervention for obese pregnant women across Europe implemented as planned?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; Simmons, David; Gobat, Nina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Process evaluation is an essential part of designing and assessing complex interventions. The vitamin D and lifestyle intervention study (DALI) study is testing different strategies to prevent development of gestational diabetes mellitus among European obese pregnant women with a body....... Fidelity of eight (out of twelve) lifestyle coach practitioners was assessed by analysing audio recorded counselling sessions using the MI treatment integrity scale. Furthermore, associations between process elements and GWG were assessed with linear regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 20...

  3. The impact of a Web-based app (eBalance) in promoting healthy lifestyles: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran Naimark, Jenny; Madar, Zecharia; Shahar, Danit R

    2015-03-02

    The use of Web-based apps to promote a healthy lifestyle is increasing, although most of these programs were not assessed using suitable epidemiological methods. We evaluated the effectiveness of a newly developed Web-based app in promoting a healthy lifestyle and educating adults on such lifestyles. We also analyzed predictors for success in acquiring and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Our aim was to compare people receiving a new Web-based app with people who got an introductory lecture alone on healthy lifestyle, weight change, nutritional knowledge, and physical activity, and to identify predictors of success for maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Subjects were recruited from the community and were randomized into intervention and control groups. The intervention subjects received access to the app without any face-to-face support; the control subjects continued their standard lifestyle. Measurements were taken by the researcher at baseline and after 14 weeks and included weight and waist circumference. Nutritional knowledge, diet quality, and physical activity duration were obtained using online questionnaires. The new Web-based app was developed based on current US Department of Agriculture and Israel Ministry of Health recommendations for healthy lifestyle. The app provides tools for monitoring diet and physical activity while instructing and encouraging healthy diet and physical activity. Out of 99 subjects who were randomized into app and control groups, 85 participants (86%) completed the study, 56 in the intervention and 29 in the control group. The mean age was 47.9 (SD 12.3) years, and mean Body Mass Index was 26.2 (SD 3.9). Among the intervention group only, frequency of app use was 2.7 (SD 1.9) days/week. The mean change in physical activity was 63 (SD 20.8) minutes in the app group and -30 (SD 27.5) minutes in the control group (P=.02). The mean weight change was -1.44 (SD 0.4) kg in the app group and -0.128 (SD 0.36) kg in the control group (P=.03

  4. Health Is Life in Balance: Students and Communities Explore Healthy Lifestyles in a Culturally Based Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Lynn; Ackerman, Joni; Bointy, Shelley; Cuch, Marilyn; Hindelang, Mary; Pinnow, Stephanie; Turnbull, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    From exploring knowledge from wise members of the community to investigating the science of homeostasis, students learn healthy ways of living through a new hands-on curriculum, Diabetes Education in Tribal Schools: Health Is Life in Balance. The curriculum integrates science and Native American traditions to educate students about science, diabetes and its risk factors, and the importance of nutrition and physical activity in maintaining health and balance in life. Applying an inquiry-based approach to learning, the curriculum builds skills in observation, measurement, prediction, experimentation, and communication, and provides healthy lifestyle messages and innovative science activities for all students. The curriculum is now available to teachers and health educators at no cost through a federal grant.Health Is life in Balance incorporates interdisciplinary standards as well as storytelling to help children understand important messages. Implementation evaluation of the curriculum indicated improved knowledge and attitudes about science and health, positive teacher and student comments, and culturally relevant content. The lessons highlighted in this article give a glimpse into this hands-on curriculum which integrates science and Native American traditions, looking to our past and listening to the wisdom of our Elders, to gain powerful information for healthy, holistic living. The circle of balance is a theme in many indigenous belief systems and is woven into the lessons, providing enduring understandings of health behaviours that can prevent type 2 diabetes in the context of Native American cultural themes.

  5. Transtheoretical Model-based Nursing Intervention on Lifestyle Change: A Review Focused on Intervention Delivery Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Yun; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Min, Yul Ha

    2015-06-01

    The transtheoretical model (TTM) was used to provide tailored nursing for lifestyle management such as diet, physical activity, and smoking cessation. The present study aims to assess the provision of intervention delivery methods, intervention elements, and stage-matched interventions, in order to identify ways in which information technology is used in the TTM-based research. The relevant literature was selected by two researchers using inclusion criteria after searching for "TTM (transtheoretical or stage of change)" and "nursing" from the databases PubMed and CINAHL. The selected studies were categorized in terms of study characteristics, intervention delivery method, intervention element, and use and level of stage-matched intervention. A total of 35 studies were selected including eight studies that used information communication technology (ICT). Nine different intervention delivery methods were used, of which "face-to-face" was the most common at 24 times. Of the 35 studies, 26 provided stage-matched interventions. Seven different intervention elements were used, of which "counseling" was the most common at 27 times. Of all the intervention elements, tailored feedback used ICT the most at seven instances out of nine, and there was a significant difference in the rate of ICT usage among intervention elements. ICT is not yet actively used in the TTM-based nursing interventions. Stage-matched interventions and TTM concepts were shown to be in partial use also in the TTM-based interventions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a variety of ways to use ICT in tailored nursing interventions and to use TTM frameworks and concepts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Multiple lifestyle behaviours and mortality, findings from a large population-based Norwegian cohort study - The HUNT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar Krokstad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle risk behaviours are responsible for a large proportion of disease burden and premature mortality worldwide. Risk behaviours tend to cluster in populations. We developed a new lifestyle risk index by including emerging risk factors (sleep, sitting time, and social participation and examine unique risk combinations and their associations with all-cause and cardio-metabolic mortality. Methods Data are from a large population-based cohort study in a Norway, the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT, with an average follow-up time of 14.1 years. Baseline data from 1995–97 were linked to the Norwegian Causes of Death Registry. The analytic sample comprised 36 911 adults aged 20–69 years. Cox regression models were first fitted for seven risk factors (poor diet, excessive alcohol consumption, current smoking, physical inactivity, excessive sitting, too much/too little sleep, and poor social participation separately and then adjusted for socio-demographic covariates. Based on these results, a lifestyle risk index was developed. Finally, we explored common combinations of the risk factors in relation to all-cause and cardio-metabolic mortality outcomes. Results All single risk factors, except for diet, were significantly associated with both mortality outcomes, and were therefore selected to form a lifestyle risk index. Risk of mortality increased as the index score increased. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality increased from 1.37 (1.15-1.62 to 6.15 (3.56-10.63 as the number of index risk factors increased from one to six respectively. Among the most common risk factor combinations the association with mortality was particularly strong when smoking and/or social participation were included. Conclusions This study adds to previous research on multiple risk behaviours by incorporating emerging risk factors. Findings regarding social participation and prolonged sitting suggest new components of healthy lifestyles and

  7. An association rule mining-based framework for understanding lifestyle risk behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Park

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence and patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors in Korean adults. METHODS: We utilized data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 14,833 adults (>20 years of age. We used association rule mining to analyze patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors by characterizing non-adherence to public health recommendations related to the Alameda 7 health behaviors. The study variables were current smoking, heavy drinking, physical inactivity, obesity, inadequate sleep, breakfast skipping, and frequent snacking. RESULTS: Approximately 72% of Korean adults exhibited two or more lifestyle risk behaviors. Among women, current smoking, obesity, and breakfast skipping were associated with inadequate sleep. Among men, breakfast skipping with additional risk behaviors such as physical inactivity, obesity, and inadequate sleep was associated with current smoking. Current smoking with additional risk behaviors such as inadequate sleep or breakfast skipping was associated with physical inactivity. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle risk behaviors are intercorrelated in Korea. Information on patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors could assist in planning interventions targeted at multiple behaviors simultaneously.

  8. Information and Risk Modification Trial (INFORM): design of a randomised controlled trial of communicating different types of information about coronary heart disease risk, alongside lifestyle advice, to achieve change in health-related behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silarova, Barbora; Lucas, Joanne; Butterworth, Adam S; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Girling, Christine; Lawrence, Kathryn; Mackintosh, Stuart; Moore, Carmel; Payne, Rupert A; Sharp, Stephen J; Shefer, Guy; Tolkien, Zoe; Usher-Smith, Juliet; Walker, Matthew; Danesh, John; Griffin, Simon

    2015-09-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death globally. Primary prevention of CVD requires cost-effective strategies to identify individuals at high risk in order to help target preventive interventions. An integral part of this approach is the use of CVD risk scores. Limitations in previous studies have prevented reliable inference about the potential advantages and the potential harms of using CVD risk scores as part of preventive strategies. We aim to evaluate short-term effects of providing different types of information about coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, alongside lifestyle advice, on health-related behaviours. In a parallel-group, open randomised trial, we are allocating 932 male and female blood donors with no previous history of CVD aged 40-84 years in England to either no intervention (control group) or to one of three active intervention groups: i) lifestyle advice only; ii) lifestyle advice plus information on estimated 10-year CHD risk based on phenotypic characteristics; and iii) lifestyle advice plus information on estimated 10-year CHD risk based on phenotypic and genetic characteristics. The primary outcome is change in objectively measured physical activity. Secondary outcomes include: objectively measured dietary behaviours; cardiovascular risk factors; current medication and healthcare usage; perceived risk; cognitive evaluation of provision of CHD risk scores; and psychological outcomes. The follow-up assessment takes place 12 weeks after randomisation. The experiences, attitudes and concerns of a subset of participants will be also studied using individual interviews and focus groups. The INFORM study has been designed to provide robust findings about the short-term effects of providing different types of information on estimated 10-year CHD risk and lifestyle advice on health-related behaviours. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN17721237 . Registered 12 January 2015.

  9. Investigating the Degree of Paying Attention to the Political Indicators of Lifestyle Based on Islamic-Iranian Model of Development in Training Teachers of Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadfar, Houriyeh; Nasr, Ahmad Reza; Nili, Mohammad Reza; Hassemi, Vahid G.

    2016-01-01

    In the era of development when the needs of a society to its citizens with a political lifestyle based on the development proportional to their native culture seem necessary, updating training and creating changes in citizens' curricula proportional to political indicators of lifestyle is considered as a necessary issue. The objective of the…

  10. Is a motivational interviewing based lifestyle intervention for obese pregnant women across Europe implemented as planned?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; Simmons, David; Gobat, Nina

    2017-01-01

    mass index ≥29 kg/m(2). The intervention includes guidance on physical activity and/or healthy eating by a lifestyle coach trained in motivational interviewing (MI). The aim of this study was to assess the process elements: reach, dose delivered, fidelity and satisfaction and to investigate whether......BACKGROUND: Process evaluation is an essential part of designing and assessing complex interventions. The vitamin D and lifestyle intervention study (DALI) study is testing different strategies to prevent development of gestational diabetes mellitus among European obese pregnant women with a body....... Fidelity of eight (out of twelve) lifestyle coach practitioners was assessed by analysing audio recorded counselling sessions using the MI treatment integrity scale. Furthermore, associations between process elements and GWG were assessed with linear regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 20...

  11. Adopting an Evidence-Based Lifestyle Physical Activity Program: Dissemination Study Design and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrea L; Buller, David B; Dearing, James W; Cutter, Gary; Guerra, Michele; Wilcox, Sara; Bettinghaus, Erwin P

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of research studies that have examined academic-commercial partnerships to disseminate evidence-based physical activity programs. Understanding this approach to dissemination is essential because academic-commercial partnerships are increasingly common. Private companies have used dissemination channels and strategies to a degree that academicians have not, and declining resources require academicians to explore these partnerships. PURPOSE: This paper describes a retrospective case-control study design including the methods, demographics, organizational decision-making, implementation rates, and marketing strategy for Active Living Every Day (ALED), an evidence-based lifestyle physical activity program that has been commercially available since 2001. Evidence-based public health promotion programs rely on organizations and targeted sectors to disseminate these programs although relatively little is known about organizational-level and sector-level influences that lead to their adoption and implementation. METHODS: Cases (n=154) were eligible if they had signed an ALED license agreement with Human Kinetics (HK), publisher of the program's textbooks and facilitator manuals, between 2001 and 2008. Two types of controls were matched (2:2:1) and stratified by sector and region. Active controls (Control 1; n=319) were organizations that contacted HK to consider adopting ALED. Passive controls (Control 2; n=328) were organizations that received unsolicited marketing materials and did not initiate contact with HK. We used Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT) constructs as the basis for developing the survey of cases and controls. RESULTS: Using the multi-method strategy recommended by Dillman, a total of n=801 cases and controls were surveyed. Most organizations were from the fitness sector followed by medical, nongovernmental, governmental, educational, worksite and other sectors with significantly higher response rates from government

  12. LPaMI: A Graph-Based Lifestyle Pattern Mining Application Using Personal Image Collections in Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifayat Ullah Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Normally, individuals use smartphones for a variety of purposes like photography, schedule planning, playing games, and so on, apart from benefiting from the core tasks of call-making and short messaging. These services are sources of personal data generation. Therefore, any application that utilises personal data of a user from his/her smartphone is truly a great witness of his/her interests and this information can be used for various personalised services. In this paper, we present Lifestyle Pattern MIning (LPaMI, which is a personalised application for mining the lifestyle patterns of a smartphone user. LPaMI uses the personal photograph collections of a user, which reflect the day-to-day photos taken by a smartphone, to recognise scenes (called objects of interest in our work. These are then mined to discover lifestyle patterns. The uniqueness of LPaMI lies in our graph-based approach to mining the patterns of interest. Modelling of data in the form of graphs is effective in preserving the lifestyle behaviour maintained over the passage of time. Graph-modelled lifestyle data enables us to apply variety of graph mining techniques for pattern discovery. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposal, we have developed a prototype system for LPaMI to implement its end-to-end pipeline. We have also conducted an extensive evaluation for various phases of LPaMI using different real-world datasets. We understand that the output of LPaMI can be utilised for variety of pattern discovery application areas like trip and food recommendations, shopping, and so on.

  13. Nanoparticle-Based Surface Modifications for Microtribology Control and Superhydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Kendall Matthew

    2010-11-01

    contact" between two contacting surfaces. The studies found that AuNP thin films produced using the lowest initial concentrations of nanoparticles in solution produced estimated real contact areas of around 1%, reducing the adhesion of oxidized Si (100) surfaces from about 37 mJ/m2 down to 0.02 mJ/m 2. In addition, the reducing in real contact area effectively reduced the coefficient of static friction between silicon-based surfaces due to the extremely high dependence of stiction on friction and wear at the microscale. This work also investigated methods of permanently immobilizing AuNP-based films on the silicon surfaces of microstructures in order to create more mechanically robust coatings. The use of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) functionalized with tail-groups known to bond to metallic surfaces were effective in producing much more durable coatings as opposed to non-immobilized AuNP films. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques were also used to coat rough AuNP films with very thin films of silica (SiO2) to create a robust, rough surface. This method was also very effective in creating a durable coating which is capable of reducing the adhesion energy and friction between two microscale surfaces for extended periods of time. Similar CVD techniques were also used to begin investigating the production of alumina nanoparticle-based superhydrophobic films for use in consumer electronics. Overall, the work presented in this dissertation illustrates that engineered nanoparticle-based surface modifications can be extremely effective in the reduction of the inherent interfacial phenomena that exist on microfabricated systems. This work is can potentially lead us into a new age of the miniaturization of mechanical and electronic devices.

  14. Piezoelectric Accelerometers Modification Based on the Finite Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Bin; Kriegbaum, B.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the modification of piezoelectric accelerometers using a Finite Element (FE) method. Brüel & Kjær Accelerometer Type 8325 is chosen as an example to illustrate the advanced accelerometer development procedure. The deviation between the measurement and FE simulation results...

  15. Efficacy of a virtual assistance-based lifestyle intervention in reducing risk factors for Type 2 diabetes in young employees in the information technology industry in India: LIMIT, a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, T; Kumaran, K; Joglekar, C; Bhat, D; Kulkarni, R; Nanivadekar, A; Yajnik, C

    2017-04-01

    To investigate a virtual assistance-based lifestyle intervention to reduce risk factors for Type 2 diabetes in young employees in the information technology industry in India. LIMIT (Lifestyle Modification in Information Technology) was a parallel-group, partially blinded, randomized controlled trial. Employees in the information technology industry with ≥3 risk factors (family history of cardiometabolic disease, overweight/obesity, high blood pressure, impaired fasting glucose, hypertriglyceridaemia, high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol) from two industries were randomized to a control or an intervention (1:1) group. After initial lifestyle advice, the intervention group additionally received reinforcement through mobile phone messages (three per week) and e-mails (two per week) for 1 year. The primary outcome was change in prevalence of overweight/obesity, analysed by intention to treat. Of 437 employees screened (mean age 36.2 ± 9.3 years; 74.8% men), 265 (61.0%) were eligible and randomized into control (n=132) or intervention (n=133) group. After 1 year, the prevalence of overweight/obesity reduced by 6.0% in the intervention group and increased by 6.8% in the control group (risk difference 11.2%; 95% CI 1.2-21.1; P=0.042). There were also significant improvements in lifestyle measurements, waist circumference, and total and LDL cholesterol in the intervention group. The number-needed-to-treat to prevent one case of overweight/obesity in 1 year was 9 (95% CI 5-82), with an incremental cost of INR10665 (£112.30) per case treated/prevented. A total of 98% of participants found the intervention acceptable. A virtual assistance-based lifestyle intervention was effective, cost-effective and acceptable in reducing risk factors for diabetes in young employees in the information technology industry, and is potentially scalable. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  16. Implementation process and acceptance of a setting based prevention programme to promote healthy lifestyle in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Birgit; Strauß, Angelika; Mayer, Andrea; Duvinage, Kristin; Mitschek, Christine; Koletzko, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the implementation process of a kindergarten-based intervention ('TigerKids') to promote a healthy lifestyle. Design: Questionnaire survey among kindergarten teachers about programme implementation and acceptance. Setting: Kindergartens in Bavaria, Germany. Methods: Two hundred and fifteen kindergartens were included; 96.3 % returned informative questionnaires. `TigerKids' is a multi-approach behavioural intervention programme to increase physical activity level and t...

  17. Stage-Based Healthy Lifestyles Program for Non-College Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer; Kattelmann, Kendra; White, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility of implementing a healthy lifestyles intervention to maintain or achieve healthy weight for low-income young adults in vocational education. Design/methodology/approach: Non-randomized, quasi-experimental feasibility test of a ten-week intervention with follow-up assessment designed…

  18. Psychosocial constructs were not mediators of intervention effects for dietary and physical activity outcomes in a church-based lifestyle intervention: Delta Body and Soul III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jessica L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Zoellner, Jamie M; Goodman, Melissa H

    2016-08-01

    Evaluating an intervention's theoretical basis can inform design modifications to produce more effective interventions. Hence the present study's purpose was to determine if effects from a multicomponent lifestyle intervention were mediated by changes in the psychosocial constructs decisional balance, self-efficacy and social support. Delta Body and Soul III, conducted from August 2011 to May 2012, was a 6-month, church-based, lifestyle intervention designed to improve diet quality and increase physical activity. Primary outcomes, diet quality and aerobic and strength/flexibility physical activity, as well as psychosocial constructs, were assessed via self-report, interviewer-administered surveys at baseline and post intervention. Mediation analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares (continuous outcomes) and maximum likelihood logistic (dichotomous outcomes) regression path analysis. Churches (five intervention and three control) were recruited from four counties in the Lower Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Rural, Southern, primarily African-American adults (n 321). Based upon results from the multiple mediation models, there was no evidence that treatment (intervention v. control) indirectly influenced changes in diet quality or physical activity through its effects on decisional balance, self-efficacy and social support. However, there was evidence for direct effects of social support for exercise on physical activity and of self-efficacy for sugar-sweetened beverages on diet quality. Results do not support the hypothesis that the psychosocial constructs decisional balance, self-efficacy and social support were the theoretical mechanisms by which the Delta Body and Soul III intervention influenced changes in diet quality and physical activity.

  19. Modification of polylactide bioplastic using hyperbranched polymer based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Rahul

    Polylactide (PLA) is the most well known renewable resource based biodegradable polymer. The inherent brittleness and poor processability of PLA pose considerable technical challenges and limit its range of commercial applications. The broad objective of this research was to investigate novel pathways for polylactide modification to enhance its mechanical and rheological properties. The focus of this work was to tailor the architecture of a dendritic hyperbranched polymer (HBP) and study its influence on the mechanical and rheological properties of PLA bioplastic. The hyperbranched polymers under consideration are biodegradable aliphatic hydroxyl-functional hyperbranched polyesters having nanoscale dimensions, unique physical properties and high peripheral functionalities. This work relates to identifying a new and industrially relevant research methodology to develop PLA based nanoblends having outstanding stiffness-toughness balance. In this approach, a hydroxyl functional hyperbranched polymer was crosslinked in-situ with a polyanhydride (PA) in the PLA matrix during melt processing, leading to the generation of new nanoscale hyperbranched polymer based domains in the PLA matrix. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the "sea-island" morphology of PLA-crosslinked HBP blends. The domain size of a large portion of the crosslinked HBP particles in PLA matrix was less than 100 nm. The presence of crosslinked hyperbranched polymers exhibited more than 500% and 800% improvement in the tensile toughness and elongation at break values of PLA, respectively, with a minimal sacrifice of tensile strength and modulus as compared to unmodified PLA. The toughening mechanism of PLA in the presence of crosslinked HBP particles was comprised of shear yielding and crazing. The volume fraction of crosslinked HBP particles and matrix ligament thickness (inter-particle distance) were found to be the critical parameters for the toughening of PLA. The

  20. A community-based behavior modification intervention for childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, David; Brauner, Michal; Granot, Esther

    2007-02-01

    Childhood obesity, caused by reduced physical activity and increased food consumption, has reached epidemic proportions. We hypothesized that a single practitioner could enable a child to reduce BMI by educating towards a healthier lifestyle and then reinforcing the message in a structured manner. In this study, intervention group participants and their parents received a half-hour talk on exercise and diet, repeated after 3 months. They were instructed to fill weekly diaries and were called weekly by telephone. Controls received the initial instruction only. Twenty-seven (14 intervention) obese children were recruited. Anthropometric parameters, fitness and biochemical data were collected before intervention and after 6 months in both groups. Sustained but not statistically significant improvements in attitude, BMI SDS and LDL-cholesterol were noted in the intervention group. These promising results support a need for further work to evaluate the efficacy and applicability of our approach in the population at large.

  1. The effects of adding group-based lifestyle counselling to individual counselling on changes in plasma glucose levels in a randomized controlled trial: The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Vistisen, D.; Toft, U.

    2011-01-01

    AimThis study aimed to assess whether group-based lifestyle counselling offered to a high-risk population subgroup had any effect beyond individual multifactorial interventions on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) changes. MethodsIn a population-based study of 6784......% to low-intensity intervention (group B). All participants went through health examinations, risk assessments and individual lifestyle counselling. Participants in group A were further offered group-based lifestyle counselling. The intervention was repeated after 1 and 3 years. A total of 2738...

  2. Lifestyle Behaviours Add to the Armoury of Treatment Options for Panic Disorder: An Evidence-Based Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Rod

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an evidence-based reasoning, focusing on evidence of an Occupational Therapy input to lifestyle behaviour influences on panic disorder that also provides potentially broader application across other mental health problems (MHP). The article begins from the premise that we are all different. It then follows through a sequence of questions, examining incrementally how MHPs are experienced and classified. It analyses the impact of individual sensitivity at different levels of analysis, from genetic and epigenetic individuality, through neurotransmitter and body system sensitivity. Examples are given demonstrating the evidence base behind the logical sequence of investigation. The paper considers the evidence of how everyday routine lifestyle behaviour impacts on occupational function at all levels, and how these behaviours link to individual sensitivity to influence the level of exposure required to elicit symptomatic responses. Occupational Therapists can help patients by adequately assessing individual sensitivity, and through promoting understanding and a sense of control over their own symptoms. It concludes that present clinical guidelines should be expanded to incorporate knowledge of individual sensitivities to environmental exposures and lifestyle behaviours at an early stage. PMID:26095868

  3. Lifestyle Behaviours Add to the Armoury of Treatment Options for Panic Disorder: An Evidence-Based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Lambert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an evidence-based reasoning, focusing on evidence of an Occupational Therapy input to lifestyle behaviour influences on panic disorder that also provides potentially broader application across other mental health problems (MHP. The article begins from the premise that we are all different. It then follows through a sequence of questions, examining incrementally how MHPs are experienced and classified. It analyses the impact of individual sensitivity at different levels of analysis, from genetic and epigenetic individuality, through neurotransmitter and body system sensitivity. Examples are given demonstrating the evidence base behind the logical sequence of investigation. The paper considers the evidence of how everyday routine lifestyle behaviour impacts on occupational function at all levels, and how these behaviours link to individual sensitivity to influence the level of exposure required to elicit symptomatic responses. Occupational Therapists can help patients by adequately assessing individual sensitivity, and through promoting understanding and a sense of control over their own symptoms. It concludes that present clinical guidelines should be expanded to incorporate knowledge of individual sensitivities to environmental exposures and lifestyle behaviours at an early stage.

  4. School-based lifestyle education involving parents for reducing subjective psychosomatic symptoms in Japanese adolescents: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Junko; Watanabe, Mariko; Yamaoka, Kazue; Adachi, Misa; Nemoto, Asuka; Tango, Toshiro

    2018-02-16

    Severe subjective psychosomatic symptoms (SPS) in adolescents are a major public health concern, and lifestyle modification interventions for reducing SPS are important topics. Recently, we developed a school-based lifestyle education involving parents for reducing SPS of adolescents (SPRAT), an improved version of the programme from our previous study Programme for adolescent of lifestyle education in Kumamoto (PADOK). This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of SPRAT in reducing SPS among adolescents. This is a 6-month, cluster randomised clinical trial with two intervention arms (SPRAT vs usual school education). The study population will be composed of middle school students (aged 12-14 years) with their parents/guardians in Japan. SPRAT is expected to be a more powerful programme than PADOK as it reinforces the role of parent participation. The primary endpoint will be the change from baseline SPS scores to those obtained after 6 months. Between-group differences will be analysed following the intention-to-treat principle. Crude and multivariate adjusted effects will be examined using a general linear mixed-effects model for continuous variables and a logistic regression model for dichotomous variables. The sample size required was determined based on the information needed to detect a difference in the primary outcome with a significance level of 5% and power of 80% under the assumptions of 40 students per cluster (assuming the same sample size for each cluster), an effect size of 0.3 and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.02. In total, participation by 28 schools (14 schools in each arm) (students: n=1120) will be needed. This study was approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of Minami Kyushu University in 2017 (number 137). The findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. UMIN000026715; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  5. New insights into the lifestyle of Allosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda based on another specimen with multiple pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Foth

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult large-bodied theropods are often found with numerous pathologies. A large, almost complete, probably adult Allosaurus specimen from the Howe Stephens Quarry, Morrison Formation (Late Kimmeridgian–Early Tithonian, Wyoming, exhibits multiple pathologies. Pathologic bones include the left dentary, two cervical vertebrae, one cervical and several dorsal ribs, the left scapula, the left humerus, the right ischium, and two left pedal phalanges. These pathologies can be classified as follows: the fifth cervical vertebra, the scapula, several ribs and the ischium are probably traumatic, and a callus on the shaft of the left pedal phalanx II-2 is probably traumatic-infectious. Traumatically fractured elements exposed to frequent movement (e.g., the scapula and the ribs show a tendency to develop pseudarthroses instead of a callus. The pathologies in the lower jaw and a reduced extensor tubercle of the left pedal phalanx II-2 are most likely traumatic or developmental in origin. The pathologies on the fourth cervical are most likely developmental in origin or idiopathic, that on the left humerus could be traumatic, developmental, infectious or idiopathic, whereas the left pedal phalanx IV-1 is classified as idiopathic. With exception of the ischium, all as traumatic/traumatic-infectious classified pathologic elements show unambiguous evidences of healing, indicating that the respective pathologies did not cause the death of this individual. Alignment of the scapula and rib pathologies from the left side suggests that all may have been caused by a single traumatic event. The ischial fracture may have been fatal. The occurrence of multiple lesions interpreted as traumatic pathologies again underlines that large-bodied theropods experienced frequent injuries during life, indicating an active predatory lifestyle, and their survival perhaps supports a gregarious behavior for Allosaurus. Alternatively, the frequent survival of traumatic events could be

  6. New insights into the lifestyle of Allosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) based on another specimen with multiple pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, Christian; Evers, Serjoscha W; Pabst, Ben; Mateus, Octávio; Flisch, Alexander; Patthey, Mike; Rauhut, Oliver W M

    2015-01-01

    Adult large-bodied theropods are often found with numerous pathologies. A large, almost complete, probably adult Allosaurus specimen from the Howe Stephens Quarry, Morrison Formation (Late Kimmeridgian-Early Tithonian), Wyoming, exhibits multiple pathologies. Pathologic bones include the left dentary, two cervical vertebrae, one cervical and several dorsal ribs, the left scapula, the left humerus, the right ischium, and two left pedal phalanges. These pathologies can be classified as follows: the fifth cervical vertebra, the scapula, several ribs and the ischium are probably traumatic, and a callus on the shaft of the left pedal phalanx II-2 is probably traumatic-infectious. Traumatically fractured elements exposed to frequent movement (e.g., the scapula and the ribs) show a tendency to develop pseudarthroses instead of a callus. The pathologies in the lower jaw and a reduced extensor tubercle of the left pedal phalanx II-2 are most likely traumatic or developmental in origin. The pathologies on the fourth cervical are most likely developmental in origin or idiopathic, that on the left humerus could be traumatic, developmental, infectious or idiopathic, whereas the left pedal phalanx IV-1 is classified as idiopathic. With exception of the ischium, all as traumatic/traumatic-infectious classified pathologic elements show unambiguous evidences of healing, indicating that the respective pathologies did not cause the death of this individual. Alignment of the scapula and rib pathologies from the left side suggests that all may have been caused by a single traumatic event. The ischial fracture may have been fatal. The occurrence of multiple lesions interpreted as traumatic pathologies again underlines that large-bodied theropods experienced frequent injuries during life, indicating an active predatory lifestyle, and their survival perhaps supports a gregarious behavior for Allosaurus. Alternatively, the frequent survival of traumatic events could be also related to the

  7. Segmenting Internet shoppers based on their Web-usage-related lifestyle: a cross-cultural validation

    OpenAIRE

    BRENGMAN, Malaika; Geuens, M; Weijters, B; Smith, SM; Swinyard, WR

    2005-01-01

    Online surveys in the United States and Belgium were conducted to cross-culturally validate the Internet shopper lifestyle scale [S.M. Smith, W.R. Swinyard, The identification of shopping behaviors among Internet users. World Marketing Congress, Cardiff Business School, 2001]. Special attention was devoted to sample, construct, and measurement equivalence. In both countries, the same six basic dimensions were found to underlie the scale: Internet convenience, perceived self-inefficacy, Intern...

  8. The relationship between distorted body image and lifestyle among Japanese adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Takako; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Nanri, Hinako; Nishimura, Rimei; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2015-01-01

    Distorted body image plays a significant role in the development of obesity, eating problems, and eating disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between distorted body image and lifestyle among Japanese adolescent boys and girls. Subjects were 1731 seventh graders (age 12-13 years) from the Ina-town's junior high schools, Japan, from 2005-2009. The height and weight of each subject were measured. Childhood underweight, overweight, and obesity were defined using the body mass index cutoff points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Information regarding the self-perceived weight status and lifestyles (exercise, snacking after dinner, breakfast, wakeup time, bedtime) of each subject was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Self-perceived weight status was categorized into three groups (thin, normal, or heavy), and compared with the subjects' actual weight status. Body image perception was categorized into the following three groups: an underestimated own weight status group (underestimated group), a correct own weight status group (correct group) and an overestimated own weight status group (overestimated group). The proportion of boys in the underestimated group was higher than that of girls, while the opposite was true for the overestimated group (P Adolescent boys tended to underestimate their body weight, whereas adolescent girls were likely to overestimate their body weight. Furthermore, lifestyle factors associated with distorted body image differed by sex, with exercise affecting body image perception among boys and snacking after dinner affecting body image perception among girls. Thus, lifestyle may lead to distorted body image among adolescents.

  9. Lifestyle Journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Unni; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    for in-depth exploration and contextualisation of this field, with its increasing relevance for 21st century consumer cultures. For the first time, this book presents a wide range of studies which have engaged with the field of lifestyle journalism in order to outline the various political, economic......Lifestyle journalism has experienced enormous growth in the media over the past two decades, but scholars in the fields of journalism and communication studies have so far paid relatively little attention to a field that is still sometimes seen as "not real journalism". There is now an urgent need......, social and cultural tensions within it. Taking a comparative view, the collection includes studies covering four continents, including countries such as Australia, China, Norway, Denmark, Singapore, the UK and the USA. While keeping the broader lifestyle field in mind, the chapters focus on a variety...

  10. Surface modification by EUV laser beam based on capillary discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, Oleksandr; Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Štraus, Jaroslav; Prukner, Václav; Shukurov, A.

    -, č. 58 (2011), s. 484-487 ISSN 2010-376X. [International Conference on Fusion and Plasma Physics. Bali, Indonésie, 26.10.2011-28.10.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA MŠk LA08024; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : soft x-ray * EUV * laser * radiation * source * capillary * discharge * plasma * ablation * surface modification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.waset.org/journals/waset/v58/v58-99.pdf

  11. Factors Associated With Engagement With a Web-Based Lifestyle Intervention Following Provision of Coronary Heart Disease Risk: Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher-Smith, Juliet A; Winther, Laura R; Shefer, Guy S; Silarova, Barbora; Payne, Rupert A; Griffin, Simon J

    2017-10-16

    Web-based interventions provide the opportunity to combine the tailored approach of face-to-face interventions with the scalability and cost-effectiveness of public health interventions. This potential is often limited by low engagement. A number of studies have described the characteristics of individuals who engage more in Web-based interventions but few have explored the reasons for these variations. We aimed to explore individual-level factors associated with different degrees of engagement with a Web-based behavior change intervention following provision of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk information, and the barriers and facilitators to engagement. This study involved the secondary analysis of data from the Information and Risk Modification Trial, a randomized controlled trial of a Web-based lifestyle intervention alone, or alongside information on estimated CHD risk. The intervention consisted of three interactive sessions, each lasting up to 60 minutes, delivered at monthly intervals. Participants were characterized as high engagers if they completed all three sessions. Thematic analysis of qualitative data from interviews with 37 participants was combined with quantitative data on usage of the Web-based intervention using a mixed-methods matrix, and data on the views of the intervention itself were analyzed across all participants. Thirteen participants were characterized as low engagers and 24 as high engagers. There was no difference in age (P=.75), gender (P=.95), or level of risk (P=.65) between the groups. Low engagement was more often associated with: (1) reporting a negative emotional reaction in response to the risk score (P=.029), (2) perceiving that the intervention did not provide any new lifestyle information (P=.011), and (3) being less likely to have reported feeling an obligation to complete the intervention as part of the study (P=.019). The mixed-methods matrix suggested that there was also an association between low engagement and less

  12. What do most erectile dysfunction guidelines have in common? No evidence-based discussion or recommendation of heart-healthy lifestyle changes and/or Panax ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyad, Mark A; Park, Kwangsung

    2012-01-01

    Sexual health or erectile dysfunction (ED) state of the art guidelines provide a thorough overview of conventional prescription or other notable extrinsic treatment options. Yet, over the past 10–15 years, a plethora of international researchers have established that individual and comprehensive lifestyle changes can prevent and potentially improve ED. We review the lifestyle evidence that should equate to grade A or level 1 evidence recommendations for ED. We also review the evidence for Panax ginseng, an over-the-counter (OTC) dietary supplement with a 35-year history of laboratory investigations, multiple positive randomized trials over approximately 15 years and several independent meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Perhaps it is time to at least discuss and even emphasize lifestyle and other non-conventional interventions in ED guidelines so that patients can explore a diversity of potentially synergistic choices with their physicians and can improve their quality and quantity of life. Ignoring the consistent, positive data on lifestyle modifications in ED guidelines, for example, is tantamount to ignoring diet and lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of or ameliorate cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23001440

  13. Association between combined lifestyle factors and non-restorative sleep in Japan: a cross-sectional study based on a Japanese health database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasugi, Minako; Kazama, Junichiro James; Narita, Ichiei; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Asahi, Koichi; Konta, Tsuneo; Kimura, Kenjiro; Kondo, Masahide; Kurahashi, Issei; Ohashi, Yasuo; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Although lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, excessive drinking, obesity, low or no exercise, and unhealthy dietary habits have each been associated with inadequate sleep, little is known about their combined effect. The aim of this study was to quantify the overall impact of lifestyle-related factors on non-restorative sleep in the general Japanese population. A cross-sectional study of 243,767 participants (men, 39.8%) was performed using the Specific Health Check and Guidance System in Japan. A healthy lifestyle score was calculated by adding up the number of low-risk lifestyle factors for each participant. Low risk was defined as (1) not smoking, (2) body mass indexexercise, and (5) better eating patterns. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the score and the prevalence of non-restorative sleep, which was determined from questionnaire responses. Among 97,062 men (mean age, 63.9 years) and 146,705 women (mean age, 63.7 years), 18,678 (19.2%) and 38,539 (26.3%) reported non-restorative sleep, respectively. The prevalence of non-restorative sleep decreased with age for both sexes. Compared to participants with a healthy lifestyle score of 5 (most healthy), those with a score of 0 (least healthy) had a higher prevalence of non-restorative sleep (odds ratio, 1.59 [95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.97] for men and 2.88 [1.74-4.76] for women), independently of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. The main limitation of the study was the cross-sectional design, which limited causal inferences for the identified associations. A combination of several unhealthy lifestyle factors was associated with non-restorative sleep among the general Japanese population. Further studies are needed to establish whether general lifestyle modification improves restorative sleep.

  14. Social inequality, lifestyles and health - a non-linear canonical correlation analysis based on the approach of Pierre Bourdieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Frie, Kirstin; Janssen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Based on the theoretical and empirical approach of Pierre Bourdieu, a multivariate non-linear method is introduced as an alternative way to analyse the complex relationships between social determinants and health. The analysis is based on face-to-face interviews with 695 randomly selected respondents aged 30 to 59. Variables regarding socio-economic status, life circumstances, lifestyles, health-related behaviour and health were chosen for the analysis. In order to determine whether the respondents can be differentiated and described based on these variables, a non-linear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS) was performed. The results can be described on three dimensions; Eigenvalues add up to the fit of 1.444, which can be interpreted as approximately 50 % of explained variance. The three-dimensional space illustrates correspondences between variables and provides a framework for interpretation based on latent dimensions, which can be described by age, education, income and gender. Using non-linear canonical correlation analysis, health characteristics can be analysed in conjunction with socio-economic conditions and lifestyles. Based on Bourdieus theoretical approach, the complex correlations between these variables can be more substantially interpreted and presented.

  15. Efficacy and safety of TAK-085 compared with eicosapentaenoic acid in Japanese subjects with hypertriglyceridemia undergoing lifestyle modification: the omega-3 fatty acids randomized double-blind (ORD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuno, Ichiro; Saito, Yasushi; Kudou, Kentarou; Ootake, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and clinical practice guidelines advocate treatment to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels. In Japan, an EPA-E (eicosapentaenoic acid-ethyl ester) product has been used clinically for treating dyslipidemia. We investigated the TG-lowering effects of TAK-085 (EPA-E + docosahexaenoic acid-ethyl ester) in comparison with EPA-E in Japanese patients with hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥150 mg/dL and acid in TAK-085 contains approximately 465 mg of EPA plus 375 mg of docosahexaenoic acid-ethyl as ethyl esters. Guidance on lifestyle modifications was provided throughout. The primary end point was the percent change in TG levels (baseline from end of treatment), which was -10.8 ± 22.6, -22.9 ± 23.1, and -11.2 ± 25.7 in the TAK-085 2 g/day, TAK-085 4 g/day, and EPA-E 1.8 g/day groups, respectively. TAK-085 4 g/day produced a significantly greater reduction in TG than EPA-E 1.8 g/day (P < .0001), whereas TAK-085 2 g/day was not inferior to EPA-E 1.8 g/day. Changes in other lipid parameters were relatively modest. There were no notable safety or tolerability differences between the groups. In Japanese patients with modest hypertriglyceridemia who also underwent lifestyle intervention, TAK-085 4 g/day reduced TG more than EPA-E 1.8 g/day. TAK-085 2 g/day had similar effects on TG as EPA-E 1.8 g/day. TAK-085 was well-tolerated. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel approach to population-based risk stratification, comprising individualized lifestyle intervention in Danish general practice to prevent chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Larsen, Lars; Søndergaard, Jens; Halling, Anders

    2017-01-01

    ) identification of patients already diagnosed with a lifestyle-related chronic disease, and (4) risk estimation and stratification of apparently healthy patients using questionnaire and electronic patient record data on validated risk estimation models. We show that it is feasible to implement a novel......Early detection of patients at risk seems to be effective for reducing the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases. We aim to test the feasibility of a novel intervention for early detection of lifestyle-related chronic diseases based on a population-based stratification using...... a combination of questionnaire and electronic patient record data. The intervention comprises four elements: (1) collection of information on lifestyle risk factors using a short 15-item questionnaire, (2) electronic transfer of questionnaire data to the general practitioners' electronic patient records, (3...

  17. Evidence-based lifestyle interventions in the workplace--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, S; Haupt, J; Pieper, C

    2014-01-01

    Lifestyle-related health issues affect the economic position of organizations and contribute to reduced productivity, increased absenteeism and health care costs. To summarize the effectiveness of different workplace health interventions for promoting healthy lifestyle, preventing diseases and reducing health care costs. We searched MEDLINE via Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, NelH, HighWire Press and Google Scholar in March 2012. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of workplace interventions aimed at promoting physical activity, healthy weight and good nutrition were included. Three authors assessed the quality of the reviews and extracted data on methods, interventions, outcomes, results and effect sizes. We identified 15 publications covering a total of 379 original studies. Three systematic reviews found beneficial effects of workplace nutrition interventions on employees' dietary behaviour. Three reviews found multi-component physical activity interventions to be effective in increasing employees' physical activity and fitness. The other activity promotion interventions were less effective regarding physical activity and weight-related outcomes. In terms of weight management, our findings favour multi-component interventions that focus on both physical activity and nutrition over single dietary programmes. Workplace health promotion interventions may improve physical activity, dietary behaviour and healthy weight. There is no evidence of increased efficacy associated with specific intervention types. Workplace health promotion should focus on either physical activity or weight or nutrition behaviour to maximize effectiveness. Best evidence is available for multi-component interventions.

  18. Changes over time in mental well-being, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity in a community-based lifestyle intervention: a before and after study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, R.; Robertson, W.; Towey, M.; Stewart-Brown, S.; Clarke, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: There is a theoretical basis for believing that healthy lifestyle interventions can improve mental well-being and evidence to show that mental well-being is protective of future health. This study contributes to the evidence base by examining changes in mental well-being associated with the One Body One Life (OBOL) healthy lifestyle programme in a community setting in the West Midlands. Study design: Quantitative, before and after the evaluation. Methods: We conducted a before and...

  19. Family-based behavioural intervention program for obese children: an observational study of child and parent lifestyle interpretations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Teder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Family-based behavioural intervention programs (FBIPs against childhood obesity have shown promising results, but the mediating mechanisms have not been identified. The aim of this study was to examine changes in obese childreńs lifestyle habits during a 2-year FBIP according to their own and parents' reports, the concordance between these reports and the correlations to change in post-intervention z-BMI. METHODS: An observational study of 26 children (8.3-12.0 years and their parents participating in a 2-year FBIP was performed. Weight and height were measured from baseline to 12 months after the end of the program. Eating habits and physical- and sedentary activity were reported separately by children and parents. Data were analysed with regard to concordance between parents' and children's reports and association between the lifestyle reports and change in z-BMI at the study endpoint using descriptive statistics and parametric and non-parametric tests. RESULTS: According to both children's and parents' reports, the level of physical activity among the children had increased after the intervention as well as the agreement between the informants' reports. According to the children, eating habits had improved, while the parents' reports showed an improvement only with regard to binge eating. The concordance between children and parents regarding eating habits was slight to fair also after the intervention. No statistically significant associations between changes in lifestyle reports and changes in z-BMI were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Child and parent reports of physical activity were found to converge and display an improvement in a 2-year FBIP, while the reports on eating habits showed a more refractory pattern. Changes in concordance and agreement between children and parents reports did not correlate with weight reduction. Further methods development and studies of the processes during family-based interventions against childhood

  20. Exploring Consumer and Patient Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitude Toward Medicinal and Lifestyle Products Purchased From the Internet: A Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Sulaf; Thomas, Jordan; Haffar, Mohamed; Osselton, David

    2016-07-18

    In recent years, lifestyle products have emerged to help improve people's physical and mental performance. The Internet plays a major role in the spread of these products. However, the literature has reported issues regarding the authenticity of medicines purchased from the Internet and the impact of counterfeit medicines on public health. Little or no data are available on the authenticity of lifestyle products and actual toxicity associated with their use and misuse. Our aim was to investigate consumer and patient attitudes toward the purchase of lifestyle products from the Internet, their knowledge of product authenticity and toxicity, and their experiences with counterfeit lifestyle products. A Web-based study was performed between May 2014 and May 2015. Uniform collection of data was performed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Participants were invited worldwide via email, social media, or personal communication to complete the online questionnaire. A total of 320 participants completed the questionnaire. The results of the questionnaire showed that 208 (65.0%) participants purchased lifestyle products from the Internet mainly due to convenience and reduced cost. More than half (55.6%, 178/320) of participants purchased cosmetic products, whereas only a minority purchased medicinal products. Yet, 62.8% (201/320) of participants were aware of the presence of counterfeit lifestyle products from the Internet, and 11.9% (38/320) experienced counterfeit products. In only 0.9% (3/320) of those cases were counterfeit lifestyle products reported to authorities. Moreover, 7.2% (23/320) of the participants experienced adverse effects due to counterfeit lifestyle products. In summary, patients experienced counterfeit lifestyle products that resulted in adverse effects on their health. Although certain adverse effects were reported in this study, counterfeit products were underreported to authorities. Further public awareness campaigns and patient education are

  1. Exploring Consumer and Patient Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitude Toward Medicinal and Lifestyle Products Purchased From the Internet: A Web-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, lifestyle products have emerged to help improve people’s physical and mental performance. The Internet plays a major role in the spread of these products. However, the literature has reported issues regarding the authenticity of medicines purchased from the Internet and the impact of counterfeit medicines on public health. Little or no data are available on the authenticity of lifestyle products and actual toxicity associated with their use and misuse. Objective Our aim was to investigate consumer and patient attitudes toward the purchase of lifestyle products from the Internet, their knowledge of product authenticity and toxicity, and their experiences with counterfeit lifestyle products. Methods A Web-based study was performed between May 2014 and May 2015. Uniform collection of data was performed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Participants were invited worldwide via email, social media, or personal communication to complete the online questionnaire. A total of 320 participants completed the questionnaire. Results The results of the questionnaire showed that 208 (65.0%) participants purchased lifestyle products from the Internet mainly due to convenience and reduced cost. More than half (55.6%, 178/320) of participants purchased cosmetic products, whereas only a minority purchased medicinal products. Yet, 62.8% (201/320) of participants were aware of the presence of counterfeit lifestyle products from the Internet, and 11.9% (38/320) experienced counterfeit products. In only 0.9% (3/320) of those cases were counterfeit lifestyle products reported to authorities. Moreover, 7.2% (23/320) of the participants experienced adverse effects due to counterfeit lifestyle products. Conclusions In summary, patients experienced counterfeit lifestyle products that resulted in adverse effects on their health. Although certain adverse effects were reported in this study, counterfeit products were underreported to authorities. Further

  2. Lifestyle change in Kerala, India: needs assessment and planning for a community-based diabetes prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daivadanam, Meena; Absetz, Pilvikki; Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu; Thankappan, K R; Fisher, Edwin B; Philip, Neena Elezebeth; Mathews, Elezebeth; Oldenburg, Brian

    2013-02-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has become a major public health challenge in India. Factors relevant to the development and implementation of diabetes prevention programmes in resource-constrained countries, such as India, have been under-studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the findings from research aimed at informing the development and evaluation of a Diabetes Prevention Programme in Kerala, India (K-DPP). Data were collected from three main sources: (1) a systematic review of key research literature; (2) a review of relevant policy documents; and (3) focus groups conducted among individuals with a high risk of progressing to diabetes. The key findings were then triangulated and synthesised. Prevalence of risk factors for diabetes is very high and increasing in Kerala. This situation is largely attributable to rapid changes in the lifestyle of people living in this state of India. The findings from the systematic review and focus groups identified many environmental and personal determinants of these unhealthy lifestyle changes, including: less than ideal accessibility to and availability of health services; cultural values and norms; optimistic bias and other misconceptions related to risk; and low expectations regarding one's ability to make lifestyle changes in order to influence health and disease outcomes. On the other hand, there are existing intervention trials conducted in India which suggests that risk reduction is possible. These programmes utilize multi-level strategies including mass media, as well as strategies to enhance community and individual empowerment. India's national programme for the prevention and control of major non-communicable diseases (NCD) also provide a supportive environment for further community-based efforts to prevent diabetes. These findings provide strong support for undertaking more research into the conduct of community-based diabetes prevention in the rural areas of Kerala. We aim to develop, implement and

  3. Implementing health information technology in a patient-centered manner: patient experiences with an online evidence-based lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyden, Jennifer R; Zickmund, Susan L; Bhargava, Tina D; Bryce, Cindy L; Conroy, Molly B; Fischer, Gary S; Hess, Rachel; Simkin-Silverman, Laurey R; McTigue, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    The patient-centered care (PCC) model and the use of health information technology (HIT) are major initiatives for improving U.S. healthcare quality and delivery. A lack of published data on patient perceptions of Internet-based care makes patient-centered implementation of HIT challenging. To help ascertain patients' perceptions of an online intervention, patients completing a 1-year web-based lifestyle intervention were asked to complete a semistructured interview. We used qualitative methodology to determine frequency and types of interview responses. Overall satisfaction with program features was coded on a Likert-type scale. High levels of satisfaction were seen with the online lifestyle coaching (80%), self-monitoring tools (57%), and structured lesson features (54%). Moderated chat sessions and online resources were rarely used. Frequently identified helpful aspects were those that allowed for customized care and shared decision-making consistent with the tenets of PCC. Unhelpful program aspects were reported less often. Findings suggest that despite challenges for communicating effectively in an online forum, the personalized support, high-tech data management capabilities, and easily followed evidence-based curricula afforded by HIT may be a means of providing PCC and improving healthcare delivery and quality. © 2013 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  4. Bioinformatics analysis suggests base modifications of tRNAs and miRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hailing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modifications of RNA bases have been found in some mRNAs and non-coding RNAs including rRNAs, tRNAs, and snRNAs, where modified bases are important for RNA function. Little is known about RNA base modifications in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results In the current work, we carried out a bioinformatics analysis of RNA base modifications in tRNAs and miRNAs using large numbers of cDNA sequences of small RNAs (sRNAs generated with the 454 technology and the massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS method. We looked for sRNAs that map to the genome sequence with one-base mismatch (OMM, which indicate candidate modified nucleotides. We obtained 1,187 sites with possible RNA base modifications supported by both 454 and MPSS sequences. Seven hundred and three of these sites were within tRNA loci. Nucleotide substitutions were frequently located in the T arm (substitutions from A to U or G, upstream of the D arm (from G to C, U, or A, and downstream of the D arm (from G to U. The positions of major substitution sites corresponded with the following known RNA base modifications in tRNAs: N1-methyladenosine (m1A, N2-methylguanosine (m2G, and N2-N2-methylguanosine (m22G. Conclusion These results indicate that our bioinformatics method successfully detected modified nucleotides in tRNAs. Using this method, we also found 147 substitution sites in miRNA loci. As with tRNAs, substitutions from A to U or G and from G to C, U, or A were common, suggesting that base modifications might be similar in tRNAs and miRNAs. We suggest that miRNAs contain modified bases and such modifications might be important for miRNA maturation and/or function.

  5. Association between migraine, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors: a population-based cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Ngoc Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel

    2011-01-01

    of MA compared to MO in subjects with low education or weekly intake of alcohol. The risk of MA was increased compared to MO in unemployed or retired subjects. Direct comparison between sexes showed a decreased risk of migraine for men compared to women in subjects who were low educated, unemployed......To investigate whether sex-specific associations exist between migraine, lifestyle or socioeconomic factors. We distinguished between the subtypes migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). In 2002, a questionnaire containing validated questions to diagnose migraine and questions...... risk of migraine was significantly associated with lower level of schooling and education, retirement, unemployment, and smoking. A decreased risk of migraine was significantly associated with heavy physical exercise and intake of alcohol. Direct comparison between the subtypes showed a decreased risk...

  6. Effects of a Community-Based Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Program (Co-HELP among Adults with Prediabetes in a Developing Country: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Ibrahim

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Malaysian adults has increased by more than two folds over the past two decades. Strategies to collaborate with the existing community partners may become a promising channel for wide-scale dissemination of diabetes prevention in the country. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of community-based lifestyle interventions delivered to adults with prediabetes and their health-related quality of life as compared to the usual care group.This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two sub-urban communities in Seremban, Malaysia. A total of 268 participants with prediabetes aged between 18 to 65 years old were assigned to either the community-based lifestyle intervention (Co-HELP (n = 122 or the usual care (n = 146 groups. The Co-HELP program was delivered in partnership with the existing community volunteers to incorporate diet, physical activity, and behaviour modification strategies. Participants in the Co-HELP group received twelve group-based sessions and two individual counselling to reinforce behavioural change. Participants in the usual care group received standard health education from primary health providers in the clinic setting. Primary outcomes were fasting blood glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1C. Secondary outcomes included weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, physical activity, diet, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL.An intention-to-treat analysis of between-groups at 12-month (mean difference, 95% CI revealed that the Co-HELP participants' mean fasting plasma glucose reduced by -0.40 mmol/l (-0.51 to -0.28, p600 METS/min/wk (60.7% vs 32.2%, p<0.001 compared to the usual care group.This study provides evidence that a culturally adapted diabetes prevention program can be implemented in the community setting, with reduction of several diabetes risk

  7. Lifestyle and clinical determinants of skin autofluorescence in a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waateringe, Robert P; Slagter, Sandra N; van der Klauw, Melanie M; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Graaff, Reindert; Paterson, Andrew D; Lutgers, Helen L; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R

    2016-05-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In diabetes, higher SAF levels have been positively associated with long-term complications, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Because little is known about the factors that influence SAF in nondiabetic individuals, we assessed the association of clinical and lifestyle parameters with SAF as well as their interactions in a large-scale, nondiabetic population and performed the same analysis in a type 2 diabetic subgroup. In a cross-sectional study in participants from the LifeLines Cohort Study, extensive clinical and biochemical phenotyping, including SAF measurement, was assessed in 9009 subjects of whom 314 (3·5%) subjects with type 2 diabetes. Mean SAF was 2·04 ± 0·44 arbitrary units (AU) in nondiabetic individuals and 2·44 ± 0·55 AU in type 2 diabetic subjects (P Multivariate backward regression analysis showed that in the nondiabetic population, SAF was significantly and independently associated with age, BMI, HbA1c, creatinine clearance, genetic polymorphism in NAT2 (rs4921914), current smoking, pack-years of smoking and coffee consumption. In the type 2 diabetic group, a similar set of factors was associated with SAF, except for coffee consumption. In addition to the established literature on type 2 diabetes, we have demonstrated that SAF levels are associated with several clinical and lifestyle factors in the nondiabetic population. These parameters should be taken into consideration when using SAF as a screening or prediction tool for populations at risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  8. A Communicative Model of Mothers’ Lifestyles During Pregnancy with Low Birth Weight Based on Social Determinants of Health: A Path Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Mahmoodi1,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW is one of the major health problems worldwide. It is important to identify the factors that play a role in the incidence of this adverse pregnancy outcome. This study aimed to develop a tool to measure mothers’ lifestyles during pregnancy with a view to the effects of social determinants on health and develop a correlation model of mothers’ lifestyles with LBW. Methods: This study was conducted using methodological and case-control designs in four stages by selecting 750 mothers with infants weighing less than 4000 g using multistage sampling. The questionnaire contained 160 items. Face, content, criterion, and construct validity were used to study the psychometrics of the instrument. Results: After psychometrics, 132 items were approved in six domains. Test results indicated the utility and the high fitness of the model and reasonable relationships adjusted for variables based on conceptual models. Based on the correlation model of lifestyle, occupation (-0.263 and social relationships (0.248 had the greatest overall effect on birth weight. Conclusions: The review of lifestyle dimensions showed that all of the dimensions directly, indirectly, or both affected birth weight. Thus, given the importance and the role of lifestyle as a determinant affecting birth weight, attention, and training interventions are important to promote healthy lifestyles.

  9. Lifestyle causes of male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the potential effects of lifestyle factors on male reproductive health. Evidence of a global decline in human sperm quality over recent decades has been accumulating. Environmental, occupational, and modifiable lifestyle factors may contribute to this decline. This review focuses on key lifestyle factors that are associated with male infertility such as smoking cigarettes, alcohol intake, use of illicit drugs, obesity, psychological stress, advanced paternal age, dietary practices, and coffee consumption. Other factors such as testicular heat stress, intense cycling training, lack of sleep and exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone use are briefly discussed. Materials and method: A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify and synthesise all relevant information, mainly from within the last decade, on the major lifestyle factors associated with male infertility and semen quality. Database searches were limited to reports published in English only. A manual search of bibliographies of the reports retrieved was conducted to identify additional relevant articles. Results: In all, 1012 articles were identified from the database search and after reviewing the titles and abstract of the reports, 104 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 30 reports were excluded as the full-text could not be retrieved and the abstract did not have relevant data. The remaining 74 reports were reviewed for data on association between a particular lifestyle factor and male infertility and were included in the present review. Conclusion: The major lifestyle factors discussed in the present review are amongst the multiple potential risk factors that could impair male fertility. However, their negative impact may well be mostly overcome by behaviour modification and better lifestyle choices. Greater awareness and recognition of the possible impact of these lifestyle factors are important amongst couples seeking

  10. Modification of prostate implants based on postimplant treatment margin assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Amy; Wallner, Kent; Merrick, Gregory; Couriveau, Jacques; Sutlief, Steven; Butler, Wayne; Gong, Lixin; Cho, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the extent of additional source placement needed to perfect an implant after execution by standard techniques, assuming that uniform 5 mm treatment margins (TMs) is the criteria for perfection. Materials and Methods: Ten consecutive, unselected patients treated with I-125 brachytherapy were studied. Source placement is planned just inside or outside of the prostatic margin, to achieve a minimum 5 mm TM and a central dose of 150%-200% of the prescription dose. The preimplant prostate volumes ranged from 24 to 85 cc (median: 35 cc). The number of sources implanted ranged from 48 to 102 (median: 63). Axial CT images were acquired within 2 h postoperatively for postimplant dosimetry. After completion of standard dosimetric calculations, the TMs were measured and tabulated at 45 deg. intervals around the prostate periphery at 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 cm planes. Sources were then added to the periphery to bring the TMs to a minimum of 5 mm at each measured TM, resulting in a modified implant. All margin modifications were done manually, without the aid of automated software. Results: Patients' original (unmodified) D90s ranged from 111% to 154%, with a median of 116%. The original V100s ranged from 94% to 99%, with a median of 96%. No patient required placement of additional sources to meet a minimum D90 of 90% or a minimum V100 of 80%. In contrast, patients required from 7 to 17 additional sources (median: 11) to achieve minimum 5 mm TMs around the entire prostatic periphery. Additional sources equaled from 12% to 24% of the initial number of sources placed (median: 17%). By adding sufficient peripheral sources to bring the TMs to a minimum 5 mm, patients' average V100 increased from 96% to 100%, and the average D90 increased from 124% to 160% of prescription dose. In the course of achieving a minimum 5 mm TM, the average treatment margin for all patients combined increased from 5.5 to 9.9 mm. The number of sources needed to bring the TMs to a minimum

  11. Modification of prostate implants based on postimplant treatment margin assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Amy; Wallner, Kent; Merrick, Gregory; Courveau, Jacques; Sutlief, Steven; Butler, Wayne; Gong, Lixin; Cho, Paul

    2002-12-01

    To quantify the extent of additional source placement needed to perfect an implant after execution by standard techniques, assuming that uniform 5 mm treatment margins (TMs) is the criteria for perfection. Ten consecutive, unselected patients treated with 1-125 brachytherapy were studied. Source placement is planned just inside or outside of the prostatic margin, to achieve a minimum 5 mm TM and a central dose of 150%-200% of the prescription dose. The preimplant prostate volumes ranged from 24 to 85 cc (median: 35 cc). The number of sources implanted ranged from 48 to 102 (median: 63). Axial CT images were acquired within 2 h postoperatively for postimplant dosimetry. After completion of standard dosimetric calculations, the TMs were measured and tabulated at 45 degrees intervals around the prostate periphery at 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 cm planes. Sources were then added to the periphery to bring the TMs to a minimum of 5 mm at each measured TM, resulting in a modified implant. All margin modifications were done manually, without the aid of automated software. Patients' original (unmodified) D90s ranged from 111% to 154%, with a median of 116%. The original V100s ranged from 94% to 99%, with a median of 96%. No patient required placement of additional sources to meet a minimum D90 of 90% or a minimum V100 of 80%. In contrast, patients required from 7 to 17 additional sources (median: 11) to achieve minimum 5 mm TMs around the entire prostatic periphery. Additional sources equaled from 12% to 24% of the initial number of sources placed (median: 17%). By adding sufficient peripheral sources to bring the TMs to a minimum 5 mm, patients' average V100 increased from 96% to 100%, and the average D90 increased from 124% to 160% of prescription dose. In the course of achieving a minimum 5 mm TM, the average treatment margin for all patients combined increased from 5.5 to 9.9 mm. The number of sources needed to bring the TMs to a minimum 5 mm was loosely correlated with the

  12. Arterial waveform parameters in a large, population-based sample of adults: relationships with ethnicity and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyter, J D; Hughes, A D; Thom, S A McG; Lowe, A; Camargo, C A; Hametner, B; Wassertheurer, S; Parker, K H; Scragg, R K R

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about how aortic waveform parameters vary with ethnicity and lifestyle factors. We investigated these issues in a large, population-based sample. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of 4798 men and women, aged 50-84 years from Auckland, New Zealand. Participants were 3961 European, 321 Pacific, 266 Maori and 250 South Asian people. We assessed modifiable lifestyle factors via questionnaires, and measured body mass index (BMI) and brachial blood pressure (BP). Suprasystolic oscillometry was used to derive aortic pressure, from which several haemodynamic parameters were calculated. Heavy alcohol consumption and BMI were positively related to most waveform parameters. Current smokers had higher levels of aortic augmentation index than non-smokers (difference=3.7%, Ppopulations. Generally, this was true even after accounting for brachial BP, suggesting that waveform parameters may have increased usefulness in capturing ethnic variations in cardiovascular risk. Heavy alcohol consumption, smoking and especially BMI may partially contribute to elevated levels of these parameters.

  13. The Gene-Lifestyle Interaction on Leptin Sensitivity and Lipid Metabolism in Adults: A Population Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Freitag Luglio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity has been associated with leptin resistance and this might be caused by genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene-lifestyle interaction between −866G/A UCP2 (uncoupling protein 2 gene polymorphism, dietary intake and leptin in a population based study. Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in adults living at urban area of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data of adiposity, lifestyle, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, leptin and UCP2 gene polymorphism were obtained in 380 men and female adults. Results: UCP2 gene polymorphism was not significantly associated with adiposity, leptin, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, dietary intake and physical activity (all p > 0.05. Leptin was lower in overweight subjects with AA + GA genotypes than those with GG genotype counterparts (p = 0.029. In subjects with AA + GA genotypes there was a negative correlation between leptin concentration (r = −0.324; p < 0.0001 and total energy intake and this correlation was not seen in GG genotype (r = −0.111; p = 0.188. Conclusions: In summary, we showed how genetic variation in −866G/A UCP2 affected individual response to leptin production. AA + GA genotype had a better leptin sensitivity shown by its response in dietary intake and body mass index (BMI and this explained the protective effect of A allele to obesity.

  14. The Gene-Lifestyle Interaction on Leptin Sensitivity and Lipid Metabolism in Adults: A Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luglio, Harry Freitag; Sulistyoningrum, Dian Caturini; Huriyati, Emy; Lee, Yi Yi; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan

    2017-07-07

    Obesity has been associated with leptin resistance and this might be caused by genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene-lifestyle interaction between -866G/A UCP2 (uncoupling protein 2) gene polymorphism, dietary intake and leptin in a population based study. This is a cross sectional study conducted in adults living at urban area of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data of adiposity, lifestyle, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, leptin and UCP2 gene polymorphism were obtained in 380 men and female adults. UCP2 gene polymorphism was not significantly associated with adiposity, leptin, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, dietary intake and physical activity (all p > 0.05). Leptin was lower in overweight subjects with AA + GA genotypes than those with GG genotype counterparts ( p = 0.029). In subjects with AA + GA genotypes there was a negative correlation between leptin concentration ( r = -0.324; p correlation was not seen in GG genotype ( r = -0.111; p = 0.188). In summary, we showed how genetic variation in -866G/A UCP2 affected individual response to leptin production. AA + GA genotype had a better leptin sensitivity shown by its response in dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) and this explained the protective effect of A allele to obesity.

  15. A controlled, class-based multicomponent intervention to promote healthy lifestyle and to reduce the burden of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centis, E; Marzocchi, R; Di Luzio, R; Moscatiello, S; Salardi, S; Villanova, N; Marchesini, G

    2012-12-01

    Overweight and obesity prevention in childhood and adolescence represent a priority for public health; school is a privileged place for health promotion interventions. The study aimed to test the effectiveness of a multicomponent 5-month intervention on the habits of primary school children, making the families aware of the importance of healthy choices. Two hundred nine children attending the fourth class of primary school, divided into interventional (n = 103) and control arm (n = 106) were included in the study. In the intervention group, parents and teachers received more intense lifestyle counseling, associated with weekly motivational telephone calls to families to motivate further their lifestyle changes. Standard deviation score (SDS) body mass index (BMI) was the primary outcome measure; on open-air games and TV watching were secondary outcomes. At baseline, no differences were observed between groups. At 8-month follow-up, mean SDS BMI had decreased by 0.06 units in the intervention arm and increased by 0.12 in controls (time × treatment anova, P TV watching from baseline (intervention, -0.96 h week(-1); P = 0.037; controls, +1.33 h week(-1); P = 0.031). A multicomponent school-based intervention addressing the needs of children, teachers and families produced a significant and favourable short-term effect on overweight/obese schoolchildren. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  16. Thermal neutron beam modification studies using an isotope based neutron radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baheti, G.L.; Khatri, P.K.; Meghwal, L.R.; Meena, V.L.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron radiography has established itself as one of the advanced NDT technique. Isotope based facilities are being developed to make the technique available for inplant use. Quality of neutron radiograph obtained is a function of beam parameters like flux, Cd ratio and neutron to gamma ratio, scattered neutrons etc. These parameters can be modified using design features of the facility. Effect of modifications in these parameters on final image quality has been studied and were found to be useful in meeting the widely varying radiographic requirements, particularly through an isotope based facility. These modifications can also overcome some of the inherent limitations of isotope based neutron radiography facilities. (author)

  17. Explaining frailty by lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobbens, Robbert J J; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the effects of lifestyle factors on frailty can be adequately addressed by asking a single self-report question. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A sample of Dutch citizens completed the web-based questionnaire "Seniorenbarometer". Participants: 610 persons

  18. Styrene-Based Copolymer for Polymer Membrane Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Srivastava

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF was modified with a styrene-based copolymer. The crystalline behavior, phase, thermal stability, and surface morphology of the modified membranes were analyzed. The membrane surface roughness showed a strong dependence on the styrene-acrylonitrile content and was reduced to 34% for a PVDF/styrene-acrylonitrile blend membrane with a 40/60 ratio. The thermal and crystalline behavior confirmed the blend miscibility of both polymers. It was observed in X-ray diffraction (XRD experiments that the modified PVDF membranes show a drastic reduction in their crystallinity. The neat PVDF membrane has the highest degradation rate, which decreased with the addition of the styrene-based copolymer.

  19. Styrene-Based Copolymer for Polymer Membrane Modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Harsha Srivastava; Harshad Lade; Diby Paul; G. Arthanareeswaran; Ji Hyang Kweon

    2016-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) was modified with a styrene-based copolymer. The crystalline behavior, phase, thermal stability, and surface morphology of the modified membranes were analyzed. The membrane surface roughness showed a strong dependence on the styrene-acrylonitrile content and was reduced to 34% for a PVDF/styrene-acrylonitrile blend membrane with a 40/60 ratio. The thermal and crystalline behavior confirmed the blend miscibility of both polymers. It was observed in X-ray diffr...

  20. Mobile Phone-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Reducing Overall Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Guangzhou, China: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiting Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid and widespread adoption of mobile devices, mobile phones offer an opportunity to deliver cardiovascular disease (CVD interventions. This study evaluated the efficacy of a mobile phone-based lifestyle intervention aimed at reducing the overall CVD risk at a health management center in Guangzhou, China. We recruited 589 workers from eight work units. Based on a group-randomized design, work units were randomly assigned either to receive the mobile phone-based lifestyle interventions or usual care. The reduction in 10-year CVD risk at 1-year follow-up for the intervention group was not statistically significant (–1.05%, p = 0.096. However, the mean risk increased significantly by 1.77% (p = 0.047 for the control group. The difference of the changes between treatment arms in CVD risk was –2.83% (p = 0.001. In addition, there were statistically significant changes for the intervention group relative to the controls, from baseline to year 1, in systolic blood pressure (–5.55 vs. 6.89 mmHg; p < 0.001, diastolic blood pressure (–6.61 vs. 5.62 mmHg; p < 0.001, total cholesterol (–0.36 vs. –0.10 mmol/L; p = 0.005, fasting plasma glucose (–0.31 vs. 0.02 mmol/L; p < 0.001, BMI (–0.57 vs. 0.29 kg/m2; p < 0.001, and waist hip ratio (–0.02 vs. 0.01; p < 0.001. Mobile phone-based intervention may therefore be a potential solution for reducing CVD risk in China.

  1. Game-Based Approaches, Pedagogical Principles and Tactical Constraints: Examining Games Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; García-López, Luis M.; Calderón, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of modification strategies based on the pedagogical principles of the Teaching Games for Understanding approach on tactical constraints of four 3v3 soccer small-sided games. The Game performance of 21 U-10 players was analyzed in a game similar to the adult game; one based on keeping-the-ball;…

  2. Modification of Foamed Articles Based on Cassava Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, P.

    2006-01-01

    This work reports the influence of radiation, plasticizers and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) on the barrier properties [water vapour permeability (WVP)) and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation; compression resistance and flexibility) of foamed articles based on cassava starch. The starch foam was obtained by thermopressing process. Poly ethylene glycol (PEG, 300) was selected as plasticizer and water was necessary for the preparation of the foams. The foamed articles based on cassava starch were irradiated at low doses of 2 and 5 kGy, commonly used in food irradiation. The mechanical properties of starch foams are influenced by the plasticizer concentration and by irradiation dose. An increase in PEG content showed a considerable increase in elongation percentage and a decrease in the tensile strength of the foams; also increase the permeability of the foams in water. After irradiation, the barrier properties and mechanical properties of the foams were improved due to chemical reactions among polymer molecules. Irradiated starch cassava foams with poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) have good flexibility and low water permeability. WVP can be reduced by low doses of gamma radiation

  3. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Kristoffersen, Lis; Ladelund, Steen

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes.......5%. All participants received individual life-style counselling. Individuals at high risk of ischemic heart disease in group A were furthermore offered group-based life-style counselling. The intervention was repeated for high-risk individuals after one and three years. At five-year follow-up all...... of fibre and vegetables increased in both groups, however, no significant difference was found between the groups. No differences between groups were found for saturated fat intake in women. CONCLUSION: Offering group-based counselling in addition to individual counselling resulted in small...

  4. Collision analysis of a chaos-based hash function with both modification detection and localization capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihong; Li, Da; Zhou, Hu

    2012-02-01

    The collision problem of a chaos-based hash function with both modification detection and localization capability is investigated [Xiao D, Shih FY, Liao XF. A chaos-based hash function with both modification detection and localization capabilities. Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat 2010;15(9):2254-61]. The simulation gives the same detection and localization hash values for distinct messages. The expense of the birthday attack on the hash function is far less than expected. The certain symmetries of message distribution may result in the same detection hash value for distinct messages.

  5. Implementation and modification of an anatomy-based integrated curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Brenda J; Paulsen, Douglas F; Wineski, Lawrence E

    2017-06-01

    Morehouse School of Medicine elected to restructure its first-year medical curriculum by transitioning from a discipline-based to an integrated program. The anatomy course, with regional dissection at its core, served as the backbone for this integration by weaving the content from prior traditional courses into the curriculum around the anatomy topics. There were four primary goals for this restructuring process. Goal 1: develop new integrated courses. Course boundaries were established at locations where logical breaks in anatomy content occurred. Four new courses were created, each containing integrated subject content. Goal 2: establish a curriculum management team. The team consisted of course directors, subject specialists, and a curriculum director. This team worked together to efficiently manage the new curriculum. Goal 3: launch contemporary examination and question banking methods. An electronic system, in which images could be included, was implemented for examinations and quizzes, and for storing and refining questions. Goal 4: ensure equitable distribution of standardized examinations and course grading systems among all courses. Assessments included quizzes, in-course examinations, and National Board of Medical Examiners ® (NBME ® ) Subject Examinations. A standard plan assigned the contribution of each to the final course grade. Significant improvement was seen on subject examinations. Once the obstacles and challenges of integration were overcome, a robust and efficient education program was developed. The curriculum is expected to continue evolving and improving, while retaining full regional dissection as a core element. Anat Sci Educ 10: 262-275. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. [Scientific foundations for medical treatment based on modifying diet, lifestyle habits, and patient attitudes in chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csendes, Attila; Burdiles, Patricio

    2007-02-01

    In most patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, treatment is medical. Among the main elements involved in treatment are general dietary measures, lifestyle habits, and patients' attitudes to symptom control. The present article summarizes the scientific foundations that support these measures: head elevation during nighttime sleep, smoking cessation, losing weight, avoiding rigorous exercise, and reducing or eliminating alcohol consumption. Dietary therapy is mainly based on avoiding fatty foods, chocolate, coffee, mint, and irritating fizzy drinks. Although each patient's response to these measures is highly individual, the mechanisms through which symptoms are reproduced is gradually becoming clearer: a large percentage of patients with uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux disease will gain considerable relief simply by eliminating some of these habits.

  7. Use of a web-based risk appraisal tool for assessing family history and lifestyle factors in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Heather J; Schneider, Louise I; Colditz, Graham A; Dart, Hank; Andry, Analisa; Williams, Deborah H; Orav, E John; Haas, Jennifer S; Getty, George; Whittemore, Elizabeth; Bates, David W

    2013-06-01

    Primary care clinicians can play an important role in identifying individuals at increased risk of cancer, but often do not obtain detailed information on family history or lifestyle factors from their patients. We evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of using a web-based risk appraisal tool in the primary care setting. Five primary care practices within an academic care network were assigned to the intervention or control group. We included 15,495 patients who had a new patient visit or annual exam during an 8-month period in 2010-2011. Intervention patients were asked to complete a web-based risk appraisal tool on a laptop computer immediately before their visit. Information on family history of cancer was sent to their electronic health record (EHR) for clinicians to view; if accepted, it populated coded fields and could trigger clinician reminders about colon and breast cancer screening. The main outcome measure was new documentation of a positive family history of cancer in coded EHR fields. Secondary outcomes included clinician reminders about screening and discussion of family history, lifestyle factors, and screening. Among eligible intervention patients, 2.0% had new information on family history of cancer entered in the EHR within 30 days after the visit, compared to 0.6% of eligible control patients (adjusted odds ratio = 4.3, p = 0.03). There were no significant differences in the percent of patients who received moderate or high risk reminders for colon or breast cancer screening. Use of this tool was associated with increased documentation of family history of cancer in the EHR, although the percentage of patients with new family history information was low in both groups. Further research is needed to determine how risk appraisal tools can be integrated with workflow and how they affect screening and health behaviors.

  8. Association between combined lifestyle factors and non-restorative sleep in Japan: a cross-sectional study based on a Japanese health database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minako Wakasugi

    Full Text Available Although lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, excessive drinking, obesity, low or no exercise, and unhealthy dietary habits have each been associated with inadequate sleep, little is known about their combined effect. The aim of this study was to quantify the overall impact of lifestyle-related factors on non-restorative sleep in the general Japanese population.A cross-sectional study of 243,767 participants (men, 39.8% was performed using the Specific Health Check and Guidance System in Japan. A healthy lifestyle score was calculated by adding up the number of low-risk lifestyle factors for each participant. Low risk was defined as (1 not smoking, (2 body mass index<25 kg/m², (3 moderate or less alcohol consumption, (4 regular exercise, and (5 better eating patterns. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the score and the prevalence of non-restorative sleep, which was determined from questionnaire responses. Among 97,062 men (mean age, 63.9 years and 146,705 women (mean age, 63.7 years, 18,678 (19.2% and 38,539 (26.3% reported non-restorative sleep, respectively. The prevalence of non-restorative sleep decreased with age for both sexes. Compared to participants with a healthy lifestyle score of 5 (most healthy, those with a score of 0 (least healthy had a higher prevalence of non-restorative sleep (odds ratio, 1.59 [95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.97] for men and 2.88 [1.74-4.76] for women, independently of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. The main limitation of the study was the cross-sectional design, which limited causal inferences for the identified associations.A combination of several unhealthy lifestyle factors was associated with non-restorative sleep among the general Japanese population. Further studies are needed to establish whether general lifestyle modification improves restorative sleep.

  9. Impact of five modifiable lifestyle habits on the probability of cancer occurrence in a Japanese population-based cohort: results from the JPHC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Hadrien; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Inoue, Manami; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-11-01

    The present work aims to provide 10-year estimates of the probability of cancer occurrence in the Japanese population based on age, sex, and the pattern of adherence to five healthy lifestyle habits. The study population consisted of 74,935 participants in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study (aged 45 to 74 years) who answered a 5-year follow-up questionnaire about various lifestyle habits between 1995 and 1999. The relationship between five previously identified healthy lifestyle habits (never smoking, moderate or no alcohol consumption, adequate physical activity, moderate salt intake, and appropriate body mass index) and cancer occurrence was assessed using a sex-specific parametric survival model. Compared to individuals not adhering to any of the five habits, never-smoking men had a nearly 30% reduction in the 10-year probability of cancer occurrence (e.g., 20.5% vs. 28.7% at age 70), and never-smoking women had a 16% reduction (e.g., 10.5% vs. 12.5% at age 70). Adherence to all five habits was estimated to reduce the 10-year probability of cancer occurrence by 1/2 in men and 1/3 in women. By quantifying the impact of lifestyle habits on the probability of cancer occurrence, this study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle improvement. © 2013.

  10. Lifestyle modification for obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneerson, J; Wright, J

    2001-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoeas are due to transient closure of the upper airway during sleep and merge into hypopnoeas in which the airway narrows, but some airflow continues. They are due to the forces compressing the airway overcoming those which stabilise its patency. The commonest association is obesity in which fatty tissue is deposited around the airway. Exercise has been recommended as a method of losing weight, but other techniques which achieve this are also thought to improve symptoms due to sleep apnoeas. Sleep hygiene may alter the sleep structure and the control of the upper airway during sleep and thus promote its patency. The objectives of this review are to determine whether weight loss, sleep hygiene and exercise are effective in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoeas. The Cochrane Airways Group Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and reference lists of review articles have been searched. Randomised, single or double blind placebo controlled, either parallel group or crossover design studies of any of these interventions were to have been included. No completed trials have been identified. No randomised trial data were available for analysis. There is a need for randomised controlled trials of these commonly used treatments in obstructive sleep apnoeas. These should identify which sub groups of patients with sleep apnoeas benefit most from each type of treatment and they should have clear and standardised outcome measures.

  11. Preventing cancer through lifestyle modification: An essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Cancer burden in SSA countries is rising and poverty does not allow the countries to adequately match health needs withresources. The ten most common cancers include Cervical, Breast, Prostate, Liver, Kaposis Sarcoma, Esophageal, Colorectal, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Stomach and Lung cancers. Common ...

  12. The impact of a population-based multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on alcohol intake: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla Marie Nørgaard; Pisinger, Charlotta; Aadahl, Mette

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of screening and five years of multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on changes in alcohol intake in a general population. METHODS: The study was a pre-randomized intervention study on lifestyle, Inter99 (1999-2006), Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants in the int...... in women on total alcohol intake. CONCLUSION: Multi-factorial lifestyle intervention, including low intensity alcohol intervention, improved long-term alcohol habits in a general population.......PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of screening and five years of multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on changes in alcohol intake in a general population. METHODS: The study was a pre-randomized intervention study on lifestyle, Inter99 (1999-2006), Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants...

  13. Avoidant personality problems--their association with somatic and mental health, lifestyle, and social network. A community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olssøn, Ingrid; Dahl, Alv A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the associations between the presence of avoidant personality problems (APPs) and 5 areas of impairment: demography, somatic issues, mental health, lifestyle, and social issues. Avoidant personality problem was defined by confirmation of the 2 avoidant personality disorder items of the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen and and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) short version (MINI-SPIN) screening assessment for generalized social anxiety disorder sum score of 6 or more. The questionnaires were administered in a Norwegian population survey (the Oslo Health Study-HUBRO). Cases consisted of 280 individuals with APP and 5 randomly selected controls without APP (n = 1400). The APP group more frequently reported living alone, lower level of education, and lower income than controls. Poor self-rated health, presence of somatic disease, muscular pain, frequent use of analgesics, and visits at a general practitioner were significantly more common in the APP group than among controls. The APP group had significantly higher proportion of caseness of mental distress, low general self-efficacy, and insomnia, and this result held up in multivariate analyses. The APP group showed statistically significant higher proportions of physical inactivity, obesity, daily smoking, and alcohol problems compared with controls. As for social impairment, a significantly higher proportion of the APP group reported "not having enough good friends," "high powerlessness," and low community activism, and the 2 former variables held up in multivariate analyses. In this population-based study, we found that high levels of APP, defined closely to avoidant personality disorder, were significantly associated with demographic, somatic, and mental impairment; low general self-efficacy; and insomnia affecting work ability. In addition, APP showed associations with negative lifestyle, alcohol problems, and social impairment reporting lack of good friends and lack of

  14. Lifestyle-oriented non-pharmacological treatments for fibromyalgia: a clinical overview and applications with home-based technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedberg F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fred Friedberg,1 David A Williams,2 William Collinge31Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York; 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 3Collinge and Associates, Kittery, Maine, USAAbstract: Fibromyalgia (FM is a persistent and disabling widespread pain condition often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive problems, sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, and headache. To date, the most thoroughly studied non-pharmacological approaches to managing FM are those with a focus on changing patient activities and beliefs that affect the illness. These interventions are intended to facilitate enduring improvement in pain and functional status. Lifestyle-oriented treatments include patient education, aerobic or other physical exercise, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. These interventions in FM can be delivered in medical or behavioral health care settings by trained professionals, through patient-oriented treatment manuals, or via remote-access technologies. Non-pharmacological treatments, in particular exercise and CBT, have yielded effect sizes and cost–benefit ratios comparable to medications. This paper describes lifestyle-oriented non-pharmacological treatments for FM and highlights selected literature reviews of these interventions. In addition, behavioral and practical issues are addressed that may affect these non-pharmacological treatments, including patient expectations, participant burden, and treatment availability. Recommendations are made to facilitate these interventions and potentially improve outcomes. In particular, the increasing availability of convenient home-based mobile technologies to deliver these non-pharmacological treatments is described.Keywords: cognitive-behavior therapy, exercise, education, mobile technology

  15. Effects of Computer-Based Training on Procedural Modifications to Standard Functional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Lauren K.; Sidener, Tina M.; DeBar, Ruth M.; Vladescu, Jason C.; Kahng, SungWoo

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated methods for training decision-making when functional analysis data are undifferentiated. The current study evaluated computer-based training to teach 20 graduate students to arrange functional analysis conditions, analyze functional analysis data, and implement procedural modifications. Participants were exposed to…

  16. Plasma-implantation-based surface modification of metals with single-implantation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X. B.; Cui, J. T.; Yang, S. Q.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2004-12-01

    Plasma ion implantation has proven to be an effective surface modification technique. Its biggest advantage is the capability to treat the objects with irregular shapes without complex manipulation of target holder. Many metal materials such as aluminum, stainless steel, tool steel, titanium, magnesium etc, has been treated using this technique to improve their wear-resistance, corrosion-resistance, fatigue-resistance, oxidation-resistance, bio-compatiblity etc. However in order to achieve thicker modified layers, hybrid processes combining plasma ion implantation with other techniques have been frequently employed. In this paper plasma implantation based surface modification of metals using single-implantation mode is reviewed.

  17. Determining Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Starting Age of Screening Based on Lifestyle, Environmental, and Genetic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jihyoun; Du, Mengmeng; Schoen, Robert E; Hoffmeister, Michael; Newcomb, Polly A; Berndt, Sonja I; Caan, Bette; Campbell, Peter T; Chan, Andrew T; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Giles, Graham G; Gong, Jian; Harrison, Tabitha A; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Jacobs, Eric J; Li, Li; Lin, Yi; Le Marchand, Loïc; Potter, John D; Qu, Flora; Bien, Stephanie A; Zubair, Niha; Macinnis, Robert J; Buchanan, Daniel D; Hopper, John L; Cao, Yin; Nishihara, Reiko; Rennert, Gad; Slattery, Martha L; Thomas, Duncan C; Woods, Michael O; Prentice, Ross L; Gruber, Stephen B; Zheng, Yingye; Brenner, Hermann; Hayes, Richard B; White, Emily; Peters, Ulrike; Hsu, Li

    2018-02-16

    Guidelines for initiating colorectal cancer (CRC) screening are based on family history but do not consider lifestyle, environmental, or genetic risk factors. We developed models to determine risk of CRC, based on lifestyle and environmental factors and genetic variants, and to identify an optimal age to begin screening. We collected data from 9748 CRC cases and 10,590 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary study, from 1992 through 2005. Half of the participants were used to develop the risk determination model and the other half were used to evaluate the discriminatory accuracy (validation set). Models of CRC risk were created based on family history, 19 lifestyle and environmental factors (E-score), and 63 CRC-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies (G-score). We evaluated the discriminatory accuracy of the models by calculating area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values, adjusting for study, age, and endoscopy findings for the validation set. We used the models to project the 10-year absolute risk of CRC for a given risk profile and recommend ages to begin screening, in comparison to CRC risk for an average individual at 50 years of age, using external population incidence rates for non-Hispanic whites from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program registry. In our models, E-score and G-score each determined risk of CRC with greater accuracy than family history. A model that combined both scores and family history estimated CRC risk with an AUC value of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.62-0.64) for men and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.61-0.63) for women; AUC values based on only family history ranged from 0.53 to 0.54 and those based only E-score or G-score ranged from 0.59 to 0.60. Although screening is recommended to begin at age 50 years for individuals with no family history of CRC, starting ages calculated based on combined E

  18. Place-Based Education in the Architectural Design Studio: Agrarian Landscape as a Resource for Sustainable Urban Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Nikezić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights how “place-based education” can be used to raise awareness about sustainability and potentially influence design process decisions that have environmental and cultural implications. “Place-based education” is a term used to describe an educational worldview based on development of curriculum centered on the local, social, economic, and ecological resources of a community. The study shows results of Masters Students’ research on situating a housing complex in the context of the agrarian landscape of Vojvodina, Serbia, considering it as a resource for a new sustainable urban lifestyle. During the first year of Masters Studies at the Faculty of Architecture, Belgrade University, an architectural design studio with 15 students had the task of exploring the potential of expanding the city of Belgrade across the agrarian landscape, as to affirm the role of place in contemporary everyday life. Students were expected to explore the possibilities and limitations of the relationship between man and agrarian landscape via architecture, re-thinking how various architectural design approaches could balance and harmonize the impact of the built environment on the agrarian landscape. The paper shows that “place-based education” possesses elements necessary for the inclusion of a wider spatial-cultural context in the process of architectural design and prioritization of environmental literacy and responsibility, as one of the main components of sustainable development.

  19. Optimization of ribosome structure and function by rRNA base modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Baxter-Roshek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Translating mRNA sequences into functional proteins is a fundamental process necessary for the viability of organisms throughout all kingdoms of life. The ribosome carries out this process with a delicate balance between speed and accuracy. This work investigates how ribosome structure and function are affected by rRNA base modification. The prevailing view is that rRNA base modifications serve to fine tune ribosome structure and function.To test this hypothesis, yeast strains deficient in rRNA modifications in the ribosomal peptidyltransferase center were monitored for changes in and translational fidelity. These studies revealed allele-specific sensitivity to translational inhibitors, changes in reading frame maintenance, nonsense suppression and aa-tRNA selection. Ribosomes isolated from two mutants with the most pronounced phenotypic changes had increased affinities for aa-tRNA, and surprisingly, increased rates of peptidyltransfer as monitored by the puromycin assay. rRNA chemical analyses of one of these mutants identified structural changes in five specific bases associated with the ribosomal A-site.Together, the data suggest that modification of these bases fine tune the structure of the A-site region of the large subunit so as to assure correct positioning of critical rRNA bases involved in aa-tRNA accommodation into the PTC, of the eEF-1A.aa-tRNA.GTP ternary complex with the GTPase associated center, and of the aa-tRNA in the A-site. These findings represent a direct demonstration in support of the prevailing hypothesis that rRNA modifications serve to optimize rRNA structure for production of accurate and efficient ribosomes.

  20. Moderators of Intervention Dose Effects on Diet Quality and Physical Activity Changes in a Church-Based, Multicomponent, Lifestyle Study: Delta Body and Soul III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, J. L.; Zoellner, J. M.; Tussing-Humphreys, L. M.; Goodman, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Many community-based lifestyle interventions targeting African Americans have reported positive effects on participants' dietary choices and physical activity habits. However, these effects vary and not all participants will have outcome changes. Moderation analysis can help explain differential effects observed, but are not often reported. Hence,…

  1. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study--a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Kristoffersen, Lis; Ladelund, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits....

  2. Surface Modification of Cellulose-based Materials for Tailoring of Interfacial Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Utsel, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The awareness of our need for a sustainable society has encouraged the search for renewable, high quality materials that can replace oil-based products. This, in combination with increased competition in the forest industry, has stimulated a lot of research into different types of wood-based materials where cellulose-rich fibers are combined with different types of polymers. There is hence a great need to develop efficient fiber modification techniques by which the fibers can be tailored to o...

  3. Surface modification of cellulose-based fibres for use in advanced materials

    OpenAIRE

    Utsel, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The awareness of our need for a sustainable society has encouraged the search for renewable, high quality materials that can replace oil-based products. This, in combination with increased competition in the forest industry, has stimulated a lot of research into different types of wood-based materials where cellulose-rich fibres are combined with different types of polymers. There is hence a large need to develop efficient fibre modification techniques by which the fibres can be tailored to o...

  4. Geographic Determinants of Healthy Lifestyle Change in a Community-Based Exercise Prescription Delivered in Family Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Petrella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence is unequivocal that exercise training can improve health outcomes. However, despite this evidence, adoption of healthy lifestyles is poor. The physical environment is one possible determinant of successful adoption of healthy lifestyles that could influence outcomes in community-based intervention strategies. We developed a novel exercise prescription delivered in two different cohorts of older sedentary adults—one delivered by family physicians to patients with identified cardiovascular risk factors (CRF and the other delivered at a community exercise facility to a larger cohort of healthy sedentary adults (HSA. We then determined whether the place of residence and proximity to facilities promoting physical activity and healthy or unhealthy eating could influence clinical changes related to these community-based exercise prescriptions.Methods: Two different cohorts of older patients were administered similar exercise prescriptions. The CRF cohort was a sedentary group of 41 older adults with either high-normal blood pressure (120–139 mmHg/85–89 mmHg or impaired glucose tolerance (fasting glucose 6.1–6.9 mmol/l who were prescribed exercise by their family physicians at baseline and followed over 12 months. The HSA cohort consisted of 159 sedentary older adults who were prescribed a similar exercise prescription and then participated in a chronic training program over 5 years at a community-based training facility. Out- comes of interest were change in fitness (VO2max, resting systolic blood pressure (rSBP and body mass index (BMI. GIS-determined shortest distance to local facilities promoting physical activity and healthy versus unhealthy were compared at baseline and follow up using simple logistic regression.Those subjects in CRF group were further identified as responders (exhibited an above average change in VO2max and were then compared to non-responders according to their patterns of proximity to physical

  5. Restriction-modification system with methyl-inhibited base excision and abasic-site cleavage activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyo, Masaki; Nakano, Toshiaki; Zhang, Yingbiao; Furuta, Yoshikazu; Ishikawa, Ken; Watanabe-Matsui, Miki; Yano, Hirokazu; Hamakawa, Takeshi; Ide, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2015-03-11

    The restriction-modification systems use epigenetic modification to distinguish between self and nonself DNA. A modification enzyme transfers a methyl group to a base in a specific DNA sequence while its cognate restriction enzyme introduces breaks in DNA lacking this methyl group. So far, all the restriction enzymes hydrolyze phosphodiester bonds linking the monomer units of DNA. We recently reported that a restriction enzyme (R.PabI) of the PabI superfamily with half-pipe fold has DNA glycosylase activity that excises an adenine base in the recognition sequence (5'-GTAC). We now found a second activity in this enzyme: at the resulting apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) (abasic) site (5'-GT#C, # = AP), its AP lyase activity generates an atypical strand break. Although the lyase activity is weak and lacks sequence specificity, its covalent DNA-R.PabI reaction intermediates can be trapped by NaBH4 reduction. The base excision is not coupled with the strand breakage and yet causes restriction because the restriction enzyme action can impair transformation ability of unmethylated DNA even in the absence of strand breaks in vitro. The base excision of R.PabI is inhibited by methylation of the target adenine base. These findings expand our understanding of genetic and epigenetic processes linking those in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. A pragmatic lifestyle modification programme reduces the incidence of predictors of cardio-metabolic disease and dysglycaemia in a young healthy urban South Asian population: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesuriya, Mahen; Fountoulakis, Nikolaos; Guess, Nicola; Banneheka, Sarath; Vasantharajah, Laksha; Gulliford, Martin; Viberti, Giancarlo; Gnudi, Luigi; Karalliedde, Janaka

    2017-08-30

    There is an increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in young urban South-Asians. We tested the effect of a pragmatic trimonthly lifestyle modification (LSM) programme (P-LSM) versus a less-intensive 12-monthly control LSM (C-LSM) intervention on a primary composite endpoint of predictors of cardio-metabolic disease (new onset T2DM, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) and markers of cardio-renal disease) in participants aged 5-40 years with risk factors for T2DM. This was a randomised controlled trial performed at the National Diabetes Centre, Sri-Lanka. We individually randomised 4672 participants at risk of T2DM, of whom 3539 (mean age 22.5 (range 6-40 years, 48% males) received either trimonthly (P-LSM n = 1726) or 12-monthly (C-LSM n = 1813) peer educator advice aimed at reducing weight, improving diet, reducing psychological stress and increasing physical activity. During a median follow-up of 3 years, the cumulative incidence of the primary endpoint was n = 479 in P-LSM (74 per 1000 person years) vs. 561 in C-LSM (96 per 1000 person years), with an incident rate ratio (IRR) of 0.89 (95% CI 0.83-0.96, P = 0.02). In post hoc analyses, new onset dysglycaemia (T2DM, IFG and IGT), was the major contributor to the composite and was significantly reduced by P-LSM (IRR 0.9, 95% CI 0.83-0.97, P = 0.01). A significant impact of P-LSM on the incidence of the composite endpoint was noted in 1725 participants (P-LSM n = 850, C-LSM n = 875) aged below 18; P-LSM n = 140 (48 per 1000 person years) versus C-LSM n = 174 (55.4 per 1000 person years), with an IRR of 0.83 (95% CI 0.73-0.94, P = 0.004). In a young at-risk South-Asian population, a pragmatic LSM programme significantly reduces the incidence of predictors of cardio-metabolic disease. Our results highlight the importance of early intervention in young at-risk subjects. World Health Organization international clinical

  7. Public health impact of community-based nutrition and lifestyle interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Kok, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Community-based interventions have increasingly received attention since researchers and public health professionals have come to acknowledge the importance of an environment that makes the healthy choice the easy choice. All stakeholders including the target community are involved to achieve

  8. Web-based tailored lifestyle programs: exploration of the target group's interests and implications for practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Jans, M.P.; Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2008-01-01

    An important challenge in Web-based health promotion is to increase the reach of the target audience by taking the target groups' desires into consideration. Data from 505 members of a Dutch Internet panel (representative for Dutch Internet users) were used to asses the target group's interests and

  9. Evaluation of a web-based lifestyle coach designed to maintain a healthy bodyweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelders, Saskia Marion; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Werkman, Andrea; Seydel, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a web-based intervention, the Healthy Weight Assistant (HWA), which was designed to help people with a healthy bodyweight, or those who are slightly overweight, to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Four evaluation methods were used: (1) pre- and post-test questionnaires; (2) real

  10. Estimating Cloud and Aerosol UV Modification Factors Based on Spectral Measurement from the Brewer Spectrophotometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Seo Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud and aerosol modification factors are investigated in the spectral range of ultraviolet (UV to correct for cloud and aerosol extinction effects from clear sky irradiance. The cloud modification factor (CMF and aerosol modification factor (AMF are estimated using radiative transfer model (RTM simulations and ground-based observations in Seoul, Korea. The modification factors show a spectral dependence within the spectral range of 300 to 360 nm, which is the range used to estimate erythemal UV. The CMF and AMF values are estimated with high spectral resolution with considerations of solar zenith angle (SZA, cloud/aerosol amount, and total ozone variation. From the simulation studies, the variation in the CMFs within the spectral range of 300–360 nm is estimated to be 0.031–0.055, which is twice as large as the decrease in CMFs resulting from a SZA increase of 10°. In addition, the CMFs estimated from observational data show significant spectral dependence, varying from 2.5% to 10.0%. Because of the small aerosol optical depth (AOD value, however, the variation in the AMF calculated from simulations is estimated to be between 0.007 and 0.045, indicating lower spectral dependence than the CMF. Furthermore, the spectral difference in the AMF calculated from observational data is insignificant relative to the daily-averaged total ozone error and uncertainties related to the reference irradiance spectrum under aerosol-free conditions.

  11. 'Live more': Study protocol for a community-based lifestyle education program addressing non-communicable diseases in low-literacy areas of the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, L M; Reierson, P; Morton, D P

    2015-12-09

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have reached epidemic proportions in Pacific Island countries. Unhealthy lifestyle is one of the major risk factors and lifestyle interventions have been shown to be efficacious for primary, secondary and early tertiary prevention. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding effective community-based lifestyle interventions in the Pacific Islands. The Complete Health Improvement Program for high-income countries was contextualised for rural communities with relatively low-literacy rates in low-income countries using the REFLECT delivery approach. This study will assess the effect of this 'Live More' program to reduce participant's NCD risk factors and improve lifestyle behaviours associated with health and wellbeing, in low-literacy communities in countries of the South Pacific. This study is a 6-month cluster-randomised controlled trial of 288 adults (equal proportions of men and women aged 18 years and over) with waist circumference of ≥92 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women in four rural villages in each of Fiji, Vanuatu and Solomon Islands. Participants will permanently reside in their village and be able to prepare their own meals. Two villages will be randomised to the 'Live More' intervention (n = 24) or to control receiving only country specific Ministry of Health literature (n = 24). Intervention participants will meet three times a week in the first month, then once a week for the next two months and once a month for the last three months. Themes covered include: NCDs and their causes; and the benefits of positive lifestyle choices, positive psychology, stress management, forgiveness and self-worth, and how these influence long-term health habits. Outcome assessments at baseline, 30-days, 3-months and 6-months include body mass index, waist circumference, blood lipids, blood pressure and blood glucose. Secondary outcomes include changes in medication and substance use, diet, physical activity, emotional

  12. Effect of Hybrid Surface Modifications on Tensile Properties of Polyacrylonitrile- and Pitch-Based Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Kimiyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Recent interest has emerged in techniques that modify the surfaces of carbon fibers, such as carbon nanotube (CNT) grafting or polymer coating. Hybridization of these surface modifications has the potential to generate highly tunable, high-performance materials. In this study, the mechanical properties of surface-modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based and pitch-based carbon fibers were investigated. Single-filament tensile tests were performed for fibers modified by CNT grafting, dipped polyimide coating, high-temperature vapor deposition polymerized polyimide coating, grafting-dipping hybridization, and grafting-vapor deposition hybridization. The Weibull statistical distributions of the tensile strengths of the surface-modified PAN- and pitch-based carbon fibers were examined. All surface modifications, especially hybrid modifications, improved the tensile strengths and Weibull moduli of the carbon fibers. The results exhibited a linear relationship between the Weibull modulus and average tensile strength on a log-log scale for all surface-modified PAN- and pitch-based carbon fibers.

  13. A gender-based approach to developing a healthy lifestyle and healthy weight intervention for diverse Utah women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Sara E; Digre, Kathleen B; Ralls, Brenda; Mukundente, Valentine; Davis, France A; Rickard, Sylvia; Tavake-Pasi, Fahina; Napia, Eru Ed; Aiono, Heather; Chirpich, Meghan; Stark, Louisa A; Sunada, Grant; Keen, Kassy; Johnston, Leanne; Frost, Caren J; Varner, Michael W; Alder, Stephen C

    2015-08-01

    Utah women from some cultural minority groups have higher overweight/obesity rates than the overall population. We utilized a gender-based mixed methods approach to learn about the underlying social, cultural and gender issues that contribute to the increased obesity risk among these women and to inform intervention development. A literature review and analysis of Utah's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data informed the development of a focus group guide. Focus groups were conducted with five groups of women: African immigrants from Burundi and Rwanda, African Americans, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Hispanics/Latinas, and Pacific Islanders. Six common themes emerged: (1) health is multidimensional and interventions must address health in this manner; (2) limited resources and time influence health behaviors; (3) norms about healthy weight vary, with certain communities showing more preference to heavier women; (4) women and men have important but different influences on healthy lifestyle practices within households; (5) women have an influential role on the health of families; and (6) opportunities exist within each group to improve health. Seeking insights from these five groups of women helped to identify common and distinct cultural and gender themes related to obesity, which can be used to help elucidate core obesity determinants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Targeting cultural changes supportive of the healthiest lifestyle patterns. A biosocial evidence-base for prevention of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, David A; Booth, Phil

    2011-02-01

    This paper argues that the rise in obesity can be slowed only by universal education based on a type of evidence that does not yet exist. On top of literacy and numeracy, people need the ability to preempt the fattening effect of a decrease in habitual physical activity by altering familiar patterns of eating, drinking and exercise in ways that are both maintainable within the individual's social and physical environment and also effective at decreasing weight to the asymptote for each sustained change. Hence the prevention of obesity requires locally valid evidence on which changes to specific customary habits actually do avoid unhealthy fattening. Interventions need to focus on antecedents to individuals' common lapses from the healthy changes in these customs. Yet no research has been funded into the public's descriptions of feasible changes that cause a step down in weight, let alone into the environmental conditions for individuals' maintenance of those changes. As a result, public health policies on obesity lack scientific basis. When will a start be made on systematic identification of cultural supports to readily executed patterns of lifestyle behaviour which improve health to extents that have been directly measured? Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mind shift, mode shift: a lifestyle approach to reducing car ownership and use based on behavioural economics and social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Stephen; Caisey, Vivienne

    2010-05-01

    This paper sets out a new approach to the Wicked Problems of obesity and climate change, and the linked and causative Wicked Problem of increasing car ownership and use. Policies to bring about modal shift from car dependence to forms of transport that cause lower emissions, and are less obesogenic, are conventionally based on framing car use as an externality to be addressed by policies such as taxation or regulation. These policies have been hampered by the reluctance of politicians and policymakers to countenance electoral risk by impinging on the individual's perceived right to personal mobility. This paper's approach combines insights and methods from behavioural economics and social marketing: it shifts the focus by considering car ownership and use not as an externality to be addressed in the aggregate, but as the product of individual behaviours and lifestyle choices. Behavioural economics can help to uncover the motivations, heuristics and cognitive biases behind such behaviours. Social marketing builds on the premise that people will only change their behaviour if they are sufficiently motivated to do so. It can be used to design interventions which help sectors of the population make transport choices that are more optimal--both for the individuals concerned and for all of us who are affected by these Wicked Problems.

  16. "Go Girls!": psychological and behavioral outcomes associated with a group-based healthy lifestyle program for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, A Justine; Chen, Michelle Y; Jung, Mary E; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in adolescent girls' health-enhancing cognitions and behaviors targeted by the Go Girls! group-based mentorship lifestyle program. Three hundred and ten adolescent girls (nested within 40 Go Girls! groups) completed questionnaires that assessed cognitions (attitudes, self-regulatory efficacy, and intentions) and behaviors (physical activity and dietary) at four time points (two pre-program, one at the end of the program, and one at 7-week follow-up). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine changes in the outcome variables among Go Girls! participants (M age = 11.68 years, SD = 0.80). No significant changes occurred in the outcome variables during the baseline comparison period (Time 1-2). When compared to the average of the baseline assessments, 7 weeks after completing the program, girls reported significant improvements in physical activity (M Baseline PAtotal = 3.82, SD = 3.49; M T4 PAtotal = 4.38, SD = 3.75) and healthy eating (M Baseline = 10.71, SD = 1.13; M T4 = 11.35, SD = 1.05) behavior and related cognitions (d values ≥0.65). Findings provide preliminary support for programs that foster belongingness and target health behaviors through mentorship models.

  17. Structural modifications under reactive atmosphere of cobalt catalysts; Modifications structurales sous atmospheres reactionnelles de catalyseurs a base de cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducreux, O.

    1999-11-23

    The purpose of this work was to develop in situ methods under reactive dynamic conditions (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) to describe the active phase structure in order to understand Fischer-Tropsch catalyst behaviour and improve the natural gas conversion process performance. Experiments were designed to correlate structural modifications with catalytic results. The effect of ruthenium used as a promoter has also been studied. The impregnation process increases cobalt-support interaction. The presence of ruthenium promoter reduces this effect. Interactions between Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} oxide and support play an important role in the reducibility of cobalt and in the resulting metal structure. This in turn strongly influences the catalytic behaviour. Our results show a close correlation between structure modification and reactivity in the systems studied. Cobalt metal and CO can react to form a carbide Co{sub 2}C under conditions close to those of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. This carbide formation seems to be related to a deactivation process. The presence of interstitial carbon formed by dissociation of CO is proposed as a key to understanding the mechanism of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. A specific catalyst activation treatment was developed to increase the catalytic activity. This work permits correlation of materials structure with their chemical properties and demonstrates the contribution of in situ physico-chemical characterisation methods to describe solids under reactive atmosphere. (author)

  18. [Genotoxic modification of nucleic acid bases and biological consequences of it. Review and prospects of experimental and computational investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltev, V. I.; Bruskov, V. I.; Shuliupina, N. V.; Rein, R.; Shibata, M.; Ornstein, R.; Miller, J.

    1993-01-01

    The review is presented of experimental and computational data on the influence of genotoxic modification of bases (deamination, alkylation, oxidation) on the structure and biological functioning of nucleic acids. Pathways are discussed for the influence of modification on coding properties of bases, on possible errors of nucleic acid biosynthesis, and on configurations of nucleotide mispairs. The atomic structure of nucleic acid fragments with modified bases and the role of base damages in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis are considered.

  19. Modification of fuel performance code to evaluate iron-based alloy behavior under LOCA scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Martins, Marcelo Ramos, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@labrisco.usp.br, E-mail: mrmartin@usp.br [Laboratorio de Analise, Avaliacao e Gerenciamento de Risco (LabRisco/POLI/USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Abe, Alfredo; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e, E-mail: ayabe@ipen.br, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixiera@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) has been studied since the Fukushima Daiichi accident in the research efforts to develop new materials which under accident scenarios could maintain the fuel rod integrity for a longer period compared to the cladding and fuel system usually utilized in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The efforts have been focused on new materials applied as cladding, then iron-base alloys appear as a possible candidate. The aim of this paper is to implement modifications in a fuel performance code to evaluate the behavior of iron based alloys under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario. For this, initially the properties related to the thermal and mechanical behavior of iron-based alloys were obtained from the literature, appropriately adapted and introduced in the fuel performance code subroutines. The adopted approach was step by step modifications, where different versions of the code were created. The assessment of the implemented modification was carried out simulating an experiment available in the open literature (IFA-650.5) related to zirconium-based alloy fuel rods submitted to LOCA conditions. The obtained results for the iron-based alloy were compared to those obtained using the regular version of the fuel performance code for zircaloy-4. The obtained results have shown that the most important properties to be changed are those from the subroutines related to the mechanical properties of the cladding. The results obtained have shown that the burst is observed at a longer time for fuel rods with iron-based alloy, indicating the potentiality of this material to be used as cladding with ATF purposes. (author)

  20. Modification of fuel performance code to evaluate iron-based alloy behavior under LOCA scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Abe, Alfredo; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e

    2017-01-01

    Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) has been studied since the Fukushima Daiichi accident in the research efforts to develop new materials which under accident scenarios could maintain the fuel rod integrity for a longer period compared to the cladding and fuel system usually utilized in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The efforts have been focused on new materials applied as cladding, then iron-base alloys appear as a possible candidate. The aim of this paper is to implement modifications in a fuel performance code to evaluate the behavior of iron based alloys under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario. For this, initially the properties related to the thermal and mechanical behavior of iron-based alloys were obtained from the literature, appropriately adapted and introduced in the fuel performance code subroutines. The adopted approach was step by step modifications, where different versions of the code were created. The assessment of the implemented modification was carried out simulating an experiment available in the open literature (IFA-650.5) related to zirconium-based alloy fuel rods submitted to LOCA conditions. The obtained results for the iron-based alloy were compared to those obtained using the regular version of the fuel performance code for zircaloy-4. The obtained results have shown that the most important properties to be changed are those from the subroutines related to the mechanical properties of the cladding. The results obtained have shown that the burst is observed at a longer time for fuel rods with iron-based alloy, indicating the potentiality of this material to be used as cladding with ATF purposes. (author)

  1. Structural landscape of base pairs containing post-transcriptional modifications in RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelam, Preethi P; Sharma, Purshotam; Mitra, Abhijit

    2017-06-01

    Base pairs involving post-transcriptionally modified nucleobases are believed to play important roles in a wide variety of functional RNAs. Here we present our attempts toward understanding the structural and functional role of naturally occurring modified base pairs using a combination of X-ray crystal structure database analysis, sequence analysis, and advanced quantum chemical methods. Our bioinformatics analysis reveals that despite their presence in all major secondary structural elements, modified base pairs are most prevalent in tRNA crystal structures and most commonly involve guanine or uridine modifications. Further, analysis of tRNA sequences reveals additional examples of modified base pairs at structurally conserved tRNA regions and highlights the conservation patterns of these base pairs in three domains of life. Comparison of structures and binding energies of modified base pairs with their unmodified counterparts, using quantum chemical methods, allowed us to classify the base modifications in terms of the nature of their electronic structure effects on base-pairing. Analysis of specific structural contexts of modified base pairs in RNA crystal structures revealed several interesting scenarios, including those at the tRNA:rRNA interface, antibiotic-binding sites on the ribosome, and the three-way junctions within tRNA. These scenarios, when analyzed in the context of available experimental data, allowed us to correlate the occurrence and strength of modified base pairs with their specific functional roles. Overall, our study highlights the structural importance of modified base pairs in RNA and points toward the need for greater appreciation of the role of modified bases and their interactions, in the context of many biological processes involving RNA. © 2017 Seelam et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  2. Design as an inspiration for sustainable lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Govindan, Vidhya; Sakunthaladevi, Sakthikannan

    2013-01-01

    To envision a sustainable society, it is not enough to have sustainable products and services; radical change has to happen in every individual’s lifestyles and ways they interact with society. Design has the power to make the radical change happen and motivates people to embrace sustainable lifestyle. The paper discusses the concept of design as an inspirational tool towards sustainable lifestyle briefly and proposes a website based community model based on the concept. The model proposed in...

  3. Development and Applicability of an Internet-Based Diet and Lifestyle Questionnaire for College Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Yong-Shuai; Chen, Yang; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Ying-Feng; Sun, Chang-Hao; Feng, Ren-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Diet contributes to the increasing incidence of chronic diseases. Thus, fast, accurate, and convenient dietary assessment tools are in demand. We designed an internet-based diet and lifestyle questionnaire for Chinese (IDQC). The objective of this study was to validate its applicability and assess the dietary habits of Chinese college students. Six hundred forty-four college students from northern China were recruited and asked to complete the IDQC for the last 4 months (135 food items) and 3-day diet records (3DDRs). Food and nutrient intakes recorded in the IDQC were validated against those in the 3DDRs using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs t test, correlation analysis, and cross-classification. The Student t and χ2 tests were used in the dietary assessment. There were significantly positive correlations in the dietary intakes of 9 food groups and 23 nutrients between the IDQC and 3DDRs. All participants consumed low levels of fruits, vegetables, legumes, dairy, and certain micronutrients (ie, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, folic acid, vitamin C, calcium, selenium, and iodine), and high levels of iron and manganese. Male students consumed higher intakes of the food groups and nutrients than female students. The IDQC represents an accurate and convenient dietary assessment tool that can be used in large populations. Inadequate and excessive nutrition co-existed in college students, and more fruits, vegetables, legumes, dairy, and various vitamins and minerals were needed in this population's daily diet. The IDQC is free of access at www.yyjy365.org/diet. PMID:26656341

  4. Evaluating clinic and community-based lifestyle interventions for obesity reduction in a low-income Latino neighborhood: Vivamos Activos Fair Oaks Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity exerts an enormous health impact through its effect on coronary heart disease and its risk factors. Primary care-based and community-based intensive lifestyle counseling may effectively promote weight loss. There has been limited implementation and evaluation of these strategies, particularly the added benefit of community-based intervention, in low-income Latino populations. Design The Vivamos Activos Fair Oaks project is a randomized clinical trial designed to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of two obesity reduction lifestyle interventions: clinic-based intensive lifestyle counseling, either alone (n = 80 or combined with community health worker support (n = 80, in comparison to usual primary care (n = 40. Clinic-based counseling consists of 15 group and four individual lifestyle counseling sessions provided by health educators targeting behavior change in physical activity and dietary practices. Community health worker support includes seven home visits aimed at practical implementation of weight loss strategies within the person's home and neighborhood. The interventions use a framework based on Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change, and techniques from previously tested lifestyle interventions. Application of the framework was culturally tailored based on past interventions in the same community and elsewhere, as well as a community needs and assets assessment. The interventions include a 12-month intensive phase followed by a 12-month maintenance phase. Participants are obese Spanish-speaking adults with at least one cardiovascular risk factor recruited from a community health center in a low-income neighborhood of San Mateo County, California. Follow-up assessments occur at 6, 12, and 24 months for the primary outcome of percent change in body mass index at 24 months. Secondary outcomes include specific cardiovascular risk factors, particularly blood pressure and

  5. Attentional bias modification based on visual probe task: methodological issues, results and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attentional bias, the tendency that a person has to drive or maintain attention to a specific class of stimuli, may play an important role in the etiology and persistence of mental disorders. Attentional bias modification has been studied as a form of additional treatment related to automatic processing. Objectives: This systematic literature review compared and discussed methods, evidence of success and potential clinical applications of studies about attentional bias modification (ABM using a visual probe task. Methods: The Web of Knowledge, PubMed and PsycInfo were searched using the keywords attentional bias modification, attentional bias manipulation and attentional bias training. We selected empirical studies about ABM training using a visual probe task written in English and published between 2002 and 2014. Results: Fifty-seven studies met inclusion criteria. Most (78% succeeded in training attention in the predicted direction, and in 71% results were generalized to other measures correlated with the symptoms. Conclusions: ABM has potential clinical utility, but to standardize methods and maximize applicability, future studies should include clinical samples and be based on findings of studies about its effectiveness.

  6. Receptance based structural modification in a simple brake-clutch model for squeal noise suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarraga, Ondiz; Ulacia, Ibai; Abete, José Manuel; Ouyang, Huajiang

    2017-06-01

    Unlike brake squeal, brake-clutch squeal has rarely been studied, even though the cause of squeal noise is identical - dry friction acting at the contact interface. In this paper, a combined theoretical and experimental study is reported on squeal noise of a brake-clutch. On the theoretical side, a receptance-based inverse dynamic method is adopted to identify the mass or stiffness required to split the coupled modes of a brake-clutch model to achieve noise suppression. On the experimental side, the theoretically identified stiffness is implemented on the brake-clutch test rig in the form of a grounded spring and it is thus shown that the actual structural modification has removed the squeal noise. This is the first time that a theoretically derived structural modification is made on a brake-clutch model and shown to be able of completely suppressing actual squeal noise. This study establishes a way of suppressing friction-induced high-frequency noise through structural modification.

  7. Annotation of post-translational modifications in the Swiss-Prot knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farriol-Mathis, Nathalie; Garavelli, John S; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Duvaud, Séverine; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Gateau, Alain; Veuthey, Anne-Lise; Bairoch, Amos

    2004-06-01

    High-throughput proteomic studies produce a wealth of new information regarding post-translational modifications (PTMs). The Swiss-Prot knowledge base is faced with the challenge of including this information in a consistent and structured way, in order to facilitate easy retrieval and promote understanding by biologist expert users as well as computer programs. We are therefore standardizing the annotation of PTM features represented in Swiss-Prot. Indeed, a controlled vocabulary has been associated with every described PTM. In this paper, we present the major update of the feature annotation, and, by showing a few examples, explain how the annotation is implemented and what it means. Mod-Prot, a future companion database of Swiss-Prot, devoted to the biological aspects of PTMs (i.e., general description of the process, identity of the modification enzyme(s), taxonomic range, mass modification) is briefly described. Finally we encourage once again the scientific community (i.e., both individual researchers and database maintainers) to interact with us, so that we can continuously enhance the quality and swiftness of our services.

  8. Effect of Self-Efficacy on Weight Loss: A Psychosocial Analysis of a Community-Based Adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Laura M.; Finch, Emily A.; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G.; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle interv...

  9. The effects of an activity-based lifestyle intervention on moderate sleep complaints among older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Doris, S.F.; Ng, Shamay S.M.; Lee, Diana T.F.; Choi, Kai Chow; Siu, Parco M.F.; Low, Lisa P.L.; Woo, Jean

    2018-01-01

    Background Moderate sleep complaints are major gerontological issue affecting as many as 80% of older adults. More intriguing findings have indicated that moderate sleep complaints were associated with cognitive decline, functional deterioration, clinical depression, and even morbidity and mortality among older adults. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of an activity-based lifestyle intervention on moderate sleep complaint among community-dwelling older adults. Methods/Design T...

  10. ATHENA: A Personalized Platform to Promote an Active Lifestyle and Wellbeing Based on Physical, Mental and Social Health Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology provides ample opportunities for the acquisition and processing of physical, mental and social health primitives. However, several challenges remain for researchers as how to define the relationship between reported physical activities, mood and social interaction to define an active lifestyle. We are conducting a project, ATHENA(activity-awareness for human-engaged wellness applications to design and integrate the relationship between these basic health primitives to approximate the human lifestyle and real-time recommendations for wellbeing services. Our goal is to develop a system to promote an active lifestyle for individuals and to recommend to them valuable interventions by making comparisons to their past habits. The proposed system processes sensory data through our developed machine learning algorithms inside smart devices and utilizes cloud infrastructure to reduce the cost. We exploit big data infrastructure for massive sensory data storage and fast retrieval for recommendations. Our contributions include the development of a prototype system to promote an active lifestyle and a visual design capable of engaging users in the goal of increasing self-motivation. We believe that our study will impact the design of future ubiquitous wellness applications.

  11. Design and rationale for a technology-based healthy lifestyle intervention in older adults grieving the loss of a spouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah T. Stahl

    2017-12-01

    Discussion: Several challenges in implementing our lifestyle interventions to older widow(ers who are at risk for common mental disorders have been identified. Direct outreach to hospice organizations is an effective way to identify older adults in the early months following spousal death. Results from study may advance the field of grief support and promote a healthy adaptation to widowhood.

  12. A randomised controlled trial of a tele-based lifestyle intervention for colorectal cancer survivors ('CanChange': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Louisa G

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer survivors may suffer from a range of ongoing psychosocial and physical problems that negatively impact on quality of life. This paper presents the study protocol for a novel telephone-delivered intervention to improve lifestyle factors and health outcomes for colorectal cancer survivors. Methods/Design Approximately 350 recently diagnosed colorectal cancer survivors will be recruited through the Queensland Cancer Registry and randomised to the intervention or control condition. The intervention focuses on symptom management, lifestyle and psychosocial support to assist participants to make improvements in lifestyle factors (physical activity, healthy diet, weight management, and smoking cessation and health outcomes. Participants will receive up to 11 telephone-delivered sessions over a 6 month period from a qualified health professional or 'health coach'. Data collection will occur at baseline (Time 1, post-intervention or six months follow-up (Time 2, and at 12 months follow-up for longer term effects (Time 3. Primary outcome measures will include physical activity, cancer-related fatigue and quality of life. A cost-effective analysis of the costs and outcomes for survivors in the intervention and control conditions will be conducted from the perspective of health care costs to the government. Discussion The study will provide valuable information about an innovative intervention to improve lifestyle factors and health outcomes for colorectal cancer survivors. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000399392

  13. A short-term, comprehensive, yoga-based lifestyle intervention is efficacious in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the efficacy of a short-term comprehensive yoga-based lifestyle intervention in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality. Materials and Methods: The study is a part of an ongoing larger study at a tertiary care hospital. Participants (n=90 included patients with chronic diseases attending a 10-day, yoga-based lifestyle intervention program for prevention and management of chronic diseases, and healthy controls (n=45 not attending any such intervention. Primary Outcome Measures: Change in state and trait anxiety questionnaire (STAI-Y; 40 items, subjective well-being inventory (SUBI; 40 items, and neuroticism extraversion openness to experience five factor personality inventory revised (NEO-FF PI-R; 60 items at the end of intervention. Results: Following intervention, the STAI-Y scores reduced significantly (P0.01 at Day 10 versus Day 1. Similarly NEO-FF PI-R scores improved significantly (P<0.001 at Day 10 versus Day 1. Control group showed an increase in STAI-Y while SUBI and NEO-FF PI-R scores remained comparable at Day 10 versus Day 1. Conclusions: The observations suggest that a short-term, yoga-based lifestyle intervention may significantly reduce anxiety and improve subjective well-being and personality in patients with chronic diseases.

  14. Healthy Lifestyle: Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients ... 15, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/nutrition-for-kids/art- ...

  15. Modification of an RBF ANN-Based Temperature Compensation Model of Interferometric Fiber Optical Gyroscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianhua; Qi, Bing; Chen, Daidai; Landry, René

    2015-05-13

    This paper presents modification of Radial Basis Function Artificial Neural Network (RBF ANN)-based temperature compensation models for Interferometric Fiber Optical Gyroscopes (IFOGs). Based on the mathematical expression of IFOG output, three temperature relevant terms are extracted, which include: (1) temperature of fiber loops; (2) temperature variation of fiber loops; (3) temperature product term of fiber loops. Then, the input-modified RBF ANN-based temperature compensation scheme is established, in which temperature relevant terms are transferred to train the RBF ANN. Experimental temperature tests are conducted and sufficient data are collected and post-processed to form the novel RBF ANN. Finally, we apply the modified RBF ANN based on temperature compensation model in two IFOGs with temperature compensation capabilities. The experimental results show the proposed temperature compensation model could efficiently reduce the influence of environment temperature on the output of IFOG, and exhibit a better temperature compensation performance than conventional scheme without proposed improvements.

  16. Electronic modification of Cu-based chalcopyrite semiconductors induced by lattice deformation and composition alchemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F. D.; Feng, J. Y.

    2008-02-01

    Using first principles calculation, we systematically investigate the electronic modification of Cu-based chalcopyrite semiconductors induced by lattice deformation and composition alchemy. It is shown that the optical band gap Eg is remarkably sensitive to the anion displacement μ, resulting from the opposite shifts of conduction band minimum and valence band maximum. Meanwhile, the dependence of structural parameters of alloyed compounds on alloy composition x is demonstrated for both cation and anion alloying. The d orbitals of group-III cations are found to be of great importance in the calculation. Abnormal changes in the optical band gap Eg induced by anion alloying are addressed.

  17. Electronic modification of Cu-based chalcopyrite semiconductors induced by lattice deformation and composition alchemy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, F D; Feng, J Y

    2008-01-01

    Using first principles calculation, we systematically investigate the electronic modification of Cu-based chalcopyrite semiconductors induced by lattice deformation and composition alchemy. It is shown that the optical band gap E g is remarkably sensitive to the anion displacement μ, resulting from the opposite shifts of conduction band minimum and valence band maximum. Meanwhile, the dependence of structural parameters of alloyed compounds on alloy composition x is demonstrated for both cation and anion alloying. The d orbitals of group-III cations are found to be of great importance in the calculation. Abnormal changes in the optical band gap E g induced by anion alloying are addressed

  18. Common errors in mass spectrometry-based analysis of post-translational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Sik; Zhong, Jun; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2016-03-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful tool to analyze complex mixtures of proteins in a high-throughput fashion. Proteome analysis has already become a routine task in biomedical research with the emergence of proteomics core facilities in most research institutions. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) represent a mechanism by which complex biological processes are orchestrated dynamically at the systems level. MS is rapidly becoming popular to discover new modifications and novel sites of known PTMs, revolutionizing the current understanding of diverse signaling pathways and biological processes. However, MS-based analysis of PTMs has its own caveats and pitfalls that can lead to erroneous conclusions. Here, we review the most common errors in MS-based PTM analyses with the goal of adopting strategies that maximize correct interpretation in the context of biological questions that are being addressed. Finally, we provide suggestions that should help mass spectrometrists, bioinformaticians and biologists to perform and interpret MS-based PTM analyses more accurately. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The effect of lifestyle-based education to women and their husbands on the anxiety and depression during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaati, Fovzieh; Mohammad-Alizadeh Charandabi, Sakineh; Farrokh Eslamlo, Hamidreza; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Alizadeh Sharajabad, Fariba

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lifestyle-based education to women and their husbands on anxiety and depression during pregnancy. This controlled trial was conducted on 189 pregnant women. Participants were allocated into three groups through block randomization. In the first intervention group, both women and their husbands, and in the second one, only women received the lifestyle-based education. In the control group, women received only the routine care. Edinburgh depression and Spielberger anxiety questionnaires were completed at baseline and 8 weeks after it. Compared to the control group, significant reductions were observed in the scores of depression (adjusted difference: -4.7; 95% CI: -5.9 to -3.4), state anxiety (-8.1; -11.3 to -4.9) and trait anxiety (-8.3; -11.9 to -5.0) in the first intervention group, and in the scores of depression (-2.9; -4.1 to -1.6), state anxiety (-4.3; -7.5 to -1.1) and trait anxiety (-5.5; 95% CI: -8.7 to -2.3) in the second intervention group. Comparing the two intervention groups, mean scores of depression and state anxiety were significantly lower in the first group. Results suggested the positive effect of lifestyle education to women and their husbands on depression and anxiety during pregnancy.

  20. Association of depression with body mass index classification, metabolic disease, and lifestyle: A web-based survey involving 11,876 Japanese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidese, Shinsuke; Asano, Shinya; Saito, Kenji; Sasayama, Daimei; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2018-02-10

    Body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle-related physical illnesses have been implicated in the pathology of depression. We aimed to investigate the association of depression wih BMI classification (i.e., underweight, normal, overweight, and obese), metabolic disease, and lifestyle using a web-based survey in a large cohort. Participants were 1000 individuals who have had depression (mean age: 41.4 ± 12.3 years, 501 men) and 10,876 population-based controls (45.1 ± 13.6 years, 5691 men). The six-item Kessler scale (K6) test was used as a psychological distress scale. Compared to in the controls, obesity and hyperlipidemia were more common and frequency of a snack or night meal consumption was higher, whereas frequencies of breakfast consumption and vigorous and moderate physical activities were lower in the patients. K6 test scores were higher for underweight or obese people compared to normal or overweight people. A logistic regression analysis showed that the K6 test cut-off score was positively associated with being underweight, hyperlipidemia, and the frequency of a snack or night meal consumption, whereas it was negatively associated with the frequency of breakfast consumption in the patients. Logistic regression analyses showed that self-reported depression was positively associated with metabolic diseases and the frequency of a snack or night meal consumption, whereas it was negatively associated with the frequency of breakfast consumption. The observed associations of depression with BMI classification, metabolic disease, and lifestyle suggest that lifestyle and related physical conditions are involved in at least a portion of depressive disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Continuous modification of AK11 silumin with multicomponent salt on base of NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pezda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodium belongs to the most effective modifying agents. The sodium can be brought into metal bath in metallic form or in form of chemical compounds comprising sodium, the most often in form of NaF. In the both above mentioned cases action of sodium is of very short duration, (what constitutes its main disadvantage, as lasting for about 15-20 minutes, mainly due to its evaporation from metal bath.Prolongation of modifying agent’s action can be accomplished due to technology of continuous introduction of sodium to metal bath. That technology is based on continuous electrolysis of sodium salt, occurring directly in melting pot with liquid alloy. Application of solid electrolyte – conducting sodium ions (ionic conductance – and simultaneously maintaining solid state of aggregation in melting and superheating temperature of alloy, i.e. 600÷800°C is indispensable for such process. Suitable sodium salt which is placed in retort produced from solid electrolyte shall undergo dissociation, and next electrolysis, in result of applied direct current. Sodium ions arisen during the dissociation of sodium salts and electrolysis are “conveyed” through retort walls made from solid electrolyte. In contact with liquid alloy as cathode, sodium ions pass to atomic state, modifying the alloy. The paper discusses results of initial study concerning process of continuous modification of AK11 silumin with use of multicomponent sodium salt on base of NaCl, shows results of tensile strength Rm and measurement of voltage drop for the alloy in solid state. Values of those parameters have confirmed obtained modification effect of investigated alloys. Assurance of stable run of continuous modification process brings about necessity of a further research aimed at optimization of parameters of the process.

  2. An exploration of beliefs and attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle behaviour in an urban population in The Netherlands: Results from a focus group study in a community-based prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterboer, Sanne M; van den Brekel, Karolien; Rengers, Antonia H; Peek, Niels; de Wit, Niek J

    2015-06-01

    The positive effects of lifestyle intervention programmes might be enhanced when targeted to the health-related behaviour of the users. This study explores the beliefs and attitudes regarding a healthy lifestyle, the influences on lifestyle behavioural change and the needs to support a healthy lifestyle in the local community, during an integrated community-based prevention project in newly developed urban area in the Netherlands. Three focus groups were conducted with urban residents aged 45-70 (n = 28). Thematic qualitative analysis was applied to verbatim transcripts to identify emerging themes. The following themes were identified: beliefs to healthy behaviour, responsibility for health, perceived behavioural control, external influences on behavioural change and needs in the local community. Within these themes, personal responsibility for health and the influence of the social and physical environment emerged to be important for health and lifestyle. The participants expressed the need for clearly organized health and lifestyle facilities, a personalized approach and an easily accessible health risk assessment to support lifestyle behavioural change in the community. In our study, urban residents experienced a strong influence of the social and physical environment to their lifestyle behaviour. This finding supports an integrated approach for preventive health services in this population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. Therapeutic lifestyle strategies taught in U.S. Pharmacy Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Thomas L; Monaghan, Michael S; Hetterman, Elizabeth A

    2007-10-01

    Several organizations representing pharmacy and other health professions stress the importance of teaching public health topics as part of training future practitioners. The objective of our study was to assess the number of U.S. pharmacy schools that incorporate lifestyle modification topics into their curricula. We developed an electronic survey on lifestyle modification topics and sent it to each of the 89 pharmacy schools in the United States. The survey defined lifestyle modification topics as topics that address nutrition, exercise, weight loss, smoking cessation, and alcohol use. Of 89 pharmacy schools contacted, 50 (56%) responded to the survey. Of the 50, four offer at least one required course in a lifestyle modification topic, seven offer at least one elective course, and one offers a required course that incorporates more than one lifestyle modification topic. Five required and nine elective courses were identified from the responses. Nutrition was the most commonly offered required course topic, followed by smoking cessation, exercise, weight loss, and alcohol use. Few pharmacy schools are addressing recommendations to promote public health education through formalized didactic courses. More courses on lifestyle modification topics should be offered to pharmacy students, who will be highly accessible to the public as pharmacists and will be able to offer education to enhance public health focused on the prevention of chronic diseases.

  4. Cellular interaction influenced by surface modification strategies of gelatin-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wai Hei; Gyenis, Laszlo; Litchfield, David W; Zhang, Jin

    2017-02-01

    Theranostic applications of gelatin nanospheres require two major components, a method of detection and good biocompatibility. We characterized the response of UTA-6 human osteosarcoma cells to the introduction of functionalized 90 bloom-based gelatin nanospheres (158 ± 49 nm) modified with three elements in different order: (a) hybridization with cadmium-based quantum dots for optical detection, (b) bioconjugation with anti-human IgG FAB (anti-IgG) for cell targeting, with/without (c) capping with polyethylene glycol on the surface for enhanced biocompatibility. A one-pot process is developed for incorporating quantum dots and antibody with gelatin nanospheres. Path A of modifying gelatin nanospheres with quantum dots first followed by anti-IgG resulted in a significantly greater cellular viability than Path B with anti-IgG first followed by quantum dots. Capping with polyethylene glycol as the final step in modification yielded significantly opposing results with decreases in Path A and increases in Path B. Three-dimensional z-stacking fluorescent images of hybrid gelatin nanospheres with anti-IgG is observed to have an increase in cellular association. The observed results suggest the modification order for building hybrid nanospheres may have an impact on cellular response.

  5. Effects of La and Ce Addition on the Modification of Al-Si Based Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad M. Elgallad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the effects of the addition of rare earth metals (mainly lanthanum and cerium on the eutectic Si characteristics in Al-Si based alloys. Based on the solidification curves and microstructural examination of the corresponding alloys, it was found that addition of La or Ce increases the alloy melting temperature and the Al-Si eutectic temperature, with an Al-Si recalescence of 2-3°C, and the appearance of post-α-Al peaks attributed to precipitation of rare earth intermetallics. Addition of La or Ce to Al-(7–13% Si causes only partial modification of the eutectic Si particles. Lanthanum has a high affinity to react with Sr, which weakens the modification efficiency of the latter. Cerium, however, has a high affinity for Ti, forming a large amount of sludge. Due to the large difference in the length of the eutectic Si particles in the same sample, the normal use of standard deviation in this case is meaningless.

  6. A Modification of the Fuzzy Logic Based DASH Adaptation Scheme for Performance Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jun Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a modification of the fuzzy logic based DASH adaptation scheme (FDASH for seamless media service in time-varying network conditions. The proposed scheme (mFDASH selects a more appropriate bit-rate for the next segment by modification of the Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC and estimates more accurate available bandwidth than FDASH scheme by using History-Based TCP Throughput Estimation. Moreover, mFDASH reduces the number of video bit-rate changes by applying Segment Bit-Rate Filtering Module (SBFM and employs Start Mechanism for clients to provide high-quality videos in the very beginning stage of the streaming service. Lastly, Sleeping Mechanism is applied to avoid any expected buffer overflow. We then use NS-3 Network Simulator to verify the performance of mFDASH. Upon the experimental results, mFDASH shows no buffer overflow within the limited buffer size, which is not guaranteed in FDASH. Also, we confirm that mFDASH provides the highest QoE to DASH clients among the three schemes (mFDASH, FDASH, and SVAA in Point-to-Point networks, Wi-Fi networks, and LTE networks, respectively.

  7. Elucidating Host-Pathogen Interactions Based on Post-Translational Modifications Using Proteomics Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravikumar, Vaishnavi; Jers, Carsten; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    abundance, the modification status, the site occupancy level, interactors, functional significance of key players, potential drug targets, etc. This mini review discusses the potential of proteomics to investigate the involvement of post-translational modifications in bacterial pathogenesis and host...

  8. Health beliefs about lifestyle habits differ between patients and spouses 1 year after a cardiac event - a qualitative analysis based on the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Anita Kärner; Nilsson, Staffan; Jaarsma, Tiny; Tingström, Pia

    2017-06-01

    Spousal concordance on risk factors and lifestyle habits exists and can partly be explained by patients' and spouses' health beliefs and underuse of cardiac rehabilitation. However, there have been very few qualitative comparisons of health beliefs between patients and spouses after a cardiac event. To examine and qualitatively compare the health beliefs of patients with coronary heart disease and their spouses about lifestyle habits, 1 year after the cardiac event. Explorative and descriptive. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with patients (n = 14) 1 year after a cardiac event, as well as individual interviews with spouses (n = 8). The transcriptions underwent a deductive qualitative content analysis, within the framework of the Health Belief Model. Patients' and spouses' health beliefs about lifestyle habits qualitatively differed in most predetermined main analytical categories of the Health Belief Model. The patients relied more on their own capacity and the healthcare system than on collaboration with their spouses who instead emphasised the importance of mutual activities to establish lifestyle habits. The spouses therefore experienced problems with different family preferences compared to the patients' wishes. Moreover, only patients believed supervised exercise was beneficial for risk reduction of coronary heart disease and they related barriers for medication to a self-healing body and a meaningless life without relatives and old habits. Patients and spouses agreed that despite the severity of illness, life was captured and that normalisation to a life as usual was possible. The patients' and spouses' qualitatively different health beliefs regarding health-related behaviours imply a new approach. Nurses and associated professionals need to follow-up patients' and spouses' in primary health care to support them in a tailored way, for example in problem-based sessions. Recognition and understanding of their different views and otherness

  9. [Insomnia and lifestyle-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimura, Naohisa

    2012-07-01

    As both insomnia and lifestyle-related diseases are associated with a variety of underlying factors, they have been considered to occur as a complication of each other. Moreover, evidence has been presented in recent studies that they are closely related to each other as risks of development and exacerbation. As unhealthy lifestyle-habits have long been recognized to increase the risks of lifestyle-related diseases and their worsening, it is natural that sleep, which takes up one third of a person's life, is markedly associated with disorders such as hypertension and diabetes. It is important to provide interventions for insomnia and other sleep disorders based on the same viewpoint as for lifestyle-related diseases, and understand that lifestyle advice, including sleep hygiene, and drug treatment with sleeping pills are also effective for the treatment of lifestyle-related diseases themselves.

  10. Albumin based versatile multifunctional nanocarriers for cancer therapy: Fabrication, surface modification, multimodal therapeutics and imaging approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudarha, Ritu R; Sawant, Krutika K

    2017-12-01

    Albumin is a versatile protein used as a carrier system for cancer therapeutics. As a carrier it can provide tumor specificity, reduce drug related toxicity, maintain therapeutic concentration of the active moiety like drug, gene, peptide, protein etc. for long period of time and also reduce drug related toxicities. Apart from cancer therapy, it is also utilized in the imaging and multimodal therapy of cancer. This review highlights the important properties, structure and types of albumin based nanocarriers with regards to their use for cancer targeting. It also provides brief discussion on methods of preparation of these nanocarriers and their surface modification. Applications of albumin nanocarriers for cancer therapy, gene delivery, imaging, phototherapy and multimodal therapy have also been discussed. This review also provides brief discussion about albumin based marketed nano formulations and those under clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Post-modification by γ-radiation of VDF-based polymers: Electrochemical capacitor membrane application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the modification of VDF-based polymer induced by γ-radiation as the polymer may be used in electrochemical super-capacitors. The main objective was to limit the swelling of the fluorinated matrix with a given electrolyte while a good wetting of the polymer by the liquid was also required. As the main basic process involved in polymer radiolysis is the formation of radicals, a part of the work was dedicated to the study of such species by using Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy. A simulation model of ESR spectra was established in order to identify and quantify each radical species. The effect of several parameters such as radiation dose, annealing time or the nature of polymer matrix on the concentration of each species where investigated. A relation with the evolution of the crosslink density of the network formed during the radiolysis was proposed. In addition, one of the key steps of this work was to study the radiation crosslinking ability of VDF-based polymers and find a way to increase the crosslink density. This was achieved by incorporating, prior to the radiation process, a radiation sensitive cross linker: TAIC. Finally, a new strategy based on the modification of surface properties of PVDF was investigated. It consists in the radiation grafting of penta-fluor-styrene onto PVDF surface followed by the chemo-selective functionalization of the grafted segments. As a conclusion, the different approaches used in this thesis allowed us to understand the radiolysis of VDF-based polymers and take advantage of the elementary process involved in this type of chemistry, to build up robust and promising strategies for tuning properties. (author)

  12. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fiber and its interaction with imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bing; Wang Xiaoshu; Lu Yun

    2006-01-01

    In this work, sized polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers were chemically modified with nitric acid and maleic anhydride (MA) in order to improve the interaction between carbon fiber surface and polyimide matrix. Bismaleimide (BMI) was selected as a model compound of polyimide to react with modified carbon fiber. The surface characteristic changing after modification and surface reaction was investigated by element analysis (EA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The results indicated that the modification of carbon fiber surface with MA might follow the Diels Alder reaction mechanism. In the surface reaction between modified fibers and BMI, among the various surface functional groups, the hydroxyl group provided from phenolic hydroxyl group and bridged structure on carbon fiber may be the most effective group reacted with imide structure. The results may shed some light on the design of the appropriate surface structure, which could react with polyimide, and the manufacture of the carbon fiber-reinforced polyimide matrix composites

  13. Muc1 based breast cancer vaccines: role of post translational modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, M.; Khurshid, R.; Nagra, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Vaccine development is one of the most promising fields in cancer research. After autologous transplantation, due to low tumour burden, patients are more likely to respond immunologically to a cancer vaccine. MUC1 with its adhesive and anti adhesive functions, immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive activities, is therefore a good candidate for breast cancer vaccine. A structure-based insight into the immunogenicity of natural MUC1 glyco forms, of its sub-domains, motifs and post translational modification like glycosylation and myriostoylation may aid the design of tumour vaccines. Primary sequences of human MUC1 were retrieved from the SWISSPROT data bank. Protein pattern search: The primary sequence of Human MUC1 was searched at PROSITE (a dictionary of protein sites and patterns) database. Our study observes that post-translational modifications play an important role in presenting MUC1 as a candidate for breast cancer vaccine. It is found that the phosphorylation and glycosylation of important functional motifs of MUC1 may take part in the production of cytokines that may provide immunization. (author)

  14. Surface modification of coconut shell based activated carbon for the improvement of hydrophobic VOC removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Liu, Suqin; Liu, Junxin

    2011-08-30

    In this study, coconut shell based carbons were chemically treated by ammonia, sodium hydroxide, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, and phosphoric acid to determine suitable modification for improving adsorption ability of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on granular activated carbons (GAC). The saturated adsorption capacities of o-xylene, a hydrophobic volatile organic compound, were measured and adsorption effects of the original and modified activated carbons were compared. Results showed that GAC modified by alkalis had better o-xylene adsorption capacity. Uptake amount was enhanced by 26.5% and reduced by 21.6% after modification by NH(3)H(2)O and H(2)SO(4), respectively. Compared with the original, GAC modified by acid had less adsorption capacity. Both SEM/EDAX and BET were used to identify the structural characteristics of the tested GAC, while IR spectroscopy and Boehm's titration were applied to analysis the surface functional groups. Relationships between physicochemical characteristics of GAC and their adsorption performances demonstrated that o-xylene adsorption capacity was related to surface area, pore volume, and functional groups of the GAC surface. Removing surface oxygen groups, which constitute the source of surface acidity, and reducing hydrophilic carbon surface favors adsorption capacity of hydrophobic VOCs on carbons. The performances of modified GACs were also investigated in the purification of gases containing complex components (o-xylene and steam) in the stream. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Silane surface modification effects on the electromagnetic properties of phosphatized iron-based SMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liang-Fang; Hsiang, Hsing-I.; Hung, Jia-Jing

    2018-03-01

    It is difficult to achieve homogeneous phosphatized iron powder dispersion in organic resins during the preparation of soft magnetic composites (SMCs). Inhomogeneous iron powder mixing in organic resins generally leads to the formation of micro-structural defects in SMCs and hence causes the magnetic properties to become worse. Phosphatized iron powder dispersion in organic resins can be improved by coating the phosphatized iron powder surfaces with a coupling agent. This study investigated the (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) surface modification effects on the electromagnetic properties of phosphatized iron-based soft magnetic composites (SMCs). The results showed that the phosphatized iron powder surface can be modified using APTES to improve the phosphatized iron powder and epoxy resin compatibility and hence enhance phosphate iron powder epoxy mixing. The tensile strength, initial permeability, rated current under DC-bias superposition and magnetic loss in SMCs prepared using phosphatized iron powders can be effectively improved using APTES surface modification, which provides a promising candidate for power chip inductor applications.

  16. Surface modification of polymeric substrates by plasma-based ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuji, S.; Sekiya, M.; Nakabayashi, M.; Endo, H.; Sakudo, N.; Nagai, K.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) as a tool for polymer modification is studied. Polymeric films have good performances for flexible use, such as food packaging or electronic devices. Compared with inorganic rigid materials, polymers generally have large permeability for gases and moisture, which causes packaged contents and devices to degrade. In order to add a barrier function, surface of polymeric films are modified by PBII. One of the advantageous features of this method over deposition is that the modified surface does not have peeling problem. Besides, micro-cracks due to mechanical stress in the modified layer can be decreased. From the standpoint of mass production, conventional ion implantation that needs low-pressure environment of less than 10-3 Pa is not suitable for continuous large-area processing, while PBII works at rather higher pressure of several Pa. In terms of issues mentioned above, PBII is one of the most expected techniques for modification on flexible substrates. However, the mechanism how the barrier function appears by ion implantation is not well explained so far. In this study, various kinds of polymeric films, including polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), are modified by PBII and their barrier characteristics that depend on the ion dose are evaluated. In order to investigate correlations of the barrier function with implanted ions, modified surface is analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is assumed that the diffusion and sorption coefficients are changed by ion implantation, resulting in higher barrier function.

  17. Tuning the Photocatalytic Activity of Graphitic Carbon Nitride by Plasma-Based Surface Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xueqiang; Yuan, Xiaohong; Wu, Jiajie; Yu, Lan; Guo, Huiyun; Wang, Hannian; Zhang, Haiquan; Yu, Dongli; Zhao, Yuanchun

    2017-07-26

    In this study, we demonstrate that plasma treatment can be a facile and environmentally friendly approach to perform surface modification of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN), leading to a remarkable modulation on its photocatalytic activity. The bulk properties of g-CN, including the particle size, structure, composition, and electronic band structures, have no changes after being treated by oxygen or nitrogen plasma; however, its surface composition and specific surface area exhibit remarkable differences corresponding to an oxygen functionalization induced by the plasma post-treatment. The introduced oxygen functional groups play a key role in reducing the recombination rate of the photoexcited charge carries. As a consequence, the oxygen-plasma-treated sample shows a much superior photocatalytic activity, which is about 4.2 times higher than that of the pristine g-CN for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation, while the activity of nitrogen-plasma-treated sample exhibits a slight decrease. Furthermore, both of the plasma-treated samples are found to possess impressive photocatalytic stabilities. Our results suggest that plasma treatment could be a conventional strategy to perform surface modification of g-CN in forms of both powders and thin films, which holds broad interest not only for developing g-CN-based high-performance photocatalysts but also for constructing photoelectrochemical cells and photoelectronic devices with improved energy conversion efficiencies.

  18. MEMS-based dynamic cell-to-cell culture platforms using electrochemical surface modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jiyoung; Lin, Liwei; Yoon, Sang-Hee; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2011-01-01

    MEMS-based biological platforms with the capability of both spatial placements and time releases of living cells for cell-to-cell culture experiments have been designed and demonstrated utilizing electrochemical surface modification effects. The spatial placement is accomplished by electrochemical surface modification of substrate surfaces to be either adhesive or non-adhesive for living cells. The time control is achieved by the electrical activation of the selective indium tin oxide co-culture electrode to allow the migration of living cells onto the electrode to start the cell-to-cell culture studies. Prototype devices have a three-electrode design with an electrode size of 50 × 50 µm 2 and the separation gaps of 2 µm between them. An electrical voltage of −1.5 V has been used to activate the electrodes independently and sequentially to demonstrate the dynamic cell-to-cell culture experiments of NIH 3T3 fibroblast and Madin Darby canine kidney cells. As such, this MEMS platform could be a basic yet versatile tool to characterize transient cell-to-cell interactions

  19. No modifying effect of education level on the association between lifestyle behaviors and cardiovascular mortality: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Eri; Iso, Hiroyasu; Honjo, Kaori; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of education level on the association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and cardiovascular mortality in the Japanese population. A total of 42,647 community-based men and women aged 40–79 years were enrolled at baseline (1988–1990), followed through 2009. The components of the healthy lifestyle score included the intake of fruits, fish, and milk; body mass index; exercise; avoidance of smoking; moderate alcohol intake; and moderate sleep duration. During the 19.3 years of follow-up, 8,314 all-cause and 2,377 total cardiovascular mortality cases were noted. Inverse associations were observed between healthy lifestyle scores and total cardiovascular disease (CVD) for both the lower and higher education level groups. Multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for CVD mortality from the highest to the lowest healthy lifestyle scores, and the population attributable fraction (95% CIs) without healthy lifestyle scores of 7–8 were 0.51 (0.33–0.52) and 42% (24–58%), and 0.38 (0.27–0.47) and 55% (36–69%) for the higher and lower education levels, respectively. Our findings suggest that the association between higher CVD mortality and lower education level can be explained by the individuals’ lower adherence to a healthy lifestyle; hence, lifestyle modification would be beneficial for the prevention of cardiovascular mortality, irrespective of the education level. PMID:28057921

  20. Virtual coaches for healthy lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Klaassen, Randy; Nijholt, Antinus; Esposito, Anna; Jain, Lakhmi C.

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of the idea of the software interface agent the question recurs whether these agents should be personified and graphically visualized in the interface. In this chapter we look at the use of virtual humans in the interface of healthy lifestyle coaching systems. Based on theory

  1. Application of Electron Beams for Surface Modification of Nickel-base Superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, In Jin; Kim, Dong Hoon; Koo, Ja Hyun; Jang, Chang Heui [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Wrought Ni-base superalloy, Alloy 617, is considered as candidate metallic materials for intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) of very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTR). IHX will be exposed to the highest temperature over 900 .deg. C for the various applications including hydrogen production. Chromium is essentially added to make Cr-rich oxide layers on the surface. However, it is reported that Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} reduction phenomena happens under helium coolant with certain amounts of impurities. Protective oxide layer is necessary for long-term stability of the components, and an excessive supply of resources to make that kind of stable oxide is required near the surface when it is destroyed at operating temperature. In this study, proper depth of Al-rich zone is developed using PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) and EB (Electron Beam) surface alloying methods. The effects of surface modification on high temperature oxidation and self-healing capability are demonstrated

  2. A Total Variation Model Based on the Strictly Convex Modification for Image Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boying Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a strictly convex functional in which the regular term consists of the total variation term and an adaptive logarithm based convex modification term. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the minimizer for the proposed variational problem. The existence, uniqueness, and long-time behavior of the solution of the associated evolution system is also established. Finally, we present experimental results to illustrate the effectiveness of the model in noise reduction, and a comparison is made in relation to the more classical methods of the traditional total variation (TV, the Perona-Malik (PM, and the more recent D-α-PM method. Additional distinction from the other methods is that the parameters, for manual manipulation, in the proposed algorithm are reduced to basically only one.

  3. Alpha1-acid glycoprotein post-translational modifications: a comparative two dimensional electrophoresis based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Roncada

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP is an immunomodulatory protein expressed by hepatocytes in response to the systemic reaction that follows tissue damage caused by inflammation, infection or trauma. A proteomic approach based on two dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotting and staining of 2DE gels with dyes specific for post-translational modifications (PTMs such as glycosylation and phosphorylation has been used to evaluate the differential interspecific protein expression of AGP purified from human, bovine and ovine sera. By means of these techniques, several isoforms have been identified in the investigated species: they have been found to change both with regard to the number of isoforms expressed under physiological condition and with regard to the quality of PTMs (i.e. different oligosaccharidic chains, presence/absence of phosphorilations. In particular, it is suggested that bovine serum AGP may have one of the most complex pattern of PTMs among serum proteins of mammals studied so far.

  4. A Comprehensive Lifestyle Peer Group-Based Intervention on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: The Randomized Controlled Fifty-Fifty Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pardo, Emilia; Fernández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Vilanova, Marta; Haro, Domingo; Martínez, Ramona; Carvajal, Isabel; Carral, Vanesa; Rodríguez, Carla; de Miguel, Mercedes; Bodega, Patricia; Santos-Beneit, Gloria; Peñalvo, Jose Luis; Marina, Iñaki; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Dal Re, Marian; Villar, Carmen; Robledo, Teresa; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Bansilal, Sameer; Fuster, Valentin

    2016-02-09

    Cardiovascular diseases stem from modifiable risk factors. Peer support is a proven strategy for many chronic illnesses. Randomized trials assessing the efficacy of this strategy for global cardiovascular risk factor modification are lacking. This study assessed the hypothesis that a peer group strategy would help improve healthy behaviors in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 543 adults 25 to 50 years of age with at least 1 risk factor were recruited; risk factors included hypertension (20%), overweight (82%), smoking (31%), and physical inactivity (81%). Subjects were randomized 1:1 to a peer group-based intervention group (IG) or a self-management control group (CG) for 12 months. Peer-elected leaders moderated monthly meetings involving role-play, brainstorming, and activities to address emotions, diet, and exercise. The primary outcome was mean change in a composite score related to blood pressure, exercise, weight, alimentation, and tobacco (Fuster-BEWAT score, 0 to 15). Multilevel models with municipality as a cluster variable were applied to assess differences between groups. Participants' mean age was 42 ± 6 years, 71% were female, and they had a mean baseline Fuster-BEWAT score of 8.42 ± 2.35. After 1 year, the mean scores were significantly higher in the IG (n = 277) than in the CG (n = 266) (IG mean score: 8.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.37 to 9.32; CG mean score: 8.17; 95% CI: 7.55 to 8.79; p = 0.02). The increase in the overall score was significantly larger in the IG compared with the CG (difference: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.32 to 1.18; p = 0.02). The mean improvement in the individual components was uniformly greater in the IG, with a significant difference for the tobacco component. The peer group intervention had beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, with significant improvements in the overall score and specifically on tobacco cessation. A follow-up assessment will be performed 1 year after the final assessment

  5. Watching TV has a distinct sociodemographic and lifestyle profile compared with other sedentary behaviors: A nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andrade-Gómez

    Full Text Available Watching TV has been consistently associated with higher risk of adverse health outcomes, but the effect of other sedentary behaviors (SB is uncertain. Potential explanations are that watching TV is not a marker of a broader sedentary pattern and that each SB reflects different sociodemographic and health characteristics. Data were taken form a survey on 10,199 individuals, representative of the Spanish population aged ≥18 years. SB and other health behaviors were ascertained using validated questionnaires. Watching TV was the predominant SB (45.4% of the total sitting time, followed by sitting at the computer (22.7%. TV watching time showed no correlation with total time on other SB (r: -0.02, p = 0.07. By contrast, time spent at the computer was directly correlated with time spent on commuting (r: 0.07, p<0.01, listening to music (r: 0.10, p<0.01 and reading (r: 0.08, p<0.01. TV watching time was greater in those with older age, lower education, unhealthier lifestyle, and with diabetes or osteomuscular disease. More time spent at the computer or in commuting was linked to younger age, male gender, higher education and having a sedentary job. In conclusion, watching TV is not correlated with other SB and shows a distinct demographic and lifestyle profile.

  6. Application of Theory of Planned Behavior to Improve Obesity-Preventive Lifestyle among Students: A School-based Interventional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Didarloo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is regarded as the epidemic of diseases correlated with an unhealthy lifestyle. The avoidance of inactivity could prevent obesity and its relevant issues. The present study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the theory of planned behavior (TPB to improve obesity-preventive lifestyle among Iranian students. Materials and Methods: The current study was a quasi-experimental study. Using multistage sampling, 100 Junior High-school students in Khoy, Iran in 2016 were selected and assigned to two groups, namely intervention (n=50 and control (n=50. To collect the study data, researchers utilized a researcher-made questionnaire including items about demographic information and TPB constructs such as attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC, behavioral intention, and behaviors related to physical activities, television watching, and computer-game playing. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0. Results: The mean age of the intervention group was 13.88 ± 0.79 and that of the control group was 14.12 ± 0.77 years. Prior to the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the mean of the scores of both the TPB constructs and their health performances. However, three months after the intervention, the mean score of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and behavior of students changed, and all these changes were statistically significant between two groups (p

  7. Medication overuse, healthy lifestyle behaviour and stress in chronic headache: Results from a population-based representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Glümer, Charlotte; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations between chronic headache (CH) with and without medication overuse, healthy lifestyle behaviour, and stress. Questionnaires were sent to 129,150 adults. Those with headache ≥15 days per month for three months were classified as having CH then further described as having medication-overuse headache (MOH) or CH without medication overuse. Associations between headache and daily smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, excessive drinking, illicit drug use, and high stress were analysed by logistic regression. CH with and without medication overuse (prevalence 1.8% and 1.6%, respectively) had strong, graded associations with stress. Associations with daily smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity were significant only for MOH. Odds for MOH were highest among people who had all three factors compared to those who had none (OR 2.8 in women and 5.1 in men). High stress plus any of these three factors had synergistic effects in MOH but not clearly in those who had CH without overuse. Associations between CH subtypes and excessive drinking or illicit drug use were not statistically significant. Results suggest strong links between healthy lifestyle behaviour and stress in MOH. Stress reduction and promoting healthy behaviour are highly relevant in MOH management. © International Headache Society 2015.

  8. Watching TV has a distinct sociodemographic and lifestyle profile compared with other sedentary behaviors: A nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Gómez, Elena; García-Esquinas, Esther; Ortolá, Rosario; Martínez-Gómez, David; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Watching TV has been consistently associated with higher risk of adverse health outcomes, but the effect of other sedentary behaviors (SB) is uncertain. Potential explanations are that watching TV is not a marker of a broader sedentary pattern and that each SB reflects different sociodemographic and health characteristics. Data were taken form a survey on 10,199 individuals, representative of the Spanish population aged ≥18 years. SB and other health behaviors were ascertained using validated questionnaires. Watching TV was the predominant SB (45.4% of the total sitting time), followed by sitting at the computer (22.7%). TV watching time showed no correlation with total time on other SB (r: -0.02, p = 0.07). By contrast, time spent at the computer was directly correlated with time spent on commuting (r: 0.07, pTV watching time was greater in those with older age, lower education, unhealthier lifestyle, and with diabetes or osteomuscular disease. More time spent at the computer or in commuting was linked to younger age, male gender, higher education and having a sedentary job. In conclusion, watching TV is not correlated with other SB and shows a distinct demographic and lifestyle profile.

  9. [Evaluation of the lifestyle of students of physiotherapy and technical & computer science basing on their diet and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrela-Kuder, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of a dietary habits profile and physical activity of Physiotherapy and Technical & Computer Science students. The research involved a group of 174 non-full-time students of higher education institutions in Krakow aged between 22 and 27. 81 students of the surveyed studied Physiotherapy at the University of Physical Education, whereas 93 followed a course in Technical & Computer Science at the Pedagogical University. In this project a diagnostic survey method was used. The study revealed that the lifestyle of university youth left much to be desired. Dietary errors were exemplified by irregular meals intake, low consumption of fish, milk and dairy, snacking between meals on high calorie products with a poor nutrient content. With regard to physical activity, Physiotherapy students were characterised by more positive attitudes than those from Technical & Computer Science. Such physical activity forms as swimming, team sports, cycling and strolling were declared by the surveyed the most frequently. Health-oriented education should be introduced in such a way as to improve the knowledge pertaining to a health-promoting lifestyle as a means of prevention of numerous diseases.

  10. Life-Style Habits in a High-Risk Area for Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers: a Population-Based Study from Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Kun; Yao, Shang-Man; Xu, Yi-Ran; Niu, Run-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a burden on humanity and ranks as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in China. Shanxi province has its unique cancer patterns and the burden is increasing. In this study, we aimed to assess the pattern of dietary habits and life-style in Shanxi, a high-risk area for upper gastrointestinal cancers in China and further evaluate the trends in cancer incidence and mortality based on registered data. Data on lifestyle, diet, physical activity were obtained from the household health survey at Zhongyang from 2013 to 2015. Cancer diagnoses were reported to Shanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDCP). Population-based cancer incidence data and mortality data of 2012 were collected from the SCDCP. All incidence and death rates were expressed per 100,000 populations. Univariate analysis was performed using the Chi-squared test or Fisherandapos;s exact test. Overall, deficiencies in fresh fruits and vegetable food, and intake of hot food, salted food, or pickled food are serious problems in Shanxi, especially in rural areas. Upper gastrointestinal cancers were the most commonly diagnosed cancers, and the incidence in rural areas is higher than those in urban areas. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer for females. Moreover, the agespecific incidence exhibited an increased trend before 40 years old. Consistent with the previous literature, our epidemiological investigation results suggest that lifestyle, nutrition deficient, and infections were major risk factors for upper gastrointestinal cancers or cervical cancer in Shanxi. Facing a serious situation, we further explored defensible recommendations for the general public in order to promote changes in environments that support healthful eating and physical activity habits, to reduce cancer risk. Our results present the current cancer trends in Shanxi and its related etiologic risk factors and provide a theoretical basis to guide public health efforts to prevent and control cancers in the

  11. The effects of an activity-based lifestyle intervention on moderate sleep complaints among older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Doris S F; Ng, Shamay S M; Lee, Diana T F; Choi, Kai Chow; Siu, Parco M F; Low, Lisa P L; Woo, Jean

    2018-01-25

    Moderate sleep complaints are major gerontological issue affecting as many as 80% of older adults. More intriguing findings have indicated that moderate sleep complaints were associated with cognitive decline, functional deterioration, clinical depression, and even morbidity and mortality among older adults. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of an activity-based lifestyle intervention on moderate sleep complaint among community-dwelling older adults. This sequential quantitative-qualitative mixed method study will randomly allocate 224 individuals to receive either the 16-week group-based moderate-intensity stepping exercise or 16-week health education. The exercise group receives three 60-min stepping exercises per week, whereas the education group receives weekly educative talks on health topics other than sleep. The primary outcomes are sleep quality as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and sleep pattern as measured by the actiwatch. Physical fitness and mood status are measured as mediating variables by using the Rockport walking test and Profile of Mood States. The qualitative part will invite 30 individuals from the exercise group who have different sleep-related treatment responses to participate in individual interviews to explore their overall perception of using stepping exercise as a lifestyle intervention to improve sleep. Mixed effects model with intention-to-treat analysis will be used for quantitative data. Inductive thematic analysis with a prior coding framework will be used for the qualitative data. By investigating the effects and the mediating mechanism of a moderate-intensity exercise program on moderate sleep complaints among older adults, this study will generate evidence of high scientific value and important public health implication. Understanding the sleep-promoting effects and acceptability of exercise informs how to apply lifestyle promotion as a public health practice to improve late-life moderate

  12. Determinants of health-promoting lifestyles in adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, A J

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between health-promoting lifestyle and definition of health, perceived health status, self-efficacy, maternal and paternal health-promoting lifestyle, and selected demographics in adolescent females was investigated. Included in the study were 184 adolescents and their parents. A modification of Pender's (1982, 1987) Health Promotion Model provided the conceptual framework for the study. Two research questions evolving from the conceptual model guided the study. Results indicated that mothers' and fathers' health-promoting lifestyles were significantly correlated with their daughters' health-promoting lifestyles. A strong relationship existed between the predictor variables of definition of health (clinical, functional, and eudaemonistic subscales), self-efficacy, perceived health status, and ethnicity, and the criterion variable of adolescents' health-promoting lifestyles. Together these variables accounted for 41% of the variance in adolescent health-promoting lifestyle scores. Implications for nursing research and practice are discussed.

  13. The effects of a 2-year individualized and family-based lifestyle intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitasalo, Anna; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Venäläinen, Taisa; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Karjalainen, Panu; Peltola, Jaana; Lampinen, Eeva-Kaarina; Haapala, Eero A; Paananen, Jussi; Schwab, Ursula; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of a long-term, individualized and family-based lifestyle intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet quality in children. We carried out a 2-year intervention study in a population sample of 506 children aged 6-8years in Finland in 2007-2012. We allocated the participants at baseline in the intervention and control group. We assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior by questionnaires and diet by food records. Total physical activity (+9min/d in intervention group vs. -5min/d in control group, p=0.001 for time*group interaction), unsupervised physical activity (+7min/d vs. -9min/d, pintake of dietary fiber (+1.3g/d vs. +0.2g/d, p=0.023), vitamin C (+4.5mg/d vs. -7.2mg/d, p=0.042) and vitamin E (+1.4mg/d vs. +0.5mg/d, p=0.002) increased in the intervention group but not in the control group. Consumption of butter-based spreads increased in the control group but not in the intervention group (+2g/d vs. -1g/d, p=0.002). Individualized and family-based lifestyle intervention increased physical activity, attenuated increase in sedentary behavior and enhanced diet quality in children. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01803776. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk-based inservice testing program modifications at Palo Verde nuclear generating station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauf, S.; Lindenlaub, B.; Linthicum, R.

    1996-12-01

    Arizona Public Service Company (APS) is investigating changes to the Palo Verde Inservice Testing (IST) Program that are intended to result in the reduction of the required test frequency for various valves in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI IST program. The analytical techniques employed to select candidate valves and to demonstrate that these frequency reductions are acceptable are risk based. The results of the Palo Verde probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), updated in June 1994, and the risk significant determination performed as part of the implementation efforts for 10 CFR 50.65 (the maintenance rule) were used to select candidate valves for extended test intervals. Additional component level evaluations were conducted by an `expert panel.` The decision to pursue these changes was facilitated by the ASME Risk-Based Inservice Testing Research Task Force for which Palo Verde is participating as a pilot plant. The NRC`s increasing acceptance of cost beneficial licensing actions and risk-based submittals also provided incentive to seek these changes. Arizona Public Service is pursuing the risk-based IST program modification in order to reduce the unnecessary regulatory burden of the IST program through qualitative and quantitative analysis consistent with maintaining a high level of plant safety. The objectives of this project at Palo Verde are as follows: (1) Apply risk-based technologies to IST components to determine their risk significance (i.e., high or low). (2) Apply a combination of deterministic and risk-based methods to determine appropriate testing requirements for IST components including improvement of testing methods and frequency intervals for high-risk significant components. (3) Apply risk-based technologies to high-risk significant components identified by the {open_quotes}expert panel{close_quotes} and outside of the IST program to determine whether additional testing requirements are appropriate.

  15. FEATURES OF SPHEROIDIZING MODIFICATION OF HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON WITH MASTER ALLOYS BASED ON COPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of efficiency of modification process for ductile iron is topically, thereby increasing its mechanical and operational properties. For these purposes, in practice, various magnesium containing alloys are used, including «heavy» ones on the basis of Copper and Nickel. The analysis has shown that the application of bulk inoculating alloys based on copper basis were not effectively due to long dissolution period. From this point of view, the interest is high-speed casting, allowing the production of inoculating alloys in the form of strips – chips that are characterized by a low dissolution time and low piroeffekt. The aim of this work is to study the features of structure formation in nodular cast iron using different spheroidizing alloys based on copper. Studies have shown that the transition from the use of briquetted form alloys based on copper and magnesium to the «chips-inoculating alloys» allowed increasing the efficiency of the spheroidizing process. Further improvement in the quality of ductile iron can be achieved by the use in «chip-inoculating alloys» additives of nanosized yttrium oxide powder. 

  16. Knowledge Base for Strainer Clogging - Modifications performed in different countries since 1992 - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A review has been conducted of modifications performed primarily in the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System) and CSS (Containment Spray System) of nuclear power plants in different countries following the Barsebaeck event in July 1992. The information about these modifications has been gathered through a literature study of internationally published reports, contacts with the regulatory body from the different countries, and in some cases, directly from utility specialists and plant representatives. The information reflects the plants and research status as per December 2001. It covers 15 countries encompassing nine countries with PWRs, seven with BWRs, five with VVERs and one country with CANDU-reactors. The review indicates that: 1. Many countries have carried out very thorough and expeditious actions in response to the Barsebaeck event, often within a noteworthy constructive co-operation climate between the regulatory body and the plant owners. 2. All countries have performed extensive studies. 3. Many countries have performed extensive experiments. 4. Corrective actions have been taken in: most BWRs, a limited number of PWRs and a relatively significant number of VVERs and CANDU reactors (installation of new strainers / material). 5. Experiments and theoretical studies are still on going in some countries, mostly for PWR designs. All countries covered in the report have performed extensive studies to assess the amount of insulation materials that could be dislodged during pipe break events inside the containment. In many countries, the analyses were based on the double cone model of the USNRC. The analyses have also included specific studies of the transport of insulation materials and other debris in the containment, and of strainer pressure drops. The analyses were often conducted in parallel with extensive experiments utilising different insulation materials to assess the physical and time aspects of the clogging of the suction strainers. Many countries also

  17. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buratta Livia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle program on medical measures and motivational profile for physical activity (PA and healthy nutrition (NUTR. Method. Subjects participated in an intensive multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention at C.U.R.I.A.MO. Before and after the intervention, patients received a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic states and motivation to lifestyle changes. Results. Data showed differences before and after intervention in both medical and motivational measures. Before the intervention patients reported to be ready, open, and determined to change and gave importance to healthy habits. After the intervention patients continued to be determined but increased the actions toward the change showing a higher degree of maintenance and of acquisition of habits especially in the physical domain of the new lifestyle. Conclusion. Data support the notion that the motivation should be followed during all the lifestyle interventions to support the change on both domains of the lifestyle program.

  18. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livia, Buratta; Elisa, Reginato; Claudia, Ranucci; Roberto, Pippi; Cristina, Aiello; Emilia, Sbroma Tomaro; Chiara, Perrone; Alberto, Tirimagni; Angelo, Russo; Pierpaolo, De Feo; Claudia, Mazzeschi

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle program on medical measures and motivational profile for physical activity (PA) and healthy nutrition (NUTR). Subjects participated in an intensive multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention at C.U.R.I.A.MO. Before and after the intervention, patients received a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic states and motivation to lifestyle changes. Data showed differences before and after intervention in both medical and motivational measures. Before the intervention patients reported to be ready, open, and determined to change and gave importance to healthy habits. After the intervention patients continued to be determined but increased the actions toward the change showing a higher degree of maintenance and of acquisition of habits especially in the physical domain of the new lifestyle. Data support the notion that the motivation should be followed during all the lifestyle interventions to support the change on both domains of the lifestyle program.

  19. Healthy lifestyle and Czech consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Kubešová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is focused on healthy lifestyle. It concentrates specifically on impact on human health and which lifestyle lives Czech population. This work summarizes the principles of helathy lifestyle and reveals lifestyles of Czech people with market segmentation and MML-TGI data in the practical part. This can help firms in targeting and addressing people within healthy lifestyle.

  20. Consumer clusters in Denmark based on coarse vegetable intake frequency, explained by hedonics, socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle factors. A cross-sectional national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tove K; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kidmose, Ulla

    2015-08-01

    Vegetable intake seems to play a protective role against major lifestyle diseases. Despite this, the Danish population usually eats far less than the recommended daily intake. The present study focused on the intake of 17 coarse vegetables and the potential barriers limiting their intake. The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects, 'beetroot eaters' were characterized as traditional food consumers, and 'high frequency' were individuals with a strong food engagement and high vegetable liking. 'Low frequency' identified more barriers than other consumer clusters and specifically regarded low availability of pre-cut/prepared coarse vegetables on the market as a barrier. Across all clusters a low culinary knowledge was identified as the main barrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinic-based nutrition and lifestyle counseling for Hispanic women delivered by community health workers: design of the California WISEWOMAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Maureen A; Hayashi, Toshi; Loo, Ryan K; Rocha, David A; Sanders, Charlene; Hernandez, Marianne; Will, Julie C

    2009-05-01

    The Well-Integrated Screening and Evaluation for Women Across the Nation (WISEWOMAN) program in California, named Heart of the Family, implements and evaluates the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions to improve nutrition and physical activity while reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among low-income, uninsured or underinsured Hispanic women aged 40-64 who participate in the Cancer Detection Programs: Every Woman Counts (CDP:EWP). This paper reports the study design and baseline findings of the California WISEWOMAN program. Heart of the Family, a within-site randomized controlled study at four community health centers in Los Angeles and San Diego, featured a unique set of strategies meeting the state population in implementing a California WISEWOMAN program. The program exclusively targeted Hispanic women who are at risk of developing CVD, provided lifestyle intervention using a validated intervention material in Spanish and English to motivate behavioral changes, and used bilingual (English and Spanish) community health workers (CHWs) to provide individually based face-to-face counseling. Women meeting enrollment criteria were randomly assigned either to an enhanced intervention group (EIG), who received lifestyle intervention, or usual care group (UCG), who received the usual care for elevated blood pressure or cholesterol. A total of 1093 women enrolled between January 2006 and August 2006. Demographic and baseline CVD risk profiles are similar in both groups. Some notable characteristics of the California participants are lower smoking rate (5%), higher average body mass index (BMI) (31.9), and a significantly higher percentage with less than high school education (70%). With its unique study design and large number of enrolls, Heart of the Family will enable future public health efforts to better meet the health needs of Hispanic women by addressing education levels, economic considerations, and cultural and linguistic needs.

  2. Association Between Lifestyle and Systemic Arterial Hypertension in Young Adults: A National, Survey-Based, Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Pucci, Giacomo; Rosticci, Martina; Guarino, Laura; Guglielmo, Chiara; Agabiti Rosei, Claudia; Monticone, Silvia; Giavarini, Alessandra; Lonati, Chiara; Torlasco, Camilla; Fedecostante, Massimiliano; Manzi, Maria Virginia; Pezzutto, Francesca; Di Pilla, Marina; Artom, Nathan; Battistoni, Allegra; Pignatelli, Giulia; Sanga, Viola; Pengo, Martino Francesco

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension in young adults is increasing worldwide in association with modifiable risk factors. To assess the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) in young adults participating to a screening campaign during the World Hypertension Day (17/05/2014), and to determine the possible association with lifestyle factors. 493 individuals aged 18-35 years were selected in 13 Italian cities. All participants underwent BP measurement together with the administration of a questionnaire exploring: medical and drug history; traditional cardiovascular risk factors and diseases; dietary pattern; salt intake; sleep habits; mood disorders. High BP (≥140/90 mmHg) was found in 54 individuals, with a prevalence of 11% and awareness of 28%. Those with high BP values were more frequently men, reported a higher BMI and a greater use of corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and had a lower anxiety score. Concerning dietary habits, they were more likely to eat cheese/cold cuts ≥3 times/week, to have their meals out ≥1/day and to eat in fast foods ≥1/week. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, male sex [OR 3.19, 95% CI (1.33-7.63)], BMI [OR 1.14 95% CI (1.04-1.25)], eating in fast foods [OR 3.10 95% CI (1.21-7.95)], and anxiety [OR 0.85 95% CI (0.75-0.97)], were independently associated with high BP. High BP values were found in 11 % young adults. Male sex, adiposity and alimentary habits were the main determinants of high BP values, indicating that young men are a suitable target for healthy lifestyle interventions.

  3. Community health worker-based intervention for adherence to drugs and lifestyle change after acute coronary syndrome: a multicentre, open, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Denis; Gupta, Rajeev; Kamath, Deepak; Sigamani, Alben; Devereaux, P J; George, Nisha; Joshi, Rajnish; Pogue, Janice; Pais, Prem; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-03-01

    Adherence to drugs and healthy lifestyles is low after acute coronary syndrome. We assessed whether trained community health workers could improve adherence to drugs, lifestyle changes, and clinical risk markers in patients with acute coronary syndrome in India. In this study done at 14 hospitals in India we randomly assigned (1:1) patients with acute coronary syndrome 1 or 2 days before discharge from hospital to a community health worker-based intervention group or a standard care group. Patients were randomly assigned with a telephone randomisation service. In the intervention group, during four in-hospital and two home visits, community health workers used unstructured discussions, visual methods, and patient diaries to educate patients on healthy lifestyle and drugs, and measures to enhance adherence. The primary outcome was adherence to proven secondary prevention drugs (antiplatelet drugs, β blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins) estimated using a Composite Medication Adherence Scale at 1 year. The secondary outcomes were difference in lifestyle factors (diet, exercise, and tobacco and alcohol use), and clinical risk markers (blood pressure, bodyweight, BMI, heart rate, and lipids). All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of India, number REF/2013/03/004737, and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01207700. Between Aug 23, 2011, and June 25, 2012, 806 participants were randomly assigned (405 to a community health worker-based intervention group and 401 to a standard care group). At 1 year, 40 patients had died and 15 had discontinued or been lost to follow-up, so 750 (93%) were included in the analyses (375 in each group). Secondary prevention drugs prescribed at discharge were 98% (786/803) for any antiplatelet drug, 79% (638/803) for dual antiplatelet drugs, 69% (555/803) for β blockers, 69% (552/803) for angiotensin-converting enzyme

  4. Postgraduate pharmacology curriculum in medical institutions in India: time for need-based appraisal and modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyal, Dinesh K; Desai, Chetna; Tripathi, Santanu K; Dhaneria, S P; Chandy, Sujith J; Bezbaruah, B K

    2014-01-01

    The need to revise the curriculum for the postgraduate course (M.D.) in Pharmacology has been perceived by the academicians in India since quite some time. The changing professional requirements of the graduating students, the current scenario vis a vis animal experimentation and the emphasis of the Medical Council of India on a competency based curriculum has triggered this felt need. In spite of the fact that most medical institutions and universities in India offer postgraduate courses in pharmacology, the curriculum lacks uniformity with extreme variations observed at some places. This article attempts to analyze the existing curricula in pharmacology in India and suggest modifications that could be recommended to the suitable regulatory bodies for implementation. A revision of objectives in the three domains of learning, development of skills that help develop suitable competencies, adoption of teaching learning methods in addition to the conventional methods, and a rethink on the assessment methods have been recommended. Development and validation of alternatives skill-based modules in lieu of animal experiments are recommended. Additional skills like medical writing and communication skills, professionalism and ethics, multi and inter-disciplinary integration and collaboration and a wider exposure of students to the pharmaceutical, academic, regulatory and research institutions for onsite learning were also recommended to fulfill their future career requirements.

  5. One-dimensional map-based neuron model: A logistic modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesbah, Samineh; Moghtadaei, Motahareh; Hashemi Golpayegani, Mohammad Reza; Towhidkhah, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    A one-dimensional map is proposed for modeling some of the neuronal activities, including different spiking and bursting behaviors. The model is obtained by applying some modifications on the well-known Logistic map and is named the Modified and Confined Logistic (MCL) model. Map-based neuron models are known as phenomenological models and recently, they are widely applied in modeling tasks due to their computational efficacy. Most of discrete map-based models involve two variables representing the slow-fast prototype. There are also some one-dimensional maps, which can replicate some of the neuronal activities. However, the existence of four bifurcation parameters in the MCL model gives rise to reproduction of spiking behavior with control over the frequency of the spikes, and imitation of chaotic and regular bursting responses concurrently. It is also shown that the proposed model has the potential to reproduce more realistic bursting activity by adding a second variable. Moreover the MCL model is able to replicate considerable number of experimentally observed neuronal responses introduced in Izhikevich (2004) [23]. Some analytical and numerical analyses of the MCL model dynamics are presented to explain the emersion of complex dynamics from this one-dimensional map

  6. In situ TEM Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, F.I., E-mail: fiallen@lbl.gov [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kim, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Andresen, N.C. [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grigoropoulos, C.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Minor, A.M., E-mail: aminor@lbl.gov [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-07-15

    We present a modular assembly that enables both in situ Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing to be performed in a transmission electron microscope. The system comprises a lensed Raman probe mounted inside the microscope column in the specimen plane and a custom specimen holder with a vacuum feedthrough for a tapered optical fiber. The Raman probe incorporates both excitation and collection optics, and localized laser processing is performed using pulsed laser light delivered to the specimen via the tapered optical fiber. Precise positioning of the fiber is achieved using a nanomanipulation stage in combination with simultaneous electron-beam imaging of the tip-to-sample distance. Materials modification is monitored in real time by transmission electron microscopy. First results obtained using the assembly are presented for in situ pulsed laser ablation of MoS{sub 2} combined with Raman spectroscopy, complimented by electron-beam diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing in a TEM are demonstrated. • A lensed Raman probe is mounted in the sample chamber for close approach. • Localized laser processing is achieved using a tapered optical fiber. • Raman spectroscopy and pulsed laser ablation of MoS{sub 2} are performed in situ.

  7. Advanced review of graphene-based nanomaterials in drug delivery systems: Synthesis, modification, toxicity and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wu, Zhuona; Li, Ning; Pu, Yiqiong; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Tong; Tao, Jiansheng

    2017-08-01

    The discovery of graphene, a notable achievement in the field of novel carbon nanomaterials, has triggered the worldwide exploration of the biomedical applications of this material since 2004 because of its unique properties. The two-dimensional planar structure, large surface area, chemical stability, mechanical stability, and good biocompatibility of graphene are promising for applications in drug delivery systems (DDSs). In this review, we briefly discuss the characteristics, synthesis, and modification of graphene. We also investigate its toxicity and its applications in DDSs, with several representative examples. This review presents a comprehensive summary of graphene-based nanomaterials from their characteristics to their synthesis and applications, as well as their in vitro and in vivo evaluation in medicine. This paper provides a guiding strategy for the selection of optimal approaches to the fabrication of nanocarriers that are suitable for medical treatments and to controlling the toxicity within therapeutic safety limits. The promising achievements made with graphene-based nanomaterials indicate several possibilities for further biomedical research, as well as theoretical and applied development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes over time in mental well-being, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity in a community-based lifestyle intervention: a before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R; Robertson, W; Towey, M; Stewart-Brown, S; Clarke, A

    2017-05-01

    There is a theoretical basis for believing that healthy lifestyle interventions can improve mental well-being and evidence to show that mental well-being is protective of future health. This study contributes to the evidence base by examining changes in mental well-being associated with the One Body One Life (OBOL) healthy lifestyle programme in a community setting in the West Midlands. Quantitative, before and after the evaluation. We conducted a before and after study of the lifestyle intervention 'OBOL', a multi component intervention that includes exercise and healthy eating education. Mental well-being was measured with the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption were self-reported. Measures were collected before and after the 12-week intervention and three months post completion. Non-parametric tests were used to assess differences between groups, and linear mixed models were used to assess change over time. Four hundred and eighty-one (81% of attendees) adult participants completed a valid Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale before starting OBOL; of whom, 63.8% completed the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale immediately post intervention and 25.2% at three months. Mental well-being levels increased significantly (P Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale score = 48 [interquartile range 41-55], completion = 53 [interquartile range 46-57], 3-month follow-up = 52 [interquartile range 46-56]). Change in mental well-being was clinically significant after accounting for age and gender. Changes in both fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity appeared to explain some but not all of the variation in mental well-being. We found significant improvements in mental well-being among participants directly after the intervention which were sustained at the three-month follow-up. These findings contribute to a growing body of knowledge on the contribution of lifestyle interventions

  9. Elite Dental Students: a Cross-Sectional Study on Different Aspects of Their Life-Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarmand, Abdolhamid; Asvar, Maryam

    2017-12-01

    Lifestyle has a key role in having a life with quality. This is much more critical in academic community. Elite students are the scientific capital of each community; therefore, improvement of their life-style is a very crucial issue and is a way of esteeming them. This study was aimed to scrutinize the life-style of elite dental students to provide a guideline for healthy life-style for their own and for other students, as well. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out on 115 Elite dental students, from a list 175 students, based upon their interest. The HPLP-II questionnaire was used which focuses on 6 behavioral fields: Spiritual Growth, Interpersonal Relations, Nutrition, Physical Activity, Health Responsibility, and Stress Management. The results also compared genders and marital status within the study group. The elite dental students were categorized in 3 age groups as 19≥ yrs (Group I), 20-22 yrs (Group II), and 23≤ yrs. (Group III) for comparison. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey's test. The mean score of the HPLP-II questionnaire was 2.51±0.27 (out of score 4). Spiritual growth (2.85±0.42) and physical activity (2.16±0.58) were the highest and the lowest scores, respectively. Physical activity was the only subscale different between genders ( p = 0.000). Marital status had not effect on life-style of students. Between the age groups, the physical activity was significantly different between group I and II (0.002). Elite dental students' life-style is most prominent in spiritual growth and interpersonal relationships dimensions, but is the weakest in physical activity and health responsibility behavioral attitudes. To improve the talent of all students, interventional workshops/courses aiming at modification and promotion of students' lifestyle is recommendable in the curriculum.

  10. Barriers and facilitators to initial and continued attendance at community-based lifestyle programmes among families of overweight and obese children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, E; Davoren, M P; Harrington, J M; Shiely, F; Perry, I J; McHugh, S M

    2017-02-01

    The success of childhood weight management programmes relies on family engagement. While attendance offers many benefits including the support to make positive lifestyle changes, the majority of families referred to treatment decline. Moreover, for those who do attend, benefits are often compromised by high programme attrition. This systematic review investigated factors influencing attendance at community-based lifestyle programmes among families of overweight or obese children. A narrative synthesis approach was used to allow for the inclusion of quantitative, qualitative and mixed-method study designs. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Results suggest that parents provided the impetus for programme initiation, and this was driven largely by a concern for their child's psychological health and wellbeing. More often than not, children went along without any real reason or interest in attending. Over the course of the programme, however, children's positive social experiences such as having fun and making friends fostered the desire to continue. The stigma surrounding excess weight and the denial of the issue amongst some parents presented barriers to enrolment and warrant further study. This study provides practical recommendations to guide future policy makers, programme delivery teams and researchers in developing strategies to boost recruitment and minimise attrition. © 2016 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  11. Probability and amounts of yogurt intake are differently affected by sociodemographic, economic, and lifestyle factors in adults and the elderly-results from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possa, Gabriela; de Castro, Michelle Alessandra; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this population-based cross-sectional health survey (N = 532) was to investigate the factors associated with the probability and amounts of yogurt intake in Brazilian adults and the elderly. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on demographics, socioeconomic information, presence of morbidities and lifestyle and anthropometric characteristics. Food intake was evaluated using two nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls and a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Approximately 60% of the subjects were classified as yogurt consumers. In the logistic regression model, yogurt intake was associated with smoking (odds ratio [OR], 1.98), female sex (OR, 2.12), and age 20 to 39 years (OR, 3.11). Per capita family income and being a nonsmoker were factors positively associated with the amount of yogurt consumption (coefficients, 0.61 and 3.73, respectively), whereas the level of education of the head of household was inversely associated (coefficient, 0.61). In this study, probability and amounts of yogurt intake are differently affected by demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors in adults and the elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of perceived stress with stressful life events, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors: a large-scale community-based study using logistic quantile regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Awat; Aliyari, Roqayeh; Roohafza, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aimed at investigating the association between perceived stress and major life events stressors in Iranian general population. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4583 people aged 19 and older, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Logistic quantile regression was used for modeling perceived stress, measured by GHQ questionnaire, as the bounded outcome (dependent), variable, and as a function of most important stressful life events, as the predictor variables, controlling for major lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. This model provides empirical evidence of the predictors' effects heterogeneity depending on individual location on the distribution of perceived stress. The results showed that among four stressful life events, family conflicts and social problems were more correlated with level of perceived stress. Higher levels of education were negatively associated with perceived stress and its coefficients monotonically decrease beyond the 30th percentile. Also, higher levels of physical activity were associated with perception of low levels of stress. The pattern of gender's coefficient over the majority of quantiles implied that females are more affected by stressors. Also high perceived stress was associated with low or middle levels of income. The results of current research suggested that in a developing society with high prevalence of stress, interventions targeted toward promoting financial and social equalities, social skills training, and healthy lifestyle may have the potential benefits for large parts of the population, most notably female and lower educated people.

  13. Association of Perceived Stress with Stressful Life Events, Lifestyle and Sociodemographic Factors: A Large-Scale Community-Based Study Using Logistic Quantile Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awat Feizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present paper aimed at investigating the association between perceived stress and major life events stressors in Iranian general population. Methods. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4583 people aged 19 and older, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Logistic quantile regression was used for modeling perceived stress, measured by GHQ questionnaire, as the bounded outcome (dependent, variable, and as a function of most important stressful life events, as the predictor variables, controlling for major lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. This model provides empirical evidence of the predictors’ effects heterogeneity depending on individual location on the distribution of perceived stress. Results. The results showed that among four stressful life events, family conflicts and social problems were more correlated with level of perceived stress. Higher levels of education were negatively associated with perceived stress and its coefficients monotonically decrease beyond the 30th percentile. Also, higher levels of physical activity were associated with perception of low levels of stress. The pattern of gender’s coefficient over the majority of quantiles implied that females are more affected by stressors. Also high perceived stress was associated with low or middle levels of income. Conclusions. The results of current research suggested that in a developing society with high prevalence of stress, interventions targeted toward promoting financial and social equalities, social skills training, and healthy lifestyle may have the potential benefits for large parts of the population, most notably female and lower educated people.

  14. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle intervention programmes to prevent diabetes based on an example from Germany: Markov modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann Anne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D poses a large worldwide burden for health care systems. One possible tool to decrease this burden is primary prevention. As it is unethical to wait until perfect data are available to conclude whether T2D primary prevention intervention programmes are cost-effective, we need a model that simulates the effect of prevention initiatives. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the long-term cost-effectiveness of lifestyle intervention programmes for the prevention of T2D using a Markov model. As decision makers often face difficulties in applying health economic results, we visualise our results with health economic tools. Methods We use four-state Markov modelling with a probabilistic cohort analysis to calculate the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained. A one-year cycle length and a lifetime time horizon are applied. Best available evidence supplies the model with data on transition probabilities between glycaemic states, mortality risks, utility weights, and disease costs. The costs are calculated from a societal perspective. A 3% discount rate is used for costs and QALYs. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves are presented to assist decision makers. Results The model indicates that diabetes prevention interventions have the potential to be cost-effective, but the outcome reveals a high level of uncertainty. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs were negative for the intervention, ie, the intervention leads to a cost reduction for men and women aged 30 or 50 years at initiation of the intervention. For men and women aged 70 at initiation of the intervention, the ICER was EUR27,546/QALY gained and EUR19,433/QALY gained, respectively. In all cases, the QALYs gained were low. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves show that the higher the willingness-to-pay threshold value, the higher the probability that the intervention is cost-effective. Nonetheless, all curves are

  15. Sleep positions and nocturnal body movements based on free-living accelerometer recordings: association with demographics, lifestyle, and insomnia symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarpsno ES

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Eivind Schjelderup Skarpsno,1,2 Paul Jarle Mork,1 Tom Ivar Lund Nilsen,1 Andreas Holtermann3,4 1Department of Public Health and Nursing, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, 2Liaison Committee between Central Norway Regional Health Authority and NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 3National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, 4Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Background: In order to establish normative values for body positions and movements during sleep, the objective of this study was to explore the distribution of sleep positions and extent of nocturnal body moments and the association with sex, age, body-mass index (BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, and insomnia symptoms. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study comprised data on a working population (363 men and 301 women who participated in the Danish Physical Activity Cohort with Objective Measurements (DPHACTO. Measures of body position and movements were obtained from actigraph accelerometers on the thigh, upper back, and upper arm. Linear regression was used to estimate adjusted mean differences in movements among categories of demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Results: During their time in bed, participants spent 54.1% (SD 18.1% in the side position, 37.5% (SD 18.2% in the back position, and 7.3% (SD 12.3% in the front position. Increasing age and BMI were associated with increased time in the side position and a proportional reduction in time in the back position. There were on average 1.6 (SD 0.7 position shifts per hour. Compared to males, females had fewer position shifts (–0.37, 95% CI –0.48 to –0.24 and fewer arm, thigh, and upper-back movements. Participants aged 20–34 years had more arm, thigh, and upper-back movements compared to participants ≥35 years. Obese participants had fewer shifts in body position (–0.15, 95% CI –0.27 to 0, but more arm

  16. Preparation, characterisation and modification of carbon-based monolithic rods for chromatographic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltmimi, Ali H; Barron, Leon; Rafferty, Aran; Hanrahan, John P; Fedyanina, Olga; Nesterenko, Ekaterina; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2010-05-01

    A range of porous carbon-based monolithic (PCM) rods with flow-through pore sizes of 1, 2, 5 and 10 mum, were produced using a silica particle template method. The rods were characterised using SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, BET surface area and porous structure analysis, dilatometry and thermal gravimetry. SEM evaluation of the carbon monolithic structures revealed an interconnected rigid bimodal porous structure and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis verified the quantitative removal of the embedded silica beads. The specific surface areas of the 1, 2, 5 and 10 mum rods were 178, 154, 84 and 125 m(2)/g after pyrolysis and silica removal, respectively. Shrinkage of the monolithic rods during pyrolysis is proportional to the particle size of the silica used and ranged from 9 to 12%. Mercury porosimetry showed a narrow distribution of pore sizes, with an average of approximately 700 nm for the 1 mum carbon monolith. The suitability of bare and surface oxidised PCM rods for the use as a stationary phase for reversed and normal phase LC was explored. The additional modification of PCM rods with gold micro-particles followed by 6-mercaptohexanoic acid was performed and ion-exchange properties were evaluated.

  17. WFST-based ground truth alignment for difficult historical documents with text modification and layout variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azawi, Mayce; Liwicki, Marcus; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes several approaches that can be used for generating correspondences between real scanned books and their transcriptions which might have different modifications and layout variations, also taking OCR errors into account. Our approaches for the alignment between the manuscript and the transcription are based on weighted finite state transducers (WFST). In particular, we propose adapted WFSTs to represent the transcription to be aligned with the OCR lattices. The character-level alignment has edit rules to allow edit operations (insertion, deletion, substitution). Those edit operations allow the transcription model to deal with OCR segmentation and recognition errors, and also with the task of aligning with different text editions. We implemented an alignment model with a hyphenation model, so it can adapt the non-hyphenated transcription. Our models also work with Fraktur ligatures, which are typically found in historical Fraktur documents. We evaluated our approach on Fraktur documents from Wanderungen durch die Mark Brandenburg" volumes (1862-1889) and observed the performance of those models under OCR errors. We compare the performance of our model for three different scenarios: having no information about the correspondence at the word (i), line (ii), sentence (iii) or page (iv) level.

  18. [Bioindication of environmental quality based on plant mutational and modification variability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedova, A O

    2009-01-01

    The level of mutations (aberrations of chromosomes, gene mutations) and modifications (bilateral asymmetry of the leaves) induced with NG (N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitro-zoguanidine) and granozane, as well as with environmental pollutants have been studied on Vicia faba, Triticum aestivum, Arabidopsis thaliana, Ligustrum japonicum, Olea europea. The tested xenobiotic increased the level of mutations and modifications. The bilateral asymmetry is suggested as a test for environmental quality assessment.

  19. Lifestyle-Related Factors and Atopy in Seven Danish Population-Based Studies from Different Time Periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk

    2015-01-01

    intervals (95% CIs). In addition, individual participant data meta-analyses were performed. RESULTS: Atopy was significantly associated with younger age (OR per 1 year increase in age: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.97, 0.98); male sex (OR for males versus females: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.45), heavy drinking (OR for heavy...... drinkers versus light drinkers: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.27), never smoking (OR for current versus never smokers: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.80), and higher educational level (OR for educated versus uneducated: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.41). Atopy was not associated with blood pressure, serum total cholesterol......, physical activity or body mass except in women only, where we found a positive association (OR for obese vs. normal weight: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.39) with ptrend = 0.032. CONCLUSIONS: Of interest for preventive purposes, we found that atopy was associated with some of the reversible lifestyle...

  20. Population-based evaluation of the ‘LiveLighter’ healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) ‘LiveLighter’ (LL) mass media campaign ran during June–August and September–October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual (‘why’ change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier (‘how’ to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25–49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N = 2012) and following the two media waves (N = 2005 and N = 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The ‘why’ message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than ‘how’ messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. PMID:26956039

  1. Constraint-Based Time-Scale Modification of Music Recordings for Noise Beautification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinard Müller

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, a patient is exposed to beat-like knocking sounds, often interrupted by periods of silence, which are caused by pulsing currents of the MRI scanner. In order to increase the patient’s comfort, one strategy is to play back ambient music to induce positive emotions and to reduce stress during the MRI scanning process. To create an overall acceptable acoustic environment, one idea is to adapt the music to the locally periodic acoustic MRI noise. Motivated by this scenario, we consider in this paper the general problem of adapting a given music recording to fulfill certain temporal constraints. More concretely, the constraints are given by a reference time axis with specified time points (e.g., the time positions of the MRI scanner’s knocking sounds. Then, the goal is to temporally modify a suitable music recording such that its beat positions align with the specified time points. As one technical contribution, we model this alignment task as an optimization problem with the objective to fulfill the constraints while avoiding strong local distortions in the music. Furthermore, we introduce an efficient algorithm based on dynamic programming for solving this task. Based on the computed alignment, we use existing time-scale modification procedures for locally adapting the music recording. To illustrate the outcome of our procedure, we discuss representative synthetic and real-world examples, which can be accessed via an interactive website. In particular, these examples indicate the potential of automated methods for noise beautification within the MRI application scenario.

  2. Evaluating the Effect of Lifestyle Education Based on Health Belief Model for Mothers of Obese and Overweight School-age Children on Obesity-Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Moshgdar, Hodayse; Golshiri, Parastoo

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, childhood obesity is a matter of significant concern because of its negative effects on personal health and harmful socioeconomic consequences. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of lifestyle education based on the health belief model for mothers of obese and overweight school-age children on obesity-related behaviors. In this quasi-experimental study, 64 obese and overweight elementary students and their mothers who met the inclusion criteria participated. The participants were randomly categorized into two groups (experimental and control). The experimental group received the considered interference, which consisted of four educational sessions based on the health belief model. Data collection tool was a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire filled by the participants during interviews conducted before, immediately after, and two months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, student's t -test, repeated-measures analysis of variance, and least significant difference tests. Mean scores of obesity-related behavior before the intervention were not significantly different between the experimental and control group (53.41 (6.78). vs 54.72 (4.63); P = 0.37), however, were different immediately after (58.41 (6.88) vs 54.81 (4.66); P = 0.02) and two months after the intervention (62.34 (8.62) vs 55.84 (7.59); P = 0.002). This study indicated the effectiveness of lifestyle education based on the health belief model for improving obesity-related behaviors. Therefore, the use of this educational program is recommended for mothers.

  3. Obesity, lifestyle and socio-economic determinants of vitamin D intake: a population-based study of Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colapinto, Cynthia K; Rossiter, Melissa; Khan, Mohammad K A; Kirk, Sara F L; Veugelers, Paul J

    2014-11-05

    Vitamin D intake in childhood is primarily for the prevention of rickets. Inconsistent evidence has associated adequate blood concentrations with a decreased risk of certain health conditions. Further, obese individuals may have lower vitamin D status. The estimated average requirement (EAR) for children recently doubled to 400 IU/day. Our aim was to examine dietary intake of vitamin D in different body mass index (BMI) categories, in addition to assessing determinants. Data from two provincial surveys of grade 5 children, including a food frequency questionnaire and measured BMI, were used. Rao-Scott chi-square statistic tested the bivariate association between provinces and adequate dietary vitamin D intake. Key correlates were examined using multi-level logistic regression. Those below the EAR differed between Alberta (78%) and Nova Scotia (81%). Those drinking <2 glasses of milk/day had 0.02 times the odds of meeting the EAR (95% CI: 0.01-0.02) compared to those drinking more. No significant difference was observed for BMI, though those consuming <1 glass of milk/day were more likely to be obese than those consuming ≥2 glasses/day. Income and physical activity were negatively correlated with meeting the EAR. Many children did not meet the EAR for vitamin D from dietary sources and milk consumption was an important determinant. Given trends towards a more sedentary lifestyle and limited sun exposure, we recommend prioritizing public health efforts to support dietary vitamin D intake alongside interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour. Further investigation is required to determine the need for targeted strategies for obese children.

  4. The impact of an immersive elective on learners' understanding of lifestyle medicine and its role in patients' lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Melissa J; Nemec, Eric C

    2014-10-15

    To design an immersive, active learning, lifestyle medicine (LM) elective and evaluate its impact on a pharmacy learners' ability to understand the challenges of implementing lifestyle changes. A 3-credit elective was developed that incorporated goal setting and immersion into the realm of LM as experienced by both the patient and the practitioner. Learners were assessed via a survey instrument, formal assignments, reflections, and the Presidential Fitness Challenge. Learners reported that their ability to initiate LM as a primary intervention within a care plan significantly increased after taking this course. They also improved their overall health. By identifying and implementing self-identified lifestyle modifications, learners increased confidence in their abilities to produce evidence-based outcomes for patients. Learners were able to understand the challenges of trying to change their daily habits as they undertook their own personal goals.

  5. Development and Implementation of a Novel Lifestyle Medicine Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Elective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Lenz, PharmD, MS, PAPHS, FACLM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop and implement an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE to increase student’s awareness and use of lifestyle modifications in chronic disease prevention and management. Design: A five-week APPE was developed that utilized a wide variety of activities, including direct patient care, patient education, case studies, journal clubs and reflective assessment and writing to explore various lifestyle modifications and their relation to chronic disease prevention and management. Conclusion: The novel lifestyle medicine APPE provides students a unique opportunity to advance their knowledge in therapeutic lifestyle changes and expand their understanding of the pharmacist’s role in chronic disease prevention and management.

  6. Development and Implementation of a Novel Lifestyle Medicine Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Elective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole D. Gillespie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop and implement an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE to increase student's awareness and use of lifestyle modifications in chronic disease prevention and management. Design: A five-week APPE was developed that utilized a wide variety of activities, including direct patient care, patient education, case studies, journal clubs and reflective assessment and writing to explore various lifestyle modifications and their relation to chronic disease prevention and management. Conclusion: The novel lifestyle medicine APPE provides students a unique opportunity to advance their knowledge in therapeutic lifestyle changes and expand their understanding of the pharmacist's role in chronic disease prevention and management.   Type: Idea Paper

  7. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT include aescin, coenzyme Q 10 , glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive.

  8. AGAIN ABOUT GENDER BASED VIOLENCE IN ROMANIA LEGISLATIVE MODIFICATIONS PROMULGATED ON MARCH 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MIHAELA VLĂDILĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article continues our last year article, presented in the same conference, on the evolution of the legislation on domestic violence in Spain and in Romania. This new study shall approach only the legislative modifications of the Law No 217/2003 inserted in March 2012 after the shooting at “Perla” Hairdresser in Bucharest, which influenced not only the lives of those involved, but also legislative changes, as an attempt from the Government to offer a better protection for women, who are usually the victims of this type of violence. The present study is dedicated to these new modifications ad their social and legal impact.

  9. Do Hypertensive Individuals Who Are Aware of Their Disease Follow Lifestyle Recommendations Better than Those Who Are Not Aware?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuna Kim

    Full Text Available Lifestyle modification is the first step in hypertension management. Our objective was to assess adherence to lifestyle recommendations by individuals who were aware of their hypertension and to identify characteristics associated with non-adherence. Using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2010-2012, we compared the adherence to six lifestyle recommendations of hypertensive subjects aware of the status of their condition with that of those who were not aware, based on survey regression analysis. The characteristics associated with non-adherence were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Of all hypertensive subjects, <20% adhered to a healthy diet and reduced salt intake and about 80% moderated alcohol consumption and did not smoke. Half of all subjects maintained normal body weight and engaged in physical activity. Most lifestyle features of aware hypertensive Koreans did not differ greatly from those of hypertensive individuals who were not aware. Reduction in salt intake was slightly more prevalent among those aware of their hypertensive status. Obesity was more prevalent among the aware hypertensive subjects, and the prevalence of obesity increased with the duration of hypertension. Male gender, younger age, residence in a rural area, low income, and the use of antihypertensive medication were associated with non-adherence to lifestyle recommendations by hypertensive individuals. Many hypertensive Koreans do not comply with lifestyle recommendations for the management of hypertension. The association between the use of antihypertensive medications and non-adherence suggested an over-reliance on medication rather than a commitment to a healthy lifestyle. Our study highlights that efforts encouraging healthy lifestyles, as the first step in hypertension management, need to be increased.

  10. Healthy lifestyles and school life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Circe Sánchez-Rodríguez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Promoting a culture in health not only towards the physical but mental health of the human being is a priority in the training of the professionals of the Preschool Education, evidenced in the diagnosis implemented, that provided the necessary information of the real and desired state in terms of the insufficiencies that present the students of 1st, 2nd and 3rd year of the day course of the Degree in Pre-school Education; in their lifestyles for the formation of coexistence in the university context. It demonstrates the need to develop an educational strategy that contributes to the formation of coexistence based on the promotion of healthy lifestyles, which in the hands of teachers will help to transform the behavioral attitudes of students, which will allow them to interact in a positive way with society and be better people and professionals.

  11. Functional Materials Based on Surface Modification of Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical and Environmental Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mashat, Afnan

    2015-05-01

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), they have gained much interest in many science and engineering fields. The modification of CNTs by introducing different functional groups to their surface is important for CNTs to be tailored to fit the need of specific applications. This dissertation presents several CNT-based systems that can provide biomedical and environmental advantages. In this research, polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used to coat CNTs through hydrogen bonding. The release of doxorubicin (DOX, an anticancer drug) from this system was controlled by temperature. This system represents a promising method for incorporating stimuli triggered polymer-gated CNTs in controlled release applications. To create an acid responsive system CNTs were coated with 1,2-Distearoyl-snglycero- 3-Phosphoethanolamine-N-[Amino(Polyethylene glycol)2000]-(PE-PEG) and Poly(acrylic acid) modified dioleoy lphosphatidyl-ethanolamine (PE-PAA). An acidlabile linker was used to cross-link PAA, forming ALP@CNTs, thus making the system acid sensitive. The release of DOX from ALP@CNTs was found to be higher in an acidic environment. Moreover, near infrared (NIR) light was used to enhance the release of DOX from ALP@CNTs. A CNT-based membrane with controlled diffusion was prepared in the next study. CNTs were used as a component of a cellulose/gel membrane due to their optical property, which allows them to convert NIR light into heat. Poly(Nisopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) was used due to its thermo-sensitivity. The properties of both the CNTs and PNIPAm’s were used to control the diffusion of the cargo from the system, under the influence of NIR. CNTs were also used to fabricate an antibacterial agent, for which they were coated with polydopamine (PDA) and decorated with silver particles (Ag). Galactose (Gal) terminated with thiol groups conjugated with the above system was used to strengthen the bacterial targeting ability. The antibacterial activity of

  12. Effect of self-efficacy on weight loss: a psychosocial analysis of a community-based adaptation of the diabetes prevention program lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Laura M; Finch, Emily A; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G; Ackermann, Ronald T

    2014-11-01

    Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2), ≥ 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110-199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss.

  13. Maleic anhydride based copolymer dispersions for surface modification of polar substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunbas, I.D.; Wouters, M.E.L.; Hendrix, M.M.R.M.; Benthem, R.A.T.M. van; Koning, C.E.; Noordover, B.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report the modification of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSMA) with monofunctional amine-terminated poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS-NH2) by thermal imidization, followed by the preparation and characterization of a surfactant-free artificial latex thereof and application of

  14. Resin-assisted enrichment of thiols as a general strategy for proteomic profiling of cysteine-based reversible modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jia [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gaffrey, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Su, Dian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Liu, Tao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Camp, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Richard D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qian, Weijun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-12

    Reversible modifications on cysteine thiols play a significant role in redox signaling and regulation. A number of reversible redox modifications, including disulfide formation, S-nitrosylation, and S-glutathionylation, have been recognized for their significance in various physiological and pathological processes. Here we describe in detail a resin-assisted thiol-affinity enrichment protocol for both biochemical and proteomics applications. This protocol serves as a general approach for specific isolation of thiol-containing proteins or peptides derived from reversible redox-modified proteins. This approach utilizes thiol-affinity resins to directly capture thiol-containing proteins or peptides through a disulfide exchange reaction followed by on-resin protein digestion and on-resin multiplexed isobaric labeling to facilitate LC-MS/MS based quantitative site-specific analysis of redox modifications. The overall approach requires a much simpler workflow with increased specificity compared to the commonly used biotin switch technique. By coupling different selective reduction strategies, the resin-assisted approach provides the researcher with a useful tool capable of enriching different types of reversible modifications on protein thiols. Procedures for selective enrichment and analyses of S-nitrosylation and total reversible cysteine oxidation are presented to demonstrate the utility of this general strategy.

  15. Listening to Students: Modification of a Reading Program Based on the Sources of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Aydın

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the modifications implemented in a second year foreign language (FL reading program with respect to the problems students experience while reading in FL. This research draws on the sources of FL reading anxiety identified in the first year reading program with a motivation to re-design the second year program to help the students perceive reading positively free from the anxiety. This paper reports on the responses of students to the modifications implemented in the second year reading program. The participants of the study were 50 FL students who were in their second year at a state university in Turkey. All participants had already taken the first year reading course and were enrolled in the second year reading course. It was based on two qualitative research instruments. The first instrument was a semi-structured questionnaire administered to all participants. The second one was a semi-structured interview conducted with half of the participants to obtain more in depth information concerning the modifications that had been introduced. Both instruments revealed that students responded positively to the modifications introduced. The results of the study put forward that obtaining students’ opinions, giving them responsibility and involving them in decision making processes enhance their motivation, confidence and analytical skills while reading in a foreign language.

  16. A comparison of live counseling with a web-based lifestyle and medication intervention to reduce coronary heart disease risk: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyserling, Thomas C; Sheridan, Stacey L; Draeger, Lindy B; Finkelstein, Eric A; Gizlice, Ziya; Kruger, Eliza; Johnston, Larry F; Sloane, Philip D; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen; Evenson, Kelly R; Gross, Myron D; Donahue, Katrina E; Pignone, Michael P; Vu, Maihan B; Steinbacher, Erika A; Weiner, Bryan J; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-07-01

    Most primary care clinicians lack the skills and resources to offer effective lifestyle and medication (L&M) counseling to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Thus, effective and feasible CHD prevention programs are needed for typical practice settings. To assess the effectiveness, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness of a combined L&M intervention to reduce CHD risk offered in counselor-delivered and web-based formats. A comparative effectiveness trial in 5 diverse family medicine practices in North Carolina. Participants were established patients, aged 35 to 79 years, with no known cardiovascular disease, and at moderate to high risk for CHD (10-year Framingham Risk Score [FRS], ≥10%). Participants were randomized to counselor-delivered or web-based format, each including 4 intensive and 3 maintenance sessions. After randomization, both formats used a web-based decision aid showing potential CHD risk reduction associated with L&M risk-reducing strategies. Participants chose the risk-reducing strategies they wished to follow. The primary outcome was within-group change in FRS at 4-month follow-up. Other measures included standardized assessments of blood pressure, blood lipid levels, lifestyle behaviors, and medication adherence. Acceptability and cost-effectiveness were also assessed. Outcomes were assessed at 4 and 12 months. Of 2274 screened patients, 385 were randomized (192 counselor; 193 web): mean age, 62 years; 24% African American; and mean FRS, 16.9%. Follow-up at 4 and 12 months included 91% and 87% of the randomized participants, respectively. There was a sustained reduction in FRS at both 4 months (primary outcome) and 12 months for both counselor-based (-2.3% [95% CI, -3.0% to -1.6%] and -1.9% [95% CI, -2.8% to -1.1%], respectively) and web-based groups (-1.5% [95% CI, -2.2% to -0.9%] and -1.7% [95% CI, -2.6% to -0.8%] respectively). At 4 months, the adjusted difference in FRS between groups was -1.0% (95% CI, -1.8% to -0.1%) (P = .03

  17. Impact of a University-Based Program on Obese College Students' Physical Activity Behaviors, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Melinda J.; McMullen, Jennifer; Pflug, Courtney; Westgate, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: More than one third of college students are either overweight or obese, making college campuses an ideal setting to target at risk behaviors while tailoring programs to the evolving lifestyle of college students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a 15-week, campus-based lifestyle modification program on…

  18. Enhancing phosphate adsorption capacity of SDS-based magnetite by surface modification of citric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhigang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Chang, E-mail: zhangchang@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zheng, Zuhong [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000, Hubei Province (China); Hu, Liang; Li, Xuemei; Yang, Zhongzhu; Ma, Chi; Zeng, Guangming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Citric acid (CA) was used to modify the surface structures of SDS-based magnetite. • Dosage of CA, pH values, ion strength, isotherms and dynamics were analyzed. • High CA dissolved anionic SDS and Fe{sup n+} but increased the stability of magnetite. • 0.05 and 0.1 M CA-modified iron oxide removed about 100% phosphorus. • Precipitation of phosphate and Fe {sup n+} was the main removal mechanism. - Abstract: In this study, citric acid (CA) was employed as a low-molecule organic acid to influence the adsorption performance of phosphorus by as-obtained magnetite. The factors including initial phosphate concentrations, dosage of citric acid, pH value, ion strength, contact time and temperature were examined in detail. Results indicated that the dissolution of anion sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) covering on surface of magnetite, a slight decrease of Fe level and a superior structure of magnetite after CA modification occurred. The pH-dependence of phosphate adsorption was impeded and the surface potential of magnetite positively increased at pH > 5.0 when CA was added. Non-linear regression Langmuir-Freundlich model was fitted well in thermodynamics, and the opposite adsorption process as a function of temperatures with or without CA addition was due to the decrease of active energy and active mobility of phosphate ion. Finally, the declining adsorption efficiency with increasing cycles was observed while phosphate removal was approximately finished and had small change with 0.05 and 0.1 M of CA addition. Those improvements of removal efficiency of phosphorus by modified iron oxide were because of the removal of anionic SDS that increased the surface positive charge, and especially the dissolution of element Fe into solution to form precipitate with phosphorus ions. The enhanced stability of magnetite by CA also promoted the high removal efficiency of phosphorus. These implications of CA on phosphate removal can be extended to the field where

  19. Enhancing phosphate adsorption capacity of SDS-based magnetite by surface modification of citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zhigang; Zhang, Chang; Zheng, Zuhong; Hu, Liang; Li, Xuemei; Yang, Zhongzhu; Ma, Chi; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Citric acid (CA) was used to modify the surface structures of SDS-based magnetite. • Dosage of CA, pH values, ion strength, isotherms and dynamics were analyzed. • High CA dissolved anionic SDS and Fe n+ but increased the stability of magnetite. • 0.05 and 0.1 M CA-modified iron oxide removed about 100% phosphorus. • Precipitation of phosphate and Fe n+ was the main removal mechanism. - Abstract: In this study, citric acid (CA) was employed as a low-molecule organic acid to influence the adsorption performance of phosphorus by as-obtained magnetite. The factors including initial phosphate concentrations, dosage of citric acid, pH value, ion strength, contact time and temperature were examined in detail. Results indicated that the dissolution of anion sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) covering on surface of magnetite, a slight decrease of Fe level and a superior structure of magnetite after CA modification occurred. The pH-dependence of phosphate adsorption was impeded and the surface potential of magnetite positively increased at pH > 5.0 when CA was added. Non-linear regression Langmuir-Freundlich model was fitted well in thermodynamics, and the opposite adsorption process as a function of temperatures with or without CA addition was due to the decrease of active energy and active mobility of phosphate ion. Finally, the declining adsorption efficiency with increasing cycles was observed while phosphate removal was approximately finished and had small change with 0.05 and 0.1 M of CA addition. Those improvements of removal efficiency of phosphorus by modified iron oxide were because of the removal of anionic SDS that increased the surface positive charge, and especially the dissolution of element Fe into solution to form precipitate with phosphorus ions. The enhanced stability of magnetite by CA also promoted the high removal efficiency of phosphorus. These implications of CA on phosphate removal can be extended to the field where phosphate

  20. Lifestyle Journalism: Blurring boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Unni

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle journalism has experienced enormous growth in the media over the past two decades, but scholars in the fields of journalism and communication studies have so far paid relatively little attention to a field that is still sometimes seen as "not real journalism". There is now an urgent need...... for in-depth exploration and contextualisation of this field, with its increasing relevance for 21st century consumer cultures. For the first time, this book presents a wide range of studies which have engaged with the field of lifestyle journalism in order to outline the various political, economic...... of sub-fields such as travel, music, food, health, fashion and personal technology journalism. This volume provides a fascinating account of the different facets of lifestyle journalism, and charts the way forward for a more sustained analysis of the field. This book was originally published as a special...

  1. A cluster randomised school-based lifestyle intervention programme for the prevention of childhood obesity and related early cardiovascular disease (JuvenTUM 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Bernhard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is not only associated with adult obesity but also with increased risk of adult onset of type 2 diabetes and subsequent coronary heart disease. The potential effects of school-based health intervention programmes on cardiovascular risk and surrogate markers are unclear, as only few studies have attempted to investigate a complete risk profile including a detailed laboratory analysis or micro- and macrovascular function. In this study a comprehensive school-based randomized intervention programme will be investigated in 10-14-year old children addressing the influence of lifestyle intervention on inactivity, cardiometabolic risk factors and early signs of vascular disease. Methods/Design 15 secondary schools in Southern Germany are randomly assigned to intervention or control schools. Children in the fifth grade (10-11 years will be observed over four years. The study combines a school-based with a home-based approach, aiming at children, teachers and parents. The main components are weekly lifestyle-lessons for children, taught by regular classroom teachers to increase physical activity in- and outside of school, to improve eating patterns at school and at home, to reduce media consumption and to amplify well-being. In 4-6 annual meetings, teachers receive information about health-related topics with worksheets for children and supporting equipment, accounting for school-specific needs and strategies. Parents' trainings are provided on a regular basis. All examinations are performed at the beginning and at the end of every school year. Anthropometry includes measurements of BMI, waist and upper arm circumferences, skinfold thickness as well as peripheral blood pressure. Blood sampling includes lipid parameters, insulin, glucose, hsCRP, adiponectin, and IL-6 as well as testosteron and estrogen to determine maturation status. Vascular function is non-invasively assessed by measuring arterial stiffness in large

  2. Modification of transition's factor in the compact surface-potential-based MOSFET model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevkić Tijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modification of an important transition's factor which enables continual behavior of the surface potential in entire useful range of MOSFET operation is presented. The various modifications have been made in order to obtain an accurate and computationally efficient compact MOSFET model. The best results have been achieved by introducing the generalized logistic function (GL in fitting of considered factor. The smoothness and speed of the transition of the surface potential from the depletion to the strong inversion region can be controlled in this way. The results of the explicit model with this GL functional form for transition's factor have been verified extensively with the numerical data. A great agreement was found for a wide range of substrate doping and oxide thickness. Moreover, the proposed approach can be also applied on the case where quantum mechanical effects play important role in inversion mode.

  3. Mobile phone short message service messaging for behaviour modification in a community-based weight control programme in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Bom-Taeck

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a community-based anti-obesity programme using mobile phone short message service (SMS) messaging. A total of 927 participants were recruited and visited a public health centre for initial assessment. Mobile phones were used to deliver short messages about diet, exercise and behaviour modification once a week. After a 12-week anti-obesity programme they visited the public health centre again. Four hundred and thirty-three subjects (47%) successfully completed their weight control programme. There were mean reductions of weight, waist circumference and body mass index of 1.6 kg (P behaviour modification in weight control and anti-obesity health education programmes when promoted by community health centres.

  4. Prediction of novel families of enzymes involved in oxidative and other complex modifications of bases in nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Tahiliani, Mamta; Rao, Anjana; Aravind, L

    2009-06-01

    Modified bases in nucleic acids present a layer of information that directs biological function over and beyond the coding capacity of the conventional bases. While a large number of modified bases have been identified, many of the enzymes generating them still remain to be discovered. Recently, members of the 2-oxoglutarate- and iron(II)-dependent dioxygenase super-family, which modify diverse substrates from small molecules to biopolymers, were predicted and subsequently confirmed to catalyze oxidative modification of bases in nucleic acids. Of these, two distinct families, namely the AlkB and the kinetoplastid base J binding proteins (JBP) catalyze in situ hydroxylation of bases in nucleic acids. Using sensitive computational analysis of sequences, structures and contextual information from genomic structure and protein domain architectures, we report five distinct families of 2-oxoglutarate- and iron(II)-dependent dioxygenase that we predict to be involved in nucleic acid modifications. Among the DNA-modifying families, we show that the dioxygenase domains of the kinetoplastid base J-binding proteins belong to a larger family that includes the Tet proteins, prototyped by the human oncogene Tet1, and proteins from basidiomycete fungi, chlorophyte algae, heterolobosean amoeboflagellates and bacteriophages. We present evidence that some of these proteins are likely to be involved in oxidative modification of the 5-methyl group of cytosine leading to the formation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. The Tet/JBP homologs from basidiomycete fungi such as Laccaria and Coprinopsis show large lineage-specific expansions and a tight linkage with genes encoding a novel and distinct family of predicted transposases, and a member of the Maelstrom-like HMG family. We propose that these fungal members are part of a mobile transposon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a eukaryotic transposable element that encodes its own DNA-modification enzyme with a

  5. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most

  6. Youth media lifestyles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kruistum, Claudia; Leseman, Paul Pm; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the concept of "media lifestyles" is adopted in order to develop a comprehensive approach toward youth engagement in communication media. We explore how 503 Dutch eighth grade students with full access to new technology combine a broad range of media by focusing on their engagement

  7. Swedish population-based study of pupils showed that foster children faced increased risks for ill health, negative lifestyles and school failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh, Lisbet; Janson, Staffan; Svensson, Birgitta; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt

    2017-10-01

    This population-based study explored whether foster children faced a higher risk of health problems than children of the same age who were not in foster care. Data for 13 739 pupils aged 10, 13 and 16 years were obtained from the Pupil Health Database in the county of Värmland, Sweden, for the school years 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. These included data on school performance, health, lifestyle and social relationships, based on children's interviews with school nurses. Of all the pupils, 171 (1.2%) were in foster care. Children in foster care were generally unhealthier than other children. Both girls and boys were at higher risk of chronic health problems, daily smoking, use of drugs and school failure. When the girls in foster care were compared to other girls, we found that they faced a higher risk of psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. This difference was not found for boys. Foster children were also more likely to express a more negative view on life. We confirmed earlier studies that children in foster care tended to have inferior health and well-being than other children. These findings emphasise that health, risky behaviour and school performance should be considered together when assessing foster children. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Does a healthy lifestyle behaviour influence the prognosis of low back pain among men and women in a general population? A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Tony; Alfredsson, Lars; Jensen, Irene; Hallqvist, Johan; Vingård, Eva; Skillgate, Eva

    2014-12-30

    To study the influence of healthy lifestyle behaviour on the prognosis of occasional low back pain among men and women in a general population. Cohort study with a 4-year follow-up. General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. The study sample comprised 3938 men and 5056 women aged 18-84 from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort reporting occasional low back pain in the baseline questionnaire 2006. Lifestyle factors and potential confounders were assessed at baseline. The lifestyle factors smoking habits, alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity and consumption of fruit and vegetables were dichotomised using recommendations for a health-enhancing lifestyle and combined to form the exposure variable 'healthy lifestyle behaviour'. The exposure was categorised into five levels according to the number of healthy lifestyle factors met. The follow-up questionnaire in 2010 gave information about the outcome, long duration troublesome low back pain. Crude and adjusted binomial regression models were applied to estimate the association between the exposure and the outcome analysing men and women separately. The risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain decreased with increasing healthy lifestyle behaviour (trend test: p=0.006). 21% (28/131) among women with no healthy lifestyle factor (reference) experienced the outcome compared to 9% (36/420) among women with all four factors. Compared to the reference group, the risk was reduced by 35% (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96) for women with one healthy lifestyle factor and 52% (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77) for women with all four healthy lifestyle factors. There were no clear associations found among men. Healthy lifestyle behaviour seems to decrease the risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain and may be recommended to improve the prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  9. Exploring Consumer and Patient Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitude Toward Medicinal and Lifestyle Products Purchased From the Internet: A Web-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Assi, Sulaf; Thomas, Jordan; Haffar, Mohamed; Osselton, David

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, lifestyle products have emerged to help improve people's physical and mental performance. The Internet plays a major role in the spread of these products. However, the literature has reported issues regarding the authenticity of medicines purchased from the Internet and the impact of counterfeit medicines on public health. Little or no data are available on the authenticity of lifestyle products and actual toxicity associated with their use and misuse. OBJECTIVE: ...

  10. Sticks and Stones: The Multifarious Effects of Body-Based Harassment on Young Girls' Healthy Lifestyle Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Margery J.; Johnson, Jay; Lucier, Mary-Kaye

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of girls and boys about the effects that body-based harassment would have on girls' eating habits and engagement in physical activity. Five scenarios were read to focus groups comprised of 12- to 14-year-old students in grades 7 and 8. Each scenario represented behaviours that fall…

  11. BOUNCE: A community-based mother–daughter healthy lifestyle intervention for low-income Latino families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a family-based exploratory community study titled BOUNCE (Behavior Opportunities Uniting Nutrition, Counseling, and Exercise), to increase physical fitness and activity in low-income Latino mothers and daughters. The BOUNCE study consis...

  12. Unidas por la Vida (United for Life): implementing a culturally-tailored, community-based, family-oriented lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Peyreda, Margarita; Kilgore, David; Dow, Emily; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Unidas por la Vida, a behavioral weight-loss program, was developed for use among low-income, Mexican-American women with diabetes and their overweight/obese adult daughters. The program leverages community resources in a partnership between primary care and community-based organizations. This paper describes the program's implementation, lessons learned, and implications for sustainability.

  13. Evidence-based support for S1 transpedicular screw entry point modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In the literature, ‘below and lateral to the superior S1 facet’ is defined as the basic technique for screw introduction. Until a recently published modification, no analysis for alternative starting point has been proposed nor evaluated, although some surgeons claim to use some modifications. In this study, we analyse the data from anatomical and radiological studies for optimal starting point in transpedicular S1 screw placement. Methods A Medline search for key word combination: sacrum, anatomy, pedicle, screws and bone density resulted in 26 publications relevant to the topic. After a review of literature, two articles were chosen, as those including the appropriate set of data. The data retrieved from the articles is used for the analysis. The spatial relation of S1 facet, pedicles and vertebral body with cortical thickness and bone density in normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic sacrum is analysed. Results Presented data advocates for more medial placement of the screws due to higher bone density and lower bone loss in osteoporosis. Medial shift of the starting point does not increase the risk of spinal canal perforation. Osteoarthritic changes within the facet can augment the posterior supporting point for screw. The facet angular orientation is similar to convergent screw trajectory. Conclusions Modified technique for S1 screw placement takes advantage of latest anatomical and clinical data. In our opinion, technique modification improves the reproducibility and may increase stability and the screws within the posterior cortex of the S1 vertebra. Further biomechanical and clinical study should be performed to prove its superiority to classical technique. PMID:24708681

  14. Influence of lifestyle factors on mammographic density in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Brand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT, little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. METHODS: We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI and HRT was studied. RESULTS: Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07. This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06: increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01 but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82. A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04. No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk.

  15. Nutritional Lifestyles of College Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmon, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    ...., second only to smoking. The purpose of this study is to explore the nutritional lifestyle of college women, and to determine if there are differences in nutritional lifestyle, as well as, perception of health status...

  16. Double-Layer Surface Modification of Polyamide Denture Base Material by Functionalized Sol-Gel Based Silica for Adhesion Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezeqoran, Ali; Koodaryan, Roodabeh

    2017-09-21

    Limited surface treatments have been proposed to improve the bond strength between autopolymerizing resin and polyamide denture base materials. Still, the bond strength of autopolymerizing resins to nylon polymer is not strong enough to repair the fractured denture effectively. This study aimed to introduce a novel method to improve the adhesion of autopolymerizing resin to polyamide polymer by a double layer deposition of sol-gel silica and N-2-(aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AE-APTMS). The silica sol was synthesized by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as silica precursors. Polyamide specimens were dipped in TEOS-derived sol (TS group, n = 28), and exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light under O 2 flow for 30 minutes. UV-treated specimens were immersed in AE-APTMS solution and left for 24 hours at room temperature. The other specimens were either immersed in AE-APTMS solution (AP group, n = 28) or left untreated (NT group, n = 28). Surface characterization was investigated by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Two autopolymerizing resins (subgroups G and T, n = 14) were bonded to the specimens, thermocycled, and then tested for shear bond strength with a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD (α = 0.05). FTIR spectra of treated surfaces confirmed the chemical modification and appearance of functional groups on the polymer. One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in shear bond strength among the study groups. Tukey's HSD showed that TS T and TS G groups had significantly higher shear bond strength than control groups (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Moreover, bond strength values of AP T were statistically significant compared to controls (p = 0.017). Amino functionalized TEOS-derived silica coating is a simple and cost-effective method for improving the bond strength between the autopolymerizing resin and polyamide

  17. Effects of a self-regulation lifestyle program for post-cardiac rehabilitation patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Veronica Regina

    2012-01-01

    Background As maintenance of lifestyle change and risk factor modification following completion of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has been shown to be notoriously difficult, we developed a brief self-regulation lifestyle program for post-CR patients. Design Randomized-controlled trial. Method Following

  18. A cluster-randomized controlled trial to study the effectiveness of a protocol-based lifestyle program to prevent type 2 diabetes in people with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Arlette E; Bilo, Henk J G; Jonkers, Ruud; Martens, Marloes; de Weerdt, Inge; Rutten, Guy E H

    2013-12-02

    Effective diabetes prevention strategies that can be implemented in daily practice, without huge amounts of money and a lot of personnel are needed. The Dutch Diabetes Federation developed a protocol for coaching people with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; according to WHO criteria: 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/l) to a sustainable healthy lifestyle change: 'the road map towards diabetes prevention' (abbreviated: Road Map: RM). This protocol is applied within a primary health care setting by a general practitioner and a practice nurse. The feasibility and (cost-) effectiveness of care provided according to the RM protocol will be evaluated. A cluster randomised clinical trial is performed, with randomisation at the level of the general practices. Both opportunistic screening and active case finding took place among clients with high risk factors for diabetes. After IFG is diagnosed, motivated people in the intervention practices receive 3-4 consultations by the practice nurse within one year. During these consultations they are coached to increase the level of physical activity and healthy dietary habits. If necessary, participants are referred to a dietician, physiotherapist, lifestyle programs and/or local sports activities. The control group receives care as usual. The primary outcome measure in this study is change in Body Mass Index (BMI). Secondary outcome measures are waist circumference, physical activity, total and saturated fat intake, systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and behaviour determinants like risk perception, perceived knowledge and motivation. Based on a sample size calculation 120 people in each group are needed. Measurements are performed at baseline, and after one (post-intervention) and two years follow up. Anthropometrics and biochemical parameters are assessed in the practices and physical activity, food intake and their determinants by a validated questionnaire. The cost-effectiveness is estimated

  19. Effectiveness of community-based comprehensive healthy lifestyle promotion on cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural Vietnamese population: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health promotion is a key component for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This study evaluated the impact of healthy lifestyle promotion campaigns on CVD risk factors (CVDRF in the general population in the context of a community-based programme on hypertension management. Methods A quasi-experimental intervention study was carried out in two rural communes of Vietnam from 2006 to 2009. In the intervention commune, a hypertensive-targeted management programme integrated with a community-targeted health promotion was initiated, while no new programme, apart from conventional healthcare services, was provided in the reference commune. Health promotion campaigns focused on smoking cessation, reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging physical activity and reducing salty diets. Repeated cross-sectional surveys in local adult population aged 25 years and over were undertaken to assess changes in blood pressure (BP and behavioural CVDRFs (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and salty diet in both communes before and after the 3-year intervention. Results Overall 4,650 adults above 25 years old were surveyed, in four randomly independent samples covering both communes at baseline and after the 3-year intervention. Although physical inactivity and obesity increased over time in the intervention commune, there was a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP (3.3 and 4.7 mmHg in women versus 3.0 and 4.6 mmHg in men respectively in the general population at the intervention commune. Health promotion reduced levels of salty diets but had insignificant impact on the prevalence of daily smoking or heavy alcohol consumption. Conclusion Community-targeted healthy lifestyle promotion can significantly improve some CVDRFs in the general population in a rural area over a relatively short time span. Limited effects on a context-bound CVDRF like smoking suggested that higher intensity of intervention

  20. Alkali Metal Modification of Silica Gel-Based Stationary Phase in Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Yehia El-Naggar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of the precipitated silica gel was done by treatment with alkali metal (NaCl before and after calcination. The silica surfaces before and after modification were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy in order to observe the strength and abundance of the acidic surface OH group bands which play an important role in the adsorption properties of polar and nonpolar solutes. The surface-modified silica gels were tested as GC solid stationary phases in terms of the separation efficiency for various groups of non-polar and polar solutes. Also, thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔG, and ΔS were determined using n-hexane as a probe in order to show the adsorbate-adsorbent interaction. It was observed that the non-polar solutes could be separated Independent on the reactivity and porosity of the silica surfaces. The efficiency of the surface-modified silica gels to separate the aromatic hydrocarbons seemed to be strongly influenced by the density of the surface hydroxyls.

  1. A web-based multidomain lifestyle intervention with connected devices for older adults: research protocol of the eMIND pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothier, Kristell; Soriano, G; Lussier, M; Naudin, A; Costa, N; Guyonnet, S; Piau, A; Ousset, P J; Nourhashemi, F; Vellas, B; de Souto Barreto, P

    2018-01-24

    Multidomain interventions composed of nutritional counseling, exercise and cognitive trainings have shown encouraging results as effective preventive strategies delaying age-related declines. However, these interventions are time- and resource-consuming. The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) might facilitate the translation from research into real-world practice and reach a massive number of people. This article describes the protocol of the eMIND study, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) using a web-based multidomain intervention for older adults. One hundred and twenty older adults (≥ 65 years), with a spontaneous memory complaint, will be randomly assigned to a six-month web-based multidomain (nutritional counseling, physical and cognitive trainings) intervention group with a connected accelerometer (number of steps, energy expenditure), or to a control group with access to general information on healthy aging plus the accelerometer, but no access to the multidomain intervention. The main outcome is the feasibility/acceptability of the web-based intervention. Secondary clinical outcomes include: cognitive functions, physical performance, nutritional status and cost-effectiveness. We expect a high amount of adherers (ie, > 75% compliance to the protocol) to reflect the feasibility. Acceptability, assessed through interviews, should allow us to understand motivators and barriers to this ICT intervention. We also expect to provide data on its effects on various clinical outcomes and efficiency. The eMIND study will provide crucial information to help developing a future and larger web-based multidomain lifestyle RCT, which should facilitate the translation of this ICT intervention from the research world into real-life clinical practice for the healthcare of older adults.

  2. Lifestyle intervention using an internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders for obese Chinese teens: a randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha A Abraham

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasing public health problem affecting young people. The causes of obesity are multi-factorial among Chinese youth including lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. The use of an internet curriculum and cell phone reminders and texting may be an innovative means of increasing follow up and compliance with obese teens. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of using an adapted internet curriculum and existing nutritional program along with cell phone follow up for obese Chinese teens.This was a randomized controlled study involving obese teens receiving care at a paediatric obesity clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Hong Kong. Forty-eight subjects aged 12 to 18 years were randomized into three groups. The control group received usual care visits with a physician in the obesity clinic every three months. The first intervention (IT group received usual care visits every three months plus a 12-week internet-based curriculum with cell phone calls/texts reminders. The second intervention group received usual care visits every three months plus four nutritional counselling sessions.The use of the internet-based curriculum was shown to be feasible as evidenced by the high recruitment rate, internet log-in rate, compliance with completing the curriculum and responses to phone reminders. No significant differences in weight were found between IT, sLMP and control groups.An internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders as a supplement to usual care of obesity is feasible. Further study is required to determine whether an internet plus text intervention can be both an effective and a cost-effective adjunct to changing weight in obese youth.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002624.

  3. Lifestyle factors and site-specific risk of hip fracture in community dwelling older women – a 13-year prospective population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Määttä Mikko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several risk factors are associated to hip fractures. It seems that different hip fracture types have different etiologies. In this study, we evaluated the lifestyle-related risk factors for cervical and trochanteric hip fractures in older women over a 13-year follow-up period. Methods The study design was a prospective, population-based study consisting of 1681 women (mean age 72 years. Seventy-three percent (n = 1222 participated in the baseline measurements, including medical history, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and nutrition, along with body anthropometrics and functional mobility. Cox regression was used to identify the independent predictors of cervical and trochanteric hip fractures. Results During the follow-up, 49 cervical and 31 trochanteric fractures were recorded. The women with hip fractures were older, taller, and thinner than the women with no fractures (p  Conclusions Impaired functional mobility, physical inactivity, and low body mass may increase the risk for hip fractures with different effects at the cervical and trochanteric levels.

  4. The Role of Community Centre-based Arts, Leisure and Social Activities in Promoting Adult Well-being and Healthy Lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Evans

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Developed countries are experiencing high levels of mental and physical illness associated with long term health conditions, unhealthy lifestyles and an ageing population. Given the limited capacity of the formal health care sector to address these public health issues, attention is turning to the role of agencies active in civil society. This paper sought to evaluate the associations between participation in community centre activities, the psycho-social wellbeing and health related behaviours. This was based on an evaluation of the South West Well-being programme involving ten organisations delivering leisure, exercise, cooking, befriending, arts and crafts activities. The evaluation consisted of a before-and-after study with 687 adults. The results showed positive changes in self-reported general health, mental health, personal and social well-being. Positive changes were associated with diet and physical activity. Some activities were different in their outcomes—especially in cases where group activities were combined with one-to-one support. The results suggest that community centre activities of this nature offer benefits that are generically supportive of health behaviour changes. Such initiatives can perform an important role in supporting the health improvement objectives of formal health care services. For commissioners and partner agencies, accessibility and participation are attractive features that are particularly pertinent to the current public health context.

  5. Processes of behavior change and weight loss in a theory-based weight loss intervention program: a test of the process model for lifestyle behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona; Stathi, Afroditi; Reddy, Prasuna; Perry, Rachel; Taylor, Gordon; Bennett, Paul; Dunbar, James; Greaves, Colin

    2015-01-16

    Process evaluation is important for improving theories of behavior change and behavioral intervention methods. The present study reports on the process outcomes of a pilot test of the theoretical model (the Process Model for Lifestyle Behavior Change; PMLBC) underpinning an evidence-informed, theory-driven, group-based intervention designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity for people with high cardiovascular risk. 108 people at high risk of diabetes or heart disease were randomized to a group-based weight management intervention targeting diet and physical activity plus usual care, or to usual care. The intervention comprised nine group based sessions designed to promote motivation, social support, self-regulation and understanding of the behavior change process. Weight loss, diet, physical activity and theoretically defined mediators of change were measured pre-intervention, and after four and 12 months. The intervention resulted in significant improvements in fiber intake (M between-group difference = 5.7 g/day, p change, and the predicted mechanisms of change specified in the PMBLC were largely supported. Improvements in self-efficacy and understanding of the behavior change process were associated with engagement in coping planning and self-monitoring activities, and successful dietary change at four and 12 months. While participants reported improvements in motivational and social support variables, there was no effect of these, or of the intervention overall, on physical activity. The data broadly support the theoretical model for supporting some dietary changes, but not for physical activity. Systematic intervention design allowed us to identify where improvements to the intervention may be implemented to promote change in all proposed mediators. More work is needed to explore effective mechanisms within interventions to promote physical activity behavior.

  6. Non-soya legume-based therapeutic lifestyle change diet reduces inflammatory status in diabetic patients: a randomised cross-over clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Fallah-Ghohroudi, Arefeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-07-01

    The present randomised cross-over clinical trial investigated the effects of two intervention diets (non-soya legume-based therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC) diet v. isoenergetic legume-free TLC diet) on inflammatory biomarkers among type 2 diabetic patients. A group of thirty-one participants (twenty-four women and seven men; weight 74.5 (SD 7.0) kg; age 58.1 (SD 6.0) years) were randomly assigned to one of the two following intervention diets for 8 weeks: legume-free TLC diet or non-soya legume-based TLC diet. The latter diet was the same as the legume-free TLC diet, except that two servings of red meat were replaced with different types of cooked non-soya legumes such as lentils, chickpeas, peas and beans over a period of 3 d per week. The intervention period was followed by a washout period of 4 weeks, after which the groups followed the alternate treatment for 8 weeks. Concentrations of inflammatory markers were measured at baseline and after the intervention periods. Compared with the legume-free TLC diet, the non-soya legume-based TLC diet significantly decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6 and TNF-α in overweight diabetic patients. The replacement of two servings of red meat by non-soya legumes in the isoenergetic TLC diet for a period of 3 d per week reduced the plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers among overweight diabetic patients, independent of weight change.

  7. Lifestyle advice and lifestyle change: to what degree does lifestyle advice of healthcare professionals reach the population, focusing on gender, age and education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobeck, Elisabeth; Bergh, Håkan; Odencrants, Sigrid; Hildingh, Cathrine

    2015-03-01

    Health promotion practice in health care has a high priority in the endeavour to achieve equal opportunities for health and diversity in health among the population. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether there is any connection between the lifestyle advice given by healthcare professionals and the lifestyle change of the population, focusing on age, gender and education level. The study is based on the data from a national population survey in Sweden in which 52 595 patients who had attended health care were interviewed by phone. The participants were asked whether healthcare professionals had raised the subject of lifestyle during the visit and whether the advice they gave had contributed to a lifestyle change. The results indicated that lifestyle issues were raised with 32.2% of those who attended health care, particularly among men, younger patients and those with a high education level. When lifestyle issues were raised, the advice contributed to 39.2% of patients making a lifestyle change, to a higher extent among men, older patients and those with a low education level. The study shows that lifestyle advice given by healthcare professionals, during both emergency and outpatient healthcare visits, is an important contributor to patients' lifestyle change. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  8. A Lifestyle Medicine Clinic in a Community Pharmacy Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Lenz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases continue to be a significant burden to the health care system. Pharmacists have been able to show that drug therapy for patients with chronic diseases can be improved through medication therapy management (MTM services but have yet to become significantly involved in implementing lifestyle modification programs to further control and prevent chronic conditions. A novel and innovative lifestyle medicine program was started by pharmacists in a community pharmacy in 2008 to more comprehensively prevent and manage chronic conditions. The lifestyle medicine program consists of designing seven personalized programs for patients to address physical activity, nutrition, alcohol consumption, weight control, stress management, sleep success, and tobacco cessation (if needed. The lifestyle medicine program complements existing MTM services for patients with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and/or diabetes. This program is innovative because pharmacists have developed and implemented a method to combine lifestyle medicine with MTM services to not only manage chronic conditions, but prevent the progression of those conditions and others. Several innovative tools have also been developed to enhance the effectiveness of a lifestyle medicine program. This manuscript describes the program's pharmacy setting, pharmacy personnel, participants and program details as well as the tools used to integrate a lifestyle medicine program with MTM services. Type: Clinical Experience

  9. Polyribosomes at the base of dendritic spines of central nervous system neurons - their possible role in synapse construction and modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, O.

    1983-01-01

    The selective localization of polyribosomes at the base of dendritic spines in granule cells of the dentate gyrus was studied. These polyribosomes seem optimally situated to produce proteins for the postsynaptic membrane specialization or the spine and to have their synthetic activity regulated by functional activity over the synapse. The present work will summarize observations on the polyribosome clusters that were found to be ubiquitous in spines throughout the vertebrate CNS. Evidence will be presented that suggests a role for the polyribosomes in synapse construction and modification. 42 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  10. The associations between lifestyles and mental health using the General Health Questionnaire 12-items are different dependently on age and sex: a population-based cross-sectional study in Kanazawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Daisuke; Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Hamagishi, Toshio; Kitaoka, Masami; Mitoma, Junko; Asakura, Hiroki; Suzuki, Fumihiko; Anyenda, Enoch Olando; Nguyen, Thao Thi Thu; Hibino, Yuri; Shibata, Aki; Hayashi, Koichi; Sagara, Takiko; Sasahara, Shinichiro; Matsuzaki, Ichiyo; Hatta, Kotaro; Konoshita, Tadashi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine potential differences of the associations between mental health and lifestyle factors across a wide range of age. In August/September 2011, data were collected from 4693 males (age 51.6 ± 19.5) and 5678 females (age 52.4 ± 19.4) living in Kanazawa, Japan. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted with self-administered questionnaire including the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 12-item version, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors. Associations between the GHQ scores and other variables were examined using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple comparisons and logistic regression stratified by age and gender. Multiple comparisons indicated that people aged 20-39 or 40-64 had higher GHQ scores than older aged. The two-way ANOVA revealed significant interaction between body mass index and age group, and between exercise and age group. Overweight or underweight males aged 40-64 had poorer mental health than those at normal weight. In the elderly, being underweight was significantly associated with poor mental health. There were no significant effects of exercise on mental health for young adults. The logistic regression showed significant negative effects of short-time sleep in adults. The associations between mental health and lifestyles differ across age groups. Further study is needed to reveal effects of aging on lifestyle and mental health with a longitudinal design.

  11. RF plasma based selective modification of hydrophilic regions on super hydrophobic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Hwang, Sangyeon; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Hong, Jungwoo; Shin, Jennifer H.; Byun, Doyoung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple and amenable reforming method for a substrate with disparate patterns of hydrophilic dots on super-hydrophobic surfaces is proposed. • Wettability characteristics and modification mechanism for the surfaces are conducted and revealed through SEM, AFM, WSI, and SIMS. • Several representative materials for various applications are successfully deposited. - Abstract: Selective modification and regional alterations of the surface property have gained a great deal of attention to many engineers. In this paper, we present a simple, a cost-effective, and amendable reforming method for disparate patterns of hydrophilic regions on super-hydrophobic surfaces. Uniform super-hydrophobic layer (Contact angle; CA > 150°, root mean square (RMS) roughness ∼0.28 nm) can be formed using the atmospheric radio frequency (RF) plasma on top of the selective hydrophilic (CA ∼ 70°, RMS roughness ∼0.34 nm) patterns imprinted by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing technology with polar alcohols (butyl carbitol or ethanol). The wettability of the modified surface was investigated qualitatively utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wavelength scanning interferometer (WSI). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis showed that the alcohol addiction reaction changed the types of radicals on the super-hydrophobic surface. The wettability was found to depend sensitively on chemical radicals on the surface, not on surface morphology (particle size and surface roughness). Furthermore, three different kinds of representative hydrophilic samples (polystyrene nano-particle aqueous solution, Salmonella bacteria medium, and poly(3,4-ethylenediocythiophene) ink) were tested for uniform deposition onto the desired hydrophilic regions. This simple strategy would have broad applications in various research fields that require selective deposition of target materials.

  12. RF plasma based selective modification of hydrophilic regions on super hydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Hwang, Sangyeon; Cho, Dae-Hyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jungwoo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jennifer H., E-mail: j_shin@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Doyoung, E-mail: dybyun@skku.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Simple and amenable reforming method for a substrate with disparate patterns of hydrophilic dots on super-hydrophobic surfaces is proposed. • Wettability characteristics and modification mechanism for the surfaces are conducted and revealed through SEM, AFM, WSI, and SIMS. • Several representative materials for various applications are successfully deposited. - Abstract: Selective modification and regional alterations of the surface property have gained a great deal of attention to many engineers. In this paper, we present a simple, a cost-effective, and amendable reforming method for disparate patterns of hydrophilic regions on super-hydrophobic surfaces. Uniform super-hydrophobic layer (Contact angle; CA > 150°, root mean square (RMS) roughness ∼0.28 nm) can be formed using the atmospheric radio frequency (RF) plasma on top of the selective hydrophilic (CA ∼ 70°, RMS roughness ∼0.34 nm) patterns imprinted by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing technology with polar alcohols (butyl carbitol or ethanol). The wettability of the modified surface was investigated qualitatively utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wavelength scanning interferometer (WSI). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis showed that the alcohol addiction reaction changed the types of radicals on the super-hydrophobic surface. The wettability was found to depend sensitively on chemical radicals on the surface, not on surface morphology (particle size and surface roughness). Furthermore, three different kinds of representative hydrophilic samples (polystyrene nano-particle aqueous solution, Salmonella bacteria medium, and poly(3,4-ethylenediocythiophene) ink) were tested for uniform deposition onto the desired hydrophilic regions. This simple strategy would have broad applications in various research fields that require selective deposition of target materials.

  13. Motives for participating in a web-based nutrition cohort according to sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics: the NutriNet-Santé cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjean, Caroline; Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Julia, Chantal; Andreeva, Valentina A; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-08-07

    In traditional epidemiological studies, participants are likely motivated by perceived benefits, feelings of accomplishment, and belonging. No study has explored motives for participation in a Web-based cohort and the associated participant characteristics, although such information is useful for enhancing recruitment and improving cohort retention. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between motives for participation and sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics of participants in the NutriNet-Santé Web-based cohort, designed to identify nutritional risk or protective factors for chronic diseases. The motives for participation were assessed using a specifically developed questionnaire administered approximately 2 years after baseline. A total of 6352 completed the motives questionnaire (43.34%, 6352/15,000 randomly invited cohort participants). We studied the associations between motives (dependent variables) and individual characteristics with multivariate multinomial logistic regression models providing odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. In total, 46.45% (2951/6352) of participants reported that they would not have enrolled if the study had not been conducted on the Internet, whereas 28.75% (1826/6352) were not sure. Men (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04-1.42), individuals aged 26-35 years (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.20-1.91), and obese participants (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.65) were more inclined to be motivated by the Internet aspect. Compared with younger adults and managerial staff, individuals >55 years (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.48-0.45) and employees/manual workers were less likely motivated by the Internet aspect (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.92). Regarding reasons for participation, 61.37% (3898/6352) reported participating to help advance public health research on chronic disease prevention; 22.24% (1413/6352) to help advance nutrition-focused research; 6.89% (438/6352) in response to the call from the media, after being encouraged by a close friend/associate, or

  14. Lifestyle-related effects of the web-based Kanker Nazorg Wijzer (Cancer Aftercare Guide) intervention for cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanera, Iris M; Bolman, Catherine A W; Willems, Roy A; Mesters, Ilse; Lechner, Lilian

    2016-10-01

    The web-based Kanker Nazorg Wijzer (Cancer Aftercare Guide) responds to the needs of cancer survivors and oncology care providers to improve the counseling related to self-management of lifestyle and psychosocial challenges. In present study, overall intervention effects and the effects of using specific components were evaluated on vegetable, fruit, whole grain bread, and fish consumption, physical activity (PA), and smoking behavior. Cancer survivors from 21 Dutch hospitals were recruited for a randomized controlled trial (N = 432). Intervention effects after 6 months were evaluated using multilevel linear regression analysis (complete cases and intention-to-treat). By conducting moderation analyses, additional effects of following the behavior-related modules were explored. The false discovery rate correction was applied to account for multiple testing. After 6 months, 409 participants completed follow-up (dropout = 11.5 %). Indications were found that access to the intervention may result in increases of moderate PA and vegetable intake. The moderate PA increase was meaningful: 74.74 min p/w higher increase in the intervention condition. Effect sizes of moderate PA (d = .25) and vegetable (d = .37) consumption were comparable to prior effective interventions. Visiting behavior-related modules affected moderate PA, fruit, and fish consumption. However, after correction for multiple testing, significances expired. No significant intervention effect was found on smoking behavior due to low numbers of smokers. Although the effectiveness was only shown only to a limited extend, this study provided several indications that this theory-based, comprehensive, and personalized eHealth intervention provides valuable content to complement usual cancer aftercare.

  15. Impact of intensive lifestyle intervention on preference-based quality of life in type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Hire, Don; Espeland, Mark A; Knowler, William C; Thomas, Sheikilya; Tsai, Adam G; Glick, Henry A

    2016-04-01

    To assess the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) compared with standard diabetes support and education (DSE) on preference-based health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in persons with overweight or obesity and type 2 diabetes. Look AHEAD was a multisite, randomized trial of 5,145 participants assigned to ILI or DSE. Four instruments were administered during the trial: Feeling Thermometer (FT), Health Utilities Index Mark 2 (HUI2), Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3), and Short Form 6D (SF-6D). Linear mixed effect models were used to estimate the mean difference in preference scores by treatment group for 9 years. The ILI had higher mean FT (0.019, 95% CI, 0.015-0.024, P < 0.001) and SF-6D (0.011, 95% CI, 0.006-0.014, P < 0.001) scores than the DSE. No significant group differences were observed for the HUI2 (0.004, 95% CI, -0.003 to 0.010, P = 0.23) and HUI3 (0.004, -0.004 to 0.012, P = 0.36). In year 1, the ILI had higher mean preference scores for all instruments. Thereafter, the increases remained significant only for FT and SF-6D, and the effects also become smaller. ILI aimed at reducing body weight among persons with overweight or obesity and type 2 diabetes improves preference-based HRQOL in the short term, but its long-term effect is unclear. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  16. Food intake of European adolescents in the light of different food-based dietary guidelines: results of the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diethelm, Katharina; Jankovic, Nicole; Moreno, Luis A; Huybrechts, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Vriendt, Tineke; González-Gross, Marcela; Leclercq, Catherine; Gottrand, Frédéric; Gilbert, Chantal C; Dallongeville, Jean; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Manios, Yannis; Kafatos, Anthony; Plada, María; Kersting, Mathilde

    2012-03-01

    Since inadequate food consumption patterns during adolescence are not only linked with the occurrence of obesity in youth but also with the subsequent risk of developing diseases in adulthood, the establishment and maintenance of a healthy diet early in life is of great public health importance. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe and evaluate the food consumption of a well-characterized sample of European adolescents against food-based dietary guidelines for the first time. The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study is a cross-sectional study, whose main objective was to obtain comparable data on a variety of nutritional and health-related parameters in adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years. Ten cities in Europe. The initial sample consisted of more than 3000 European adolescents. Among these, 1593 adolescents (54 % female) had sufficient and plausible dietary data on energy and food intakes from two 24 h recalls using the HELENA-DIAT software. Food intake of adolescents in Europe is not optimal compared with the two food-based dietary guidelines, Optimized Mixed Diet and Food Guide Pyramid, examined in this study. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk (and milk products), but consume much more meat (and meat products), fats and sweets than recommended. However, median total energy intake may be estimated to be nearly in line with the recommendations. The results urge the need to improve the dietary habits of adolescents in order to maintain health in later life.

  17. Senior's lifestyle and their store choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesakova Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To attract and retain customers, an understanding of their motives and reasons for selecting particular food and grocery store is needed. This is of particular importance in the growing segment of seniors. The size of the senior's market demands a better understanding of the older consumer. The aim of our study is to identify psychographic characteristics of the elderly consumer, and to indicate the lifestyle groups and the relationship between these groups and retail store attributes. Differences in the motives for patronizing specific food stores are analyzed for lifestyle groups. We use the lifestyle as a segmentation variable in the diverse population of seniors for the reason, that the lifestyle of the elderly provides more valuable information than chronological age alone. This information can be used by retailers to improve marketing strategies in order to appeal to a target group of senior shoppers. Empirical research is based on a self-administrated questionnaire aimed on the identification of the lifestyle characteristics and retail store attributes of the consumers in 65+ age, used for the choice of food purchasing retail stores. Lifestyles characteristics were measured by the respondents activities, interests and opinions (AIO. The results of the research indicate that there are differences among the lifestyle groups with significant differences in attitudes towards quality of products or internal store environment. Our research demonstrates the value of psychographic information over age alone regarding the patronage factors in store selection. Our study is a part of the research project VEGA 1/0612/12 'Determinants of the size, structure and tendences in the individual consumption of seniors'.

  18. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 7. Recommendations on stress management. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J D; Barnett, P A; Linden, W; Ramsden, V; Taenzer, P

    1999-05-04

    To provide updated evidence-based recommendations for health care professionals concerning the effects of stress management on the prevention and control of hypertension in otherwise healthy adults (except pregnant women). Alternatives to stress management include other nonpharmacologic interventions and medical therapy; these options are not mutually exclusive. The health outcome considered was reduction of blood pressure. There is little evidence to date that stress management prevents death or vascular events. Because of insufficient evidence, no economic outcomes were considered. A systematic search of the literature (which yielded, among other sources, 3 meta-analyses) was conducted for the period 1966-1997 with the terms essential hypertension, treatment, psychological, behavioural, cognitive, relaxation, mediation, biofeedback and stress management. Other relevant evidence was obtained from the reference lists of the articles identified, from the personal files of the authors and through contacts with experts. The articles were reviewed, classified according to study design and graded according to level of evidence. A high value was placed on the avoidance of cardiovascular morbidity and premature death caused by uncontrolled hypertension. The magnitude of the reduction in blood pressure obtained with multicomponent, individualized cognitive behavioural intervention for stress management was comparable in some studies to that obtained with weight loss or drugs; single-component interventions such as biofeedback or relaxation were less effective. The adverse effects of stress-management techniques are minimal, but the cost for effective interventions is substantial, similar initially to drug costs; continuing costs are probably minimal. (1) In patients with hypertension, the contribution of stress should be considered. (2) For hypertensive patients in whom stress appears to be an important issue, stress management should be considered as an intervention

  19. Associations between breakfast eating habits and health-promoting lifestyle, suboptimal health status in Southern China: a population based, cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jieyu; Cheng, Jingru; Liu, Yanyan; Tang, Yang; Sun, Xiaomin; Wang, Tian; Xiao, Ya; Li, Fei; Xiang, Lei; Jiang, Pingping; Wu, Shengwei; Wu, Liuguo; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2014-12-11

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) is the intermediate health state between health and disease, refers to medically undiagnosed or functional somatic syndromes, and has been a major global public health challenge. However, both the etiology and mechanisms associated with SHS are still unclear. Breakfast eating behavior is a dietary pattern marker and previous studies have presented evidence of associations between failure to consume breakfast and increased diseases. Accordingly, in view of the significance of breakfast eating behaviors with respect to health status, the associations between breakfast eating habits and healthy lifestyle, SHS require further elucidation. A cross-sectional survey was conducted within a clustered sample of 24,159 individuals aged 12-80 years in 2012-13 within the population of Southern China. Breakfast eating habits were categorically defined by consumption frequency ('scarcely, sometimes or always'). Health-promoting lifestyle was assessed via the health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP-II). SHS was evaluated using the medical examination report and Sub-health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0). Of the 24,159 participants, the prevalence rates for the 'health' , 'SHS' , and 'disease' were 18.8%, 46.0%, and 35.2%, respectively. Overall, 19.6% of participants reported 'scarce' breakfast eating habits, with frequent breakfast eaters scoring higher on both HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0. After demographic adjustment, regression analyses revealed a significant association between breakfast eating habits and healthy lifestyle (p eating habits are significantly associated with a healthy lifestyle, and appear to be a useful predictor of a healthy lifestyle. Irregular breakfast eating habits are related to an increased risk of SHS; increased breakfast eating frequency may contribute to lowering the prevalence of SHS in Southern China.

  20. Facile modification of gelatin-based microcarriers with multiporous surface and proliferative growth factors delivery to enhance cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Sha; Wang Yijuan; Deng, Tianzheng; Jin Fang; Liu Shouxin; Zhang Yongjie; Feng Feng; Jin Yan

    2008-01-01

    The design of microcarriers plays an important role in the success of cell expansion. The present article provides a facile approach to modify the gelatin-based particles and investigates the feasibility of their acting as microcarriers for cell attachment and growth. Gelatin particles (150-320 μm) were modified by cryogenic treatment and lyophilization to develop the surface with the features of multiporous morphology and were incorporated with proliferative growth factors (bFGF) by adsorption during the post-preparation, which enables them to serve as microcarriers for cells amplification, together with the advantages of larger cell-surface contact area and capability of promoting cell propagation. The microstructure and release assay of the modified microcarriers demonstrated that the pores on surface were uniform and bFGF was released in a controlled manner. Through in vitro fibroblast culture, these features resulted in a prominent increase in the cell attachment rate and cell growth rate relative to the conditions without modification. Although the scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy analysis results indicated that cells attached, spread, and proliferated on all the microcarriers, cell growth clearly showed a significant correlation with the multiporous structure of microcarriers, in particular on bFGF combined ones. These results validate our previous assumption that the facile modification could improve cell growth on the gelatin-based microcarriers obviously and the novel microcarriers may be a promising candidate in tissue engineering

  1. Internet-based cognitive bias modification for obsessive compulsive disorder : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Alishia D; Pajak, Rosanna; O'Moore, Kathleen; Andrews, Gavin; Grisham, Jessica R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive bias modification (CBM) interventions have demonstrated efficacy in augmenting core biases implicated in psychopathology. The current randomized controlled trial (RCT) will evaluate the efficacy of an internet-delivered positive imagery cognitive bias modification intervention

  2. Fabrication and surface properties of hydrophobic barium sulfate aggregates based on sodium cocoate modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Linna; Wang, Guangxiu; Cao, Rong; Yang, Chun; Chen, Xi

    2014-10-01

    Hydrophobic barium sulfate aggregates were fabricated by the direction of cocoate anions. At 30 °C, when the weight ratio of sodium cocoate to BaSO4 particles was 2.0 wt.%, the active ratio of the product reached 99.43% and the contact angle was greater than 120°. This method could not only simplify the complex modification process, but reduce energy consumption. The surface morphology, chemical structure and composition of BaSO4 aggregates were characterized by SEM, XRD, and FTIR. The results indicated that the as-synthesized BaSO4 particles were almond-liked and were composed of many interconnected nanoballs and that their surfaces were affected by cocoate anions. The adsorption of cocoate anions reversed the charge and weakened the surface polarity of BaSO4 particles, driving the formation of aggregates. And cocoate anions induced a change of the BaSO4 particles surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic by a self-assembly and transformation process. Due to the self-assembled structure and the surface hydrophobicity, when adding the hydrophobic BaSO4 into PVC, the mechanical properties of PVC composite materials were significantly improved.

  3. Enhanced stability of ZnO-based inverted organic photovoltaic devices by phosphonic acid modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Bradley; Tremolet de Villers, Bertrand; Cowan, Sarah; Ratcliff, Erin; Olson, Dana

    2014-03-01

    Solution-processed ZnO thin films are now commonly used as n-type bottom contacts in inverted-geometry organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The use of ZnO eliminates the need for highly-reactive top-contact (air-interface) electrode material, such as calcium and aluminum which are commonly used in conventional geometries, which enables operational lifetimes of unencapsulated devices to shift from minutes or hours to days. Modification of the ZnO film by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) has been shown to enhance performance as well as air-stability during storage. We modify ZnO with dipolar phosphonic acids and observe enhanced performance and stability. We show for the first time devices measured under continuous illumination at one-sun intensity which have significantly enhanced stability when utilizing SAM-modified ZnO. These continuous-illumination stability measurements allow us to investigate the degradation mechanisms of these more stable inverted OPV devices. This work was was supported by of the Center for Interface Science: Solar Electric Materials (CISSEM), an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001084.

  4. Progress in the electrochemical modification of graphene-based materials and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, M.H.; Low, C.T.J.; Brandon, N.P.; Yufit, V.; Hashim, M.A.; Irfan, M.F.; Akhtar, J.; Ruiz-Trejo, E.; Hussain, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Six means of functionalizing graphene electrochemically is reviewed. • Electrochemical functionalization is relatively new to other standard methods. • The technique is expected to improve graphene's application range considerably. -- Abstract: Graphene is a 2D allotrope of carbon with exciting properties such as extremely high electronic conductivity and superior mechanical strength. It has considerable potential for applications in fields such as bio-sensors, electrochemical energy storage and electronics. In most cases, graphene has been functionalized and modified with other materials to prepare composites. This work reviews the electrochemical modification of graphene. Commencing with a brief history, a summary of several different means of modifying graphene to effect diverse applications is provided. This is followed by a discussion on different composite materials that have been prepared with reduced graphene oxide prior to moving onto a detailed consideration of six different methods of electrochemically modifying graphene to prepare composite materials. These methods involve cathodic reduction of graphene oxide, electrophoretic deposition, electro-deposition techniques, electrospinning, electrochemical doping and electrochemical polymerization. Finally a consideration on the applications of electrochemically modified graphene composite materials in various fields is presented prior to discussing some prospects in enhancing the electrochemical process to realize excellent and economic composite materials in bulk

  5. The effects of a mindfulness-based lifestyle program for adults with Parkinson's disease: a mixed methods, wait list controlled randomised control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advocat, Jenny; Enticott, Joanne; Vandenberg, Brooke; Hassed, Craig; Hester, Jennifer; Russell, Grant

    2016-09-08

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second commonest neurodegenerative disease in developed countries. Current treatment for PD is pharmacologically focused and can have significant side-effects. There is increasing interest in holistic approaches including mindfulness to help manage the challenges associated with living with PD. We hypothesised that there would be an improvement in PD associated function and wellbeing in participants after participating in a 6-week mindfulness-based lifestyle program, and that these improvements would be sustainable at 6 months. Our primary objective was to determine changes in function and wellbeing associated with PD. An exploratory prospective, mixed-method, randomised control trial incorporating a before and after design with a waitlist control, with an embedded qualitative component was conducted in 2012-2013. Participants included community living adults with disability congruent to H&Y Stage 2 PD, aged 18-75, fluent in spoken and written English and able to attend at least four of six sessions of the program. Participants were randomised to the intervention or wait-list control groups at two locations. All participants in the wait-list control group eventually received the intervention. Two randomisation codes were created for each location. Allocation to the intervention or wait-list control was by random number generation. The program facilitator and participants were blinded to participant data. Group 1 included 35 participants and group 2 (the waitlist control), 37. Data was analysed from 24 (group 1) and 33 (group 2) participants. The intervention group, compared to the waitlist control, showed a small improvement in function and wellbeing associated with PD immediately after the program (t-score = -0.59) and at 6-month post intervention (t-score = -1.42) as reported by the PDQ-39 SI. However this finding was not significant (p = 0.56 and 0.16 respectively). A small yet significant effect size (β = 0

  6. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being.

  7. Determination of the level of DNA modification with cisplatin by catalytic hydrogen evolution at mercury-based electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horáková, Petra; Tesnohlídková, Lucie; Havran, Ludek; Vidláková, Pavlína; Pivonková, Hana; Fojta, Miroslav

    2010-04-01

    Electrochemical methods proved useful as simple and inexpensive tools for the analysis of natural as well as chemically modified nucleic acids. In particular, covalently attached metal-containing groups usually render the DNA well-pronounced electrochemical activity related to redox processes of the metal moieties, which can in some cases be coupled to catalytic hydrogen evolution at mercury or some types of amalgam electrodes. In this paper we used voltammetry at the mercury-based electrodes for the monitoring of DNA modification with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin), a representative of metallodrugs used in the treatment of various types of cancer or being developed for such purpose. In cyclic voltammetry at the mercury electrode, the cisplatin-modified DNA yielded catalytic currents the intensity of which reflected DNA modification extent. In square-wave voltammetry, during anodic polarization after prereduction of the cisplatinated DNA, a well-developed, symmetrical signal (peak P) was obtained. Intensity of the peak P linearly responded to the extent of DNA modification at levels relevant for biochemical studies (rb = 0.01-0.10, where rb is the number of platinum atoms bound per DNA nucleotide). We demonstrate a correlation between the peak P intensity and a loss of sequence-specific DNA binding by tumor suppressor protein p53, as well as blockage of DNA digestion by a restriction endonuclease Msp I (both caused by the DNA cisplatination). Application of the electrochemical technique in studies of DNA reactivity with various anticancer platinum compounds, as well as for an easy determination of the extent of DNA platination in studies of its biochemical effects, is discussed.

  8. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomimetic surface modification of PP was successfully conducted by integrating mussel-inspired technology, thiol chemistry and cell outer membranes-like structures. • The resultant biomimetic surface exhibits good interface and surface stability. • The obvious suppression of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is also achieved. • The residue thoil groups on the surface could be further functionalized. - Abstract: Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH 2 ) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such

  9. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing, E-mail: shisq@nwu.edu.cn; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Biomimetic surface modification of PP was successfully conducted by integrating mussel-inspired technology, thiol chemistry and cell outer membranes-like structures. • The resultant biomimetic surface exhibits good interface and surface stability. • The obvious suppression of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is also achieved. • The residue thoil groups on the surface could be further functionalized. - Abstract: Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH{sub 2}) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such

  10. Evidence based herbal drug standardization approach in coping with challenges of holistic management of diabetes: a dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Raman; Thakur, Pallavi; Chowdhry, Ayush; Jaiswal, Sarita; Sharma, Anamika; Goel, Rajeev; Sharma, Jyoti; Priyadarshi, Smruti Sagar; Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Arora, Rajesh

    2013-07-04

    Plants by virtue of its composition of containing multiple constituents developed during its growth under various environmental stresses providing a plethora of chemical families with medicinal utility. Researchers are exploring this wealth and trying to decode its utility for enhancing health standards of human beings. Diabetes is dreadful lifestyle disorder of 21st century caused due to lack of insulin production or insulin physiological unresponsiveness. The chronic impact of untreated diabetes significantly affects vital organs. The allopathic medicines have five classes of drugs, or otherwise insulin in Type I diabetes, targeting insulin secretion, decreasing effect of glucagon, sensitization of receptors for enhanced glucose uptake etc. In addition, diet management, increased food fiber intake, Resistant Starch intake and routine exercise aid in managing such dangerous metabolic disorder. One of the key factors that limit commercial utility of herbal drugs is standardization. Standardization poses numerous challenges related to marker identification, active principle(s), lack of defined regulations, non-availability of universally acceptable technical standards for testing and implementation of quality control/safety standard (toxicological testing). The present study proposed an integrated herbal drug development & standardization model which is an amalgamation of Classical Approach of Ayurvedic Therapeutics, Reverse Pharmacological Approach based on Observational Therapeutics, Technical Standards for complete product cycle, Chemi-informatics, Herbal Qualitative Structure Activity Relationship and Pharmacophore modeling and, Post-Launch Market Analysis. Further studies are warranted to ensure that an effective herbal drug standardization methodology will be developed, backed by a regulatory standard guide the future research endeavors in more focused manner.

  11. Qualitative research building real-life interventions: user-involving development of a mindfulness-based lifestyle change support program for overweight citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, N V; Brændgaard, P; Hjørnholm, C; la Cour, S

    2014-10-01

    This study is an experiment of putting social sciences to work in developing a support intervention for healthy lifestyle changes that would be attractive and manageable in real-life settings. Starting with a hypothesis that a class of intervention methods based on an unconventional 'low-tension' strategy may offer an effective support of stable, long-term changes well integrated in everyday life, difficult to maintain with conventional dieting and self-control approaches, this study focuses on designing and optimizing an intervention model combining several low-tension methods: mindfulness, small steps and group support. In three consecutive 'action research' cycles, the intervention was run in practice with groups of 20 overweight or obese citizens. Qualitative data, mainly in the form of recorded group sessions and individual interviews with group participants and group leaders, were systematically collected and analyzed, using a framework of social psychological theory to focus on difficulties, resources and meanings connected with habits and everyday life. This information was recycled into the design process for the next version of the intervention. We describe the user-involving development processes toward a more attractive and manageable intervention model. The model now exists as a well-articulated package whose effectiveness is being tested in a randomized controlled trial study. Social science can be put to work in systematically integrating real-life experience in a development process. It answers a very different kind of question than clinical trials-filling another place in an overall research program to create useful knowledge of what helps-in complex, everyday, real life.

  12. Lifestyle factors and site-specific risk of hip fracture in community dwelling older women – a 13-year prospective population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated to hip fractures. It seems that different hip fracture types have different etiologies. In this study, we evaluated the lifestyle-related risk factors for cervical and trochanteric hip fractures in older women over a 13-year follow-up period. Methods The study design was a prospective, population-based study consisting of 1681 women (mean age 72 years). Seventy-three percent (n = 1222) participated in the baseline measurements, including medical history, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and nutrition, along with body anthropometrics and functional mobility. Cox regression was used to identify the independent predictors of cervical and trochanteric hip fractures. Results During the follow-up, 49 cervical and 31 trochanteric fractures were recorded. The women with hip fractures were older, taller, and thinner than the women with no fractures (p trochanteric fractures (HR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.8-6.6, and HR = 5.3, 95% CI 2.5-11.4, respectively). Low baseline physical activity was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture, especially in the cervical region (HR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.9). A decrease in cervical fracture risk (p = 0.002) was observed with physically active individuals compared to their less active peers (categories: very low or low, moderate, and high). Moderate coffee consumption and hypertension decreased the risk of cervical fractures (HR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8, for both), while smoking was a predisposing factor for trochanteric fractures (HR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.1-9.3). Conclusions Impaired functional mobility, physical inactivity, and low body mass may increase the risk for hip fractures with different effects at the cervical and trochanteric levels. PMID:22978821

  13. Development and Applicability of an Internet-Based Diet and Lifestyle Questionnaire for College Students in China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Yong-Shuai; Chen, Yang; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Ying-Feng; Sun, Chang-Hao; Feng, Ren-Nan

    2015-12-01

    Diet contributes to the increasing incidence of chronic diseases. Thus, fast, accurate, and convenient dietary assessment tools are in demand. We designed an internet-based diet and lifestyle questionnaire for Chinese (IDQC). The objective of this study was to validate its applicability and assess the dietary habits of Chinese college students.Six hundred forty-four college students from northern China were recruited and asked to complete the IDQC for the last 4 months (135 food items) and 3-day diet records (3DDRs). Food and nutrient intakes recorded in the IDQC were validated against those in the 3DDRs using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs t test, correlation analysis, and cross-classification. The Student t and χ tests were used in the dietary assessment.There were significantly positive correlations in the dietary intakes of 9 food groups and 23 nutrients between the IDQC and 3DDRs. All participants consumed low levels of fruits, vegetables, legumes, dairy, and certain micronutrients (ie, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, folic acid, vitamin C, calcium, selenium, and iodine), and high levels of iron and manganese. Male students consumed higher intakes of the food groups and nutrients than female students.The IDQC represents an accurate and convenient dietary assessment tool that can be used in large populations. Inadequate and excessive nutrition co-existed in college students, and more fruits, vegetables, legumes, dairy, and various vitamins and minerals were needed in this population's daily diet. The IDQC is free of access at www.yyjy365.org/diet.

  14. Community-based obesity prevention in Australia: Background, methods and recruitment outcomes for the evaluation of the effectiveness of OPAL (Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Leslie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL intervention program targets families and communities to improve children’s eating and physical activity patterns. We outline the quantitative evaluation design and recruitment results for baseline data collection. Methods: A longitudinal quasi-experimental design, with baseline data collection and five-year follow-up. Participants targeted are children, parents, and school principals/directors from primary, secondary/R-12 schools, pre-schools, childcare and out-of-school-hours-care (OSHC centers in 20 selected communities across South Australia (SA, and one in the Northern Territory (NT. A total of 277 (262 SA, 15 NT schools participated; 4860 9-11 year olds and 1164 12-16 year olds completed a questionnaire. Anthropometric measures were taken from 5531 students; 6552 parents, 276 pre/school/childcare directors, 139 OSHC directors and 237 principals completed questionnaires. Data include measurements of child participants’ weight/height/waist circumference; paper-based/online surveys of informants in early childhood, primary/secondary school and community settings; and secondary growth check data for 4-5 year old children. Serial cross-sectional analyses will compare intervention to matched comparison communities. Results: Overall school response rate was 50%. Student response rates were 20-22% and 11-13% (questionnaires and measurements respectively; 14-21% of parents, 49-55% of directors, and 26-44% of principals completed and returned questionnaires. Changes to child weight status; eating practices; sleep, physical activity/sedentary behaviors; physical environments; community capacity; and economic evaluation (Quality Adjusted Life year gain will examine program effectiveness. Conclusions: As the most significant program of its kind in Australia, OPAL will contribute to obesity prevention efforts on an international scale.

  15. Perception and practice of lifestyle modification in the management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-07-26

    Jul 26, 2014 ... cardiovascular diseases, growing in prevalence and poorly ... cardiovascular diseases, especially dyslipidaemia and diabetes.[15]. Patient's knowledge and awareness of blood pressure play important roles in the ability to successfully control .... salt intake [24,25] The recommended training modes were ...

  16. 75 FR 30689 - Modification of Class C Airspace; Beale Air Force Base, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Base, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies the legal description of the Beale Air Force Base (AFB), CA, Class C airspace area by allowing the...

  17. Enhancing phosphate adsorption capacity of SDS-based magnetite by surface modification of citric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhigang; Zhang, Chang; Zheng, Zuhong; Hu, Liang; Li, Xuemei; Yang, Zhongzhu; Ma, Chi; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-05-01

    In this study, citric acid (CA) was employed as a low-molecule organic acid to influence the adsorption performance of phosphorus by as-obtained magnetite. The factors including initial phosphate concentrations, dosage of citric acid, pH value, ion strength, contact time and temperature were examined in detail. Results indicated that the dissolution of anion sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) covering on surface of magnetite, a slight decrease of Fe level and a superior structure of magnetite after CA modification occurred. The pH-dependence of phosphate adsorption was impeded and the surface potential of magnetite positively increased at pH > 5.0 when CA was added. Non-linear regression Langmuir-Freundlich model was fitted well in thermodynamics, and the opposite adsorption process as a function of temperatures with or without CA addition was due to the decrease of active energy and active mobility of phosphate ion. Finally, the declining adsorption efficiency with increasing cycles was observed while phosphate removal was approximately finished and had small change with 0.05 and 0.1 M of CA addition. Those improvements of removal efficiency of phosphorus by modified iron oxide were because of the removal of anionic SDS that increased the surface positive charge, and especially the dissolution of element Fe into solution to form precipitate with phosphorus ions. The enhanced stability of magnetite by CA also promoted the high removal efficiency of phosphorus. These implications of CA on phosphate removal can be extended to the field where phosphate pollution is notorious but urgent.

  18. Rates and determinants of repeated participation in a web-based behavior change program for healthy body weight and healthy lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Jans, M.P.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In recent years, many tailored lifestyle counseling programs have become available through the Internet. Previous research into such programs has shown selective enrollment of relatively healthy people. However, because of the known dose-response relationship between the intensity and

  19. The Impact of Two Workplace-Based Health Risk Appraisal Interventions on Employee Lifestyle Parameters, Mental Health and Work Ability: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addley, K.; Boyd, S.; Kerr, R.; McQuillan, P.; Houdmont, J.; McCrory, M.

    2014-01-01

    Health risk appraisals (HRA) are a common type of workplace health promotion programme offered by American employers. In the United Kingdom, evidence of their effectiveness for promoting health behaviour change remains inconclusive. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of two HRA interventions on lifestyle parameters, mental…

  20. Influence of Surface Modifications of Acrylic Resin Teeth on Shear Bond Strength with Denture Base Resin-An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Vallabh; Krishnan, Madhusudan; Krishnan, Chitra Shankar; Azhagarasan, N S; Sampathkumar, Jayakrishnakumar; Ramasubramanian, Hariharan

    2015-09-01

    Debonding of artificial teeth from the denture base is an important issue for edentulous patients rehabilitated with conventional or implant supported complete dentures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shear bond strength between denture base resin and acrylic resin denture teeth subjected to three different surface modifications on the ridge lap area as compared to unmodified denture teeth. Forty acrylic resin central incisor denture teeth were selected and randomly divided into four test groups. The teeth in each group were subjected to one of the three different surface modifications, namely, chemical treatment, sandblasting and placement of retentive grooves on the ridge lap area respectively, prior to packing of the denture base resin. The group with unmodified teeth served as control. Forty acrylic resin test blocks thus obtained were tested for shear bond strength between acrylic resin teeth and denture base resin in Universal Testing Machine. Data obtained was statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA and Student- Newman- Keul's test (p< 0.05). Analysis of shear bond strength revealed that retentive grooves on the ridge lap area showed highest bond strength values followed by sandblasting and both were statistically significant compared to the control and chemically treated groups. Unmodified surface of the resin teeth showed the least bond strength. Within the limitations of this invitro study the placement of retentive grooves or sandblasting of the ridge lap area showed highly significant improvement in shear bond strength compared to the unmodified surface. Chemical treatment did not result in any significant improvement in the shear bond strength compared to the unmodified surface.

  1. Influence of Surface Modifications of Acrylic Resin Teeth on Shear Bond Strength with Denture Base Resin-An Invitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Madhusudan; Krishnan, Chitra Shankar; Azhagarasan, N.S.; Sampathkumar, Jayakrishnakumar; Ramasubramanian, Hariharan

    2015-01-01

    Background Debonding of artificial teeth from the denture base is an important issue for edentulous patients rehabilitated with conventional or implant supported complete dentures. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate shear bond strength between denture base resin and acrylic resin denture teeth subjected to three different surface modifications on the ridge lap area as compared to unmodified denture teeth. Materials and Methods Forty acrylic resin central incisor denture teeth were selected and randomly divided into four test groups. The teeth in each group were subjected to one of the three different surface modifications, namely, chemical treatment, sandblasting and placement of retentive grooves on the ridge lap area respectively, prior to packing of the denture base resin. The group with unmodified teeth served as control. Forty acrylic resin test blocks thus obtained were tested for shear bond strength between acrylic resin teeth and denture base resin in Universal Testing Machine. Data obtained was statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA and Student- Newman- Keul’s test (p< 0.05). Results Analysis of shear bond strength revealed that retentive grooves on the ridge lap area showed highest bond strength values followed by sandblasting and both were statistically significant compared to the control and chemically treated groups. Unmodified surface of the resin teeth showed the least bond strength. Conclusion Within the limitations of this invitro study the placement of retentive grooves or sandblasting of the ridge lap area showed highly significant improvement in shear bond strength compared to the unmodified surface. Chemical treatment did not result in any significant improvement in the shear bond strength compared to the unmodified surface. PMID:26501005

  2. Social Relationships in Religious Institutions and Healthy Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Shaw, Benjamin; Liang, Jersey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if encouragement from fellow church members helps older people develop and maintain healthy lifestyles. The findings indicate that informal church-based support is associated with healthy lifestyles among older African Americans but not older Whites. In addition, the influence of support from fellow church…

  3. A stepwise model for simulation-based curriculum development for clinical skills, a modification of the six-step approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Nehal N; Satava, Richard M; Alnassar, Sami A; Kern, David E

    2016-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth in the use of simulation in health professions education, courses vary considerably in quality. Many do not integrate efficiently into an overall school/program curriculum or conform to academic accreditation requirements. Moreover, some of the guidelines for simulation design are specialty specific. We designed a model that integrates best practices for effective simulation-based training and a modification of Kern et al.'s 6-step approach for curriculum development. We invited international simulation and health professions education experts to complete a questionnaire evaluating the model. We reviewed comments and suggested modifications from respondents and reached consensus on a revised version of the model. We recruited 17 simulation and education experts. They expressed a consensus on the seven proposed curricular steps: problem identification and general needs assessment, targeted needs assessment, goals and objectives, educational strategies, individual assessment/feedback, program evaluation, and implementation. We received several suggestions for descriptors that applied the steps to simulation, leading to some revisions in the model. We have developed a model that integrates principles of curriculum development and simulation design that is applicable across specialties. Its use could lead to high-quality simulation courses that integrate efficiently into an overall curriculum.

  4. Lifestyle hotels: New paradigm of modern hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of modern hotel industry introduced to professional community the term 'lifestyle' hotel. The paper deals with the essential meaning of this term. This raises the question of the difference between the lifestyle and boutique hotels which are in practice often identified. The paper aims to resolve the basic dilemma - whether lifestyle hotel can be treated as a special type of hotel, or all types of hotels under certain conditions can fit into a group called 'lifestyle'. Closer defining of the term 'lifestyle' is a starting point for further discussion. This paper makes an attempt to overcome the uncritical use of the term 'lifestyle' in tourism and hospitality practice. Providing a clearer definition is necessary to establish standards for the typology of lifestyle hotels. These standards are primarily based on the criteria of market segmentation. Among them, psychographic criteria occupy a special place. To make lifestyle hotel more than a promotional slogan, it is necessary to confirm its market position. This means identifying specific target groups differentiated according to the main features of the lifestyle.

  5. Is Sedentary Lifestyle Associated With Testicular Function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bang, Anne Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    Based on cross-sectional data on 1,210 healthy young Danish men, we investigated whether sedentary lifestyle was associated with testicular function (semen quality and reproductive hormones) independent of physical activity. The men were invited to participate in the study between 2008 and 2012...

  6. Associations between lifestyle patterns and body mass index in a sample of Greek children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontogianni, Meropi D; Farmaki, Anastasia-Eleni; Vidra, Nikoletta; Sofrona, Stavroula; Magkanari, Flora; Yannakoulia, Mary

    BACKGROUND: Although eating and physical activity behaviors have been previously individually investigated with regard to overweight in children, multidimensional lifestyle patterns, based on these behaviors, have not been explored. OBJECTIVE: To assess lifestyle patterns in relation to body mass

  7. Environmental Epigenetics: Crossroad between Public Health, Lifestyle, and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Massimo; Pistillo, Maria Pia; Banelli, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics provides the key to transform the genetic information into phenotype and because of its reversibility it is considered an ideal target for therapeutic interventions. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms of epigenetic control: DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and ncRNA expression and their role in disease development. We describe also the influence of the environment, lifestyle, nutritional habits, and the psychological influence on epigenetic marks and how these factors are related to cancer and other diseases development. Finally we discuss the potential use of natural epigenetic modifiers in the chemoprevention of cancer to link together public health, environment, and lifestyle. PMID:26339624

  8. Environmental Epigenetics: Crossroad between Public Health, Lifestyle, and Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Massimo; Pistillo, Maria Pia; Banelli, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics provides the key to transform the genetic information into phenotype and because of its reversibility it is considered an ideal target for therapeutic interventions. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms of epigenetic control: DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and ncRNA expression and their role in disease development. We describe also the influence of the environment, lifestyle, nutritional habits, and the psychological influence on epigenetic marks and how these factors are related to cancer and other diseases development. Finally we discuss the potential use of natural epigenetic modifiers in the chemoprevention of cancer to link together public health, environment, and lifestyle.

  9. Diet-induced modification of the acid-base balance in rats: toxicological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, Berend Adriaan Rene

    2004-01-01

    The composition of the diet can strongly affect the acid-base balance of the body. The studies described in this thesis deal with toxicological implications of dietary modulation of the acid-base balance in rats. These studies included 4-wk, 13-wk and 18-month toxicity studies, and a 30-month

  10. Lifestyle Knowledge and Preferences in Preschool Children: Evaluation of the "Get up and Grow" Healthy Lifestyle Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Nicola; Harris, Neil; Lee, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Early childhood is considered a window of opportunity for lifestyle interventions, as this is a critical life-stage at which children accumulate knowledge and skills around behaviours such as eating and physical activity. This study examined how exposure to a settings-based healthy lifestyle programme influences knowledge and preference…

  11. A randomised controlled trial of a community-based healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese adolescents: the Loozit® study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Smita

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to develop sustainable and clinically effective weight management interventions that are suitable for delivery in community settings where the vast majority of overweight and obese adolescents should be treated. This study aims to evaluate the effect of additional therapeutic contact as an adjunct to the Loozit® group program – a community-based, lifestyle intervention for overweight and lower grade obesity in adolescents. The additional therapeutic contact is provided via telephone coaching and either mobile phone Short Message Service or electronic mail, or both. Methods and design The study design is a two-arm randomised controlled trial that aims to recruit 168 overweight and obese 13–16 year olds (Body Mass Index z-score 1.0 to 2.5 in Sydney, Australia. Adolescents with secondary causes of obesity or significant medical illness are excluded. Participants are recruited via schools, media coverage, health professionals and several community organisations. Study arm one receives the Loozit® group weight management program (G. Study arm two receives the same Loozit® group weight management program plus additional therapeutic contact (G+ATC. The 'G' intervention consists of two phases. Phase 1 involves seven weekly group sessions held separately for adolescents and their parents. This is followed by phase 2 that involves a further seven group sessions held regularly, for adolescents only, until two years follow-up. Additional therapeutic contact is provided to adolescents in the 'G+ATC' study arm approximately once per fortnight during phase 2 only. Outcome measurements are assessed at 2, 12 and 24 months post-baseline and include: BMI z-score, waist z-score, metabolic profile indicators, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, eating patterns, and psychosocial well-being. Discussion The Loozit® study is the first randomised controlled trial of a community-based adolescent weight management

  12. Knowledge and Lifestyle-Associated Prevalence of Obesity among Newly Diagnosed Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Diabetic Clinic at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaa Obirikorang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the knowledge and prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics. This cross-sectional study was conducted among diagnosed type 2 diabetics. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood sugar levels were also assessed. Participants had adequate knowledge about the general concept of obesity (72.0% and method of weight measurement (98.6% but were less knowledgeable of ideal body weight (4.2%. The commonly known cause, complication, and management of obesity were poor diet (76.9%, hypertension (81.8%, and diet modification (86.7%, respectively. The anthropometric measures were higher among females compared to males. Prevalence of obesity was 61.3% according to WHR classification, 40.8% according to WHtR classification, 26.1% according to WC, and 14.8% according to BMI classification. Being female was significantly associated with high prevalence of obesity irrespective of the anthropometric measure used (p<0.05. Taking of snacks in meals, eating meals late at night, physical inactivity, excessive fast food intake, and alcoholic beverage intake were associated with increased prevalence of obesity (p<0.05. Prevalence of obesity is high among diabetic patient and thus increasing effort towards developing and making education programs by focusing on adjusting to lifestyle modifications is required.

  13. Knowledge and Lifestyle-Associated Prevalence of Obesity among Newly Diagnosed Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Diabetic Clinic at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obirikorang, Yaa; Obirikorang, Christian; Odame Anto, Enoch; Acheampong, Emmanuel; Dzah, Nyalako; Akosah, Caroline Nkrumah; Nsenbah, Emmanuella Batu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the knowledge and prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics. This cross-sectional study was conducted among diagnosed type 2 diabetics. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood sugar levels were also assessed. Participants had adequate knowledge about the general concept of obesity (72.0%) and method of weight measurement (98.6%) but were less knowledgeable of ideal body weight (4.2%). The commonly known cause, complication, and management of obesity were poor diet (76.9%), hypertension (81.8%), and diet modification (86.7%), respectively. The anthropometric measures were higher among females compared to males. Prevalence of obesity was 61.3% according to WHR classification, 40.8% according to WHtR classification, 26.1% according to WC, and 14.8% according to BMI classification. Being female was significantly associated with high prevalence of obesity irrespective of the anthropometric measure used (p fast food intake, and alcoholic beverage intake were associated with increased prevalence of obesity (p < 0.05). Prevalence of obesity is high among diabetic patient and thus increasing effort towards developing and making education programs by focusing on adjusting to lifestyle modifications is required.

  14. Relationships between clinician-level attributes and fidelity-consistent and fidelity-inconsistent modifications to an evidence-based psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltsey Stirman, Shannon; Gutner, Cassidy A; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Edmunds, Julie; Evans, Arthur C; Beidas, Rinad S

    2015-08-13

    Clinicians often modify evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) when delivering them in routine care settings. There has been little study of factors associated with or implications of modifications to EBP protocols. This paper differentiates between fidelity-consistent and fidelity-inconsistent modifications and it examines the potential influence of two clinician characteristics, training outcomes, and attitudes toward EBPs on fidelity-consistent and fidelity-inconsistent modifications of cognitive behavioral therapy in a sample of clinicians who had been trained to deliver these treatments for children or adults. Survey and coded interview data collected 2 years after completion of training programs in cognitive behavioral therapy were used to examine associations between successful or unsuccessful completion of training, clinician attitudes, and modifications. Modifications endorsed by clinicians were categorized as fidelity-consistent or fidelity-inconsistent and entered as outcomes into separate regression models, with training success and attitudes entered as independent variables. Successful completion of a training program was associated with subsequent fidelity-inconsistent modifications but not fidelity-consistent modifications. Therapists who reported greater openness to using EBPs prior to training reported more fidelity-consistent modifications at follow-up, and those who reported greater willingness to adopt EBPs if they found them appealing were more likely to make fidelity-inconsistent modifications. Implications of these findings for training, implementation, EBP sustainment, and future studies are discussed. Research on contextual and protocol-related factors that may impact decisions to modify EBPs will be an important future direction of study to complement to this research.

  15. Food Patterns, Lifestyle, and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Arjmand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High blood pressure (BP is considered as a strong predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD Environmental and genetic factors may have a role in high blood pressures. Nutrition has a potential role in the prevention of hypertension and its sequelae. Effect of lowering blood pressure by modification of complex dietary patterns may be the result of synergism between the various components of certain foods or food combinations rather than of the specific effect of a particular nutrient. Vegetarian Diet, Mediterranean Diet, and Dash Diet are three food patterns which have been associated with lowering BP. Vegetarian Diet are characterized by high intake of legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits. A relatively high polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio will make by this kind of diet. Low fat content and high potassium, magnesium, and fiber content of this diet, all factors possibly cooperating to the reduction of blood pressure. Mediterranean Diet has low animal and dairy products as well as saturated fatty acids and cholesterol; it is rich in plant food, legumes, fiber, and antioxidant vitamins with olive oil as the main source of fat. The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH is a success process in control of hypertension, which emphasizes vegetables and fruits and dairy foods with low-fat, it also includes more nuts, poultry, fish, and, whole grains and lower amounts of red meat, fats, sweets, and sugar-containing beverages. DASH diet is poorer in total and saturated fat and cholesterol and richer in potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber in comparison to the habitual Western diet. In conclusion, although multiple dietary factors can influence on BP and each factor has a modest effect; the combined effects of those factors can be substantial. In the current study, we review food patterns, lifestyle, and their relationship with hypertension and the possible mechanisms involved.

  16. Engineering the mobility increment in pentacene-based field-effect transistors by fast cooling of polymeric modification layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Haifeng; Zhang, Chenxi; Chen, Yan; Shao, Yaqing; Li, Wen; Li, Huanqun; Chen, Xudong; Yi, Mingdong; Xie, Linghai; Huang, Wei

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we investigate the effect of the cooling rate of polymeric modification layers (PMLs) on the mobility improvement of pentacene-based organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). In contrast to slow cooling (SC), the OFETs fabricated through fast cooling (FC) with PMLs containing side chain-phenyl rings, such as polystyrene (PS) and poly (4-vinylphenol) (PVP), show an obvious mobility incensement compared with that of π-group free polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images and x-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations have showed that fast-cooled PMLs could effectively enhance the crystallinity of pentacene, which might be related to the optimized homogeneity of surface energy on the surface of polymeric dielectrics. Our work has demonstrated that FC treatment could be a potential strategy for performance modulation of OFETs.

  17. Chemical surface modifications for the development of silicon-based label-free integrated optical (IO) biosensors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, María-José; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel

    2013-05-13

    Increasing interest has been paid to label-free biosensors in recent years. Among them, refractive index (RI) optical biosensors enable high density and the chip-scale integration of optical components. This makes them more appealing to help develop lab-on-a-chip devices. Today, many RI integrated optical (IO) devices are made using silicon-based materials. A key issue in their development is the biofunctionalization of sensing surfaces because they provide a specific, sensitive response to the analyte of interest. This review critically discusses the biofunctionalization procedures, assay formats and characterization techniques employed in setting up IO biosensors. In addition, it provides the most relevant results obtained from using these devices for real sample biosensing. Finally, an overview of the most promising future developments in the fields of chemical surface modification and capture agent attachment for IO biosensors follows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lifestyle Medicine: Lifestyle Profile of Resident Doctors in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lifestyle behavours of Physicians are becoming increasingly important because of the dual benefits of safeguarding the physicians' health and promotion of good patient health outcome. Resident doctors at tertiary institutions provide the bulk of service to patients hence the need to identify their lifestyle behaviours and ...

  19. Nutritional and behavioral modification therapies of obesity: facts and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranešić Bender, Darija; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2012-01-01

    Current practice guidelines for management of overweight and obesity recommend a tripartite treatment - lifestyle modification program of diet, exercise, and behavior therapy for all persons with a body mass index of at least 30 (and those with body mass index 25 plus two weight-related comorbidities). Behavior therapy provides the structure that facilitates meeting goals for energy intake and expenditure. Lately, there has been a shift in focus from behavior change to cognitive change because it improves long-term results of lifestyle modification programs. Weight loss diets based on the amounts of individual macronutrients (high-protein diets, low-fat diets and low-carbohydrate diets, etc.) in the diet are not more effective than 'classical' low-calorie and balanced diets. An exception has been detected only in short-term diets with a low glycemic load. Also, epidemiological studies show that there is an inversely proportional relationship between body weight and Mediterranean diet. Cognitive behavioral therapy based on the Mediterranean diet has proven to be effective in clinical practice with regard to weight loss, body fat distribution, biochemical parameters, blood pressure and simplicity of following the diet. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Role modeling as an early childhood obesity prevention strategy: effect of parents and teachers on preschool children's healthy lifestyle habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby A; Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Delamater, Alan; Arheart, Kris L

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a child care center-based parent and teacher healthy lifestyle role-modeling program on child nutrition and physical activity outcomes. Child care centers (N = 28) serving low-income families were randomized to intervention or control arms. Intervention centers (N = 12) implemented (1) menu modifications, (2) a child's healthy lifestyle curriculum, and (3) an adult (teacher- and parent-focused) healthy lifestyle role-modeling curriculum. Control centers (N = 16) received an attention control safety curriculum. Nutrition and physical activity data were collected at the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the school year. Exploratory factor analysis identified positive and negative nutrition and physical activity practices by children, parents, and teachers. Intervention parents' baseline (β = .52, p junk food consumption (β = -.04, p junk food consumption (β = .60, p junk food consumption (β = .11, p = .01) and sedentary behavior (β = .09, p junk food, and level of sedentary behavior. Future obesity prevention intervention efforts targeting this age group should include parents as healthy lifestyle role models for their children.

  1. Simple paper architecture modifications lead to enhanced sensitivity in nanoparticle based lateral flow immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolo, Claudio; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; de la Escosura-Muñiz, Alfredo; Merkoçi, Arben

    2013-02-07

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) are ideal biosensors to detect proteins, but their lack of sensitivity hinders their extensive use. We report a strategy that yields up to an 8-fold improvement in the sensitivity of a gold nanoparticles-based LFIA by changing the sizes of the pads. Theoretical flow simulations of the developed LFIA architectures are in accordance with the experimental results.

  2. Longitudinal analysis of lifestyle habits in relation to body mass index, onset of overweight and obesity: results from a large population-based cohort in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Munter, Jeroen S; Tynelius, Per; Magnusson, Cecilia; Rasmussen, Finn

    2015-05-01

    It is currently unknown whether the prevalence of obesity is increasing or has levelled off in Sweden and other Westernised countries. Given the major importance of lifestyle habits on weight status, we aimed to explore associations of longitudinal changes in lifestyle habits with changes in body mass index (BMI), and the onset of overweight and obesity. Participants (aged 18-84 years at baseline) were included from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort 2002-2010 (n=23,108). Weight status was from self-reported height and weight. Investigated lifestyle habits were leisure-time physical activity, and fruit, alcohol and smoking habits. We estimated associations of stable, improving or worsening lifestyle habits with longitudinal changes in BMI and onset of overweight or obesity between 2002 and 2010. Both men and women increased in weight during the eight years of follow-up. Incidence of obesity was lower in men who increased their leisure-time physical activity (Relative Risk [RR]=0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.42-0.81) than in inactive individuals; the same applied to women (RR=0.37, 0.25-0.54), and similar patterns were identified for overweight and BMI in both genders. Smoking cessation was associated with onset of obesity for men (RR=1.69, 1.15-2.50) and women (RR=1.99, 1.39-2.85). Stable low alcohol intake or decreasing alcohol intake and daily fruit intake was associated with less weight gain, but only in men. Improving physical activity in both men and women, and alcohol habits and fruit intake in men, prevents excess weight gain among adult people in Sweden. Such an improvement might diminish weight gain after smoking cessation. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  3. Diabetes mellitus and abnormal glucose tolerance development after gestational diabetes: A three-year, prospective, randomized, clinical-based, Mediterranean lifestyle interventional study with parallel groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ferre, Natalia; Del Valle, Laura; Torrejón, Maria José; Barca, Idoya; Calvo, María Isabel; Matía, Pilar; Rubio, Miguel A; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L

    2015-08-01

    Women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in later life. The study aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for the prevention of glucose disorders (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or DM2) in women with prior GDM. A total of 260 women with prior GDM who presented with normal fasting plasma glucose at six to twelve weeks postpartum were randomized into two groups: a Mediterranean lifestyle intervention group (n = 130) who underwent an educational program on nutrition and a monitored physical activity program and a control group (n = 130) with a conventional follow-up. A total of 237 women completed the three-year follow-up (126 in the intervention group and 111 in the control group). Their glucose disorders rates, clinical and metabolic changes and rates of adherence to the Mediterranean lifestyle were analyzed. Less women in the intervention group (42.8%) developed glucose disorders at the end of the three-year follow-up period compared with the control group (56.75%), p women with prior GDM. Body weight gain and an unhealthy fat intake pattern were found to be the most predictive factors for the development of glucose disorders. Current Controlled trials: ISRCTN24165302. http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/pf/24165302. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. The effectiveness of theory- and model-based lifestyle interventions on HbA1c among patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshmangir, P; Jahangiry, L; Farhangi, M A; Doshmangir, L; Faraji, L

    2018-02-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising rapidly around the world. A number of systematic reviews have provided evidence for the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on diabetic patients. The effectiveness of theory- and model-based education-lifestyle interventions for diabetic patients are unclear. The systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate and quantify the impact of theory-based lifestyle interventions on type 2 diabetes. A literature search of authentic electronic resources including PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane collaboration was performed to identify published papers between January 2002 and July 2016. The PICOs (participants, intervention, comparison, and outcomes) elements were used for the selection of studies to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Mean differences and standard deviations of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c [mmol/mol]) level in baseline and follow-up measures of studies in intervention and control groups were considered for data synthesis. A random-effects model was used for estimating pooled effect sizes. To investigate the source of heterogeneity, predefined subgroup analyses were performed using trial duration, baseline HbA1c (mmol/mol) level, and the age of participants. Meta-regression was performed to examine the contribution of trial duration, baseline HbA1c (mmol/mol) level, the age of participants, and mean differences of HbA1c (mmol/mol) level. The significant level was considered P model showed significant improvements in HbA1c (mmol/mol) -5.35% (95% confidence interval = -6.3, -4.40; P theory- and model-based lifestyle interventions have positive effects on HbA1c (mmol/mol) indices in patients with type 2 diabetes. Health education theories have been applied as a useful tool for lifestyle change among people with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modification of Edible Food Packaging Materials Based on Natural Polymer Blends by Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALI, H.El-Sh.

    2010-01-01

    Blends based on different ratios of plasticised starch (PLST), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were prepared by solution casting in the form of thin films. The PLST/PVA and PLST/CMC films were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the thermal, mechanical and structure morphology properties was investigated. As an application in the field of the prolongation of food preservation life time, Mango fruits were coated with solutions of gamma-irradiated PLST/PVA and PLST/CMC blends in the presence of chitosan, as an antimicrobial material, to form thin films. The results showed that the gamma-irradiation improved all the physical properties, which provides suitable materials based on natural biodegradable polymers for food preservation withstanding the temperature and stresses.

  6. Electrical conductance change of graphene-based devices upon surface modification for detecting botulinum neurotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehee; Kim, Ho-Jong; Shim, Seung-Bo; Jung, Suyong; Lee, Nam Hee; Nahm, Seung Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Yun, Wan Soo; Ha, Dong Han

    2017-06-01

    We report an electric conductance change in a graphene-based device upon molecular adsorption for detecting botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) using the antibody-antigen binding strategy. This device consists of a 400-µm-wide monolayer of graphene between the source and drain electrodes. As-fabricated devices exhibit p-type behaviors. After modifying graphene with linkers and antibodies, BoNT detection was performed by dropping a target solution and measuring the conductance change of the devices. The immobilization of linkers on graphene decreases the electrical conductance as a result of electron transfer from linkers to graphene. However, the conductance change caused by the adsorption of antibodies or BoNTs is ascribed to the top-gating effects of the molecules adsorbed on graphene. The normalized conductance change of the graphene-based device upon antibody-BoNT binding was greater than 5%.

  7. Influence of main variables modifications on accident transient based on AP1000-like MELCOR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicki, M.; Pieńkowski, L.

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of Severe Accidents (SA) is one of the most important parts of nuclear safety researches. MELCOR is a validated system code for severe accident analysis and as such it was used to obtain presented results. Analysed AP1000 model is based on publicly available data only. Sensitivity analysis was done for the main variables of primary reactor coolant system to find their influence on accident transient. This kind of analysis helps to find weak points of reactor design and the model itself. Performed analysis is a base for creation of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) generic model which will be the next step of the investigation aiming to estimate safety level of different reactors. Results clearly help to establish a range of boundary conditions for main the variables in future SMR model.

  8. New modification of the LCAO method for α-transition element-based crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koterlin, M.D.; Babuch, O.I.; Kutyanskij, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    A new variant of the scheme linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) to calculate crystal electron structure based on the account of shielding within real space of pseudoatom potentials by most delocalized s-states, is suggested. It is shown, that at certain simplifications of local shielding approximation it is possible to express analytically bonding of shielding potential with initial one. Calculation of LaNi 5 zonal structure is conducted to check the application of the developed technique.12 refs., 2 figs

  9. Consumption, lifestyles and constellatoric strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    1996-01-01

    example has to do with consumption as it relates to the general change in modern lifestyle. The second example derives its points from a empiric project about the lifestyles and experiences of "green families". The contribution concludes with a proposal for interdisciplinary constructions...

  10. Space Shuttle Exhaust Modifications of the Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Plasma As Diagnosed By Ground Based Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, F. D.; Erickson, P. J.; Bhatt, A.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Space Shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engines have been used since the early days of the STS program for active ionospheric modification experiments designed to be viewed by ground based ionospheric radar systems. In 1995, the Naval Research Laboratory initiated the Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust (SIMPLEX) Program using dedicated Space Shuttle OMS burns scheduled through the US Department of Defense's Space Test Program. SIMPLEX objectives include generation of localized ion-acoustic turbulence and the formation of ionospheric density irregularities for injections perpendicular to the local magnetic field, creating structures which can scatter incident UHF radar signals. We discuss radar observations made during several recent SIMPLEX mid-latitude experiments conducted over the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar system in Westford, Massachusetts. OMS engine firings release 10 kg/s of CO2, H2, H2O, and N2 molecules which charge exchange with ambient O+ ions in the F region, producing molecular ions and long lived electron density depletions as recombination occurs with ambient electrons. Depending on the magnetic field angle, the high velocity of the injected reactive exhaust molecules relative to the background ionosphere can create longitudinal propagating ion acoustic waves with amplitudes well above normal thermal levels and stimulate a wide variety of plasma instability processes. These effects produce high radar cross section targets readily visible to the Millstone Hill system, a high power large aperture radar designed to measure very weak scatter from the quiescent background ionosphere. We will survey the plasma instability parameter space explored to date and discuss plans for future SIMPLEX observations.

  11. Chemical modification of magnetite nanoparticles and preparation of acrylic-base magnetic nanocomposite particles via miniemulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdieh, Athar; Mahdavian, Ali Reza, E-mail: a.mahdavian@ippi.ac.ir; Salehi-Mobarakeh, Hamid

    2017-03-15

    Nowadays, magnetic nanocomposite particles have attracted many interests because of their versatile applications. A new method for chemical modification of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with polymerizable groups is presented here. After synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles by co-precipitation method, they were modified sequentially with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES), acryloyl chloride (AC) and benzoyl chloride (BC) and all were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM and TGA analyses. Then the modified magnetite nanoparticles with unsaturated acrylic groups were copolymerized with methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA) and acrylic acid (AA) through miniemulsion polymerization. Although several reports exist on preparation of magnetite-base polymer particles, but the efficiency of magnetite encapsulationwith reasonable content and obtaining final stable latexes with limited aggregation ofFe{sub 3}O{sub 4} are still important issues. These were considered here by controlling reaction parameters. Hence, a seriesofmagneticnanocomposites latex particlescontaining different amounts of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (0–10 wt%) were prepared with core-shell morphology and diameter below 200 nm and were characterized by FT-IR, DSC and TGA analyses. Their morphology and size distribution were studied by SEM, TEM and DLS analyses too. Magnetic properties of all products were also measuredby VSM analysis and the results revealed almost superparamagnetic properties for the obtained nanocomposite particles. - Highlights: • Chemical modification of magnetite nanoparticles. • Encapsulation of modified magnetite with acrylic copolymer. • Superparamagnetic Fe3O4/polyacrylic nanocomposite particles.

  12. Surface modification of zirconia-based bioceramics for orthopedic and dental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Flamant, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    Debido a sus excelentes propiedades mecánicas y una excelente biocompatibilidad, el uso de las cerámicas de base de circona en aplicaciones dentales y ortopédicas ha crecido rápidamente durante las últimas décadas. Sin embargo, tanto la alúmina como la circona son bioinertes, lo cual dificulta su implantación en contacto directo con el hueso. Además, las infecciones siguen siendo una de las principales causas de fallo de implantes. Para resolver ambos problemas, se requiere un mejor diseño de...

  13. Mapping of Complete Set of Ribose and Base Modifications of Yeast rRNA by RP-HPLC and Mung Bean Nuclease Assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    Full Text Available Ribosomes are large ribonucleoprotein complexes that are fundamental for protein synthesis. Ribosomes are ribozymes because their catalytic functions such as peptidyl transferase and peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis depend on the rRNA. rRNA is a heterogeneous biopolymer comprising of at least 112 chemically modified residues that are believed to expand its topological potential. In the present study, we established a comprehensive modification profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae's 18S and 25S rRNA using a high resolution Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC. A combination of mung bean nuclease assay, rDNA point mutants and snoRNA deletions allowed us to systematically map all ribose and base modifications on both rRNAs to a single nucleotide resolution. We also calculated approximate molar levels for each modification using their UV (254nm molar response factors, showing sub-stoichiometric amount of modifications at certain residues. The chemical nature, their precise location and identification of partial modification will facilitate understanding the precise role of these chemical modifications, and provide further evidence for ribosome heterogeneity in eukaryotes.

  14. A P300 brain-computer interface based on a modification of the mismatch negativity paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Sellers, Eric W; Zhou, Sijie; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    The P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) is an extension of the oddball paradigm, and can facilitate communication for people with severe neuromuscular disorders. It has been shown that, in addition to the P300, other event-related potential (ERP) components have been shown to contribute to successful operation of the P300 BCI. Incorporating these components into the classification algorithm can improve the classification accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR). In this paper, a single character presentation paradigm was compared to a presentation paradigm that is based on the visual mismatch negativity. The mismatch negativity paradigm showed significantly higher classification accuracy and ITRs than a single character presentation paradigm. In addition, the mismatch paradigm elicited larger N200 and N400 components than the single character paradigm. The components elicited by the presentation method were consistent with what would be expected from a mismatch paradigm and a typical P300 was also observed. The results show that increasing the signal-to-noise ratio by increasing the amplitude of ERP components can significantly improve BCI speed and accuracy. The mismatch presentation paradigm may be considered a viable option to the traditional P300 BCI paradigm.

  15. Comparison of sequencing-based methods to profile DNA methylation and identification of monoallelic epigenetic modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. Alan; Wang, Ting; Coarfa, Cristian; Nagarajan, Raman P.; Hong, Chibo; Downey, Sara L.; Johnson, Brett E.; Fouse, Shaun D.; Delaney, Allen; Zhao, Yongjun; Olshen, Adam; Ballinger, Tracy; Zhou, Xin; Forsberg, Kevin J.; Gu, Junchen; Echipare, Lorigail; O’Geen, Henriette; Lister, Ryan; Pelizzola, Mattia; Xi, Yuanxin; Epstein, Charles B.; Bernstein, Bradley E.; Hawkins, R. David; Ren, Bing; Chung, Wen-Yu; Gu, Hongcang; Bock, Christoph; Gnirke, Andreas; Zhang, Michael Q.; Haussler, David; Ecker, Joseph; Li, Wei; Farnham, Peggy J.; Waterland, Robert A.; Meissner, Alexander; Marra, Marco A.; Hirst, Martin; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Costello, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    Sequencing-based DNA methylation profiling methods are comprehensive and, as accuracy and affordability improve, will increasingly supplant microarrays for genome-scale analyses. Here, four sequencing-based methodologies were applied to biological replicates of human embryonic stem cells to compare their CpG coverage genome-wide and in transposons, resolution, cost, concordance and its relationship with CpG density and genomic context. The two bisulfite methods reached concordance of 82% for CpG methylation levels and 99% for non-CpG cytosine methylation levels. Using binary methylation calls, two enrichment methods were 99% concordant, while regions assessed by all four methods were 97% concordant. To achieve comprehensive methylome coverage while reducing cost, an approach integrating two complementary methods was examined. The integrative methylome profile along with histone methylation, RNA, and SNP profiles derived from the sequence reads allowed genome-wide assessment of allele-specific epigenetic states, identifying most known imprinted regions and new loci with monoallelic epigenetic marks and monoallelic expression. PMID:20852635

  16. Replacing Amalgam Restorations: A Standardized Protocol Based on Analyzing Tissue Physicochemical Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decup, Franck; Epaillard, Alexandre; Chemla, Florence

    2015-12-01

    Almost 60% of operative dentistry is devoted to replacing restorations. When practitioners have to replace an amalgam restoration, they tend to opt for an adhesive restoration, as it is conservative of tooth tissues and mimics the natural appearance of teeth. Based on a literature review, the aim of this article is to determine the best tissue approach when replacing an old amalgam by a new adhesive restoration. After analyzing and understanding tissue alterations due to the amalgam corrosion process, the authors propose an analytical approach to managing the situation. Both tissue orientated and specific mechanical approaches are developed and should be implemented to carry out the optimal clinical procedure and achieve the most conservative and durable treatment.

  17. Carbon nanotubes and carbon onions for modification of styrene-acrylate copolymer based nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Ivanova, Tatjana; Bitenieks, Juris; Kuzhir, Polina; Maksimenko, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Moseenkov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Styrene acrylate polymer (SAC) nanocomposites with various carbon nanofillers (multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs and onion like carbon OLC) are manufactured by means of latex based routes. Concentration of the carbon nanofillers is changed in a broad interval starting from 0.01 up to 10 wt. %. Elastic, dielectric and electromagnetic properties of SAC nanocomposites are investigated. Elastic modulus, electrical conductivity and electromagnetic radiation absorption of the investigated SAC nanocomposites increase along with rising nanofiller content. The effect of the addition of anisometric MWCNTs on the elastic properties of the composite is higher than in the case of the addition of OLC. Higher electrical conductivity of the OLC containing nanocomposites is explained with the fact that reasonable agglomeration of the nanofiller can promote the development of electrically conductive network. Efficiency of the absorption of electromagnetic radiation depends on the development of conductive network within the SAC matrix

  18. Enzymatic Synthesis and Characterization of Hydrophilic Sugar Based Polyesters and Their Modification with Stearic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Humayun Bilal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable and hydrophilic functional polyesters were synthesized enzymatically using xylitol or d-sorbitol together with divinyl adipate and lipase B from Candida antartica (CAL-B. The resulting polyesters had pendant OH-groups from their sugar units which were esterified to different degrees with stearic acid chloride. The structure and the degrees of polymerization of the resulting graft copolymers based on poly(xylitol adipate and poly(d-sorbitol adipate were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and SEC. DSC, WAXS and SAXS measurements indicated that a phase separation between polymer backbone and stearoyl side chains occurred in the graft copolymers, and, additionally, the side chains were able to crystallize which resulted in the formation of a lamellar morphology. Additionally, nanoparticles of the graft copolymers in an aqueous environment were studied by DLS and negative stain TEM.

  19. Modification of Optical Properties of Seawater Exposed to Oil Contaminants Based on Excitation-Emission Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baszanowska, E.; Otremba, Z.

    2015-10-01

    The optical behaviour of seawater exposed to a residual amount of oil pollution is presented and a comparison of the fluorescence spectra of oil dissolved in both n-hexane and seawater is discussed based on excitation-emission spectra. Crude oil extracted from the southern part of the Baltic Sea was used to characterise petroleum properties after contact with seawater. The wavelength-independent fluorescence maximum for natural seawater and seawater artificially polluted with oil were determined. Moreover, the specific excitation-emission peaks for natural seawater and polluted water were analysed to identify the natural organic matter composition. It was found that fluorescence spectra identification is a promising method to detect even an extremely low concentration of petroleum residues directly in the seawater. In addition, alien substances disturbing the fluorescence signatures of natural organic substances in a marine environment is also discussed.

  20. Optimizing critical heat flux enhancement through nano-particle-based surface modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, B.; Hu, L. W.; Buongiorno, J.

    2008-01-01

    Colloidal dispersions of nano-particles, also known as nano-fluids, have shown to yield significant Critical Heat Flux (CHF) enhancement. The CHF enhancement mechanism in nano-fluids is due to the buildup of a porous layer of nano-particles upon boiling. Unlike microporous coatings that had been studied extensively, nano-particles have the advantages of forming a thin layer on the substrate with surface roughness ranges from the sub-micron to several microns. By tuning the chemical properties it is possible to coat the nano-particles in colloidal dispersions onto the desired surface, as has been demonstrated in engineering thin film industry. Building on recent work conducted at MIT, this paper illustrates the maximum CHF enhancement that can be achieved based on existing correlations. Optimization of the CHF enhancement by incorporation of key factors, such as the surface wettability and roughness, will also be discussed. (authors)

  1. Time-related surface modification of denture base acrylic resin treated by atmospheric pressure cold plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Pan, Hong; Li, Yinglong; Wang, Guomin; Zhang, Jue; Pan, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The changes of denture base acrylic resin surface properties under cold plasma and the relationships with time were investigated. Cold plasma treated the specimens for 30 s, 60 s, 90 s, and 120 s, respectively. Water contact angles were measured immediately after the treatment, 48 h, 15 days and 30 days later. Surface roughness was measured with 3-D laser scanning microscope. Candida albicans adherence was evaluated by CFU counting. Chemical composition was monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Water contact angle reduced after treated for 30 s. No changes were observed with time prolonged, except the durability. There were no differences in roughness among all groups. However, treatment groups showed significantly lower C. albicans adherence. XPS demonstrated a decrease in C/O, and this reduction was affected by treatment time. Cold plasma was an effective means of increasing hydrophilicity of acrylic resin and reducing C. albicans adherence without affecting physical properties.

  2. Surface modification of PET film by plasma-based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakudo, N.; Mizutani, D.; Ohmura, Y.; Endo, H.; Yoneda, R.; Ikenaga, N.; Takikawa, H.

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported that thin diamond like carbon (DLC) coating is very Amsterdam, Theenhancing the barrier characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) against CO 2 and O 2 gases. However, coating technique has a problem of DLC-deposit peeling. In this research, we develop a new technique to change the PET surface into DLC by ion implantation instead of coating the surface with the DLC deposit. The surface of PET film is modified by plasma-based ion implantation using pulse voltages of 10 kV in height and 5 μs in width. Attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopy shows that the specific absorption peaks for PET decrease with dose, that is, the molecules of ethylene terephthalate are destroyed by ion bombardment. Then, laser Raman spectroscopy shows that thin DLC layer is formed in the PET surface area

  3. Validation and modification of the Blade Element Momentum theory based on comparisons with actuator disc simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian; Døssing, Mads

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) model using detailed numerical simulations with an axis symmetric actuator disc (AD) model has been carried out. The present implementation of the BEM model is in a version where exactly the same input in the form of non-dimensiona......A comprehensive investigation of the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) model using detailed numerical simulations with an axis symmetric actuator disc (AD) model has been carried out. The present implementation of the BEM model is in a version where exactly the same input in the form of non...... although the loading is uniform. Based on the findings we derived two small engineering sub-models to be included in the BEM model to account for the physical mechanisms causing the deviations. Finally, the influence of using the corrected BEM model, BEMcor on two rotor designs is presented. Copyright...

  4. Modification of propranolol's bioavailability by Eurycoma longifolia water-based extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, S A B; Amrah, S; Wahab, M S A; Ismail, Z; Ismail, R; Yuen, K H; Gan, S H

    2010-12-01

    Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia), a herb commonly consumed for its aphrodisiac properties, is widely used by Asian males. This may include hypertensive patients receiving propranolol which may cause sexual dysfunction as one of its side-effects. There is no published study of the potential pharmacokinetic interaction between propranolol and the herb. To study propranolol's pharmacokinetics when E. longifolia is consumed, comparing volunteers given either propranolol or a placebo. This is a placebo-controlled randomized single-blinded crossover study of the effect of a water-based extract of E. longifolia on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of proporanolol (Inderal(®)) in 14 healthy non-smoker young males. Eighty milligram of propranonol was orally administered with (i) placebo (Lactose) or (ii) 200 mg of water-based extract of E. longifolia (0·0272 ± 0·0026%eurycomanone) following an overnight fasting. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0·5, 1, 1·5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h for propranolol's plasma concentration determinations using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. When propranolol was administered with E. longifolia, its bioavailability (AUC0-∞) decreased by 29% while C(max) was reduced by 42% and T(max) was significantly prolonged by almost 86%. The terminal elimination half-life, however, was not significantly affected. The bioavailability of propranolol is significantly decreased when consumed together with E. longifolia. The interaction is due to a reduction in absorption, rather than an increase in propranolol's metabolism. Although the pharmacodynamics of propranolol was not affected in healthy volunteers, caution is still advisable with co-administration of the drug and the herb. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Associations between lifestyle and air pollution exposure : Potential for confounding in large administrative data cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strak, Maciek; Janssen, Nicole; Beelen, Rob; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek; Houthuijs, Danny; van den Brink, Carolien; Dijst, Martin; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cohorts based on administrative data have size advantages over individual cohorts in investigating air pollution risks, but often lack in-depth information on individual risk factors related to lifestyle. If there is a correlation between lifestyle and air pollution, omitted lifestyle

  6. Primary care nurses struggle with lifestyle counseling in diabetes care: a qualitative analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansink, R.M.E.; Braspenning, J.C.C.; Weijden, G.D.E.M. van der; Elwyn, G.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient outcomes are poorly affected by lifestyle advice in general practice. Promoting lifestyle behavior change require that nurses shift from simple advice giving to a more counseling-based approach. The current study examines which barriers nurses encounter in lifestyle counseling to

  7. Associations between lifestyle and air pollution exposure: Potential for confounding in large administrative data cohorts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strak, Maciej; Janssen, Nicole; Beelen, Rob; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek; Houthuijs, Danny; van den Brink, Carolien; Dijst, Martin; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Cohorts based on administrative data have size advantages over individual cohorts in investigating air pollution risks, but often lack in-depth information on individual risk factors related to lifestyle. If there is a correlation between lifestyle and air pollution, omitted lifestyle variables may

  8. Mobilising collaborative consumption lifestyles: a comparative frame analysis of time banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laamanen, M.; Wahlen, S.

    2015-01-01

    AbstractIn this paper we elaborate how the framing of lifestyle-based collaborative consumption impacts local mobilisation. We present time banking as a collaborative consumption lifestyle emerging from literatures on collaborative consumption and lifestyle movements. The cultural processes of

  9. Modification of epoxy resins with thermoplastic segmented polycarbonate-based polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavličević Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, epoxy hybrid materials were synthesized by addition of thermoplastic segmented aliphatic polyurethanes with good elastic properties. The modified epoxy samples were obtained by curing of previously homogenized mixture of prepared polyurethane melts, epoxy resin and crosslinking agent Jeffamine D-2000. The influence of different weight content of polyurethanes (5, 10 and 15 wt. % compared to pure epoxy resin as well the influence of different hard segments of elastomers (20, 25 and 30 wt. % on the curing of modified epoxy systems was studied. The curing was followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, in dynamic regime from 30 to 300°C, at three heating rates (5, 10 and 20°C/min. With the increase of hard segments content of polyurethanes added in higher concentration (10 and 15 wt. % into epoxy matrix, the temperature of maximum ratio of curing was shifted to lower values (from 205 to 179°C. Obtained DSC data were analyzed using two integral methods (Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and one differential kinetic model (Friedman. The significant differences were observed in the second part of the epoxy curing (for the reaction degrees higher than 60 %, where the values of activation energies remarkably increase. The addition of polyurethane elastomers retarded the curing process due to decreased mobility of reactant molecules caused by higher viscosity of reaction mixture. By detailed analysis of determined kinetic parameters, it is concluded that the influence of slow diffusion is more pronounced in the presence of thermoplastic polycarbonate-based polyurethanes, which confirmed their effect on the mechanism of epoxy curing. The highest tensile strength and hardness showed the DGEBA modified with the polyurethane with highest hard segment content. Increasing the hard segment content of polyurethane and its concentration in matrix, the tensile strength of modified epoxy was increased. The elongation at break of

  10. Study of surface modifications for improved selected metal (II-VI) semiconductor based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomfield, Christopher James

    Metal-semiconductor contacts are of fundamental importance to the operation of all semiconductor devices. There are many competing theories of Schottky barrier formation but as yet no quantitative predictive model exists to adequately explain metal-semiconductor interfaces. The II-VI compound semiconductors CdTe, CdS and ZnSe have recently come to the fore with the advent of high efficiency photovoltaic cells and short wavelength light emitters. Major problems still exist however in forming metal contacts to these materials with the desired properties. This work presents results which make a significant contribution to the theory of metal/II-VI interface behaviour in terms of Schottky barriers to n-type CdTe, CdS and ZnSe.Predominantly aqueous based wet chemical etchants were applied to the surfaces of CdTe, CdS and ZnSe which were subsequently characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ionic nature of these II-VI compounds meant that they behaved as insoluble salts of strong bases and weak acids. Acid etchants induced a stoichiometric excess of semiconductor anion at the surface which appeared to be predominantly in the elemental or hydrogenated state. Alkaline etchants conversely induced a stoichiometric excess of semiconductor cation at the surface which appeared to be in an oxidised state.Metal contacts were vacuum-evaporated onto these etched surfaces and characterised by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage techniques. The surface preparation was found to have a clear influence upon the electrical properties of Schottky barriers formed to etched surfaces. Reducing the native surface oxide produced near ideal Schottky diodes. An extended study of Au, Ag and Sb contacts to [mathematical formula] substrates again revealed the formation of several discrete Schottky barriers largely independent of the metal used; for [mathematical formula]. Deep levels measured within this study and those reported in the literature led to the conclusion that Fermi

  11. Modification history of the Harmakhis Vallis outflow channel, Mars, based on CTX-scale photogeologic mapping and crater count dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, S.; Kostama, V.-P.

    2018-01-01

    . The most significant of the modification processes on Harmakhis Vallis has been the formation of lineated valley fill units. The lineated valley fills now cover the outflow channel almost entirely. They formed not later than ∼ 400 Ma ago based on stratigraphic analyses and crater counts. All the floor units have also been resurfaced several, usually two or three times. The resurfacing ages of the dated units show that the later modification processes have occurred at least on a local scale in the Harmakhis Vallis region, not only inside the outflow channel. This, in turn, may indicate that the processes resulted from a larger-scale change, for example in the local climate or endogenic conditions.

  12. Direct synthesis of hydrophobic graphene-based nanosheets via chemical modification of exfoliated graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jigang; Wang, Yongsheng; He, Dawei; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Hongpeng; Wang, Haiteng; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bingyang; Xu, Haiteng; Fu, Ming

    2012-08-01

    Hydrophobic graphene-based material at the nanoscale was prepared by treatment of exfoliated graphene oxide with organic isocyanates. The lipophilic modified graphene oxide (LMGO) can then be exfoliated into the functionalized graphene nanoplatelets that can form a stable dispersion in polar aprotic solvents. AFM image shows the thickness of LMGO is approximately 1 nm. Characterization of LMGO by elemental analysis suggested that the chemical treatment results in the functionalization of the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in GO via formation of amides and carbamate esters, respectively. The degree of GO functionalization can be controlled via either the reactivity of the isocyanate or the reaction time. Then we investigated the thermal properties of the SPFGraphene by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the TGA curve shows a greater weight loss of approximately 20% occurred indicating removal of functional groups from the LMGO sheets and an obvious exothermic peak at 176 degrees can be observed from 150 to 250 degrees. We also compared the structure of graphene oxide with the structure of chemical treated graphene oxide by FT-IR spectroscopy. The morphology and microstructure of the LMGO nanosheets were also characterized by SEM and XRD. Graphene can be used to fabricate a wide range of simple electronic devices such as field-effect transistors, resonators, quantum dots and some other extensive industrial manufacture such as super capacitor, li ion battery, solar cells and even transparent electrodes in device applications.

  13. Image contrast enhancement using adjacent-blocks-based modification for local histogram equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Pan, Zhibin

    2017-11-01

    Infrared images usually have some non-ideal characteristics such as weak target-to-background contrast and strong noise. Because of these characteristics, it is necessary to apply the contrast enhancement algorithm to improve the visual quality of infrared images. Histogram equalization (HE) algorithm is a widely used contrast enhancement algorithm due to its effectiveness and simple implementation. But a drawback of HE algorithm is that the local contrast of an image cannot be equally enhanced. Local histogram equalization algorithms are proved to be the effective techniques for local image contrast enhancement. However, over-enhancement of noise and artifacts can be easily found in the local histogram equalization enhanced images. In this paper, a new contrast enhancement technique based on local histogram equalization algorithm is proposed to overcome the drawbacks mentioned above. The input images are segmented into three kinds of overlapped sub-blocks using the gradients of them. To overcome the over-enhancement effect, the histograms of these sub-blocks are then modified by adjacent sub-blocks. We pay more attention to improve the contrast of detail information while the brightness of the flat region in these sub-blocks is well preserved. It will be shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms other related algorithms by enhancing the local contrast without introducing over-enhancement effects and additional noise.

  14. A colon targeted drug delivery system based on alginate modificated graphene oxide for colorectal liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Yan, Yayuan; Shen, Qiujuan; Ma, Dong; Huang, Langhuan; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao

    2017-10-01

    A major problem associated with colon cancer is liver metastasis. A colon-targeted drug delivery system is one way to address this problem after the resection of colorectal cancer. However, traditional drug delivery systems face many challenges, such as an inability to control the release rate, inaccurate targeting, susceptibility to the microenvironment and poor stability. Here, we report the development of a graphene oxide (GO)-based, sodium alginate (ALG) functionalized colon-targeting drug delivery system, that is loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as the anti-cancer drug (denoted as GO-ALG/5-FU). Our results demonstrate that the as-prepared drug delivery system possesses a much lower toxicity and better colon-targeting controlled-release behaviours. We show that GO-ALG/5-FU significantly inhibited tumour growth and liver metastasis and prolonged the survival time of mice. We anticipate that our assay will help improve basic research of colon-targeted drug delivery systems and provide a new way to treat colon cancer liver metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface modification of NiTi by plasma based ion implantation for application in harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R. M.; Fernandes, B. B.; Carreri, F. C.; Gonçalves, J. A. N.; Ueda, M.; Silva, M. M. N. F.; Silva, M. M.; Pichon, L.; Camargo, E. N.; Otubo, J.

    2012-12-01

    The substitution of conventional components for NiTi in distinct devices such as actuators, valves, connectors, stents, orthodontic arc-wires, e.g., usually demands some kind of treatment to be performed on the surface of the alloy. A typical case is of biomaterials made of NiTi, in which the main drawback is the Ni out-diffusion, an issue that has been satisfactorily addressed by plasma based ion implantation (PBII). Even though PBII can tailor selective surface properties of diverse materials, usually, only thin modified layers are attained. When NiTi alloys are to be used in the harsh space environment, as is the case of devices designed to remotely release the solar panels and antenna arrays of satellites, e.g., superior mechanical and tribological properties are demanded. For this case the thickness of the modified layer must be larger than the one commonly achieved by conventional PBII. In this paper, new nitrogen PBII set up was used to treat samples of NiTi in moderate temperature of 450 °C, with negative voltage pulses of 7 kV/250 Hz/20 μs, in a process lasting 1 h. A rich nitrogen atomic concentration of 85 at.% was achieved on the near surface and nitrogen diffused at least for 11 μm depth. Tribological properties as well as corrosion resistance were evaluated.

  16. ["Minute therapy" of psoriasis with dithranol and its modifications. A critical evaluation based on 315 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runne, U; Kunze, J

    1985-01-01

    A total of 315 psoriasis patients were treated on the basis of short-contact "minutes" therapy: 230 with 0.1-3% dithranol-2% salicylic acid-white soft vaseline (DSV) for 10-20 min daily; 85 patients in left-right comparison with modified therapeutic schemes. The object was to study the influence of concentration, contact time, psoriasis type, self-treatment at home, frequency of application, ointment base, and the admixture of corticosteroids on the efficacy of "minutes therapy." The clearing quotient for the individual psoriasis types was varied; it reached on an average 75% with a treatment period of 29.4 days. Even lower dithranol concentrations below 1% proved efficacious with part of the patients. Self-treatment at home and irregular applications diminished the efficacy. Neither prolongation of the contact time to 1 hr nor the addition of corticosteroids to dithranol did anything to improve the therapy results. The relapse-free period averaged 3.9 months. Undesirable irritation was avoided to a great extent by adjustment of the treatment intensity to individual tolerances. The simultaneous application of dithranol and corticosteroids did not hinder or diminish the dithranol erythema. For additional safety, a preliminary test treatment can be confined to a limited area for 1 week. Fortunately, the staining due to dithranol brown can be reliably removed from certain textiles and from the bath tub or shower cabin by the use of hypochlorite.

  17. Use of a web-based educational intervention to improve knowledge of healthy diet and lifestyle in women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus compared to standard clinic-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Carolan-Olah, Mary; Steele, Cheryl

    2016-08-05

    This study introduced a web-based educational intervention for Australian women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim was to improve knowledge on healthy diet and lifestyle in GDM. Evaluation of the intervention explored women's knowledge and understanding of GDM, healthy diet, healthy food, and healthy lifestyle, after using the web-based program compared to women receiving standard clinic-based GDM education. A total of 116 women, aged 18-45 years old, newly diagnosed with GDM, participated (Intervention (n) = 56 and control (n) = 60). Women were randomly allocated to the intervention or control groups and both groups attended a standard GDM education class. Group 1(Intervention) additionally used an online touch screen/computer program. All women completed a questionnaire following the computer program and/or the education class. All questions evaluating levels of knowledge had more than one correct answer and scores were graded from 0 to 1, with each correct component receiving a score, eg. 0.25 per each correct answer in a 4 answer question. Chi-square test was performed to compare the two groups regarding knowledge of GDM. Findings indicated that the majority of women in the intervention group reported correct answers for "types of carbohydrate foods" for pregnant women with GDM, compared to the control group (62.5 % vs 58.3 %, respectively). Most women in both groups had an excellent understanding of "fruits and vegetables" (98.2 % vs 98.3 %), and the majority of women in the intervention group understood that they should exercise daily for 30 min, compared to the control group (92.9 % vs 91.7 %). Both groups had a good understanding across all categories, however, the majority of women in the intervention group scored all correct answers (score = 1) in term of foetal effects (17.9 % vs 13.3 %, respectively), maternal predictors (5.4 % vs 5 %), care requirements (39.3 % vs 23.3 %), GDM perceptions (48.2 % vs 46.7 %) and

  18. Near-surface microstructural modification of (Ti,W)(C,N)-based compacts with nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucakar, V.; Kral, C.; Lengauer, W.

    2001-01-01

    For developing of functional-gradient hardmetals the interaction of nitrogen with (Ti,W)(C,N)-based compacts was investigated. Hot-pressed (Ti,W)(C,N) compacts as well as sintered compacts of (Ti,W)(C,N)+Co were subjected to sintering and heat treatment at 1200-1500 o C and up to 30 bar N 2 . In (Ti,W)(C,N) compacts four microstructure types were obtained upon reaction with nitrogen. A uniform single-phase (Ti,W)(C,N) forms in samples with a low WC and high TiN content. If medium WC and high TiN/TiC ratio is present a core-rim type structure forms during Ar annealing which remains the same when nitrogen in-diffusion occurs. The third type of microstructure shows sub-micron lamellae of nitrogen-rich fcc phase and WC. This structure forms at increased WC and/or TiC content. If the WC content is increased again a WC layer forms at the outermost surface. Compressive stresses introduced by phase formation/decomposition were obtained for the nitrogen in-diffusion. Sintered (Ti,W)(C,N)+Co compacts were heat treated above and below the eutectic temperature. Above the eutectic temperature compact Ti(C,N) top-layers independent an sample composition were observed. Below the eutectic temperature the microstructure formation is mainly influenced by the sample composition. A Ti(C,N) top-layer forms in materials with a high Ti(C,N) content. Contrary, interaction zones without a layer were obtained in compacts with high WC/Ti(C,N) ratio. Some of these surface modified compacts show surfaces and particle sizes favorable for a cutting tool. (author)

  19. Structure-Based Modification of a Clostridium difficile-Targeting Endolysin Affects Activity and Host Range▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Melinda J.; Garefalaki, Vasiliki; Spoerl, Rebecca; Narbad, Arjan; Meijers, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Endolysin CD27L causes cell lysis of the pathogen Clostridium difficile, a major cause of nosocomial infection. We report a structural and functional analysis of the catalytic activity of CD27L against C. difficile and other bacterial strains. We show that truncation of the endolysin to the N-terminal domain, CD27L1–179, gave an increased lytic activity against cells of C. difficile, while the C-terminal region, CD27L180–270, failed to produce lysis. CD27L1–179 also has increased activity against other bacterial species that are targeted by the full-length protein and in addition was able to lyse some CD27L-insensitive strains. However, CD27L1–179 retained a measure of specificity, failing to lyse a wide range of bacteria. The use of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled proteins demonstrated that both CD27L and CD27L1–179 bound to C. difficile cell walls. The crystal structure of CD27L1–179 confirms that the enzyme is a zinc-dependent N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase. A structure-based sequence analysis allowed us to identify four catalytic residues, a proton relay cascade, and a substrate binding pocket. A BLAST search shows that the closest-related amidases almost exclusively target Clostridia. This implied that the catalytic domain alone contained features that target a specific bacterial species. To test this hypothesis, we modified Leu 98 to a Trp residue which is found in an endolysin from a bacteriophage of Listeria monocytogenes (PlyPSA). This mutation in CD27L resulted in an increased activity against selected serotypes of L. monocytogenes, demonstrating the potential to tune the species specificity of the catalytic domain of an endolysin. PMID:21803993

  20. Structure-based modification of a Clostridium difficile-targeting endolysin affects activity and host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Melinda J; Garefalaki, Vasiliki; Spoerl, Rebecca; Narbad, Arjan; Meijers, Rob

    2011-10-01

    Endolysin CD27L causes cell lysis of the pathogen Clostridium difficile, a major cause of nosocomial infection. We report a structural and functional analysis of the catalytic activity of CD27L against C. difficile and other bacterial strains. We show that truncation of the endolysin to the N-terminal domain, CD27L1-179, gave an increased lytic activity against cells of C. difficile, while the C-terminal region, CD27L180-270, failed to produce lysis. CD27L1-179 also has increased activity against other bacterial species that are targeted by the full-length protein and in addition was able to lyse some CD27L-insensitive strains. However, CD27L1-179 retained a measure of specificity, failing to lyse a wide range of bacteria. The use of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled proteins demonstrated that both CD27L and CD27L1-179 bound to C. difficile cell walls. The crystal structure of CD27L1-179 confirms that the enzyme is a zinc-dependent N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase. A structure-based sequence analysis allowed us to identify four catalytic residues, a proton relay cascade, and a substrate binding pocket. A BLAST search shows that the closest-related amidases almost exclusively target Clostridia. This implied that the catalytic domain alone contained features that target a specific bacterial species. To test this hypothesis, we modified Leu 98 to a Trp residue which is found in an endolysin from a bacteriophage of Listeria monocytogenes (PlyPSA). This mutation in CD27L resulted in an increased a